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- Molar Volumes of Hydrogen Gas Lab
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Abstract: The objectives of the lab, The Molar Relationship Involving Mass and Volume, were to measure the mass of a piece of magnesium ribbon, react the magnesium with HCl (aq) and collect the gaseous product, measure the volume of the gas collected and convert the volume to standard conditions (STP), and calculate the molar relationship between the solid magnesium consumed and the gas produced. The given information and the calculations done to get the mass of mg and the amount of magnesium that reacted with Mg completed the first two objectives. To be able to complete the last two objectives pieces of magnesium were cut and measured by a scale and ruler. Then the magnesium was tied to a thread and then put into a tube filled with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and water. From there, the volume of gas was calculated and converted to standard conditions using the combined gas law. To be able to calculate the molar relationship between the solid magnesium consumed and the gas produced, the volume of hydrogen gas at STP was divided by the moles of hydrogen gas produced. The numbers that are significant numbers to the lab are the amount of gas collected, and the amount of gas at STP. The amount of gas collected was 25 mL in the first trial and 29.7 mL in the second trial. The amount of gas at STP was 23.366 mL. Introduction: Avogadros hypothesis explains the relationship between the molar volumes, the molecular mass and the actual mass of a sample of gas. The hypothesis states that equal volume of gasses under the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules. The combined gas law combines three different laws, Charless, Boyles and Gay-Lussacs Law. The equation for the gas law is PVT=PVT, where P is pressure, V is volume, and T is temperature. The absolute temperature is directly proportional volume of gas and is inversely proportional to the pressure. The purpose of the combined gas law is to be able to find the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas in any given situation. The standard rule is when finding the volume of a gas at STP, the pressure is 760 mm and the temperature is 273 Kelvin. A eudiometer a device used in labs that is able to measure the change in volume of a gas that just occurred in a physical or chemical change. In order to be able to use a eudiometer, the eudiometer is filled with water, then, turned inverted so that the open end is facing the ground (while holding the open end so that no water escapes), and then submersed in water. A chemical

reaction occurs once the gas is created and once it is created, the gas should rise in the eudiometer so the experimenter can precisely read the volume of gas produced at any time.

Data: Length of Mg used Volume of H2 collected Temperature of H2 collected Barometer reading Analysis: The lab was completed by first taking the results that were needed to be able to calculate the percent error for each trial. In the first trial, the length of magnesium ribbon used was 3 cm. Before starting the lab procedure, the temperature and the pressure of the room was taken resulting to be 292 Kelvin or 19 degrees Celsius, adjusted pressure being 0.039 mm Hg, and volume of H2 gas was 25 mL. To find the volume of gas at STP, stoichiometry is needed to calculate how much hydrogen gas there was. The balanced equation that was needed in order to do stoichiometry was Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2. The strip of magnesium, 3 cm, is divided by 200 cm, multiplied by 1.587 g, divided by 24.305 g and multiplied by 22400 mL to get 21.97 mL of hydrogen gas at STP. Once getting the 21.97 mL, it is then plugged again to the combined gas law with the fixed adjusted pressure, .039 mm Hg, and calculated to get 23.366. mL of hydrogen gas. In order to find the percent error, the original is subtracted by the actual and divided by the actual, then multiplied by 100%. The percent error of the first trial was 6.536%. The percent error is from various sources as wrong measurements, not completely pure lab substances, and etc. The calculations for the second trial were made using the same balanced equation as the first trial. The amount of magnesium ribbon used was the same, 3 cm. The same procedure and mathematical calculations were done in order to obtain the results. There is a difference in percent error between trials 1 and two because of the sources of error. Some possible sources of error are measuring error while measuring the magnesium ribbon, leveling the eudiometer wrong, and etc. Even though it may have seemed to have the same amount of magnesium, there are many possible sources that could have messed up the results. The expected amount of hydrogen gas after finishing the process was 23.366 mL of gas. The actual amount of hydrogen gas obtained in the second trial was 29.7 mL. The amount of gas actually collected is not what was expected because of sources of error. This gives the percent error for the second trial of 19.17%. The first trial was much more successful than the second as the percent error here was 19.17 % while in the first it was 6.536 %. Trial 1 3 cm 25 mL 19 Degrees Celsius 0.039 mm Hg Trial 2 3 cm 29.7 mL 19 Degrees Celsius 0.039 mm Hg

Conclusion: The objectives of the lab were to measure the mass of a piece of magnesium ribbon, react the magnesium with HCl (aq) and collect the gaseous product, measure the volume of the gas collected and convert the volume to standard conditions (STP), and calculate the molar relationship between the solid magnesium consumed and the gas produced. These objectives were met through various procedures. In order to measure the mass of a piece of magnesium ribbon, a piece of magnesium ribbon was put on a scale to be measured. The result of this was that 2 meters of magnesium weighed 1.587 grams. In order to have the magnesium to the HCl (aq) and collect the gaseous product, a eudiometer was filled with 10 mL of hydrochloric acid and topped off with water, and then magnesium ribbon attached to a thread and put in the eudiometer. Once the magnesium reacted, the amount of gas was collected through the stoichiometry and the combined gas law. This leads of meeting the objective of measuring the volume of the gas collected and converting the volume to standard conditions (STP). The objective of calculating the molar relationship between the solid magnesium consumed and the gas produced was met by dividing the volume of hydrogen gas at STP by the moles of hydrogen gas produced. The amount of hydrogen gas produced was 23.366 mL. Other significant numbers were the percent error numbers, (ordered by trial number perceptively) 16.56%, and 2.47%. These numbers are significant because it shows how much human error was involved during the procedure of the lab and how close the actual amount of gas was to the expected amount of gas. There are many sources that can cause errors when doing the lab. A possible error that may have come up is the error of how much magnesium was used during the trials. The error of how much magnesium is crucial because the amount could have been more or less than the amount that is actually used in the experiment. Another source of error could be from an inaccurate reading of room pressure or room temperature. This is important because this could lead to the wrong theoretical value for the volume of H2, resulting in the wrong calculation of percent error. Reference Section: 1. Masterton, William, and Cecile Hurley. Chemistry. 6th ed. Belmont: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

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