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CHAPTER 11: Noli Me Tangere: A Diagnosis of Filipino Society

Proposal on writing a Novel about the Philippines During the itinerary of Rizals stay in some European cities, Filipinos were not known there. Practically mistaken as Chinese in Spain and Japanese in Germany. Circulo HispanoFilipino was the Rizals proposal on writing a novel about the Philippines.His proposal was unanimously approved by the members of the association. But this proposal did not materialize because those whom he expected to collaborate with him did not do anything. A year after, Pedro Paterno published his novel entitled Ninay: Costumbres Filipinas (Philippine Customs). It Made Rizal happy because somehow someone noticed his proposal. Ideas on Writing a Novel About the Philippines Spoliarium by Juan Luna is a reflection of the spirit of the social, moral, and political life of his time because it clearly showed mankind under severe ordeal, mankind unredeemed, and reason and aspiration in an open struggle with fanaticism and injustice. Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, portrays the brutalities committed by American slave-owners and the pathetic conditions of the unfortunate Negro slaves. The Wandering Jew by Eugene Sue, an anti-clerical novel. The Writing of the Noli Me Tangere Rizal completed the first half of the novel in Madrid. One fourth at Paris. Then he finished the novel on February 12, 1887 in Berlin, Germany, with the financial assistance of Maximo Viola. Noli Me Tangere, Latin phrase which means Touch Me Not, A phrase which Rizal got from the bible. The Characters of the Novel The characters of the novel were drawn by Rizal from persons who actually existed during his time. Juan Crisostomo Ibarra the protagonist Represented the affluent and liberal European educated Filipino (Ilustrado) Desired the education of the people Elias represented the Filipino masses Wanted to liberate the people from the injustices suffered from the Spaniards. Maria Clara The object of Ibarras love and affection. Trained in a convent and immersed in education that is religious in orientation. Salome Elias girlfriend Same with Maria Clara epitomizes womanhood in their fidelity, shyness and modesty. Padre Damaso the main antagonist in the novel. A typical domineering friar during Rizals time. Arrogant, immoral and anti-Filipino

Often mistaken as a Dominican priest. Pilosopo Tasyo perceived to be a sage by the educated and a lunatic or weird by those who did not know him. Capitan Tiago Don Anastacio de los Santos Husband of Pia Alba His wealth came from illegal opium trade Example of a subservient Filipino to the Spanish authorities for protection and security Capitan Juan Sunico of San Nicolas Sisa the mother of Basilio and Crispin Symbolizes Filipinos lack of concern in facing and resolving problems confronting Filipino society. But illustrates the typical Filipino mother. Ready to defend their children from all forms of injustice and accusations. Basilio and Crispin represents the Crisostomo brothers in Bulacan Padre Salvi represents an immoral and coward friar Was believed to be Father Antonio Piernavieja, the hated Augustinian friar who was killed b the patriots during the revolution. Doa Victorina wife of Don Tiburcio de Espadaa. A social climber. An Indio who wanted to be treated as a Spaniard for her husband was a citizen of Spain. Doa Agustina Medel Doa Consolacion mistress of the Alferez Symbolized the mentality of the Guardia Civil: Vulgar, cruel and quarrelsome.

Rizals Diagnosis of Filipino Society Friars were the enemies of reforms, progress and justice in the Philippines. Agrarian problem in Calamba between the Dominicans and the tenants like his family, while he was in Europe. The influence of the Spanish friars against secularization of the parishes. Rizals over-all assessment of the Philippine political situation in 1886 and 1872. Abuses of the friars were evident (forced labor, tax collection, school inspection, intelligence officers). First Reaction to the Noli A number of works by Filipino writers from 1882 to 1896 were produced. Like, Pedro A. Paterno Ninay (1885, Madrid); Marcelo H. Del Pilar La Soberania Monalas (1889, Barcelona); Graciano Lopez-Jaena Discursos y Articulos Varios (1891, Barcelona). However, Archbishop Payo reported to the Archbishop of the Manila, the book, Noli was disrespectful, sinful, and scandalous..The Novel wasnt prohibited in the country, notwithstanding the recommendation made by the Permanent Commission.

Attacks and Defenses of the Noli Me Tangere Even though many from the friars were not convinced in Rizals novel, However still many from his friends, family, and the people who believes in him. That Rizals novel clearly showed the authority and influence of friars who considered their interest of the prime importance than that of the interest of the state.

CHAPTER 17: El Filibusterismo: A Revolution that Failed


Rizal in Ghent GHENT is the famous university city of Belgium. The reasons of Rizal moving to Ghent: cost of printing in Ghent is cheaper than in Brussels and to escape from the enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne. Owing to his limited funds, Rizal lived in a cheap boarding house, with Jose Alejandrino and Edilbert Evangelista. Theirs was a very frugal life, subsisting of the barest necessities. The Publication of the El Filibusterismo Rizal searched for a printing house which offer himlowest quotation for printing the novel. Fortunately, he found F.Meyer-Van LooPres, willing to publish his novel in instalment basis. Comparison of Noliand El Fili Noli Me Tangere -romantic novel -work of the heart -book of the feeling -motherland -64 chapters El Filibusterismo -political novel -work of the head -book of thought -memory of Gomburza -38 chapters

- Awakening of the Filipinos to the idea that they belong to one nation - they have a motherland to love, hose welfare should be their paramount concern-focused towards seeking of reforms in our society during Spanish Regime -Nolis CrisostomoIbarra ; El filis S i m o u n -both depicted the actual conditions in the Philippines during the timeof Rizal-both instrumental in awakening the spirit of Filipino Nationalism

Symbolic Interpretation of the Fili Simoun -CrisstomoIbarra disguised as a wealthy jeweler, bent on starting a revolutionsymbolizes the portion of Filipino society who wanted to throw away the Spanish rules but had no systematic plan for the new society. Maria Clara -suffered from untold physical and spiritual abuse. Basilio - S i s a ' s s o n , n o w a n a s p i r i n g d o c t o r -refuses to join revolution despite of faced social injustices-symbolizes the portion of educated Filipino society which has been brutalized and become insensible to the social welfare.

Isagani - p o e t a n d B a s i l i o ' s b e s t f r i e n d -portrayed as emotional and reactivePaulitas boyfriend before being dumped for fellow student Juanito Pelezsymbolizes the untested & unreliable idealism of a segment of the educated Filipino youth Kabesang Tales -a former cabezade barangay (barangayhead) who resurfaced as thefeared Luznbandit Matanglawin Don Custodio -a famous "journalist" who was asked by the students about hisdecision for the Academia de Castellano -an ordinary fellow who married a rich woman in order to be a member of Manila's high society.-Symbolizes the ones who find pleasures in making people feel inferiority Paulita Gmez -The girlfriend of Isagani and the niece of Doa Victorina -represents the portion of Filipino womanhood Juli -the girlfriend of Basilioand the youngest daughter of KabesangTales Placido Penitente -a student of the University of Santo Tomas who was very intelligent and wisecontrols his temper against his Physics teacher, Padre Millon-has the desire to go abroad-symbolizes the portion of Filipino society which had not yet been infused w/a national social conscience Senor Pasta -one of the great lawyers of mid-Hispanic Manila The Message of El Fili -The present system in the Philippines can lead to the downfall of Spain. -The intelligent, generous, hardworking, courageous and loyal were driven into opposition, crime and subversion. -The Spanish colonial government was arbitrary, cruel and lacking in justice and responsibility -The Spanish government should grant the Filipinos desired assimilation. The Reluctant Revolutionary and His Concept of Independence Through Simoun, Rizal realized that independence is the key to the miseries of the people under the Spanish rule. Through Fr. Florentino, Rizal mouthed his idea on how independence should be won which is not through the use of sword but loving what is just and good, and God will provide the weapon. If the Filipinos will not be encourage to protest and declare their rights, be willing to let go, and shed of their silence in the face of oppression and tyranny, then they dont deserve to be given freedom.

Rizal After the Fili After the publication of the Fili, Rizal was bitterly attacked and mocked by his fellow reformers in Madrid. This can be accounted for by the very radical and rebellious tone of the novel, which renounced the propaganda campaign for peaceful reforms and assimilation. This made him decide to severe his connection with the propagandists in Madrid to avert possible split in their unity. Totally free and detached from the propagandists in Europe, Rizal opted to return to the Philippines to share the misfortune of his family.

UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP DR. JOSE G. TAMAYO MEDICAL UNIVERSITY Sto. Nio, Bian, Laguna

COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

Summary of:

CHAPTER 11: Noli Me Tangere: A Diagnosis of Filipino

Society
CHAPTER 17: El Filibusterismo: A Revolution that

Failed

Mago, Lady Kharren R. BS Pharmacy 4-A Mrs. Susan Gallo

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