Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing

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Course 30001 Reader:

Non-destructive Testing
This document contains the web-based learning materials for this course. Contents Introduction and objectives .................................................................................4 Overviews and applicability of NDT methods....................................................5
Overview of defects in materials .............................................................................. 5 Common defects in cast materials. ......................................................................... 11 Common defects in forged or rolled materials. ...................................................... 12

Overview of NDT methods...............................................................................13
Visual inspection (VT)............................................................................................ 13 Radiographic testing (RT) ...................................................................................... 14 Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)......................................................................... 16 Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) ................................................................................ 17 Eddy Current testing (ET)....................................................................................... 18 Applicability of NDT methods on different material defects ................................. 19

NDT methods – Visual inspection ....................................................................21
Inspection Inspection during welding..................................................................... 24 Inspection after welding.......................................................................................... 25 Imperfections associated with welding................................................................... 28 Inspection reporting and records............................................................................. 41

NDT Methods – Radiographic Testing .............................................................42
Introduction............................................................................................................. 42 The radiographic process. ....................................................................................... 43 Quality of radiograph.............................................................................................. 47 Film interpretation. ................................................................................................. 51 Advantages and limitations of radiographic testing................................................ 75

NDT Methods – Ultrasonic Testing..................................................................77
Definition of ultrasound and properties of waves................................................... 77 Methods .................................................................................................................. 77 Performance of ultrasonic testing ........................................................................... 80 Measurement of thickness and detection of defects................................................ 91 Advantages and limitations of ultrasonic testing .................................................... 94

NDT Methods – Magnetic Particle Testing ......................................................95
Application ............................................................................................................. 95 Method.................................................................................................................... 95 Magnetization principles and methods ................................................................... 95 MT Performance ..................................................................................................... 97 Surface preparation ............................................................................................... 100 Examination of welds ........................................................................................... 100 Non-relevant indications....................................................................................... 102 Advantages of the MT method ............................................................................. 102 Limitations of the MT method.............................................................................. 102 Demagnetization ................................................................................................... 102 Acceptance criteria ............................................................................................... 103 Reporting .............................................................................................................. 103

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing

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NDT Methods – Liquid penetrant testing .......................................................104
Introduction........................................................................................................... 104 Penetrant Testing Materials. ................................................................................. 104 Method.................................................................................................................. 107 Surface preparation ............................................................................................... 108 Types of penetrant ................................................................................................ 108 Types of developer................................................................................................ 112 Penetration and developing time........................................................................... 112 Evaluation of indications ...................................................................................... 112 Acceptance criteria ............................................................................................... 114 Reporting .............................................................................................................. 114 NDT procedure specifications and reports (examples)......................................... 114 Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing (PT)................................... 132

NDT Methods – Eddy Current Testing...........................................................135
Introduction........................................................................................................... 135 Electromagnetic Effects........................................................................................ 137 Eddy Current Generation and Detection............................................................... 137 Factors affecting Eddy Currents ........................................................................... 141

NDT-methods – Alternating current field measurement ................................147
Introduction to ACFM .......................................................................................... 147 Basic ACFM theory .............................................................................................. 149 Benefits and limitations ........................................................................................ 154 General applications ............................................................................................. 155 Comparison of ACFM .......................................................................................... 162 ACFM examples ................................................................................................... 164

Other NDT Methods .......................................................................................167
Leak testing........................................................................................................... 167 Thermographic inspection .................................................................................... 168 Plastic replica method........................................................................................... 168 Acoustic emission ................................................................................................. 169

Probability of detection (POD) .......................................................................170
American Society for Non-Destructive Testing ASNT ........................................ 176 Document No. CSWIP-ISO-NDT-11/93-R Requirements for the Certification of Personnel Engaged in Non-Destructive Testing.................................................................... 179 EN 473:2000 Qualification and Certification of Non-Destructive Personnel — General Principles .............................................................................................................. 181 ISO 9712:1999 Non-Destructive Testing – Qualification and Certification of Personnel .............................................................................................................................. 183 Personnel Certification in Non-Destructive Testing (PCN) United Kingdom – PCN Scheme .............................................................................................................................. 183 Japanese Scheme for Certification of NDT Personnel.......................................... 184 Nordtest Scheme for Examination and Certification of Non Destructive Testing Personnel .............................................................................................................................. 185

NDT standards ................................................................................................186
General.................................................................................................................. 186 Current NDT standards etc ................................................................................... 186

The use of liquid penetrant and the basic steps to performing testing. and acoustic emission methods. advantages and disadvantages of the major non-destructive testing methods. The level of NDT knowledge shall be sufficient to describe basic principles. probability of detection. and how they relate to different defects in materials and welds. The reliability of the inspection process. it is important for the inspector to have sufficient knowledge of the advantages and limitations of common non-destructive testing methods. etc. material thickness.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 4 Introduction and objectives Many standards and codes require nondestructive testing. and the basic steps in performing testing. The characteristics of magnetic particle testing. The use of ultrasonic testing and the basic steps in performing a pulse echo examination. In particular the participants shall be familiar with: The importance of visual inspection. The objective of the netbased training module is to acquaint the participants with the fundamentals of non destructive testing. and principals of basic radiographic film interpretation. operator certification. joint configuration. plastic replica technique. The use of eddy current equipment and the basic steps for performing testing. The application of radiographic testing and its dependence on weld joint location. . the DNV surveyor/inspector may be called on to specify the method. Whether the inspection method is specified or optional. The necessity of documented procedures and knowledge of international standards. The use of alternating current field measurement equipment and the basic steps for performing testing Leakage tests. In cases where more than one method is permissible. Certification schemes and the required level for qualification and certification of personnel performing NDT. In some cases the testing methods to be used are specified. interpretation of NDT reports and acceptance criteria.

Porosity is present in . If welds cool slowly enough to allow gas to pass the surface before weld solidification. UNDERCUT 7. SURFACE CRACK 11. Whenever uniformly scattered porosity is encountered. UNDERFILL 8. Porosity is a sign that the welding process is not being properly controlled or that the base metal is contaminated or of vanable composition. INTERNAL CRACK 13. SLAG INCLUSIONS 3. 1. it is not as critical a flaw as sharp discontinuities that intensity stress. LACK OF FUSION 5. POROSITY 2. there will be little porosity discontinuities in the weld. Uniformly scattered porosity is porosity uniformly distributed throughout a single pass weld or throughout several passes of a multiple pass weld. Reference is made to the figure below where some of the defects described are illustrated.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 5 Overviews and applicability of NDT methods Overview of defects in materials Common defects in connection with welds. a weld if the technique used or materials used or conditions of the weld joint preparation lead to gas formation and entrapment. . Unless porosity is gross. LAMELLAR TEARING 10.1 Porosity: Porosity is the result of gas being entrapped in solidifying metal. LAMINATION Weld joints showing the. OVERLAP 9.most common defects referred to in section 2. the cause is generally faulty welding technique or materials. SLAG LINES 4. INCOMPLETE PENETRATION 6. The discontinuity formed is generally spherical but may be cylindrical.

Linear porosity is porosity aligned along a joint boundary. Piping porosity in fillet welds extends from the root of the weld toward the surface of the weld. In general. Inclusions Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal. Much of the piping porosity found in welds does not extend to the surface. . which contain slag or other foreign matter.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 6 Cluster porosity is a localized grouping of pores that results from im-proper initiation or termination of the welding arc. Piping porosity in electroslag welds can become very long. or an interbead boundary. They may be found in welds made by most arc welding processes. The influence of welder technique on the risk of slag inclusions when welding with a basic MMA (7018) electrode. the root of the weld. Piping porosity is a term for elongated gas discontinuities. Slag lines are elongated cavities usually parallel to the axis of the weld. slag inclusions result from faulty welding techniques and the failure of the designer to provide proper access for welding within the joint. Elongated pores or wormholes Uniformly Distributed porsity Surface breaking pores a) Poor (convex) weld bead profile resulted in pockets of slag being b) Smooth weld bead profile allows the slag to be readily removed between runs Radiograph of butt weld showing two slag lines in the weld root.

Lack of side wall fusion Lack of inter-run fusion Incomplete penetration Incomplete penetration is joint penetration which is less than that specified. Inadequate joint penetration may result from insufficient welding heat. Deficiencies causing incomplete fusion include insufficient welding heat or lack of access to all boundaries of the weld joint that are to be fused during welding. Excessively thick root face Too small a root gap Power input too low Arc (heat) input too low Undercut Undercut is generally associated with either improper welding techniques or excessive welding currents. It is generally located at the junction of weld and base metal (at the toe or root). improper preparation of materials for welding or improper joint design. improper joint design (too much metal for the welding arc to penetrate) or improper lateral control of the welding arc. this discontinuity may only be present when the welding procedure specification requires penetration of the weld metal beyond the original joint boundaries. Technically. . or both. or both. Undercut discontinuities create a mechanical notch at the weld fusion boundary (see figure in the chapter on Visual Inspection).Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 7 Lack of fusion Lack of fusion is the result of improper welding techniques.

Cracks occur in weld and base metal when localized stresses exceed the ultimate strength of the material. It can occur as a result of lack of control of the welding process. depending on their orientation. High residual stresses are generally present and hydrogen embattlement is often a contributor to crack formation. or root of the weld without fusion. improper selection of welding materials or improper preparation of materials prior to welding. (see figure at right) caused by improper fitup and/or welding technique. in the root of the weld. Cracking is generally associated with stress amplification near discontinuities in Lamellar tearing in t butt weld welds and base metal or near mechanical notches associated with the weldment design.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 8 Underfill/excess weld Underfill is a depression on the face of a weld or root surface extending below the surface of the adjacent base metal. On the top (see figure in the chapter on Visual Inspection) it may be caused by one or more of the following factors: too low travel speed.(see figure in the chapter on Visual Inspection) Excess weld reinforcement is. too low current. Overlap is the protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe. Appearance of fracture face of lamellar tear . Cracks Lamellar tearing (cracks) are generally terracelike separations in base metal typically caused by thermally induced shrinkage stresses resulting from welding. poor planning of the welding sequence and bead size. face. Transverse cracks are perpendicular to the axis of the weld. Cracks may be termed longitudinal or transverse. When a crack is parallel to the axis of the weld it is called a longitudinal crack regardless of whether it is a centerline crack in weld metal or a toe crack in the heataffected zone of the base metal. It results simply from the failure of the welder or welding operator to completely fill the weld joint as called for in the welding procedure specification.

but not always. high residual stresses and hydrogen cracking Crack in flange to drive shaft weld Solidification crack along the centre line of the weld . hot cracks. Brittle fracture in crmov steel pressure vessel probably caused through poor toughness. They are generally. Longitudinal cracks in small welds between heavy sections are often the result of high cooling rates and high restraint.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 9 Longitudinal cracks in submerged arc welds made by automatic welding processes are commonly associated with high welding speeds and sometimes related to porosity problems that do not show at the surface of the weld. Throat cracks are longitudinal cracks in the face of the weld in the direction of the axis.

Root crack in weld between bulkhead and tanktop. or both. Crater cracks are shallow hot cracks usually forming a multipointed star-like cluster. Toe cracks initiate approximately normal to the base material surface. They are generally forms of hot cracks. They initiate and propagate from the toe of the weld where restraint stresses are highest. They are sometimes referred to as star cracks though they may have other shapes. Toe cracks are generally cold cracks. material: duplex capweld Crater cracks occur in the crater formed by improper termination of a welding arc.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 10 Cenre-line crack in weld capweld Root cracks are longitudinal cracks in the root of the weld. . These cracks are generally the result of thermal shrinkage strains acting on a weld heat-affected zone that has been embrittled by hydrogen or an excessive cooling rate.

Surface or subsurface blowholes . The less obvious surface defects and internal defects may be revealed by use of other NDT methods. or oxides of the casting material. or an uncontrolled casting process. The most obvious surface defects should also be discovered at this stage.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 11 Underbead and heat-affected zone cracks are generally cold cracks that form in the heataffected zone of the base metal. with maximum impurity concentrations in the last regions to solidify. Common inclusions include particles of refractory. incorrect design of pattern and mold equipment.e. Castings with wrong dimensions or indentations are usually the result of dimensional errors in the pattern. or by the expulsion of dissolved gases during solidification. Shrinkage Cavity voids resulting from solidification shrinkage. preventing complete feeding from the risers. Smaller areas of segregation elsewhere result from the entrapment of liquid zones between growing solidifying crystals. as in the case of ingot corner segregation. Inclusions Non-metallic materials in a solid metallic matrix. such as air or steam. Pipe The central shrinkage cavity in the feeder head of a casting. around any central pipe which may be formed. Segregations may affect the mechanical properties and weldability. They are generally short but may join to form a continuous crack. The most common types of such defects are: Segregation Local concentration of alloying elements or harmful impurities with the result that ingots have a heterogeneous structure. slag. Such defects should be revealed by visual examination using proper tools and measuring devices. Gas porosity Voids caused by entrapped gas. Common defects in cast materials. deoxida-tion products. i. The growth of dendrites during the ‘freezing’ process may isolate local regions. sand inclusions.

The origin of cracks varies. Stress cracks result from high residual stresses after the casting has cooled to below 650° C. Many of the defects typical for cast materials will still appear as defects after forging or rolling of e. a faulty ingot. with length and depth substantially greater than the width. Stress cracks may form at room Quench cracking! temperature several days after casting. Hot cracks are fractures caused by internal stresses that develop after solidification and during cooling from an elevated temperature (above 65Q°C). pinholes Crack A discontinuity formed in the surface. A hot crack is less visible (less open) than a hot tear and usually exhibits less evidence of oxidation and decarburization. Common defects in forged or rolled materials.g. materials inclusions are elongated in the work direction. Such elongated inclusions are the main cause of the anisotropy of rolled steel plates. . non-metallic inclusion embedded in the material. Lamination is as excessive large laminar. Laminations are usually caused by shrinkage cavities present in the upper section of an ingot enlarged by the forging or rolling process. Inclusions In rolled and forged.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 12 Blow holes.

Principle Comments Visual inspection is the basic non-destructive inspection method. forged and welded. Its ability to prevent defects is perhaps the most important feature of visual inspection. during and after welding may detect an aid in the elimination of discontinuities that might become defects in the final weldment Limitations It is limited to what the eye can see. . and more than for any other method its success is in direct proportion to the knowledge and experience of the inspector.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 13 Overview of NDT methods Visual inspection (VT). The method should be applied as early as possible in a production process. Visual inspection before. Application/advantages The method may be used on all objects — cast. rolled. Method The test object is subjected to examination by the experienced eye of an inspector assisted by vieing aids and measuring gauges.

Different density material attenuate the radiation differently and consequently produce optical density differences on a film or plate. The density of the material in a discontinuity (air in the case of a crack. If the energy of the source is too high or too low for a given thickness of material. Due to radiation hazard operators must have an authorized knowledge of radiation protection.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 14 Radiographic testing (RT) Method Radiographic image is produced by the passage of X-rays or gamma rays through the test object onto a film. or porosity) is usually lower than that of the solid metal. Radiography uses X. Radiographic testing is most applicable on three dimensional defects. however. Radiography is readily used on flat plates. incomplete fusion. Lack of accessibility due to object/weld configuration may. on or below the surface of the object. Principle Comments The applicability of radiography for weld inspection depends a great deal upon the weld joint location.or gamma radiation that will penetrate through the part and produce an image on a film or plate. Dependant on radiation energy. The selection of the radiation source (energy of the emitted rays) for a particular thickness of weld is a critical factor. . Application/advantages Radiographic testing can be used on all metals to detect defects with an appreciable dimension parallel to the radiation beam. Limitations Defects such as cracks perpendicular to the radiation beam cannot be detected by radiographic testing. joint configuration and material thickness. radiographic testing can be used on material thickness up to 100 mm Fe or more. then low contrast and poor radiographic sensi-tivity result. preclude the use of this method.

False indications may arise from multiple reflections and geometric complexity. is displayed on the screen of a cathode ray tube.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 15 Ultrasonic testing (UT) Method Ultrasonic pulses are directed into a test object. For example. . welds involving nickel base alloys and austenitic stainless steels tend to scatter and disperse the sound beam: penetration of the sound beam into these materials is limited and interpretation of the results may be difficult. The method can be used to detect both surface and subsurface discontinuities. Defects may be detected at depths ranging from 5 mm to 10 m in steel. together with the ori-ginal pulse. Reflections of this energy by discontinuities are detected. Echoes and reflections indicate presence. Best results are obtained when the sound beam is perpendicu-lar to the defect. The reflected sound is received as an echo which. In the pulse-echo technique. Principle Comments The ultrasonic method uses the transmission of mechanical energy in waveform at frequencies above the audible range. a transducer transmits a pulse of high frequency sound into and through the material and the reflected sound is received from a discontinuity or the opposite surface of the test object. Limitations Operation of ultrasonic equipment requires experienced personnel. which is most commonly used. and location of flaws. Small and thin objects and coarse-grained materials may be difficult to test. which can be used on metals or nonmetals. and/or defects. Application/advantages Ultrasonic testing is a sensitive NDT-method. absence. interfaces.

These magnetically held particles form an indication of the location. the MT has the following advantages: it will also reveal those discontinuities that are not surface open cracks (cracks filled with carbon. This method involves the establishment of a magnetic field within the material to be tested. Application/advantages MT is a simple and fast method to detect surface defects in ferromagnetic materials. The electric current used to generate the magnetic field may be alternating (AC) or direct (DC). size and shape of the discontinuity. It is for example not applicable to stainless weld deposit on ferromagnetic base material. Principle Inspection of crankshafts with hand yoke BWM 220/12 and adjustable poles Comments Magnetic particle testing is used for locating surface or near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. Limitation The MT is applicable only to ferromagnetic materials. The pattern of discontinuities is revealed by applying magnetic particles to the surface. slag or other contaminants) and therefore not detectable by liquid penetrant. Discontinuities at or near the surface set up a disturbance in the magnetic field. the method of magnetization and the material properties of the object to be tested. Trained operators are necessary to avoid misin-terpretations. the direction and density of the magnetic flux. Some of the factors which determine the detectability of discontinuities are the magnetizing current.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 16 Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT) Method When an object is magnetized. and thus the discontinuities may be located and evaluated by observing the areas of particle build-up. Compared to liquid penetrant inspection. The leakage field attracts the magnetic particles. The primary difference is that magnetic fields produced by DC are far more penetrating than those produced by AC. either by dry powder or suspended in a liquid (wet method). iron powder applied to the surface will accumulate over regions where the magnetic field is disturbed as a result of surface flaws. .

both using a similar pe-netrant. and the other a fluorescent dye. The main difference is in the visibility of the indication: very small indications are less likely to be overlooked if they are revealed by a fluorescent glow in a near darkness rather than a red indication viewed in normal light. The liquid in cracks bleeds out to stain powdercoating applied to the surface after removal of excess liquid film from the surface of the test object. There are two varieties of the penetrant method. which may cause leaks in containers and pipes.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 17 Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Method The surface to be examined is covered with liquid that penetrates surfaceopen cracks. Application/advantages PT is a sensitive method to detect defects like cracks and pores that are open to the surface of the material. usually red for color contrast. It is also useful for locating cracks or other discontinuities. magnesium and austenitic steel weld-ments. One uses a visible dye. PT may be used on both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. Limitations PT can only be used on clean surfaces and can only detect defects open to the surface. . Principle Comments The method is particularly useful on nonmagnetic materials where magnetic particle inspection cannot be used. The liquid penetrant method is used extensively for exposing surface discontinuities in nonmagnetic materials such as aluminum.

hocking. http://www. Can be used through good quality non-conducting coatings Can assess crack depth as well as length (immediately) Quicker than MT (>2m/Hr) Can be used on all conducting materials Gives an electronic and written report (ACFM. http://www.e topside above water). General-purpose equipment can also be used for coating thickness measurement and material sorting given appropriate calibration The system is capable to operate both as dry and wet based inspection. 5. The equipment type is often recognised as “Hocking impedance plane inspection”. ( i. The method is based on manually probe-scanning without recording devices of defect indications. ACFM provided by Technical Software Consultants.e underwater and above water). The system provides recording devices for post interpretation of defect indications. The system is capable to operate both as dry and wet based inspection. 4. Normally the method is conducted as dry based inspection (i. They are used mainly for detection of surface breaking defects. In addition they can be used to size defects both for length and depth. Lizard EMA) ET disadvantages 2. UK (TSC) is a computerised system with both automatic and manually probe-scanning ET is widely used in the industry as an alternative to MT.htm 3.demon.lizard.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 18 Eddy Current testing (ET) The Eddy Current testing method include also the following testing methods : Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) Electro Magnetic Array (Lizard EMA) (not presented in the course notes) Cannot assess sub surface defects 3. Can be more difficult than MT on tight geometry 2.e underwater and above water). Lizard EMA provided by Newt International Ltd. ET advantages 1. These methods of detection can find fine surface breaking defects through nonconductive coatings. The system provides recording devices for post interpretation of defect indications. 2. UK is a computerised eddy current system with both automatic and manually probe scanning options. ( i. Lizard EMA) Can replay the scan for off-line assessment (ACFM.tscuk. Depth of the defect will be along the surface of the defect not “Through thickness” . 6. 3.

defects in welded joints Note: For non-magnetic materials liquid penetrant testing is used instead of magnetic particle inspection. defects in casting .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 19 Applicability of NDT methods on different material defects Applicability of different NDT-methods vs. Applicability at different NDT-methods vs.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 20 Generally accepted methods for detection imperfections .

To give a reasonable idea of what the unaided eye can see.2. protractor. a dental mirror may be used.025 mm wide. Two typical gauges to be used for measuring the sizes of butt welds and fillet welds are shown in figure 5. Proper working light is imperative during all visual inspection. The color of the light should be such that there is good contrast between any imperfections and their background. Fig. height/depth gauge and contour gauge. external or vernier). caliper (internal. fiber optic or portable TV-cameras may be used. The function of hand lenses is to enable the eye to view an object from a very short distance. For this purpose a hand lens with a magnification 2 — 2. it may be remembered that a normal eye under average viewing conditions can see a disc approx. For more remote welds. Standard workshop tools are used to inspect welds. 5. The normal eye cannot focus on objects closer than about 150-250 mm.25 mmØ and a line approx. 0. 0. Another measuring gauge which can be used for measuring of weld reinforcement on butt welds. ruler.5 is suitable. To inspect a weld that is not directly visible but is within viewing distance of the eye. fillet weld leg length and angle for edge preparation is shown in figure 5.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 21 NDT methods – Visual inspection Viewing aids and measuring gauges. such as straight edge.1. intrascopes.1 — Measurement of weld profiles . It should be possible to vary the direction of the light to reveal imperfections in slight relief.

flatness. The fusion faces and adjacent material are to be checked for cleanness. this is to be applied before tacking. the inspector should: have knowledge of the applicable standard and specification to be used have knowledge of the welding procedure to be used and the welders qualifications where appropriate be provided with the working drawings The inspector should then carry out checks on the following items: Parent metal The parent metal should be checked for correct specifications. some non-uniformity may be acceptable. B and C on Fig. It may be necessary to note the position of tack welds for subsequent checks. 5. Minimum size of the tack welds may also be specified.3 — Alignment of butt welds . the gap between the components should be uniform.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 22 Fig. Regarding fit-up. however. 5.2 — Instrument for measuring weld profiles Inspection before welding. fit-up and assembly The shape and dimensions of the weld preparation. surface condition etc. it might be necessary to preset the components to take care of the distortion caused by the welding. The methods of assembly are often specified in the procedure or specification. dimensions. see A.3. however. Tack welds to be incorporated in subsequent runs should be cleaned. Before welding. including backing material are to be checked using appropriate measuring devices. When preheat is specified. Fig. Weld preparation. 5. Linear and angular misalignment (D and E) should also be within tolerance.

Gas-cutting The type and amount of fuel gas shall match the equipment in use. (No unauthorized returns to packet by economy-minded storekeepers!) Submerged-arc wires and fluxes Identification and matching of wire to flux are. A check should be made that the preheat temperature is maintained at the specified distance from the Joint. Taken from sealed packets. When assessing the tolerances for this. and the cooling rate may need to be reduced by preheating. to be checked. Electrical parameters The welding procedure will normally specify the current and voltage to be used. Protection of the arc from draught is also important. usually approx. Safe wire feeding is important for keeping a stable arc and preventing lack of fusion. no contamination by rust or grease. Preheating Rapid cooling after welding may lead to cracking.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 23 Welding consumables Consumables are to be checked to ensure that correct item is being used and that it is in good condition. the following should be taken into consideration: . The flux shall not be contaminated (caused by over-enthusiastic recovery) or damp. 75 mm or six times the plate/wall thickness. A correct cutting speed is necessary to obtain a satisfactory surface of the cut. correct shielding gas and flow. correct spooling for equipment in use. In the case of mixtures correct ingredients and proportions are important items. Manual metal-arc electrodes Type coding and/or maker’s identification and diameter are to be as called for by the welding procedure. There may be adverse metallurgical effects if the required preheating temperature is not correct. the covering shall not be flaked or broken off and there shall be no sign of electrode having been damp and subsequently dried out. such as crystallized salts on the covering or rusty core wire. Gas-shielded welding Correct composition and diameter of wire. Storage ovens and heated quivers shall be used as applicable. Preheat temperature is normally to be re-established at the start of each run. the accuracy of this and other instruments should be checked regularly Temperature indicating crayon (often referred to as the trademark of a major supplier. are usually heated to a temperature in the range of 50 —250° C immediately before welding. ‘Tempilstick’). Two common methods of measuring the temperature are: Surface pyrometer. The faces to be welded and the adjacent metal.

Meter readings may also for other reasons fluctuate substantially during normal welding. Time lapse between root run and the following pass (in some cases referred to as ‘hot pass’) may be important and is in some cases specified in the procedure. check that the conditions specified in the welding procedure for interpass temperature are applied. The shape and surface of the resultant groove should be such as to permit complete fusion and a proper shape of the run to be deposited. preheating and electrical parameters in the previous chapter also applies during welding. a small deviation in the volt reading is not so important. What is said about welding consumables. During welding the following may be important to pay attention to: Interpass temperature For the case of multi-run welds. check that the back of the first run is gouged out by suitable means to sound metal normally followed by grinding before welding is started on the gouged-out side. Weld profiles with excess overlap or undercut at their edges may lead to poor fusion or defects in later runs.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 24 The static and dynamic characteristics vary for the different makers of machines. A clamp meter is practical to control the current. It is difficult to assess tolerances for current and voltage. Slag must also be removed before restriking the arc after stopping. particular attention should be paid to the junction between the weld metal and fusion faces. Increased fluctuations may be caused by loose connections (a loose welding return often causes arc strikes which may be harmful to the material). Meters on the equipment are not always trustworthy unless they have recently been calibrated. It should be checked that each run of weld metal is cleaned before it is covered by a further run. Tack welds and interrun cleaning All recognized specifications call for cracked tack welds to be ground out. more important is that the heat input is sufficient to keep balance between the melt and solid material and to keep good control of the melt. . Generally. Inspection Inspection during welding. In some pipe joints proper tack welds must be ground out to the original preparation before carrying out the root run in the area. Back gouging When back gouging is specified.

. Weld contour and shape of welds Butt welds Fig. the weld is to be cleaned and inspected for shape and surface defects.6 — Too much weld metal can adversely affect fatigue strength. Cleaning and dressing It should be checked that all slag has been removed. Use of the same grinding equipment for different materials may in some cases lead to corrosion problems. Dressing may be specified from a design aspect or may be necessary to facilitate testing by certain methods. 5. ensure that overheating of the material due to the grinding action is avoided. 5. Fig. ensure that due consideration is given regarding the di-rection of the grinding pattern versus the stress direction.5 — Undercut and excess penetration Fig 5.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 25 Inspection after welding. Root concavity may be acceptable in moderation. The assembly should also be checked against the manufacturing drawings and applicable specifications or codes. After the weld runs are completed.4 — Incompletely filled groove can be measured and is normally not acceptable. The weld contour and transition to the base material may in some cases be very important from a fatigue point of view. Furthermore. When dressing of the weld face is required.

Often difficult to identify positively.11 — Throat thickness. Fig. 5. Fillet welds Fig.8 — Insufficient weld metal reduces the weld strength. 5.7 — Overlap caused by weld metal flowing onto the parent metal without fusing to it. Fig. 5. Fig. 5. unless otherwise stated the leg lengths are intended to be equal. actual dimension is Tl. Dimension measura-ble by visual inspection of finished joint is T2.12 — Concave and convex weld faces .10 — Leg lengths are the primary dimension of fillet welds. 5.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 26 Fig.

other surface defects may also be important. Re weld surface defects after grinding out faulty material. a combination of 3) and 4) is assumed. . taper weld metal at ends of fault to allow adequate access and re weld to original procedure. etc.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 27 Fig. Stray flash.13— Undercut and overlap Weld repairs Repairs required after visual inspection are normally to be completed and the area reinspected prior to testing by other methods. one of the following actions may be specified: 1. 5. Report fault to authority for decision 2. re-prepare and re-weld according to original procedure. Not only weld defects and correct weld reinforcement should be paid attention to. caused by removal of temporary attachments. oxide. slag. Intermediate inspection may be necessary during the process of repair-ing the defects to ensure that the work is correctly carried out and that the defect is exposed and removed. Various NDT-methods may also be used in addition to visual inspection to ensure that the defects are removed. and they are usually rectified by being ground back to sound metal. caused by electrode accidentally coming into contact with work away from weld region. 4. caused by insecure connection of welding return. 5. When the weld does not meet the requirements. Such defects may be harmful in high-stressed areas. such as: Torn surface. Cut out (by thermal or mechanical process) all weld metal. Grind all faulty areas back to sound parent metal as per original specifications for edge preparation. Where no guidance is given. Scrap fabrication 3. Arc marks.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 28 Imperfections associated with welding .

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see also part "NDT Procedures and reports". If other NDT methods are utilized. A careful inspection and description of a defect can be of considerable assistance to experts trying to diagnose the cause and possible remedies. the inspector may need to make up a check list to ensure that visual inspection of all relevant items at each stage of fabrication has been carried out. hand lenses or other equipment have been used.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 41 Inspection reporting and records. To be able to verify that the fabrication and inspection is performed according to the governing procedures. if artificial light. When required. The report should state how the inspection was performed.e. Concerning reporting. a report for visual inspection should normally be available and accepted before further NDT is carried out. i. specifications or codes. . It should also be kept in mind that if special problems are experienced during fabrication. welds that have been inspected and approved should be suitably marked or identified. Photographs or accurate sketches or both may in many cases be helpful. a comprehensive reporting may be very important for future inservice inspection.

depending on atomic number and specific weight. 6. slag lines.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 42 NDT Methods – Radiographic Testing Introduction. tungsten more than copper etc. The applicability of radiographic testing for weld inspection depends a great deal upon the weld joint location.1 — Radiographic examination of butt weld Typical example of radiographic testing steel products . The radiographic method is an excellent method for examining buttwelds for volumetric defects (three dimensional) like pores.. To detect ‘two dimensional’ defects like cracks and lack of fusion. slag inclusions. copper more than steel. All materials absorb radiation. Radiographic testing can be applied to most materials depending on material type and thickness. joint configuration and material thickness. Fig.1. the more radiation it will absorb and the thicker a material is. the more radiation will be absorbed. The radiographic principle is shown in Fig. incomplete penetration etc. some more than others. The film must be located as close as possible to the back surface of the object. Steel absorbs more than aluminum. As a rule we say that the more dense a material is. 6. the radiation beam must be parallel to the defects.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 43 The radiographic process. which are produced electrically gamma-rays. The anode will emit x-rays whose energy level and spectrum can be controlled by adjusting the acceleration voltage (kilo Volts) in the x-ray tube. which are produced by (nuclear decay of) radioactive material X-rays are generated by high velocity electrons hitting a tungsten anode. Typical x-ray tube Typical gamma-ray equipment Gamma ray projector Sketch radioaktiv source Crancking unit Extension cables . Radiographic testing can be performed by using two types of radiation: x-rays. A radioactive source (for example Cobalt 60 or Iridium 192) cannot be turned off and special shielding containers of lead or uranium have to be used for storage and control of the source.

2 — Radioactive materials for industrial radiography (Iridium 192 and Cobalt 60 most commonly used) . Table 6.1 — Typical x-ray machines and their applications.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 44 In tables 6.2 some data on x-ray machines and gamma ray sources and their applications are listed.1 and 6. Table 6.

The energy of Iridium 192 — radiation corresponds to a x-ray voltage of appr. A thicker portion of material will absorb more rays than a thinner portion. size etc. For Cobalt 60 the corresponding x-ray voltage is appr. Discontinuities (pores.g.) on the radiograph. tungsten inclusions from the tungsten electrode used with shielding gas welding. After one half-life the activity measured in Curie or Becquerel is reduced to one half.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 45 The penetrating power of the radiation increases with its energy. When using radioactive sources (gamma rays). only the exposure time is controllable. the energy penetrating the test object may be controlled both by the high voltage and by the exposure time. 3000 kV. due to heavy metal inclusions e.) When using the x-ray machine as exposure source. some scattered and some transmitted. 800 kV. (Due to radioactive decay the activity of radioactive isotopes decreases with time. This makes a x-ray apparatus better suited for radiographic testing. The film under the thin portion will become darker because more rays will penetrate to the film and give a higher exposure. some of the radiation is absorbed.) are normally ‘light’ compared to the base material and explain why discontinuities produce dark spots or lines on the radiograph. Sometimes discontinuities may produce light spots on the radiograph. An experienced inspector or interpreter will recognize the type of discontinuity from its image (shape. . When a beam of x-rays or gamma rays strikes an object. slag inclusions etc.

The thickness of another metal is multiplied by the corresponding factor to obtain the approximate equivalent thickness of the standard metal (aluminium or steel). obtain an equivalent thickness of 0. multiply 0.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 46 For determination of exposure times.3 — Radiographic material thickness relative to aluminium or steel Aluminium is taken as the standard metal at 50 kV and 100 kV.7 inch of steel. These calculators normally give exposure times referred to steel. Example: To radiograph 0.3. special calculators are provided with the equipment. .5 inch by the factor 1. use the exposure required for 0.4. If other materials than steel are to be tested. Table 6.5 inch of copper at 220 kV. Thus.7 inch of steel. *) Tin or lead alloyed in the brass will increase these factors. the calculat-ed exposure times have to be adjusted according to table 6. The exposure applying to this thickness of the standard metal is used. and steel at the higher voltages and gamma rays.

a small value of Ug is desired (IIW allows Ug = 0. = film to source distance For high quality radiographs. = object thickness + object to film distance d.2 mm for best quality).2 — Geometrical unsharpness (clarification) Intensifying screens To improve the intensifying efficiency of the photographic process. 6. The factor is calculated from the following formula: where b. . socalled intensifying screens are used. Fig.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 47 Quality of radiograph. Note that screens in general should be placed close to the film (vacuum-packed). = effective width of the focal spot (given in the equipment documentation for the xray or gamma ray source) f. Geometrical unsharpness One important variable related to radiography is the geometrical unsharpness Ug.

Standards and codes specify the films to be used. Lead salt intensifying screens combine the properties of the two screen types mentioned above: they are highly intensifying and absorb scattered radiation at the same time. Certain chemical salts have the property of fluorescence (they emit light) under the excitation of x-rays. . while slow-speed films are fine grained and give better contrast and ‘cleaner’ radiographs.15 mm) glued to a cardboard support. Radiographic films Radiographic film is classified according to its sensitivity to radiation (often termed the speed of the film). normally medium to fine grained films. High-speed films are coarse grained and give low contrast radiographs. thereby producing better contrast in the radiographic image. depending on the radiation energy. Lead screens may have an intensifying effect of 5 times. Codes and specifications normally require lead screens to be used. In USA four sensitivity groups (1—4) are usually specified. while European manufacturers specify three groups (G1 — G3).Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 48 Lead intensifying screens are usually thin lead foils (0. They have the further advantage of absorbing the longer wavelength scattered radiation.02 — 0. Placing a ‘sheet’ of this salt next to the film will increase the sensitivity of the radiograph by 10— 100 times depending on the screen type.

2T and 4T and the highest sensitivity requirements is 1—IT and the lowest is 4 — 4T.Q. Code requirements will specify type. Aluminum. The most frequently used types of I.2 mm 100/10 mm = 2% Example 2: Wall thickness: 10 mm steel ASME requirement: 2 — 2T Sensitivity: The image of the plate and the hole 2T (with diameter twice the thickness of the I. a penetrameter or image quality indicator (I.I.3) Sensitivity in per cent: 0.Q. Each ASME IQI has three holes IT.2 mmØ (table 6. The smallest hole or thinnest visible wire indicates the sensitivity in per cent of the base metal or weld thickness. thinnest is 0. The last number (2T) is the hole diameter where T is the thickness of the penetrameter. ASME V).) is used.1.) is visible.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 49 Image quality indicator (I.1). If all wires of the DIN/ISO penetrameter in Example 1 were visible (thinnest wire is 0. Copper etc.I. Depending on the code requirements the sensitivity shall normally be 1. are ASME (hole penetrameter). . The IIW-penetrameters are available only in steel.0 per cent. (ref. The first number is the penetrameter thickness in per cent of the object thickness.I. The material of the I.5—2. Aluminum and Copper. the penetrameter shall always be placed on the source side of the object. If possible.) In order to determine the sensitivity of a radiograph. 2 per cent. 6. Example 1: Wall thickness: 10 mm steel DIN/ISO 10-16 Fe: 4 visible wires.Q.Q. (fig. Each radiograph must show the image of a penetrameter in order to be of any value. DIN penetrameters are available in Steel. IIW or DIN (wire step penetrameters).Q. The sensitivity is then app.Q. ASME standards normally specify a sensitivity requirement of 2—2T. should belong to the same material group as the object (Steel.I.).I.1 mmØ) the sensitivity would be I per cent. and ASME penetrameters in all commonly used materials. size and position of the I.

25 — 1. ASME hole penetrameter and DIN wire penetrameter.4 — Diameters of penetrameter wires Note that the wire diameters of the IIW 0. 16 corresponds to a wire diameter of 0. This is also the case for IIW 0.3. 6. The radiographic sensitivity depends on correct density.0 and DIN 6 — 12.125 mm etc. No.1 — 0.4 are the same as DIN 10 — 16. Fig. On page 33 are indicated parameters and remedies for improving the quality of radiographs.1 mm. 15 to 0. Table 6.: BZ No.4 Ex. See also section on Film inter-pretation. DIN penetrameters are identified by Bildgutezahl (BZ) given in brackets in table 6.3 — ASME penetrameter . good definition and ‘high contrast.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 50 The diameters of penetrameter wires are shown in table 6. Image Quality indicator.

The interpretation and evaluation shall be in accordance with valid specifications. Viewing of the radiographs is the most important part of radiographic inspection. welding processes etc. codes or standards.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 51 Fig. The interpreter must be familiar with the radiographic method and techniques. Identification The radiographs must be marked in such a way that no doubt Interpreting of radiographs can arise as .4 — DIN and IIW penetrameters Film interpretation. 6.

traceability between the object being tested and the film . measuring tape and direction arrows should be fixed to the Section being radiographed and should appear on the radiograph. Identification.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 52 to which part of the object it represents. Position/orientation should be marked on a suitable sketch or drawing to show the necessary details. Lead letters and numbers. The identification has to be beyond dispute concerning the position and orientation of the film.

fog and imperfections due to processing. Sensitivity The radiographs should be checked for sensitivity level to prove that the recommended radiographic technique is used. The density could be measured with a direct reading densitometer or by means of density strips.5 on a radiograph of a homogeneous part of the object unless otherwise specified.5 — 2. If one or more of these requirements is not . The sensitivity shall be within the limit stated in the procedure or specification. Where a continuous length of weld (object) is to be radiographed (100 per cent) the separate radiographs should overlap sufficiently to ensure that no portion of the weld remains unexamined. filmstrips with fixed density. For radiographic sensitivity.e. see page 52.3.4. Generally. The density should be between 1. i. see section 6. a density less than 1 is underexposed whiles a density above 4 is overexposed.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 53 Density The density of the radiograph shall be correct according to the procedure or specification. Film quality evaluation The radiograph shall be sharp and free from scratches. unsharpness.5 — 3. normally 1.0 per cent of the radiographed cross section. All requirements in the sections above shall be fulfilled before an evaluation of the quality/homogenity of the object is made. stains.

considering: type of defect amount of defect classification according to standard and specification (accepted/not accepted) or grading in classes. The radiographs should be examined on an illuminated diffusing screen (viewing box) in a darkened room and the illuminated area should be masked to the minimum required area for viewing of the radiographic image. Material homogenity evaluation and grading The evaluation and grading shall be carried out according to given standards or specifications.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 54 fulfilled the inspector may find it necessary to repeat the radiographs with an improved technique. The brightness of the screen should be adjustable so as to allow satisfactory reading of the radiographs. Some radiographs and sketchs of weld defects .

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Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 75 Some typical standards or recommendations are: ASME V/VIII ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. the film may be substituted by a fluorescent screen. Note: RT should not replace visual inspection for surface inspection. The radiogramme or film provides a 'visual' indication of flaws A radiograph is an excellent and permanent record of the testing. in-adequate penetration. Irradiation of the human body will increase the risk for developing cancer and genetic defects. For visible testing of materials or processes. Non Destructive Examination ASTM E 155 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and magnesium Castings ASTM E 446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings up to 2” (51 mm) in thickness Radiographic standards for steel castings ISO5817/EN 25817 Arc-welded joints in steels . ISO10042/EN 30042 Arc-welded joints in aluminium and its weldable alloys Guidance on quality levels for imperfections. Advantages A radiograph will detect volumetric discontinuities such as porosity. This enables the operator to see defects in materials. The same method is often used in hospitals and for airport security checks. Advantages and limitations of radiographic testing. Limitations X-rays and gamma rays are hazardous radiations. Well established standards and codes of practice Can be used on almost any material A radiograph will show surface discontinuities such as undercut.. inclusions. and even cracks if the crack opening runs parallel to the radiation beam. unwanted particles in a substance etc.Guidance on quality levels for imperfections. excessive penetration and burn through. with built-in evidence (penetrameter) to verify the sensitivity of the film. Such radiation cannot be detected by any of the human senses and proper instruments have to be used to check . These defects can also be detected visually. EN 26520 Classification of imperfections in metallic fusion welds with explanations.

etc. http://www. Access to both sides of the test object is necessary to produce a radiograph.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 76 the radiation level.. Due to the radiation danger. limitations may be imposed upon time and place of radiography activities. Choice of radiation energy for a particular thickness of weld is a critical factor. Discontinuities such as .com/ http://www.agfa. lack of fusion. Information typical x-ray systems is given on below web links: http://www. The shapes of the test object may make it difficult to produce a radiograph with useful information.ndt. Location of defect in test object’s cross section is difficult to determine. must be aligned with or parallel to the radiation beam to be detected clearly.

above the normal range of the human ear.e. high-frequency sound waves propagate in homogeneous solid bodies as directed beams. To a certain extent ultrasonic waves possess properties similar to those of light waves. focused and reflected. In practical use 50 kHz to 50 MHz is used for material testing. piezo-electric crystals formed as thin plates are used for generating ultrasonic waves. the plate will vibrate with the frequency of this voltage. it emits sound waves. Conversly. with very little attenuation. i. Properties of waves The following relationship exists between the parameters frequency (f). i. the waves are . the following applies: shorter wavelengths will detect smaller defects the penetrating power increases with the wavelength longer wavelengths should be used on coarse grained material Frequencies may therefore be selected as follows: small defects: high frequency (2-4 MHz) large defects: low frequency (0. a sound wave striking the plate produces a voltage at its electrodes.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 77 NDT Methods – Ultrasonic Testing Definition of ultrasound and properties of waves Ultrasound Sound waves with a frequency of 20kHz or more. wave length (l) and propagation velocity (v) in a propagating sound wave: When ultrasonic waves are used for material testing. i. If an alternating voltage is applied to the crystal.e. they may be refracted.5-2 MHz) fine grained material: high frequency coarse grained material: low frequency Methods When testing materials with ultrasonic waves. are generally referred to as ultrasonic waves.e. At interfaces between media with different acoustic properties. For the testing of materials. Common piezoelectric transducers are made of quarts and barium titanate. such as air and metal.

The immersion method The most important method is the pulse-echo technique which will be emphasized in this section. Ultrasonic testing of materials may be performed by the following methods: a. . Ultrasonic inspection of buttweld in piping system using angle probe.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 78 almost completely reflected. The reflection (pulse-echo) method b. inclusions and other flaws by means of ultrasonic waves. This makes it possible to detect cracks. The transmission method c.

The reflection (pulse-echo) method When an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted to the object. Fig.1 — The pulse-echo principle . the time delay between the initial pulse and the echo from the back wall. 7. can be measured.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 79 Ultrasonic thickness measurement of piping using D-meter and single crystal 0degree probe. or from a flaw inside the object.

an ultrasonic apparatus containing transmitter. distances and defect sizes.5).Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 80 Performance of ultrasonic testing Ultrasonic equipment For indication and measurement of thickness. 7. Probes When testing materials with ultrasound. Test range: applicable to the test The ultrasonic equipment is to be equipped with a flat screen extending to the front of the apparatus so that a reference curve can be drawn directly on the screen (see calibration 7. The ultrasonic equipment should allow echoes with amplitudes of 5% of full screen height to be clearly detectable under test conditions. Relevant requirements for such equipment are: The ultrasonic equipment should cover a frequency range of at least 1. receiver and indicating screen is required.6. . two types of probes may be used.3. The ultrasonic equipment is to be fitted with a calibrated gain regulator with maximum 2 dB gain per step. the normal probes (0°) (longitudinal waves) and the angle probes (transverse waves).0 MHz.0 .5). The ultrasonic equipment must be able to operate with both combined and separate transmitter and receiver probes (fig.

right: angle probe 70°. The angle of beamspread is related to probe diameter and frequency. the soundfield will become cone-shaped. Note that the echo height on the screen decreases as the length of the soundpath increases. Left: normal probe 0°.3 the principle of application of a normal probe is shown. 4 MHz and 6 MHz. Application of a normal probe . Typical values are 1 MHz. The pulse propagates in a straight direction. 7.6 MHz. grease or water) into a test object in a direction normal to the surface to which the probe is applied. Most commonly frequencies used are 2MHz and 4MHz. In fig. The normal probe (0°) generates longitudinal waves and transmits them (via a couplant such as oil.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 81 Probes (transducers) for ultrasonic equipment. but due to beamspread.5 . 2 MHz. Normal probes are to cover a frequency range of 0.

Ultrasonic inspection of nozzle weld connection using angle probe. 37° in copper and 35° in cast iron (Table 7. the angle will change according to Snell’s Law.1). 70°. 60°. 70° and 80°. 60°. The most commonly used angels are 45°. a probe of 60° in steel will give 56° in aluminium. On materials with sound-velocities different from steel. Typical angles are 35°. 45°. . For instance.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 82 The angle probe is constructed to transmit transverse waves at a defined angle into a test object.

the initial pulse will not interfere with defects immediately below the contact surface. Principle of the double crystal probe (TR — or SE probe) . the quoted values being average figures. Typical values are 2 MHz and 4 MHz.80° with respect to steel.6 MHz. In other words. The acoustic velocity in cast iron depends on various factors. transmitter and receiver. the deadzone will be greatly reduced. Angles relative to steel The double crystal probe (which is a special normal probe) consists of two separated piezo-electric crystals. Because the initial pulse has to pass an acoustic delay block before reaching the contact surface of the material.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 83 The angle probes are to cover a frequency range of 2 . Application of the angle probe The table below gives the angles of refraction in different materials for the most common types of angle probes having an angle of incidence of 35 .

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 84 An ultrasonic pulse from the transmitter crystal will propagate via the delay block into the material. make the double crystal probe useful for detecting defects immediately below the contact surface and for measuring thicknesses within the range 1 . Procedure Ultrasonic examination must be performed in accordance with a written procedure. The delay block and separate transmitter-receiver configuration. On a surface with a small radius of curvature. Each procedure must include at least the following information. Note: The surface must be metallic clean when using double crystal probes. Light grinding of the surface and the weld may be necessary. It is of importance to notice that with a double crystal probe. A double crystal probe with focused beam will be efficient for detecting pitting corrosion. as applicable: Type of instrument Type of transducers Frequencies Calibration details Surface requirements Type of couplants Scanning techniques Recording details Reference to applicable welding procedures Coupling medium and contact surface A satisfactory couplant. Usually the double crystal probe is constructed with the piezo-electric elements at an angle (1° . or glycerine are well suited for this purpose. This will increase the detection efficiency close to the surface of the material and prevent multiple echoes from reaching the receiver. Oil. The contact surface should be free from weld spatter and any other substance which may impede the free movement of the probe or disturb the transmission of ultrasound to the material. it may be necessary to adjust the probe shoe to attain sufficient contact between the material and the probe. A cellulose gum (wall paper paste) is particularly suitable as it can be removed with water after inspection is completed. and reflected pulses from defects will reach the receiver crystal resulting in an echo on the screen.30 mm. such as pipes with a small diameter. the first echo is always used for detection.5°) to the normal. . should be used to transfer the ultrasound from the probe into the material. grease. in either fluid or paste form.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 85 Calibration The calibration of the apparatus and probes are of decisive importance for the testing result. range calibration . an IIW calibration block (V1 or V2) should be used Calibration blocks. For the calibration of the equipment range scale and the angular determination of angle probes.

50 mm radius. 25 mm radius. Range calibration using V2 block. . Range calibration using V1 block.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 86 Range calibration using V2 block. 100 mm radius.

Construction of reference curves . see figure below. For construction of a reference curve.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 87 Acceptance criteria often define a defect by specifying the size/height of the defect echo in relation to a calibrated reference curve. beam angle. etc. As the sound velocity will vary with the material tested (i. varies with the material) it is imperative that the calibration blocks are of the same material as the test object.e.. range calibration. sound beam profile.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 88 Construction of reference curve. 1/4 skip distance from reference reflector . 5/4 skip distance from reference reflector Construction of reference curve. 3/4 skip distance from reference reflector Construction of reference curve.

The diameter and hole location are dependent on the thickness of the plate. Defects will be accepted or rejected depending on the echo height compared to the reference curve and the length of the defect. it is important to define the code or standard the examination should follow. In the reference block (fig. this document is currently under revision). 7.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 89 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section V. echo amplitude evaluation against reference curve A more detailed description for the calibration of the ultrasonic apparatus is given in VERITAS Classification Notes No. Acceptance criteria Before starting the ultrasonic examination. By placing the probe in different positions on the reference block and marking the corresponding echo height. The soundness of the materials/welds must comply with the criteria in the defined code or standard. 7 "Ultrasonic Inspection of Weld Connections". Article 5.8) made from the production material (or of a material with similar acoustic and metallurgical properties) a drilled hole is used as a reference reflector for establishing the reference curve. and are given in the ASME-standard. describes a method or standard which is frequently used for ultrasonic testing of welds in steel constructions. Root defect detected. one can establish a distance-amplitude curve on the screen. (Note. .

. and the center of the probe is marked as the edge of the defect. the extent of the defect can be plotted. By moving the probe around the defect in this fashion.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 90 Reference block for construction of reference curve L = length or reference block given by probe angle and material range to be covered. minimum 40 mm. B = width of reference block. T = thickness of reference block. Calibration reference block requirements Defect sizing A method which is suitable for determining the size of large defects with normal probes and angleprobes is the 6 dB-drop method. P = position of drilled hole. also called the half value-method. When a defect is detected. the probe is moved towards the edge of the defect until the defect echoheight it reduced by 6 dB (or 50 %). The same technique can be used with angle probes.

20 mm calibration. the thickness can be measured within approximately ± 1 .2 % Echoes appearing between ‘full thickness echoes’ indicate lamination or other types of defects. Thickness measurement using multiple echo-technique Range calibration using 0 degree probe.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 91 Measurement of thickness and detection of defects Material thickness (T) may be measured by using normal probes. . By reading the distance to echo number n and divide by n. Calibration has to take place on similar materials as the test object to avoid errors due to different sound velocities.

In such cases double crystal probes should be used. Possible errors If thickness measurements are to be carried out on an object with a coated surface.or K-meters. When using corrometers. D. Thus very little ultrasonic energy is reflected back to the probe and thickness measurement is impossible. . measure the material thickness between first and second echo When using double crystal probes.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 92 Ultrasonic thickness measurement of pipespool using ultrasonic apparatus and 0degree twin crystal probe In some cases the back wall of the test object may be so corroded (pittings) that the transmitted sound is reflected from the pittings into the material. it is likewise imperative that the coating is removed before measurements are carried out. the coating must be removed before measurement is carried out. To avoid such errors please note: When using single crystal probes. the coating may give rise to measurement errors.

. Ultrasonic thickness measurement of cast steel nozzle using D-meter and twin crystal 0degree probe.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 93 Ultrasonic thickness measurement of piping using D-meter and single crystal 0 probe.

Examples of materials difficult to test by ultrasonics are austenitic steel and welds involving nickel base alloys. Requirement to operator’s qualifications. Information on typical ultrasonic equipment is given on below web links : http://www.g. allowing examination of extremely thick sections. the width of the pulse. e. permitting rapid and automated inspection. structure porosity. Undesirable material structure. Advantages and limitations of ultrasonic testing The principal application of ultrasonic techniques consist of flaw detection and thickness measurement. surface conditions etc. defects located less than 4-5 mm below the test object’s surface is difficult to detect. Advantages of ultrasonic tests: Capable of detecting planar defects not detectable by radiography. be aware of correct probe position related to the axis of the pipe. Penetration of sound into these materials is limited and interpretation of results may be difficult. for example grain http://www. permitting detection of minute defects. Great penetrating power. May be performed with access to only one surface of the object. appendix II). When using normal probes. for example.panametrics. High sensitivity. Due to high sensitivity false or irrelevant indications may occur. (It should be noted that austenitic materials are now widely used for fabrication of chemical tankers and -installations as well as nuclear reactors. size. Accuracy in the measurement of flaw position and estimation of flaw size. and the probes near zone where interference will affect the measurements).Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 94 When using double crystal probes for measurement of pipe wall thickness. contour. Fast .) Coupling and scanning problems. Limitations of ultrasonic tests: Test conditions which may limit the application of ultrasonic methods usually relate to one of the following factors: Unfavourable geometry of test object. up to 10 m of steel. complexity and defect orientation. (This is due to the equipment dead zone. or inclusion content. (Ref.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 95 NDT Methods – Magnetic Particle Testing Application Magnetic particle inspection may be applied to detect surface defects in ferromagnetic materials. The powder will accumulate where a surface flaw causes a leakage in the magnetic field. Magnetization principles and methods . Welding inspection on reactor tubes with hand yoke and isolating transformer Method The test object is magnetized Magnetic powder (iron powder or iron oxide) is applied to the surface during magnetization.

by means of a yoke (electromagnet).2 Longitudinal (or axial) magnetization .g.2.1) Indirect magnetization is induced when placing the test object in a magnetic field. 8. by applying prods. (Fig.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 96 Direct magnetization is induced when current is passing directly through the test object.g.1 Circular magnetization methods Fig. Fig. 8.2) Inspection of crankshafts with hand yoke and adjustable poles The principle of circular magnetization is shown in Fig. 8. e. (Fig. 8.1 and longitudinal magnetization in Fig. e. 8. 8.

. Fluorescent particles may be advantageously used. Inspection of turbine blades with hand yoke and adjustable poles Dry particles are recommended between 60°C and 300°C.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 97 MT Performance Wet particles (iron particles suspended in liquid) are recommended below 60° C.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 98 It is recommended to use contrast color to provide adequate contrast when using nonfluorescent particles. The contrast color must not be electrically conductive. . The thickness of the layer should not exceed 75 um.

shall be tipped with lead or aluminium to avoid copper deposits and hard spots from burns on the part being examined. (The part of the field perpendicular to the surface will hamper the mobility of the magnetic particles. 8. 8.) Prods. Fig.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 99 The highest detection sensitivity for surface cracks is obtained by applying alternating current (AC) magnetization and wet powder.3 — Magnetic field configuration of a permanent magnet . fig. The use of permanent magnets is not recommended due to the magnetic field configuration which may mask defects in a large region around the poles.3. Only the region between the poles with dominating field tangential to the surface may be reliably tested. and thereby disturb the indications. when applied.

4 kA/m (30 Oersted) to 4. The field strength should be checked by a proper instrument (e. welding flux and spatter. is in the range of 2.g. perpendicular to the defect. Such areas should be surface ground. . lint. Hall probe). the surface to be examined and all adjacent areas within at least 25 mm shall be dry and free of all dirt.0 kA/m (50 Oersted). scale. oil. or other extraneous matter that could interfere with the examination. grease. Rough surfaces hamper the mobility of magnetic powder due to mechanical trapping which in turn produces false indications. Examination of welds Recommended field strength.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 100 Surface preparation Prior to magnetic particle inspection.

As a rule of thumb the ratio current/prodseparation shall be in the range of 3 to 5 A/mm. Fig. 8.4 — Positions of prods or yoke for a 100 % coverage of a weld .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 101 Maximum sensitivity is obtained when the direction of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the defect. The prods and yoke shall be positioned as indicated in fig. 8.4 to obtain full coverage of a weld.

Demagnetization may be necessary if : .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 102 Welding inspection on tubes. after having been magnetized. Advantages of the MT method A superior method for detection of surface cracks. object geometry etc. Demagnetization Reasons for demagnetization All ferromagnetic metals. between different base metals or between weld metal and base metal. particle buildups may occur around sharp corners.e. small undercuts etc. i. Changes in magnetic properties may give indications. A well known example is non-relevant indications between non-ferromagnetic weld metal and ferromagnetic base metal. Examples of such indications are: When applying a too strong magnetic force. longitudinal and transversal crack indication with cross yoke Non-relevant indications Non-relevant indications that do not result from presence of flaws may occur. at rough surfaces. will to some extent retain a residual magnetic field. Misinterpretations may occur depending on the test object surface. The method is fast and simple to carry out. between steel and mill scale. Limitation of temperature range (during welding). Limitations of the MT method The method is only applicable to ferromagnetic materials. differences in chemical composition of welds and base materials.

Reporting Like other NDT methods the main purpose of an MPI report is to identify the object examined and to state exactly the location of the defects found. In addition to the magnetic particle examination.g. during machining or cleaning operations chips may adhere to the surface and interfere with subsequent operations like painting or dimensioning. linear porosity) are usually not allowed. determination of the undercut depth must be performed by visual inspection. . Undercut may be accepted within specific limits in depth and length. bearings).Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 103 the magnetic field will interfere with the operation of instruments sensitive to magnetic fields. Photos and sketches are helpful enclosures to the MPI report. Acceptance criteria The criteria are usually specified in the relevant standard/code. Linear surface discontinuities (cracks. the test object is to be used for parts/components where remains from the magnetization is undesirable (e.

Because of their close proximity. The method is suitable for surface examination of all non-porous. The lamps produce radiation at the harmful wavelengths so it is essential that they be used with the proper filter in place and in good condition. cataracts and retinal damage. can cause injury much more quickly. excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer applied. cohesion and surface tension in liquids which are in contact with solids as in a capillary tube 2 Fluorescent: The property of a substance. To 1 Capillary action: A force that is the resultant of adhesion. The penetrant materials used today are much more sophisticated than the kerosene and whiting first used by inspectors near the turn of the 20th century. After a period of time called the "dwell". non-absorbing materials. laboratory devices like as UV lamps deliver UV light at a much higher intensity than the sun and. It draws the penetrant from the flaw to reveal it's presence. 3 Black light or Ultraviolet Light: Ultraviolet (UV) light or "black light" as it is sometimes called. For ferromagnetic materials. The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action1. Today's penetrants are carefully formulated to produce the level of sensitivity desired by the inspector. such as ultraviolet rays or x-rays. UV light can cause eye inflammation. Excessive UV light exposure can cause painful sunburn. magnetic particle testing is recommended. Penetrant Testing Materials. accelerate wrinkling and increase the risk of skin cancer. has wavelengths ranging from 180-400 nanometers. There is usually no pain associated with the injury until several hours after the exposure. such as fluorite. . therefore. Skin and eye damage occurs at wavelengths around 320 nm and shorter which is well below the 365 nm wavelength where penetrants are design to fluoresce. However too much exposure can be harmful to the skin and eyes. of producing light while it is being acted upon by radiant energy. The most familiar source of UV radiation is the sun and is necessary in small doses for certain chemical processes to occur in the body. Therefore. These wavelengths place UV light in the invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. This acts as a "blotter". The greatest threat with UV light exposure is that the individual is generally unaware that the damage is occurring. Coloured (contrast) penetrants require good white light while fluorescent2 penetrants need to be used in darkened conditions with an ultraviolet "black light"3.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 104 NDT Methods – Liquid penetrant testing Introduction Liquid penetrat testing is a method that is used to reveal surface breaking flaws by bleedout of a coloured or fluorescent dye from the flaw. UV lamps sold for use in LP application almost are always filtered to remover the harmful UV wavelengths.

A penetrant must: Spread easily over the surface of the material being inspected to provide complete and even coverage. a penetrant must possess a number of important characteristics. Be highly visible or fluoresce brightly to produce easy to see indications. All penetrant materials do not perform the same and are not designed to perform the same.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 105 perform well. Must not be harmful to the material being tested or the inspector. Type 1 . Be drawn into surface breaking defects by capillary action.Fluorescent Penetrants Crack indication in hydraulic pump housing. Remain fluid so it can be drawn back to the surface of the part through the drying and developing steps. Some applications call for the detection of the smallest defects possible and have smooth surface where the penetrant is easy to remove. Penetrant manufactures have developed different formulations to address a variety of inspection applications. . The penetrants that are used to detect the smallest defect will also produce the largest amount of irrelevant indications. Note the enhanced contrast of the fluorescent penetrant. Remain in the defect but remove easily from the surface of the part. In other applications the rejectable defect size may be larger and a penetrant formulated to find larger flaws can be used.

Visible penetrants are also less vulnerable to contamination from things such as cleaning fluid that can significantly reduce the strength of a fluorescent indication. Fluorescent penetrants contain a dye or several dyes that fluoresce when exposed the ultraviolet radiation. the penetrant is oil soluble and interacts with the oil-based emulsifier to make removal possible. visible penetrants do not require a darkened area and an ultraviolet light in order to make an inspection. lipophilic and hydrophilic. Lipophilic or Hydrophilic Solvent Removable Water washable penetrants can be removed from the part by rinsing with water alone. These penetrants contain some emulsifying agent (detergent) that makes it possible to wash the penetrant from the part surface with water alone. lipophilic systems. Post emulsifiable penetrants come in two varieties.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 106 Type 2 . However. The methods are: Water Washable Post Emulsifiable. Visible penetrants contain a red dye that provides high contrast against the white developer background. Water washable penetrants are sometimes referred to as self-emulsifying systems. Red penetrant on white developer. hydrophilic systems. use an emulsifier that is a water .Visible Penetrants Crack indication in hydraulic pump housing. Penetrants are then classified by the method used to remove the excess penetrant from the part. Post emulsifiable. In post emulsifiers. Fluorescent penetrant systems are more sensitive than visible penetrant systems because the eye is drawn to the glow of the fluorescing indication.

Method The main steps of the method are as follows : Precleaning of the surface to be tested Drying of the surface Application of penetrant by spraying. brushing or dipping Penetration time Removal of excess penetrant Drying of the surface by normal evaporation or by careful blowing with a fan or ‘hair dryer’ Application of developer as a thin layer by dipping. Solvent removable penetrants require the use of a solvent to remove the penetrant from the part. or by use of ‘dusttank’ Developing time Inspection of the test object Post cleaning (if required) Principle of Liquid Penetrant Testing .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 107 soluble detergent which lifts the excess penetrant from the surface of the part with a water wash. spraying.

Types of penetrant Three types of penetrant exist in both visible (most commonly red) and fluorescent color. Ordinarily. A none dusting clean cloth or free flowing water may be used. Water washable penetrant Water washable penetrants are most frequently used and are sensitive enough for ordinary weld examination. These penetrants may be removed from the surface by water washing. all surface penetrant may be washed away without disturbing the penetrant inside the surface discontinuities. grease. weld spatter. After the necessary penetration time a thin continuos layer of emulsifier is to be added to the top of the penetrant. the liquids used and the temperature. For such surfaces this type of penetrant has a higher sensitivity than the water washable penetrant. Excess penetrant is removed from the surface by wiping with a dry absorbing (nondusting) cloth followed by re-wiping the surface using a clean cloth damp with a solvent remover. . fluorescent examination is the most sensitive. The emulsifier will interact with the penetrant. The resulting liquid from this interaction is water washable. scale. dirt. depending of the type of surface. Post emulsifying penetrant Post emulsifying penetrants are mainly used on smooth surfaces. oil or other extraneous matter that could obscure surface openings or otherwise interfere with the examination (machining and grinding may close surface cracks mechanically). lint. Solvent removable penetrant For low temperature examination and for examination of smooth surfaces the solvent removable penetrant is recommended. welding flux.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 108 Surface preparation The surface to be examined must be dry and free from paint. For rough surfaces this is the only suitable type of penetrant. After an emulsifying time.

.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 109 Testblock Normal temperature range for liquid penetrant examinations: 15°C — 50°C (60° F — 125°F) Above and below this temperature range liquids suitable for high/ low temperature examination are to be used.

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art. For details see ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sec. 6.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 111 Comparator blocks A non-standard temperature requires a procedure qualification with a comparator block. V. .

less suitable for field use. Aqueous wet developer. Table 9. Insufficient removal of excess surface penetrant may also produce red/ fluorescent shadows or false indications. however. Dry developer.7 — Recommended penetration and developing times Evaluation of indications Discontinuities at the surface will be indicated by bleeding-out of the penetrant. which is a dry powder. The aqueous — wet developer is suitable for high temperature examination. Penetration and developing time It is important for the test to use sufficient penetration and developing time. Spraying with nonaqueous developer from a min.7.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 112 Types of developer Nonaqueous wet developer. local surface irregularities such as machining marks may produce false indications. which may be either a powder suspended in water or a powder — water solution. which is a powder suspended in a volatile solvent. distance of 30 cm gives the best result for field’ work. Recommended times are given in table 9. .

a discontinuity exists. Apply a new thin layer of developer. If not. Carefully remove just the colored developer. use a thin brush dipped in a solvent. there might have been a false indication. If the indication reappear.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 113 To evaluate indications. Indication detected .

Reporting It is important that the inspection results are stated clearly with exact location of any defects found. are not accepted. Ordinary linear surface defects like linear porosity. cracks. See NDT procedure specifications and reports for further details about reporting. NDT procedure specifications and reports (examples) . overlaps etc.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 114 Acceptance criteria Acceptance criteria will be stated in the relevant standard/code.

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e. or not fully understood Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials may be required There can be a fume exposure problem. Only materials with a relative nonporous surface can be inspected Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected. liquid penetrant testing has both advantages and disadvantages. magnetic and nonmagnetic. Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. can be examined using automated systems A power supply is not needed for some methods of penetrant testing Disadvantages Only surface breaking defects can be detected.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 132 Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing (PT) Like all non-destructive inspection methods. Reexamination is to be carried out with the same type of penetrant as the original examination. in batches. The method is timeconsuming. i. Fluorescent penetrant examination shall not follow a color contrast examination. The method has few material limitations. Aerosol spray cans make penetrant materials very portable. Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive. austenitic stainless steels or titanium there exist some limitations as to the con-tent of the liquids. Parts with complex geometric shapes are routinely inspected. particularly in confined spaces . Interpretation of results is sometimes difficult The method is often abused and skimped. art. conductive and non-conductive materials may be inspected. V. Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be tested. 6. Advantages The method has high sensitive to small surface discontinuities. The primary advantages and disadvantages when compared to other NDT methods are summarised below. Lots of small articles. When using penetrant examination for nickel base alloys. see ASME Sec. metallic and non-metallic.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 133 Main processtages of the penetrant testing .

location and Characteristic of flaws or discontinuities: Information on typical penetrant systems is given on below web . http://www.amgas.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 134 From Metals Handbook: Common types.

g. magnetic permeability and the frequency of operation. Eddy current testing is carried out at frequencies from a few Cycles Per Second (Hertz [Hz]) to several million Cycles Per Second (Megahertz [MHz]). The eddy current methods are sensitive to the following properties of metals: Electrical Conductivity Magnetic Permeability Geometry The capability of the technique in individual applications depends on the following: The frequency of AC used The sensor design Distance of sensor from surface (Lift Off) These parameters will allow assessment of object surfaces without need for electrical contact (Through coatings). Increased frequency will reduce the depth of penetration of eddy currents into the material. The theoretical depth of penetration (where the current is reduced to 1/3 of its value at the surface) is dependent on conductivity. Increased conductivity will reduce the depth of penetration of eddy currents into the material. Depth of Penetration All methods using alternating current are limited by the depth of penetration of such currents into a conducting surface. One of the most important test variables is the frequency. The eddy current signals created by permeability changes in ferrous welds can make eddy current techniques difficult to apply although ACFM technology has largely overcome these problems. Conductivity is the measure of the ease with which the electrons flow in a material and will therefore determine the eddy current density. Increased permeability will reduce the depth of penetration of eddy currents into the material. . metal type or condition).Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 135 NDT Methods – Eddy Current Testing Introduction Eddy Current inspection is widely used in industry for the inspection of metals. Some eddy current sets can provide useful information about materials by assessment of permeability (e. The most important effect of the frequency is on the depth of penetration of the eddy current field in the test metal. Permeability has probably the greatest effect on eddy current testing. changes in conductivity will affect the eddy currents produced in the material.

The permeability is the dominant effect and gives a smallest depth of penetration. Copper appears between mild steel and aluminium. Tube inspection on site (e. Frequency and Depth of Penetration Applications for which electromagnetic systems can be used include: 1. Tube and bar inspection (production) 4. Stainless steel has a low conductivity and low permeability giving the deepest depth of penetration. Heat Exchangers and Condensers) 5. Aluminium has a high conductivity and low permeability giving a middle depth of penetration.g.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 136 Four examples are shown: Ferritic steel has high permeability and low conductivity. Conductor on Insulator . Non-magnetic conductor on conductor c. Insulator on Conductor b. Surface Crack (defect) detection in conductors 2. Metal Sorting 6. Layer Thickness Measurement such as: a. Sub surface defect detection in non-magnetic conductors 3. Copper has a higher conductivity therefore less penetration than aluminium.

The field from adjacent wires in a coil add to provide a new total magnetic field dependent on the current and the number of turns in the coil. Also if the electric current reverses the force changes direction. The link between the two circuits is a magnetic field. because it is always changing. The full sequence of events is described below. Eddy Current Generation and Detection Coils A coil will increase the intensity of the magnetic field produced from an electric current. If an A. .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 137 Electromagnetic Effects In the first half of the nineteenth century it was discovered that there are three effects. The changing of a current in a wire will cause another current to flow in an adjacent but not touching wire. This shows that electricity can be generated by magnetism and is the principle of the dynamo or generator. If a loop of wire connected to a current measuring device is moved through a static magnetic field then the device measures a current flow. It is this phenomenon that leads to transformers. This is the principle of the electric motor.C. radio and television transmission and eddy current testing. current flows in circuit A. Coils are necessary in eddy current testing to produce a sufficient magnetic field from limited current or a sufficient current from a limited magnetic field. If circuit B is replaced by solid metal then a current flows in that metal (which is the eddy current). This is illustrated below: Changing Current in circuit A produces current in adjacent circuit B. It should be noted that it is the closing of the switch in circuit A which causes a current flow in circuit B (a steady state current would have no effect). then one also flows in circuit B. A wire carrying an electric current experiences a force when placed near a magnet.

and in some applications (shielded probes) may also surround the coil. . for A. As discussed above eddy currents will be induced in to the material. this only occurs at a certain point in time but is related to the directions of currents flowing at the same point in time.C. The ferrite is usually in the centre of the coil. This can be represented as a series of lines or. For D. phase and distribution depend on several factors. The magnetic field varies at the same frequency as the current in the coil. The eddy currents generated will normally have circular paths at right angles to the primary field. Magnetic Field produced in a coil. In practical eddy current probes a ferrite material is often used to further concentrate and control the magnetic field. The flow of the eddy currents in terms of magnitude. current the arrowhead is at the North Pole.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 138 The shape of the magnetic field from a coil is similar to that from a permanent magnet. for simplicity a single arrow. The coil windings are also sometimes shown collectively. Eddy Current Generation If a coil is brought in close proximity with a conductive material the alternating magnetic field (primary field) will pass through the material.C.

normally. Advanced Eddy Current instrument .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 139 Eddy Currents flowing in a material These electrical Eddy Currents will induce a secondary magnetic field to flow in opposition to the original primary field Secondary Field produced by the Primary Magnetic Field Eddy Current Detection This situation can be balanced and so the display can be set to read zero in the normal set of circumstances. which in turn will affect the characteristics of the primary coil. (no crack) but if there is a change in the Eddy Current flowing in the material this will then alter the secondary field. It is this change that will be monitored and so displayed. on either a meter or cathode ray tube monitor.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 140 General Crack Detection image on instrument shown in picture above Corrosion Detection image on instrument shown in picture above Coating Thickness Detection image on instrument shown in picture above .

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 141 Factors affecting Eddy Currents There are several factors. Lift off effect. this will change the characteristics of the primary coil and thus the metering system can indicate its presence. Eddy Current behaviour around a defect 2. Lift off of the probe from the material surface. which have been produced: 1. note air gap . if this varies then the results can be affected. unless the probe has been specifically designed to limit the effects of lift off. If a surface-breaking crack is encountered. in this case the Eddy Current is forced to flow under or around the crack. which will affect the eddy currents.

4. The magnetic permeability of a metal affects the ease with which magnetic lines will flow through it. In a material with high permeability a larger density of these lines will be created from a given source. This has two effects: firstly a greater amount of magnetic energy can be stored in the coil. therefore increasing its inductance. Varying permeability of the test material can affect the resulting flux flow in the test. High permeability materials will have created a small depth of penetration of the eddy currents. and the lines will tend to concentrate in the material (particularly the surface). and secondly plenty of eddy currents are generated which increases the lift off effects. if the Eddy Currents come up against an edge then they will be compressed and this will affect the results again.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 142 No lift off effect. Edge effects. Edge Effect . note no air gap 3.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 143 Edge effect No edge effect. probe fits to geometry .

Geometrical effects can be reduced by designing a probe. Varying material thickness Geometry The geometry of a component under test can cause difficulties in eddy current tests. or by the use of shielded probes. Probes of various size and shape to fit various geometry . Changing thickness of the material under test. and the edge effect can distort the eddy current field and produce a large signal.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 144 5. A curved piece of metal will obviously have a different lift off response to a flat one. which fits the surface. again this can affect the results.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 145 Probes of various size and shape to fit various geometry .

c. The calibration piece is not representative. The slot is not generally in geometry representative of the crack location. although usually only two components are needed. on the other hand. weld). The a. Provides surface breaking crack detection and sizing (length and depth). use can be made of all three components of the magnetic field. Requires no electrical contact so can be used through coatings. A slot does not behave electrically like a crack. The slot is unlikely to be in material representative of the crack location (i. In ACFM.c. Designed to increase benefits whilst overcoming the limitations. Full data storage. The three components are defined in the figure below: . parent plate. Uses a uniform induced field. Developed from the ACPD technique. The main aim of both ACPD and ACFM is to avoid calibration on artificial defects whenever possible because such calibration is known to be prone to error for a number of reasons: There is increased scope for operator error.e. In ACPD only one component of the surface electric field is measured since the voltage probe is always placed parallel to the input current flow. Does not rely on calibration. HAZ.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 146 NDT-methods – Alternating current field measurement Introduction to ACFM What it is Electromagnetic inspection technique. potential drop (ACPD) technique to combine the ability of ACPD to size without calibration with the ability of eddy current techniques to work without electrical contact. field measurement (ACFM) technique was developed during the 1980’s from the a. This is achieved by maintaining the uniform input field (induced rather than injected) but measuring the magnetic fields above the specimen surface instead of the surface voltages. Calibration can only be valid for the defect length used because crack length influences the depth signal.

In general terms. are zero. the x-direction will be parallel to the crack edge. and the ‘Z’ component. The presence of a defect diverts current away from the deepest part and concentrates it near the ends of a crack (or on either side of a pit). the magnetic field is uniform in the x-direction perpendicular to the current flow. The effect of this is to produce strong peaks and troughs in By and Bz (above the ends of a crack or either side of a pit). Bx. By and Bz. The ‘Y’ component. By. ACFM probes generally measure Bx and Bz.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 147 Definition of field directions and co-ordinate system used in ACFM. With no defect present and a uniform current flowing in the y-direction. while Bx shows a broad dip along the whole defect. Figure 2. while a qualitative explanation of the signals is shown in Figure 3. Example of chart recorder and butterfly plots from a defect. is parallel to the input current. the former being used to estimated crack depth and the latter giving an estimated of crack length. while the other two components. the ‘X’ component. the theoretical modelling shows that the magnetic field components are related to the rates of change of the surface potential differences. For deployment on fatigue cracked weld toes for example where a crack is parallel to the weld. Bz. is perpendicular to the current and parallel to the metal surface. is perpendicular to the metal surface. An example of the Bx and Bz signals above a crack is shown in the chart recorder plot on the left in Figure 2. .

Qualitative explanation of the nature of Bx and Bz above a notch. . Basic ACFM theory Current induction A coilof wire carrying an alternating current will generate a magnetic fieldaround it as demonstrated in Figure 4.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 148 Figure 3.

Electric field induced in a metal plate Figure 5 shows the lower portion of the magnetic field produced by an ACFM induction coil and the AC electric current. If this coil is brought down onto the surface of a metal sheet the alternating magnetic field around the coil induces a current in a thin skin on the surface of the metal . and particularly the region marked on the diagram where the current can be considered to be approximately linear. that forms the foundation of the ACFM technique. which is induced into the surface of the metal.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 149 Figure 4.again at right angles to the magnetic field. Magnetic field around a coil Note that the magnetic field and electric field are always 90 degrees to each other. The ACFM instrument usually drives a current of 1 amp through the induction coil at a frequency of 5kHz. . Figure 5. It is this induced current.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 150 Field distribution If we consider a uniform AC current sheet in the surface of a material. a current flowing in the Y direction will produce a magnetic field (termed B by physicists) in the X direction.e. where X and Y directions are along the surface of the material and the Z direction is normal to the surface. A resultant of the magnetic field in the Z direction is produced by curvature of current or bending of the flow lines as shown in Figure 7 Bz will be positive if the current curves in one direction and negative if it curves in the other direction. Figure 7. If the current flow lines are parallel then there is no component produced in Z. as in Figure 6. Bz is zero. We term this Bx. The magnitude of the B field is proportional to the current density in the electric field: the higher the current density (the closer the flow lines are together) the higher the magnetic field. In Figure 6 the By and Bz components of the magnetic field are both zero and the Bx level depends on the magnitude of the current. Figure 6. Magnetic field due to current curvature . i. Magnetic field produced by current in plate With reference to the co-ordinate system shown above. this will itself produce a magnetic field above the surface at right angles to the current direction.

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The important principles to remember are that if a current is flowing in a surface (called the x - y plane) then, The magnetic flux density in the x direction is proportional to current in the y direction The magnetic flux density in the y direction is proportional to current in the x direction The magnetic flux density in the z direction (out of the x - y plane) is proportional to the curvature of the current in the x - y plane Fields around a defect After having seen the way that an electric current can be induced into a metal surface using a coil and the magnetic field that is produced above the surface of the metal by the induced current, we can now look at the effect on the fields by the presence of a crack. Remember that because the current flows in a thin skin the current will only be disturbed by surface breaking defects. Figure 8 shows the way that a uniform electric current flows around a surface breaking crack and the shape of the resultant magnetic field.

Figure 8. Electric current flow and resultant magnetic field around a crack. Current flowing near to the crack ends will try to flow around the crack ends, which will cause a slight ‘bunching’ of the current, flow lines and, more importantly, a curvature in the lines. This can be seen in Figure 8. In the centre of the crack the current will flow down one crack face and back up the other side with the result that the current density will be reduced on the surface, with no curvature of the flowlines. Let us now look at how the Bx and Bz components of the magnetic field would change if an appropriate sensor were moved along the length of the crack.

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Figure 9. X - section to show how Bx and Bz vary along the length of a crack. With reference to Figure 9 it can be seen that away from the cracks the Bx is at a certain background level and Bz is zero. As one end of the crack is approached the Bz shows a peak, which corresponds, to the current curving around the crack end and Bx shows a small rise in accordance with the bunching of the current at the crack end. In the centre of the crack the Bz drops back to zero and the Bx drops into a trough as the current density on the surface decreases. The drop in Bx is related to the crack depth. A similar indication occurs at the other crack end: Bz shows a trough as the current curves in the opposite direction around the crack end and Bx peaks slightly then returns back to the normal background level. The ACFM software displays the Bx and Bz traces as shown above which produce the characteristic signals shown in Figure 9 when a crack is encountered. The Butterfly Plot As well as using the Bx and Bz signals the ACFM software also uses another display called the butterfly plot. This is simply an X-Y graph with Bx plotted along the Y-axis and Bz plotted along the (negative) X-axis as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. The Butterfly plot

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When no cracks are present the butterfly display will show a slightly moving spot. When a crack is encountered the responses in Bx and Bz are combined in the butterfly to produce a loop, as shown above. This loop is a very useful display as other disturbances in the Bx and Bz plots due to lift off or other geometric changes usually give very different plots than a crack. Summary The main points to remember about ACFM theory are: AC Current is induced into the test piece such that the current runs orthogonal to the expected crack direction The current flows in a thin skin on the surface of the material The technique is sensitive to surface breaking defects The Bx and Bz components of the magnetic field above the surface of the specimen are measured Bx is sensitive to defect depth Bz is sensitive to defect length A defect will normally produce a dip in Bx, a peak-trough pair in Bz and a loop in the butterfly plot.

Benefits and limitations
General benefits 1. Works through paint and scale – reduced cleaning. 2. Full records of all data – irrespective of whether a defect is called. 3. Data available for review by another operator. 4. Easily deployed by a two-man team or singly. 5. Operates at high and low temperatures. 6. No requirement for area to be visible, providing access is available for probe. 7. Detection and sizing in one instrument. 8. No calibration – less room for operator error. 9. Can be used for detection and sizing on many materials, e.g. Aluminium, stainless steel, titanium. (Note that correction factors are needed).

These can be overcome by appropriate probe choice. Sensitivity reduces with increasing coating thickness. Sub surface defects may be detectable depending on the skin depth. however the predicted response can be difficult to quantify. such as plate edges. Sizing models for carbon steels may need modifying depending on skin depth. AMIGO system and one-man inspection of coated pipework . Scanning direction should take account of expected defect orientation. Most in air manual weld inspection is carried out with the new AMIGO instrument. Carbon steel 1. General 1. but in a smaller. 2. Figure 11. and with the added benefits of a longer battery life and support for simple array probes. The AMIGO has all the advantages of ACFM inspection available on other TSC instruments. 2. 3.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 154 Limitations As with any NDT technique. Depth sizing models are for isolated semi elliptical flaws Non magnetic materials 1. Some probes are sensitive to gross geometry changes. lighter package. General applications Manual weld inspection ACFM is extensively used for the inspection of welded connections in a wide range of industries. 2. ACFM does have some limitations to its use. Sensitive to surface breaking flaws only.

the U9 is still capable of manual probe ACFM inspections. General inspections with manual probes can usually last a full 12-hour shift. Capable of inspection through thin metallic coatings. At least 6-hour operation on one fully charged battery pack. Figure 12.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 155 The system provides: Rapid scanning using a hand-held probe. IP54 rated. Windows software for ease of operation and compatibility with other Windows applications. Inspection of pressure vessel using U9 . Reduced cleaning requirements with no need to clean to bare metal. Probes with embedded serial numbers to simplify operation. Although significantly larger and heavier than the AMIGO. Dual frequency option 5kHz (for optimum performance on ferritic steel). Full data storage for back-up. although it does not support arrays. Reliable crack detection and sizing (length and depth). 50kHz (for improved sensitivity on non-ferrous metals). or through non-conducting coatings several millimetres thick. Access to a wide range of geometries using TSC’s new range of active topside probes. Buttons for RUN / STOP and MARKERS on instrument and larger probes to allow one-man operation in difficult access areas. off-line view and audit purposes. and easy exchange of battery packs in the field. Still in the field is the previous model U9 Crack Microgauge. Rugged site unit.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 156 A summary of common industries and typical applications is shown below. In this way it is not necessary to have skilled inspectors who are also skilled divers or climbers. Some of the work involves the use of 2 man teams. The butterfly plot removes the effect of non-uniform probe movement to allow reliable use of non-inspectors as access providers. Figure 13. including rope access specialists. . With 2 man operations ACFM allows the probe pusher to be remote from the inspector. Two-man operation using rope access.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 157 The use of rope access avoids the need for scaffolding. Sub-sea inspection The same principals of 2-man operation are used for sub-sea inspections. The use of ACFM avoids the need for paint removal and re-application. Sub-sea schematic . Figure 14. The operator remains on the surface and the diver deploys the probe. Good audio communications are essential with good helmet mounted camera views required in most cases.

195”) to 350mm (13. especially when the crack site is only visible using mirrors. titanium and other electrically conducting materials. A typical manual inspection system is shown below. Materials that can be inspected include ferritic steels. Sizes outside this range are also possible.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 158 Figure 15. Hand deployed probes are available for detection and crack depth sizing. stainless steels. The ACFM technique has successfully been used for thread inspection over a wide range of thread types. inconel. The use of MPI and penetrants requires high levels of cleaning and in fact highly skilled operators. Threads ranging from 5mm (0. ACFM can inspect through coatings or partially cleaned threads. Special purpose automated systems are also available and can be customised to suit particular customer requirements. The U21 Underwater Crack Microgauge and its use for node inspection Automated and semi automated weld inspection (Information available on request) Elevated temperature inspection (Information available on request) Thread inspection The inspection of threads can be difficult with conventional inspection methods particularly with the female component.65”) diameter have been successfully inspected in either parallel or taper configuration. .

ACFM is now being applied to the inspection of drill strings. bolts and casings. by simply changing probes. Simple handling systems can be produced to allow the inspection of bolts or studs. bores etc. . This same instrument can be used for inspecting welds. For thread inspection. mud motors. manually deployed probes are available for use with TSC’s standard ACFM instrument (the Crack Microgauge).Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 159 Figure 16 Manual thread probe In the oil and gas industry.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 160 Figure 17. and was first used offshore (by Shell) in 1998. Figure 18. Titanium stud inspection rig In some situations it is desirable to reduce the reliance on skilled operators to reduce costs and increase reliability. The ATI system and deployed pin probe . Statoil and OSO have supported ATI developments. Shell. The ATI system is available for inspection of a wide range of standard oilfield threads. For drill string thread inspection. BP. both API and proprietary designs. The ATI system has successfully gone through field trials. TSC have developed an automated thread inspection system known as ATI. ATI provides simple PASS/FAIL reporting and removes the requirement for a skilled operator to make the initial interpretation of the data. British Gas.

Table 1. In most cases typical defect signals are shown along with pictures showing the component or deployment method. is the inability to model the current flow in a general way. The use in ACFM of passive sensor coils separate to the excitation field also makes it much easier to build array probes than with conventional eddy currents. This results in a very sensitive detection capability. making it necessary to use calibration techniques for sizing.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 161 Application examples The following pagescontain pictures of ACFM being used for several different application areas. The non-uniform nature of the current also limits its sensitivity to deep defects because the current does not flow to the bottom. but also makes the technique prone to strong lift-off signals and signals due to material property changes. The most important consequence. A summary of the differences between ACFM and conventional EC is given in Table 1. Comparison of ACFM Comparison with eddy current The main rival to ACFM as far as detecting and sizing surface breaking defects is concerned is the Eddy Current (EC) technique. Summary Of differences between ACFM and eddy currents . The main drawbacks of EC arise from the use of a compact circular excitation current. ACFM array probes with up to 192 sensors have been built using a single large-scale excitation field. however.

it is simply to confirm an indication found by ACFM. where ACFM has been adopted. is commonly used for surface breaking crack detection both topside and subsea. Therefore in order to ascertain depth an alternative technique.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 162 Comparison with MPI For ferritic components. MPI. Summary of differences between ACFM and MPI . Increasingly. if MPI is used at all. Table 2. The technique requires removal of coatings and cleaning to bright metal. Magnetic Particle Inspection. A visual indication of defect location and length are produced using either black or UV ink. ACFM can detect surface breaking cracks without the need for extensive cleaning or coating removal and provides crack depth and length information. needs to be employed before a decision can be made. In many situations it is the depth of a defect and not its length that determine its importance in terms of structural integrity. such as ultrasonics or ACPD.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 163 ACFM examples .

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Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 165 .

heliumspectrometer. Tracergas methods Halogen leak detector is a detector that responds to halogen tracer gases.g. The ultrasonic energy is normally converted to an audible frequency in the instrument. Leak testing should follow a pattern. Registration of smaller defects requires low background noise. Acoustical method An ultrasonic instrument will detect ultrasonic energy produced in a turbulent flow of gas through an orifice. bubble test. Liquid penetrants: Leaks may be detected visually by use of fluorescent or coloured liquids. Radiographic method If a shortlived radioactive isotope is injected into the system. cost and reliability of the test. Higher sensitivity (up to 1 O-7 .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 166 Other NDT Methods Leak testing Selection of System: For leak testing it is important to choose the correct method in order to optimize sensitivity. ultrasonic.25 mm can usually be detected by this method. The pressure drop from inside to outside of a weld may be established by either a vacuum box or by preation of the enclosure. A vacuum system can be filled or pressurized with tracer gas. Defects down to 0. (Apply penetrant on one side and inspect on opposite side). Visible methods Bubble test: A leak in a gascontaining enclosure may be indicated by the formation of buobles in a soapsolution at the leak. Leakage is registered using a sampling probe on the outside of the pressurized system. leakages may be detected by radiation monitors. e. A rough method should be followed by a more sensitive one.

Limitations The surface emissivity of the material is to be known. houses. Glass. as a survey of refineries. Procedure: Grinding and mechanical polishing . Readouts may be presented: in digital form as line graphs on black-gray-white or colour screens Thermographic inspection may be used for detection of heat leakage. however. may be detected. Advantages Some advantages of noncontact thermographic methods are: the thermal output may be detected remotely the thermal pattern is not disturbed by the instrument inaccessible or difficult regions can be monitored. Thermographic inspection A number of devices respond to the temperature radiated by an object at a temperature above absolute zero and convert it to a proportional electric signal. This is the most applicable and reliable instrument for leak testing. e.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 167 torr 1/sec. Plastic replica method The plastic replica method is mainly used where it is desirable to study the object in a microscope or a scanning electron microscope. and is used with the sampling probe either inside or outside the vacuum system. In certain temperature ranges temperature differences as small as 0.) is achieved by placing a sampling probe in a vacuum system and applying tracergass from outside. A leakage rate of 1 0-11 torr 1/sec. water vapor and carbon dioxide may disturbe the detection. the object can be left undamaged. plastic.2° C may be measured. provided there is a clear view between the sensor and the area to be measured measurements may be made rapidly and accurately. cars etc. Helium leak detector is a helium mass spectrometer responding only to helium.oil installations.g. By using the plastic replica method.

after heat treatment of materials. Necessary pressure may be provided either through a hydrotest or by raising the pressure of the liquid in the system. e.g.g.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 168 Electrolytic polishing Etching Applying plastic Examination of the removed plastic replica by microscope Applications: Examination of the microstructure of a material. plastic. Surfaces may be studied for damages like wear. By measuring the relative arrival times for an acoustic signal from a crack at 3 or 4 transducers at different positions it is possible to determine the location of the source of the signal. Detection of surface cracks (e. Acoustic emission Acoustic emission may be used for either continuous monitoring or during proof testing. In this way the shut-down costs can be reduced. fracture etc. Limitations The main disadvantages of the acoustic emission method are: high costs due to advanced equipment and experienced personnel. running hot cracks in crankshafts). Acoustic emission as an instrumentation technique relies on the detection of acoustic signals emitted from a growing crack or similar defect. difficulty in interpretation of results. which are difficult to find by any of the traditional NDT methods. Areas or regions with a high concentration of detected acoustic signals will indicate ‘an active’ defect and can be identified for further inspection by other NDT methods. . Advantages Acoustic emission may be used in connection with full scale pressure testing of tanks or containers of different materials such as wood. pittings. concrete or metals. fiberglass. databank needed for testing of different materials.

you must evaluate it on real cracks . .i. cracks must be grouped together in a certain size range POD can be referred to crack length or depth .and on how defect severity relates to the different dimension of a crack Probability of Detection Provides a basis on which to compare inspection methods The terms is much abused! In order to compare techniques the techniques must be evaluated in the same trial using the same samples The POD performance only relates to the trial in which it was derived Conducting a POD trial The defects must be real.e. If you want to know how good a technique is at detecting cracks.not artificial defects or slots The samples must be representative of the components to be inspected in the field (shape size and material properties) There must be sufficient numbers of defects to make the trial representative .how relevant this is depends on the inspection technique and how it works.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 169 Probability of detection (POD) Inspection reliability The reliability of the inspection process relies on : Capability of the actual technique Degree of reliance on operator skill Inspection procedures used Auditability What is POD? In its simplest form POD is a percentage of cracks detected However in practice this must refer to cracks of a particular size .

and detection should improve with crack size! The ICON Project ICON was a major European project conducted to evaluate the performance of Offshore NDT Equipment The trials were conducted in 3 countries using a ‘library’ of fatigue cracked welded tubular connections (mainly nodes) The results provide POD data for a range of underwater equipment . or a curve fitted to the points The data points are calculated on the basis of number of defects detected expressed as a % of defects that could have been detected The resulting point estimate of POD is an experimental POD Typical POD ‘Curve’ Ideally the curve should show a rapid change from low detection to high over a small size range .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 170 POD Trials In practice this means : You cannot do trials on slots and relate that to real inspection in the field You cannot rely on repeat inspections of the same crack The way in which the POD is reported must refer to the way in which the trial was conducted Presentation of POD POD is often presented as a POD curve This curve is either nothing more than a series of individual data points.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 171 Plotting of POD in the ICON Trials ICON POD Data Comparison of different electromagnetic NDT techniques used above water and MT(MPI) used underwater (controlled working conditions) .

But . In practice this is rarely done and the sample defects are characterised .ideally all defects must be destructively sectioned in order to allow a comparison of the trial result with the ‘real’ answer.if the operator expects to find a defect in every sample he will try harder . may be bad .how do you know what you have really got!!! Considerations for POD Trials Characterisation of defects .may be good.with NDT! Keeping operator expectation low .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 172 ICON POD Data Comparison of different electromagnetic NDT techniques used underwater and MT (MPI) used underwater (real subsea working conditions) Limitations of POD POD does not take account of false calls POD derived in a lab trial probably provides an optimistic assessment of what can be achieved in the field If you set up a POD trial properly you need a large number of real cracks in real samples .

. Thus a large number of cracks are required. then maybe one or more defects would be missed To account for this. if an operator said everything was cracked.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 173 Spurious calls Increasing sensitivity can lead to high numbers of false calls POD does not take account of false calls In the extreme. if the group were larger. this could be interpreted in terms of POD as a good result . In fact this is little more than a data point plotting % POD against % false calls Statistical treatment of POD data POD trials give Experimental POD results If all defects in a group are found. This is referred to as the 90/95% POD and cannot be achieved with less than 29 cracks in a size group. binomial statistics are usually employed Binomial Statistics Binomial statistics introduce the concept of Confidence Levels If there are 29 cracks in a POD trial and all of them are found (100% experimental POD). binomial statistics gives a 90% POD with 95% Confidence for the same data. then the experimental POD for that group is 100% However.all areas known to contain cracks were reported as cracked! It is therefore necessary to consider false calls along with POD One way of considering this is using ‘Reliability Operating Characteristics’ ROC. statisticians will argue that just because all the defects in a group were found.

Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 174 POD Trial Samples .

Below some of the best known is listed: ASNT American Society for Non-Destructive Testing CSWIP Certification Scheme for Weldment Inspection Personnel. The ASNT system has also been adopted by inspection companies and is often referred to by other certifying bodies. The ASNT model is therefore described in more detail below.General Principles ISO 9712:1999 Non-destructive testing – Qualification and Certification of Personnel’ PCN Personnel Certification in Non-Destructive Testing. Different organisations and countries have established their certification schemes. Such a certificate may be limited to specific NDT methods and/or materials. welding etc. The ASNT-scheme has three levels: A Level 1 NDT operator shall be qualified. United Kingdom EN 473:2000 Qualification and Certification of Non-Destructive Personnel . The aim of a certification system is to guarantee that the operator is experienced and has the necessary qualifications to perform NDT. 1A (1996)) The ASNT scheme for certification of NDT personnel is basically a system that may be adopted by a company when establishing an internal inspection system. .Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 175 Certification schemes Certification schemes for NDT personnel Most standards specifying NDT will require certification of NDT operators. United Kingdom Japanese Society for Non-Destructive Inspection NORDTEST Nordtest Scheme for Certification of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel American Society for Non-Destructive Testing ASNT (Reference document: SNT-TC. It is the duty of the surveyor to verify that the operator has the necessary qualifications and a valid NDT certificate for the actual testing to be carried out. to perform specific ND tests according to written instructions and to report the results. under the surveillance of a level II — NDT operator.

ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP) Revision 3 (November 1997) This document establishes the system for central certification of nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel administered and maintained by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT). A Level III NDT engineer shall be competent to perform training and examination of level I and II NDT personnel. He shall be able to prepare written instructions and to organise and report nondestructive tests. NDT engineers at level III are approved as such by appointment issued either by ASNT or by the company. Radiographic Testing. ASNT certificates are issued for level I and II for the following NDT-methods: Ultrasonic Testing. Liquid Penetrant Testing. He shall be familiar with the scope and limitations of NDT methods and be capable of guiding level I NDT operators. A level III NDT engineer will have several years’ experience in NDT and have a detailed knowledge of standards and specifications. The purpose of the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP) is to provide independent. transportable NDT certification by examination to promote national and international acceptance of NDT certification and reduce multiple audits of certification programs. standards and specifications. Magnetic Particle Inspection.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 176 A Level II NDT operator shall be qualified to calibrate instruments and evaluate results with respect to applicable codes. Categories of qualification are defined in terms of the skills and knowledge required in given method(s) to perform specified NDT activity(ies). . He shall be able to designate NDT methods and techniques to be applied for a given NDT problem. Eddy Current Testing Leakage Testing.

An ACCP Level I shall receive the necessary guidance or supervision from an ACCP Level II or ACCP Professional Level III or ASNT NDT Level III. and to prepare or approve procedures and instructions. and . to conduct tests. perform specific interpretations and evaluations for acceptance or rejection and document the results in accordance with instructions.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 177 ACCP Professional Level III: An ACCP Professional Level III shall have the skills and knowledge to establish techniques. and specifications. An ACCP Level II shall be capable of developing an instruction in conformance with a procedure. An ACCP Level II shall be able to organize and report NDT results. Certification shall be invalid if the: CMC finds after reviewing evidence that the individual has violated the applicable code of ethics. ACCP Level II: An ACCP Level II shall have the skills and knowledge to set up and calibrate equipment. An ACCP Professional Level III shall be capable of conducting or directing the training and examination of NDT personnel in the methods for which the ACCP Professional Level III is qualified. and when an individual performs work in an IS only if all examination(s) required for that work have been successfully completed and endorsement issued accordingly. Validity and Recertification Certification shall be valid: for a period not to exceed five years. An ACCP Professional Level III shall also have general familiarity with other NDT methods. at which point recertification is required in order to maintain certification. and to interpret. and product technology in order to establish techniques and to assist in establishing acceptance criteria when none are otherwise available. ACCP Level I: An ACCP Level I shall have the skills and knowledge to properly perform specific calibrations. and document results in accordance with procedures approved by an ACCP Professional Level III or ASNT NDT Level III. An ACCP Professional Level III shall have knowledge of materials. specific tests. standards. evaluate. An ACCP Level II shall be thoroughly familiar with the scope and limitations of the method to which certified and should be capable of directing the work of trainees and Level I personnel. to interpret codes. fabrication. to designate the particular technique to be used. and with prior written approval of an ACCP Professional Level III or ASNT NDT Level III.

castings and/or wrought liquid penetrant testing. Note A significant interruption of continued satisfactory work activity occurs when the period of interruption is: greater than the sum of an individual’s NDT experience at all levels of qualification in the method. The document prescribes procedures by which personnel may be examined and. Recertification Recertification is required in order to: extend certification after the specified period of validity.8) shall expire when employment is terminated. With this document visit ASNT homepage on Internet for more information about certification http://www. and maintain certification after a significant interruption of continued satisfactory work activity in that NDT method or IS for which certification is held.htm Document No. but greater than 36 of the last 60 months. Employer authorization (see 2. radiographic testing and/or radiographic interpretation and eddy current testing as applied to welded joints. if successful. magnetic testing.1.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 178 individual does not satisfy the annual near-distance vision examination requirement in 7. Failure to comply with this vision requirement may cause revocation of ACCP certification.9.asnt. but greater than 12 of the last 24 months. certified for ultrasonic testing. CSWIP-ISO-NDT-11/93-R Requirements for the Certification of Personnel Engaged in Non-Destructive Testing 3rd Edition September 2001 The CSWIP is a British certification system covering application on welding of the NDT methods. . visual and optical testing. or less than the sum of an individual’s NDT experience at all levels of qualification. or less than the sum of an individual’s NDT experience at all levels of qualification.

casings and/or wrought components) Job specific (practical related to the special needs of an individual employer) – the examination is conducted by the employer. The certification system comprises three parts: General (theory and practical common to all applications of a particular method of NDT) Sector specific (theory and practical for the method related to a specific application – in the present case this is welds made by conventional fusion welding processes. The majority of users of independent certification find the general and sector specific examinations sufficient for their needs. or under the control of. an Examining Body authorised by TWI Certification Ltd. Great Abington. UK Telephone: +44 (0) 1223 891162 Telefax: +44 (0) 1223 894219 Email: twicertification@twi. The examination is designed to test the candidate’s grasp of the subject and his/her understanding of the operations he/she performs. The specialist user may add job specific examinations related to his/her own particular needs.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 179 The requirements for examination contact: TWI Certification Ltd Granta . as a minimum in compliance with ISO 9712 (1999) and EN 473 (1993). Cambridge CB1 6AL. castings and wrought products and to provide industry with an assured minimum standard of proficiency. and do not require job specific examinations. The present requirements are intended to meet the majority of users’ needs for the practical non-destructive testing of General and sector specific examinations are conducted by.twi. examination format and the rules governing certificate validity and renewal are. Visit CSWIP’s homepage on Internet for more information about certification http://www. The examination procedure involves written and practical

The certification body shall fulfil the requirements of EN 45013. Leak testing ( hydraulic pressure tests excluded) 4. Penetrant testing 6. Level 2 An individual certificated to Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform non destructive testing according to established or recognised procedures. Within the scope . Acoustic emission testing 2. Perform the test. Eddy current testing 3. Ultrasonic testing 8. level 1 personnel may be authorised to: Set up NDT equipment. Record and classify the results of the tests in terms of written criteria.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 180 EN 473:2000 Qualification and Certification of NonDestructive Personnel — General Principles This certification standard covers proficiency in one or more of the following methods: 1. Visual testing The system described in this standard can also apply to other NDT methods provided an approved programme of certification exists. Radiographic testing 7. Levels of qualification Level 1 An individual certificated to Level 1 has demonstrated competence to carry out NDT according to written instructions and under the supervision of level 2 or 3 personnel. Magnetic particle testing 5. Report the results. Level 1 certificated personnel shall not be responsible for the choice of test method or technique to be used. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate. nor for the assessment of the test results.

Designate the particular test methods. Set up and verify equipment settings. Level 3 An individual certificated to Level 3 has demonstrated competence to perform and direct non destructive testing operations for which he is certificated. The initial period of validity shall commence when all of the requirements for certification (training. success in examination and satisfactory vision test) are fulfilled. . Prepare written NDT instructions. Define the limitations of application of the testing method. specifications and procedures. e. codes or specifications. experience. Translate NDT standards and specifications into NDT instructions. Carry out and to supervise all level 1 duties. Carry out and to supervise all level 1 and 2 duties. procedures and NDT instructions to be used.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 181 of the competence defined on the certificate.g. level 2 personnel may be authorised to: Select the NDT technique for the test method to be used. Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards. after reviewing evidence of unethical behaviour incompatible with the certification proceduresIf the individual becomes physically incapable of performing his duties based upon failure of the visual acuity examination taken annually under the responsibility of his employer If a significant interruption takes place in the method for which the individual is certificated. Perform and supervise tests. Validity The maximum period of validity of the certificate is five years. Certification shall become invalid: At the option of the certification body. codes. An individual certificated to level 3 may: Assume full responsibility for a test facility or examination centre and staff. Establish and validate NDT instructions and procedures. Interpret standards.

for the certification competence of NDT personnel. castings and wrought products) railway TWI offers PCN examinations at permanent locations in the UK and overseas and periodically at additional locations according to demand. a PCN approved course of structured training to the relevant PCN syllabus and satisfy relevant work experience requirements in accordance with document 'PCN/GEN Issue 3'. however this ISO standard has less specific requirement to practical examination compared to EN 473:2000 and the Nordtest scheme ISO 9712:1999 is more or less equivalent to EN 473:1993 Personnel Certification in Non-Destructive Testing (PCN) United Kingdom – PCN Scheme The PCN scheme. The scheme offers three levels of certification specific to industry sectors and NDT methods. prior to making application for examination. Entry to PCN examinations require training and experience in accordance with published guidelines which are available free of charge on request from Customer Services. EN 473 and international standard ISO 9712. ISO 9712:1999 has 3 levels of qualification as described under EN473 and the certificates issued under this scheme has the same validity as certificates issued under EN 473. TWI Training & Examination Services. The scheme offers three levels of certification specific to industry sectors and NDT methods. candidates must have successfully completed. To be eligible for Level 1 and Level 2 examination. an internationally recognised scheme. by a central independent body of personnel to perform industrial non-destructive testing (NDT) using the NDT methods listed under EN 473 above.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 182 ISO 9712:1999 Non-Destructive Testing – Qualification and Certification of Personnel This International standard establishes a system for the qualification and certification. is accredited as meeting the requirements of European Standards EN 45013. . PCN certification is also available in a number of sectors: tube and pipe aerospace welds castings wrought products (forgings) general engineering products (includes welds.

ET. UM. For RT. PD.MY. For RT. ET. Doc. UT. MT. UT. PT. SM UM= Thickness measurement MY=Yoke type MT MC=Coil type MT PD=Normal PT PW=Water type PT English version NDIS 0601:2000 is not available. MT. Level 3 :Management level Prepare or approve of specification and procedure Evaluation and judgement of inspection results. SM Level 2 :Senior level Control of inspection process and prepare of test report Instruct to Level 1 operator For Japanese Scheme for Certification of NDT Personnel (Ref. please contact: Customer Services Tel: + 44 (0) 1223 891162 Fax: + 44 (0) 1223 891630 E-mail: PT. PW. ET. MY. Certificates PCN certificates are valid for a period of 5 years and can be renewed by examination or documentation. UT. ME. MC. PD. For further information. . NDIS 0601:2000) Latest document NDIS 0601:2000 is almost corresponding to ISO 9712 with three level qualification as below.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 183 To successfully complete examinations the candidate shall obtain a grade of at least 70% in each examination part and an overall composite grade (N) of at least 80%. SM Level 1 :NDI Operator level Inspection and prepare of inspection record.

The Nordtest scheme is meeting the requirements of European Standards EN 45013. . Fourth Edition 2001 -06) The Nordtest scheme for examination and certification of non-destructive testing personnel is the main scheme for certification of NDT personnel in the Nordic countries. Nordtest scheme provides more detailed requirement to the technical content.Course 30001 Reader: Non-destructive Testing Page 184 Nordtest Scheme for Examination and Certification of Non Destructive Testing Personnel (Nordtest Doc Gen 010. which assure a uniform performance of examinations and certifications. EN 473 and international standard ISO 9712. EN 473 includes general requirements related to examination and certification. principles for judgement or level of quality in the examination.

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NDT standards
The amount and type of NDT to be performed will often be specified by reference to a standard, code or guideline. The NDT programs may be specified at different levels: Laws and Regulations: Laws and regulations are issued by the authorities and are normally written in general terms. In some cases NDT programs may be specified. Typical references are Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD), US Coastguard, UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE), Marine Safety Arency (MSA) UK. EU Directives i.e. PED (Pressurised Equipment Directive). Standards and Codes: A standard is a document prepared by international or national standardization organizations. Examples are ISO (International Standardization Organization) and ANSI (American National Standards Institute). The term code may indicate the same level of recognition as a standard. An example is the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. EURO Norms (EN). Guidelines and Recommendations: Different international or national societies, organizations or bodies may issue guidelines, recommendations etc. concerning NDT. Guidelines etc. are publications giving practical information on specific items like for instance ‘Ultrasonic Inspection of Weld Connections’ issued by DNV (CL.No.7). Specification: A specification is a precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, pro-duct, system or service, indicating, whenever appropriate, the procedure by means of which it may be determined whether the requirements given are satisfied.

Current NDT standards etc
Below are listed some of the most applied standards and recommendations where NDT programs are specified:

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ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers has issued a ‘Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code’ containing 11 sections. The relevant sections are: Section V, Nondestructive Examination, which describes in detail the performance of NDT. Section VIII ‘Pressure Vessels’ describing NDT and acceptance criteria for such vessels. The ASME-code is extensively used throughout the world not only for pressure vessels but is often adopted for other structures. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials Standards are often referred to for radiography of steel castings. Corresponding standards exist for castings of aluminium, magnesium, tin, bronze and copper. IIW International Institute of Welding has established, as a recommendation, collections of reference radiographs of welds in steel and aluminium. In the past these collections were often referred to when specifying acceptance criteria of welds when radiographic methods were used. Nowadays, national or international standards are more commonly used. According to the IIW Reference Radiographs the types of defects are given by a lettering code and the quality of the radiographs by a colour code: black — blue — green — brown — red, where black is the best quality and red the poorest. Below is listed some typical standards, rules and guidelines often used in connection with NDT.

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