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SPEECH AND AUDIO CODECS

Presenter: Ronald Mulinde

Outline
Introduction to audio codecs.

Classification of audio codecs.

Performance evaluation of codecs.

Introduction.
Definition Codec = coder + decoder

A coder transforms input signals into a suitable

form for transmission or storage purposes, using as few bits as possible where as maintaining a perceptually acceptable quality after process decoding process.

Introduction

Requirements of a good codec.


Low bit rate. Good perceived quality.
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Types of audio codecs


Waveform Coders
Independent of the input signal type. In general they provide a good reconstruction

quality only in case of medium-high bit-rate


Example ADPCM a 32kbit/s
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Types of audio codecs


Source coders/vocoders

Based

on speech production and perception

models.
Allow one to obtain a decent quality even with very-

low bit-rates .
Example: Federal Standard LPC-10 Vocoder a 2.4

kbit/s

Types of audio codecs


Hybrid coders

These are definitely more complex techniques.


More effective at medium-low bit-rates. Example: RPE-LTP a 13 kbit/s used in the full-rate

GSM in 1990

Performance evaluation of audio codecs


Bit-rate (in general expressed in terms of kbit/s) Quality of decoded signals (subjective or objective

measures) MIPS)

Complexity of the algorithm (for instance, given in

Delay (algorithmic) introduced by coding+decoding

processes

Robustness

interferences

to

channel

transmission

errors,

to

Performance evaluation of audio codecs .

Performance evaluation of audio codecs


As subjective quality measure MOS (Mean Opinion Score)

DRT (Diagnostic Rhyme Test).


As objective measure: SNR, PESQ, or other distances
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SUBJECTIVE MEASURES (MOS)


Mean Opinion Score (MOS)

MOS scale 1. Bad 2. Poor 3. Fair 4. Good 5. Excellent

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Example using MOS


Comparison of PCM, ADM and DPCM based on the bit

rate.

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OBJECTIVE MEASURES
SNR long term, SEGSNR (short term), PESQ.

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THANK YOU

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