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robert cumming
Text previously published in ART: A Field Guide



Text previously published in Art: A Field Guide

Senior Art Editor Senior Editor Design assistance Editorial assistance Additional text contribution Picture Research DTP Production Managing Editor Managing Art Editor Executive Managing Editor Editorial Director Art Director Publisher Juliette Norsworthy Ferdie McDonald Peter Laws David John, Rob Houston Thomas Cussans Sarah Smithies, Celia Dearing, Carlo Ortu John Goldsmid Rita Sinha Debra Wolter Phil Ormerod Liz Wheeler Andrew Heritage Bryn Walls Jonathan Metcalf

at Studio Cactus

Design Editorial

Laura Watson, Dawn Terrey, Sharon Rudd, Peter Radcliffe Aaron Brown, Jennifer Close, Lorna Hankin, Clare Wallis

First published in 2005 by Dorling Kindersley Limited 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL Penguin Group First American Edition, 2005 Published in the United States by DK Publishing, Inc. 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 04 05 06 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Text © Robert Cumming 2005 All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Convention. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. ISBN 0 7566 1358 2 A CIP catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Color reproduction GRB, Italy Printed and bound in China by L Rex

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a Raphael.000? $1 million? $10 million? 4 Is it any good? And. OFTEN ON MY OWN. a Rembrandt. BUT PREFERABLY IN THE COMPANY OF OTHERS. My first job in the art world was at the Tate Gallery in London. I soon learned that four questions were asked over and over again: 1 What should I look for? What are the key features in a Picasso. as a new member of a small team whose task was to stand in front of the works on display and explain them to the public.10 I NTRODUCT I O N THIS BOOK HAS EVOLVED OVER MANY YEARS OF LOOKING AT WORKS OF ART. in front of a pile of bricks or an unmade bed. THE EYE IS THE SOVEREIGN OF THE SENSES. a Turner? 2 What is going on? What is the story? Who is Hercules? What is the Nativity? Who is that girl with a broken wheel? Who is the man abducting the woman who looks like a tree? Does that big red square mean anything? 3 What is its value? Am I looking at $10? $10. AND TO SHARE LOOKING IS ONE OF LIFE’S GREAT PLEASURES—IT INCREASES WITH AGE AND IS NOT CONFINED TO WORKS OF ART. am I being taken for a ride? .

The at art purely for pleasure. uninhibited History of Art (pages 44–477). or about and postures to specific issues (especially maintain. taken in 1994. the Hermitage. who work in it are “off duty. I have tried I understand the to capture that kind of pressures that impel involvement and to all these official art address the four basic institutions to maintain a questions I have listed party line. official messages. opinions than we do when “on duty. all with reputations work of art. and felt. teaching informed discussion or exchange of institutions. thought.I N T RO DUCT I O N 11 I also found that most of my audience The present-day art world is a huge seemed to enjoy getting involved in an industry of museums. Petersburg This photograph. commercial operations. opinions about a particular and official bodies. In this book. but in the face above. Also.” looking In the main section of the book. .” but are held in museum archives around the world. gives some idea of the sometimes much more interesting— vast quantities of works of art that are not on display. I have been of all that vested selfPOSTER FOR MIRÓ EXHIBITION part of the art world long interest there is a need for enough to know that when those of us a no-nonsense alternative voice. we often voice different—and Hidden treasures. They are often provocative or controversial desperate to convince us ones) and about what they of the validity of their saw. St. you will by the need to maintain professional credibility.


May 2005 . I would like to thank Duncan Hislop of Art Sales Index Ltd. smile too. and have pleasure in searching for. the Louvre created a special gallery costing over $6 million. TW20 9LF. but I have tried to pick out qualities that anyone with a pair of eyes can see. Private Collection. for his generous help in providing the information on prices. My observations are entirely personal. UK Viewing the Mona Lisa in her new setting To allow more people to see the world’s most famous painting. You will see that a record price is not given for all artists. silk screen. In fact. 54 Station Road. the time. Works by many of the old masters rarely come onto the market because most now are in public collections. the price paid has been converted at the exchange rate at Twenty Marilyns Andy Warhol. prices for works of art have escalated and are now greater than at any other time in history. In these I have indicated characteristics to serve as a guideline when looking at their works. The actual price paid by the successful bidder will be increased by the addition of a premium charged by the auction house (the amount varies between auction houses). and. cause you to stop. better to say too little rather than too much. at least in note form. it will provoke you. Surrey. (www. rather than what you are told and make you go back to a painting or sculpture and see aspects of it you had not perceived before. that is the value called out at auction when the item is “knocked down” to the bidder. In such a situation it is. If it fulfills its goals. both in absolute terms and comparatively.I N TRO DUCT I O N 13 find painters and so as to allow those who are with me to make their own discoveries and connections. ROBERT CUMMING London. from the early Renaissance onward. Egham. All prices are “hammer” prices. which opened in April 2005. nearly everything I have written in this book is what I would say if we were standing in front of a work of art. Where the sale was made in another make you question your own opinions. some are ridiculously overpriced. I have included record prices paid for works by each artist because what people pay for works of art is fascinating. and some wonderful works of art are almost given away because they are out of fashion or overlooked. Some works are worth every penny of the vast sums of money paid for them. 1962. while looking at the works of art. My first wish is to increase the pleasure you get when looking at a work of art. Since the 1960s. an entertaining and practical aid for looking at art. Prices are given in US dollars. It should also encourage you to believe what you see. Most of the entries were written. arranged as separate entries. I hope.. I hope this book will prove to be a friendly companion. I think. with no allowance for inflation. think.




starving in an unheated garret. It is possible to pinpoint three turning points when the role of the artist and his and her Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View Cornelia Parker. It suited both artist and patron and endured right up to the end of the 19th century. a footnote in art history rather than a chapter. M ost artists are skilled in their trade. Their activities were supported and regulated by a professional body or guild. The reality is much more prosaic. professional. neglected genius is attractive but misleading. and aware of their business potential. The image of the artist as a lonely.W H AT I S A RT ? 17 WHAT IS ART ? Very few artists fit the stereotype of suffering for their art. At the beginning of the 16th century. and sometimes even acting as diplomats and courtiers. It allowed artists to play the fullest possible role in society. Cornelia Parker is one of the current stars specializing in installations for museum settings. 1991. not unlike a modern architectural practice. In Ancient. well-organized studios with assistants. or a corporate organization. Leonardo da Vinci argued that the artist should be treated as the social and intellectual equal of aristocrats and scholars. London: Tate Modern. In the art history of the future. Much more common is the artist who attracts lavish praise and recognition in his or her lifetime only to sink into irrecoverable obscurity. and the majestic flowering of their art proves how successful they were in establishing this role. becoming the confidants of kings and popes. producing one unrecognized masterpiece after another. THE ARTIST THROUGH HISTORY This is not to say that the role of the artist does not change. hard-working. the Church. mixed media. and Medieval times. . will she merit a chapter or just a footnote? relationship with the rest of society altered significantly. The artist whose talent goes unrecognized in his or her lifetime is rare. often running busy. and finally achieving recognition on their deathbed. The great artists of the High Renaissance shared this aspiration. artists were essentially skilled craftsmen working for an employer such as a monarch. Classical.

. The idea was potent. by Freudian analysis. oil on canvas. the equal of kings. free of all normal social conventions and at liberty to set his or her own rules. Gustave Courbet. but it was in decline. The change was most forcibly expounded by the radical French painter. The French Revolution of 1789 ushered in profound political and social changes. with its admiration for antiquity and disciplined professional training. and led to a rare chapter in the history of art in which the prime motivation Andy Warhol and friends In the 1960s Warhol commented on his era through images of products such as CocaCola and iconic figures such as Marilyn Monroe.RADICAL CHANGE Francis I Receives the Last Breaths of Leonardo da Vinci Ingres. With a new sense of individual liberty in the air. continued to flourish alongside Romanticism. Ingres. The Romantic spirit exploited this freedom to express individual emotions. 1818. Paris: Musée du Petit-Palais. It was a necessary condition for the development of Modern Art. for example. particularly to the disaffected young. and to create art about personal experiences. a painter firmly in the Classical tradition of the Renaissance. This spirit of independence led to a turning point in the second half of the 19th century. who argued that the true artist should be an outsider to the rest of society. The Classical tradition. presents the image of the artist as intellectual giant. and to a new role for the artist. The privileged world of monarchy and aristocracy began to wane. many of whom wished to establish a new art that would address issues at the heart of industrial society and the new awareness of human relationships and emotions that were revealed. art attracted new personalities who previously would have ignored an artistic life. In the 1970s his art increasingly featured images of himself and his followers.

you can artist to create a work from scratch. The artist today is often a successful businessman or woman (in itself not that new a concept) selling to institutions or private clients such as large corporations or internet millionaires. delegating unattractive. by and large. the physical manufacture artists to share in the or assembly of components to material benefits of the postwar era select subcontractors. A recent refinement is the artist’s assumption THE ARTIST TODAY of a managerial role— The most recent turning where the artist does not point occurred in the create a work of art in 1960s and the most the traditional manner. and then the artist as penniless establishment hated Courbet manages it as a project reformer outdated and because of his radical political or installation. articulate advocate for but promotes an idea another role for the artist or concept. professional advancement.W H AT I S A RT ? 19 of the artist was not widespread recognition. who collaboration with other found the image of Caricature of Gustave Courbet 1868. embraced Warhol’s ideas with . The French art creatives. and argued that they should have a role in society akin to that of Madison Avenue advertising executives or PATRONS AND PATRONAGE businessmen. enthusiasm. or social success. see that they have. but a desire to reform society and human relationships and literally to change the way we see the world. He wanted and aesthetic doctrines. If you look at the A patron is someone who provides the lifestyle and careers of most young necessary financial assistance for an artists born since the 1960s. riches. often in was Andy Warhol.

Many of today’s COLLECTORS AND DEALERS famous firms were founded then. Cosimo was also this tradition continued influenced by his love even into the 20th of antiquity. but the golden age for the . Collecting is thus and imaginative patron an aspect of that concept was immense. sold by dealers to private clients. dealer was the 19th century and the early 20th century. he discovered how prestige. and have eventually come If one had to . were torn from their original the past as well as that of living artists. could of today’s art market was established never have created their masterpieces then. and Collecting works of art without many great works of art. a particular setting in a church or It presupposes collecting the art of palace. context. and the Romans had been political power. such as 17th century. of Cosimo’s self-image as a noble to promote its influence. Any selfof individual personality respecting monarch was which lies at the heart now expected to be a of much Western art and patron of the arts.20 W H AT I S A RT ? In the early Renaissance. The passionate collectors and Church employed art in a Cosimo I de’ Medici Baccio bought and sold works similar way to spread the Bandinelli. credibility. dealers. and thought. Much of the framework Michelangelo and Rubens. Church was the essential framework Cosimo used art to consolidate within which an artist was commercial and political power. Seeking to century. marble relief. and but he also collected for the influence of a creative pleasure. Europe’s rulers emulate the ambitions consciously used works of Classical Greece and of art to increase their Rome. and auctioneers Roman in the mold of Caesar. obliged to operate. A reflection Christian message and Private collectors. Museo del Bargello. Without such patronage. Florence: of art at auction. the patronage nominate a godfather figure it could of one of the noble courts or the be Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519–74). intended for patronage is a different matter. flourished in the new the great artists of the Renaissance mercantile Dutch Republic in the and the 17th century.

modern art dealers became a necessary intermediary between the artist and collector. 2002 Pierre-Auguste Renoir Massacre of the Innocents $68m. FILLING SPACE Very few works of art change the world or the way we see it. The reality is that most art does little more than fill a space. 2004 Pablo Picasso Portrait of Dr. rather than one shared by. and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler.4m.8m. 1999 Raphael Interchange $18. such as Paul Durand-Ruel.W H AT I S A RT ? 21 DEALERS In the late 19th century.” Such patronage created an industry to supply art for his palaces. Parisian art dealer Ambroise Vollard Vollard (1866–1939) championed the great painters of the Post-Impressionist era. as the artist found greater freedom to express a private vision. . without the courage of a few adventurous dealers. for once they enter a public collection. Versailles. the rise of the international auction house since the 1960s and the buying and selling of works of art in full public view. cruchon et compotier $55m. major works of art now command more money than ever before. and would have lacked a valuable source of intellectual and moral encouragement. a patron. the Impressionists and great masters of Modernism would have found it impossible to survive economically. organizing the first one-man shows by Cézanne. gilded lead. 1670. This is not a criticism. And it is also because rich people are prepared to go to almost any lengths to obtain the rarest of the rare. Matisse. In relative and absolute terms. to grace the National Galleries of the world. This is partly because of their increasing scarcity in the market place. Gachet $75m. The art market used to be rather secretive. Other dealers effectively acted as patrons for young artists. Garçon à la pipe $93m. Indeed. for RECORD PRICES FOR ARTISTS’ WORK The figures given here are the prices paid at the time (in US dollars) with no account taken of subsequent inflation. and Picasso. 1999 Paul Cézanne Portrait of Cosimo I de’ Medici $32m. 1989 Jacopo Pontormo Madonna of the Pinks $39. 1989 Willem de Kooning Record auction price for a living artist’s work Fountain of Apollo Jean-Baptiste Tuby. 2002 Sir Peter Paul Rubens Rideau. However. Ambroise Vollard. it is most improbable that they will come back on the market. 1990 Vincent Van Gogh Au Moulin de la Galette $71m. Louis XIV commissioned statuary glorifying himself as the “Sun King. has fueled popular interest in recordbreaking prices. or demanded by.

Robert was curator of the collection. appearance—are influenced by the spaces they are expected to fill. The monarchs of the 17th century quite literally created industries to produce works of art to fill their vast palaces. revered as icons of art history. 1434. Eighteenth-century Britain created yet another new space. it is possible to fill a space very well. paradoxically. in the secular public spaces of galleries. making a tour of churches. Paris: Musée du Louvre. enhancing life with beauty and style. Altarpieces of this high quality were rarities even in Renaissance Florence. which opened to the public in 1793. 1796. Dutch Republic had different spaces to fill. portraits. tempera and gold on panel. But a visitor to Italy. c. 69 1/4 x 72 3/4 in (176 x 185 cm). style. Wealthy merchants wanted to fill their townhouses with images of their newfound political freedom and prosperity— small-scale. domestic genre scenes. the newly established Grand Gallery of the Louvre Hubert Robert. They required large sizes and complex mythological iconographies to proclaim their message of absolute temporal authority. and quantities of altarpieces were required to fill them. GALLERIES AND ACADEMIES The idea of a National Gallery—a public space containing works of art that somehow . The characteristic public spaces of the Renaissance were churches. the country house. 44 1/4 x 56 1/4 in (112. and still lives. the works of art of a period—their subject. By contrast. In addition to filling them with old art brought home from the Grand Tour. Florence: Museo di San Marco. The finest of these now reside. will soon suspect that such lifechanging icons are rare and that most Italian religious art does little more than fill spaces. meticulously crafted landscapes.Santa Trinità Altarpiece Fra Angelico. namely landscapes and portraits. Moreover. oil on canvas. owners filled them with the art of their own day which seemed to them most relevant and desirable.5 x 143 cm). size.

One of the unique characteristics of the art of the early Modern Movement is that it was not created to fill public spaces. began in 1764 as the private collection of Empress Catherine II National Gallery of Art. never the work of living artists. bequeathed to the city of Florence in 1737 Musée du Louvre Paris. ignored by private collectors. encouraged by his wife. Italy 1591 The Medici art collection. France 1793 Originally the gallery of the royal palace. Galleria degli Uffizi Florence. Madrid Spain’s national gallery of fine art opened to the public in 1819. such as Picasso. Their principal purpose was to change the way we see the world or to express a deep private personal sensibility. But these spaces held only historic art. Germany 1830 Originally the royal collection. in the last 50 years the idea has spread like wildfire. Today. but vacuous works of art created to fill their spaces.W H AT I S A RT ? 23 define a nation’s cultural identity— was a legacy of the Napoleonic era. These powerful institutions trained young artists and put on regular displays prepared by their members. England 1824 Moved in 1838 from its initial home in banker John Julius Angerstein’s house to a specially built gallery Gemäldegalerie Berlin. . when Ferdinand VII transferred the royal collection to a fine Neo-Classical building in the center of Madrid. Maria Isabel de Braganza National Gallery London. 1941 Specially built gallery designed by John Russell Pope Museo del Prado. Although their intentions were worthy. St. The idea of a public place dedicated to a permanent display of work by living artists and of “Modern Art” in particular was pioneered by MOMA in New York in 1929. in 1997 Hermitage Museum. Russia 1917 Declared a state museum in 1917. Madrid. never left the privacy of their studios. viewable on request from 1591. many of the avant-garde works of art produced by young artists. In the 19th century the major spaces for the display of contemporary art were controlled by the Academies. Museums dedicated to the display of Modern and contemporary GREAT ART GALLERIES Listed below are some of the world’s largest and most famous public collections of art. and with no museum willing to house them. after several name and location changes. the Academies became obsessed with rules and internal politics and this is reflected in the increasingly ostentatious. Not much imitated at first. finally reunited. opened to the public by the revolutionary government Museo del Prado. It was a rare and unusual interlude. Petersburg. filling spaces has returned as a dominant influence in contemporary art. Spain 1819 The creation of King Ferdinand VII. Washington. Detested by the Academies. DC.

so.” so these spaces require works that are “modern” and “contemporary. the spectacular museum of Modern and contemporary art designed by Frank Gehry has been the city of Bilbao’s main tourist attraction. AND CONNOISSEURS The natural habitat of the art historian is the library and archive. do the works of art.24 W H AT I S A RT ? art are now to be found in every city in the world. American Berenson (1865–1959) authenticated paintings for collectors and museums. and an enormous industry has grown to supply them. Just as churches required works that were identifiably “religious” and “Christian. they ART HISTORIANS. whose opinions are often still valid. the dealer’s gallery. the museum and the lecture hall. that of the art critic is the media. or in some long neglected attic.” which is often interpreted as shocking and provocative. . the studio and art school. As the spaces become larger and more architecturally spectacular. They have large spaces to fill. The connoisseur combines the best of the art historian and art critic with something extra—a discrimination and an instinctive eye for real quality plus a knowledge that comes from years of looking at works of art first hand. Critic and connoisseur Bernard Berenson An expert on Italian Renaissance art. CRITICS. Bilbao Since it opened in 1997. The connoisseur is likely to be found in the auction room. When Queen Victoria and Prince Albert wanted to develop their appreciation of art. All of which begs the questions: Guggenheim Museum. and the dinner table. in order not to be overwhelmed. Which came first? The altarpiece or the church? The museum of contemporary art or the installation? ART HISTORY There are many ways of looking at and talking about art.

fueled by the supremacy of art history. such as an exhibition. A fake is a work of art made or altered so as to appear better. But art history also has a downside. rigor. Christ in the House of Martha and Mary Jan Vermeer. art history can reduce even the greatest works of art to a tedious list of facts.W H AT I S A RT ? 25 FAKES AND FORGERIES There is a distinction between the two words. and technical ability. for example. There is a danger that one can become so obsessed by “history” that everything “old” comes to be blindly revered like the bones of long dead saints. It has brought discipline. Art has the ability to engage with individuals and create experiences that can range from tears to ecstasy. which is often heaped on it by curators and dealers. . The Dutch forger Han van Meegeren painted “Vermeers” that were authenticated by leading figures in the art world. ART CRITICISM Good art criticism respects facts and history but is principally concerned with value judgments. followed the fashion of their day and took drawing and painting lessons. Throughout history people have produced what they claim to be lost paintings by Leonardo or Vermeer. whether what happens today will have any significance in the longer term depends almost entirely on what happens tomorrow. At its worst. in any field of human endeavor. which they have created with great skill in their studios. It has rescued many reputations and even proved the existence of forgotten artists. to determine the true merit of what is being promoted. 1936–38. Such works are not fakes but forgeries. He produced The Disciples at Emmaus (left) c. oil on canvas. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland (above). intentions. Equally. and that is completely unpredictable and unknowable. Today they would sign up for an art history course. 63 x 56 in (160 x 142 cm). older. c. This is disingenuous since. in a historic display of art. the critic should examine the validity of the curator’s interpretation. For contemporary art the critic ought to cut through the lavish rhetoric. Art history as an academic subject effectively began in Germany at the end of the 19th century. asking whether the final outcome delivers what the artist has set out to do. It questions and probes an artist’s purpose. Works of art are not just historical documents. 1654–56. fake and forgery. to treat every new manifestation and star name instantly as historically significant. or other than what it is. and objectivity to a notoriously fuzzy topic. A forgery is something made in fraudulent imitation of another thing. Many reputations and much money ride on the current boom in contemporary art and there is a dangerous temptation.

individual technical skill. graceful style and dates back to when flawless technique perfectly artists were considered complement the qualities to be craftsmen. And there are those endowed with a depth of vision interesting second-rate artists who beyond the ordinary. is the belief the coveted rank of that art should express “master. but only an with the names of artists who have idea connects at a deeper level with been hailed as the “Michelangelo of the needs of others and can change our times. To masterpieces to be found after their stand out from the crowd requires deaths. style. Raphael’s term “masterpiece” harmonious. who were neglected patrons. Technical skill can word is overused. height 161 in (410 cm). a complete unity speak meaningfully between subject. collectors. works in which an artist is marble. It was he seeks to portray in his the piece the artist divine subject. Florence: Galleria accomplished technically. and who use THE MASTERPIECE .26 W H AT I S A RT ? manage to produce just one or two outstanding works worthy of the Is the idea of a “masterpiece” valid description “masterpiece. Only those between. Equally. the a commitment word lost this meaning to communicate and became attached that idea to others. dealers. and fellow artists. First.” today? The term implies excellence Taste and perception also change. presented to the guild to and equally familiar to prove his ability and gain Raphael. and the desirability of the pushing of Few would deny that for us. but very masterpiece? Perhaps there few have the power are two things to look to continue to for. to those outstanding all art. is confined to decoration range of his or her powers. Yet the and illustration. art in their lifetimes only for their institutions.” When the an idea greater than guild system became art itself. Second. however 1501–04. and the artist changed. Yet it suggests the identification of in his own lifetime. creation. and Botticelli’s Birth of Venus is one of the innovation to their limits. Ultimately early Renaissance masterpieces. David Michelangelo Buonarroti. ideas. are surprisingly few and far courage and individuality. Many works of art speak powerfully to the generation for HARMONY AND IDEAS which they were So what makes a created. and to subsequent technique.” but now barely merit a the way we see things. the geniuses. and ability to inspire emotion his name lapsed into obscurity until and communicate his works were rediscovered at the meaning long after their end of the 19th century. such and work in a world peopled by as van Gogh. Raphael’s paintings generations. Without such obsolete and the role of a belief. Artists live mention. Boticelli’s style those few works that have the was condemned as old-fashioned. judged to display the full dell’Accademia. History is littered fill and decorate spaces. of the Madonna and Child The origin of the are a good example.

dignity. but as a means of trying to tell a greater human or spiritual The Madonna of the Pinks Raphael. beauty was an essential element in the search for ultimate truth— an inspired vision was more important than doctrine The two figures together form a triangle filling most of the picture space. permanence. not as an end in itself or as a means of personal and commercial gratification. truth. An example of Raphael’s skill and engagement with beauty and faith.W H AT I S A RT ? 27 art. London: National Gallery. but recently sold for $39 million. and seriousness This tiny painting was to be an object of intense and private contemplation for a young widow who was entering a nunnery to take up a life of Christian devotion Raphael’s complete mastery of the technique of oil painting with rich colors. are those who will succeed in creating masterpieces that can survive the judgment of the sternest critic of all—time. 1507–08. honors the spiritual profundity of his subject The playful activity and darting eyes of the Christ-child contrast with the stillness and lowered eyes of the Virgin. It suggests stability. 11 1/4 x 9 in (30 x 23 cm). subtle gradations. For Raphael. and fine detail such as fingernails. this painting was unrecognized from 1855–1991. oil on canvas. his naked maleness contrasts with her modesty and sweet femininity .


and by plates etched with acids. Oils and watercolors dominated until the advent of acrylic in the 1940s. still used to bind watercolors today—and wax. basic materials to achieve a likeness or design. wood. explored the environment for suitable pigments: chalk. T he first artists collected and manipulated simple. Artists have often combined media. crustaceans. A tempera paint made from egg was the Oil paint was. durable. from the rudimentary materials of charcoal. they needed to be mixed with a medium to bind them as a liquid. in the 20th-century practice of collage. and combining new media in pursuit of visual expression. For these materials (pigments) to be formed into paint. by using woodcuts. widely used for many reasons: flexible. and minerals extracted from the ground. . Sculptors later appropriated the technology of the forge and foundry to make bronzes. it offers rich colors and can carry the personal style of the individual artist’s hand. for example. and stone to manipulating and firing clay. dominant medium in the Middle Ages until the 15th century. chalk.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S 29 MEDIA AND MATERIALS Artists have always enjoyed appropriating. The other major means of reproduction is photography. Painters. wood. devising. the dye of berries. when oil painting came to the fore. engraved copper plates. Contemporary artists often juxtapose incongruous images and materials in installations and land art. artists progressed from carving bone. Effective media were resins. gums— such as gum arabic. Most recently the advent of computer technology has allowed artists an unprecedented level of image manipulation and editing. and continues to be. as a means of challenging our conceptions of both the world around us and the aesthetics of art. charcoal. for example. As tools and technologies developed. and stone. easily manipulated. to paint in the form of pigments and binders. meanwhile. REPRODUCING ART Printing allows multiple images to be generated. through to the contemporary technology of digital editing.

16th century. pastel on paper. bound in a higher concentration of gum. but was seen as the preparatory design for a work in another medium. charcoal on paper. Blue Dancers Edgar Degas. It is made from twigs of willow and created by a slow burning process that reduces the wood to carbon. It is commonly used for drawing under painting since it is easily overpainted without discoloring the overlaid paint. ARTIST’S CHARCOAL CHALKS AND PASTELS White chalk was originally used to add highlights to other drawing media and was particularly effective on toned papers. charcoal. CHARCOAL Charcoal is one of the oldest drawing media and remains popular with artists to this day.30 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Drawing Drawing is the most immediate form of artistic expression. Kitaj. It is available in varying thicknesses. Study of a Man Shouting Michelangelo. 25 1/2 x 25 1/2 in (65 x 65 cm). Pastels. but the first artists who really exploited drawing as an independent expressive medium were Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. and red and black chalks. Cennini (c. or even soft doughy bread. Before the Renaissance it was rarely valued as an art form in itself. Odilon Redon. Picasso. Pigments such as iron oxide were added to chalk to make the red chalk characteristic of the drawings of Renaissance artists. B. and R. c. ranging from the very thick scene-painters’ charcoal to medium and thin sticks used for more detailed drawings. became popular with portrait artists in the 18th century. calling it “the triumphal arch” to painting. SOFT PASTELS MODERN CHALKS . Other well-known exponents of pastels include Mary Cassat. Chalks are now produced in a full range of colors. are more suitable for drawing. Moscow: Pushkin Museum. Degas’ practice was to develop the drawing in charcoal and then to apply layers of soft pastel to create a vibrant optical mixture of color. 1899. With soft pastels. Florence: Gallerie degli Uffizi. the pigment is imparted to the paper by the slightest touch and can be blended in the manner of painting to create gradations of subtle. 1370–1440) gave it a certain status. vibrant color. putty eraser. made of powdered pigments lightly bound in gum tragacanth. Michelangelo drew in many differnt media: pen and ink. Hard pastels. pen and wash. Charcoal drawings can be edited very easily by means of a brush.

cuttlefish. felt-tip pen. MECHANICAL GRAPHITE CLUTCH PENCIL STICKS PENCIL . amorphous graphite with clay. In the late 18th century the French devised a method of combining crumbly. In the 16th and 17th centuries the only source of solid graphite was Borrowdale in the English Lake District. The advantage of inks over dry drawing media was the precision and permanence of the line. and crustaceans. Water-soluble inks are more prone to fading than the more permanent waterproof inks such as Indian ink prepared with gum or shellac.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S PEN AND INK The pen evolved as an alternative to the brush as a means of controlled line drawing. REED PEN 31 FOUNTAIN PEN DIP PEN WITH ASSORTED NIBS Lion Resting Rembrandt. The dip pen was the mainstay of graphic art for generations and evolved into the fountain pen. Private collection. pencil on paper. Many artists today prefer to work with either a solid graphite stick or leads of variable width and density of tone. insects. This mixture. Some use watersoluble pigments that can be reworked with a wet brush. including compressed charcoal. encased in wood. ranging from sooty carbon-based materials (bister) to dyes derived from berries. Inks have been made from a diversity of sources. chalks. ink on paper. MONET’S QUILL PEN MODERN COLORED INKS PENCIL The “lead” in pencils is actually graphite (a form of carbon). and Constable. and technical drawing pen. Turner. Industrial buildings in a northern English town by an unknown artist. The term “pencil” is used for many graphic media. Pen and ink as a drawing medium requires a supremely confident approach since the permanence of the ink precludes casual editing. that can be encased in wood like a pencil. The use of graphite pencils thus became widespread in the age of Ingres. is the pencil we are familiar with today. and wax. oak galls. held in pencil holders. Paris: Musée du Louvre.

Although tempera is quick-drying. vellum. From the 15th to the 20th century the dominant medium was vegetable—usually linseed—oil. paper.” Artists would apply the paint using brushes and spatulas to create the image. Wax can also be added to oil paint to aid the separation of clear areas of color. on the other hand. Panels were prepared with layers of gesso. tempera on panel. used by the Egyptians. Tempera was used for most medieval Byzantine and Russian icons. building up the colors of a painting was a slow process. The word “encaustic” comes from the Greek and means “burned in. by means a series of carefully juxtaposed applications of paint. causing the wax and pigment to be absorbed permanently into the lime surface of the wall. This was the principal painting medium before the advent of oil paint. the white and yolk of eggs.32 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Painting All paints require a binding medium that can hold pigments in suspension and permits successful application to prepared supports—walls. Alternatives were gums and resins extracted from trees. The paint was applied over a prepared drawing. and Romans to paint images on panels and walls. or stretched fabric (canvas). a mixture of size and chalk to form a smooth surface. Entombment of Christ Russian icon. wood panels. who used encaustic paint for a series of images of BEESWAX the American flag. EGG TEMPERA Medieval painters of illuminated manuscripts used beaten egg white in a form of paint called clarum or glair. used egg yolk mixed with pigment and a little water—egg tempera. a process used most notably by van Gogh. Painters on panel. ENCAUSTIC Encaustic (wax) painting is a very durable medium that was one of the principal techniques of the ancient world. Early forms of paint consisted of pigment bound by a water-based glue called size. Gradations of color had to be built up slowly. 18 x 13 in (45 x 32 cm). and beeswax. EGG AND WATER EMULSION EGG YOLK TEMPERA PIGMENTS . made from animal skins. Greeks. 15th century. and on completion they would run lit torches across the surface of the mural to reheat the wax. This ancient medium was surprisingly revived in the latter half of the 20th century by Jasper Johns (pages 442–43). Encaustic portrait from Egyptian tomb Some of the best ancient encaustic paintings to have survived are mummy-case portraits from the 2nd century CE.

but was more popular in northern Europe than in Italy. Here an artist exploits the texture of the canvas in a technique known as “scumbling. The masters of the 16th and 17th centuries. Fresco was practiced by the Minoans. The liquid paint is absorbed into the plaster and as the plaster dries the pigments are bound within the fabric of the wall surface. Rome: Sistine Chapel. Paint brushes are traditionally made from animal hair. OILS Vegetable oil—principally walnut. or built up in layers according to the artist’s favored technique. exploited the new medium to create astonishing new effects of color and light. to thick impasto. are painted directly onto a freshly laid lime-plaster ground. and the Romans long before its use by Michelangelo (page 136) and other painters during the Renaissance. It can be worked when wet for much longer than any other form of paint. the ancient Greeks. VERMILION PIGMENT The Creation of Adam (detail) Michelangelo Buonarroti.33 FRESCO Fresco (the Italian word for “fresh”) denotes the method of painting in which pigments.” FILBERT HOG SHORT FLAT HOG ROUND HOG The Arnolfini Portrait with detail. fresco (prerestoration). especially portraits. Van Eyck’s mastery of oils produced remarkably fine detail and subtle gradations of color in the dress and draperies where the sunlight from the window strikes them. The paint can be applied in many ways from thin glazes. poppy. stiff brushes from hog’s bristles. . from Titian (pages 143–145) to Velasquez (pages 187–190). Both kinds are now produced using synthetic fibers. 1508–12. allowing the artist to create subtle blending effects. finer ones from squirrel or sable hair. Vatican Museums. mixed solely with water. diluted with turpentine. MODERN OIL PAINTS FLAT SYNTHETIC ROUND SYNTHETIC Oil painters employ a wide range of techniques. The advantages of oil paint are its strength and flexibility. and linseed—had been used as a medium for painting for some time before the Renaissance. Jan van Eyck (see page 109). It was the skill of Flemish painters such as Jan Van Eyck (page 110) at the beginning of the 15th century that convinced the Venetians and subsequently other Italians and the rest Europe that oils were the best medium for easel painting.

Watercolor uses the brightness of the paper or other support to generate a distinctive luminescence. through the addition of white chalk. More recent exponents of watercolor include Emil Nolde (page 362) and Paul Klee (page 387). Light passes through overlaid transparent washes and is reflected back from the support—for example. SYNTHETIC FAN BLENDER FINE ROUND SABLE BRUSH FLAT SYNTHETIC BRUSH MASKING FLUID PAN COLORS Watercolor can be applied in a series of overlaid washes or.and 19th-century Britain. WATER AND SPONGE Sunset over a Ruined Castle J. Turner (pages 281–83 ). using a wet-into-wet technique in which the colors bleed and merge. M. Turner mixed gouache with a little yellow watercolor to highlight the clouds above the scene created by washes of color laid over the toned ground of the paper. as here. Watercolor as a specialized medium was raised to new heights in 18th. most notably in the works of J. makes it ideal for overpainting and its capacity for continuous tone makes it suitable for bold design and flat color work. while gouache. also known as body color. ROUND SABLE BRUSH watercolor and gouache on paper. TUBE COLOR GUM ARABIC . London: Tate Collection. the difference being that watercolor is transparent. Turner. W. 1868. white paper. M. who exploited the medium’s luminosity and ethereal properties. W. is opaque.34 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S WATERCOLOR AND GOUACHE Both watercolor and gouache paints are bound in gum arabic. The opacity of gouache.

but dry quickly to a durable surface.4 cm).M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S ACRYLICS Acrylics were developed in the 1940s and adopted by many modern artists for their fast drying and permanence. New York: Museum of Rauschenberg. even solid objects— stuck onto a support to form a composition. Private Collection. What was at first something of a novelty was soon accepted as a respectable form of artistic expression. collage. The advantage of acrylics is that they are water-soluble when wet. and Rainer Robert leaves. Early exponents were Picasso (pages 396–97) and Braque (page 351). Other notable exponents were the German artist Max Ernst (page 369) and the American Joseph Cornell (page 406). 84 x 60 in (213.3 x 152. The German Artist Kurt Schwitters (page 368) did most to develop the use of collage. Sleep for Yvonne collage with paper. Modern Art. Pioneers included Mexican muralists Orozco (page 402) and Siqueros (page 402). . The inert properties of acrylics mean they are not susceptible to cracking or darkening in the manner of oil paints. One of Picasso’s own drawings of the minotaur is incorporated into a collage of assorted debris. acrylic on paper. foil. Minotaur Pablo Picasso. who in their Cubist works (page 350) frequently combined pieces of newspaper and other objects with paint. who extended the idea of collage to three dimensional box constructions. 36 1/4 x 19 1/4 in (92 x 49 cm). 1965. They can be used in transparent applications like watercolors or in thick. Private Collection. PALETTE WITH ACRYLICS PAINTING KNIFE PALETTE KNIFE Tree Harvey Daniels (contemporary artist). impasto applications like oil paints. ACRYLIC BRUSH STROKE COLLAGE Collage is an assembly of assorted materials— printed matter. 1933. incorporating bus tickets and all manner of litter from the streets in his poetic compositions. pieces of fabric.

the acid bites around each grain of resin and when inked produces a subtle uniform tone. and burin. When the plate is etched. a sheet of paper is laid onto the inked block. . ENGRAVING Engraving and etching are related intaglio techniques that produce a finer line than is possible in woodcuts. To make a woodcut. the raised positive areas of the block are then inked over.36 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Printmaking The oldest form of printmaking is “relief printing.or lever-operated press. Etching differs from engraving in that acid is used to “bite” a line. Areas of tone can be created using a process called aquatint. overprinting several woodblocks in succession with the final block applying a black line drawing. Goya combined a number of engraving techniques to produce his striking satirical prints. the ink is held in lines inscribed or bitten into a plate. such as engraving and etching. 1799. This involves dusting resin powder onto the plate and heating it to make the resin adhere.” in which the image is created by means of raised areas that receive the ink. 16th century. 19TH-CENTURY ENGRAVING TOOLS Of What Ill Will He Die? plate 40 of “Los Caprichos. In intaglio techniques. More sophisticated halftones are generated by engraving finer lines in the manner of hatching. engraving. The Engraver published by Hartman Schopper. to resist the action of the acid. WOODCUTS In Europe the great age of woodcuts was the late 15th century. The Japanese artists of the 18th and 19th centuries perfected the art of multicolored prints. 1850 This simple design for the amusement of children shows the raised positive areas that receive the ink to make a print. when printing spread across the continent from Germany. The greatest master of the art was Albrecht Dürer (pages 126–127). as in a woodcut. burnished aquatint. Private Collection. Woodblock of a hussar on horseback c. and pressure applied by using either a screw. The copper plate is first coated in a thin layer of wax. etching. Private Collection. called an etching ground. drypoint. Other printing processes used by artists include the planographic (flat-surface) techniques of lithography and silkscreen. a V-shaped chisel is used to remove the negative areas of the design. In the process of engraving a diamond-shaped tool called a burin is used to inscribe a precise line in either a tightgrained wood such as boxwood or a soft metal such as copper plate. The wax is inscribed using a ENGRAVED COPPER PLATE point to draw the image and where the wax is displaced the acid bites a line.” Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes.

This press is an antique dating back to the 1870s that is being used to make top-quality prints of classic movie posters. Stencils can be used to mask areas of the print. Miller was the US’s leading fine art lithographer. a sheet of paper is placed over the plate and run through a litho press. plate. primarily used for commercial textile printing. or crayon to apply a greasy ink. The masked areas form a stencil preventing ink from passing though the screen. . A lithographic print is lifted from a litho stone. Oil-based ink is then squeegeed through the mesh of the silk screen onto paper. Andy Warhol (page 444) popularized the technique using a combination of photo-silkscreen and painting in his multiple portraits of 1960s celebrities. or screen the print is a mirror image of the original. As in all printing processes where the image is lifted directly from the stone. Lithography also facilitates the building of an image in multiples of overlaid colored printing. particularly in the United States. To produce a lithograph. it became popular as a means of creating commercial prints in vivid opaque color. a Bavarian playwright. A Stag at Sharkey’s lithograph by George Miller (1917) from a painting by George Wesley Bellows. pen. Silkscreen works tend to feature clear shape and areas of flat color. In the 1930s. silkscreen. Silkscreen printing on material Ink is forced through the fine mesh of the silk screen with a squeegee. which works on the principle of the mutual repulsion of oil and water.5 cm). 686 Good Morning City Friedensreich Hundertwasser. block. A drawing design is applied to a prepared limestone or ground litho plate. 1969–70. a design can be drawn or painted directly onto the screen in an oil-based medium and then the undrawn areas sealed using a glue or varnish. The process was invented in 1798 by Aloys Senefelder. Alternative methods of transferring an image to silkscreen are the use of photo stencils. The plate is kept damp with a dilution of gum arabic and a mild etch to assist both the resistance to the ink in the undrawn areas and the takeup of the oil-based ink to the drawn areas of the lithograph. SCREEN PRINTS Silkscreen printing or serigraphy was developed out of stencil printing. The unique attribute of lithography is the directness with which either drawing or painterly technique can be applied using either a brush. 33 1/2 x 21 3/4 in (85 x 55.37 LITHOGRAPHY Lithography is a planographic (flat-surface) method of printing. As in the process of lithography.Houston: Museum of Fine Arts.

rarely left uncolored. In the lost-wax process two molds are usually made. Bronze casting involves the modeling of a form in clay. To this is attached a funnel shape and gates or ducts. Ancient Egypt. . As tools and technologies developed. Classical statues were. from which a hollow bronze can be cast. Rodin in his studio Rodin (pages 318–319) had several hundred copies cast of his great works such as The Kiss and The Thinker. During heating. The plaster mold is now inverted and packed in sand and molten bronze is poured into the funnel. as artists applied pigments and precious stones to decorate or enhance the realism of their work. The wax form of a solid statuette with two runners is created in a mold in the first stage of the lost-wax process. While we are familiar with the bleached remnants of Greek and Roman sculpture. When creating a large statue the mold of the original model has to be cut into two or more pieces to make a wax shell. and stone to manipulating and firing clay. China. and in West Africa. The wax form is covered in heat-resistant plaster. The earliest bronzes were solid and small. First a mold is made of the original sculpture—nowadays using latex and plaster. and the whole is placed in an oven. wood. The earliest sculptures appear to have been created by modifying found objects that suggested either animal or human forms. in fact. plaster. then to casting in bronze. also made of wax. This is used to make the wax form. Pouring molten bronze The funnels are created by the lostwax process along with the mold. BRONZE Sculpting in bronze is a complex process that was developed independently by many cultures—in South America.38 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Sculpture The first and most ubiquitous form of artistic expression. the plaster hardens and the wax melts and runs out through the ducts. created by means of a sand casting. The mold is subsequently chiseled away and then the gates chiseled and chased from the surface of the bronze cast. or wax. artists progressed from carving bone.

SCULPTOR’S CHISELS HAMMER . The carving of wood requires an awareness of the flow of the grain. suitable for work on any scale. Italy. The most prestigious stone for sculpture since Greek times has been marble. The Greeks adapted the stance of the striding figure from the Egyptians to create the stylized but expressive kouros (page 53). The woodcarvings of Brancusi (page 356) are outstanding for their simplicity and elegance. this process was in use in the 4th century BCE. Venzone Cathedral. which is very hard and difficult to carve. This was achieved through techniques of carving. is much softer. They subsequently developed the art of stone-carving to achieve astonishing degrees of naturalism. and the carvings of the Romanesque period are particularly expressive. The great innovator of the High Renaissance period was Michelangelo (pages 136–137). pinning. According to Pliny. In medieval and Baroque workshops the wood was frequently coated in plaster stucco and painted. In imitation of the Greeks and Romans. Lamentation over the Dead Christ (detail). freestanding sculptures of idealized human forms. Alabaster. BLOCK OF GRANITE Sculptor in his studio There are two methods of stone-carving: directly carving into the stone or using mechanical means such as calipers to scale up from a smaller model made of clay or plaster. Limestone. This respect for the natural form of the wood was a notable feature of the work of the British sculptors Henry Moore (page 399) and Barbara Hepworth (page 400). the Italian Renaissance revived the practice of creating large.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S WOODCARVING Carving in wood is common to all cultures worldwide. German school. and sandstone are also popular media. drilling. It flourished in medieval Europe. a practice that goes back to Ancient Egypt. woodcarving. granite. DOGLEG CHISEL MALLET 39 GOUGE Woodcarving tools Today there are of hundreds of differently shaped carving tools available. and polishing. SCULPTING IN STONE Prehistoric man first produced small-scale portable figures such as the Willendorf Venus (page 48) before progressing to freestanding figures. which can give a similar effect. The work shows traces of the paint and gilding with which it was originally decorated. early 16th century.

Studio of Alexander Calder The monumental steel structures and playful mobiles of Alexander Calder (page 438) were produced by all manner of industrial processes.40 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Modern sculpture The roots of modern sculpture lie in the early years of the 20th century. One of the most influential figures in this field was American sculptor David Smith (page 410).8 cm). Prefabricated steel parts were assembled and painted in his busy studio. such as foam rubber and latex. Four Units Unequal David Smith. Private Collection. and method of assembling objects. In the course of the 20th century more and more materials were appropriated by sculptors. when European artists fell under the influence of “primitive” African art. Artists such as Eva Hesse (page 460) and Claes Oldenburg (page 439) produced sculpture using soft materials. Whereas Smith welded and polished his stainlesssteel structures himself. from the Russian Constructivists onward. MODERN SCULPTURAL MEDIA Modern sculpture has exploited almost every conceivable material. construction process. stainless steel. as in Oldenburg’s Giant Hamburger. Modern their assistants routinely make use sculpture also delights in of modern industrial manufacturing re-creating everyday objects on processes such as arc welding. . while “ready-made” and “found” objects were incorporated in sculpture or exhibited as works of art themselves. have moved toward pure abstract geometry. many modern sculptors simply make a design which is then realized Contemporary sculptors and by a team of assistants. an unexpected scale or using unexpected materials. Two pioneers of new sculptural forms were Picasso (pages 396–97) and the Paris-based Romanian Brancusi (page 356). height 77 1/2 in (196. While many sculptors still find their inspiration in human and natural forms. 1960. They were also starting to realize the expressive power of abstraction. others.

Installations can be playful. ranging from meticulously detailed reconstructions of everyday reality to memorials to the dead. Two of Duchamp’s most famous ready-mades. installations frequently envelop the viewer in the space of the work. 2002. the hat rack and urinal were recreated more than once by the artist. or alarming. The viewer enters a controlled environment which may utilize constructed. Some/One Do-Ho Suh. London. They played an important role in the Italian Arte Povera movement of the 1960s and 1970s (page 425). CONCEPTUAL ART The credit—or the blame—for modern conceptual art is often laid at the door of Marcel Duchamp (page 367). fog. 1917. or rainbows. 1998. found. Mutt. solemn. whose Dadaist. anti-aesthetic view of art led him to exhibit “ready-made” or “found” objects. UK: Towner Art Gallery. made of thousands of nickel military dogtags at the Serpentine Gallery. Eastbourne. Duchamp’s mischief sanctioned a new role for the artist as a purveyor of concepts independent of any craft. The Korean artist installs his piece. Hat Rack and Urinal Marcel Duchamp. Whereas sculpture is designed to be viewed from the outside as a self-contained arrangement of forms. metal and ceramic. Some artists have now taken conceptual art to the extreme of presenting text alone so that any visual component of the art is generated solely in the mind of the viewer. giving them absurd and provocative titles.INSTALLATION ART Installation art effectively inverts the principles of sculpture. Eliasson’s gallery installations usually evoke the natural world with lighting effects contributing sunlight. titled Fountain and signed R. . Installation-based art is related to conceptual art in that it frequently challenges the viewer’s habitual spatial and cultural expectations. and ready-made forms as The Forked Forest Path Olafur Eliasson. well as light or projected imagery and sound. Private Collection. Significant recent practitioners have included German artists Joseph Beuys (page 453) and Rebecca Horn (page 466) and French artist Christian Boltanski (page 466). The urinal gained huge notoriety when the first version was exhibited in New York in 1913.

1923. who produces video installations—some of them total environments that envelop the viewer in images and sound—as well as videotapes. . The 1970s saw a vogue for live performance and in many cases the artist’s life or activities may be presented as a work of art. video/sound installation. Simultaneously the other screen shows the man being consumed by flames that rise from his feet. as installed at the Grand Central Market. The invention of video opened up new possibilities with instant playback and in-camera editing. and electronic music performances. Rayograph Man Ray. Computer technology has freed the photographer from the dark and produces huge prints. intimate photojournalism. PHOTOGRAPHY Photography evolved from the camera obscura. Man Ray created his witty. and video. By contrast. and reversing sequences of images. flashing neon signs. 19 1/4 x 15 1/2 in (49 x 39. negative Rayographs by placing a selection of objects on. American Nan Goldin (page 470) room and opened up new possibilities of creative image uses the camera in the spirit of manipulation and editing. used photographic processes more experimentally. edits the photographs digitally. Artists such as Man Ray (page 394). While painters explored the new medium— often without acknowledging their debt to it—photography itself was accepted as a minor art form. VIDEO ART Video art developed from the art films made using 16-mm and 8-mm formats. A notable practitioner of video art in recent years has been the American Bill Viola (page 469). In the pursuit of originality. a device for projecting an image through a small hole. Successful contemporary artist include the German Andreas Gursky (page 473). notably by Andy Warhol’s Factory studio in the 1960s. On the one seen here a deluge of water falls from above on the figure of a man until he is obliterated. or suspending them just above. meanwhile. Video also allows artists to explore and manipulate the element of time in new ways. Los Angeles in 1997. Video is also used to document much performance-based work. including photography. 1996. contemporary artists have turned to almost every conceivable means of communicating with an audience. light-sensitive photographic paper and then exposing the composition to light. The Crossing Bill Viola. which allowed artists to make an accurate tracing of a scene. Two screens are mounted back to back. Private Collection.42 M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S Modern media Much of today’s art aims to subvert the audience’s expectations about art and life. Other artists choose to rearrange the landscape to draw attention to our relationship with the environment. In 1839 the development of light-sensitive emulsions enabled the “camera” to be used for black-and-white photography. montaging. photograph. sound environments. film. who uses large format Image manipulation film. Artists can subvert the viewer’s reading of time by cutting. slowing. often in a spirit of parody or pastiche.5 cm). In the 20th century it achieved higher status through photojournalism and the landscape photography of the likes of Edward Weston and Ansel Adams.

such as the 13 huge snowballs he placed in London in 2000. spent some days in a cage with a coyote. politics. LAND ART Man from the earliest times has interacted with the landscape to create forms that do not exist in nature. sometimes last for just a few days. His ephemeral creations. such as the lines created by Richard Long (page 468) in remote. Other artists present their own actions or lives as art. who then arranged themselves into sculptural poses and formations. such as Robert Smithson (page 462). . New York. Nudity is a common feature of provocative performance art and happenings. but rather seeks to encourage the audience to question their assumptions about life. 2003 Grand Central Terminus.850 sq m) of pink woven polypropylene fabric. In the 1960s and 1970s it was often associated with political protest in the form of “happenings. However. who moved their bodies around to leave prints on white paper. and social and psychological relationships. the elegant geometry of the formal garden. Miami. wanted to heighten awareness of our relationship with the natural world by intervening in the landscape by means of thought-provoking constructions. Andy Goldsworthy at work British artist Andy Goldsworthy (page 474) subtly rearranges natural materials. Photography plays a crucial role in the success of land art since photographs will often be the only lasting visual record of an artist’s work. Surrounded Islands Christo and Jeanne-Claude. who on a trip to New York in 1974. Eleven islands were surrounded with 6 1⁄2m sq ft (603. during the 1960s a number of American artists. 1980–83. for example the German artist Joseph Beuys (page 453). inaccessible landscapes. Florida: Biscayne Bay. Performance art differs from theater in that it does not depend on narrative.M E D I A A N D M AT E R I A L S PERFORMANCE ART The roots of modern performance art lie in the theatrical events staged by the Dadaists and Surrealists in the 1920s. The most dramatic interventions have been the massive enterprises of Christo and Jeanne-Claude (page 460)—curtains reaching across vast stretches of landscape as impressively as the Great Wall of China and his urban projects of wrapping buildings. for example. 43 Nude Installation Spencer Tunick. The artist directs his 450 models.” Performance art takes many forms. In 1961 French artist Yves Klein (pages 420–21) presented three nude models covered in his trademark blue paint.




such as Ancient Egypt. The artists of early civilizations. It is no accident that carvings. like children. c. height 21 1⁄4in (54 cm).000 years ago. Closer inspection reveals a remarkably rhythmic treatment allied to considerable technical sophistication on the part of her unknown creator. As important. used the most precious materials to produce highly stylized depictions of rulers and their families. Cairo: Egyptian Museum.000 years ago. was almost certainly a fertility offering. probably religious purpose. or form. they almost uniformly seem to have had a mystical. They make clear the enduring human need to understand—perhaps to appease—an uncertain and frequently hostile world by means of deliberately contrived objects. So how do we identify that moment when what we choose to call “art” first appears as a significant activity? T he oldest known works of art to have been discovered in Europe are stone carvings. Found across Europe and Russia. The Venus of Willendorf. . The taut curls that hug her head are not just closely observed but precisely rendered. their survival almost entirely a matter of chance. inherently durable. 1340 BCE. However. The best-known of these chance survivals is a tiny limestone figure of a woman. STONE-AGE SCULPTURE Mask from mummy-case of Tutankhamun. But their claims to be considered art are undoubted. whether by means of craftsmanship. color.E A R LY A RT 47 EARLY ART C. curiosity and a desire to create do not in themselves produce works of art. she appears to be just a crude caricature of the female form. At first sight. gold.000 and 27. 3000 BCE –1300 CE Artists. they are rare survivals. They satisfy the innate human need for aesthetic appeal. as this oddly misshapen figure is known. should be the oldest surviving examples of human art. dating from perhaps 32. It was found in Austria and dates from between 32. enamel and semiprecious stones. They are inevitably few in number. are great borrowers and imitators and take delight in what they see in the world around them. The clues they offer as to the nature of the hunter-gatherer societies that produced them are tantalizing at best.

000 c. Virtuosity on such an epic scale was hard to reconcile with current beliefs about Stone Age man. they were then completely forgotten until rediscovered by chance.000 years ago.000 BCE. it was widely assumed to be a fake. feathers. larger mammals extinct c. Neanderthals extinct . chiefly red ocher and charcoal.000 c. and horses—were painted onto cave walls.000 BCE 25. or moss.000 Stylized female figurines made throughout Europe. once abandoned.000 Retreat of glaciers. farming spreads to SE Europe c. In almost every Venus of Willendorf. 9000 Earliest evidence of wheat cultivation (Syria) 5. first cave paintings (France and Spain) The Great Hall. 25. Lascaux.5 cm (4 1⁄2 in). Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum. sometimes by hand.000 BCE. 30. c. those at Lascaux survived because.000 Peak of last Ice Age 10. were used. 20. bison. 35.000 Homo sapiens sapiens in Europe. 5000 Cereal farming villages in western Europe. copper first used (Mesopotamia) 35. metallurgy discovered (SE Europe) c. c. in 1879. 10.CAVE PAINTING More spectacular by far are the cave paintings of southwest France and northern Spain. height 11. Between about 25. A variety of materials. 15. during the peak of the last Ice Age. 4500 Megalithic tombs built in western Europe c. These were applied by sticks. 5500 Bandkeramik pottery produced (C Europe). an astonishingly vigorous tradition of cave painting developed in which acutely observed T I M E L I N E : E A R LY A R T c. c.000 c. 7000 Pigs domesticated (Anatolia). and brilliantly depicted animals—mammoths. Like the other Stone Age cave paintings in Europe. limestone. The carving’s swelling limbs and breasts invest it with a strong sexual quality. It is no surprise that when the first was discovered. hyenas.000 and 12.

Baghdad: Iraq Museum. are schematic and crude. unifies Egypt c. stone circles (NW Europe) c. 3300 First walled towns in Egypt c. The earliest of these civilizations was Sumer. CITIES AND CIVILIZATION images that would underline their status and their right to rule. The bronze head of an Akkadian ruler. bronze. cast between 2. These were organized societies. about 2300 BCE united much of Mesopotamia in a single empire. part celebratory—can scarcely be doubted. a series of rulers commissioned Akkadian Ruler. tentatively identified as Sargon I. more like a child’s attempt to draw a person. a handful of battered marble figures—shows this to have been a society with a well-developed sense of the power of visual images.300 and 2. built at Saqqara c. first pharaoh. c. Yet more remarkable is a product of Sumer’s successors. 2900 Early Dynastic period (Egypt) c. reinforced by the domestication of goats and sheep. At the same time. cities began to appear. 3200 Wheeled transportation (Sumer). development cuneiform script (Mesopotamia) c. 2540 Great Pyramid of Khufu c. who from Perhaps 5.000 years ago. height 14 in (36 cm). often priestly. As settled agriculture began. Impelled by a need to justify themselves to their gods or to assert their dominance over their subjects. self-aware. c. 3500 Emergence of Uruk.E A R LY A RT 49 case the most spectacular images were created deep inside the caves. This head. the step pyramid of Zoser. in contrast to the immediately recognizable animals. that recognized how artistic images could be pressed into service on their behalf. 3100 Namer.200 BCE. is not just a technical triumph but also a defining image of a hierarchical ruler: remote and magnificent. 2100–2000 Stonehenge built 3. What has survived—fragments of pottery. 2300 BCE. there are almost no representations of humans: those that do appear. and literate. Curiously. 3400 First evidence hieroglyphic writing systems (Sumer) c. in modern-day Iraq.500 c. That they constitute everything that we understand today as art is no more in question. would originally have had jewels placed in its eye-sockets. That their purpose was religious—part fearful. 2300 Expansion of Akkadian Empire under Sargon 2.000 . so surplus food production permitted the development of divisions of labor and the emergence of ruling classes. technically sophisticated. first citystate (Mesopotamia). the world’s first civilizations were forming in the Middle East. 2650 First Egyptian pyramid. the Akkadians.

Head. It placed a premium on lavish materials and epic scale and. c. last great pharaoh Third Intermediate Period (to 664 BCE) Late Period (to 30 BCE) Egypt conquered by Alexander the Great 1552 BCE 1166 BCE 1069 BCE 664 BCE 332 BCE unified Egypt around 3100 BCE. Once established. Perhaps the most striking is the pose in which Narmer is depicted.500 years later. arms. Narmer.50 E A R LY A RT ANCIENT EGYPT c. Such tenacious conservatism is matched only by the similarly inward-looking civilization of China. the overall effect is anything but naturalistic. there is no attempt to represent the space they occupy naturalistically. schist carved in low relief. 3000 BCE. above all.000 years. Memphis made capital. Egyptian art was almost entirely symbolic. Exactly the same pose can be found in works produced 2. Although individual details are rendered with great precision. The deceased is ushered into the hall of judgment . Cairo: Egyptian National Museum. gold. who KEY EVENTS c. Yet in an obvious anatomical distortion. he nonetheless touched on a central truth: that the art of Ancient Egypt has a near-unique continuity. his chest faces directly outward. in this case the triumph of Narmer over his enemies. and glass paste). If his chronology was faulty. The sizes of the figures denote status: the larger the figure. 2540 BCE Construction of the Great Pyramid of Khufu 2180 BCE 2040 BCE 1730 BCE First Intermediate Period (to 2040 BCE): centralized rule dissolves Middle Kingdom (to 1730 BCE) Second Intermediate Period (to 1552 BCE): much of Egypt ruled by Hyksos. Bird-scarab pectoral from Tutankhamun’s tomb. semiprecious stones. 3100 BCE Early Dynastic period (to 2686 BCE): Egypt unified under Narmer. intended to convey precise meanings. Plato claimed there had been no change in Egyptian art for 10. an Asiatic people New Kingdom (to 1069 BCE): Egyptian power at its height: new capital founded at Thebes Death of Ramses III. the greater its importance (nakedness also indicated inferiority). Writing in the 4th century BCE. 1352 BCE. with legs characteristically splayed. Cairo: Egyptian National Museum. 3000—300 BCE Ancient Egyptian art precisely reflected the rigidly hierarchical society from which it developed. The Palette of Narmer. and legs are in profile. c.000 years. c. which celebrates the first pharaoh. it echoed Ancient Egypt’s obsession with death and the afterlife. already contains many of the essential elements of this fixed tradition. Though the figures stand on a common ground. hieroglyphic writing developed 2686 BCE Old Kingdom (to 2181 BCE) Palette of Narmer. its forms hardly changed for almost 3.

all gods other than Aten (the “disk of the their “eternal well-being” was dependent Sun”). This was a book just as the gold head of Tutenkhamun of spells. dancing girls. In the tomb as much splendor as possible. precious metals and craftsmanship. of Akenaten’s chief minister. if The imperturbably nothing more. the jackalheaded god supervises the weighing of the heart The “Eater of the Dead”. Kingdom Egypt. themselves naturalistically they could be depicted. Hence the deliberate grandeur of the pyramids and. who shocked the priesthood by banishing Because its rulers were considered gods. c. a monster that swallows the heart of the deceased if it proves too heavy . for a brief period in New precise and detailed instructions. The less humans—depicted following exact important the subject—slaves. or musicians. Ramose. Originally. London: British Museum. the vast tombs brother of Ramose at Thebes. for example—the more conventions. contain equally Further. Not only are the figures—gods and There were exceptions. painted papyrus. This scene is found in every Book of the Dead. above all during the HIERARCHY AND SYMBOLISM Weighing of the Heart against the Feather of Truth. its surviving examples of Simbel express this impact would have been still more remarkable. 1350 BCE. placed in a tomb and intended underlines the premium placed on to guide the dead through the afterworld. a slight relaxation of this otherwise on preserving their mortal remains with absolute formality is evident. Pantheon of Egyptian gods headed by Horus The god Thoth records the result of the weighing of the heart The heart is weighed against a feather in the other scale Anubis. when painted. four giant seated More typical of the statues of Ramses II Egyptian attitude to guarding the entrance Relief from tomb of Ramose.C . art are the many to his temple at Abu limestone. of blank features of the genuine humanity. essentially pictorial. c. Complex and his wife carved and absolute rules not just with governed how the extraordinary pharaohs should be delicacy and skill but represented in art. also with a hint. the parchment known formal monumentality as the Book of the Dead. 1250 BCE. Thebes. 3000 B C E —1300 C E 51 reign of the Akenaten (1379–1362 BCE). is a relief of the later. but the hieroglyphs inserted above and between them.

animals. by the more warlike Mycenaeans on the Greek mainland. grain. They appear to have enjoyed substantial agricultural surpluses and to have had extensive trading links. Though this practice may have had a religious significance—bulls are a . 1550 BCE. landscapes. That Minoan Crete was a society with a taste for luxury and a highly developed visual sense is clear from the decoration of its palaces and villas. was in fact a huge storage area for wine. The best-known are those of youths and girls bull-leaping. but by the beginning of the first millennium a new. Frescoes of ships. gold. What was originally assumed to be the labyrinth at the palace of Knossos. c.52 E A R LY A RT THE EARLY AEGEAN WORLD c. Mycenaean death mask from royal tomb. 2000—500 BCE Between about 2000 and 1150 BCE. Athens: National Archeological Museum. The reasons for their later disappearance remain unclear. and cavorting dolphins convey an expressive delight in the natural world. presided over by elites. and oil. Both Minoan Crete and Mycenae were stratified. perhaps 400 years later. the principal center of power in Crete (though nothing is known of its rulers). two distinctive though related early Greek civilizations were established in the eastern Mediterranean: by the Minoans on the island of Crete and. fully Greek. culture was emerging. literate societies.

Though politically fragmented. In fact. theirs was a world that was not just materially rich but also capable of great technical sophistication. probably in the face of invasions from the north. To most societies. c. Homer's Iliad first written down Beginning of Archaic period. 1450 BCE Collapse of Minoans. It is a measure of the dominance of Greek cultural values that. for over 400 years Greek culture effectively disappeared. nakedness was a clear indication of servility. But this apparently unwarlike world was also threatened from outside. it came to enjoy an exceptionally strong sense not just of its identity but also of its intellectual superiority. 3000 B C E —1300 C E 53 recurring theme in Minoan art— overridingly these images suggest an exuberant pleasure in physicality. Around 1450 BCE Minoan Crete fell victim to the Mycenaeans from mainland Greece. they express values no culture outside the West has ever particularly esteemed. height 41 in (105 cm). Olympia First evidence of use of Greek alphabet. palace of Knossos built c.” Yet. 1500 BCE Mycenaeans become dominant power on Greek mainland c. 750 BCE First pan-Hellenic athletics festival. . 540 BCE. Yet. Kouros. these have come to seem obviously desirable goals. Though formalized—all face rigidly forward. by about 800 BCE a new. c. The palaces and villas of Minoan Crete were successively rebuilt. 700 BCE Western eyes at least. marble. to Bull-leaping fresco. perhaps following natural disasters such as the volcanic eruption that wiped out the Minoan colony on the island of Thera in the mid-17th century BCE. they would give rise to a naturalism unprecedented in the history of art. In the visual arts. c. One of the prize discoveries when the palace of Knossos (below) was excavated in the early 1900s. With the collapse of these first Aegean civilizations.C . 1600 BCE Linear B script comes into use on Crete c. The Greek obsession with the male nude began in the 7th century BCE. Athens: National Archeological Museum. Over 100 life-size statues known as kouroi (youths) have survived. emergence of city-states The heavily fortified remains at Mycenae itself underline just how much this was a society presided over by an aggressive warrior elite. 1000 BCE Greek colonists migrate to Asia Minor and eastern Aegean 776 BCE c. there were two key developments: a trend toward an idealized naturalism and the adoption of the male nude as its chief subject. By the 5th century BCE. MYCENAEAN CULTURE KEY EVENTS c. Mycenaeans take control of island c. 1150 BCE Collapse of Mycenaean Greece c. 1500 BCE. 2000 BCE Minoan civilization established on Crete. very different Greek world was emerging. Almost nothing is known of this “Dark Age. Paris: Musée du Louvre. for example. as the remarkable gold death mask of a Mycenaean ruler demonstrates. with hands clenched and one foot in front of the other (evidence of Egyptian influences)—they demonstrate a new interest in naturally rendered anatomical detail.

The relief (below) was part of the frieze on the south side of the Parthenon (left). It was removed by Lord Elgin in the early 1800s.54 E A R LY A RT CLASSICAL GREECE c. The vase shows a Hoplite returning from war. . That it did so in the face of external threats and internal turmoil makes this achievement all the more remarkable. 450 BCE). disastrous Peloponnesian War against rivals Sparta between 431 and 404 BCE. 447–432 BCE. Despite the debilitating and eventually Red-figure vase. mathematics. philosophy. and politics that would exercise an extraordinary hold on subsequent Western beliefs. Paris: Louvre Museum. height 18 7/8 in (48 cm). Victory over the Persians in 490 BCE and again in 480 BCE left Athens clearly the strongest of the Greek city-states. when it was absorbed by Rome. literature. 500—300 BCE Between the 5th century and 100 BCE. culturally at least the city would retain its leading role even after the rise of Macedonia in the following century. marble. FifthCentaur Triumphing over a Lapith. Greece evolved ideals in art. London: British Museum. ceramic. (c.

their decoration contains complex and ambitious groups of figures in settings which have a real sense of space and depth. Descriptions of Greek painting suggest it. too. opens Academy Birth of Aristotle . the Parthenon sculptures reveal the confidence and technical mastery of their creators.55 century BCE Athens saw an astonishingly fertile burst of artistic creation. when rediscovered by Renaissance Europe. is the supreme example. The Parthenon. Perspective. Other examples of Classical Greek sculpture are better preserved. The Parthenon’s sculptures fall into three groups. KEY EVENTS 505 BCE 490 BCE 480 BCE 478 BCE 461 BCE 447 BCE 431 BCE 399 BCE 385 BCE 384 BCE Democracy established in Athens Greeks defeat Persians at Marathon Greeks defeat Persians at Salamis and Plataea Confederation of Delos founded. establishing an artistic canon that would not only dominate the Roman world but. begun in 447 BCE. 525 ft (160 m) long. below these as well as along both sides were nearly 100 individual reliefs of struggling figures (men and centaurs. The sculpture manages the rare feat of being both supremely rational and yet at the same time extraordinarily sensual. and the naturalistic representation of figures all seem to have been mastered in ways that would not reappear until Renaissance Italy. would also constitute an absolute artistic standard for a further 400 years. bronze. 340 BCE. Originally. its impact would have been more remarkable still. behind the outer colonnade and running round the entire building was a relief. gods and giants). On the triangular pediments at each end of the building were large-scale free-standing groups containing numerous figures showing the birth of Athena and her struggles with Poseidon for control of Attica. foreshortening. But enough remains to make clear the extraordinary artistic impact of Classical Greece. Though painted on curved and small-scale surfaces. its crumbling grandeur constitutes an emphatic statement of the lucid priorities that drove the Classical Greek world. reached comparable levels of technical achievement. The slightly more than life-size bronze Boy from Antikythera combines calm elegance with technical sophistication in ways that were genuinely new. Athens: National Archeological Museum. many Greek sculptures are known only from Roman copies or written descriptions. c. Greeks and Amazons. Greek vases reinforce the point. and what architecture still exists is extensively ruined. even stripped of its sculpture. later transformed into Athenian Empire Beginning of domination of Athenian political life by Pericles Parthenon begun (completed 432) Peloponnesian Wars between Athens and Sparta (to 404) Athenian philosopher Socrates condemned to death for corrupting youth Plato returns to Athens. Today. height 76 in (194 cm). infusing the naturalistic with the ideal to produce a supremely selfconfident image of a godlike youth. The Roman frescoes at Pompeii were almost certainly heavily influenced by Greek originals. a religious festival held every four years in honor of Athena. GREEK SCULPTURE Boy from Antikythera. brilliantly painted and embellished with statuary. depicting the Great Panathenaia. Only a handful of fragments of Greek paintings have survived. These are wholly convincing figures. Even badly damaged. dramatically grouped and heroically conceived.

The Battle of Issus (detail). too.56 E A R LY A RT HELLENISTIC GREEK ART c. there are important differences. Alexandria. Alexander the Great began his blaze of conquest across the Middle East and Egypt. these new Greek kingdoms were political rivals but shared a common cultural inheritance. A huge program of new city building was begun in Asia Minor. The influence of Aristotle. The young Alexander (left) defeats Persian King Darius (center). mosaic. 230 BCE. who. Mesopotamia. This mosaic from Pompeii is a Roman copy of a Greek original. please fill here please fill here please fill Alexander and his successors implanted Greek cultural values across a vast swathe of the ancient world. The library at Alexandria was the most famous in the ancient world. But there is a Dying Gaul. but retained much of their cultural status. . had exported Greek artistic traditions across the whole Mediterranean. by learning. the Middle East. extended over the entire period and beyond. Rome: Pinacoteca Capitolina. One reason may have been that increasing technical mastery led artists to set themselves harder problems to solve. please fill here please fill here please fill please fill here please fill here please fill. His empire fragmented after his death. Antioch. and Pergamum for instance are all Hellenic cities. Caption head here Please fill here please fill here pease fill here please fill here please fill here please fill. Greek prestige was enhanced. marble. by the 1st century BCE. but the cultural impact of Greece on these vast territories proved enduring. and North Africa. The most obvious is that the restraint of Classical Greek art gives way to a sense of movement and drama. Naples: Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Rather like the city-states of 5th-century Greece. the original city-states of Greece itself were overshadowed politically. In the face of this huge expansion of the Greek world. with naturalism again the chief concern. who died in 322 and had been Alexander’s tutor. Though Hellenistic art continues a clear line of development from the Classical period. 1st century BCE. Roman copy of Greek original of c. The original was created shortly after the kingdom of Pergamum defeated an army of invading Gauls in 230 BCE. This process of “Hellenization” was further boosted by the Romans. 300—1 BCE In 336 BCE.

lays foundations of Alexandria Death of Alexander sparks breakup of his empire Death of Aristotle Final fragmentation of Alexander’s empire Original bronze of Dying Gaul cast. height 34 in (86 cm). The vigor of the carvings. Where on the Parthenon. and other mythological figures.C . possibly Hermarchus. on the Alexander Sarcophagus. for example. The sculpted frieze depicts the Gigantomachy. with their writhing. Berlin: Pergamonmuseum. Ariadne. is far removed from the placid assurance of the Classical period. now personality was judged at least as important. an interest later fully shared by the luxury-loving Romans. But his obvious nobility of spirit makes it clear that the sculpture is intended as a sympathetic portrayal.5 m) high and 240 ft (73 m) long. 180 BCE. Derveni krater. a sumptuous marble tomb carved probably in 310 BCE for the ruler of Sidon. A NEW TREND IN SCULPTURE Altar of Zeus (detail) c. The 4th-century Derveni krater is not just a technical tour de force but an object of conspicuous ostentation. This enormous krater (vessel for mixing wine and water) was found at Derveni in northern Greece. 230 BCE c. gilded bronze. 175 BCE 168 BCE 146 BCE 133 BCE The Hellenistic world also placed a premium on luxurious and elaborate surface decoration. while the body has repoussé reliefs of Dionysus. a clear note of triumphalism creeps in. that the Hellenistic world needed a more emphatic style of art to underline the fact of its conquests. The expressiveness of heroic figures such as these found a different outlet in the almost equally well-known Dying Gaul. The base of the platform on which the altar stands contains a frieze 71/2 ft (2. late 4th-century BCE. portrays an aging and crumpled figure. On the upper level is a second frieze 5 ft (1. the battle between the Gods and the Giants. not only is there a sense that technical mastery is being celebrated for its own sake. Whereas in Classical Greece individual worth was automatically equated with physical perfection. embodies another key characteristic: scale. 3000 B C E —1300 C E 57 sense. This was partly prompted by the teachings of Aristotle. clad in a lion-skin. One side of the sarcophagus is a battle scene in which the figure of Alexander. Thessaloníki: Archeological Museum. marble. is accorded the sort of heroic treatment previously reserved only for gods. begins conquest of Persia Alexander conquers Egypt. The stoic dignity with which he accepts KEY EVENTS 336 BCE Accession of Alexander the Great. a point that is emphasized by his physical frailty and decrepitude. civic piety set the tone. .3 m) high and fully 295 ft (90 m) long. perhaps the most famous work from the entire period. interlocking figures. The Altar of Zeus at Pergamum. The shoulders are decorated with statuettes. too. Pergamum Altar of Zeus at Pergamum begun Start of Roman expansion into eastern Mediterranean Greece and North Africa fall under Roman rule Pergamum bequeathed to Rome his fate makes clear an interest in the individual that was reflected in the development of lifelike portraiture. The mid-3rdcentury bronze statue of a philosopher. OSTENTATION 332 BCE 323 BCE 322 BCE 302 BCE c.

the work is only intended to be viewed from the front. This kind of dramatic. almost like a relief. desperate struggles of and Athenodorus. It is an astonishingly accomplished work. when Renaissance interest in Greek statuary was reaching a peak. this was due to the dramatic circumstances of its chance discovery in Rome in 1506. acutely observed and highly The flanking figures finished. Overwhelmingly its impact of the sons create a stems from the sense of heightened and triangular composition. It is essentially conceived in one plane. anchoring it large-scale treatment had a significant impact on Michelangelo and on later artists of the Roman Baroque. the Aeneid. In part. Polydorus. in part. Stylistically it derives from the Altar of Zeus at Pergamum of around 150 years before. struggling figures. The twist of the muscular The Laocoön is thought to have been carved torso adds dynamism and in the second half of the 1st century BCE. Laocoön was a Trojan priest punished by Poseidon. who sent two snakes to kill him and his sons. 42–20 BCE Few Greek statues exercised a greater hold on the Renaissance imagination than the Laocoön. As with all Antique statues. balancing and writhing figures. after he had urged the Trojans to reject the apparent Greek peace offering of a wooden horse. to the heroic nobility of its expressive. . the father and the other son. point of death is contrasted with the Hagesandrus. He is physically separated from the other figures and also carved from a separate block. According to Pliny. energy to the composition This means it belongs to the very end of the Hellenistic period. tragic emotion generated by its contorted. It has been suggested that the figure of the elder son (right) may have been added later. it would originally have been painted. the group was carved The figure of the son who is on the by three sculptors. TECHNIQUES Despite its technical sophistication and complex interlocking figures.58 E A R LY A RT Laocoön Hagesandrus. and Athenodorus c. The statue illustrates an incident in Virgil’s account of the Trojan Wars. Polydorus. continuing.

increasing tactile values . excluding base. while their sinuous lines unify the group’s rhythmic continuity. 3000 B C E —1300 C E 59 Tortured expressions highlight the new interest accorded to the tragic dignity of suffering The snakes bind the bodies of the father and his sons into a single composition. 72 1/2 in (184 cm) Medium marble Location Rome: Vatican Museums Strong diagonals reinforce the sense of drama and movement Draperies are contrasted with gleaming skin tones.C . Laocoön Dimensions height.

This kind of pragmatism is illustrated by the celebrated late-2nd-century CE equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. However potently Rome projected images of its political power. dies 14 CE Ara Pacis Augustae created. At its most extreme. Greek sculptures KEY EVENTS 264 BCE 218 BCE 149 BCE 46 BCE 27 BCE 13–9 BCE 79 CE 113 CE 117 CE Rome completes conquest of Italy. for example. Arm outstretched. easily installed. The man in the detail (left) is Marcus Agrippa. rightly attributed to Roman art. on balance. Rome Death of Emperor Trajan: Roman Empire at its greatest extent Ara Pacis. marble. was never less than bold. Hence the lifelessness traditionally and. Rome weren’t just copied by the Romans. head turned slightly to the side. is just one of 33 surviving Roman copies of the Hellenistic original. Rome developed only a limited artistic language of its own. itself known only from Roman copies. Rome Pompeii and Herculaneum destroyed after eruption of Vesuvius Trajan’s Column built. first Punic War (to 241 BCE) Second Punic War (to 201 BCE): Hannibal invades Italy Third Punic War (to 146 BCE): Carthage destroyed by Roman army Julius Caesar appointed dictator (assassinated 44 BCE) Octavian becomes first Roman emperor (as Augustus). the result was an apparently permanent Roman inferiority complex in the face of the Greek artistic achievement and the stifling of independent Roman schools of art. Roman art was largely imitative and utilitarian. What was originally an idealized image of male beauty has been slightly clumsily converted into a vehicle stressing Roman imperial might and the godlike person of the emperor. 13–9 BCE. the emperor’s son-in-law . 300 CE Uniquely among the leading powers of the ancient world. his pose is just one of numerous Roman reworkings of the 5th-century BCE statue of Doryphorus. whilst seeking to stress the continuity between the rule of the Emperor Augustus and the earlier . Greek poses recast in Roman garb were pressed into service to reinforce Roman power.60 E A R LY A RT IMPERIAL ROME c. The frieze shows members of Augustus’s family and state officials. the visual means it used to do so were secondhand. but Roman painting and sculpture were derived largely from Greek models. The 1st-century CE Medici Venus. Rome. they were actively recycled. available in a variety of sizes. could be supplied headless. Even the much earlier Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). 27 BCE —c. the buyer supplying his own. this practice allowed a kind of off-the-rack shopping whereby heroic Greek figures. Roman architecture. like Roman engineering. Yet rather than acting as a stimulus. portrait head. 161–180 CE Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius cast. Greece provided Rome with a huge range of models to adapt to its own ends.

Landscapes and Nile in Flood (detail) c. Rome: Musei Capitolini. seascapes augmented by complex architectural settings using sophisticated illusionistic devices seem to have been the preferred subjects. Most of the surviving examples of Roman painting are from Pompeii (preserved thanks to the eruption that obliterated the city in 79 CE). tended to equate opulence with quality. As ever in the imperial Roman world. height 138 in (350 cm). gilded bronze. the paintings at Pompeii seem to have been almost exclusively decorative murals for expensive villas. 175 CE. In imperial Rome the love of luxury. in most cases Greeks—superior interior decorators rather than artists as the Greeks would have understood the term. The surviving murals were clearly painted by journeymen. This was a world in which more almost always meant better. ROMAN PAINTING Equestrian statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius c. These offer crucial clues to the earlier Greek painting on which they were modeled. there was a premium on presentation over content. severely disapproved of by those seeking a return to the stern values of the republic. mosaic. In contrast to what is known of these Greek originals. the manner in which they do so is unambiguously Greek. The virtues they seek to embody may be Roman. above all in its use of a continuous large-scale frieze of figures.3000 B C E —1300 C E 61 Roman republic. Palestrina: Museo Archeologico Prenestino. 80 BCE. The Romans followed Greek models to produce magnificent floor mosaics. . is obviously dependent on Greek models.

His decision in 330 to move the capital of the empire from Rome to Constantinople (modern Istanbul) confirmed an existing shift of political and economic power to the east. almost all shown in profile. these vigorous but less sophisticated artistic models were adapted by the early Christian Church in the search for a visual language appropriate to its theological needs. In turn. built by the Emperor Constantine early in the 4th century. by contrast. A tradition of Roman-style portrait painting continued in Egypt through the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. so as to legitimize his rule. The later reliefs. London: British Museum. The early reliefs are all carved in the fully naturalistic tradition inherited from Greece. contain figures that almost deliberately seem to caricature their more elegant predecessors: stumpy and badly proportioned. The contrast is so great there is a sense that these reliefs are almost Constantine’s reign marked a crucial moment for Rome. His legitimization of Christianity in 313 . In addition to reliefs carved in the reign of Constantine himself. 300—450 CE As Rome’s empire was eroded. The choice of these was deliberate: all come from the reigns of well-loved emperors with whom Constantine wished to identify. flaunting their deliberate abandonment of the Greek visual tradition. encaustic on wood. neatly encapsulates the move away from the rationalism of Greece. Mummy-case portrait from Fayum. Roman art increasingly departed from the naturalistic ideals it had inherited from the Greeks. the arch incorporates a series of sculptured reliefs from earlier periods. In the same way. RADICAL CHANGE The Arch of Constantine in Rome. foreshortening and other devices to create a sense of space are totally ignored.62 E A R LY A RT LATE ROMAN & EARLY CHRISTIAN ART c.

. The sumptuous mid-4thcentury sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. each containing five scenes of sharply carved if crudely realized figures. benign. Roman. There was a longrunning controversy as to whether God the Father could be represented or whether this would Roundel from the Arch of Constantine This medallion. What had been a minor sect. often arcaded with aisles and an apse at the far end. prototypes were used. erected c. these never included the Crucifixion. hence the urgency with which he set out to reconcile rival Christian sects. Inevitably. Although many scenes from the life of Christ were depicted quite early on. Again. 400. frequently persecuted. dates from the reign of Hadrian (117–138 CE).3000 B C E —1300 C E 63 KEY EVENTS 312 CE 313 325 Constantine confirmed as emperor Edict of Milan: Constantine legitimizes Christianity in Roman Empire Council of Nicaea called by Constantine to resolve theological differences within Church St. completed Constantine dedicates Constantinople as new capital of Roman Empire Emperor Theodosius imposes Christianity on Roman Empire as sole religion Death of Theodosius: Roman Empire definitively split into East and West Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome Vandals under Gaiseric sack Rome Deposition of Romulus Augustulus. if the figures are slightly awkwardly rendered. large oblong halls. who is portrayed as a young. Constantine’s decision was overridingly political: he used the Church as a central point around which the empire could regroup. In both a youthful Christ occupies the central scene. No such strictures applied to the figure of Christ himself. and Mary Magdalene worship the risen Christ. old. early Christian statuary and mosaics provide the only clues as to how these questions had consequences that were equally momentous. derives directly from an imperial Roman tradition. which is to say pagan. 315 CE. ivory. seated with arms outstretched in benediction. the mother of Jesus. a form of death reserved for the lowest class of criminal. were resolved. It was taken by Constantine from an earlier monument to decorate his triumphal arch in Rome. Even the cross itself was only slowly adopted as a universal symbol. Rome. The challenge thereafter was to find visual means to express the Christian message. last Roman emperor in the west 329 330 391 395 410 455 476 constitute idolatry. stern. However. has two tiers. now enjoyed the full weight of imperial patronage. A similar fusion of pagan forms and Christian subject matter is evident in an ivory of around 400 depicting the Holy Women at the Tomb of Christ. there was little agreement as to how he should be shown: young. CHRISTIANITY AND ART Holy Women at the Tomb of Christ c. which shows a sacrifice being made to Apollo. beardless man in Roman dress. even bearded or beardless. it being a central tenet of Christianity that Christ had been made man. The basic form of churches themselves came from secular Roman buildings known as basilicas. His pose in the upper tier. they clearly stem from the earlier Greek tradition. Milan: Castello Sforzesco. In the absence of surviving paintings. for example. Mary. Peter’s basilica.

flanked by angels and donors. Trieste: Cathedral of St. . as it remains. This portrait of the splay-footed emperor. 500—1200 CE Vastly richer than the beleaguered Western Empire and increasingly drawn toward the east. retinue. is one of the most compelling images in Western art. The Byzantine tradition that Mary should be depicted wearing a blue robe was carried over into Western art. part man of destiny. Among the earliest examples of Byzantine art are the glittering. over the altar. Justinian’s Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople projects this mood of fierce piety even more strikingly. The dominant image. near otherworldly mosaics in the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna in Italy. As the teachings of the Church were codified. The most important subject of Byzantine art was Christianity. the Byzantine Empire evolved a new and elaborate visual language dominated by complex religious imagery. 6th century. which were not venerated as icons. It marked an near absolute break with the Classical Greek inheritance that had driven earlier Roman art. shadowy recesses evoke an astonishing sense of the grandeur and mystery at the heart of imperial Byzantium. They are important not just as an emphatic assertion of the vigorous (if short-lived) Justinian reconquest—the attempt by the Eastern Emperor Justinian to recreate a unified Roman Empire in the face of the barbarian conquests in the west—but as a supreme example of the new sensibilities of the Byzantine world. But hardly less remarkable is that of Justinian and his Madonna and Child. Ravenna. 12th century. mosaic in vault of apse (detail). is of a luminous. seated Christ. The interiors of Byzantine churches were richly decorated with mosaics. and reliefs. Just.64 E A R LY A RT BYZANTINE ART c. Vitale. part gangster. almost 600 years after the Ottoman conquest of Byzantium in 1453 when what was then still the largest church in Christendom became. The later formality of the Byzantine tradition Byzantine capitals in Church of S. but not statues. Even today. Gestures and even colors came to acquire precise and unvariable meanings. its glinting mosaics and vast. a mosque. gilding. precise rules came to govern how they could be depicted.

547 555 558 692 726 751 843 864 1054 Hagia Sophia begun in Constantinople (consecrated 537) Justinian launches reconquest of West Roman Empire Mosaics in San Vitale Ravenna Byzantine conquest of Italy and southern Iberia complete Dome of Hagia Sophia collapses (rebuilt by 563) Trullan Council sanctions use of figures of Christ in art Emperor Leo III bans worship of religious images. 547 CE.65 Christ Pantocrator. It was in Byzantium. In part this was a matter of doctrine. last Byzantine possession in Italy. and high-ranking members of the clergy. central fact of Byzantine art: that religious “icons” (literally “images”) were increasingly valued as aids to contemplation. and religious leader of the Byzantine Empire. Egypt. . The glowering mosaic figure of Christ Pantocrator. remains a ubiquitous icon of the Orthodox Church. late 11th century.” staring down from the dome of the monastery church of Daphni in Greece. mosaic. Daphni (Greece). Vitale. “the Mother of God. KEY EVENTS 532 533 c. FAR . Christian art. mosaic. they would exercise a profound influence on the spreading world of “orthodox” Christianity (“orthodox” because sanctioned by the Byzantine Church). Ravenna: S. “Christ the ruler of all. provoking “iconoclast” crisis Ravenna. The figure of “Christ ruler of all. Catherine in the Sinai Peninsula. military. is an exceptionally potent image of an implacable God. Flanked by imperial officials. and later of western. highlights a further. Small and often portable. c. falls to Lombards Triumph of Orthodoxy: religious images officially promoted Mission of Cyril and Methodius begins spread of orthodoxy in eastern Europe Final schism between Roman and Orthodox churches Emperor Justinian I and his Retinue. Justinian is portrayed as the political.REACHING INFLUENCE belies just how inventive it originally was. Yet once established in the 5th century that it was precisely her virginity that made her An image such as the 6th-century panel painting of the Virgin and Child from the Monastery of St.” his left hand holding the Bible. too. Monastery church. generals.” she became a central figure of Byzantine. the right hand raised in blessing. The conversions of Bulgaria in 864 and Kievan Russia in 988 to this distinctive brand of Christianity were crucial in expanding its reach and in implanting it in new lands. that the Virgin Mary was developed as one of the key icons of Christian art.

SAXON & VIKING ART c. height 5 in (12. produced works of art of a remarkable and immediately recognizable potency. The discovery at Sutton Hoo in 1939 of the burial goods of an early AngloSaxon king. 600—900 Northern Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire has traditionally been seen as entering a “dark age. from Ireland and from continental Europe. Oslo: Universetets Oldsaksamling. not much more than 200 years after the Romans had abandoned Britain. Inlaid with garnets and colored glass. Augustine to England Lindisfarne Gospels Synod of Whitby: Roman Christianity adopted in England Bede completes his Ecclesiastical History of England First Viking raids on western Europe Viking ship’s figurehead c. is evidence of a warrior society capable of exceptional craftsmanship. it. London: British Museum. Britain came firmly within the orbit of the Roman Church. generally agreed to be Raewald. 825. The 9th-century carved dragon ship’s figurehead. Yet among the objects found in his grave were a Byzantine bowl and gold coins from Gaul. evidence of long-range trading contacts. Yet drawing on earlier Celtic traditions and increasingly becoming part of the Christian world. wood. 790 c.” lost in impenetrable obscurity: marginal. gold. it produced exceptionally vivid and sophisticated works of art. found in a burial mound at Oseberg in Norway. Once these rival traditions had been reconciled in 664 by the Synod of Whitby. 800 Book of Kells . 731 c. Nonetheless. KEY EVENTS 563 597 c. THE VIKINGS By contrast. and violent. too. shadowy.66 E A R LY A RT CELTIC. This intricately carved dragon’s head was among the grave goods found in a burial mound excavated in 1904. Already Christianity was penetrating Britain. the Viking world as it emerged over the next 200 years was at first genuinely beyond Rome’s reach. Raewald died around 625. early 7th century. ruler of East Anglia. 650 664 Irish monastery established at Iona Mission of papal emissary St. drawing on the same Celtic roots that are obvious at Sutton Hoo. the treasure highlights a world poised between a pagan past and a Christian future.7 cm). transformed people’s understanding of emerging Anglo-Saxon England. At the same time. the piece shows clear affinities with the intricately intertwined patterns of Celtic jewelry and illuminated manuscripts. Belt buckle from Sutton Hoo.

interspersed with extracts from the Gospels. It is a book of verses. is the most famous product of the fusion of Celtic art and Christian subject matter.3000 B C E —1300 C E 67 The Book of Kells c. they may have been influenced by Roman floor mosaics Triskele—three legs radiating from a central point—are a recurring motif in Celtic art The capitals—Chi and Rho— are first two letters of the Greek word for Christ and are one of the oldest Christian symbols The complexity of the patterning is similar to contemporary Celtic jewelry Naturalistic details—human heads. and birds—are dotted among the swirling. The Book of Kells. Among its innovations was the use of richly decorated and elaborate capital letters at the start of each passage. Book of Kells Dimensions 13 x 10 in (33 x 25 cm) Medium ink on vellum Location Dublin: Trinity College Library . 800 The monastery established in 563 on the remote island of Iona off the west coast of Scotland was one of a handful of isolated Dark Age Irish Christian communities that were responsible for an extraordinary outpouring of Celtic Christian art. Interlaced patterns are a key characteristic of Celtic decorative art. animals. The thousands of hours of patient labor lavished on it represented an act of worship just as much as the examination of it was intended to induce a mood of contemplation. swooping line work. above all a series of sumptuous illuminated manuscripts. produced at Iona in about 800 and taken to Ireland for safekeeping when the Viking raids began.

away from the Mediterranean toward the north. the western half of the fractured empire would subsequently emerge as France. It was a deliberate assertion of Rome reborn. the Low Countries. king of the Franks. In extending his rule deep into Germany. Germany. Charlemagne also sparked a cultural revival that decisively influenced the development of later medieval art. complete 802 Lombardy brought within Charlemagne’s empire Imperial (Palatine) Chapel begun at Aachen. conquered and forcibly Christianized by Charlemagne after a KEY EVENTS 771 772 774 792 800 814 843 845 875 910 936 Charlemagne sole ruler of Frankish Empire Conquest of Saxony begun. its unity destroyed after his death in destructive dynastic quarrels. The strange-looking creature framed by the arch is the winged lion. But his longer-term legacy proved remarkably enduring. purple vellum. 800. Peter’s in Rome. but it also established a common language among Europe’s elites and strengthened the authority of the Roman Church. the Frankish Empire had become the most successful of the new states formed after the collapse of Rome. was crowned emperor of a new Roman Empire by Pope Leo III in St. CULTURAL RENEWAL St. France Accession of Otto I as Holy Roman Emperor savage 30-year campaign. On Christmas day 800. and most of Italy. Charlemagne’s promotion of Latin not only helped preserve Roman texts that might otherwise have been lost. symbol of St. In the same way. In effect. territories the Romans had been unable to subdue were brought within western Christendom. . Mark the Evangelist. 800—1000 By the 8th century. In the 10th century. A shift of Europe’s political and cultural center of gravity was taking place.68 E A R LY A RT MEDIEVAL ART OF NORTHERN EUROPE c. a nascent German state had been created. had become a major center of early medieval art and religious teaching. It reached its largest extent under Charlemagne in the early 9th century when it covered France. Saxony. completed 805 Coronation of Charlemagne in Rome Death of Charlemagne Treaty of Verdun divides Carolingian Empire into three Paris sacked by Vikings Charles the Bald crowned first Holy Roman Emperor Foundation of Benedictine abbey at Cluny. Mark from Carolingian Gospel Book c. Abbeville: Bibliothèque Municipale. As it turned out. Charlemagne’s empire would prove vulnerable. Charlemagne.

An example of the artistic outpouring generated by the Carolingian renovatio (renewal) is a Gospel book produced at the city of Aachen. The image of St. Cologne Cathedral. images are to the ignorant. illumination on vellum. 985. Mark. Book cover 8th century. dominated by the Crucifixion. Charlemagne’s capital. it is a clear attempt to imitate the richness of the late Roman world. tortured sensibility. This depiction of the Crucifixion is an early example. Chantilly: Musée Condé. As early as the 6th century. 970. only faded fragments of which survive. narrative images of this kind became a fixed part of the western tradition. are known to have decorated Carolingian churches. . An early 9th-century ivory panel. is not just an obvious celebration of the evangelist. Otto. He married a Byzantine princess. contains three scenes. Pope Gregory I had affirmed the didactic purpose of religious imagery: “What scripture is to the educated. Similar painted scenes. early in the 9th century.3000 B C E —1300 C E 69 Cross of Gero c. ruled 967–983. silver gilt and ivory. The carving of the Crucifixion shows Longinus thrusting his spear into the dead Christ’s side. in an obvious narrative sequence. set within an elaborately jeweled frame. In reality.” Under Charlemagne. height 73 5/8 in (187 cm). suffering unbearable agonies. Unlike Byzantine art. Holy Roman Emperor c. western European religious art stresses the suffering of Christ. of what would become almost the single most important Christian image in medieval Europe: Christ not just on the cross but clearly human. The four women offering homage to the emperor represent the four parts of his empire. encapsulates this new. carved around 970 and now in Cologne Cathedral. The so-called Cross of Gero. Its Classical origins are clear. however. As important was the development of a narrative tradition in religious art that would endure throughout the Middle Ages. Otto II. its provenance hard to unravel. it looks forward to the Middle Ages rather than back to Rome. subsequently used as the cover of devotional volume known as the Pericopes (meaning simply “extracts”) of Henry II. the second Saxon Emperor. framed by a triumphal arch. There is no Roman precedent for the double-jointed twist of the evangelist’s right wrist any more than there is for his oddly angled feet. Cividale del Friuli: Museo Archeologico. oak.

whether Viking. was almost exclusively religious. 1000—1300 Despite external threats. In the process. south wall of Chartres Cathedral. by about 1000 the Christian states of Europe had begun a slow process of recovery. or Muslim. these were buildings that were deliberately magnificent and. Early medieval art. The foundation of a new monastery at Cluny in central France in 910 sparked a hugely important reform of the western Church. Under its second abbot. built around 1120. At the heart of their regeneration was the Church. Nave of Pisa Cathedral 1094. much larger than anything yet seen in Europe.70 E A R LY A RT ROMANESQUE & EARLY GOTHIC ART c. St. Magyar. in many cases. for example. possesses this austere gravity in abundance. Wealth from trade funded the city’s beautiful Romanesque cathedral. the only pan-European body in Christendom. a new architectural language. Odo. One consequence was a program of new church building across much of western Europe. 1224. they were not merely reinvigorated themselves but the Church as a whole became much more expansive and assertive. the Romanesque. Rose window c. increasingly lavish. Pisa was one of the powerful maritime republics of medieval Italy. There is a heaviness to its massive walls and . Cluny extended its control over a number of other monastic foundations. stained glass. in architecture above all. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE Quite rapidly. came into being. The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. As a reflection of the new power of the Church.

Gothic carvings. for example. The early Gothic cathedrals with their soaring verticals reaching up to pointed arches were triumphant assertions of a new sensibility that equated massive building projects with personal piety. at Padua. begun in 1220. It was different in every important sense. angels. the whole presided over by the serene figure of Christ. Madeleine in Vézelay in the Burgundy region has many fine examples of Romanesque carving. and Romanesque capital c. The subject depicted. That this is a radically different type of structure is obvious. at Augsburg cathedral. where the floor-to-ceiling stained-glass windows are both a technical tour de force and an exultant celebration of a new monarchy certain of its own power. Self-aware and increasingly self-assured. climaxed at Amiens. a visual language expressly designed to celebrate the central place of the Church in an increasingly confident European society. projects a similar certainty of its own worth: stylized. Denis: first properly Gothic building Second Crusade (to 1148) Accession of Henry II unites much of France and England In 1144 Abbot Suger. the area immediately above the main entrance. reinforcing papal authority Third abbey church at Cluny. THE GOTHIC KEY EVENTS 1031 1065 1066 1077 1085 1088 1096 1098 1137 1147 1154 Beginning of Christian reconquest of Spain Earliest known stained glass in Europe. there is nothing new—its ribbed vaults and pointed arches had appeared in a number of earlier buildings—yet St.” that is quite different. As with all medieval sculpture. At much the same time. and elegant. in France. Chartres Cathedral These Old Testament figures. The mid-12thcentury illustration of St. abbot of the monastery of St. . the damned. and the saved. makes clear the revitalization of European sculpture. a new manner of sculptural decoration was created. date from the late 12th century. Italy First Crusade (to 1099) Foundation of Cistercian order in France Rebuilding of St. originally it would have been painted. lavish. is the Last Judgment. an art form almost abandoned after the fall of Rome. The pilgrimage church of Ste. a reminder to worshippers entering the building of their mortality. This was not a world looking back to Rome. Structurally. the whole lit by what Suger memorably called “the liquid light if heaven. Gothic art was more than just an extension of the Romanesque. 1135. the tympanum. as it is on almost all later such carvings. Denis has a unity. It is a compelling example of the self-belief that underpinned the art of medieval Europe. Denis just outside Paris. the largest in the world. and the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris (1243–48).3000 B C E —1300 C E 71 immense tunnel vaults that emphatically projects the new self-assurance of the Church. begun First university in Europe established. John from the Gospel of Liessies. begun in 1194. is crowded with figures dominated by Christ in the center. At Autun Cathedral. The vigor and elegance of this teeming scene. It was a style that reached maturity at Chartres. probably painted by an English illustrator in the Low Countries. presided over the consecration of the rebuilt choir of the abbey church. The self-confidence of this world found other outlets. filled with demons. for example. flanking the central door of the the west facade. Germany Norman conquest of England Emperor Henry IV forced to seek absolution from Gregory VII. it sought to create its own towering monuments to God.


Edward III’s attempted conquest of France in 1337 began over 100 years of brutal conflict between England and France. socially. huge areas of eastern Europe had been seized by the Mongols.C . Technologically inferior and politically fragmented. it appeared destined to remain at the mercy of more powerful neighbors. carried by ship-borne rats from Asia. the southeast of the continent was being menaced by the aggressively expanding Ottomans. in the face of these enormous handicaps. and economically. At the same time. Europe looked ill equipped to deal with these threats. 1300 –1500 The word “Renaissance” (meaning “rebirth”) was first used in the 15th century to describe a revival in Classical learning. the creation of the Goths who had destroyed the glories of art and architecture in the Roman Empire. demonstrates the enthusiasm with which the Gonzaga family. Yet politically. there had been a run of catastrophic harvests. In the previous century. embraced the new art and learning. it was wracked by periodic bouts of savage internal warfare. When in 1346. At the same time. trade routes had been consolidated. Between 1315 and 1319. Yet. it seemed just the latest in a series of traumatic events. “Gothic” was used to describe a style of architecture regarded as barbaric. A sense of pan-European identity began to emerge. Throughout the Middle Ages. the Catholic Church was divided by a period of schism. the rulers of Mantua. I t was only in the 19th century that “Renaissance” was used to explain the cultural flowering of the 14th and 15th centuries that launched the intellectual framework and artistic traditions of the modern world. began to wipe out one third of Europe’s population. the soil from which the Renaissance grew could hardly have seemed more barren. Mantua: Palazzo Ducale. In addition. Europe staged a comeback. Meanwhile. combined with Classical motifs. the Black Death. 1465–74. fresco. The virtuoso use of perspective. principally as the result of commerce. By the end of the 14th .1300—1500 73 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE C. RECOVERY THROUGH TRADE Camera degli Sposi Andrea Mantegna.

In its later years Gothic art became increasingly decorative and elegant. painted by Giotto 1346 First occurrance of Black Death. 46 x 63 3⁄4 in (117 x 162 cm) Madrid: Museo del Prado. limewood (originally painted). The ravages of the Black Death were indiscriminate: the rich were as vulnerable as the poor. facilitating trade with northern Europe 1337 Start of 100 Years’ War between England and France 1300 1304–12 Scrovegni Chapel. For example. height 35 in (89 cm) Bonn: Rheinisches Landesmuseum. and together these led to a general rise in prosperity. It also includes the decorative art of the period. but without any overall scheme of representation. but so were ideas. oil on panel. c. by the early 15th century the most powerful of these citystates. Equally important was the establishment by Hans Fugger in Bavaria in 1380 of a banking network that in time would make the Fuggers the richest family in Europe. It was here that the physical remains of the ancient world—notably sculpture and architecture —were most numerous and so most easily studied. Padua. but others were quick to imitate them. c. led the way. Florence. it was in Italy that the Renaissance achieved its fullest flowering. and when used by Italian painters is called “International Gothic. with sophisticated patterns and rhythms. consciously chose to see itself as the direct heir of Rome. 1300 Venetians improve Brenner Pass. which was usually highly ornamental with realistic detail. 1562. GOTHIC ART “Gothic” describes principally a style of architecture common in Northern Europe between 1100 and 1500.” Roettgen Pietà. Financed by TIMELINE: C. Also the newly rich city-states believed that they needed to embody the spirit of the Roman Empire itself.1300.74 century. the establishment of the Hanseatic League in 1360 created a series of northern European cities that could rival the traditionally dominant Mediterranean. in three years reduces Europe’s population by one third 1350 1360 Hanseatic League founded 1378 The Great Schism: rival popes in Rome and Avignon (to 1417) 1387 Medici bank founded. 1300—1500 1380 Foundation of international banking system by Hans Fugger in Augsburg. Venice and Genoa. Germany 1389 Battle of Kosovo: Ottomans gain control of Balkans c. city-states grown rich on trade with the Orient. Money and goods were exchanged. ITALY Nevertheless. Florence . The Triumph of Death (detail) Pieter Brueghel the Elder. a network of sea and land routes linked much of the continent.

ease. and cost of the spread of information and ideas. Santa Maria Novella. Florentine artists not only proclaimed the superiority of Classical antiquity but asserted that it represented a golden age of creativity whose spirit needed to be revived in the present. Columbus’s first Atlantic crossing 1400 1415 Burning of Jan Hus for heresy provokes religious wars in Bohemia 1429 Joan of Arc sparks French revival in 100 Years’ War 1434 Dome of Florence cathedral completed 1450 1450 Alliance of Florence. permanently different. and architects were at the forefront in instigating these fundamental changes. oldest known book printed with moveable type 1492 Muslim Granada falls to Spain. Painters. Naples. POISED FOR EXPANSION in the 1450s. and were ready to reject the dogmatic propositions and blind faith that controlled the elaborately complex medieval world. fall of Bordeaux to France ends 100 Years’ War 1454 Gutenberg Bible. first properly classical building of the Renaissance 1425 Masaccio’s Holy Trinity. European thought was becoming more questioning and freethinking. The most decisive contribution to this new spirit of inquiry was the invention of moveable type by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany Dome of Florence Cathedral Completed by Filippo Brunelleschi in 1434. At the same time. This sparked an unprecedented revolution in the speed. People began to look for rational explanations of the physical environment and human behavior. and was thus looking ahead to a world in which all three would be. and would look. he was conscious that he was unifying science. 1421–44 Brunelleschi’s Foundling Hospital. Florence 1453 Constantinople falls to Ottomans. the dome of Florence Cathedral was an emphatic statement of civic pride in which science was used to produce architecture of outstanding beauty.c.1300—1500 75 its own indigenous banking dynasty. When Brunelleschi demonstrated how perspective could be represented schematically on a flat surface. philosophy and art. and they condemned the recent past as a dark age. and Milan dominates north and central Italy 1469 Lorenzo de Medici (the Magnificent) assumes control of republic of Florence . When Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic in 1492 he opened new horizons and at the same time confirmed that Europe had moved from the shadowy margins of the world to occupy center stage. Florence. the Medici. sculptors.

1314/19) were father and son. approx. fresco 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2.000 in 2004. Perugia. A favorite of the French court. The Fontana Maggiore in Perugia is the most famous of their joint works. c. 1323–26 (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale). 1349 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. 1330 (Los Angeles: J. Lawrence and Stephen. Madonna. Siena. cute children. 1315 (Prato Cathedral) KEY WORKS draperies. 1284) and Giovanni (c. Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux. 5 Pisa. Worked together.562. Blended Giotto’s tough realism with the sweetly lyrical qualities of Sienese artists (such as Ambrogio Lorenzetti). 1220–c. Coronation of the Virgin (oils) A younger contemporary of Giotto. 61 x 85 3⁄8 in (155 x 217 cm). his works were expensive and purchased by nobility and royalty. 1330–40 (London: National Gallery). c. 1290 – C . Martyrdoms of Sts. Nicola (also called Niccolò) founded a workshop. c. Creator of popular.76 Nicola and Giovanni Pisano b 13TH – 14TH CENTURIES n ITALIAN Polyptych with the Crucifixion and Saints Bernardo Daddi. Paul Getty Museum). Renowned for their religious stonework. Pucelle’s works are renowned for being more realistic in their depiction of human features than those of the traditional. recognized as such in his lifetime. Owned an influential workshop in Paris at the start of the 14th century. Madonna and Child. flowers. as now. Pioneers of the Gothic style. Nativity (pulpit). Then. 1245–c. but each retained a distinct individual style. Look for smiling Madonnas. who was possibly Daddi’s teacher. Italy. Ursula at Cologne. Padua 1 sculpture Nicola (c. Traveled to Italy and Belgium to learn new techniques. Belgium 1 illumination Pucelle was an eminent illuminator of manuscripts and a master miniaturist. at which Giovanni was a pupil. The Marriage of the Virgin. art that is kind to the eye and mind tends to have a wide following. “flat” icon painters. 1300 – C . c. 1305 (Padua: Cappella dei Scrovegni). KEY WORKS Belleville Breviary. tempera and gold leaf on panel. c. London: Courtauld Institute of Art. 1265– 68 (Siena Cathedral). 1348. Pistoia. 1350 n FRENCH 5 France. such as altars and pulpits. They are credited with bringing a previously unseen naturalism to stone sculpture. small-scale portable altarpieces. 1325–28 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Bernardo Daddi b C. KEY WORKS Arrival of St. easy-tolook-at. and . 1330 (Florence: Santa Croce) Jehan Pucelle b C.

1385–90 (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale). and landscapes of real places (such as the Duc’s châteaux). at a time of great political turmoil. Other styles may include elaborate borders around the text or small pictorial scenes. KEY WORKS The Nativity. 1416 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Paris. first-hand observation from life. they were sent to train in Paris. 1300–1500 77 Limbourg brothers b ACTIVE 1390s – C . where their father was a wood carver. who was a painter. The medium is often associated with religious books. Les Très Riches Heures. and green are employed. France: Musée Condé) Paul (or Pol). illumination on vellum. Note how they used contemporary advanced Italian ideas such as landscape background (one of the brothers went to Italy). Characteristically. Their work and patronage reflect the notion Death. Duc de Berry. Their two great works are Les Belles Heures and Les Très Riches Heures. France: Musée Condé). c. the initial letter of a page is much larger than the others and furnished with images and bold colors. Their best-known work is the “Months” from Les Très Riches Heures because they are most accessible to a secular society and look wonderful in reproduction. Italy 1 illumination 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé. Jean. Chantilly (France): Musée Condé.C . Herman. 1413–16. Paul was probably the head of the workshop. 1421 . They used old forms (illustrated Books of Hours—personal prayer books) but with fresh and stunningly innovative illustrations—scenes of everyday life (courtiers and peasants). The use of gold and vivid hues of red. The Anatomy of Man and Woman. but it is not possible to distinguish his hand from those of his brothers. New York: The Cloisters that. and Jean Limbourg were pioneering illuminators who trained as goldsmiths and then worked for the great French patron of the period. c. ILLUMINATION 7th–15th centuries “Illumination” is the term used to describe the hand-painting and handwriting of books decorated with motifs in rich colors. blue. fine detail. Their brilliant colors and meticulous technique marry perfectly with their subjects. commissioning and collecting art is a celebration of God’s glory and an act of true devotion. Through the influence of an uncle. Illuminated “P” by Bartolomeo di Fruosino. Note the fine detail—an obsession of the brothers. for the wealthy. and anticipated Netherlandish art—storytelling. unusual biblical events. c. and observation. 1413–16 (Chantilly. 1416 (Chantilly. One of the Four Riders of the Apocalypse Paul (or Pol) Limbourg. They were born in the Netherlands.

Francis. 1366 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. with more credible 3-D space. and emphasizing the storytelling side of picture making.e. c. adding anecdotal details. 1300 (Florence: Palazzo Pitti). who was his . Rome 1 oils. So many works have been attributed to him that his name has almost come to represent a group of like-minded artists rather than an individual.114. Key early Sienese painter. Francis and Dominic. c. The Bromley Davenport Altarpiece—The Man of Sorrows. Cimabue was a contemporary of Dante. Gaddi popularized Giotto’s tough realism by making it decorative. 1300 – C.77m in 1976.78 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Taddeo Gaddi b C. it is claimed that he initiated the move from the static “old” and “unreal” Byzantine style to the “modern” and “realistic” style. Florence. The Entombment of Christ. c. tempera. 1360–66 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery) Cimabue (Cenni di Peppi) b C. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. human form. 1355 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). and Andrew (oils) He was Giotto’s principal follower (and godson?). 1240 –1302 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. Paris 1 oils 3 $1.000 in 1991. John the Evangelist. c. The Crucifixion (oils) Madonna and Child Enthroned with Eight Angels and Four Prophets (or Maestà) Cimabue. 1280–85 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). tempera on wood. fresco 2 Florence: Santa Croce (Baroncelli Chapel frescoes) 3 $3. mosaic 2 Pisa: Cathedral (apse mosaic) The most prominent artist working in Florence at the end of the 13th century. Peter. He tells a story with tenderness and humanity. 1301–02 (Pisa Cathedral) Duccio di Buoninsegna b ACTIVE 1278 – 1319 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. Sts. Paul. KEY WORKS Annunciation to the Shepherds. and emotion. Traditionally said to be Giotto’s teacher—i. KEY WORKS Maestà. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels and Sts. 1280. fresco. 151 1⁄2 x 87 3⁄4 in (385 x 223 cm). He is not as innovative in style or technique as Giotto. Duccio influenced all those that followed (just as Giotto influenced Florentine artists). 1328 (Florence: Santa Croce). though we know he existed. Christ Enthroned between the Virgin and St. Madonna and Child Enthroned.

1335–40 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Siena: Palazzo Pubblico. 1308 –11 (Washington. old-fashioned. His hand gestures help tell the story. Some of the oddities or quirkiness can be explained because his style is not actually of the Renaissance: it is essentially Byzantine and Gothic—that is. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. notably blue. 1308 (Siena: Museo dell’ Opera Metropolitana). Scenes from the Life of Blessed Humility. but the buildings still look real and livedin. The Apostles Peter and Andrew. which can be rather sly. straight noses. Lorenzetti brothers b ACTIVE C.C . 116 1⁄2 x 550 3⁄8 in (296 x 1398 cm). He paints no-nonsense (slightly sceptical?) faces with long. He makes decorative use of color. fresco. 1308–11 (Washington. c. The perspective and scale may be haywire. but with a new twist. Florence 1 fresco. DC: National Gallery of Art). c. Ambrogio’s work is warmer and less solemn than his brother’s. but he is a better narrator of events. c. 1300–1500 79 contemporary. 1341 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) . c. DC: National Gallery of Art) Allegory of Good Government: Effects of Good Government in the City (detail) Ambrogio Lorenzetti. small mouths. Crucifixion with Two Martyrs (oils) by Pietro Lorenzetti Siena’s Pietro (1320–c. Nativity. red. Pietro Lorenzetti. followed in the steps of Duccio di Buoninsegna. The Holy Women at the Sepulchre. c.630 in 2001. and almond-shaped eyes. but with more realism and expression. and may be arranged so as to divide up the constituent parts of the story. Look at the way the people act and react together. c. and the way he uses the setting as part of the narrative. rather than completely new like Giotto’s. and pale green. 1308–11 (Siena: Museo dell’Opera Metropolitana). oils 3 $906. 1348). Siena)—the first Italian paintings where landscape is used as background. 1338–39. They had shadowy lives (there is a difficult chronology for extant work) and both died of plague. KEY WORKS The Charity of St. 1319 –1348 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. Nicholas of Bari. his most important works are the frescoes of Good and Bad Government (Palazzo Pubblico. KEY WORKS Maestà. 1348) and Ambrogio (1319–c.

oils 2 Padua: Cappella dei Scrovegni. Florence Giotto designed the Campanile in 1334. which would establish the framework for Western art until 20thcentury Modernism changed the rules.” The impact. well-built.” HENRI MATISSE Campanile of the Duomo. . He looked. simplicity. support the main action or emotion. you only have to look to know exactly what is going on). meaningful gestures. Giotto then became Cimabue’s apprentice. and believability. In other words. He lived through a period when Florence was becoming one of Europe’s most important and influential cities. But notice also “When I see the Giotto frescoes at Padua. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Giotto’s innovation was in the way he portrayed supposedly real-life events to appear as though enacted by lifelike people expressing believable emotions and occupying recognizable settings and spaces. but I immediately understand the sentiment which emerges from it. Naples. For it is the lines. the sense of space around and between the figures. 1267 – 1337 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. large bones. Rome. such as trees and rocks. solid figures. Croce The painter who brought a new level of realism to art. painted what he saw. selfexplanatory storylines (like early silent movies. Here it is viewed from the top of the Duomo. his paintings are about life. the composition. An unsubstantiated story tells how he was discovered by chance by the great painter Cimabue who saw the boy Giotto sketching his father’s sheep. who grew rich and important in Florentine society. Florence: S. 22 years after his death. how shape and movement of incidentals. Assisi. even now. is one of directness. Assisi: S. the color. and construction was finished in 1359. I do not trouble myself to recognize which scene of the life of Christ I have before me. Despite humble beginnings as the son of a farmer. strong. Milan 1 fresco. Francesco. Giotto became an educated and cultivated man. Look for his outstanding features: faces expressing genuine emotion. and then opened up a “window on the world.80 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Giotto di Bondone b C. Padua. accessibility.

1305–10 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) The Ecstasy of St. Assisi: S. The Lamentation of Christ. Francis. Francesco. Francis Giotto di Bondone. The Virgin and Child. c. c. where he finds problems that are difficult for him to resolve.C . most memorable for their emotional and spiritual impact. c. c. 106 3⁄8 x 90 1⁄2 in (270 x 230 cm). Francis. 1305–06 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum). 1304–13).” who had died less than 80 years earlier. which is decorated from floor to ceiling with a complex arrangement of selfcontained scenes. . 1305. for example. frescoes. KEY WORKS Stigmata of St. 1300–1500 81 Cappella dei Scrovegni. Padua Giotto di Bondone. 1297–99. 1305 (Padua: Cappella dei Scrovegni). The climax of the chapel’s glorious decoration is the large fresco of the Last Judgement on the west wall. Giotto’s key monument is the Scrovegni (or Arena) Chapel in Padua (c. c. Enthroned Madonna with Saints and Angels.g. and a convincing sense of weightlessness (e. One of the frescoes depicting “The Legend of St. he had no knowledge of perspective or anatomy. fresco. 1295–1300 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). flying angels) eluded him.

The Betrayal of Christ. the storytelling lacks deep meaning. MA: Museum of Fine Arts). St. he was essentially a large-scale. fresco. Christ Discovered in the Temple. 1409 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art).000 in 1991. Galleria dell’Accademia 3 $1. A highly gifted monk (monaco is Italian for “monk”). not to create ideas of space. Although he experimented with new ideas (such as perspective). fresco. The Angel and the Annunciation. Peter (oils) One of the leading painters from Siena and a follower of Duccio. 1320 (Boston. golds. Giotto. oils.665.517 in 2004. because. His poetic imagination strove to unite the natural with the supernatural. and decorative Gothic with Giotto’s realism. illumination 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. illumination 3 $220. 1333 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). 12 3⁄4 x 8 3⁄8 in (32. 1340–44 (Milan: Biblioteca Ambrosiana). fine technique. decorative illustrator. colors are less clear. and the faces and gestures lack Duccio’s precision. Giotto’s was the future. Crucifixion (oils) 3 $200. Simone’s work was a final chapter of the past. it lacks everything that is in Giotto: Simone’s figures are artificial. but narrative is less well focused. Look for the qualities you might see in illuminated manuscripts (despite the difference in scale): glowing color. c. A close follower of Duccio. with convoluted poses and gestures. Lorenzo was born in Siena. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. 1326 (Assisi: Lower Church).4 x 21. DC: National Gallery of Art). flowing. 1370 –1425 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. c. 1342 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery) KEY WORKS KEY WORKS St. rhythmic. lovely as it is. Avignon 1 tempera.2 cm). a precise. KEY WORKS The Nativity. Apotheosis of Virgil. Death of St. 1400. Madonna Enthroned between Adoring Angels Lorenzo Monaco. and movement. c. golden draperies. rhythmical. not least of illuminated manuscripts. 1422 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) . but seems to have spent all his professional life in Florence. and also known as Ugolino da Siena. The Adoration of the Magi. everything is arranged decoratively.200 He was Sienese. c. Mary Magdalene. decorative line). Madonna and Child. closely worked line. reds. meticulous observation of detail. Florence 1 oils in 1990. lively drawing. Happiest when working on a small scale—predella panels and manuscripts. 1315 (Siena: Palazzo Pubblico). 1285 – 1344 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. Creator of altarpieces and illuminated manuscripts (look for a love of detail. and with a similar style.82 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Simone Martini b C. 1324–25 (London: National Gallery) Lorenzo Monaco b C. Martin. faces are stylized and without genuine emotion. Annunciation (oils) Ugolino di Nerio b ACTIVE 1317 – 27 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. luminous blues. Simone’s allconsuming emphasis was on decoration for sumptuous overall effect. 1413 (Washington. It is interesting to compare his work with that of his exact contemporary. panel. c. Maestà. form.

Venice 1 oils. 1420 (Los Angeles: J. As well as using traditional techniques such as tooled gold. uninhibited qualities—the kind that children show when making a picture: a delight in storytelling. and with a liking for patterned textiles and static figures. sudden attention to unexplained detail. 1440 (Washington. lots of physical activity. prissy. fresco 3 $497. Florence. Worked all over Italy. he was the most accomplished exponent of the International Gothic style. 5 Fabriano. named after his birthplace. 10 1⁄2 x 30 in (26. bow-shaped lips.C . oil on panel. The Meeting of St. 1395 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). His preference was to turn a work of art into a highly luxurious object (a characteristic of the International Gothic style). c. Anthony and St. plants—which he recorded with delicacy and sympathy. spaces and perspective that don’t quite work. Fabriano in the Marches. rather than a window on the world (Renaissance). DC: National Gallery of Art). Margaret. The Annunciation (oils) He was an Italian painter. 1300–1500 83 Gentile da Fabriano b 1370 – 1427 n ITALIAN The Presentation in the Temple (from the Altarpiece of the Adoration of the Magi) Gentile da Fabriano. birds. 1435 (Washington.5 x 66 cm). Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1423. Virgin and Child Enthroned. 1437–44 (London: National Gallery). 1423 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum). Most of his work is either lost or destroyed. He created delicate. unsophisticated. Note the bright little eyes with prominent whites and. The Nativity. 1423 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). unreal figures with pink cheeks. c. San Sepolcro Altarpiece. c. Look for his charming. Adoration of the Magi. His works could almost be fabulous textiles woven with gold thread. space. Paid great attention to natural detail—animals. KEY WORKS St. Coronation of the Virgin. 1437–44 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). and narrative. Paul. Florence 1 oils The best painter of early Renaissance Siena. also observe stylized crow’s-feet on older male faces.624 in 1986. c. Paul Getty Museum) KEY WORKS Stefano di Giovanni Sassetta b 1392 –1450 n ITALIAN 5 Siena. The Madonna and Child Surrounded by Six Angels. sometimes. DC: National Gallery of Art) . decorative colors. One of the foremost artists of his day. faces with wide-eyed expressions. he also experimented with light. Combined the old decorative style of the International Gothic with the new ideas from Florence. and curious harp-shaped ears.

Martin of Tours. John the Evangelist and St. He had a graceful figure style. oil on wood. St. 1436–38. Matthias. learned by working with the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti. c. Notice how the leaves. decorative backgrounds like tapestries. Rome 1 oils. KEY WORKS St. c. Liberius and St. and had an interest in everyday details. Santa Anastasia. St. His work has qualities similar to those of illuminated manuscripts. he was recognized as a painter of great distinction. 17 x 11 3⁄4 in (43 x 30 cm). using fresh colors. .84 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE The Last Judgment Stephan Lochner. 1383 –1447 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. St. c. 1453 (London: National Gallery). KEY WORKS Madonna of Humility. especially of animals. Como (Italy): Castiglione Olona 3 $270. c. in reply to the influential “modern” style of Duccio. KEY WORKS The Annunciation. when you can. and convincing narrative style. A Nobleman Attended by Knights and a Knight Fallen from his Charger in a Landscape (works on paper) He was very popular with princely courts as a painter. decorator. 1440s. 1428 (London: National Gallery) Giovanni di Paolo b ACTIVE 1420 – 82 n ITALIAN 5 Siena 1 oils 3 $800. 1423–24 (Verona: San Fermo). 1415–20 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). The Feast of Herod. in which the spaces.) Notice his fascinating direct observation from life. and logic of the “real” world are deliberately ignored. engravings. John the Baptist Retiring into the Wilderness. perspective. and made skilful use of perspective. fresh draftsmanship.300 in 1990. London: National Gallery. His portraits have distinctive profiles. Exquisite coloring and minute detail are characteristic of Lochner’s work. 1423 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art). but few works now survive. He was an accomplished modeler of flesh and hair. flowers. The Nativity and the Adoration of the Magi. 1453 (London: National Gallery). fresco 2 Verona: San Fermo. Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum. and meticulous. He painted flat. scale. George and the Princess of Trebizond. c. and costumes. 48 x 67 1⁄3 in (122 x 171 cm). and butterflies combine to create a rich tapestry effect. Scenes from the Story of Esther (oils) “The El Greco of the Quattrocento. c. 1395 – 1455 n ITALIAN 5 Verona. emotions. Developed a charming.” Sienese painter who adopted a deliberately old-fashioned style. portraitist. birds. tempera on wood. 1455–59 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Portrait of Ginevra d’Este Antonio Pisano Pisanello. decorative. Paris: Musée du Louvre (drawings) 3 $212. Masolino da Panicale b C. which relate to his pioneering of the art of the portrait medal—a medium at which he excelled. Rome. Hungary 1 oils.000 in 2001. It is good for an inconclusive art-historical debate: is he the late flowering of the International Gothic style or the pioneer of early Renaissance? (It is more profitable to forget the debate and just enjoy what you can. 1437–38 (Verona: Santa Anastasia) Pisanello (Antonio Pisano) b C. and medallist. c. fresco 2 Rome: San Clemente (fresco cycle).000 in 1995. Prophet or Evangelist (oils) Best remembered as collaborator of Masaccio. Paris: Musée du Louvre.

Arms of a Virgin or a Magdalene. Dijon: Chartreuse de Champmol. Brussels 1 sculpture A sculptor and a founder of the Burgundian School. 1300–1500 85 Stephan Lochner b C.C . Worked in Brussels. before moving to France. For 21 years. gold backgrounds. c. Symbolic well surrounded by statues of Moses and other Old Testament prophets. 1350 – C . Born in Haarlem. rounded figures with slightly silly. c. 1440– 45 (Cologne Cathedral). Look for ordinary mortals introduced into religious works standing alongside divine figures. where he worked from 1442 until his death. 1405 n DUTCH 5 Cologne 1 oils 2 Cologne A shadowy early German painter about whom little is known and to whom few works are attributed for certain. chubby faces. 1445 (London: National Gallery) 5 Dijon. silken-looking hair. and anecdotal detail. Duke of Burgundy. . Fragment of Crucified Christ. stone. Hugely influential on the development of northern European sculpture. His work is characterized by fine draperies. Author of religious works of soft. height of figures 70 4⁄5 in (180 cm). 1440 (Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum). c. 14th century (Dijon: Musée Archéologique) The Moses Well Claus Sluter. and John the Evangelist. natural. somewhat fussy. glowing colors. The leading master of his time in Cologne. 14th century (Dijon: Musée Archéologique). rich. 1400 – 51 n GERMAN Claus Sluter b C. Sts. Catherine of Alexandria. KEY WORKS The Virgin in the Rose Bush. late 14th century. KEY WORKS Portal of the Chartreuse de Champmol. and realistic human figures. Annunciation. 1385–93 (Dijon). lived in Dijon as chief sculptor of Philip the Bold. Matthew.

jewel-like picture surface looks back to the International Gothic. more commissioned 1434–64 Florence ruled by Cosimo de’ Medici 1445 1452 Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible. the muscular Isaac derived from Classical originals. rebirth) in early 15th-century Italy: a renewed. first printed book in Europe (Germany) Publication of Alberti’s De Re Aedificatoria. the Medici. Renaissance artists. more systematic study of Classical Antiquity in the belief that it constituted an absolute standard of artistic worth. 1402.86 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE THE EARLY RENAISSANCE Three major principles underlined the Renaissance (literally. the sense of space is equally marked. fresco. 1469–92 Lorenzo (the “Magnificent”) de’ Medici rules Florence . bronze.3 x 43. KEY EVENTS c. on a procession that is more regal than religious. The change came first—and most obviously—in sculpture. Florence: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. e. The richly garbed figure on the white horse is Lorenzo de’ Medici. Gozzoli’s mid-century Procession of the Magi artfully combined the two. the first great Renaissance fresco cycle 1424 Ghiberti completes first set of Florence Baptistry bronze doors. Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello. the figures and landscape are just as clearly products of the Renaissance. STYLE From the start. were conscious that their work represented a decisive break with the immediate past. and the discovery and mastery of linear perspective. there was an increasing interest in secular subjects. The Sacrifice of Isaac Lorenzo Ghiberti. 21 x 17 in (53. Florence. Ghiberti’s panel for a new set of bronze doors for Florence Baptistry owes a direct and immediate debt to Roman models. Florence. but the key elements of the Renaissance are unmistakably present. If the shimmering. especially those based in its birthplace.4 cm). first comprehensive treatise to set out principles of Classical architecture The Procession of the Magi (detail) Benozzo Gozzoli. a faith in the nobility of man (Humanism). commandingly certain of his worth in every sense. 1459.g. Figures are modeled naturalistically. surrounded by numerous retainers. His Magi are portraits of his patrons. 1427 Masaccio completes frescoes in Brancacci Chapel. SUBJECTS Though religious subjects continued to predominate.. they made up a revolution in Western art. The frame may be Gothic. Santa Maria del Carmine. Together.

C . is a key element in the curious air of mystery that pervades his work. Its precise meaning remains disputed but its soft modeling is ravishingly well done. Who are they. the seated figure of Pontius Pilate gazes impassively at Christ’s punishment The significance of the three figures in the foreground has been endlessly questioned. oil and tempera. no less than limpid skies. dividing it in two. On the left. ultimately what marks them is a distinctively haunting sense of serene detachment. The Flagellation of Christ Piero della Francesca. Flesh tones (which use a base of green paint). 1300–1500 87 15th century WHAT TO LOOK FOR The two most obvious technical triumphs of Renaissance painting were the ability to portray convincingly naturalistic figures in equally convincingly realized illusionistic spaces. TECHNIQUES Piero’s palette. 1470. are realized with remarkable economy.4 x 81. He The architectural details—ceiling of the semi open-air structure and rich floor tiles—are painted exactly The vanishing point is precisely calculated: exactly on the center line of the painting. c. 23 x 32 in (58. Piero della Francesca. Yet however rational his paintings may be. . epitomized both developments. and why are they so detached from the flagellation? The statue immediately above Christ’s head provides clear evidence of Piero’s interest in the Antique. A great and enigmatic masterpiece. The flagellation is carried out with hardly any animation. Urbino: Galleria Nazionale delle Marche. consistently cool and clear.5 cm). author of three mathematical treatises. a quarter of the way up constructed exceptionally elaborate perspective schemes while his figures have an overwhelming sense of assured monumentality.

Santa Maria Novella The greatest of the early-Renaissance Florentines.” He left very few known works. Joseph in Egypt (Porta del Paradiso). and St. Masaccio was the first painter to understand and use scientific perspective. 1425–52 (Florence: Baptistry) The Trinity Tommaso Masaccio. He painted believable and dignified human figures. designer. 1426 (Naples: Museo di Capodimonte). emotion. Florence: Santa Maria Novella. 1378 –1455 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. including the artist’s skill. St. Lawrence. KEY WORKS The Sacrifice of Isaac. in which the human figure is the central feature. tempera 2 Florence: Brancacci Chapel (fresco cycle). Madonna and Child with St. c. KEY WORKS Crucifixion. movement in the landscape. Look for rich decoration and elegance of sculpting. expressing qualities of feeling. Born and worked in Florence. Opened a large. Married Marsilia c. two sons. Renowned in his lifetime as the best bronze-caster in Florence. suffering— also expressed simultaneously through gestures and hands (but why are the hands so small?). so helping them to look real). Lucy. His sincerely-felt religious works expressed worship of God by sensitive interpretation of the New Testament and by mastery of all the chief technical interests and developments of the period (all of them. Madonna and Child (sculpture) He was a sculptor. Masaccio means “Big ugly Tom. This piece was covered over in 1570 with a panel painting by Vasari. His deeply moving pictures can plumb the most basic and profound of human emotions. he revolutionized the art of painting during his short lifetime and was the bridge between Giotto and Michelangelo. His simple. with the eye drawn by fluid drapery. Catherine (oils) An important early-Renaissance Florentine whose work forms a bridge between Masaccio and Botticelli. goldsmith. also worked in Siena. fresco (post restoration). 1427 (Florence: Santa Maria del Carmine) Fra Filippo Lippi b C. The individual expressions on the faces show minds and emotions at work—enquiring. pupils included Donatello. Famous for the bronze doors of the Baptistry in Florence. and only rediscovered in 1861. His relief work is defined by clean lines and plenty of activity. Masaccio (Tommaso Giovanni di Mone) b 1401– 28 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 fresco. Prato: Cathedral (fresco series) 3 $183. both worked in the studio. 1415. The Expulsion from Paradise. Uses light to model draperies and figures (instead of outline. the same is true for foreshortening. Fusion of classical artistic style with realism. . 1425. wellordered compositions. accord with the Renaissance principle that human beings are the measure of all things.484 in 2002. tempera. 263 3⁄4 x 124 in (670 x 315 cm). 1402 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). Also produced stained glass and sculptures. glass 3 $245.88 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Lorenzo Ghiberti b C. and writer. Creates believable spaces. and ornate carving. Tommaso and Vittorio. doubting. which human figures dominate with authority. influential workshop.679 in 2000. 1406 – 69 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany 1 fresco. oils 2 Spoleto: Cathedral (frescoes). and intellectual curiosity that are as relevant today as 500 years ago. Siena 1 sculpture.

tempera. 1452 (Florence: Palazzo Pitti). The Beheading of St. The Annunciation.1438–40. Cosmas and St. such as flowers. tempera on panel. 1425–30 (Florence: Convent of San Marco). decorated costumes. Angelico takes evident pleasure in colors (especially pink and blue) and things that he has observed closely. finely painted decorative detail. landscape. the twin martyrs were finally killed. St.) There is disarming and childlike innocence in the detail: youthful. The Adoration with the Infant Baptist and St. Damian Fra Angelico. c. . Paris: Musée du Louvre. enthusiastically telling the story of God’s goodness. Peter and St. Thomas Aquinas by the Cross (oils) Noli me Tangere. attractive. The Annunciation. The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Angels and Saints. Rome 1 fresco. c. proportion. 1448–50 (London: National Gallery). 1439–43 (Florence: Convent of San Marco) He was a Dominican friar whose work combines old-fashioned (Gothic) and progressive (Renaissance) ideas.080. He uses old-fashioned gold embellishments and modern perspective with equal enthusiasm. Anne. and have great innocent purity—as though he saw no evil in the world (perhaps he didn’t. 1387 – 1455 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. 1459 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) His paintings interpret the Christian message with directness. Bernard. c. 1438–40 (Florence: Convent of San Marco). KEY WORKS Fra Angelico b C. Perugia. Note his love of rich detail—marble floors. oils 2 Florence: Convent of San Marco (fresco series) 3 $1. The Mocking of Christ. Look for the chubby figures with slightly glum youthful faces. Madonna and Child with Stories of the Life of St. his soft draperies have highly detailed borders. 14 1⁄2 x 18 in (37 x 46 cm). carefully drawn drapery folds. happy faces with peaches and cream complexions and pink cheeks. and holy. gold grounds. 1440–45 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). c. Fiesole. c. KEY WORKS Virgin and Child. and eyes that look as though they never blink. Orvieto. They are delightfully happy.C . communication between human figures. c. After previous failed attempts on their lives. 1435–45 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). everyone is busy doing something. c.537 in 2003. 1300–1500 89 being a gift from God): perspective.

symbol of victory and power David Medium bronze Height 62 1⁄4 in (158 cm) Location Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello . the figure does not seem capable of the great strength or violence needed to have killed the giant. Donatello’s David was a move away from traditional religious imagery. As a result. he was particularly skilled at working with bronze with fine detail and highly polished surfaces. 1435–53 This piece was created for the Medici. David holds the sling he used to bring down Goliath Many Florentines were shocked by the statue’s nudity In his right hand is the sword that decapitates Goliath Donatello probably trained as a goldsmith. It stood in Florence’s Palazzo Medici. David’s expression is strangely dreamy and contemplative In his left hand. One of the first nude statues of the Renaissance. Both works told of the death of oppressors—a warning to enemies to keep away. Goliath’s helmet displays Donatello’s ability to sculpt in relief.” Although David stands with the head of Goliath at his feet. and was first mentioned in the report of the marriage of Lorenzo il Magnifico (1469). known as “contrapposto. paired with a statue of Judith and Holfernes. the homoeroticism is instantly apparent.90 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE David Donatello c. as is the innovative twisting pose about the hips. He stands on a laurel wreath.

ready to spring into action.839 in 2002. Follower of the humanistic movement. Patronized by the Medici. and terracotta. fresco 2 London: National Gallery. Portugal. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi He was an important and very influential Venetian who worked in Florence. he was a popular member of Florentine society and close to his patron. 1436 (Florence: Museo dell’Opera del Duomo) also patrons in Naples. Worked in stone and terracotta. Padua 1 sculpture 2 Florence: Museo dell’Opera del Duomo. 1445 (Washington. KEY WORKS The Resurrection. Florence: Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. KEY WORKS St. 1300–1500 91 Donatello b 1386 –1466 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. Madonna and Child with Saints (sculpture) His full name was Luca di Simone della Robbia. and nothing escaped his extraordinary capabilities: relief sculpture. he was well known for choosing only good-looking boys as studio apprentices. KEY WORKS St. c. His innovations and discoveries were profoundly influential on Michelangelo. he reinvented the art of sculpture just as other contemporaries were reinventing the art of painting. but creations filled with energy and thought. nudes. c. 1415 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). His scenes are thick with symbolism and the faces expressive. 1444 (Florence: Pazzi Chapel) Domenico Veneziano b C. strict attention to detail. keeping the formula of his tin glazes a secret. 1411 (Florence: Or San Michele). stone. St. . He was more interested in constructing with light and color than with modelled form and perspective. detail) Luca della Robbia. 39 3⁄8 x 37 in (100 x 94 cm). Born in Florence. Physically strong and rough. Essentially. Worked closely with his nephew Andrea della Robbia (1435–1525). 1442–45 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). wood. Was able to bring sculpture to life by his ability to tell a story. Museo Nazionale del Bargello Unquestionably the greatest sculptor of the early Renaissance. Zuccone. c. Almost nothing is known about him now and there are only a few known works surviving. and probably homosexual. c. to combine realism and powerful emotion. A warm personality who gave practical help to struggling artisans. he came from a large family of artists and artisans. Mark. The carvings illustrate the 150th Psalm and depict angels. Famous throughout Italy. marble. Look for rich color and luminous tin glazes. Roundels of the Apostles. c. Cantoria (choir gallery. George. Prolific sculptor of the early Renaissance. 1399 –1482 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 sculpture. and girls in song. Lucy. Florence 1 tempera. Careless with money. Achieved fame and wealth through glazed terracotta artworks. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1400 – 61 n ITALIAN 5 Perugia. groups of figures with single figures seated or standing. and give his figures a sense of more than mere objects of beauty for passive contemplation. Trained in textiles and as a goldsmith before sculpture. traveled widely. ceramics 2 Florence: San Miniato al Monte 3 $254. 1432–38. The Martyrdom of St. c. Cosimo de Medici. 1445–48 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Luca della Robbia b C. prone to anger. and an awareness of the properties of draperies and metalwork reflected in his sculpture. c. Set up successful studio in Florence. unmarried. and Spain.C . boys. equestrian statues. John in the Desert. He had complete mastery of sculpture in bronze.

he worked in his early years with Ghiberti on the doors of the Baptistry in Florence. which enabled him to show off a combination of brilliant. c. His works are instantly recognizable by the schematic use of perspective and foreshortening. 1465–70. He liked crowded scenes. 1455 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). One of Uccello’s greatest works. Battle of San KEY WORKS Romano. mid1430s (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). and enjoy his strong sense of design and attention to decorative detail. 1460 (London: National Gallery). The leading stag (center) is the focus of the “vanishing point. however. c. Orvieto. His over-theoretical application of the science of perspective tends to swamp all other considerations. c. Thomas Aquinas Benozzo di Lese Gozzoli. complained that he loved his perspectives more than her. A good craftsman who enjoyed what he saw. The saint is enthroned between Aristotle and Plato. Galleria degli Uffizi The Hunt in the Forest Paolo Uccello. tempera on panel. . sit or lie on the floor and work out the proper viewpoint. oil on canvas. and can make his work look rather wooden and the figures toylike. oils. 1421 – 97 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. The Triumph of St. Study of Male Nude (drawing) Down-to-earth early-Renaissance Florentine. Pisa 1 fresco. Sadly. Galleria degli Uffizi 3 $36. Does he use a single viewpoint for the perspective. The Flood. or are there several? Forget perspective and foreshortening for a moment. They are also often hung at the wrong height in galleries so that his carefully worked out perspective effects are visually ruined.” He was a Florentine painter. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum. George and the Dragon. 1447–48 (Florence: Santa Maria Novella) Benozzo di Lese Gozzoli b C.92 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Paolo Uccello b 1397–1475 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 tempera. 29 1⁄2 x 70 in (75 x 178 cm). But the sheer enthusiasm and gusto with which he used perspective stops his pictures from becoming dry and boring.750 in 1993. decorative qualities. fresco 2 Florence: Santa Maria Novella. Gozzoli was a painter of high-quality altarpieces and predella panels. tempera 2 Florence: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi (fresco series). many of his works are in very poor condition. Originally trained as a goldsmith. (If necessary. and carefully observed solid figures. St. born Paolo di Dono and nicknamed Uccello (“the bird”). Paris: Musée du Louvre. 90 1⁄2 x 40 1⁄4 in (230 x 102 cm). 1470–75. Duomo (frescoes). with no-nonsense faces and expressions. which demonstrates his fascination with perspective. Rome.) The Crucifixion. His wife. c.

Nicholas and St. He was a prime example of the artist as a craftsman. His altarpieces show an overall mood and style of refinement. Look for clear. 1495 (Washington. and mythologies. whose name he took. The Baptism of Christ. c. his observations of nature. c. How do you interpret the strangely ambivalent role played by the animals in his pictures? Note the charming landscape details that look as though they have come out of a woven medieval tapestry. tough warrior. His strange. the stylized curly. Many of his works were done as decorative panels for furniture (such as cassoni) or rooms. c. c.000 in 2001. 1500 (Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art). KEY WORKS Procession of the Magi. they are entirely fanciful and can have disturbing suggestions of struggle and violence. wiry hair. and delicate idealism. delicate landscapes and skies that contrast with craggy outcrops and rocks. particularly if bald. which is reflected in the eyes and expressions on the faces. 1521 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils 3 $150. Authentic paintings by him are very rare. 1490 (Washington. Note how well he arranges crowds. KEY WORKS Andrea del Verrocchio b C. He portrayed two types of face or body: epicene youth and craggy. Note his love of fine detail. Kneeling Angel Writing with Forefinger and Two Shepherds (works on paper) He was an out-of-the-ordinary earlyRenaissance Florentine who led a bohemian lifestyle and was fascinated by primitive. and are firmly placed on the ground. Anthony Abbot. and his storytelling are especially endearing and memorable. 1470–80 (London: National Gallery). 1461–62 (London: National Gallery). He painted portraits. 1477–80 (Florence: Museo dell’Opera del Duomo). Beheading of John the Baptist. Had a workshop where Leonardo da Vinci trained. hence their elongated shape. The Dance of Salome. c. Allegory. Venice: Campo Santi Giovanni e Paolo. 1459–61 (Florence: Palazzo Medici-Riccardi). prehistoric life. Tobias and the Angel. Also painted similarly fresh. 1462 – C. 1300–1500 93 Gozzoli’s figures have good hands (with long fingers) and good feet. Notice the bowshaped lips pressed together. grace. The work was a competitive challenge to Donatello. he trained with a goldsmith. Nobody knows what they mean or why they were painted. c. 1478–80 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) KEY WORKS Piero di Cosimo C. Study of the Madonna. and has a propensity to paint the tops of heads. DC: National Gallery of Art) .C . tempera. sharp outlines and bright colors. Became a leading Florentine painter. bronze. mythological fantasy pictures are unique. Madonna and Child with Saints. His figures seem modeled and conceived as sculpture. A Satyr Mourning over a Nymph. 1480s. 1435 – 88 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 sculpture. 1461–62 (Washington. or with a hat or helmet. goldsmith. height 395 cm (155 1⁄2 in). 1495 (London: National Gallery). 1470 (Florence: Palazzo Vecchio). faraway atmosphere. altarpieces. Putto with Dolphins. His love of animals and birds. poses that imply movement through weight being placed on one foot or one leg. freshness. The Raising of Lazarus.910 in 1953. DC: National Gallery of Art) expensive fabrics decorated with gold thread and jewelry. They have a dreamy. DC: National Gallery of Art). Madonna and Child (oils) The son of a brickmaker. The Visitation with St. oils 3 $30. so we are free to interpret them as we like. showing in Equestrian Monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni Andrea del Verrocchio. and (principally) sculptor. the refined hands touching each other or others.

This work shows the artist’s mastery of depicting the human body in motion. choosing subjects to display these interests and skills to the full. tempera 2 Orvieto Cathedral (fresco series) 3 $790. 1432–98) was a shadowy figure who. They never worked out how to use the middleground. fresco 3 $489.000 in 1998. His religious and secular subjects were chosen to make the most of his interest in dramatic (overdramatic?) compositions. Mary Magdalen. c. 1441–96). engraving. c. c.3 x 59 cm). c. Rome 1 tempera. They also painted detailed landscapes and had an interest in spatial recession. They had a pioneering interest in anatomy and landscape. 15 1⁄8 x 23 1⁄4 in (38. oils. Florence. Signorelli was intense and gifted. John the Baptist. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. KEY WORKS Hercules and the Hydra. sculpture. Observe the movement. but firmly in the second division. ran one of the most successful workshops in Florence. 1465–70. Portrait of a Man. His figures have stylized. and back views in the manner of an anatomical analysis (they are said to have dissected corpses to study anatomy—a daring and risky venture at the time). Shows front. Portrait of a Woman. but outclassed by Raphael and Michelangelo. c. Rome 1 fresco. nude or seminaked. and gestures in his figures— . 1481–82 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Luca Signorelli b C. notably anatomy— the male. with his brother Piero (c. engravings Antonio (c. Andrew and Francis (oils) He was a well-known early-Renaissance Florentine. but their work jumps abruptly from foreground to background. 1470 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). obsessively painted hair and a curiously tired and drawn look around the eyes.400 in 2002. Crucifixion with Madonna. 1470 (Milan: Museo Poldi Pezzoli). Perugia. oils. KEY WORKS Virgin and Child with an Angel. 1441 –1523 n ITALIAN 5 Arezzo. doing something that shows straining muscles and sinews. c. side. He painted run-of-the-mill religious works. MA: Museum of Fine Arts). Study for a Seated Prophet (works on paper) Battle of the Ten Naked Men Antonio Pollaiuolo. muscles.94 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Pollaiuolo brothers b C. 1470 (Boston. 1432 – 98 n ITALIAN Cosimo Rosselli b 1439 –1507 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. 1470–80 (London: National Gallery) 5 Florence. Orvieto. Apollo and Daphne.

c. visits her cousin Elizabeth (pregnant with St. tempera 2 Florence: Santa Maria Novella. Rome 1 fresco. forward inclination of heads. 1486–90 (London: National Gallery). 1486 (Florence: Badia Fiorentina) “Ghirlandaio … was created by Nature herself to become a painter. Note his wonderful hands and fingers. Agostino Altarpiece. 1479–85 (Florence: Santa Maria Novella). 1491 (London: National Gallery). oils. good male bone structure. and portraits to illustrate religious subjects. 1491. wrists. c. old-fashioned yet realistic storytelling style. 1457 – 1504 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. which could be illustrations to a story—a forerunner of the Dutch and 19th-century genre. feel. domestic pictures. he uses long. St. Santa Trinità. He used contemporary settings. tempera on panel. which really do look as though they touch. 67 5⁄8 x 65 in (172 x 165 cm). Pisa. 1479–85 (Florence: Santa Maria Novella). 1479 (London: National Gallery).C . Rome: Sistine Chapel (all fresco series) 3 $318. The Vision of St. Bernard. His figures have long hands. (Michelangelo always showed flesh and blood. Successful. Penitent Mary Magdalen (oils) The son of Filippo Lippi. who was left-handed and so used hatching that goes from top left to bottom right. Do not confuse with his brother David (1452–1525).) He painted hands that look distorted by arthritis and mouths with set expressions. widely spaced strokes that follow the main curves and contours. 1480 (London: National Gallery). c. Look for homely. young faces with soft eyes. Observe his sweet. San Pietro Martire (oils) Florentine painter who achieved success with a solid. John the Baptist). c. 5 Florence. Consequently many are still in situ. oils. 1498 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Domenico Ghirlandaio b 1449 – 94 n ITALIAN The Visitation Domenico Ghirlandaio. faces. 1485 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Filippino Lippi b C. The Circumcision. Portrait of an Old Man and a Boy. middleclass people. He painted important fresco series and a few portraits.” GIORGIO VASARI . Rome: Santa Maria sopra Minerva (both cities for fresco series) 3 $2m in 2005. tempera 2 Florence: Santa Maria Novella. dress. like the patrons who commissioned these works. and grasp. His frescoes were commissioned as decoration for important public buildings. KEY WORKS The Adoration of the Kings.000 in 1980. KEY WORKS A Legend of Sts. 1300–1500 95 but sometimes there is too much of this and the paintings are overcrowded. He painted serious. He emphasized the sculptural quality of the figures to the point where they sometimes look as though they have been carved out of wood. well-fed. Justus and Clement of Volterra. Rome 1 fresco. pregnant with Jesus. and legs. KEY WORKS The Holy Family. c. manners. Birth of the Virgin. His religious subjects show all the standard technical qualities of earlyRenaissance Florentine painting (see Filippo Lippi). Good draftsmanship. but stylistically outdated in his later years. His most famous pupil was Michelangelo. In tempera. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Mary. Birth of John the Baptist.

1458 –1537 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils. Known as Sandro. long and refined hands. but his style was lifeless and lacked individuality. high-key palette with orange/reddish tone. unable to cope with Florence’s turbulent descent into social and political turmoil. with dreamlike unreality and distortions. 27 1⁄2 x 41 in (70 x 104 cm). and humanist ideals. Notice his fascination with pattern—in elaborate materials. Alessandro di Mariano Filipepe Botticelli was a major Florentine artist. who emphasized ornament and sentiment rather than scientific observation and realism. wrists. classical. or both. La Primavera (see pages 98–99). Portrait of Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici (oils) The Adoration of the Magi Alessandro Botticelli. Quirinus of Neuss (oils) A minor Florentine who had a similar style to the early works of fellow pupil. 1481–83 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum).1m in 1995. Virgin and Child with Eight Angels. Leonardo da Vinci.96 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Alessandro Botticelli b 1445 –1510 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. Technically competent. Botticelli may have painted this while in Rome working on the Sistine Chapel. His later work is odd and retrogressive because he retreated into the past. feet. The Birth of Venus. at a key moment. c. fresco 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi 3 $1.2m in 1982. Washington. He found ideas like scientific perspective of no interest. 1484 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Lorenzo di Credi b C. Used an unpleasant. upturned thumbs and toes. Note the way he portrays the human figure (on its own. instead. c. shows odd. and ankles—and beautifully manicured nails. He painted deeply-felt religious pictures and pioneering large-scale mythologies. 1480–81 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). One of the great draftsmen of all time. KEY WORKS The Madonna of the Magnificat. c. Lorenzo was a painter of altarpieces and portraits. tempera 3 $1. DC: National Gallery of Art. Rome 1 tempera. they have fine and crisply drawn outlines like tense wires. tempera and oil on panel. 1481. they attended Verrocchio’s workshop together. he cleverly combined old Gothic decorative styles with new. hair. which he turns into designs of shape or color. in relationship to others. St. and crowds. His subjects have wonderful bone structure—especially in their cheeks and noses. strange and distant. or in crowd scenes)—always with great dignity. . Draperies and flesh both have the same squashy appearance.

fresco. simplified. KEY WORKS 5 Perugia. graduating to deep blue at the zenith. He painted lavish and brilliant decorative borders. full of incident. Notice his carefully planned and executed perspectives (geometric and aerial). milky on the horizon. ornamental detail. Mary Magdalene. Jerome and St. Virgin and Child between St. The artist’s name is painted in gold lettering on the arrow embedded in the saint’s neck. but not at forefront of new ideas. Venus. Catherine of Siena Bernardino di Betto Pinturicchio. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1485 (Washington. Raphael was trained in his workshop. Gregory the Great. Note the brilliant colors. Highly skilled. lips pressed together. Lorenzo destroyed many of his works featuring profane subjects. KEY WORKS Crucifixion with the Virgin. ambitious. KEY WORKS The Annunciation.000 in 2001. prolific.58m in 1990. 1492–95 (Rome: Vatican). 1490s (Florence: Palazzo Pitti) Pope Pius II Canonizes St. tempera and oil on panel. which influenced Raphael. bustling scene. and Mary Magdalene. Uninhibited love of color. Look for slender figures with gently tilting heads and the weight on one foot. c. 1503–08. . delicate fingers and a genteelly crooked little finger. attention to detail. Rome. influenced by the teachings of the fanatical friar Savonarola. John. oils. Siena 1 fresco. Umbria. and direct. He was probably a pupil of Perugino. the bottom one fleshy. 1495. tempera 3 $5. 1445 –1523 n ITALIAN 5 Perugia 1 fresco. Siena: Piccolomini Library of the Cathedral 3 $300. Sebastian Pietro Perugino. Trained in Florence. 1490 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Pietro Perugino b C. St. Siena: Cathedral. Catherine of Alexandria with a Donor. which tends to become routine—he reused figures from other compositions. feathery trees and skies. Bernardino di Betto Pinturicchio b C. Dead Christ with Virgin Mary and other Figures (oils) He was a hardworking. 1300–1500 97 The story goes that in 1497. Albizzi Pietà. oils 2 Rome: Vatican Museums. and fanciful charm in this work. His portraits can be very good. tough. Madonna and Child (oils) The last serious artist from Perugia and Umbria. hence his nickname: his real name was Pietro Vannucci. c. Enjoy his intense and childlike realism.C . pretty. 21 x 15in (53 x 39 cm). Jerome. and love of storytelling—and believe you have walked into the daily life of Umbria in the 15th or 16th century. 1480–85 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). St. His religious pictures are painted in a soft. his facility in recording almost microscopic details he has observed in nature. oval-faced Madonnas. c. prolific. and sentimental (oversweet?) style. St. tempera. Ultimately second rank. 1480–1500 (London: National Gallery). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. 1502–08 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) St. His work declined in quality in later years. middleranking painter from Perugia. c. 1454 –1513 n ITALIAN He was a master of fresco painting and supremely skilled at fitting his decorative scheme to the space of the room. Borgia rooms frescoes. c. St. Hence he gives a particularly vivid sense of looking through the wall at a busy.

Florence was controlled by the wealthy Medici family. 1482 La Primavera (Spring) shows the garden of Venus. From 1434 to 1737. and the painting was probably commissioned by Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici (1463–1503) to hang in a room adjoining the wedding chamber of his townhouse. feminine style found favor with the Florentine intelligentsia in the troubled times in which they lived. Sandro Botticelli was the principal painter in Florence in the second half of the 15th century. the messenger of the gods. Mercury. uses his caduceus—a wand entwined with snakes—to hold back the clouds so that nothing can blight the eternal spring of Venus’s garden Venus is shown wearing the characteristic headdress of a Florentine married woman—a reference to the nuptial theme of the painting . His refined. His masterpieces were his large mythological paintings. which promoted a particular type of divinely inspired beauty. the Goddess of Love.98 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE La Primavera Alessandro Botticelli c. combined with complex literary references.

He is pursuing his lover. When Zephyrus fell in love with Chloris. is the principal figure on the right-hand side of the painting. he pursued the startled nymph and took her as his bride. the Goddess of Flowers. long necks. strewing blossoms around her The blue. Chloris. It is the ghostly Zephyrus. The Goddess Flora has particular significance for Florence (Firenze). Behind Flora. Their pointed faces.C . Other examples are the “halo” of foliage that is silhouetted against the sky around Venus. 1300–1500 99 La Primavera Medium tempera on panel Dimensions 80 x 123 in (203 x 314 cm) Location Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi Botticelli perfected a style in which crisp line was paramount. winged figure is one of Botticelli’s most imaginative inventions. curving bellies. the embodiment of beauty. and slender ankles embody the ideal of feminine beauty in Renaissance Florence. if somewhat artificially. Flora. and flowing hair of the Three Graces displays his skill to the full. the City of Flowers . and the carpet of flowers. God of the West Wind and herald of Venus. intricate drapery folds. The intertwined hands. She tiptoes across the meadow of flowers. Botticelli was fascinated by decoration and stylized pattern. Botticelli shows her courtship with Zephyrus. shows how Flora emerged from the courtship TECHNIQUES Flora’s gown is decorated with flowers that are slightly raised to imitate embroidery. transforming her into the goddess Flora. Botticelli ingeniously. sloping shoulders.

Arezzo: San Francesco One of the greatest masters of the early Renaissance. tempera. his meticulous mastery of technique (fresco. and a humanist interest in man’s independence and observation of the world. The painting was commissioned for a place in Italy called “Town of the Holy Sepulcher. c. fresco. His figures and faces are reserved. Arezzo. 1463. intellectual character?). tempera. The Flagellation of Christ. c. Was interested in new ideas and experiments as a means of reaching greater spiritual and scientific truths. 1460s (Urbino: Galleria Nazionale delle Marche) Resurrection of Christ Piero della Francesca. and precise line). Had a passionate fascination with mathematics and perspective.” . 1452–57 (Arezzo: San Francesco). Urbino 1 fresco. which he used to construct geometrically exact spaces and strictly proportioned compositions. 1445 (Borgo Sansepolcro: Museo Civico). The Story of the True Cross. hard-working. c. oil. His religious works and portraits have special qualities of stillness and a dignified serenity resulting from deep Christian belief. Acted as town councilor in his beloved native Sansepolcro. 89 x 81 in (225 x 205 cm). aloof. 1450s (London: National Gallery). Nothing was left to chance—he recorded everything with total certainty and care. Florence. The Baptism of Christ. instinctive feel for light and color. Few works remain and many are severely damaged. and self-absorbed (a reflection of Piero’s own slow. Borgo Sansepolcro: Museo Civico. KEY WORKS Madonna della Misericordia. c.100 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Piero della Francesca b 1420 – 92 n ITALIAN 5 Sansepolcro. Look for his ability to fill mathematical spaces with light. oils 2 Borgo Sansepolcro: Museo Civico. currently very much in fashion. Loving.

Siena 1 tempera. Assumption of the Virgin. elaborate decoration). and forward-thinking lighting techniques. and linear. who had a strong influence on his sculptural techniques. His works also demonstrate his architectural training: look for intricately detailed buildings and architectural details in his paintings and sculptures. oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $88. panel. c. 5 Sansepolcro. Saint Sebastian. 1480–95 (London: National Gallery). 1472 (New York: Frick Collection). he continued to paint frescoes for the rest of his career. St. 1300–1500 101 Matteo di Giovanni b 1435 – 95 n ITALIAN Madonna and Child with Sts. 1457 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). influenced by Florentine art world. 1461–62 (Pienza Cathedral). in Siena. St. tempera on panel. Lorenzo di Pietro (known by his nickname of “Vecchietta” from c. he designed.780 in 1990. Look out for open mouths. he met Donatello. The Crucifixion. c. Adept at working both in miniature and on a large scale. Madonna and Child with Holy Bishop. James (polychrome wood) He was an architect. 1461–62 (Siena: Palazzo Pubblico). sculpture 2 Siena: Palazzo Piccolomini 3 $152. Siena: Palazzo Piccolomini. he had a rather awkward and traditional style. foreshortening. with faces recreated without idealism. KEY WORKS Christ Crowned. 1476 (Siena: Santa Maria della Scala) Vecchietta b 1410 – 80 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 tempera.497 in 2000. fresco. Catherine and Christopher Matteo di Giovanni. illumination. c. c. movement. Moscow: Pushkin Museum. Look for Vecchietta’s precise brushwork. Also called by his birth-name. densely populated scenes in his frescoes. Catherine. goldsmith. 1490 (San Francisco: De Young Museum) Toward the end of his life. an understanding of foreshortening. 1480–95 (London: National Gallery). expression) uncomfortably combined with old-fashioned ones (gold grounds. he was commissioned by Cardinal Branda Castiglione to paint a series of frescoes in Lombardy. His figures are always realistically portrayed. c.C . In contrast to contemporary Florentines. . His work shows the influence of modern ideas (perspective. figures placed one above the other. Young Martyr. The Resurrection. 1458–64. The artist’s style is elegant. his works sometimes characterized by his self-portrait as one of the figures. painter. 1442 onward). and decorated an ornate burial chapel for himself and his wife Francesca inside Santa Maria della Scala. experiments with foreshortening. He also produced illuminated manuscripts. Far ahead of his peers in Siena in terms of understanding lighting and its painterly properties. flowing draperies. including the illuminations for Dante’s Divine Comedy. In the 1430s. built. 1470. In the 1450s. decorative. KEY WORKS Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints. sculptor. Pope Pius II (1405–64) Crowned by Two Cardinals Vecchietta. and engineer. 23 3⁄8 x 17 3⁄8 in (62 x 44 cm). Born and worked in Siena. and Two Angels (oils) One of the most prolific and popular painters of the Sienese School. The Risen Christ. The use of foreshortening suggests the influence of Florentine art.

One of a series of nine Venetian paintings showing the Miracles of the Cross. c. oil on canvas.102 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE The Madonna of Humility adored by Leonello d’Este Jacopo Bellini. and architecture. Saint Anthony Abbot and Saint Bernardino of Siena. Miracle at Ponte di Lorenzo. 1455 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia). Sultan Mohammed II. 1407–50. Gentile Bellini b C. He was noted especially for panoramic views of his native Venice. 1448 (Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera). 144 1⁄2 x 293 3⁄8 in (367 x 745 cm). Very little of his work survives other than sketchbooks. oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. thus established a subject and tradition that reached its apogee in Canaletto. landscape. Venice: Gallerie dell'Accademia. Many works have perished. 1400 –70 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. oil on panel. Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1500 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia) Procession in St. 1496. Mark’s Square Gentile Bellini. Madonna and Child Blessing. . Santa Lucia (oils) He was Giovanni’s father. 1450 (London: British Museum/Paris: Musée du Louvre). 23 5⁄8 x 15 3⁄4 in (60 x 40 cm). Cardinal Bessarion attended by two brothers of the Scuola della Carità in Prayer with the Bessarion Reliquary (oils) Jacopo Bellini b C. c. 1459–60 (Washington. tempera 3 $696. KEY WORKS Madonna and Child. Progressive—was interested in latest artistic developments such as perspective. Sketchbooks. 1480 (Venice: Museo Correr). London: British Museum (sketchbooks) 3 $67. Not much is known about him. The figure on the left is the donor who commissioned the painting. DC: National Gallery of Art) He was Giovanni’s brother. 1480 (London: National Gallery). KEY WORKS Portrait of Doge Giovanni Mocenigo. peopled with crowds and processions. Much respected in his own lifetime. Venice 1 tempera. 1429 – 1507 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils.185 in 1998.000 in 2001. c.


. 1300–1500


Giovanni Bellini
b C. 1430 –1516 n ITALIAN

5 Venice 1 oils; tempera 2 Venice: Accademia and
various churches

3 $1,237,500 in 1996, Virgin
and Child with Male Donor, Landscape Beyond (oils)

One of the supreme masters of the early Renaissance and the Father of Venetian painting. The best known of a distinguished family of painters. Among the first to exploit oil-painting technique in Venice. Known for his altarpieces, portraits, and, above all, the depiction of light— beautifully and carefully observed, lovingly and accurately recorded, and always warm. His work sings of the harmonious relationship that should exist between man, nature, and God. The profound mood and spirituality of his religious pictures results from his belief in God’s presence in light and nature.

Agony in the Garden Giovanni Bellini, c. 1460,
32 x 50 in (81 x 127 cm), tempera on wood, London: National Gallery. The painting shows Bellini’s sensitive gift for understanding and representing light, as well as a keen awareness of figures in space.

His figures respond to light and often turn their faces and bodies toward it, in order to enjoy its physical and spiritual benefits. Is he the first painter who really looked at clouds and studied their structure and formation? Notice his love of detail in rocks, leaves, architecture, and rich materials such as silks. Note how his style becomes softer as he gets older (a natural trait in most humans?). No outlines, just gradations of tone. Bellini’s influence on Venetian painting was enormous. He was appointed offical painter to the republic in 1483, and almost all of Venice’s eminent painters during the next generation are believed to have trained in his workshop.
KEY WORKS St. Francis in the Wilderness, c. 1480 (New York: Frick Collection); Barbarigo Altarpiece, 1488, (Murano: San Pietro Martire); The Madonna of the Meadow, c. 1501 (London: National Gallery); The Doge Leonardo Loredan, 1501–04 (London: National Gallery); San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505 (Venice: San Zaccaria)

“Giovanni Bellini is very old but still the best of all …”



Antonello da Messina
b C. 1430 – 79 n ITALIAN

5 Messina; Naples; Milan; Venice 1 oils; tempera 2 London: National Gallery. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $367,400 in 2003,
Madonna and Child with a Franciscan Monk. Ecce Homo in a trompe l’oeil (oils)

He was from Messina, Sicily. Made a key visit to Venice in 1475–76. One of the pioneers of oil painting in Italy. He combined Italian interests (sculptural modeling, rational space, and man-themeasure-of-all-things characterization) with northern European obsessions (minute detail and unadorned reality). He had a marvellous ability to observe and paint light, and created wonderful portraits and faces that seem to live and breathe, showing bones under the skin and an intelligence behind the eyes that looks and answers back. Sense that he shines both an intellectual and a physical spotlight on his subjects.

“Once this new secret that Antonello had brought from Flanders into the city of Milan had been understood, Antonello was admired and cherished by those magnificent noblemen for as long as he lived.”

He had a wonderful ability to recreate the appearance and feel of the skin— differentiating between lips, a stubbly or shaven chin, a hairless cheek—eyebrows, hair, the liquid surface of an eye (can only be done with oil paint and requires supreme technical mastery). Oil-paint equation: learns technique from northern artists in Naples and hands it on to clever Venetians, such as Bellini. It is very likely that he used a magnifying glass—and it is worth using one when looking at his paintings.
KEY WORKS Christ Blessing, 1465 (London: National Gallery); Virgin Annunciate, c. 1465 (Palermo: Galleria Nazionale); Portrait of a Man, c. 1475 (London: National Gallery); St. Jerome in his Study, c. 1475 (London: National Gallery)

Vivarini family

5 Venice 1 oils; tempera 2 London: National Gallery 3 $130,000 in 1990, Head of St.
Francis (oils) by Antonio Vivarini

They were a Venetian family. Antonio (c. 1415–84) and his younger brother, Bartolomeo
Madonna and Child with Sts. Peter, Jerome, and Mary Magdalene with a Bishop Alvise
Vivarini, 1500, oil on panel, Amiens (France): Musée de Picardie. Notice the way in which the baby Jesus is set in the absolute center of the painting, his pale skin drawing the eye toward him.

Monument to Doge Pietro Mocenigo Pietro Lombardo, 1476–81,
Istrian stone and marble, Venice: SS. Giovanni e Paolo. As part of the tomb of Pietro Mocenigo, this intricate monument features 15 life-size marble figures.

Carlo Crivelli
b ACTIVE 1457 – 93 n ITALIAN

(c. 1432–c. 1499) created old-fashioned, large polyptych altarpieces with stiff figures and elaborate carved frames. Antonio’s son, Alvise (c. 1445–1505) did more modern work in the style of Bellini. Good example of craftsmen’s business producing work to please conservative clientele.
KEY WORKS The Madonna with the Blessed Child, c. 1440 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia); Sts. Francis and Mark, 1440–46 (London: National Gallery)

5 Venice; Marche Region (Italy); Croatia 1 tempera 2 London: National Gallery. Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera 3 $840,000 in 1988, Madonna and Child at a Marble Parapet (oils) He was an average Venetian artist with a self-conscious, old-fashioned style. Crivelli’s work shows an extraordinary and obsessive attention to detail, a system that virtually overwhelms everything else. His strange, hard, dry, linear style makes the figures look real but unreal (a bit like biological specimens); similarly with the architecture, his buildings look like painted stage sets rather than the real thing. Note the lined faces with bags under the eyes and bulging veins on hands and feet. The real yet unreal-looking fruit and garlands, which have complicated symbolic meanings, resemble marzipan cake decorations. KEY WORKS Madonna and Child Enthroned with Donor, c. 1470 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); St. Michael, c. 1476 (London: National Gallery)

Lombardo family

5 Italy 1 sculpture 2 St. Petersburg:
Hermitage Museum. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Pietro Lombardo (c. 1435–1515), architect and sculptor, worked in several Italian cities before moving to Venice, c. 1467. He set up a workshop, employing large numbers of apprentices. His sculptor sons, Tullio (c. 1455–1532) and Antonio (c. 1458–1516), were among his pupils. Pietro was instrumental in bringing the Renaissance to Venice, reworking Florentine ideas about Classical antiquity into a Venetian ideal. His most famous work was rebuilding the Doge’s palace (1498). By the 1480s, Tullio and Antonio were recognized as sculptors in their own right, often commissioned for tomb sculptures and religious pieces. Tullio collected Classical statues and is noted for poetic portraits like reliefs inspired by Roman grave portraits. Both of them worked for the courts of Northern Italy (see page 106). Pietro’s grandsons continued as architects and sculptors well into the 16th century.
KEY WORKS Adam, Tullio Lombardo, c. 1493 (New York: Metropolitan Museum); Monument to Andrea Vendramin, Pietro & Tullio Lombardo, c. 1493 (Venice: SS. Giovanni e Paolo)

The Annunciation with St. Emidius Carlo
Crivelli, 1486, 81 1⁄2 x 57 5⁄8 in (207 x 146.5 cm), tempera and oil on canvas, London: National Gallery. Painted for the Annunciation Church in Ascoli Piceno, Italy.



During the Renaissance, being an artist could be a lucrative career. Most artists worked solely for commission and survived through patronage of the aristocratic courts. Italy was divided into city states or principalities and almost every city, large or small, had a system of artistic patronage. Among the most important of the large cities north of Florence were Mantua and Urbino. In Mantua, the ruling family were called Gonzaga (prominent from the 14th to 17th centuries). Their court artists included Andrea Mantegna and the Lombardi. Urbino came to artistic prominence in the 15th and 16th centuries, soon outshining the earlier established courts. With the naming of Federigo da Montefeltro (1422–82) as the 1st Duke of Urbino, the region became a center for artistic excellence. The Duke showed a partiality for Flemish art, but his most famous court painter was a fellow Italian, Piero della Francesca.

It has been suggested that Piero della Francesca, court painter to the 1st Duke of Urbino, partially designed the Palace at Urbino.

Ercole de’ Roberti
b C. 1450 – 96 n ITALIAN

5 Ferrara; Bologna 1 tempera 2 Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera (for the Madonna Enthroned with Saints altarpiece, 1480) His most famous post was as court painter to the d’Este family in Ferrara. Shadowy figure, with very few works firmly attributed to him. Look for meticulous, fine detail and poetic sensibility; the careful placing of figures in space— well-proportioned with good movement. He was interested in perspective, architectural details, and the way buildings are constructed.
KEY WORKS St. Jerome in the Wilderness, c. 1470 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); St. John the Baptist, c. 1478–80

(Berlin: Dahlem Museum); The Wife of Hasdrubal and Her Children, c. 1480–90 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Cima da Conegliano
b C. 1459 – C. 1517 n ITALIAN

5 Venice 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $84,948 in 1992, Madonna
and Child in Landscape (oils)

He was a successful but minor Venetian, content just to follow others. “The poor man’s Bellini”— similar use of light, but harder and less
Pietà Ercole de’ Roberti,
c. 1490–96, 13 1⁄2 x 12 2⁄5 in (34.4 x 31.3 cm), oil and tempera on panel, Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. An alterpiece predella.


. 1300–1500


subtle. Works best on a small scale, when his crispness comes to the fore. Good light; satisfying blue mountains; intense faces; general air of busyness; slightly comical, frozen poses (as when a photographer says “hold it.”)
KEY WORKS Madonna with the Orange Tree, 1487–88 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia); The Annunciation, 1495 (St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum); Virgin and Child, c. 1505 (London: National Gallery)

Andrea Mantegna
b 1431 – 1506 n ITALIAN

5 Padua; Mantua; Rome 1 engravings; oils; fresco; tempera 2 London: Hampton Court. Mantua: Ducal Palace 3 $25.5m in 2003,
Descent into Limbo (oils)

and portraits. He had a dry, scholarly style, which became obsessed with detail, especially when it came to the archaeology of classical antiquity and geology (but scholars do get obsessed by minutiae). His frescoes are wonderful large-scale schemes for churches and villas. Pioneering printmaker—with superb engraving technique, which suited his style perfectly. Notice the extraordinary outcrops of rock and the way he could make everything (even human flesh) look like carved stone (late monochrome works consciously look like bas-relief sculpture). Stunning mastery of scientific perspective and foreshortening —seen at its most impressive (in situ) in his large, decorative schemes, which are more relaxed than the panel paintings.
KEY WORKS St. James Led to His Execution, c. 1455 (Padua: Ovetari Chapel, Church of the Eremitani); St. Sebastian, c. 1455–60 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum)

He was a precocious, highly individual master of the early Renaissance who worked for the dukes of Gonzaga at Mantua. An austere intellectual. Mantegna’s panel paintings are highly individual interpretations of standard Renaissance subjects such as altarpieces

The Dead Christ Andrea Mantegna, 1480s, 26 3⁄4 x
31 4⁄5 in (68 x 81 cm), oil on canvas, Milan: Pinacoteca di Brera. Mantegna’s first teacher (Squarcione) criticized his work for “resembling ancient statues … rather than living creatures.” The just reply is that his figures resemble both.



At the same time that the Renaissance was emerging in Italy, an equally significant artistic flowering was occurring in the Low Countries. Art in northern Europe was not “reborn” in the sense of rediscovering an Antique past. But it was crucially reinvigorated, above all by the development and almost immediate maturity of a new medium: oil painting.

Oil painting was not the only important innovation introduced in the Low Countries. Of almost equal significance was easel painting. The notion, still prevalent today, of paintings as self-contained, independent of their settings, was being born. The combination was revolutionary. Unlike tempera and fresco, oil dries slowly, allowing precise reworkings; it can also be applied in tiny increments before drying to a hard, brilliant finish. Painted onto durable and largely nonabsorbent woods such as oak, the result is highly detailed and lustrously jewel-like. As early as the 1430s painters such as van Eyck had developed a form of linear perspective the equal of that devised in Italy, but arrived at pragmatically rather than theoretically. It was augmented by aerial perspective, the gradual softening of colors to suggest more distant objects.

Portrait of a Young Woman in a Pinned Hat Rogier van der Weyden,
c. 1435, 18 1⁄2 x 12 3⁄5 in (47 x 32 cm), oil on oak, Berlin: Gemäldegalerie.

Religious subjects dominate the art of the period, but they are always given an earthly, hard-edged precision. There is no lack of opulence—in draperies, settings, or landscapes—but where the

Italian Renaissance is characterized by unworldly idealism, northern European painting of the same date has an almost unnervingly clear-eyed and dispassionate directness.
St. Jerome in a Rocky Landscape Joachim Patenier, 1515–24, 14 1⁄5 x 13 2⁄5 in (36 x 34 cm), oil on oak, London: National Gallery. Patenier, later widely imitated, was the first painter to make landscapes his principal subject. KEY EVENTS
1432 1450 1456 1475 Completion of van Eyck’s monumental Ghent Altarpiece Presumed visit by Roger van der Weyden to Rome and Florence Van Eyck’s spreading fame is confirmed by Neapolitan account of his achievements Hugo van der Goes’s Portinari Altarpiece (see page 116) despatched to Florence


. 1300–1500


c. 1420 –1520

Figures seem always to have been painted from life. There is a growing stress on domestic detail. This may frequently be loaded with allegorical or other allusive meanings, but the sense that everyday

objects—and by extension everyday life— are worthy of being precisely rendered for their own sake is central. In this work, van Eyck piles detail upon detail to create an entirely believable world.
The Arnolfini Portrait
Jan van Eyck, 1434, 32 x 23 in (82 x 60 cm), oil on oak, London: National Gallery. The work’s exact subject, though it clearly concerns a wedding or betrothal, is unknown.
The Latin text reads: “Van Eyck was here.” It may mean he was a witness or he was “here” in the sense of creating the painting. Either way, it underlines the new status claimed by artists Both figures are very richly dressed, a statement of wealth and social status

The bride is in green, the color of fertility. Is she already pregnant or merely fashionably attired?

The convex mirror is a technical triumph. Window, bed, ceiling, and the two principals are shown from new angles, and two other figures are visible. The border shows 10 scenes from the life of Christ.

Neither figure wears shoes, an indication that they are on sacred ground

The dog may be a symbol of fidelity or lust. The bed is similarly suggestive

Van Eyck’s use of oil allowed him to achieve an extraordinary level of detail. Every object in the painting is depicted with the same concentrated clarity.



Jan van Eyck
b C. 1390 – 1441 n NETHERLANDISH

5 The Hague; Lille; Bruges 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. Ghent: St. Bavo’s Cathedral. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1m in 1985, The Three Maries at the Sepulcher (oils) He was an artist-cum-diplomat in service of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Obscure origins. Only known work is from 1430s onward. Key exponent of Netherlandish art and oil painting. He was the first painter to portray the merchant class and bourgeoisie. His work reflects their priorities, such as having their portraits painted; taking themselves

A Man in a Turban Jan van Eyck, 1433, 10 x 7 1⁄2 in (25.5 x 19 cm), oil on oak, London: National Gallery. The detailed depiction of the headdress and the way it sits on the head suggest that it may have been studied separately.

seriously (as donors of altarpieces, for example); art as the imitation of nature; art as evidence of painstaking work and of craftsmanship; prosperity and tidiness; wariness; restrained emotion. He had a brilliant oil-painting technique, which he was the first to perfect—luminous, glowing colors, and minute detail. His three-quarter pose of face brought new realism to portraiture. He painted Madonnas that look like housewives, and


. 1300–1500


saints that look like businessmen. Notice his precise delineation of all facial features, especially the eyes. He was fascinated with ears (they are miniature portraits) and by folds and creases in cloth. Also note the fall of light that unifies the objects and models them. Convincing but empirical perspective. Inscriptions on paintings and rich symbolism.

Rogier van der Weyden
b C. 1399 –1464 n NETHERLANDISH

5 Tournai (Belgium); Brussels 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado; Escorial. Berlin: Staatliche Museum 3 $71,442 in 1938,
Dream of Pope Sergius (oils)

The Annunciation, c. 1425–30 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); Ghent Altarpiece (The Adoration of the Lamb), 1432 (Ghent: St. Bavo’s Cathedral); The Arnolfini Marriage; 1434 (London: National Gallery)

Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle)
b C. 1378 – 1444 n NETHERLANDISH

5 Tournai (Belgium) 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery A shadowy figure whose identity is difficult to pin down. Attributions are rare and speculative. One of the founders of the Netherlandish School. His devotional altarpieces and portraits are painted with the concentrated intensity that you get in a diminishing mirror (do visual intensity and detail equal spiritual intensity and commitment?). Virgin and Christ child are shown as down-to-earth people in everyday settings —not idealized, but presented in a way that creates a fascinating three-way tension between realism, symbolism, and distortion, which Campin is able to manipulate with the greatest subtlety. Notice his acute powers of observation, especially in the way things (such as window shutters) are made, how light catches a corner, how drapery falls, or flames look. Uses light to isolate objects. The odd perspective is worked out experimentally, not scientifically. Use a magnifying glass to examine the extraordinarily fine detail; don’t forget to look out of his windows at what is happening in the street. Objects and details usually contain or imply much complex symbolism.
KEY WORKS Entombment, c. 1420 (Private Collection); A Woman, c. 1430 (London: National Gallery); The Virgin and Child before a Firescreen, c. 1430 (London: National Gallery); St. Barbara, 1438 (Madrid: Museo del Prado)

The greatest and most influential northern painter of his day. Set the standard by which the rest are judged. Brussels-based. Worked for the dukes of Burgundy. Had a large workshop and was much imitated. Look for the presence of Christ in contemporary life and powerful tension between reality and unreality. The meticulous detail of cloths, clothes, fingernails, and hair; faces drawn from life; anecdotal detail create an illusion of reality. But the stiff poses, cramped spaces, and static expressions are wholly unreal. Is it this tension that draws the eye so magnetically into the drama and the serious aspiration of the religious message (itself an interplay of the real and unreal)?

“Van Eyck’s eye was at one and the same time a microscope and a telescope.”

Note also his superb portraits, each with minute, natural individuality—especially the fingernails, knuckles, red-rimmed eyes, and stitches on clothing. He was also fascinated by architectural and sculptural detail. See how he uses facial expression and poses that are appropriate to the emotion expressed, showing tearstreaked faces and an understanding of grief; observe how one figure echoes the poses and gestures of another, as if in emotional sympathy. He adopted a softer, more relaxed style after 1450 (Italian influence after visit to Rome).
KEY WORKS St. Luke Drawing the Virgin, 15th century (St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum); Descent from the Cross, c. 1435 (Madrid: Museo del Prado); Triptych: The Crucifixion, c. 1440 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum); Francesco d’Este, c. 1455 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); Portrait of a Lady, c. 1455 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)



The Deposition
Rogier van der Weyden c. 1435 – 40 This altarpiece is a masterpiece of early Netherlandish painting. The northern European artists brought an intensity of emotional expression and a minuteness of realistic detail to their work, which give it a quite different character and appearance to that of their Italian counterparts. This painting is the central panel of a triptych.
Many northern altarpieces at this time were made with carved wooden figures set in shallow boxlike spaces. Van der Weyden seems to have accepted this convention, but through the new medium and technique of oil painting he has brought the figures to life. The artist heightens the sense of tension by forcing the eye and mind to reconcile conflicting qualities. Much of the painting detail is intensely realistic, such as the red-rimmed eyes and the tears on the faces. This conflicts with the highly unnatural composition in which the almost life-size figures are hunched and packed into a narrow space beneath a tiny crucifix. The shrinelike background shown in the painting concentrates the viewer’s attention on the figures and avoids the distractions of a true-to-life setting. Set against a plain gold background, The Deposition has an overriding sense of dramatic power about it. Van der Weyden was a master of depicting human emotion, and his religious painting reflects the strength of his personal conviction. His work had a profound effect on the course of art throughout Europe.
The Deposition
Medium oil on panel Dimensions 86 3⁄8 x 103 1⁄4 in (220 x 262 cm) Location Madrid: Museo del Prado

The skull represents Adam, who is thus symbolically present. Adam was cast out of Paradise after eating the forbidden fruit. Christ sacrificed himself on the cross to redeem the world from Adam’s original sin.
St. John the Evangelist stoops to comfort Mary, Christ’s Mother, who swoons with grief

Mary, wife of the disciple Cleopas—she was supposedly present at the Crucifixion

1300–1500 113 TECHNIQUES Notice the intriguing conflict between the deep emotion of the picture and the artist’s ability to look at an area such as the cloak of Nicodemus and record every detail with dispassionate objectivity. is grave yet restrained as he struggles to control his emotions. The face of St.C . for example. Joseph of Arimathea. was permitted to take the body down from the cross and lay it to rest Van der Weyden was a celebrated portrait painter. Mary Magdalene. John. holding Christ’s corpse. The expressions of grief are highly individual. who appears inconsolably anguished . Trickles of blood and marbled flesh tones of the dead Christ are contrasted with the white of the linen A follower of Christ holds a jar of ointment— the attribute of St.

narrative scenes. rather than intense. with good space) and small portraits (he learned from manuscript illuminations). Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. c. 1462 (London: National Gallery). idealized faces. clouds like chiffon veils. Look out for his interesting skies of intense blue. 1480s. He created altarpieces. Bathsheba. His large altarpieces are too rigid. small. The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Two Angels (oils) Also known as Hans Memlinc. soft landscapes and smooth. Hell Dieric Bouts. Memling’s gentle and occasionally sentimental style made him a popular acquisition for 19th-century collectors. 13 x 9 3⁄4 in (33 x 25 cm). 1482 (Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie) . not crisp. pronounced eyelids. Justice of the Emperor Otto.114 Dieric Bouts b C. 1430 – 94 n FLEMISH 5 Bruges 1 oils 2 Bruges: Memling Museum 3 $265. This work was mistakenly believed to be part of a documented but destroyed triptych by Bouts of the Last Judgement. oil on wood. The Virgin and Child with an Angel.5 cm). and portraits. 1445 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). rounded. Lille: Musée des Beaux-Arts. Very little is known about him and few attributable works exist. Liked soft textures (his drapery has soft. The Resurrection (oils) Also known as Dirk Bouts. restrained paintings with beautifully observed detail and painstaking craftsmanship. 45 1⁄4 x 27 3⁄8 in (115 x 69. A prolific. c. almost unnoticeable birds. His static figures are exaggeratedly slender and graceful. The panel is one of a pair displayed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts. style. His motifs such as garlands of fruit and flowers held by putti are borrowed from the Italian Renaissance (from Mantegna?). Bruges-based successor to van der Weyden. KEY WORKS Portrait of a Man with an Arrow. the other depicts Paradise. Possibly a pupil of Rogier van der Weyden. 1415 – 78 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Louvain (Belgium) 1 oils 3 $3. with stiff figures like statues. folds).200 in 1992. soft hair. from whom he borrowed a repertoire of motifs and compositions. 1450. 1470–75 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts) Portrait of a Man Hans Memling. KEY WORKS The Annunciation. Decorative. Lovely details of rocky backgrounds and shimmering light. demure. oil on wood. Portrait of a Man. 1470–75 (Washington.74m in 1980. 1470–80 (London: National Gallery). Solemn. melting to white on the horizon. and often set in landscapes of exquisite beauty. He was better at small devotional pictures (full of life. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). Hans Memling b C.

Met Dürer in 1521. small-scale religious works and portraits are organized and painted with meticulous detail. Underrated. Opulent details. Look for his precise drawing (he trained as a miniaturist). placed figures in the corners of rooms to suggest both space and intimacy. The Last Judgment. Note especially his interest in space and light: liked deep space. 1457 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). follower of van Eyck. 1466 – 1530 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. 1515 (Private Collection). Portrait of a Canon. Important painter of unknown origins. Note how Christus uses brownish rather than pink flesh tones and favors red and green color schemes. c. long fingers bent at second joint. 1452 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum).400 in 1995. sometimes brightly outlined. Virgin and Child with Sts. airy landscapes. with figures that are lifelike (for the time). The Virgin in Glory. The Virgin and Child (oils) color. with understated satire (the influence of Erasmus. 1500 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1446 (London: National Gallery). c. The Adoration of the Magi.000 in 1990. admired Leonardo’s way with soft light and his interest in the contrast between ugliness and beauty). Painter of altarpieces. 1507–09 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). He organized broad areas of tone and filled in on top with meticulous detail. often flipped back to show a lining or undergarment in contrasting color. good . merchants. KEY WORKS St. The Virgin at Prayer (oils) Also known as Quentin Metsys. Bruges 1 oils 3 $380. c. Best known for animated portraits of tax collectors. with folds arranged decoratively. Edward Grimston. Italy 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $403. 1300–1500 115 Petrus Christus b ACTIVE 1444 – 72/3 n FLEMISH 5 Bruges 1 oils 2 Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts 3 $182. tender faces with wide cheeks and prominent lower lip. and influenced by van der Weyden. He was the first northern painter to understand and use Italian single-point perspective. KEY WORKS The Man of Sorrows. UK: Museums and Art Gallery). KEY WORKS The Crucifixion. The painting’s attention to meticulous detail forms a clear and satisfying artistic parallel with the couple’s evident obsession with material possessions. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). crisp drapery. The Nativity (oils) He was a major original early-northern Renaissance painter—pre-Italian influences. 1495 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). The Last Judgment. Paris: Musée du Louvre. whom he met?). 1465 – 1529 n FLEMISH 5 Valenciennes (France). Robes have elaborate. Jerome and Francis.C . A Christian Allegory. His intimate. 1524 (St. Anne. which makes cleaning and restoration especially risky. A Young Lady. c. 1525 (Bruges: Municipal Museums) He was a major painter from Bruges. 1514. bankers. Antwerp. delicate modeling. Brought Italian refinement to northern realist tradition (visited Italy. follower of Massys. 29 1⁄4 x 26 3⁄4 in (74 x 68 cm). 1526 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Jan Provost b C. and wives. mid-15th century (Birmingham. 1470 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) The Money Lender and his Wife Quentin Massys.200 in 1988. oil on panel. Quentin Massys b C.

1470 (Bruges: Municipal Museums). fine natural detail. Had a more conservative portrait style. Brussels 1 oils 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi (Portinari Altarpiece) 3 $84. The men look troubled. 1475 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). 100 x 120 in (254 x 305 cm). c. UK: Victoria Art Gallery) Jan Gossaert b C. c. The kneeling man (right panel) is Tomasso Portinari (agent in Bruges for the Medici bank—he was reckless and the bank was closed). blue distances with heavy clouds and cold seas. 1476. He had a crucial role in the development of Netherlandish painting by introducing Italianate ideas (albeit a bit derivative). KEY WORKS Neptune and Amphitrite. with improbably craggy inhabited mountains. The Portinari Altarpiece is of an unusually large scale for a Netherlandish painting (commissioned to be standard size of Italian triptych). clear. Only work known for certain to be by him is the Portinari Altarpiece (c. 1525–28 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Joachim Patenier b C. 1520 (London: National Gallery). A Nobleman.000 in 1961. Wooded Landscape with Many Figures (oils) Also known as Joachim Patinir. Joseph and shepherds (an Italian idea). Rome 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $1. and 2) after visit to Rome in 1508–9. purple columbine as Virgin’s sorrow. fine oil technique. and different symbolism. the Magi are at the back of the right panel. c. KEY WORKS Death of our Lady. 1470s (Bath. The center panel from the Portinari Altarpiece. 1478 – C. classical architecture and details. Barbara Seated Holding a Book on her Knees (works on paper) He was an obscure genius about whom little is known (spent his last years in a monastery. .5m in 1998. and subtle shading with light. The Fall of Man. From Mauberge in Hainault. The first painter to make landscape the principal theme. the composite central panel has Virgin and Child (naked child on floor is a northern idea). probably St. c. discarded shoe as holy ground. The Adoration of the Magi.1532 n FLEMISH 5 Netherlands. Adam and Eve. c. and The Adoration of the Shepherds Hugo van der Goes. 1475 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). precise draftsmanship à la Dürer. oil on panel. 1525 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $176. Madonna and Child Enthroned Accompanied by Six Musicmaking Angels (oils) Also called Jan Mabuse. there are Portinari men (members of a prosperous Florentine mercantile family) in the left panel. The kneeling woman (right panel) is his wife. Italian aspirations— idealization of figures and faces. 1475). and so on. women in the right (each with patron saints). The very wobbly space and odd changes of scale in the central panel perhaps suggest the artist was in difficulty with such a large-scale work? Much symbolism: scarlet lily as blood and passion of Christ. which was commissioned for a chapel in Florence and introduced Italian artists to new ideas and techniques they had never seen before: oil paint. Maria.800 in 1968. perspective. the women have fashionably high foreheads and pale faces. His works have a bird’s-eye viewpoint. Portrait of a Man. Saint. 1516 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). going mad). firm modeling. hence the name Mabuse. His work is a fascinating (sometimes uncomfortable) synthesis of: 1) northern skills and vision—acute observation. 1480 – C. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. c.116 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Hugo van der Goes b ACTIVE 1467 – 82 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Ghent.

Spaces are open and relaxed. Gerrit David’s work was neglected for centuries. David was a painter of altarpieces and portraits. Virgin and Child with Angels. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Worked in Bruges and Antwerp. placing figures naturally and at ease within them—his landscapes are especially fine. 1525 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) . Christ on Cross with Mary. 1510 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Joos van Cleve b C. subtle. 1520–25 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery). There are few attributed works. Combined tradition (finely detailed northern technique. c. Italian-style modeling with light. not crowded. and St. detailed technique. He loved exact details of objects and faces. c. 1520–25 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). DC: National Gallery of Art). detailed surfaces). Had a conscious awareness and acknowledgment of the Netherlandish tradition in which he was placed (and that was coming to an end). Note the individualism of each tree with detailed leaves.142. The Baptism of Christ. The Last Judgment. The Annunciation. His characters have modest.117 God the Father Blessing Gerrit David. 1515 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). poise. Last great Netherlandish painter in tradition of van Eyck’s and van der Weyden’s meticulous realism. 39 3⁄4 x 50 3⁄8 in (101 x 128 cm). which gives a feeling of calm. c. solemn. c. overloaded symbolism. The Virgin feeding the Child from a Bowl of Soup (oils) Also known as Gerard David. 1490 –1540 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Antwerp. Jerome. holy families. extravagant costumes. oil on panel. and “rediscovered” in the second half of the 19th century. but seemingly expressionless. and harmony with nature and God. KEY WORKS Rest on the Flight to Egypt. faces. Notice how the Italian influence on his work increases progressively and inexorably. Antwerp 1 oils 2 Bruges: Groeningemuseum 3 $1. The Penitence of St. stiffly posed figures and draperies) with progressive ideas (landscapes and rocky formations. The Annunciation. c. but he had many imitators. c. c. His paintings remind us that fine craftsmanship and skill are Godgiven talents. Fascinated with landscape and townscape. A Rest during the Flight to Egypt. rich colors. 1506 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). sometimes with Christ tucked in somewhere—fantasy at its most endearing.000 in 1993. High-quality. and that he worshiped God by exercising his.400 in 1988. harmoniously woven together. moves from love of particular detail to more generalized storytelling. 1515 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). 1518 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Bruges. Mary Magdalen. KEY WORKS Christ Nailed to the Cross. KEY WORKS Joris Vezeleer. France 1 oils 3 $350. c. Note cosy. 1518 (Washington. 1506. Splendid. homely details. but never takes over completely. 1481 (London: National Gallery). John the Evangelist (oils) He was a popular. c. Antwerp-based painter of devotional altarpieces and portraits. Gerrit David b 1484 –1523 n NETHERLANDISH tiny-scale hermits.

46 1⁄2 x 48 in (118 x 122 cm). Epiphany. Credited as the “master” of Castilian painting and at the center of the Hispano–Flemish movement. Christopher. such as the use of a flat yellow instead of gold. Madrid: Museo del Prado. Peter the Martyr. illumination. and carefully depicted landscape. whose style showed the influence of the early Italian Mannerists.” BERNARD BERENSON Pedro Berruguete b C. fresco 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $240. San Idelfonso (retable). even after his death. although. Pietà. Andrew. 1415 – C. 1440 – C. Virgin and Child with Parrot. 1446–48. Spain). His art greatly influenced the Castilian style.” He was master painter and illuminator allied to the royal court in Tours. a post he held until death. 1465 (Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia). c. The style of his illuminations drew richly on his Italian experiences.000 in 1998. Married and had at least two sons (birth dates unknown). Look for paintings thick with symbols. 1480–90 (Barcelona: Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya). late 15th century (Madrid: Museo del Prado). figures with obviously Spanish features. and St. Alonso. . c. Appointed Peintre du Roi in 1475. surprisingly for an artist whose importance was recognized in his own lifetime. little survives as testimony. St. tempera on panel. St. Peter the Martyr. 1475–80 (Zamora Cathedral. Toward the end of his life. 1494 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Works include the decoration of the palace at Urbino. Gallego’s palette changed from bright tones to muted shades. Lived and worked in Tours for the rest of his life. 1490 (Los Angeles: J. St. Fernando Gallego b C. Paul Getty Museum). KEY WORKS The Virgin. Note the Northern influences: rigid poses. One of the most important French painters of his time. to paint and sculpt. 1488–1561). Taught his son. 1470.118 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE “Art teaches us not only what to see. Had a large workshop that produced important illuminated manuscripts. but what to be. 1468–1507 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Jean Fouquet b C. Greatly influenced by Italian Renaissance. sadly. Death of St. 1481 n FRANCE 5 France. c. c. Spain). Italy 1 oils. which is often uncomfortable. sorrowful expressions. Spent 14 years (1479–93) painting the ceiling in the Old Library at Salamanca University. the local surroundings of Tours were inspiration.200 in 1989. Strong use of gold and sumptuous draperies and jewelry. 1470 (Salamanca Cathedral. and Gallego’s use of realism. Dominic Presiding over an Auto Da Fé. Alonso (c. He was famed for bringing the Renaissance to France. late 15th century (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Pietà with Two Donors Fernando Gallego. fresco 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $221. 1455 – 1504 n SPANISH 5 Spain. c. Markedly northern European in contrast to Italian paintings of the same era. c. Pentecost (oils) His birth and death dates are shrouded in mystery. Strongly influenced by Italian Renaissance and Flemish art. Traveled to Italy c. 1507/10 n SPANISH 5 Spain 1 oils. KEY WORKS Virgin of the Milk (Virgen de la Leche). chalks 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé Also spelled “Foucquet. became court painter to Charles V. Italy 1 oils. The Adoration of the Magi (oils) He was court painter to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.

1490 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). Helen Jean Bourdichon. 1480 (Los Angeles: J. Hours of Simon de Varie. painter. In his lifetime he was respected and appears in the 1504 list of “Greatest Living Painters. Portrait presumed of Madeleine de Bourgogne presented by St. Estienne Chevalier with St. His name suggests he or his parents originated from the Netherlands or Belgium. Coronation of the Virgin. others are sceptical. c. 1300–1500 119 KEY WORKS Portrait of the Ferrara Court Jester Gonella. His income from the royal court allowed him to become a wealthy landowner and ensured his family financial security. but his art is known around the last quarter of the 15th century. illumination on vellum. Madonna with Saints and Donors. he was a great favorite with a long line of French royalty. Self-Portrait. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. c. KEY WORKS Book of Hours. St. c. and worked in Tours. and St. Ursula. KEY WORKS Margaret of Austria. Charlemagne and the Meeting at the Golden Gate. 1450 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). Born. 1450 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1490–95 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Appointed Peintre du Roi in 1481. Bourdichon’s close-up technique placed large figures in the foreground. Anne. sculpture. 1480 (Los Angeles: J. Netherlands 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre Also known as Hay. his art Anne of Brittany with St. gold. Paul Getty Museum) Jean Hey b 15TH –16TH CENTURIES n UNKNOWN 5 France. Paul Getty Museum). and designer. Seemingly a diplomatic and jovial man. A painter whose birth and death dates are a mystery. 1498 (Moulins Cathedral). 1500 (London: National Gallery) Jean Bourdichon b 1457 – 1521 n FRENCH 5 France 1 illumination. From the Grandes Heures of Anne of Brittany. Little of his work is documented. when he was living in France. 1442 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). Paul Getty Museum) was greatly influenced by the Netherlandish style. c. c. Had a workshop in the castle of Plessis-les-Tours and employed a large number of assistants. 1480 (Los Angeles: J. c. from Louis XI to Francis I. Visitation. 1490 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art).and silversmith. Most renowned for illuminated manuscripts. of which his most famous work is the illuminated Grandes Heures for Queen Anne of Brittany. Paul Getty Museum A prolific illuminator.” compiled by Jean Lemaire de Belge. The Virgin and Child Adored by Angels. c. 1455 (Los Angeles: J. Stephen. Los Angeles: J.” some believe Hey and the Master were the same person. lived. oils 2 Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale.C . . Another artist about whom very little is known today was nicknamed the “Master of Moulins. Paul Getty Museum). appears never to have traveled abroad. c. 1503–08. Madeleine.

Probably the greatest fantasy artist ever. visions of depraved activity and torture. The Path of Life. human folly. KEY WORKS Death and the Miser. 52 x 47 in (132 x 120 cm). Not drug-induced but illustrations of ideas and images in wide circulation at the time. moralizing works. they are a complete contrast to the Renaissance view of man controlling a rational world. 1450 –1516 n NETHERLANDISH 5 Hertogenbosch (Netherlands) 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $62. intricate intensity reflects his belief that he was depicting certainty and reality. c. Acute. The right wing of a triptych. Christ Mocked. showing scenes of anguish and humiliation against a backdrop of mayhem. c. Best known for his complex.300 in 1977. Also produced more conventional religious works. Madrid: Museo del Prado. especially by ardent Catholics such as Philip II of Spain. DC: National Gallery of Art). not fantasy. deadly sin (notably lust). 1490–1500 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). St. Anthony of Egypt was tempted by demons and erotic visions. and perhaps the greatest. 1500–02 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Triptych of the Temptation of St. . Hieronymus Bosch b C. Was influenced by ornate manuscript illumination. the seductive temptations of the flesh. Brilliant rapid technique and luminous color: flecked highlights and chalk underdrawing. Bosch had no real successor until Bruegel (see page 157). who was an avid collector. c. of the medieval painters. The Temptation of the Holy Antonius (oils) Bosch is the last. c. Anthony Hieronymus Bosch. c. Brussels: Musées Royaux. and the almost inevitable fate of eternal damnation (salvation is possible but only with the greatest difficulty). 1505. 1485–90 (Washington. 1490–1500 (London: National Gallery). c. his works show bewildering detail and unique imagery of part-animal. Much admired in his lifetime. parthuman creatures. oil on panel. The Ship of Fools. oil on panel. 1510–15.120 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE The Garden of Earthly Delights: Hell Hieronymus Bosch. of which the central theme is the sinful depravity of man. Like hellfire sermons. 86 1⁄5 x 37 4⁄5 in (219 x 96 cm).

Virgin of the Annunciation. Colmar (France): Unterlinden Museum. 1300–1500 121 Mathis Grünewald b C.C . became very wealthy. 1501 (Rothenburg: St. Worked for the Archbishop of Mainz. From the right wing of the many-paneled Isenheim Altarpiece. His distorted bodies and anguished hands and feet express inner torment or suffering. had five children. and life-size statues. He lost his fortune in 1525 after backing the wrong side in a peasants’ revolt against the Prince Bishop. The Small Crucifixion. Now regarded as one of the all-time great painters. 1490 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art). near Strasbourg.000 in 1985. Jerome and the Lion. KEY WORKS St. religious fanatic who painted works of powerful. He used intense colors. Died of the plague. His altarpieces express his single-minded religious fervor (he became a Lutheran) but are full of visual contradictions and anachronisms. especially imagery lacking precedent or following. 1495 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). to express mood. Jacob’s Church) . c. Seated Bishop. The settings range from the bare and almost abstract to the highly detailed. KEY WORKS The Isenheim Altarpiece (see pages 122–123). Obscure. Little interest in “realism” or “modern” Renaissance ideas—his style has more in common with the medieval world and with 20th-century German Expressionism (which he influenced). busts. c. spiritual intensity. c. 1511–1520 (Washington. Holy Blood Altarpiece. c. austere. Tilman Riemenschneider b 1460 – 1531 n GERMAN 5 Germany 1 sculpture 3 $420. 1512–16. 1470 –1528 n GERMAN 5 Mainz (Germany) 1 oils 2 Colmar (France): Unterlinden Museum (The Isenheim Altarpiece) Also known as Neithardt (after his adopted son. end of 15th century (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1520–24 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) The Resurrection of Christ Mathis Grünewald. c. reliefs. Grünewald distorted scale to convey emotion or significance. The demons come out of an imagined medieval hell and are mixed with faces or details that have the qualities of first-hand observation of the Italian Renaissance. characterized by strong Gothic symbolism and realistic carving. Successful in his own time. owning land—including vineyards. Renowned as the first sculptor in limewood who produced altarpieces finished in a monochrome brown glaze rather than multicolored polychrome. Successful both as an artist and engineer. which was intended to give support to patients in Isenheim’s Anthonite monastery hospital. His overwhelming masterpiece— The Isenheim Altarpiece—is in Colmar. oil on panel. Andreas) or Gothardt. ranging from pitch black to bright yellow. Married three times. Young Woman with Long Hair and Wearing a Hat (sculpture) Major figure in German art history. Saints Erasmus and Maurice. but overlooked until the 20th century. His works are mainly religious: altarpieces. DC: National Gallery of Art).

Anthony. along with his bleeding side and wrenched arms. Mary. the Mother of Christ. Here. The wooden cross strains to bear the weight of Christ. and St. Plague was the killer disease of the time and the monastery also contained a hospice where plague victims were cared for by the monks of the Anthonite Order. intensifies the sense of Christ’s suffering. it is unequivocally a cruel instrument of torture. understands their condition and suffers with them and for them. whose broken body is shown covered in sores like those caused by the plague. at Isenheim near Strasbourg. The victims had no hope of recovery. The plague victims who knelt before this altar would have been able to associate with this vision of earthly and human suffering. which. 1510 –15 Grünewald’s altarpiece was commissioned as the focus of the high altar of the chapel in the monastery of St. Christ’s Mother. John the Evangelist. adding to the emotional tension and anguish of the scene In many Crucifixion scenes the crown of thorns is depicted almost as an ornament adorning the head of a serene. comforts Mary. St. who is dressed in symbolic white Mary Magdelene is the fallen woman who anointed Christ’s feet . unblemished Christ figure. The figures on the left.122 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Crucifixion (from The Isenheim Altarpiece) Mathis Grünewald c. Crucifixion Medium oil on panel Dimensions 198 x 312 in (500 x 800 cm) Location Colmar (France): Unterlinden Museum Christ’s favorite disciple. John the Evangelist— whom Christ asks to take care of his Mother—are nearly always present in Crucifixion scenes and display extreme mental anguish as they witness Christ’s agony. and this image was intended to bring them comfort and to reinforce their faith—the message is that Christ.

his pierced skin. 1300–1500 123 TECHNIQUES Grünewald’s work is charged with emotional intensity heightened by his sublime skill with color. This device was no longer employed by the majority of artists—one reason why this work is called the last great medieval altarpiece The background of the painting is dark and threatening. The words above his arm are “He must increase but I must diminish” Christ’s agony is depicted by his broken feet. His presence symbolizes the message of mankind’s redemption. Christ’s hands express his intense physical and spiritual pain. The size of the figures reflects their importance—Christ is the largest and Mary Magdelene is the smallest. The illuminated saints at the base of the cross radiate their own mysterious light and the red of the two St. The Gospels tell us that John was beheaded by Herod long before the Crucifixion. John the Baptist holds a book representing the scriptures. Johns’ robes is almost incandescent. Darkness has fallen onto the earth as described in the Gospels. and his unbearably stretched arms The lamb of God represents Christ’s sacrifice in shedding his blood for the salvation of mankind St. Note the expressive hand gestures of all the other figures. Only those features that are essential to the spiritual message are included The stoic figure of the Baptist dominates the right side of the painting. which refers to the sacrifice of Jesus .C .

124 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Michael Pacher b ACTIVE 1462 – 98 n UNKNOWN 5 Tyrol (Austria) 1 oils. Had a modest workshop in which he trained his apprentices—among them his sons—to a high standard. His later work has a more delicate. 1473 (Colmar: St. sculpture 2 Würzburg: Mainfränkisches Museum 3 $289. suggesting he may have traveled to Italy. Produced only a handful of paintings and engravings. The Annunciation. The Large Carrying of the Cross. He died in Salzburg. KEY WORKS The Death of the Virgin. Martin’s). He is credited with melding Germanic and Italian techniques. Madonna and Child (oils) Prominent German sculptor. also a painter and engraver. c. and none are as noteworthy as his sculpture. c. 15th century (Barcelona: Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya). Mary). 1474 (St. Wolfgang Parish Church. 1445 –1533 n GERMAN 5 Nuremberg. but it is conceivable that he was Austrian. oils. 1500–10 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1430 – 91 n GERMAN 5 Colmar (France) 1 tempera. 1480 (St. The Annunciation. the greatest wood-carver of his age—executed in a unique. In his day. c. The St. Kraków 1 sculpture 2 Nuremberg: Bamberg Cathedral 3 $60.138 in 1998. The Crucifixion with Soldiers Sharing Christ’s Clothes. Wolfgang Altarpiece Michael Pacher. 16th century (Nuremberg: Parish Church of St. His rare paintings (only four are known) are characterized by a tame palette of muted colors.627 in 1992. 1465–70 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek). He concentrated on religious subjects and about 115 plates by him are known. he was probably the most famous artist in Germany. The work he produced is strongly influenced by Italian art. 1483 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) Veit Stoss b C. Crucifix. KEY WORKS Madonna in the Rose Garden/Madonna of the Rose Bower. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Borrowed from Flemish techniques and ideas (especially from van der Weyden). Pacher’s use of light and shade on the altarpiece create the impression of unlimited depth. Austria.793 in 2004. truly expressive style. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) . 1471–81. Raphael and Tobias. Lorenz) Martin Schongauer b C. c. 1516 (Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum). c. Mourning Virgin. Altarpiece of the Four Latin Fathers. although nothing is known of his training. 1518 (Nuremberg: Parish Church of St. 1475 (London: National Gallery). The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Angels and Saints. Lorenz). Alsace. 1477–89 (Kraków: Church of St. He is believed to have been German. but most of his career was spent in Bruneck (Brunico) in the South Tyrol. Crucifixion (sculpture) Pacher was a panel-painter and wood-carver. Especially well known in his lifetime for his engravings. wood with polychromy/oil on panel. His most famous piece of stone sculpture is the altarpiece at Nuremberg’s Bamberg Cathedral. Renowned for his wood sculptures—with Riemenschneider. with precise lines and convincing volumes. Much influenced by Dürer. St. Anne with the Virgin and Child. engravings 3 $146. and thus influencing the future of Northern European art. KEY WORKS St. soft touch—his gracefulness became the stuff of legend. Carrying the Cross (works on paper) Son of a goldsmith who settled in Colmar.

his later work is secular. jeweled collars. being especially good at old men’s faces.000 in 1978. unique. The Bewitched Groom. intense color. prominent navels. Portraits of Kurfürst Herzog Johann von Sachsen and of his Son (oils) He was a leading figure of the German Renaissance. Wittenberg. Both wear outrageous designer creations. May have trained with Dürer. and sometimes the gruesome and macabre. 1530s (London: National Gallery) Lucas Cranach (the elder) b 1472 –1553 n GERMAN 5 Vienna. Worked for the Electors of Saxony in Wittenberg. 1517 (Basel. glassy eyes. which incorporate the elemental and supernatural. He painted impressive and solid court portraits. calculating facial expressions. small. c. c. although his style The Nymph of the Fountain Lucas Cranach (the elder). Girl and Death. Especially gifted at visionary themes. 1484 –1545 n GERMAN 5 Strasbourg. and capricious pictures of female mythological subjects. . Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. manipulative hands. Augsburg (Germany) 1 oils 2 Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum 3 $7. sometimes with strange highlights. one leg twisted over another.3 x 76.C . Most notable for the strange. He makes us adopt the role of voyeur. woodcuts 2 Freiburg Cathedral 3 $448. The Virgin as Queen of Heaven (oils) Painter and engraver from Strasbourg. long arms and legs. rocky landscapes. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). KEY WORKS A Princess of Saxony. 1544 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) remained essentially provincial rather than international (Italian).8 cm). and armor. which have a compelling power and character. These women are curiously reminiscent of the brittle. A teasing diaphanous wisp of silk simultaneously covers and reveals the nymph’s loins. and have hard little faces and faraway looks. 1512 (Freiburg Cathedral).92m in 1990. Large. 20 1⁄5 x 30 1⁄4 in (51. DC: National Gallery of Art). feathers. Coronation of the Virgin. 1510 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). He also produced very high-quality woodcuts with strong chiaroscuro. greedy. 1300–1500 125 Hans Baldung Grien b C. c. His early subjects tended to be religious. Freiburg-im-Breisgau (Germany) 1 oils. Cupid Complaining to Venus. Note the sloping shoulders. 1530 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). KEY WORKS The Three Ages of Man and Death. crazy hats and clothes. rings on fingers. feet turned out. Judith with the Head of Holofernes. Good draftsmanship. present-day high-fashion posed and posing models who strut along the catwalk. 1517 (Washington. c. c. Staunch Protestant. 1534. active studio. round breasts. Hard. oil on panel.

His marriage was unhappy and childless. assured figures and faces. and very successful. and more innovative as a printmaker: . Vienna 1 oils. Follower of Luther. crisp. curious. minute observation of detail. Was a brilliant draftsman and painted exquisite watercolors. soft. He had rich.7 cm). Look for northern features— apocalyptic imagery. dignified.200 in 1978. angular line. lopsided faces with enlarged eyes that have liquid surfaces. strong hands and feet. Fused northern European and Italian styles and had a profound influence on art. more at ease. The Isolated Rock of Doss Trento (works on paper) The greatest northern artist of the Renaissance. WHAT TO LOOK FOR and he established his own busy workshop in Nuremberg. He traveled widely in Europe and went on key visits to Italy in 1494 and 1505. woodcuts. STYLE Uniquely and subtly synthesized (often in the same work) characteristics of the old northern or medieval tradition and the new Italian and humanist discoveries. he was greater. 26 2⁄5 x 19 2⁄5 in (67. His social pretensions. Also look for objects as symbols. taught Dürer the technique of engraving and an admiration for van Eyck and van der Weyden. oil on panel. he was prolific. His portraits have strong lines.203. Vienna: Graphische Sammlung Albertina. emotional expression. London: British Museum (prints). patrician patrons who encouraged him to travel. LIFE AND WORKS Self-Portrait at the Age of Twenty-eight 1500. classical A Young Hare 1502.1 x 48. watercolor on paper. and animals. Note also the Italian features—strong.126 GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE Albrecht Dürer b 1471 –1528 n GERMAN 5 Germany. Highly gifted but selfconscious as a painter. His goldsmith father. Munich: Alte Pinakothek. God only knows that. Vienna: Albertina (watercolors) 3 $1. 9 3⁄4 x 9 in (25 x 23 cm). engravings 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek. rounded modeling. Dürer portrays himself as an image reminiscent of Christ. Born (four years before Michelangelo) in Nuremberg. “There lives no man upon the earth who can give a final judgment upon what the most beautiful shape of man might be. and his unusual degree of self-consciousness are revealed in his numerous self-portraits. He was fascinated by landscape. who came from Hungary and trained in the Netherlands.” ALBRECHT DÜRER produced powerful woodcuts and pioneering engravings. artistic ambitions. both north and south of the Alps. Many thousands of his works survive to this day. Dürer’s watercolors were created for his own pleasure. and anything unusual. immensely ambitious. beautiful. complexity of design. composed. plants. tenacious.

oil on panel. Prague: National Gallery. The numbers in the top right of the engraving form a “magic square. though its compositional structure is more like a triptych. 1497–98 (Virginia: Museum of Fine Arts). 63 3⁄5 x 76 1⁄2 in (162 x 194. KEY WORKS The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. 1526 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum) Melancolia 1514.” with the two middle cells of the bottom row giving the date of the engraving: 1514. perspective and foreshortening. 1503 (Vienna: Graphische Sammlung Albertina). This painting was Dürer’s first attempt at a single-panel altar.1 cm).2 x 19. c. aged 40. Johannes Kleberger. Great Piece of Turf—Study of Weeds. engraving. London: British Museum. 1300–1500 127 Altarpiece of the Rose Garlands 1506.5 cm). New Testament subjects. Virgin and Child Holding a HalfEaten Pear. architecture.C . 1512 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). 9 1⁄2 x 7 1⁄2 in (24. nudes. .


Austria. to be a major player on the European stage. and ladies. Rome an artistic showpiece that proclaimed this spiritual and political reality. Indeed. the Church began to fragment. and the . with virtually no limit on expense. and a generous and knowledgeable patron and protector of the arts. Italy. Europe’s most powerful temporal ruler was the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor. At first there was a certain equilibrium between these rival power blocks. fresco. hese principles were set out in one of the best-selling books of the 16th century. the achievements of the artists of the High Renaissance marked a high point that subsequent generations constantly revered and tried to emulate. Written in 1514 and first published in 1528. and southern Italy. Charles V. The Papacy cleverly combined Classical and Biblical authorities to assert its political and spiritual leadership. while Henry VIII of England also wanted his nation. Francis I of France was determined that his country should compete with both these powers. But by the late 1520s warfare engulfed Europe. 1500—1600 129 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM C. with its new ruling dynasty.C . ESTABLISHED POWERS T By 1511. each led by strong-willed men who did indeed fight hard and use art to display and reinforce their power and ambition. Il Cortegiano (“The Book of the Courtier”) by Baldassare Castiglione. was profoundly beneficial for the arts. Europe had four major powers. 1500 –1600 The 16th century saw the establishment of an ideal that would be followed by all self-respecting European rulers until the 20th century. who controlled Spain. A succession of energetic popes made The Delphic Sibyl (detail from Sistine Chapel ceiling) Michelangelo. a diplomat from Urbino. 1508–12. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 effectively left the Roman Church as the sole effective defender of Christendom. the Low Countries. It was twofold: be strong and fearless in battle. and accounts in no small measure for the great flowering of European art. it summarized what had already been established as an ideal of behavior for monarchs. Rome: Vatican Museums. and their wish to outdo each other culturally. nobles.

in with Rome in 1534. were rapidly won over to the Lutheran doctrine. The pace of European exploration after the 1490s was exceptionally rapid. they created a permanent split between an emerging Protestant north and a Catholic south. his goal was simply to protest against the corruption of the Church. then Title Page. Instead. and the Mediterranean at the center of the world. this case English. Henry VIII of England— Printing was crucial in spreading the albeit for political rather than Reformation. 1539. the Catholic Church was severely weakened by the crisis sparked by Martin Luther in 1517. instead of Latin.130 Theatrum Orbis Terrarum: Map of the World by Abraham Ortelius. as well as the kings of Denmark and Sweden. the outline of the American continent was assuming recognizable shape. In the course of the ensuing conflict. as the Bible became theological reasons—broke available in vernacular languages. intellectual certainties predicated on the perception of a universe in which the Earth was at the very center. But his further writings struck such a chord with antipapal feeling that the pope’s authority was rejected across much of northern Europe. Germany 1519 Habsburg Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor 1522 First circumnavigation of the globe completed (Magellan and del Cano) 1545 Council of Trent called to counter threat of Protestantism 1549 Direct Portuguese rule imposed on Brazil 1500 Portuguese discovery of Brazil (Cabral) 1500 1508–12 Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel ceiling 1520 1517 Martin Luther’s 95 Theses attacks abuses of Catholic Church 1527 Sack of Rome 1521 Cortés conquers Aztec Empire 1540 1534 Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII of England breaks with Rome 1543 Of the Revolution of Celestial Bodies published. invention of the watch. DISINTEGRATION What had started as cultural rivalry degenerated into destructive warfare. and unleashed a campaign to destroy art treasures with When in 1517 Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to a church door in Wittenberg. the Great Bible. Many German princes. especially in the sale of indulgences. burning and destroying what had become the finest city in the REFORMATION world. Meanwhile. By the second half of the century. 1574. the African coastline was accurately known. His supporters had intended to strengthen the Church by stamping out corruption. TIMELINE: 1500—1600 1509 Spanish settlement of Central America begun. Copernicus . also fractured. Even in the first decade of the 16th century. Francis I invaded Italy. Charles V’s army sacked Rome in 1527. In 1525.

C . Copernicus published his proof that the Sun. but in reality power was shifting away from Italy. 1559 Treaty of CateauCambrésis: France forced to concede Habsburg supremacy in Italy 1570 Publication of Palladio’s Four Books of Architecture. In 1565. By the mid-16th century. Italy 1572 St. This northsouth divide gave a savage twist to the rivalries between the continent’s leading powers. Chambord. after an audacious act of conquest. it is no surprise that the self-confidence of the art of the High Renaissance gave way to the uncertainties of Mannerism. MANNERISM The voyages of discovery showed that the world was much larger than had been imagined and full of curious new lands and creatures. a vicious. protracted conflict began in the Low Countries. Spain found itself in control of much of South America. With the Council of Trent. the Catholic Church committed itself to restoring its former supremacy. where the Habsburgs were determined to crush an anti-Catholic revolt and reimpose their own rule. In 1543. and the staggering wealth gained as a result made it the richest country in Europe. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: slaughter of French Protestants in Paris 1588 Spanish Armada: attempted conquest of Protestant England by Spain 1560 1565 Dutch Revolt starts: extended attempt to gain independence from Spain. not the Earth. summoned in 1545. 1. is the largest. By the end of the century. whose principal characteristics were a deliberate flouting of rules and willful eccentricity and distortion. Against this turbulent background. Philippines claimed by Spain 1580 1571 Battle of Lepanto: Ottoman navy defeated by united Christian fleet 1600 1598 Edict of Nantes ends 30-year religious war in France . Château de Chambord. both England and France had established footholds in North America. was the center of our planetary system.800 workmen were employed in its construction over 12 years. Loire Valley Francis I’s desire to emulate the cultural superiority of Italy found potent expression in the lavish châteaux of the Loire Valley. Long-held scientific beliefs were being challenged as well as religious ones. begun in 1519. 1500—1600 131 Catholic connections.

metal point drawing.360. genius. inventor. Pivotal in the creation of the High Renaissance period of Florentine art. fresco 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre (Mona Lisa).3 x 12. Leonardo da Vinci b 1452 –1519 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. and painter. An example of Leonardo’s lifelong fascination with animals. he produced many of his most famous Leonardo was born in Vinci. writer. but returned to Florence following the French invasion of Milan in 1499. Changed the status of the artist from artisan to gentleman. sculptor. London: Royal Collection (drawings) 3 $10. Had such a fertile mind that he rarely completed anything. Duke of Milan. at times. The Medici ignored him entirely.8 cm). were at war with Florence.001 in 2001. This may have been a factor that led him to become detached from others. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. near Florence. France 1 oils. he worked for Ludovico Sforza. Between 1500 and 1516. Milan. sculpture. “The mind of the painter should be like a lookingglass that is filled with as many images as there are objects placed before him. After 1483. designer. drawings.132 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Two Horsemen after 1481. The universal Renaissance man: scientist. perhaps lonely.” LEONARDO DA VINCI . 5 3⁄5 x 5 in (14. architect. the illegitimate son of a notary at a time when illegitimacy was a serious stigma. philosopher. and there are relatively few paintings by him. Horse and Rider (works on paper) Unique. LIFE AND WORKS Leonardo trained with Verrochio but much of his life was spent working at the courts of foreign dukes and princes who.

mixed media fresco. Cecilia Gallarani/The Lady with an Ermine. John the Baptist adoring the infant Christ accompanied by an angel. It set a new standard—and it reaffirms that art you have to interact with creatively is always best. c. 1500–1600 133 The Virgin of the Rocks c. This is the second version created by da Vinci. 1483 (Kraków: Czartoryski Museum). paintings. 1474 (Washington.C . Leonardo’s most remarkable legacy is his notebooks filled with writings and sketches in which he explored his private thoughts about art and science. He then put this into practice (as witness his keenly observed anatomical drawings and his plans for flying machines. 1508. His paintings are multilayered. 74 x 47 in (189. and so on). . according to legend. but careless. 1510 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The Last Supper 1495–97 (post-restoration). oil on panel. man’s relationship with nature and God. they also explore beauty. a relaxed pose.5 x 120 cm). He was technically inventive. died in the king’s arms near Amboise in the Loire Valley. It comprises a brilliant bag of technical and perceptual innovation (the use of oil paint. Mona Lisa. two landscapes) and demands that the viewer’s imagination should supply the inner meaning and missing visual detail. 181 x 346 1⁄2 in (460 x 880 cm). and diagrams for visionary scientific and mechanical projects. 1510) because it was lifelike in a way that had never been seen before. soft and shadowy figure with no outlines. More than a depiction of one event. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Why is the Mona Lisa (see page 138) so important? It created a sensation (c. showing the infant St. London: National Gallery. and “the motions of the mind” (psychology). KEY WORKS Ginevra de’Benci. observations from nature. STYLE Leonardo had an insatiable curiosity to find out how everything operates. investigating these subjects. Painted for the Milanese Foundation of San Francesco Grande. Milan: Santa Maria delle Grazie. ugliness. c. c. spirituality. He spent his last years in the service of Francis I of France and. the fresco refers to other episodes narrated in the Gospels. DC: National Gallery of Art).

. and used and developed them with apparent ease: deep. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie. helped raise the social status of artists from craftsmen to intellectuals. Rome 1 oils. or in one figure. Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione. Umbria. Observe too the continuity in his works—how a gesture. and intellectual expression. heighten our perception and feeling (one of the oldest and most successful devices): stern men and sweet women. Notice how everything has a purpose. 1510–11 (see page 139). or movement begun in one part of the body. pose. humanity. Bindo Altoviti. 1513. superb draftsmanship. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. balance. 104 1⁄3 x 77 1⁄5 in (265 x 196 cm). contemplation and activity. DC: National Gallery of Art). c. oil on canvas. oil on wood. 1513 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). c. Profoundly influential. fresco 2 Rome: Vatican Stanze. In short.92m in 1996. 1515 (Washington. total Christian belief.134 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) b 1483 –1520 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany. he projected an ideal at almost every level—which is why he was held up as the model for all ambitious artists until the overthrow of academic art by the Modern Movement. 1518–19. 60 3⁄5 x 46 4⁄5 in (154 x 119 cm). pre-1516 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The Sistine Madonna Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). especially how he uses contrast to Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). emotional. London: Victoria & Albert Museum (cartoons) 3 $7. This was Raphael’s first major work on a theme that was to become a central feature of his art—the Madonna and Child. subjects. stillness and movement. He had complete mastery of all Renaissance techniques. Study for the Head of an Apostle (drawing) “Il Divino. tension and relaxation. Madonna of the Chair. but one of the greatest masters of the High Renaissance and therefore of all time. He reworked the subject with constant variation and invention. Villa Farnese (fresco series). curved line and straight line. harmony. and ideas. is carried a stage further in another. KEY WORKS The School of Athens.” A child prodigy who died young.

1485 – 1547 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. 1474 –1517 n ITALIAN 5 Florence 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $2. solemn. double chins. 1517 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Fra Baccio della Porta Bartolommeo b C. Interesting use of perspective. or “piombo. . c. 1512 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). c. style. dramatic gestures. Otherwise he flirted with (relative) failure. 93 3⁄4 x 78 in (238 x 198 cm). grand in conception and scale. Catherine. oil on wood panel. but the compositions. elaborate altarpieces of throned Madonnas with the Christ child show the main characteristics of the High Renaissance style—monumental. 1511 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Italy: Academy) Andrea del Sarto b 1486 –1530 n ITALIAN 5 Florence. which makes his figures look like soulful athletes. Madonna of the Harpies. Fontainebleau 1 fresco. Forced to flee from the plague. Look for rather fierce-looking. In 1531 obtained the sinecure of keeper of the papal seal (made from lead. 1515 (Lucca. well balanced. Madonna and Child (oils) The last significant Florentine High Renaissance painter. His large-scale. Mother of Mercy. and a self-satisfied look. 1517–19 (London: National Gallery) Renaissance with generalizations (notice it especially in faces and drapery) and idealization. Rome 1 oils. Is it a misfortune to be talented but not outstanding in an epoch of giants? Do they cause you to live in their shadow and diminish your talent? Or do they inspire you to reach heights you would otherwise not have achieved? KEY WORKS The Daughter of Herodias. KEY WORKS Portrait of Savonarola. monumental. Influenced in subjects. 1500–1600 135 Sebastiano del Piombo b C. and technique by Leonardo. 1511 (Rome: Villa Farnese).C . but lack real emotional depth and originality. with dignified compositions and figures. religious pictures and portraits. Bartolommeo replaced the intensely observed detail of the early Lamentation over the Dead Christ Andrea del Sarto. Fall of Icarus. Marriage of St. balanced. Nativity (oils) Major Florentine painter who influenced the change in style between the early and High Renaissance. Portrait of a Woman. del Sarto painted this for the convent where he took refuge. fresco 2 Rome: Villa Farnese (fresco series) 3 $695. oils 3 $1m in 2000. who settled in Rome when Michelangelo and Raphael were there. muscular people. Observe landscapes that look prosperous and well farmed. 1510 (London: National Gallery). and figures became overblown as he strove unsuccessfully to keep up with his friend Michelangelo. Pietro in Montorio). and Michelangelo. 1516–21 (Rome: S. Portrait of Pope Clement VII (oils) Venetian expatriot and Titian’s contemporary. Flagellation.1m in 2001. Synthesized those influences to produce handsome. He achieved a certain marriage of muscularity and poetry.400 in 1987. He excelled at painting portraits—which can be magnificent. Annunziata). which are harmonious in color. 1524. and plenty of foreshortening. 1510 (Florence: SS. 1495 (Florence: Convent of San Marco). Warm color and light. Rich color and landscape backgrounds maintain his links with Venice. Florence: Palazzo Pitti. KEY WORKS Punishment of the Gamblers. Raising of Lazarus. with good strong hands. c. Raphael.” hence his nickname). Look for well-fed people with a tendency to chubby cheeks. color.

Rome 1 sculpture. full of latent energy. 576 x 528 in (1463 x 1341 cm). he found relationships with others difficult. quasi-divine. fresco. confident. He had a profound belief in the human form (especially that of the male) as the ultimate expression of human sensibility and beauty. Rome (especially Sistine Chapel) 3 $11. beautiful and expressive hands. he uses fiery reds. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. fallible. painter and architect second. Look for: tempera hatching. oil on panel. . Workaholic. John (Doni Tondo) 1504 – 05. contour. the son of a minor official with noble lineage. Also argumentative and belligerent. c. employs a wet-in-wet oil paint technique. Sculptor first. 1501–04 (Florence: Gallerie dell’Accademia). 1508–12 (Rome: Vatican Museums) Holy Family with St. Christ raises the good with his right hand and dismisses the damned with his left. Never a natural painter—he conceived the figure in sculptural terms and used light to model it. fresco. faces expressing the full range of human emotions. Bologna. oranges.001 in 2000. brilliant draftsmanship exploring outline. 5 Florence. muscular.174. more human. who cast his influence over all European art until Picasso broke the spell and changed the rules. In his paintings. KEY WORKS The Entombment. reminiscent of a sculptor exploring volume. melancholic. and volume. Vatican City: Sistine Chapel. David. yellows against gray or blue.136 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Michelangelo Buonarroti b 1475 –1564 n ITALIAN The Last Judgment 1538–41. 1500–01 (London: National Gallery). Gradually that image becomes more expressive. and showed his talent at an early age. He was born near Florence. so it could be the design for shaping a block of marble. temperamental. lonely. twisting poses. The Risen Christ (works on paper) The outstanding genius (and infant prodigy). and flawed. diameter 47 in (120 cm). less perfect. In the center of the composition. His early work shows the human being as the measure of all things: idealized. He was endlessly inventive—never repeats a pose (although he borrows some from famous Greek and Roman sculptures). Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes. tempera 2 Florence.

Peter’s Basilica Michelangelo was only 25 when his Pietà was unveiled at St. giving the work a realism most other sculptors were unable to attain. Michelangelo took the study of anatomy very seriously. More than a lofty religious symbol. emphazing how recently the blood flowed in his body Mary’s outstretched hands show an acceptance of her fate The Pietà was sculpted from one single block of marble. Michelangelo did not believe that his Christ should appear superhuman. In this superb work. he removed the subject from its usual sphere. Michelangelo’s close study of anatomy is apparent in this mastery of the human form The sorrowing face of the Madonna is an inspired union of classical idealism and Christian piety. The dead Christ of the Pietà is a testimony to many hours spent studying genuine corpses. The work ensured his reputation as one of the Renaissance’s finest artists. it has become a real moment in human existence: a sculpture that invites the viewer to share Mary’s grief. far removed from normal life. he wrote that there was no need to conceal the human behind the divine. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Christ’s veins are distended. 1500–1600 137 Pietà Michelangelo 1500 Pietà Medium marble Dimensions height 68 1⁄2 in (174 cm). taken from the quarries at Carrara . width at base 76 3⁄4 in (195 cm) Location Rome: St.C . As an adolescent he befriended a priest who allowed him access to dead bodies lying in rest at the church before being buried.

has an extraordinary power. technical sophistication. Rome 1528 Renaissance ideals defined by Castiglione in The Book of the Courtier . which the Church used to convey a spiritual ideal. c. lyrical and dreamlike “visual poems”. 30 1⁄4 x 21 in (77 x 53. significantly widening the repertoire of Western art. but it manifests itself in different ways.” the central motif of Michelangelo’s painting and sculpture. Similar elegance allied to acute psychological insight and astonishingly close observation of the natural world are obvious in Leonardo. Christian and pagan Antique. In Rome. SUBJECTS The visionary goal of High Renaissance art was a perfect union of the human and divine. KEY EVENTS 1498 1503 1506 Milan—Leonardo completes his huge. heroic and often deliberately distorted. Madrid: Museo del Prado. the latter above all in his mastery of color. other subjects—whether Classical scenes. Both Michelangelo and Titian pioneered more personal if no less heroic styles. Raphael and Michelangelo simultaneously created works of startling novelty. began to explore the relationship between the human figure and landscape. the former astoundingly audacious in his vision of the male form. Drama. and huge scale are unified by brilliant coloring and daring brushwork. idealization. Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci. Paris: Musée du Louvre. nature and imagination. under the energetic patronage of an exceptionally able (and self-promoting) pope. STYLE Idealization is the benchmark. 1548. the celebrated Titian redefined the possibilities of painting. Titian’s poesie. The Emperor Charles V on Horseback in Mühlberg Titian.5 cm). Praised by Giorgio Vasari because it “appeared to be living flesh rather than paint. Yet though religious subjects generally remained pre-eminent. and grace. the largest statue carved since Antiquity Foundation stone of Bramante’s new (and in the event never finished) St. Julius II. psychologically penetrating Last Supper Michelangelo completes David in Florence. Thus the male nude “made in God’s image. 1503 – 05.“ landscapes. oil on canvas.138 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM THE HIGH RENAISSANCE The years between about 1500 and the Sack of Rome in 1527 saw a prodigious outpouring in Italy in all the visual arts. In Venice. 131 x 110 in (332 x 279 cm). For Raphael it meant heroic confidence. or portraits—became increasingly important. Peter’s laid by Julius II 1508–12 Michelangelo’s almost single-handed epic labor on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

The School of Athens Raphael. 1500–1600 139 c. the leading Classical architect in Rome Raphael decorated the Pope’s library with four subjects: Philosophy. As a complement to Michelangelo’s religious theme in the Sistine Chapel. Raphael drew exclusively on the inspiration and precedents of Greek and Roman Antiquity. then working on his Sistine ceiling Raphael included a selfportrait. was a portrait of Bramante Plato and Aristotle. the great Greek mathematician. base 304 in (772 cm). giving a geometry lesson. The color scheme. too.C . Raphael was renowned in his own day for his ability to include a huge variety of complex poses and realistic expressions in a single work. expressive portrait and each group a model of statuesque harmony and continuous. Many hundreds of preliminary drawings were made from life. Vatican: Stanza della Segnatura Euclid. 1509–11. Poetry. is serene and harmonious. For his interpretation of Philosophy. Peter’s in Rome and its decoration through the leadership of Pope Julius II. fresco. . graceful movement. silhouetted against the sky. The architectural setting was based on designs by Bramante. 1500 –1527 WHAT TO LOOK FOR The greatest triumph of the High Renaissance was the rebuilding of St. demonstrates his propositions Heraclitus was a portrait of Michelangelo. an indication of the growing status accorded artists TECHNIQUES Each figure is a masterful. Theology. and Law. are awarded the dominant positions in the picture Pythagoras.

1476 –1510 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils 3 $6. and importance with the greatest of Renaissance painters. 1505–10 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia). plus wicked restorations and overcleanings). c. 1509. so just think how many pictures have falsely or mistakenly had the label “Giorgione” attached to them (and still do?). His small-scale. Few works are known to be his for certain. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. of the same generation . Catherine (oils. plus a passion for observing the real world. Dreamlike landscape settings. The Tempest. landscape. Also known as Giorgio Barbarelli or Giorgio da Castelfranco. pictures are consciously poetic. 47 3⁄5 x 55 1⁄2 in (121 x 141 cm). Sacra Conversazione—Madonna and Child with St. dreamy Giorgione mood. mostly secular. lyrical.140 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Giorgione b C. who ranks in achievement. It is impossible to identify a recognizable technique (so few works known for certain. 1502–03 (Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia). and mythological painting on which so much of Western art has depended. Giorgione was patronized by collectors who enjoyed poetic ambiguity. The Sleeping Venus and The Tempest opened the door for the development of the nude. The Sleeping Venus. John the Baptist and St. oil on canvas.400 in 1991. Look for that indefinable. KEY WORKS Old Woman. double-sided) Short-lived (for an artist). significance. and mysterious—carefully observed portraits of youthful and sensitive young men being beautiful. c. he was the young. 1508–10 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie) Jacopo Palma Vecchio b 1480 –1528 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils 3 $293. To own an authentic Giorgione has been one of the supreme ambitions of collectors since the Renaissance. Caesar Enthroned Receives Head of Pompey (oils) The Three Philosophers Giorgione. well-regarded painter of the greatest period of Venetian art.795 in 1957. short-lived genius of the Venetian School.

but a forerunner of later Dream of St. such as Canaletto. most of which are badly damaged. 1523–24 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). portraits. and lack the boldness and grandeur that they seem to be striving for. 1495 (Venice: Gallerie dell’ Accademia). crowds. c. Carpaccio’s faithful representation of the visible world is composed of many tiny parts. seem to be no more than an accumulation of small-scale visions and fine details. but he is somehow ungainly and gauche. Allegory with Male and Female Figure (oils) Somewhat obscure Venetian painter in mold of Titian and Giorgione—moody. 1516 (London: National Gallery). domestic genre painters and recorders of the Venetian scene. 1495. A Blonde Woman. c. and processions. etc. Ursula. 1516–20 (St. c. Venus and Cupid. . DC: National Gallery of Art). Carpaccio painted a series of works showing an unusually domesticated interpretation of the martyrdom of St.000 in 1990. 1525 (Washington. using rich light and color. The Flight into Egypt. however. c. 9 x 9 in (23 x 23 cm). but have the misfortune to be emotionally empty (the fate of many artists who just fail to reach the first rank). Young Knight in a Landscape. 1520 (London: National Gallery). Ursula) 3 $360. KEY WORKS The Dismissal of the English Ambassadors. 1510 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) as Titian. c. Private Collection. Not a pioneer. c. Look for skilful drawing. He painted myths. 1520 – 25. His high-quality pictures are well executed and decorative. factual detail. Melissa. Set his religious and mythological stories within images of his own familiar Venice and thus chronicled his own times. Had great success with half-lengths of sumptuous blonds masquerading as goddesses and saints (high Venetian fashion of the day). 1500 (Washington.7m in 1989. Ursula (detail) Vittore Carpaccio. 1500–1600 141 Lady with a Lute Jacopo Palma Vecchio. DC: National Gallery of Art) Vittore Carpaccio b ACTIVE 1490 –1523 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 tempera 2 Venice: Scuola di San Giorgio. allegories. KEY WORKS Sibyl. pleasingly soft and harmonious coloring. Ferrara 1 oils 3 $3. 1520s (Rome: Galleria Borghese). It is fashionable to say he is wonderful—he ought to be. Palma Vecchio’s sensuous portraits of women were eagerly bought by wealthy Venetians. Sacra Conversazione (drawing) Notable Venetian storyteller with an eye for homely. But his most elaborate works. Few works remain. 1479 –1542 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. Judith. His less good grandnephew was Palma Giovane (1544–1628).C . KEY WORKS Portrait of a Poet. tempera on canvas. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). sensuous. Gallerie dell’Accademia (Scenes from The Life of St. lush landscapes. 1525–28 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Dosso Dossi b C. mastery of all the skills of perspective and the human figure. and frothy trees. Had a liking for animals. poetic. Venice: Galleria dell’Accademia. c. 38 2⁄5 x 28 in (97 x 71 cm). but few survive. Mantua. Circe and her Lovers in a Landscape.

Have they become bored by too much good living and leisure? These are the last days of the really good times for the Venetian Empire. c. Madonna and Child with Two Angel Musicians and Landscape Beyond (oils) The Annunciation. c. DC: National Gallery of Art) Vincenzo Catena b C. but are often uncomfortable compositions with overcramped spaces and inexplicable changes of scale. Christ Bearing the Cross. Italy: Church of Sta Maria sopra Mercanti). Look at the faces. St. 1510 (London: National Gallery). He had a huge output. 1520s (Recanati. but good landscape details and bold modeling with light. Madonna and Child (oils) Minor and uneven Venetian with a difficult personality. and allegories have sumptuous colors and a rich. KEY WORKS Allegory of Love. c. Marche Region (Italy) 1 oils 3 $404. c. oil on canvas. Everything looks meticulously clean— because cleanliness is next to godliness? KEY WORKS Madonna and Child with the Infant St. 1520 –1530 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) Paolo Veronese b C. altarpieces. At times it even comes close to caricature. He died a forgotten man. KEY WORKS decorative qualities. See his work in situ – in one of his large-scale decorative schemes. but wellobserved light and attractive colors. There are influences from many of his contemporaries. Doge’s Palace. He was at his best in portrait painting. Vicenza: Villa Maser 3 $2. The scene is a fantasy interpretation of the occasion when Christ turned water into wine. Good middle-of-the-road painting—uninspired figures and composition. especially conjugal double portraits.000 in 1995. . I (Unfaithfulness). Was much admired by Bernard Berenson. Rome. such as a Venetian church or a nobleman’s villa. but too many borrowings that he never fully absorbs. Try to spot some of the illusionistic tricks and remember that these works were intended to go hand in hand with a particular building—with its space. so that his work can look like a mishmash of everyone else. Catherine.7m in 1990. Paris: Musée du Louvre. He liked searching. who made a detailed study of his work. His portraits. He never quite made all the parts work together. St. 1570s (London: National Gallery).142 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Lorenzo Lotto b C. surrounded by their servants. DC: National Gallery of Art) Reputable second-rank Venetian. 1506–1515 (London: National Gallery). John the Baptist. robust style. and classy architecture. Works have uncertain anatomy. 1522 (Washington. and light. The Finding of Moses. let your eye have a feast and enjoy the glorious visual and Marriage at Cana Paolo Veronese. soulful expressions and was obsessed by hand gestures and fingers. Cupid Disarmed by Venus (oils) Also known as Paolo Caliari. c. 1480 – 1531 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils 3 $185. c. Look for the stunning oriental carpets in his paintings of interiors. rich materials. Look for the posh people (his clients). Don’t look for profound meaning or a deep experience. Was much traveled. Jerome in his Study. So called because he came from Verona. 1563.800 in 1977. 1556 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. churches. Venice 1 oils 2 Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia. architectural detail. Bergamo. he is one of the major Venetians and one of the greatest-ever creators of decorative schemes. 262 1⁄5 x 389 3⁄4 in (666 x 990 cm). 1480 – C. Is that why the dogs and animals often seem more alive than the people? The Madonnas and deities he portrays are no more than Venetian nobility in fancy dress. 1570–75 (Washington.1528 – 88 n ITALIAN 5 Verona.

oil on canvas. Had a Shakespearean response to the human condition. One of the few painters whose reputation has never gone into eclipse or been overlooked.376. Venus and Adonis (oils) Named Tiziano Vecellio. Titian’s sensuous color tones accentuate the soft and shimmering beauty of the lovers’ flesh. Madrid: Museo del Prado. Also worked with Giorgione. comedy. He was a genius at creating a psychological relationship between figures so that the space between them crackles with unspoken messages. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1553. realism. drama. London: National Gallery 3 $12. spirituality—and always convincingly. 1570–75 (Kromeriz. ambition. 1542 (Washington. Rome 1 oils. c. Titian never belittled anyone or anything. 1487 – 1576 n ITALIAN Venus and Adonis Titian. but better known by the shortened version. KEY WORKS Christ Appearing to the Magdalen (Noli me Tangere). using new subjects or brilliant reinterpretations.000 in 1991. He had a miraculous ability with rich color and luscious paint. also idealization and understanding of the hidden secrets of his subjects’ characters. 5 Venice. poetry. 1512 (London: National Gallery). The Flaying of Marsyas. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. 1500–1600 143 Titian b C. Was he too wise or discreet to tell quite all that he knew? Gods and saints seem to be as much human as divine (and therefore understandable and approachable). Czech Republic: Château Archiépiscopal) . Superman is the measure of all things. c. fresco 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. vulgarity. Study the faces and the body language—portraits with a thrilling likeness (who was it I met or saw who was just like that?). 42 x 53 1⁄2 in (107 x 136 cm).C . and was constantly innovative. frailty. 1556–59 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). Diana Surprised by Actaeon. He was the supreme master of the Venetian School and arguably the greatest painter of the High Renaissance and of all time. Probably a pupil of Giovanni Bellini. showing us tragedy. Portrait of Ranuccio Farnese.

Bacchus and Ariadne occupy the center and left. meets Bacchus. TECHNIQUES This close-up detail of Ariadne shows Titian relishing two of the special qualities of oil paint: translucent.” He was one of the first artists to sign his work and was active in seeking to raise the social and intellectual status of painters. After falling in love. He was also the Renaissance master of color. and she was sky where it became the eventually granted immortality. daughter of King Minos of Crete. whom she of the painting where the diagonals helped to escape from intersect. inspired by its magical union of license by employing cheetahs for the task light and water. to decorate an alabaster pleasure chamber at his country house. Titian chooses to focus on the electrifying moment when Ariadne. lustrous color. Titian was based in Venice for his India. This early work was one of a series commissioned by Alfonso d’Este. precise detail. The revelers are all confined the Minotaur’s labyrinth to the bottom right. 1522 –23 Titian’s crowning achievements are his mythological poesie (poems). and this painting’s rich. Although the scene is crowded. Bacchus’s right hand is at the center Theseus. in northern Italy. famous for his ability to inject his pictures with moments of crackling psychological energy of the kind that pervades this work. Titian uses artistic entire life. There is an overriding sense of ordered chaos about the painting. Titian’s name appears on an urn in Latin—“TICIANUS F[ecit]. Bacchus’s Bacchus’s chariot feet are still with his companions. He was one of the most successful painters in history. . Titian has worked out the composition with great Ariadne has been abandoned by her lover care. signifying his head and heart have joined Ariadne. the duke of Ferrara. constellation Corona Borealis. the god of wine. Bacchus took Ariadne’s and they fall in love at first sight. and fine. but was traditionally pulled by leopards.” or “Titian made this picture. glowing brilliance reflects its passionate subject. his triumphant return The greatest painter of the Venetian from his conquest of school. crown and threw it into the He later married her.144 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Bacchus and Ariadne Titian c.

crowned and girdled with vine leaves. which was unearthed in 1506 (see pages 58–59). waves the leg of a calf above his head Bacchus and Ariadne Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 69 x 75 in (175 x 190 cm) Location London: National Gallery . 1500–1600 145 The muscular figure shown wrestling with the snakes is based on a celebrated antique Roman statue of the Trojan priest Laocoön (who was killed by sea serpents). The statue’s rediscovery caused a sensation. and many artists. including Raphael.C . incorporated crossreferences to it in their work. A maenad crashes cymbals together in a riotous procession The longing glance that this maenad exchanges with the satyr contrasts with the intense expressions of the main characters This drunken satyr.

1520 –1600 Mannerism is the name given to the predominant artistic style of the period bridging the High Renaissance and the Baroque. diameter 9 5⁄8 in (24. Jacopo Pontormo.146 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM MANNERISM c. and mythological or allegorical scenes. meaning “manner” or “style. 1523–24. strongly muscled anatomy.” The cradle of Mannerism was Rome. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum scenes viewed from an unusual aspect. El Greco. In architecture. voyeuristic sexual scenes. where the style was developed by artists influenced by the late works of Raphael and Michelangelo. SUBJECTS AND STYLE Mannerism was a reaction to social. conflicting style. The art of the period became violent. Figures look deliberately tense or as though suspended halfway through an action. realism. His later works were considered the beginning of Mannerism Sack of Rome. unnerving. oil on wood. c. KEY EVENTS 1520 1527 Death of Raphael. Spreads Mannerism across Italy and into France c. Agnolo Bronzino. often with a nightmarish. and religious upheaval. vivid color. After the violent Sack of Rome in 1527. look for anticlassicism and distortion of the viewer’s expectations. tense symbolism. In sculpture. tempera on wood. Tintoretto. excitable. a huge step away from the harmony of High Renaissance. deliberate lack of harmony and proportion. Look for distorted or elongated figures. and Girolamo Parmigianino. Key figures include Rosso Fiorentino. Faces are rich with expression. 1518. founder of the Medici dynasty. The style’s subjects include religious WHAT TO LOOK FOR Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror Girolamo Parmigianino. The term comes from the Italian maniere. Mannerism spread throughout Italy.4 cm). The movement was finished throughout Europe by c. unreal textures. portraits whose sitters wear unexpected expressions. political. deliberate distortion of space. exaggerated postures. 1700. complicated or obscure subject matter. artificial poses. 33 3⁄4 x 25 3⁄5 in (86 x 65 cm). . look for sense of movement. as terrified artists fled from the city. 1528 Jacopo Pontormo finishes his Deposition. a Florentine altarpiece in the Mannerist style 1534–40 Girolamo Parmigianino paints The Madonna of the Long Neck (see page 150) 1541 Birth of El Greco Cosimo de’ Medici (Il Vecchio) Jacopo Pontormo. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. often characterized by a sinister form of symbolism. A posthumous portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio (1389 –1464).

1520 (London: National Gallery). strongly influenced by his later style. Giorgio Vasari b 1511 – 74 n ITALIAN which was dedicated to Cosimo de’ Medici. Giulio finished several of his commissions. Also a pornographer— designed a series of celebrated and notorious pornographic engravings. The Attack on the Porta Camolia at Siena. oil on panel. also look for realism. but in his time he was a highly successful painter. . 1544 (Rome: Palazzo della Cancelleria). 1505 –25 (Rome: Vatican Museums). c. Lives of the Artists (1550. The Christ child reaches for grapes—a symbolic reference to the Eucharist.C . Mary Magdalene Borne by Angels. After Raphael’s death. Giulio moved to Mantua under protection of the Gonzaga family. In paintings. art historian. Studied under and worked with Raphael. oils Also known as Giulio Pippi. architect. 1570 (Florence: Museo Ragazzi) 5 Florence 1 fresco. The Annunciation Giorgio Vasari. 1532–34 (Mantua: Palazzo de Tè) KEY WORKS Madonna and Child Giulio Romano. Peter’s. oils He was a Mannerist painter. The Fall of the Giants. 33 1⁄3 x 30 1⁄3 in (105 x 77 cm). c. c. and also by the work of Michelangelo. optical illusions. This intimate scene formed the center panel of a triptych for the dominican church of Santa Maria Novella at Arezzo. Paris: Musée du Louvre. columns that are sturdy but look ready to tumble. Paul Getty Museum). 85 x 65 1⁄3 in (216 x 166cm). such as central motifs. Architect and painter. KEY WORKS Paul III Directing the Continuence of St. look for deliberate “mistakes:” missing expected features. or stonework left rough. errors. a major exponent of Mannerism. Also a respected architect—most famous for designing the Uffizi art gallery in Florence. The Holy Family. Despite inconsistencies. often decorating the houses of the aristocratic. reprinted and extended in 1568). 1520 –23 (Los Angeles: J. 1566 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). muscular anatomy. for instance. look for a similar style to Raphael. The Prophet Elisha. Uffizi offices (finished by others). 1500–1600 147 Giulio Romano b C. it remains an important source for students of Renaissance art. In architecture. and an overwhelming bias in favor of Michelangelo. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. c. 1564–67. and collector. entertaining man—and an inveterate gossip— whose patrons were said to have enjoyed his storytelling ability as much as his art. and a strong sexual overtone. Mantua 1 chalks. 1530 –40. writer. 1496 – 1546 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. A popular. Vasari’s writings have now outshone his other works. instead of being smoothly carved and finished. Crowning of the Virgin (Madonna of Monteluce). but exaggerated. the central Christian sacrament. c. Threatened with prison in Rome. c. most famous architectural work is Mantua’s Palazzo del Tè. fresco. oil on wood. 1560–80 (Florence). Most famous for his volumes of biography.

and hypochondriacal. He was consciously radical and experimental—in line with his temperament and the political and social moods of his time. Palazzo Vecchio 3 $410. solitary. Very good portraits—with An Allegory with Venus and Cupid Agnolo Bronzino. Paris: Musée du Louvre (for drawings) 3 $32m in 1989. c. or insolence. Annunziata). and eyes that can often seem vacant.148 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Jacopo Pontormo b 1494 – 1557 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany 1 oils. like those of a child’s doll. 1540–50. contempt. to have studied with Leonardo). the meaning of Bronzino’s allegory is unclear. Portrait of Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici (oils) He was also known as Jacopo Carucci. A Florentine. 1537 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Look for flesh that seems to be made of porcelain (as smooth as the people he portrays). London: National Gallery. The Meeting of Joseph and Jacob in Egypt (drawing) He was best known for his aloof and icy portraits. deliberately complex and artificial compositions. 1537 (Malibu: . with its superb facility. which communicate such arrogance. he was also a talented painter (good enough. c. Pontormo was one of the originators of the wayward style now known as Mannerism. 1514 –16 (Florence: SS. Paul Getty Museum). Look also for more rarely seen allegories and elongated and arrogant poses.8 cm). Notice the elongated faces and bodies. but has returned to favor in the 20th and 21st. oil on panel. J. insolent colors. Brilliant drawings. Monsignor della Casa. religious and secular decorative schemes for churches and villas.“ GIORGIO VASARI ON JACOPO PONTORMO Agnolo Bronzino b 1503 – 72 n ITALIAN 5 Tuscany 1 oils 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. Painted portraits of brittle artificiality— he lived in an age when artifice and striking poses reigned supreme. and the equally arrogant ease of his technique. Deposition. c. (Like most good artists he did not care what style he painted in—he just got on with it. and portraits. 57 2⁄3 x 45 in (146. and intense. high-key colors (acid greens.750 in 1996. Designed for King Francis I of France. clear blues. Nervous.) KEY WORKS The Visitation. 1541–44 (Washington. Taught Bronzino. from Pontormo. and sharp observation of character. c.5 x 116. 1528 (Florence: Santa Felicità. slow. (The word “Mannerism” was not invented or defined until the 20th century. capricious. anyway. and pale pinks).) Out of fashion in the 18th and 19th centuries. Humble background. DC: National Gallery of Art) “Sometimes when he went to work. c. Cappella Capponi). He painted altarpieces. melancholy. Court painter to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Portrait of Maria Salviati. hysterical. he would fall into such deep thought that he came away at the end of the day without having done anything but think. He sums it up with rare beauty: note the body language of the poses and faces. fresco 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi and churches. Portrait of Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici. Took Michelangelo’s and Dürer’s classicism and energy and contorted them into beguiling works with irrational compositions—figures in complicated but frozen poses—and bright.

A brilliant resolution of the problem of uniting several figures in a single sculpture. Bisexual—imprisoned twice for sodomy. c. 1540 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Famous for the Fountain of Neptune in Bologna and the equestrian statue of Cosimo de’ Medici in Florence. 1542–43 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Giovanni Battista Moroni b C. involving many figures whose poses are deliberately stolen from Michelangelo. . Portrait of a Man. c. Nymph of Fontainebleau. The Fountain of Neptune. in which the sitters are allowed to speak for themselves without too much manipulation by the artist.C . Portrait of a Gentleman. Possessed a strong preference for painting figures silhouetted against a plain background. Portrait of Prospero Alessandri (oils) Son of an architect. 1563–66 (Bologna: Piazza del Nettuno). but these lack the precision and excellence of his smaller pieces. Many influential patrons. but also fathered four children.” 1540–43 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). and violent. 1550 to study. Wrote an entertaining autobiography. Rumored to have crucified a man and watched him die in order to sculpt a realistic Christ on the cross. Unpleasant. arrogant. mid-1560s (St. c. 1555–60 (London: National Gallery). called the “Saliera. KEY WORKS A Lady with a Dog. Portrait of a Lady. Mannerist sculptor. and pupil of Michelangelo. The Panciatichi Holy Family. 1525 – 78 n ITALIAN 5 Albino. Patronized by the Medici. Artist from Bergamo who is best remembered as an accomplished painter of low-key. Studied in Antwerp before arriving in Italy c. bronze. c. Bergamo 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $1. 1594–1600 (Florence: Loggia dei Lanzi) Benvenuto Cellini b 1500 – 71 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. engraving 2 Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello A sculptor and engraver. KEY WORKS Giambologna b 1529 –1608 n FLEMISH 5 Belgium. including Francis I and Cosimo de’ Medici. France 1 sculpture. 1575 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). sadistic. Had a wide range of sitters. 1500–1600 149 religious works with intricate designs. Many of his famous works are monumental.101. 1555–60 (London: National Gallery). Hercules and the Centaur. Lived in Rome before settling in Florence. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1576 (Boston: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum) The Rape of the Sabines Giambologna. KEY WORKS Saltcellar. Italy 1 sculpture 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum Also called Giovanni da Bologna or Jean de Boulogne. Portrait of a Bearded Man in Black. realist portraits. such as Francis I’s golden saltcellar. including middle and lower classes. c. c. His works were hugely influential on the future of sculpture. Committed more than one murder. 1529–30 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). 1583. KEY WORKS Samson Slaying a Philistine. Florence: Galleria dell’ Accademia. Exiled from Florence for dueling.440 in 1995. 1561–62 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). Florence Triumphant over Pisa. with good precise detail. capable of producing both miniatures and monumental statues with equal ability.

Rome. drawings 2 London: British Museum (drawings) 3 $1. Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. oils. London: British Museum (drawings) 3 $322. in northern Italy—like his contemporary. and brilliant. The in-situ decorations in Parma are forerunners of the over-the-top Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola Parmigianino b 1503 – 40 n ITALIAN 5 Parma. northern Italy. oil on canvas. color. His religious and mythological paintings are a paradoxical combination of real and unreal. and precious works. Look for beautifully executed. and enigmatic image. engravings. Notice the recurrent bizarre.150 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM then transforms into fantasies— like a musical composer making variations on a theme. public buildings). and tender emotion. 84 3⁄5 x 52 in. c.000 in 1987. This work is a union of artificial elegance and spirituality. and occasional sentimentality. which he . which was considered very beautiful at the time). Compositions are complex but satisfying. drawings 2 Parma (churches. movement. Madonna and Child (oils) He was short-lived. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror. His works are full of genuine charm. His art starts with acute observations from life. Vision of St. with easyto-read subjects displaying pleasing anatomy and relationships. elegant. intimacy. refined. 1523 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). prolific drawings. and consequently very influential. precocious. Jerome. reserved. and light. Invented the idea of light radiating from the Christ child. Look for the distorted and convoluted perspectives and variety of scales (his style was the epitome of Mannerism). youthful faces. as well as a tool. and knowing looks (especially in his late work. large frescoes. 1494 – 1534 n ITALIAN The Madonna of the Long Neck Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola Parmigianino. elongated human figures. Most important works are in Parma. much admired (“Raphael reborn”) and very influential.000 in 1995. everything (though immensely accomplished and not unambitious) is gentle—light. (215 x 132 cm). Bologna 1 fresco. His drawings are full of energy. Now no longer well known: his virtues are completely out of fashion. Christ in Glory Flanked by Putti on Clouds (works on paper) Once hugely revered and popular (especially in 17th and 18th centuries). their impossibly long necks. 1527 (London: National Gallery) Antonio Correggio b C. Chose subjects from mythology and the Bible. Correggio. He also produced small-scale panel paintings. Had a sophisticated line in erotica. projecting a cool. From Parma. foreshortening. he loved drawing as an activity for its own sake. and had a lyrical and sensitive style. 5 Parma 1 oils. He was especially great as a portraitist. and sweet smiles.272.1534–40. contrived.

without acidity. His works.576. . Venus. demonstrate a problem with anatomy and perspective. c. sentimental side derives from Leonardo and influenced French Rococo. 1510–15 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). and Cupid. The significance of the circumcision is that it is the first occasion on which Christ shed his blood. He was a painter of standard religious subjects. religious works. chalks 2 Urbino 3 $2. His work lacks bite. 1550–70 (London: National Gallery). Many fine drawings. 140 x 98 4⁄5 in (356 x 251 cm). See how he turns the ceiling into an illusionistic sky and then makes exciting things happen in it (Mantegna did this first and Correggio followed him). chosen for their power and drama.020.C . Satyr. marvelous. sweetly-faced Madonnas. Madonna del Popolo (works on paper) Paris Bordone b 1500 – 71 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. urgent handling of paint. sweet wine—all fruit and sugar. Paris: Musée du Louvre. c. KEY WORKS Rest on the Flight into Egypt. Germany Gallerie dell’ Accademia 1 oils 2 Venice: Venetian painter of portraits. Rome 1 oils. and well-handled crowds. landscapes. and spectacular lighting. and either The Circumcision of Christ Federico Barocci.000 in 1987. Strongly influenced by Giorgione and his teacher. who suffered from terrible poor health (at times. important member of the first Fontainebleau School. France. Note how Bassano packs great drama into small spaces—which is why everyone seems to be in such a hurry. c. which reflects the drama of the scene as though Bassano were part of it. 1560 (Rome: Galleria Borghese) Federico Barocci b 1526 – 1612 n ITALIAN 5 Urbino (Italy). stormy mountain landscapes. KEY WORKS Rest on the Flight to Egypt. Beautifully painted hands and arms. KEY WORKS The Good Samaritan. Worked for King Francis I of France. 1520–30 (London: Courtauld Institute). Sugar-plum colors and soft forms (he was one of the first artists to use chalks). 1524–25 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). c. Sheep and Lamb. although facially realistic and finely detailed. Madonna del Popolo. 1590. KEY WORKS The Mystic Marriage of St. The Presentation of the Ring of St.144 in 1994. Titian (despite disliking the latter intensely). and mythological genre scenes. Venus with Mercury and Cupid. 1525 (London: National Gallery) moving into the picture space or trying to get out of it. Two Dogs Resting beside a Treetrunk (oils) Best-known member of the prominent Venetian da Ponte family. 1576–79 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Jacopo Bassano b C. striking light. 1512–14 (Strasbourg: Musée des Beaux-Arts). Mark to the Doge. The charming. c. animals. fresco. Venice 1 oils 2 Bassano: Museo Civico 3 $2. 1517 – 92 n ITALIAN 5 Bassano. evident in his work). Note how he interpreted them to make the best of his interest in stocky peasants. 1500–1600 151 illusionistic decorations in Baroque Rome 100 years later (the link from one to the other was Lanfranco). oil on canvas. Catherine. 1570–73 (Vatican: Pinacoteca). like cheap. Judith. who lived at Bassano (where grappa is made). Liked wistful faces and idealized profiles. 1535 (Venice: Galleria dell’ Accademia) Barocci was an Urbino-based painter of sentimental religious pictures.

Poor anatomy in some portraits—hands that don’t belong to the body. 1570 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Accademia Susanna Bathing Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto. he is said to have trained briefly with the greatest painter of the Venetian School. London: National Gallery. 3 $825. Such a small scale is unusual.000 in 1994. 1555 (Washington. verve. Very prolific. 57 1⁄3 x 76 1⁄5 in (146. try standing or kneeling to one side so that you view the work from an oblique angle: he designed many works to be seen in this way. When you find an extraordinary or off-center composition. hasty brushwork and exciting lighting show his passionate involvement in his creations. George and the Dragon Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto. c. panache. DC: National Gallery of Art). drawings 2 Venice: Scuola di San Rocco. Although unpopular and unscrupulous. He painted portraits of notable Venetians but his busy studio produced many dull efforts. he was a formidable draftsman. The Raising of Lazarus (oils) His father was a dyer (tintore)—hence his nickname. c. 62 1⁄5 x 39 1⁄3 in (158 x 100 cm). Tintoretto. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. The Woman who Discovers the Bosom. KEY WORKS Summer. Ducal Palace. c. Christ at the Sea of Galilee. Very little is known about his life. A popular subject as it provides an excuse for female nudity. too.6 cm). Tintoretto used a model stage and wax figures to design his extraordinary and inventive compositions. DC: National Gallery of Art) St. .152 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto b 1518 – 94 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils.5 x 193. In his monumental and vast religious works and mythologies. c. 1575–80 (Washington. 1555 –56. His late religious work tended to be gloomy. he was one of the major Venetian painters in the generation following Titian. everything was treated with the drama. 1570. His thick. oil on canvas. oil on canvas. especially if they were big works for the small or narrow spaces of Venetian churches. scale—and sometimes the absurdity— of grand opera. where the congregation would be both kneeling and looking up or forward to works hung on the side wall.

printmakers. elegant limbs. such as Fiorentino and Primaticcio. near Paris. and textile workers. and elongated. gold. 1589 –1610 . Settled in Fontainebleau (and died in France). Study of God. and dreamlike sequences that have a strange realism to them. stucco workers. 1530–39 (County Durham. c. KEY WORKS The Rape of Helen. 1494/5 –1540 n ITALIAN Francesco Primaticcio b C. Former apartments of Anne de Pisseleu. c. and Ambroise Dubois. Musical Angel. Also worked in stucco. Principal painters included Toussaint Dubreuil. 1530 –1560 & c. Paul Getty Museum) FONTAINEBLEAU The royal palace at Fontainebleau. worked for Henry II as Surveyor of Works. Works include large number of religious scenes (famous for his Musical Angel. The second Fontainebleau School was established by Henry IV in 1589. and Correggio. stucco 1 oils. The first—and most influential—was established by King Francis I in the 1530s. 1520 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi).C . Look for paintings and stucco. eccentric painter. look for anatomical correctness. decorating the palace in Fontainebleau with painting and stucco decorations. After death of Fiorentino. After death of Francis I. came from Italy. Ulysses Shooting through the Rings (works on paper) Real name. writers. The influence of the Mannerist style seen here spread quickly throughout northern Europe. Look for lots of movement. born and trained in Bologna. overcrowded scenes. faces filled with expression. but over-muscled figures. thereby spreading Italianate art to northern Europe. France tempera. Unconventional. poets. Most of the early workers. tiny heads. 1533– 44. and France. now in the Uffizi) as well as excellent portraits. Credited with taking Italian Mannerism to France. prominent muscles. fostered two brilliant schools of decoration and architecture. but returned to Italy regularly on art-buying trips. UK: Bowes Museum).600 in 1990. bold colors. 1504 – 70 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. Highly talented early Mannerist and pupil of Andrea del Sarto.and silversmiths. 1518 (London: National Gallery). died in Paris. before moving to Venice. c. Official painter of Francis I in 1532–1537. France 1 oils. The Virgin and Child with Angels. in high relief. stucco 2 Château de Fontainebleau 3 $424. 2 Fontainebleau 5 Italy. characterized by sensuality. Rome. Duchesse d’Étampes Francesco Primaticcio. Primaticcio took over as leader of Fontainebleau School. Became assistant to Rosso Fiorentino and appointed official art buyer to the king. sculptors. 1500–1600 153 Rosso Fiorentino b C. Born and worked in Florence. Château de Fontainebleau. Worked with Giulio Romano in Mantua. Francis (1514–47) employed a variety of artists and artisans: painters. fresco. he moved to France under patronage of Francis I. KEY WORKS Portrait of a Young Man Holding a Letter. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Painter. Influenced by Mannerism. Michelangelo. Member of first Fontainebleau School. 1522 (St. In 1532. Martin Fréminet. designers. 1555 (Los Angeles: J. Giovanni Battista di Jacopo. after a period of great social and political unrest in France. fresco. Cellini. architects.

Hyante and Climène at their Toilette. natural-looking facial features. 1594 –1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). c. c. KEY WORKS Angélique and Médor. Modena. 1555 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) . He also painted portraits in both Italy and France. and draftsman. mannered. Little of his work survives. from family of painters. Appointed court painter to Francis I in 1541 and remained so for Henry II. Bologna. Hyante and Climène offering a Sacrifice to Venus. and artificial style playing with fantasy landscapes and themes of love. Dicé gives a Banquet for Francus. 1550–74. Toussaint Dubreuil b 1561 –1602 n FRENCH 5 France 1 fresco. while retaining the bloom of youth. He had a refined. miniaturist. and Charles IX. Dubreuil designed large-scale tapestries and painted murals and frescoes. Worked for the king in Fontainebleau and Paris. elaborate. stucco 2 Bologna: Palazzo Pozzi 3 $134. King of France. mainly of mythological and classical subjects. Pierre Quthe. drawings 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé Portrait painter. such as Claude and Poussin (whom Niccolò influenced). oil on wood. Jean Clouet. In his lifetime. attention to contemporary fashions. rich decoration. 1540 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). He is best known for the frescoes to be found in the Tuileries Palace. Appointed Premier Painter to Henry IV. KEY WORKS Landscape with the Death of Eurydice. both were favorites of Francis I and both nicknamed “Janet” or “Jehannet. successful studio. the young French king was only aged 11. The Continence of Scipio. oils Dubreuil was a painter and draftsman who had a strong association with the second Fontainebleau School.” Ran large. He trained in his birthplace. Clouet’s portrait invests the young face with firmness and maturity. c. but had already been reigning for a year. 1562 (Paris: Musée du Louvre).154 HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM François Clouet b C. Portrait of a Young Man Wearing a Plumed Hat (oils) Italian-born decorator of palaces and portrait painter. c. and realistic expression. 1512 – 71 n ITALIAN 5 Modena. 1510/16 – 72 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. and the French classical landscape painters. 9 4⁄5 x 8 1⁄4 in (25 x 21 cm). 1552 (London: National Gallery). Francis II.400 in 1998. Settled in France in 1552 to work for the royal court. 1570 (Washington. c. 16th century (Paris: Musée du Louvre). France 1 oils. father of Martin Fréminet. DC: National Gallery of Art) Charles IX François Clouet. Lady in her Bath. Credited with forging the link between Mannerism and Classicism. 1594–1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Niccolò dell’Abbate b C. Painted portraits of the nobility as well as allegorical landscapes. Famous portrait of Francis I —lavish with gold—has been attributed to both François and Jean Clouet. c. unknown to have left France. KEY WORKS François I. and later developed a mature style in Bologna. Look for meticulous detail. retired in 1570. 1594–1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). he was famed for painting murals in the Louvre—all destroyed by fire in 1661. Paris. Strongly influenced by the Italianate paintings of first Fontainebleau School. Often confused with his father. but his reputation as a talented painter remains intact. He was a key link figure between Correggio and Parmigianino (who influenced Niccolò with his elegant figure style). c. who trained him. He was apprenticed to Médéric Fréminet. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. At the time of painting.

Favored by Philip II of Spain until he fell out of favor in 1582. arrogant. But to touch the real El Greco. and faces are not intended to describe. you have to forget this. Madonna and Child with St. fragmented spaces and jewel-like acid colors (Byzantine mosaics and icons). The soaring compositions are about the ascent from the material to the divine. 1584–94. hence the name El Greco (the Greek). Laocoön. Toledo: Cathedral. Italy. 192 x 141 3⁄4 in (488 x 360 cm). his works reveal the essence and idea of a person rather than a strict likeness.285. feet. Museo del Greco 3 $5. The elongated figures. This painting is a good example of the visionary style that so displeased the Spanish monarch Philip II. DC: National Gallery of Art) . Agnes. A one-off. Joseph and the Christ Child. 1586–88. Christ on the Cross (oils) Real name Domenikos Theotocopoulos. El Greco excelled as a portraitist. causing El Greco to lose all of his royal patronage. 5 Crete.C . 1597–99 (Washington. At once intense. intellectual. The strange colors are a reflection and The Burial of Count Orgaz. The boy. Art historians can have a good time trying to piece together the sources: directly applied color (Titian). rather to reveal the inner spirit. Look for the thrilling draftsmanship and the tense probing line that outlines his forms. hands. 1500–1600 155 El Greco b 1541 – 1614 n GREEK/SPANISH The Resurrection El Greco. c. KEY WORKS St. sculpture 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. writhing figures (Michelangelo and Parmigianino). 1597–99 (Toledo: Museo de Santa Cruz). oil on canvas. DC: National Gallery of Art). The faces of the mourners for the saintly Count are clearly portraits of contemporary gentlemen of Toledo. revelation of spiritual light. with a bewilderingly wide range of sources. oil on canvas. Toledo (Spain) 1 oils. Trained in Venice but worked in Spain. 108 1⁄4 x 50 in (275 x 127 cm). from a Legend of 1323 El Greco.000 in 2000. may be El Greco’s eldest son. He believed that otherworldly appearances were a better aid to devotion than naturalism. He was born in Crete. and spiritual. who is standing in the bottom left-hand corner. and enter the spiritual world of visionary Christianity. Only then will you appreciate his genius and the significance of his superb technical skills. Martina and St. painting mainly ecclesiastics or gentlemen. 1610 (Washington. Madrid: Museo del Prado. Toledo: Church of Santo Tomé.

with elegant. Catherine (oils. He combined Flemish realism and detail with Italianate subjects. 1530 (Detroit Institute of Arts). Antoine Anselme and his Family. c. 1559 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts) The Adoration of the Shepherds Pieter Aertsen (studio of). Good at modeling with light in the Italian manner. Paul Stung by a Viper on the Island of Malta. engravings 2 Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum 3 $652. c. 1550 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek). Sweden). grandeur. Florence. Monumental genre and still-life scenes (such as a butcher’s shop) that have a religious subject hiding in the background. Private Collection. oil on panel. . 16th century. and decorative). gestures. Butcher’s Stall with the Flight into Egypt. 33 1⁄4 x 44 3⁄4 in (84. muscular figures. and idealization (visited Rome. 45 1⁄2 x 55 in (118 x 140 cm). St. c. ambitious.042 in 1998. Italy 1 oils. Portrait of a Lady with a Spindle and Distaff. Parable of Royal Wedding (oils) Painter of altarpieces and large-scale peasant subjects.219 in 1987. and Venice 1552–58). but Flemish painting attempts to do so many things well that it does none well. c. 1531 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) Family Group Maerten van Heemskerck. Lawrence and St. This portrait is in a vigorous and relatively sober style and dates to before Heemskerck’s visit to Rome. He spent most of his life in Haarlem and became Dean of the Painters’ Guild. Painted altarpieces (vertical.000 in 2002. John the Baptist and St. oil on wood. 1566 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). A Bruegel without the humor and moral observation. 1532–36. Likes movement. 1590 (Bilbao: Museo de Bellas Artes) Market Scene. emotional (unrealistic) faces. Adopted Italian idealization rather than northern realism.7 cm). KEY WORKS “There are countries where they paint worse than in Flanders.156 Maerten van Heemskerck b 1498 – 1574 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem. altarpieces. and mythologies. Cook in front of the Stove. elongated figures). and colors (hot reds. 1508 – 75 n DUTCH 5 Antwerp 1 oils 3 $317. St. 1531 –1603 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. 1577 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). 1530. turquoise blue). Half-length Portrait of a Woman (oils) Leading Haarlem painter of his day. Look for classical profiles. c. KEY WORKS The Crucifixion.“ MICHELANGELO Marten de Vos b C. Michelangelesque. Italy 1 oils 2 Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts 3 $210. 1551 (University of Uppsala. strong pinks. a Rubens without the panache and power. a pair) Leading painter in Antwerp. Van Heemskerck was totally transformed by a visit to Rome. portraits (worldly Flemish burghers and plain backgrounds). and mythologies (large in scale.5 x 113. Abduction of Europa. His works were portraits. John Evangelist. Many Aertsen altarpieces were destroyed in the Reformation riots. KEY WORKS St. Pieter Aertsen b C. Kassel (Germany): Staatliche Museen.

1565 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum).C . godlike. then by The Tower of Babel (detail) Pieter Bruegel (the elder). Leading Flemish artist of his day whose subjects reflected contemporary religious and social issues.56m in 2002. 1500–1600 157 Pieter Bruegel (the elder) b C. Clear outlines and detail lead the eye through each picture. distanced. Drunkard Pushed into the Pigsty (oils) Nicknamed “Peasant” Bruegel because of the subject matter of his paintings. we can recognize ourselves— especially when he illustrates human follies. and misdemeanors. 45 x 61 in (114 x 155 cm). then dropped the “h. Brussels 1 oils. The Wedding Feast. and superior). Early work (from Antwerp) is busy and anecdotal. This famous series of depictions was commissioned by Niclaes Jonghelinck. KEY WORKS Netherlandish Proverbs. Hunters in the Snow—February Pieter Bruegel (the elder). 46 x 63 3⁄4 in (117 x 162 cm). 1525 – 69 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. oil on panel. the fineness and charm of detail he draws us into it—we are simultaneously in his world and apart from it. c. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. France. 1559 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). greed. Like all great artists. They are powerful because. 1567–68 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) . not his character. 1565. Saw the Alps in 1552–53 on his way to Italy. Bruegel speaks simultaneously about the personal and the universal. Spelled his name Brueghel until 1559. Italy. 1563. Paved the way for Dutch masters of the 17th century. as well as enjoying the existence and minutiae of his day and age. later work (from Brussels) is simpler and more consciously and artistically composed and organized. Bruegel’s bird’s-eye views place us outside his world (we look down. The Gloomy Day.” Brilliant works and accurately observed commentaries on the appearance and behavior of the ordinary people of his day—like a first-rate stage play or TV soap opera. An attempt to build a tower so tall it would reach up to Heaven. oil on canvas Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. drawings 2 Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum 3 $4.



Albrecht Altdorfer
b C. 1480 –1538 n GERMAN

5 Austria; Regensburg (Germany) 1 oils; engravings 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $7,021 in 1998, Jahel and Sisera (woodcut) Mainly a painter of altarpieces. Their most notable features are strange, visionary landscapes with eerie light effects, and in which wild nature is in control, with man taking second place. Small output. Gave up painting to go into local government.
KEY WORKS Christ Taking Leave of his Mother, c. 1520 (London: National Gallery); St. Florian Altar, c. 1520 (Linz, Austria: Monastery of St. Florian; Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi)

Bartholomeus Spranger
b 1546 –1611 n FLEMISH

5 Belgium; Italy; France; Austria; Czech Republic 1 fresco; oils; drawings Painter, draftsman, and etcher; exponent of late Mannerist style. Key figure of Northern European Mannerism. Born in Antwerp, worked in France, then moved on to Rome, where he studied under Taddeo Zuccaro. He was appointed court painter to the Pope in 1570. In Vienna, he worked for Emperor Maximilian II. Then he moved on to Prague, where he stayed for the rest of his life. Became court painter to Emperor Rudolf II in 1581. His works were mainly of mythological or allegorical subjects. Very popular in northern Europe and hugely influential on Haarlem school. Works are typical of the late Mannerist period. Look for a glut of nudes, improbable poses, a sensual style, luminosity of skin tone, and exaggerated features. His paintings are also filled with rich colors, finely executed small details, such as jewels, fruit, and flowers, and detailed decorations, such as on background furniture.
KEY WORKS Christ, the Saviour of the World, 16th century (Montauban, France: Musée Ingres); Diana and Actaeon, c. 1590–95 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); The Adoration of the Kings, c. 1595 (London: National Gallery); Venus and Adonis, c. 1597 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum); Allegory of Justice and of Prudence, c. 1599 (Paris: Musée du Louvre)

Beheading of Saint Catherine Albrecht Altdorfer,
c. 1505–10, 22 x 14 1⁄5 in (56 x 36 cm), oil on panel, Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Altdorfer appealed to German humanists wanting to revive native German traditions.

Adam Elsheimer
b 1578 –1610 n GERMAN

5 Venice; Rome 1 oils; engravings; drawings 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $450,000 in
1990, St. Jerome in the Wilderness (oils)

Popular, early practitioner of small-scale, ideal landscapes. Spent his working life in Italy. Very influential on artists such as Rubens, Rembrandt, and Claude. Lazy — should have painted more pictures. Full of the kind of remarkable precision and detail that you see when looking down the wrong end of a telescope. All his works are painted on copper plates, which allows such fine detail (he must have had brushes with only one bristle). Often used several sources of light in one picture, such as sunset and moon, daylight and torchlight. Painted charming trees, which look like parsley.
KEY WORKS Saint Christopher, 1598–99 (St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum); The Baptism of Christ, c. 1599 (London: National Gallery); St. Paul on Malta, 1600 (London: National Gallery); Nymph Fleeing Satyrs, c. 1605 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum); The Flight into Egypt, 1609 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek)


. 1500–1600


Giuseppe Arcimboldo
b 1527 – 93 n ITALIAN

5 Milan; Vienna; Prague 1 oils 2 Stockholm: Nationalmuseum 3 $1.3m
in 2000, Reversible Anthropomorphic Portrait of a Man Composed of Fruit (oils)

16th century). Worked mostly in Prague for Rudolf II, who was addicted to alchemy and astrology. Arcimboldo returned to Milan in 1587.
KEY WORKS Fire, 1566 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum); The Librarian, 1566 (Balsta, Sweden: Skoklosters Slott); Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter (series of four), 1573 (Paris: Musée du Louvre)

Best known for fantastical faces and bodies made up of vegetables, trees, fruits, fish, and the like—he had the type of artistic curiosity produced in times of cultural and political upheaval (as much in the late 20th century as in the late

Water Giuseppe Arcimboldo, 1566, 26 1⁄5 x 20 in
(66.5 x 50.5 cm), oil on canvas, Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. The Four Elements—Earth, Air, Water, and Fire—were popular subjects for series paintings.


Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling
Hans Holbein (the younger), c. 1526–28, 22 x 15 1⁄3 in (56 x 39 cm), oil on panel, London: National Gallery. The animals in the painting may allude to the the family coat of arms of the sitter, Anne Lovell.

system. Also produced more informal and flattering (but never too relaxed) soft-focus images of high society that surrounded the court. Note the way he draws and models with light (as does a photographer); the remarkable sharp focus detail (stubble on a chin, fur); intense lighting; wonderful feel for structure of a face and personality inside it. Portraits before mid-1530s are full of objects (sometimes symbolic); later they are flattened designs on a dark background (like postage stamp images?). The famous album of 80 drawings at Windsor contains the lovely, soft-focus, informal portraits.
KEY WORKS Portrait of a Woman, c. 1532–35 (Detroit Institute of Arts); The Ambassadors, 1533 (London: National Gallery); Christina of Denmark, c. 1538 (London: National Gallery); Edward VI as a Child, c. 1538 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Hans Holbein (the younger)
b C. 1497/8 –1543 n GERMAN/SWISS

5 Germany; Switzerland; France; England 1 oils; drawings 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection 3 $1,957,500 in 1984,
Portrait of a Scholar (watercolors)

Painter and designer, chiefly celebrated as one of the greatest of all portraitists. Holbein was forced to leave Switzerland because of the Reformation. He came to England and established himself successfully as the propaganda portrait painter of the era of Henry VIII. He died of the plague, and very little is known about his life. He was famous above all for his portraits (many of his early religious works were destroyed during the Reformation). There are interesting parallels with official court photographs of the mid-20th century, such as the work of Cecil Beaton: masterly, memorable, posed, officially commissioned images—in sharp focus—of the monarch and ruling officials, which are self-chosen icons of the political and constitutional

Portrait of a Youth in a Broad-brimmed Hat Hans Holbein (the younger), c. 1524–26, 9 1⁄3 x 8 in (24.5 x 20.2 cm) chalk on paper, Derbyshire (UK): Chatsworth House. The artist learned his three-color pastel technique in France.


. 1500–1600


Hans Eworth
b C. 1520 – C. 1574 n FLEMISH

5 Netherlands; England 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute 3 $91,800 in 1984, Portrait of Margaret Clifford (oils) Antwerp-born. Arrived in England in 1549. Difficult to identify. Look for very pale faces with tight, hard eyes; carefully observed and outlined figures, encased in lavish costumes and jewelry.

“A vacant mind invites dangerous inmates, as a deserted mansion tempts wandering outcasts to enter and take up their abode in its desolate apartments.“

known for miniatures, which he produced in quantity to pay the bills for a large family. His reputation extended to France, which he visited c. 1577–78. Look for innovative oval format, symbolism, French elegance, fine outline. Life-size portraits of Elizabeth I exist.

Queen Elizabeth I, c. 1575 (London: National Portrait Gallery); Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1576 (London: National Portrait Gallery); Young Man Among Roses, c. 1590 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum)

Isaac Oliver
b C. 1565 – 1617 n BRITISH

5 England; Venice 1 watercolors; drawings 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $60,000
in 1996, Young Gentleman in Black Silk Doublet, Black Earring (watercolor miniature)

Queen Mary I Hans Eworth, 1554, London: Society of Antiquaries. Painted shortly after her marriage to Philip II of Spain, Mary wears his gift of the famous Peregrina pearl.
KEY WORKS Sir John Luttrell, 1550 (Private

Collection); Portrait of Elizabeth Roydon, Lady Golding, 1563 (London: Tate Collection); Portrait of a Lady, c. 1565–68 (London: Tate Collection)

Son of a Huguenot goldsmith who settled in England in 1568. Painter of miniatures (portraits, and mythological and religious images). Was a pupil of Hilliard, but adopted a different style, with strong shadows. His life revolved around the courts of Elizabeth I and James I. A visit to Venice in 1590s led to softer style and richer colors.

Nicholas Hilliard
b 1547 – 1619 n BRITISH

5 England; France 1 watercolors 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $292,000 in 2002, Portrait of
a Lady Wearing a Black Dress and Hat (miniature)

Charity, c. 1596–1617 (London: Tate Collection); Lodovick Stuart, 1st Duke of Richmond, and 2nd Duke of Lennox, c. 1605 (London: National Portrait Gallery)
Portrait of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex Isaac Oliver,
c. 1590s, miniature, watercolor on vellum, Beauchamp Collection, UK. Devereux (1566–1601) was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I.

The son of an Exeter goldsmith, he trained as a jeweler. Principal portrait painter during the reign of Elizabeth I. Hilliard was especially


. 1600—1700



1600 –1700

“Baroque” was first used disparagingly to describe something artificially extravagant and complex. Only relatively recently has it been used to denote the art and architecture of the 17th century—an era that saw the creation of some of the most grandiose and spectacular buildings, paintings, and sculpture in the history of art.


he spectacular art and architecture of the period was reminiscent of grand opera, an art form that developed in 17thcentury Italy. Artists too assumed a grandeur not known before, sometimes adding to their role of creative practitioner that of impresario, art dealer, courtier, and diplomat.


The reasons for this extravagance lay in societies pulled apart by deep ideological and religious divisions. On one side were those fiercely committed to the absolute authority of the Catholic Church and the “Divine Right of Kings” with their requirements of unquestioning obedience. On the other were those
Fountain of the Four Rivers Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1651, marble and travertine, Piazza Navona, Rome. The magnificence of Bernini’s sculptural projects was inspired by a belief that, through art, he was expressing the absolute authority of God and the Catholic Church.

committed to Protestant reform and a belief in self-determination, personally and nationally. The former used art without restraint to overwhelm and impress, creating such wonders as the Baroque churches and fountains of Rome and the palace of Versailles outside Paris. The latter disapproved of all worldly show, destroying religious art, whitewashing the interiors of churches and dispersing royal and noble collections. The consequences of this ideological struggle are most clearly seen in three places. In England, Charles I’s unyielding insistence on his divine right to rule led to his execution in 1649, the dispersal of his art treasures, and the institution of a Puritan Commonwealth that rejected any form of aesthetic experience. In the Netherlands, the Habsburgs attempted to stem the tide of Protestant revolt, finally conceding and then formally recognizing a compromise that split the


Low Countries in two: which they could buy a Protestant north (the and sell like other Netherlands) and a commercial goods. Catholic south (Flanders). The new RISE OF FRANCE republic of the In central Europe the The Hanging, after engraving by Jacques Netherlands, Austrian Habsburgs Callot (1592–1635), oil on canvas, Clermontmercantile and faced another Ferrand: Musée Bargoin. Callot’s series of bourgeois, was able to engravings “The Miseries of War” illustrated Protestant revolt, this many of the horrors of the Thirty Years’ War. strengthen and time in Bohemia. By expand its trading empire, especially in 1618, this had given rise to general the East Indies. This new wealth warfare, with other powers sucked in funded a magnificent flowering of art. according to their religious affiliations: What the Dutch wanted were the Baltic powers, Denmark, and landscapes, seascapes, still lifes, and Sweden, on the Protestant side against genre scenes of everyday life to hang the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies. on the walls of their townhouses, and Religion was the starting point but by the 1630s the war had become a trial of strength between France and the Habsburgs. The Thirty Years’ War, as it was afterward known, was the most brutal yet fought in Europe, carving a swathe of destruction across Germany and leaving perhaps one million dead. In some areas, 40 percent of the population was killed. It ended in 1648, with France emerging as the most powerful state in Europe. This new dominance was brilliantly exploited by Louis XIV whose direct personal ,
Chapelle Royale, Versailles Louis XIV’s
chapel was begun by royal architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart in 1689. During services the upper balcony was reserved for the royal family, while the nobles stood below.

1609 Invention of telescope (Netherlands); Dutch Revolt ended by treaty between Spain and Netherlands 1618 Start of 30 Years’ War

1630 Foundation of English Massachusetts Bay colony

1648 Treaty of Westphalia ends 30 Years’ War


1621 Hostilities renewed between Spain and Netherlands 1633 Galileo condemned for heresy by the Inquisition

1636 French intervene in 30 Years’ War 1649 Execution of Charles I in England


. 1600—1700


In the course of the 17th century, European monarchs, as well as being generous patrons of the arts, also became patrons of the sciences, in particular astronomy and physics. State backing was given to science in England in 1662 when the Royal Society was established. A French equivalent, the Académie Royale des Sciences, followed in 1666. The century was characterized by an accelerating scientific revolution. The telescope, the microscope, the slide rule, the thermometer, and the barometer were all invented before 1650. As early as 1609, the Italian Visit of Louis XIV to the Académie Royale des Sciences in 1667
By the mid-17th century, it was clear that scientific advances would play a key role in the development of states. Official patronage duly followed.

Isaac Newton’s telescope
As well as discovering the laws of motion and gravity, Newton wrote a comprehensive treatise on optics.

scientist Galileo Galilei used a telescope to discover four moons of Jupiter. He made other important observations that confirmed the Copernican theory of the solar system. By the end of the century, Sir Isaac Newton in England had laid the theoretical foundations of the new science of physics.

reign lasted 54 years. He asserted his authority by controlling his court from his own vast creation, the largest palace in Europe, Versailles. His brand of absolutist rule—centralizing and martial, visually spectacular and rigidly ceremonial—created a style of kingship that was increasingly imitated at other European courts, notably by Peter the Great in Russia.

In the end the extravagance of Baroque art and architecture and the beliefs that it sought to promote were

unsustainable. The future would lie not with unquestioning faith and obedience but with self-reliance. By then end of the century Spain was in decline politically and economically, central Europe was exhausted and devastated, and the Papacy forced to accept that it would have to live with rival Christian churches. France continued to prosper, but the soon-to-reemerge power was England, which was evolving a new form of constitutional monarchy and which was destined to supersede the Netherlands as the world’s leading trading nation.

1659 Treaty of Pyrenees confirms French dominance in western Europe

1667 Completion of Bernini’s Piazza, St. Peter’s, Rome

1683 Ottoman threat contained after siege of Vienna

1688 The Glorious Revolution in England: overthrow of James II

1694 Bank of England founded

1660 Restoration of monarchy in England 1662 Royal Society established in England

1678 Louis XIV initiates major building works at Versailles 1685 Edict of Nantes revoked: French Protestants face renewed persecution 1689 Accession of Peter the Great, Russia

1699 Habsburgs recover Hungary from Ottomans



Guido Reni
b 1575 –1642 n ITALIAN

Atalanta and Hippomenes Guido Reni, c.1612,
206 x 297 cm (81 x 117 in), oil on canvas, Madrid: Museo del Prado. Atalanta the virgin huntress would challenge her suitors to a race in which losing was punishable by death. Hippomenes distracted her by dropping three golden apples given to him by Venus and thus overtook her.

5 Bologna; Rome 1 oils; fresco 2 Bologna: Pinacoteca 3 $2.44m in
1985, David with the Head of Goliath (oils)

One of the principal Bolognese masters. Greatly inspired by Raphael, he was much admired in the 17th and 18th centuries, and much despised in the 20th.


c. 1550 –1650

Bologna never achieved the artistic preeminence of Florence, Venice, or Rome, but nonetheless this ancient university town made a significant contribution to the arts of Italy and Europe. Situated midway between Florence and Venice, the School of Bologna drew inspiration from both, creating its own distinctive style. In particular, Bolognese artists tried to synthesize Florentine classicism with Venetian theatricality, seen most successfully in the works of Carracci, Domenichino, Guercino, and Reni. The Bolognese School style was much imitated in the 18th century, but has been despised for most of the 20th.

Reni’s style was much influenced by his visits to Rome, the first of which came soon after 1660. His images of intense and idealized (unreal and artificial) emotional experiences are usually religious. His mythological works do not have the same levels of intensity, but are highly polished pieces. He himself was very beautiful but remained celibate—two qualities that are reflected in his paintings, which convey a remote and unapproachable beauty. Are they too self-consciously slick, posed, and theatrical for popular 20th-century taste? Look for eyeballs rolling up to heaven (as a means of signaling intensity of feeling), and surprisingly subtle and sensitive paint handling.
KEY WORKS Deianeira Abducted by the Centaur Nessus, 1621 (Paris: Musée du Louvre); Susannah and the Elders, c. 1620 (London: National Gallery); Lady with a Lapis Lazuli Bowl, c. 1630s (Birmingham: Museums and Art Gallery); St. Mary Magdalene, c. 1634–42 (London: National Gallery)


. 1600–1700


Annibale Carracci
b 1560 – 1609 n ITALIAN

5 Bologna; Rome 1 fresco; oils 2 Rome: Farnese Gallery. Windsor Castle
(England): Royal Collection (for drawings) 3 $2m in 1994, Boy Drinking (oils)

The arguments against his greatness are that he was too eclectic—merely a plagiarist with no originality, the whole less than the individual parts. Look who his followers were—the awful Bolognese School. But, look for a large number of

Born in Bologna, lived in Rome from 1595. Most talented member of a brilliant trio (with brother Agostino and cousin Ludovico). Revived Italian art from doldrums that followed Michelangelo. Victim of change of fashion from around 1850. The arguments for his greatness are that he is as good as Raphael (brilliant draftsmanship, observation of nude, harmonious compositions); as good as Michelangelo (anatomical knowledge, heroic idealization—his frescoes in the Farnese Palace are on a par with Michelangelo’s in the Sistine Chapel); and as good as Titian (richness of color). He was original: he invented caricature and his early genre scenes and ideal landscapes are full of fresh observation. Influenced Rubens and Poussin.
The Holy Women at Christ’s Tomb Annibale
Carracci, c. 1597–98, 47 1⁄3 x 57 1⁄3 in (121 x 145.5 cm), oil on canvas, St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. All the figures are from studies of live models.

Fishing Annibale Carracci, 1585–88, 53 1⁄2 x 99 1⁄2 in
(136 x 253 cm), oil on canvas, Paris: Musée du Louvre. He created the ideal landscape, in which a noble classical vision of nature becomes the setting for a narrative.

wonderful drawings, full of humor and personal touches. He had a strong belief in drawing and observing from life as an answer to sterile academicism—to the point of establishing a school to teach it—a belief shared in a different way by Impressionists, especially Cézanne. He gave up painting almost entirely in 1606.
KEY WORKS The Butcher’s Shop, 1580s (Oxford: Christ Church Picture Gallery); Domine Quo Vadis?, 1601–02 (London: National Gallery)

Naples 1 fresco. c. 1614. He was a fine draftsman (Windsor Castle’s Royal Library has a superb collection of his drawings) and an excellent portraitist. c. excessive. KEY WORKS Monsignor Agucchi. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum. Ecstacy of St. Naples: Chapel of S. Rebuke of Adam and Eve (oils) Bologna-born. with extreme foreshortening and brilliant light. Paul Getty Museum). 1625–27 (Rome: S. Rome. Moses and the Messengers from Canaan. St. Andrea della Valle). Gennaro (Duomo).168 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Giovanni Lanfranco b 1582 – 1647 n ITALIAN 5 Parma. drawings 2 Windsor Castle (England) 3 $3m in 2000. KEY WORKS Elijah Receiving Bread from the Widow of Zarephath. Cecilia with an Angel Holding Music. Margaret of Cortona. He painted crowds of figures on clouds floating on ceilings. A decorative interpretation of Christ’s meeting with a prostitute. Jerome was one of the four fathers of the Christian Church. 1630s (Florence: Palazzo Pitti) Christ and the Woman of Samaria Giovanni Lanfranco. Rome: Vatican Museums. inspiring—his work needs to be seen in situ. Carlo ai Catinari. Figures with expressive gestures that symbolize emotion but do not embody expression. 1625–28. Landscape with Tobias Laying Hold of the Fish. 1617–18 (London: National Gallery). 29 1⁄5 x 33 4⁄5 in (75 x 86 cm). The Host is the symbolic center of the scene. oils 2 Rome: Churches of S. oils.331 in 2003. Rome. Harmonious classical landscapes with mythological themes. Naples 1 fresco. oil on canvas. Andrea della Valle and S. 1621–24 (Los Angeles: J. Jerome Domenichino. Small in stature (Domenichino means “little Dominic”). Look for idealization that is influenced by Raphael and antiquity (unlike his contemporary Caravaggio). 1610 (York: City Art Gallery). Church of S. c. c. oil on canvas. The Last Sacrament of St. Martino 3 $822. 1621–24 (Los Angeles: J. worked in Rome and Naples. Paul Getty Museum). St. Domenichino b 1581 – 1641 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna. Crucifixion (oils) Key figure who established the enthusiasm for large-scale illusionistic decoration of churches and palaces in Rome and Naples. Huge scale. Assumption of the Virgin. 1620 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) .

They were great rivals and Algardi’s studio seized control when Bernini was briefly out of favor with Pope Innocent X’s court for shoddy work on St.” so his work is more solid. Pope Liberius Baptizing the Neophytes.000 in 1995. 1634–44 (Rome: St. Much influenced by Caravaggio. The use of harmonious blues and yellows is typical of Gentileschi. Annunciation. His intense classicism influenced French Baroque development and he became a great friend of Poussin. c. Birmingham (UK): Museums and Art Gallery. c. More obsessed than Bernini with classical ideal and the philosophy of the “Antique. KEY WORKS The Lute Player. 1615–20. but without his wild energy and imagination. 1645–48 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) . Lot and his Daughters. Bologna 1 sculpture 3 $37. 1610s (St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).500 in 2005. c. Pieces often symbolically crafted with attention to classical geometry and line. 1610 (Washington. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Rest on the Flight into Egypt Orazio Gentileschi. decorative works. cool colors. KEY WORKS Portrait of Gaspare Mola. he domesticated Caravaggio’s excesses.C . 1621–23 (Turin: Galleria Sabauda). permanent. sharp-edged draperies. Figures heavily classical in stance. 1622 (J. he became court painter to Charles I of England. and unconvincing realism. robust. Paolo). oil on canvas. He preserves the differences between painting and sculpture. Tomb of Leo XI. Peter’s. Cupid and Psyche. DC: National Gallery of Art). Born in Pisa. and psychologically real than transitory fluidity of Bernini. Paul Getty Museum. England 1 oils 3 $6. simplified subjects and compositions. Paul. Look for large-scale. Preferred nobleness of cool white marble to Bernini’s subtle color-play. Los Angeles). 1600–1700 169 Orazio Gentileschi b 1563 – 1639 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. 1641–47 (Bologna: S. The Finding of Moses (oils) Greatly esteemed Tuscan. 69 x 85 4⁄5 in (175. His marble reliefs became prototype for supplanting painted altarpieces with sculptured ones. Peter’s). Paris. but settled in Rome in 1576. muscular. Hercules Mounting the Pyre (works on paper) Best sculptor in Baroque Rome after Bernini. a safe choice artistically. powerful. late 1630s (St. In 1626. Alessandro Algardi b 1598 – 1654 n ITALIAN 5 Rome.6 x 218 cm).992. Decapitation of St.

oil on canvas. Martha Reproving Mary for her Vanity (oils) His full name was Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.170 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Caravaggio b 1571 –1610 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. Malta. and a mature period (1599–1606) where he rejected decorum and turned to an exhilarating realism. His biblical subjects show immense moments of dramatic revelation. STYLE He is known for sensational subjects. He lived in a state of hyperexcitement. Died of malarial fever at the age of 38. Spain. Wounded in Palermo. Sicily 1 oils 3 $312. both in life and in his art. He was forced to flee to Malta. In 1606. Nonetheless. after another fight. It arrived three days after his death. his tempestuous character led him into a murderous brawl over a wager on a tennis match. Rembrandt. Caravaggio’s interpretation emphasizes real life drama and shock rather than the symbolism of virtue defeating sin. His technique is equally Judith and Holofernes 1599. 57 x 76 3⁄4 in (145 x 195 cm). he was wellreceived in Papal circles and executed many important Church commissions. and his use of peasants and street urchins as models for Christ and the saints caused deep offense to many. and echoes of his influence are to be found in the works of artists as diverse as La Tour. he died near Naples while waiting for a Papal pardon. he moved on to Sicily. LIFE AND WORKS From his native Bologna he moved to Rome in 1592 where two distinct phases in his career occurred: an early period (1592–99) where he learned from the examples of the High Renaissance and the Antique. displaying a complete disregard for proprieties and accepted rules. The only major artist with a serious criminal record (hooliganism and murder). where. His many followers took up his mantle. and Velasquez. Contemporary of Shakespeare (1564–1616).000 in 1971. and young men display charms that suggest decadence and corruption (his tastes were heterosexual. in which severed heads and martyrdom are shown in gory detail. notably in Naples. Immensely influential. . and the Netherlands. Rome: Palazzo Barberini. ensuring his contribution to the future development of art. and his girlfriend a prostitute). at the height of his success.

. 1599–1600 (Rome: S. 26 1⁄3 x 20 4⁄5 in (67 x 53 cm). 1601–02 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) His early works tend to be quite small. 1600–1700 171 The Supper at Emmaus 1601.g. fruit that is full of wormholes. WHAT TO LOOK FOR figures gained plasticity. Caravaggio painted a second.2 cm). Thomas. with tense compositions. masterly foreshortening. The Conversion of St. Still-life details can contain symbolic meaning e. Maria del Popolo). Rome: Galleria Borghese. and dramatic lighting with vivid contrasts of light and shade (chiaroscuro). Later. oil and tempera on canvas. more subdued version of this work five years later. oil on canvas. The Incredulity of St. 1601 (Rome: S. his The Sick Bacchus 1591. after 1606. 55 1⁄2 x 77 1⁄4 in (141 x 196. with halflength figures. sensational and theatrical. Also look closely at the modeling of flesh to observe the range of subtle rainbow colors used. was hastily executed and is more contemplative and less forceful. Matthew. KEY WORKS Calling of St. London: National Gallery. Luigi dei Francesi). and still-life compositions. and shadows became richer and deeper. Paul. His later work. Most of the early erotic works were commissioned by high-ranking Church dignitaries.C .

Art Institute of Chicago 3 $65.g. At his best in his early work. Stylistically close to Caravaggio—made powerful use of foreshortening and chiaroscuro. and has exciting light and strong color. fresco 2 Windsor (England): Royal Collection (for drawings) 3 $1. 1622–23 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Bartolommeo Manfredi b 1582 – C. 1630s (Royal Collection) Guercino b 1591 – 1666 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna. bloody. she was a better painter. The Liberation of St.854 in 1989. c. Toilet of Venus (oils) Full name Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Guercino. Style more rough and ready than his celebrated master but copies Caravaggio’s theatrical lighting effects and also foreshortens the action so viewer feels an accomplice to the scene. 1652 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. and with a woman as victim or gaining revenge. oil on canvas. Florence: Palazzo Pitti. Naples. Preferred allegorical themes of conflict and discord.400 in 1998. The Bolognese Pope summoned him to Rome in 1621. c. England 1 oils 3 $619. Her tendency toward bloodthirsty themes was probably related to her own dramatic life. natural. Rome 1 oils. c. 1597 – C. 1612–1613. also produced wonderful drawings. c. Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting.5 cm). The Fortune Teller. 1622 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 oils 2 Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence. which is lively. These depictions of Old Testament heroines such as Judith appealed greatly to private collectors throughout Europe. Along with fellow Caravaggisti like Valentin. 1617–18 (London: National Gallery). Pomegranates. Now regarded as one of the most important 17th-century Italian artists. She was the first female member of the Florentine Academy. 1615 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Daughter of Orazio Gentileschi. c. 1610–15 (Detroit Institute of Arts). “Guercino” means “crosseyed. Portrait of a Woman Playing the Lute (oils) Chastized. thereafter he lost his spontaneity and became boringly classical. but was neglected until recently. e. Peter by an Angel. 1610 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). . c. Still Life with Grapes. The Woman Taken in Adultery. Chose dramatic subjects. was self-taught and successful in his day.000 in 2002. Cain Murdering Abel. c.672. and Figs (oils) Little-known artist who was a successful imitator and follower of Caravaggio. Honthorst and Terbrugghen. Allegory of the Four Seasons. KEY WORKS Cupid Artemisia Gentileschi b C. 1610 (Ohio: Dayton Art Institute). often erotic. he influenced northern artists who stayed in Rome. 1610 (Art Institute of Chicago). 1620 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). Painted decadent everyday scenes as well as mythological and religious subjects.172 T H E BA RO QU E E R A (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery). c. including being raped at 19 and tortured during the subsequent court case to see if she was truthful. The Triumph of David. Came from Bologna. 1621 KEY WORKS Judith and her Maidservant Artemisia Gentileschi.” The Dead Christ Mourned by Two Angels. 44 4⁄5 x 36 4⁄5 in (114 x 93. with whom Manfredi was often confused. KEY WORKS Judith Slaying Holofernes.

Rome: Galleria Borghese. Francesco a Ripa) . nowhere more so than in his fountains. he had a sparkling personality. He epitomizes the Baroque style with its love of grandeur. 1623 (Rome: Galleria Borghese). Although gifted as a painter. able to carve marble so as to make it appear to move and come to life or have the delicacy of the finest lace. marble. 173 Gianlorenzo Bernini b 1598 – 1680 n ITALIAN 5 Naples.” Bernini set sculpture free from its previous occupation with earthly gravity and intellectual emotion. he blends sculpture. regarding sculpture as the “Truth. 1671–74 (Rome: S. architecture. At his best. pursues her in vain. and passionate emotion. where the play of water and refractions of light over his sculptured forms of larger-than-life human figures and animals creates a vision that is literally out of this world.C . David with the Head of Goliath (oils) A devoted Roman Catholic for whom art was the emotional inspiration and glorification of godliness and purity. turning into a laurel tree. and painting into an extravagant theatrical ensemble. Rome 1 sculpture. which permitted it to move. while Apollo. theatricality. Bernini’s unprecedented life-size masterpiece depicts the chaste nymph. he despised the medium. Cornaro Chapel (see pages 174–175). soar. 1600–1700 Apollo and Daphne Gianlorenzo Bernini. oils 3 $206. He was a virtuoso technically. KEY WORKS The Rape of Proserpine. allowing it to discover a freedom. 1635 (Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello). which it had never had before. height 95 2⁄3 in (243 cm). the Sun god. Daphne.700 in 1981. brilliant wit. A child prodigy. and wrote comedies—qualities that shine through his work in sculpture. 1621–22 (Rome: Galleria Borghese). 1622–25. and have a visionary and theatrical quality. Constanza Buonarelli. The Blessed Lodovica Albertoni. David. and his finest works are to be found in Rome where he was the favorite artist of the Catholic Church. movement.

The central figure group is of marble and gilded wood. sculpture. It contains one of Bernini’s most ambitious works. this directed light accentuates the poised moment of action. Theatrically lit by a hidden window behind the altar. Warming reds and yellows in the lower human zone balance the religious purity of the white marble group. The angel looks adoringly at St. while below. in privileged front-row loggia boxes. Bernini stuck faithfully to St. and gilt bronze rays symbolically represent the power of divine light. Commissioned by Cardinal Federigo Cornaro. the chapel is a stunning amalgam of painting. Teresa’s spiritual account of an angel piercing her heart with an arrow of divine love —her mystical union with Christ. Unlike diffused light of the Renaissance. are observers of this spectacle. ready to plunge his arrow into her heart for a second time .174 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Cornaro Chapel Gianlorenzo Bernini 1645 –52 The centerpiece of the lavishly decorated but intimate and candlelit Baroque Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome is the Cornaro Chapel. the Cornaro family. and architecture. It is as though she is on a visionary cloud. TECHNIQUES No sculptor before Bernini used light to accomplish an illusion of life in 3-D sculpture. created to resemble a miniature theater. Teresa. High above are vaulted painted heavens. the divine light of God pours down on swooning Teresa at the very climax of her spiritual ecstasy.

Cornaro Chapel Medium marble.175 The elaborate and carefully calculated setting brilliantly heightens the full visual impact of the white marble figure group. gilded wood. Bernini’s attention to detail can be seen in the precise carving of the little finger of the angel’s left hand Bernini’s ability to make marble seem like flowing drapery was one of his most exceptional skills Modern interpretations draw parallels between the appearance of the angel and Cupid. it presents a spectacular climax that is both architectural and spiritual. Made from rich polychrome marble. bronze Height 137 4⁄5 in (350 cm) Location Rome: Santa Maria della Vittoria . This emphasizes the seemingly sexual quality of the saint’s mystical experience. the son of Venus with his love-laden darts.

Cap. c. engravings 3 $696. Florence 1 oils. The Latin inscription below Rosa’s hand means “Be quiet.” He painted a companion portrait of his mistress Lucrezia whom he portrayed as one of the Muses of Poetry. musician.176 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Salvator Rosa b C. KEY WORKS The Return of Astraea. 1615 – 73 n ITALIAN 5 Naples. 1640–45 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). fantastic mountainous landscapes and unpleasant witchcraft Self-Portrait Salvator Rosa. dark. lover of the macabre. actor. anti-authority. satirist. . unless your speech be better than silence. He was said to have fought by day and painted by night.000 in 1992. London: National Gallery. 1641. Now best remembered for large. 45 3⁄4 x 37 in (116. Torn Glove. self-promoting. Poet. stormy. One of the first wild men of art— quarrelsome. oil on canvas. and Sword (oils) scenes (both much collected in the 18th and early 19th centuries). Portrait of Artist Wearing Doublet.3 x 94 cm). Rome.

Prolific and energetic. c. the leader of the 12 disciples of Christ. Known as key creator of Roman High Baroque and for large-scale. Florence.000 in 1989. stucco 2 Rome: Palazzo Barberini. oil on canvas. 1660 (Los Angeles: J. 1600–1700 177 Human Fragility. The Liberation of St. 5 Rome. c. Venice. KEY WORKS The Fall of the Rebel Angels. drawings. much sought after by Catholic grandees in Italy and France.” JOHN CONSTABLE .C . The Raising of Lazarus (oils) Virtuoso architect. color. The Spirit of Samuel Called up before Saul by the Witch of Endor. A dramatic representation of St. extreme. successful decorator of palaces (especially ceilings). decorator. which enabled him to emphasize dramatic action. 1666 (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). c. oils 3 $1. Santa Bibiana 3 $391. Glorification of the Reign of Urban VIII. Loved Mattia Preti b C. Paul Getty Museum). Naples. oils. c. c. contrasts of light and dark. fresco 3 $453. rich theater of space. particularly the ladies. 1656–59 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts).1684 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) “Rosa is a great favorite with novel writers. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Naples. KEY WORKS Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power. Paul Getty Museum) Pietro da Cortona b 1596 – 1669 n ITALIAN Luca Giordano b C. 1630 (St. Peter Luca Giordano. violence and lust.200 in 1991. 1633–39 (Rome: Palazzo Barberini). created very theatrical. and painter. silhouettes. bold compositions. Peter. KEY WORKS mythological subjects. Martino. Death of Seneca c. 77 1⁄5 x 101 3⁄5 in (196 x 258 cm). large-scale work. The Marriage at Cana. Allegories of Virtue and Planets. Paul. Giordano’s last work was the Treasury Chapel ceiling of S. and spiritual uplift. Clorinda Rescuing Sofronia and Olindo. 1634 – 1705 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. Nicknamed “Luca Fa Presto” (Luke works quickly). Allegory. 1640–47 (Florence: Palazzo Pitti) The most important Italian decorative artist of the late 17th century. dramatic. who was crucified upside down by Nero in 64 CE. Peter (oils) Accomplished painter of large-scale decoration that successfully combines the realism of Caravaggio and the theatricality of grand Venetian painting (it sounds unlikely.600 in 1997. 1668 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The Martyrdom of St. 1633–39 (Rome: Palazzo Barberini). learned allusion. and subjects that polarize good and evil. 1670 (Los Angeles: J. Malta 1 fresco. 1655–60 (London: National Gallery). architecture. Madrid 1 oils. illusionistic paintings where ceilings open up into a bold. but he showed it could be done and thereby had much influence on the development of exuberant Baroque decorations). 1656 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). c. human activity. Florence 1 fresco. Concert. Venice: Gallerie dell’Accademia. 1613 – 99 n ITALIAN The Crucifixion of St.185. Wooded River Landscape with Cascades and Men Dragging Net (drawing) 5 Naples. 1660.

Ignatius Loyola. Teresa of Ávila (both canonized in 1622). Peter’s and of the Palazzo Barberini Charles I’s Banqueting House. Statues of allegorical figures— Peace. Its hallmarks are illusion. 1653. Spain. KEY EVENTS 1595 1601 1629 1634 1663 1669 Annibale Carracci summoned from Bologna to decorate Farnese Palace. and the Spanish mystic St. Exploiting the ideas of Classicism and religious doctrine. Modesty. Austria. intensely lit. Rome Caravaggio paints the first of two versions of The Supper at Emmaus Bernini appointed architect of St. founder of the Jesuits. especially the lives of saints and martyrs. were used to illustrate religious ideals of purity. and Central Europe. raped by Pluto. These included recent saints such as St. Chastity—were also common. Originally designed in 1576 by Giacomo della Porta. The tritons blowing shells. such as the chaste nymph Daphne or Proserpine. SUBJECTS Religious subjects were paramount. work was to be visually stunning and emotionally engaging to reflect the new Counter-Reformation confidence of the Church. Portraits tended to be bombastic and self-consciously dramatic. drama. and water sellers. movement. Southern Germany. the Fontana del Moro was then altered by Bernini in 1653. rich color. planned around a series of geometrically controlled spaces to create an animated grandeur. exaggerated decorations. card players. He designed the central statue of a muscular Moor holding a dolphin. Faith. However. Mythological characters. “The style of absolutism” was used by the Catholic Church as a means of harnessing the magnificence of art to influence the largest possible audience. STYLE Fontana del Moro Gianlorenzo Bernini. Peter’s Louis XIV orders massive reconstruction program at Versailles . France. emotional oil paintings with grand operatic-style themes. Rome: Piazza Navona. stone. Also loved by Absolute Monarchs who wanted to emphasize their worldly authority and the riches of their possessions and lifestyle. are 19th-century additions.178 T H E BA RO QU E E R A THE BAROQUE The dominant style of the 17th century. and a new architecture. the everyday also found a place with scenes that included taverns. from which water exits. and pomposity. London: ceiling by Rubens completed Bernini’s colonnaded piazza in front of St. used by the Catholic Church to proclaim its continuing power—hence the best examples are to be found in Italy. The subsequent boldness of the artists’ styles translates as huge freestanding sculptures.

and sculpture. and died aged only 49. 1600–1700 179 c. is nearly always shown as a pretty. So disappointed was Carracci by the small fee he received for the work that he took to drink. The central panel depicts the triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne. for which the artist made a detailed study of Classical reliefs. 1590–1700 WHAT TO LOOK FOR The best example of secular Baroque decoration is Carracci’s rarely seen frescoes for the vault of the sculpture gallery of the Farnese Palace in Rome. where Anchises traditionally met the beautiful Venus Venus and Anchises Annibale Carracci. the founder of Rome Landscape shows Mount Ida. 1597–1604. the son of Venus. The couch belonged to Anchises Cupid. To complement the outstanding Farnese collection of Antique sculpture. curly-haired boy who is present whenever love is in the air. painting. Venus disguised herself as a mortal and seduced Anchises. Anchises was a Trojan shepherd. .C . Carracci All the figures are based on studies of live models created on the vaulted ceiling a picture gallery of mythological scenes illustrating stories from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Their child was Aeneas. He is shown in the act of removing Venus’s sandal Venus wore jewels and sweet-smelling perfume. Part of Carracci’s frescoed cycle depicting The Loves of the Gods. The resulting effect is one of the triumphs of the Baroque ambition to marry architecture. Anchises captures the heart of goddess Venus.

WHAT TO LOOK FOR Son of a French farmer. have the stationary quality of Arcadian Shepherds c. Immensely influential on French artists up to (and including) Cézanne.” His paintings.180 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Nicolas Poussin b C. Rome 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. horizontals. engravings of Raphael’s works exposed him to Italian High Renaissance. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Except for two years as court painter to Louis XIII (1640–42). The shepherds examine an inscription whose meaning is “Even in Arcadia. I [Death] am ever present. A grave Poussin makes no concession to vanity in his portraiture. 1593 – 1665 n FRENCH 5 Paris. oil on canvas. constant references to classical antiquity. and references: complex allegorical subjects with a moral theme. usually biblical or from Greco-Roman antiquity. The Agony in the Garden (oils) Founder of French classical painting. Did not survive to see his style glorified by the French Academy in the late 17th century. became inspired when an artist arrived to decorate his village church. and intellectual in subject matter. a hidden geometrical framework of verticals. Paris: Musée du Louvre. intense. The figures. “Painting is the lover of beauty and the queen of the arts. . are severe. Struggled in early years through poverty and ignorance until. 1648–50. like a carved bas relief (another classical reference). so set off for Rome.1m in 1999. during a trip to Paris. he worked in the epicenter of Baroque Italy. LIFE AND WORKS style.” NICOLAS POUSSIN Portrait of the Artist 1650. Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $6. presenting the standard to be lived up to. 33 1⁄2 x 47 1⁄2 in (58 x 121 cm). 38 x 29 in (97 x 73 cm). and diagonals into which the figures are placed and by which they are tied together. STYLE Note how the figure groups are positioned flat on the surface of the picture. although notionally in motion. though more at home with his classical style. oil on canvas. London: National Gallery.

Poussin liked well-sculpted nudes. 62 1⁄2 x 81 in (159 cm x 206 cm). arms. The interweaving arrangement of arms and legs are like an intellectual puzzle (which belong to whom?).C . The Holy Family. DC: National Gallery of Art) The Rape of the Sabines c. Paris: Musée du Louvre. KEY WORKS Cephalus and Aurora. 1600–1700 181 statues. especially muscular backs. Romulus. 1637–38. 1648 (Washington. 1630 (London: National Gallery). which is now showing through the oil paint that has gone transparent with time. Worried about the declining birth rate. Landscape with the Ashes of Phocion. c. c. The darkreddish quality of many works is because he painted on a red ground. and drapery that could have been carved out of marble. and legs. arranged a feast that resulted in young Romans marrying Sabine maidens. . 1648 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery). oil on canvas. Rome’s founder.

182 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Moïse Valentin b C. KEY WORKS Christ and the Adulteress. Claude’s landscapes and seascapes are enjoyable on two levels: as exquisite depictions in their own right and as a poetic setting for the staging of . Preferred seedy. Evening Landscape with Mercury and Battus (oils) Also called Le Lorrain or Claude Gellée. One of the Caravaggisti. From Boulogne in France. continuing the master’s style. bawdy scenes. British Museum (drawings). dramatic. especially in the 18th and early 19th centuries. 1593 –1665 n FRENCH Claude Lorrain b C. c. His life is obscure. Originator of the pastoral or picturesque landscape. 1620s (Los Angeles: J. 1620–25 (St Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) 5 Rome. Naples. Immensely influential and popular. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1. he settled in Rome. Paul Getty Museum). 1600 – 82 n FRENCH 5 Rome 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre Son of an Italian. but most of his known work dates after 1620. Probably met his friend Poussin in Rome but was more emotional. Lorraine (France) 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery.86m in 1999. loved the plebeian side of art. The Expulsion of the Money-Changers from the Temple. Worked in and around Rome.

1660 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). 5 Rome 1 oils. and harmonious atmosphere— although somewhere in the airless heat there is usually a refreshing breeze: a rustle in the tree tops. Classical Landscape with Figures. Italianate Wooded River Landscape with Fishermen on Boat (oils) He was the brother-in-law of Poussin. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Paris 1 oils 3 $423. or birds gliding on a current of air. authoritarian austerity—you believe it should not be possible. colorful. Ex Voto. arrived in Paris in 1621. Notice how he moves your eye from side to side across the picture in measured steps via well-placed figures. detailed.077 in 2003. drawings. Produced decorative landscapes in which he sometimes tries almost too hard to combine the heroic qualities of Poussin with the pastoral features of Claude. c. London: National Gallery. buildings. crisp. 1648 (St. oil on canvas. but frequently disappoints. Very popular in the 18th century. 58 x 77 in (149 x197 cm). Annunciation to Maria (oils) Born in Brussels. 1642 (London: National Gallery).C . an unfurling flag. 1648. Moses with the Ten Commandments. 1662 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Gaspard Dughet b C. 1672–75 (Birmingham. Landscape with Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Silva. minutely detailed distance (aerial perspective). successful painter of portraits and religious pictures at the court of Louis XIII (favored by Cardinal Richelieu). luminous. 1615 – 75 n FRENCH mythological or religious scenes. UK: Museums and Art Gallery) . memorable style. and at the same time takes you from warm foreground to cool. 183 KEY WORKS The Judgment of Paris. Uses a formula of well-proven. DC: National Gallery of Art). c. Brilliant. 1600–1700 Landscape with the Marriage of Isaac and Rebekah Claude Lorrain. KEY WORKS Landscape with Herdsman. which combines over-the-top Baroque grandeur with severe. calm. 1682 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum) Phillippe de Champaigne b C. KEY WORKS Triple Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu. the sails of a boat in the far distance. The Old Testament story lends artistic respectability to this pastoral landscape.000 in 1994. Landscape with Hagar and the Angel. 1645–46 (Washington. engravings 3 $108. c. Magical painter of light—the first artist to paint the sun itself. but he showed that it could be done. 1602 –74 n FRENCH 5 Brussels. or paths (coulisse). Champaigne had a unique. 1646 (London: National Gallery). 1635 (London: National Gallery). balanced compositions and colors to produce a serene. but few works can be confidently attributed to him. Ought to be very good. A Landscape with Mary Magdalene Worshipping the Cross.

sensitivity when handling light and color. 1635 (Washington. c. 1675–77 (Paris: Sorbonne Church) . c. Also painted cardsharpers and fortune-tellers. including decoration of Louvre. who are in the process of reconstructing his oeuvre. allegories. and Mathieu (c. but best known for smaller-scale portrayals of peasant groups sitting in an interior. Musée du Louvre. c. dry skin. Used strong and beautiful chiaroscuro and lighting.184 T H E BA RO QU E E R A creating virtuoso candlelight effects (such as the way it makes a hand look translucent). Lyrical with careful contrast of gesture and pose. In fashion with art historians. Major master or overrated enigma? His work has two points of focus: peasant scenes (pre-1630s).094. The Repentant Magdalen. Los Angeles: J.000 in 1991. with dignity.362 in 1987. St. Paris: Musée du Louvre. On death owned 800 sculptures. Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $194. Jerome. cunning. and altarpieces. Master at François Girardon b 1628 – 1715 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Le Nain brothers. 1588 – 1677 n FRENCH 5 Laon (France). 1666 (Château de Versailles). doing nothing much. many in poor condition. 1640. 1593–1648). nocturnes with spectacular handling of candlelight (post-1630s). Preferred Poussin’s painting as chief influence rather than his sculptor counterparts. piggy eyes.302. France: Musée Départemental des Vosges). Beware of copies and imitations passing as the real thing. Blind Hurdy-Gurdy Player in Profile (oils) Shadowy figure with few attributed works. c. Note the style. 511⁄8 x 39 3⁄4 in (130 x 100 cm). Joseph the Carpenter Georges da La Tour. Antoine (c. sinister. Rome 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Palace of Versailles. oil on canvas. 1588–1648). Unconvincing when painting young flesh—the faces are wooden and masklike. Three Musicians Playing the Lute (oils) by Mathieu Le Nain St. with distinct classical style. Four Figures at a Table. The Rape of Proserpine (sculpture) Studied antiquities in Rome. Returned to dominate Sun King Louis XIV’s sculptural projects. and flat. Difficult to assign works as all signed their work by surname only. DC: National Gallery of Art). lined brows and convincing old. These humble settings for religious scenes were inspired by a Franciscan-led religious revival. Note how he paints peasants and saints with unnerving realism: wispy. 1643 (London: National Gallery) Georges de La Tour b C. Painters of largescale mythologies. 1593 – 1652 n FRENCH 5 Lorraine (France) 1 oils 3 $3. DC: National Gallery of Art). distinctive horny finger nails and peasant hands. KEY WORKS A Landscape with Peasants. KEY WORKS Apollo Tended by the Nymphs. KEY WORKS Job and his Wife.922 in 1990. 1640 (Washington. 1607–77). second biggest collection after King’s. Unified muscular bodies. Paul Getty Museum 3 $2. Monument to Cardinal Richelieu. c. Louis Le Nain. 1639 (Musée de Grenoble) Le Nain brothers b C. c. Louis (c. They were admired by Cézanne. greasy hair. 1632–35 (Epinal. non-existent backgrounds. pleasing and detached powers of observation.

Margaret.5m in 1990. but generally lacks convincing emotion. Martyrdom of St. 1600–1700 185 José Ribera b 1591 – 1652 n SPANISH 5 Naples 1 oils. leathery flesh faces. St. The Club Foot José Ribera. 1637 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Francisco de Zurbarán b 1598 – 1664 n SPANISH 5 Seville. He paints old men’s faces wonderfully. across a brow. and hands. employs strong chiaroscuro effects. Dorothea (oils) “The major painter between Velasquez and Murillo” (read this as code for good. down an arm. Isaac Blessing Jacob. KEY WORKS Martyrdom of St. He makes brilliant use of chiaroscuro and tenebrism (light coming from a single source above). in 1616 Ribera settled in Spanish-owned Naples where he was known as “Lo Spagnoletto. His most characteristic works are of saints and monks in prayer or meditation. Observe his marvelous painting of textures and surfaces. c. He was the major Neapolitan painter of the 17th century. His principal patrons were Spanish religious orders. though.9m in 1998. and demonstrates a smooth technique and care for precise detail. Sometimes the subject matter is repelling. not great). oil on canvas. Venetianstyle palette that he adopted from the 1630s a step forward or a step backward? Be aware that many pictures have darkened with time. Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $1. and was an early exponent of realism—his saints and philosophers are real people from the streets of Naples. with convincing. Bartholomew. 64 3⁄5 x 36 1⁄5 in (164 x 92 cm). 1637 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). Like Caravaggio. Died out of fashion and in financial difficulty. He couldn’t do convincing women’s or boy’s flesh and faces. Connecticut: Wadsworth Atheneum). drawings 2 Naples: Museo di Capodimonte. necks. but the technique is exquisite and this results in an almost unbearable “can’t look but must look” tension. Ribera softens his dramatic lighting. St. Apollo Flaying Marsyas. Is his brighter. Paris: Musée du Louvre. Madrid 1 oils 2 Naples: Museo di Capodimonte. Particularly good at martyrdom. In his late work. 1628 (Hartford. It has dramatic visual impact. engravings.C . Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $4. adopting a looser style with gentler modeling and airy harmonious tones. 1630–34 (London: National Gallery) .” Naples was one of the main centers of the Caravaggesque style at this time. his work has a hard-edged realism. shown through powerful images of resigned suffering. KEY WORKS Beato Serapio. 1642. Bartholomew (oils) Spanish-born. Notice how the brushstrokes follow the contours of the flesh. 1630 (Madrid: Museo del Prado).

c. 1658–60 (Washington. and Titian whose works were in Spanish Royal collection and studied for seven years in Italy. white. It is easy to extol his confident. Peonies. often executed and designed as pairs.246. and other Flowers in an Urn on a Pedestal. A Murillo revival campaign is currently under way. particularly of Charles II. with Two Donors. Loved swirling forms. St. Sacrifice of Isaac (oils) Spanish painter and engraver. c. Founded the Seville Academy of Painting with Murillo. they influenced Reynolds and Gainsborough. fussy with exaggerated detail. influenced by Netherlandish art. London: Dulwich Picture Gallery (for genre) 3 $4. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Convolvuli. Maria la Blanca. Joseph and Christ Child (oils) 5 Seville. capturing degeneracy of last Hapsburg ruler of Spain. on rough stone plinths. The Repentant Mary Magdalene. genre scenes (good line in ragamuffins). volatile. van Dyck. and moody lighting. Produced acres of soft-focus sentimental religious pictures for the home market. better. Pious family. 1680s (St. Madrid 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado.000 in 1990.186 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Juan de Arellano b C. KEY WORKS The Young Beggar. with full-blown flowers and curling leaves. Fewer. Painter to Charles II in 1683.000 in 2004. masterly way with color. Detailed. 1614 – 76 n SPANISH 5 Spain 1 oils 3 $1m in 1993. Employed loose brushstrokes. 33 x 41 1⁄2 in (84 x 105. His later work is more loosely painted. Anticipates the decorative exuberance of the 18th-century Rococo style. 1649 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Claudio Coello b 1642 – 93 n SPANISH 5 Italy. Born and bred in Seville. Shows bouquets in baskets. Still Life of Mixed Flowers (oils) Pre-eminent Spanish flower painter of the 17th century.261. c. paint handling The Assumption of the Virgin.5 cm). draperies. done for the export market. Bilbao: Museo de Bellas Artes. brilliant palette. The Virgin of the Rosary. The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Bartolomé Murillo b 1617– 82 n SPANISH Juan de Valdés Leal b 1662 – 90 n SPANISH 5 Seville 1 oils 2 Seville: San Francisco. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $4. St.8m in 2000. Portrait of Fernando Valenzuela (oils) Deeply influenced by Rubens. Now the poor man’s Velasquez. and yellow. Often complex and complicated works. engravings 3 $1. 1645 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). blue. S. 1661 (London: National Gallery) . 1671. c. Vibrant coloring and dramatic lighting. Garland of Flowers with Landscape. Good portraits. with a careful balancing of red. grand gestures. and strong composition. Uphill struggle to find virtue in the overly sweet and sometimes sickly religious pictures—maybe being widowed at 45 made him excessively misty-eyed about young mothers and children. Cordoba 1 oils. vivid movements. 1652 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). verging on the operatic. Religious painter with fixation on the macabre. Preempting Rococo. Irises. skilful works. KEY WORKS Regarded until about 1900 greater than Velasquez and as good as Raphael. oil on canvas. or in vases of crystal or metal. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. DC: National Gallery of Art). Masterpieces are his Titian-style portraits. The genre scenes are appealing as subjects. Spain has a long tradition of still-life painting. Still Life of Flowers in a Basket Juan de Arellano. 1680s (St. 1671 (London: Christie’s Images) KEY WORKS light.

42 x 31 4⁄5 in (106. oil on canvas. Italy 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. oil on canvas. 1600–1700 187 Velasquez b 1599 –1660 n SPANISH 5 Seville. which has the effect of drawing the viewer into the picture and therefore closer to the figures. He had a great sensitivity to light.1m in 1999. 1630 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). KEY WORKS The Forge of Vulcan. realism. See how he makes ambiguous and mysterious use of space. flowing paint in later work. characters. An early work showing the continuing influence of Spanish polychrome sculpture. and costumes. London: Wellington Museum. Las Meniñas. Francisco Lezcano. 1620. 1636–38 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) Christ on the Cross Velasquez. solitary poses than with movement or people supposedly communicating with each other. Notice the grand poses. The Surrender of Breda. He wasn’t a prolific artist but was precocious. 1631–32. c. 96 x 66 1⁄2 in (248 x 169 cm).7 x 81 cm). Is better with static. Observe the extraordinary and unique interweaving of grandeur. c. but result in some of the finest official portraits ever painted. Madrid: Museo del Prado. which is recorded with pinpoint accuracy in his early work and evoked by loose. Gifted to the Duke of Wellington by the king of Spain for his victory over Napoleon’s army. . He was very influential on late-19th-century French avant-garde painting. Madrid. His religious Waterseller of Seville Velasquez. and mythological paintings sometimes fail to convince because he was simply too realistic in his work. St. Sensational color harmonies (especially pink and silver) in his late work. (see pages 188–189). which ought to selfcancel. eagle-eyed observation (he never flatters or idealizes). and intimacy.C . Rufina (oils) Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velazquez was the great Spanish painter of the 17th century whose life and work were inextricably linked with the court of King Philip IV. while still in his teens he painted pictures that display powerful presence and total technical mastery. and a feeling of sensual intimacy through the use of seductive colors and paint handling. 1634–35 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). London: National Gallery 3 $8.

The lace cuffs worn by the maid of honor are nothing more than loose brushstrokes that suggest rather than describe. which probably would have contained cold perfumed water . and the relationships in the portrait. The maid of honor on the left proffers a red terracotta jug on a gold plate to the Infanta.188 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Las Meniñas Diego Velasquez 1656 As an ambitious courtier. since he stands behind her. Velasquez achieved a very special sharpness of characterization in his portraiture. Velasquez has reversed all the rules and expectations of portraiture. In this remarkable and influential group portrait of the Infanta Margarita and her maids of honor (las meniñas). painting on a large canvas. The answer is in the mirror at the end of the room. Velasquez needed to be an expert in observation and manipulation. who must therefore be posing for Velasquez. he displays all his cunning as an artist and politician. He portrays himself on the left. We can still see the childlike vulnerability in the Infanta Margarita’s features despite her knowingness. The little Infanta has come into the room to look at them. TECHNIQUES Velasquez developed a technique whereby the details of a painting come into focus only at a certain distance. but why is he there and what is on the canvas? It cannot be that he is painting a portrait of the Infanta. It reflects the King and Queen. Velasquez plays an elaborate and artificial game with our perception. By working this way.

which was not given to him until three years after the date of the picture.Velasquez wears a royal decoration. sleepy mastiff. the cross of the Order of Santiago (St. James). Their presence is a reminder of the power of the Church Las Meniñas Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 125 x 108 1⁄2 in (318 x 276 cm) Location Madrid: Museo del Prado . at the behest of the connoisseur king. and often feature in the paintings by Velasquez. Dwarves and clowns provided entertainment at Court. who did much to promote painting to the status of the liberal arts. Behind her a nun and a priest converse in the shadows. Such a detail helps to develop a feeling of spontaneity in this painting The Infanta Margarita. Her grim features and dark dress serve to accentuate the Infanta’s delicate beauty The Court Jester Nicolasito playfully treads on the huge. Another court favorite. Mari-Bárbola. stands behind the dog. the future Empress. is the central figure in the painting. The image of the cross on the artist’s chest was added to the painting two or three years later. She was just five years old when Las Meniñas was painted A second maid of honor awaits the child’s orders.

Became as rich and successful as his clients and so was able to consume and enjoy the produce he painted. 1650 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) Pantry Scene with a Page Frans Snyders. He also etched and made designs for tapestries. Collaborated with other artists (for example. c. Wild Boar Hunt.4m in 1996. successful. 1625 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). he sometimes added the still life or animal component of the image/narrative to Rubens’s work). not far-fetched fantasy. 1614 (Art Institute 5 Amsterdam. c. which he studied from life (including the dodo in Rudolph II’s menagerie). Hungry Cat with Still Life. Best when not being too ambitious (for instance. 1615–20 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum).24m in 2001. Still Life of Iris. much traveled (France.190 T H E BA RO QU E E R A of Chicago). Painted landscapes—the wooded and mountainous scenes are notable for their brilliant cool blues. KEY WORKS The Artist and his Family in a Garden. flesh and fowl. and fish. such as rare imported Wan Li Chinese porcelain. rhythm. London: Wallace Collection. He finally settled in Utrecht. proverbs. Good landscape etchings. 1615–20. and other Flowers Flanked by Lizard (oils) . Portrait of Rogier le Witer. Tulip. The work of the last two decades of his life is more subdued. whose style he emulated (was an assistant for Rubens). gouache 2 The Hague: Huis ten Bosch 3 $2. Italy 1 oils 2 Antwerp: Rockox House. 49 1⁄5 x 78 in (125 cm x 198 cm). a pair) Leading painter in Amsterdam after the death of Rubens. Woman Selling Vegetables and Fruit (oils) The undisputed master of the Baroque still life. the Alps). Best known for his painting of animals. c. If you visit the market area of Brussels today. Vienna. There is possible symbolism in the details (grapes as Eucharist. pantries. watercolors. Portrait of his Wife Catharine (oils. Utrecht 1 oils. c. Large output from commissions. for instance). By comparison. Prolific. 1612 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). Vienna. 1649 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) Frans Snyders b 1579 – 1657 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. KEY WORKS Still Life with Dead Game. harmony. Look also for the odd symbol of successful bourgeois capitalism. KEY WORKS Flowers in a Niche. watercolours 2 London: National Gallery 3 $2. Prague. Snyder’s paintings are often allegories representing the five senses or the four physical elements. 1621 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). he painted hunting scenes. largescale still lifes that literally groan and overflow with fruit. without any clear visual and emotional focus. canvas. Prague. Prolific and much imitated—there are many wrong attributions. you will see shops and restaurants with just such lavish displays of produce—he painted embroidered reality. The Four Evangelists. Look for market scenes. both alive and dead. plus moralizing messages. Produced good portraits. c. but quantity took precedence over quality.8m in 2001. or animal fables. rich color. Bouquet of Flowers (the Liechtenstein Bouquet). which contain fluidity. 1622 (Prague: National Gallery) . 1603 (Utrecht: Centraal Museum). Madrid: Museo del Prado 3 $1. balance. He was much influenced by his visit to Rome in 1608. After 1610. Rose. his work seems hectic and badly organized. The Lamentation. Landscape with Birds. Fruits. in genre scenes). Roelandt Savery b 1576 – 1639 n FLEMISH but his best and most freely painted work came after 1630—geometrically structured compositions. vegetables. Son of an innkeeper. Jacob Jordaens b 1593 – 1678 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp 1 oils. and Vegetables in a Market. Also flowers and mythologies.

Rubens was in Italy from 1600–08 and this work shows the lasting influence of his study of Greco-Roman and Italian Renaissance art. figures at full stretch both physically and emotionally. Hélène Fourment in a Fur Wrap Sir Peter Paul Rubens. . blushing cheeks. Was never hesitant. The Judgment of Paris. In his later years. never introspective. 1635–38 (London: National Gallery) KEY WORKS Battle of the Amazons and Greeks (detail) Sir Peter Paul Rubens. including van Dyck. muscular Christianity in which well-developed martyrs suffer and die with enthusiasm.4m in 2002. The greatest and most influential figure in Baroque art in northern Europe. widely traveled. Antwerp 3 $68. Massacre of the Innocents (oils) Extraordinary. scholar. do not overlook his many sketches and drawings. A wonderful storyteller. and the businesslike eye contact in the portraits. 1600–1700 191 Sir Peter Paul Rubens b 1577 – 1640 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. However. His large-scale set-piece works. 1621–25 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1617. The Life of Maria de Medici series. color contrasts and harmonies that activate the eye. 69 1⁄4 x 24 4⁄5 in (176 x 63 cm). businessman. Munich: Alte Pinakothek. 3) Mammaries—he never missed a chance to reveal a choice breast and cleavage. Rubens’s second wife (who was aged 16 when they married in 1630) was the ideal female model for his art. such as altarpieces and ceiling decorations. 47 3⁄5 x 65 1⁄3 in (121 x 166 cm) oil on panel. 1632–34 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). Rubens’s work is always larger than life. diplomat. The Garden of Love. There are three possible themes to explore in Rubens’s work: 1) Movement— inventive compositions with energetic diagonals and viewpoints. gifted man of many talents: painter. must be seen in situ in order to experience their full impact and glory. chalks 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek. wood. Samson and Delilah (see pages 192–193). Had a huge output and a busy studio with many assistants. c. and the genesis of the major works. so enjoy the energy and enthusiasm he brought to everything he saw and did. Rubens developed a new interest in landscape painting. Rome. He was the illustrator of the Catholic faith and divine right of kings. Paris 1 oils. 2) Muscles—gods built like Superman. Note also the rosy. which are miracles of life and vigor. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. c. drawings. 1636–38.C .

who beguiled him into revealing the secret source of his strength—his uncut hair. The picture was painted for a close friend and patron. which resonates with the enthusiastic and energetic talent that brought him honors and riches.192 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Samson and Delilah Sir Peter Paul Rubens c. The tilt of her head echoes the statue of Venus above The intricate and intertwined hands holding the scissors are a brilliant visual metaphor for the deceitful and elaborate plot to cause Samson’s downfall. The barber performs his task with deep concentration. When his hair grew back. Nicolaas Rockox. who was a rich and influential alderman. The artist depicts the tense moment when the first lock is cut and the soldiers prepare to gouge out the Israelite’s eyes. The picture tells the Old Testament story ( Judges 16) of the downfall of Samson. Samson used his returned strength to destroy the Philistines’ temple. the superhuman Israelite warrior who was the scourge of the Philistines. Cheeks flushed with pleasure. 1609 Rubens was only 31 years old when he painted this magnificent work. Each of the main characters has specific hand gestures that reveal their mental and physical state The sweep of Samson’s back leads the eye up to the climax of faces of the leading characters . Delilah reclines languidly. sacrificing his own life while taking his revenge. It was designed to hang high on the wall above the mantelpiece of the Great Saloon of his Antwerp townhouse. Samson’s ruin was caused by his lust for the Philistine Delilah.

emphasizing her pale. and Rubens’s marvelously translucent flesh tones. satins. Entering stealthily through the doorway. flawless skin and the shimmering glossiness of the rich. almost-white beam shoots from behind over her shoulder. muscular frame was inspired by the work of Michelangelo (see page 136) The picture is strewn with rich materials and colors— silks. An intense. red gown that she wears.TECHNIQUES Note Rubens’s expert use of light on Delilah and her flowing clothing. and embroidery in vibrant reds and golds . The dominant color in the lower left of the painting is a rich and vibrant red. set off against warm browns and gold. Rubens’s chiaroscuro treatment of light was strongly influenced by Caravaggio (see pages 170–171) The faces of the Philistines are illuminated from below by a flaming torch. Samson and Delilah Medium oil on wood Dimensions 73 x 801⁄2 in (185 x 205 cm) Location London: National Gallery Samson’s enormous. they are carrying the sharpened stakes that they will use to put out Samson’s eyes.

Italy. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland 3 $1. 1635. drawings 2 London: National Gallery. especially those of the . Van Dyck painted 38 portraits of Charles I.194 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Sir Anthony van Dyck b 1599 – 1641 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. oil on canvas. England 1 oils. Paris: Musée du Louvre. As well as portraits. Best remembered for his portraits. Portrait of Mary. of which this is the finest. He died relatively young. 104 1⁄2 x 81 1⁄2 in (226 x 207 cm).24m in 1989. Princess Royal (oils) ill-fated Court of King Charles I of England (who was beheaded in 1649). The king awarded him a knighthood in recognition of his talents. Antwerp-born infant prodigy from a family of silk merchants. c. look for religious and mythological subjects (the stock in King Charles I of England out Hunting Sir Anthony van Dyck.

Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Realistic details. fineness. Wooded Landscape with Covered Wagons and Cattle on Road (oils) He was the second son of “Peasant” Breugel. much copied in (notably British) portraiture and life: the aloofness. He is known to have sometimes worked with Rubens. Also painted rare landscape watercolors.1 x 158. Produced flower paintings. KEY WORKS Fight between Carnival and Lent. Duke of Richmond with Lennox. oil on panel. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) David Teniers (the younger) b 1610 – 90 n FLEMISH Jan Brueghel b 1568 – 1625 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp. James Stewart. c. A Lady as Erminia. 1638 (Oxfordshire: Bleinheim Palace) A Village Festival in Honor of St.C . and impeccable taste and breeding assumed by his sitters—those subtly elongated fingers. Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and the Artist.9m in 2001. Wallace Collection 3 $4. The Earthly Paradise. especially hair. His brilliant but restrained technique reflected the elegance. and allegories with rich.85m in 1990. Van Dyck set the ultimate role model. 1650 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) 5 Antwerp. and the rich but unflashy silks and satins. After 1651. Geronima Brignole Sale and her Daughter Amelia. Italy 1 oils 2 Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $1. 1600–1700 195 trade of all artists of the time).000 in 1999. Forest’s Edge (Flight into Egypt). bodies. 1646 (St. and poses.4 cm). 46 1⁄2 x 63 1⁄3 in (118. Archducal Gallery (oils) Teniers is best remembered for his lively small-scale paintings of peasant and guardroom scenes (and depicting them misbehaving. disdain. 1635–36 (Private Collection). Made copies and imitations of his father’s work. 1620 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). 1595 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des BeauxArts). Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. Peasants Making Music. KEY WORKS The Battle of Issus. as in Boors Carousing). 1595–1600 (St. Pieter Brueghel (the younger) b 1564 – 1638 n FLEMISH 5 Antwerp 1 oils. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Notice that air of aristocratic privilege (still around today). 1610 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) . Hubert and St. 1650 (London: National Gallery). Later work is weak. they know their duty and they will fight to retain their privileges to the end (the Divine Right to Rule). He painted wonderfully sensitive images of children. 1632. KEY WORKS Portrait of Charles V on Horseback. 1602 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). KEY WORKS The Kitchen. noses. 1610 (St. c.185. nicknamed “Velvet” Breughel (also retaining the “h” in his name). These faces never smile. c. The Adoration of the Magi. Even his martyrs suffer with perfect manners. landscapes. velvety textures. Brussels 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute. c. Rome. Later did fashionable hellfire scenes. tempera 3 $4. also known for his detailed views of the painting galleries of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm (Regent of the Netherlands). and reserve adopted by people wishing to appear consciously set apart. Attended by Cupid. c. very finely painted. Anthony Pieter Brueghel (the Younger). An Old Peasant Caresses a Kitchen Maid in the Stable. c. Village Kermesse (oils) He was the elder son of “Peasant” Bruegel. 1621–25 (Genoa: Palazzo Rosso). which gave him the nickname “Hell” Brueghel (he also retained the “h” in his name).

landscapes. Being a nation of market gardeners. Group including Terbrugghen also returns from Rome excited by realism Frans Hals. with glass often in evidence. c. SUBJECTS National pride was the main subject. and household economy and order. heavy with rain. They also had a liking for portraits but these too tended to be small-scale and distinctly bourgeois in character. still lifes. and trading in works of art was commonplace at all levels of society. and often full of symbolism and anecdotes. Canals and shipping feature large.1 cm). Private Collection. celebrate the particular qualities of the Dutch countryside: flat. painting directly onto canvas. usually painted with a close attention to detail. Domestic scenes are full of themes of love. STYLE The content of Dutch Realism reflected everyday domestic tastes: sensitive and unpretentious scenes. First artist to practice self-portraiture as speciality 1616 1648 1650 1659 full of rich and exotic goods.196 T H E BA RO QU E E R A DUTCH REALISM Seventeeth-century Holland consciously developed a new type of art.4 x 27. River Landscape with Peasants Ferrying Cattle Salomon van Ruysdael. well made. This new style of art was made to decorate and please. including naval battles and storms at sea. its principal subjects were secular and focused on the present day—landscapes. although rarely accurate descriptions of exact places. as it was one of their luxury industries. . Investing in works of art was a major activity. 13 1⁄2 x 10 2⁄3 in (34. Small-scale. cleanliness. and genre scenes that recorded their daily activities. alla prima pioneer. KEY EVENTS 1602 1610 Dutch East India Company founded Utrecht School established. 1655. neatly cultivated lands with gray skies. but it was also created for financial gain. 1633. sexual morality. wins fame with Dutch “Civic Guards” group portrait Holland becomes an independent republic Founding of the Delft School with Vermeer as leading exponent Major late Rembrandt self-portrait. both of which threatened their prosperity. For example. oil on panel. they painted superb flower pieces. These early works are similar in style to Van Goyen. Munich: Alte Pinakothek. oil on canvas. Still lifes are The Flea-Catcher (Boy with his Dog) Gerard Terborch.

attention to detail. naked shall he return to go … and shall take nothing of his labor” (Eccl. But riches too are a vanity: “As he came forth of his mother’s womb. A ghostly Roman emperor’s face is just visible on the urn. symbol of the human quest for the acquisition of knowledge and learning The shell is a symbol of worldly wealth—it would also have been a rare and prized possession in the 17th century. 1645. The exotic objects. The Japanese sword is a symbol of worldly power. a reminder of the earthly powers and glory death takes away The shaft of light highlights the central object—the human skull. oil on oak. . in fact. c. 5:15). 15 1⁄2 x 20 in (39 x 51 cm). London: National Gallery. and empty jugs are symbolic of the essential emptiness of earthly possessions. 1600–1700 197 1600s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Nothing in Dutch art is ever quite what it seems. a principal reminder of mortality. of death—a momento mori—a reminder that even for the richest citizen. A visual sermon based on the Book of Ecclesiastes. not even in a still life. What is ostensibly an object for visual enjoyment is. indicating that even the might of arms cannot defeat death The vanity of knowledge is represented by a book. and evocation of reflected light on surfaces. there is no escape from the inevitability of death. snuffed-out candles.C . and often there is a skull or other symbol The Vanities of Human Life Harmen Steenwyck. a sober Calvinist discussion. light is a Christian symbol of the eternal TECHNIQUES Dutch painters were the first to establish a tradition of still-life painting: Steenwyck’s subject gives him ample scope to show off his technical mastery.

Portrait of a Man. Arrived in London around 1618 and worked for Charles I.000 in 1988. Italy 1 oils 2 Budapest: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $230. Juno Discovering Jupiter with Io. formally posed portraits (but with insight into personality). but simple poses are full of animation. 1645 (Washington. Painted elegant. 1581 – 1666 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils 2 Haarlem: Halsmuseum. 32 2⁄3 x 26 3⁄5 in (83 x 67 cm). the shimmer of silk and satin. The picture is inscribed “AETA. he was constantly in debt (because he had eight children?). 5 Amsterdam. who usually look pink-cheeked. 1629–30 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). but spoiled by over-fussy. expressive eyes.001 in 1999. rather stiff. and fluent. KEY WORKS Young Man with a Skull. DC: National Gallery of Art).” all-male social clubs) and of members of the newly established Dutch republic. 1624. 1621 (London: National Portrait Gallery). well-formed. c. the year 1624). 26. Hagar and the Angel (oils) Chiefly remembered as Rembrandt’s most influential teacher. King James I of England and VI of Scotland. Painter of portraits and group portraits (especially of the “Civic Guards. pink cheeks. London: Wallace Collection. Although successful. well fed.SVAE 26/Aº 1624” (his age. His best works are his later full-length portraits. the intricacy of lace and embroidery. Painted lush. lively. Masterly command of beautifully observed. anecdotal detail. but the identity of the sitter remains unknown.625. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). White Ruff (oils) Stay-at-home self-portraitist who never moved from Haarlem in the Netherlands. and prosperous. assured. c. 1614 (St. 1618 (London: National Portrait Gallery). straight onto the canvas. narrative pictures. Was very influential in the late 19th century brushstrokes and bright colors. which are powerful. One of the first masters of the Dutch School (preceded Rembrandt). KEY WORKS Abraham on the Way to Canaan. 1626–28 (London: National Gallery). 3rd Earl of Southampton. Mad Babs. Portrait of Willem Coymans. which introduced a hitherto unknown level of realism to English art. well dressed. KEY WORKS Henry Wriothesley. Tieleman Roosterman in Black Doublet. 1618 (London: National Gallery) when his style. oil on canvas. yet he still captured the appearance and feel of different textures: plump flesh. Dutch-born and trained. He had a unique (for the time) sketchy painting technique. happy.198 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Frans Hals b C. full of gesture. His exciting. England 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $91. Endymion Porter. and facial expression (see Rembrandt). Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $11.000 in 1985. Also painted single genre figures of children and peasantry. 1590 – C. adding to the sense of vivacity. became much admired by young artists such as Manet. with broad . 1647 n DUTCH/BRITISH 5 The Hague. early 1650s (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Daniel Mytens b C. having been totally out of fashion. 1627 (London: National Portrait Gallery) Pieter Lastman b 1583 – 1633 n DUTCH The Laughing Cavalier Frans Hals. Portrait of Young Boy in Maroon Dress and White Ruff with Spaniel (oils) The major portrait painter in England before van Dyck.

oil on canvas. exquisitely laid tables. Jan Davidsz de Heem b 1606 – 84 n DUTCH 5 Utrecht. Ohio: Allen Memorial Art Museum). Lute Player Carousing with a Young Woman (oils) Utrecht-born. His later work is softer and quieter. A Table of Desserts. Rome 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $1. 1640s. which throws detail into sharp relief.000 in 1985. sometimes to the point of stillness and silence. 1621 (Kassel. KEY WORKS Flute Players. 1640 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Lancashire: Towneley Hall Art Gallery. His style became more exotic and opulent after moving to Antwerp. Hamburg: Kunsthalle. Was famous and successful with his still-life paintings of flowers and groaning. Germany: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen). he lived and worked in Antwerp from 1636. His early work has hard. 1628 (The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum). 1612. Was fascinated by reflected light. St. 1640 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) The most important painter of the Utrecht School. oil on panel. Had many pupils and imitators. 1629 (Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum) Still Life of Fruit and Flowers (detail) Jan Davidsz de Heem.460. he became with Honthorst the leader of the Caravaggism associated with the Utrecht School. raking light. Banquet Still Life (oils) Hendrick Terbrugghen b 1588 – 1629 n DUTCH 5 Utrecht. 1625 (Oberlin. c. Burnley. 1600–1700 199 The Expulsion of Hagar Pieter Lastman. Sebastian Tended by Irene and her Maid.C . KEY WORKS Still Life with Books. On his return to the Netherlands. The Annunciation. The drama of the moment when Abraham banished Ishmael (his first son) and Hagar (his mother) is accompanied by an extensive landscape of equally dark mood. The rediscovery of his sensitive and poetic paintings has been part of the general reappraisal of Caravaggesque art in the 20th century. Antwerp 1 oils 2 Dresden: Gemäldegalerie 3 $6m in 1988. who was deeply influenced by Caravaggio’s subjects and style (he spent ten years in Italy). . Fruit and Rich Tableware on a Table.

his modest parents recognized the importance of education. 1635. which is ultimately a flawed enterprise: you cannot resolve disputed attributions by majority vote in committee. He created prolific. treasured in galleries worldwide. Wife of Johannes Cornelisz (oils) new. Generally considered to be the greatest. the Rembrandt Commission currently argues over how many works he painted. surface-scratching of engraving.200 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Rembrandt b 1606 – 69 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands 1 oils. Pieter Lastman. Portrait of a Lady aged 62.000 in 2000. drawings 2 Amsterdam: Rijskmuseum. The Hague: The Mauritshuis Museum 3 $26. Birmingham (UK): The Barber Institute of Fine Arts. Also one of the great printmakers. Perhaps Aeltje Pietersdr. Dutch master. . reflecting Dutch social engineering of the period. but most elusive. free-flowing techniques of etching into copper rather than the heavier. ink on paper. Uylenburgh. c. Son of a miller but.460. LIFE His full name was Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn. However. stunning masterpieces. etchings. developing the exciting. Unlike the Utrecht School founders and Rubens. so he was sent to Leiden University. who had worked in Italy. he never visited Italy to drink at the fountains of Baroque but had access to High Renaissance works and was taught by Dutch “Caravaggio in a tea cup” artist. Born in Leiden. Studies of Old Men’s Heads and Three Women with Children (detail) Rembrandt. From a group of rapid sketches using thin pen strokes.

Faces and gestures are the key— he was fascinated by the way faces reveal inner states of mind. shadow being the domain of the unexplained. He was enthralled by Jacob Blessing the Children of Joseph Rembrandt. DC: National Gallery of Art). early work is detailed. the evil. earthy. he is seen as art’s first major self-portraitist as a recognized specialty. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Self-Portrait at the Age of 63 Rembrandt. 69 x 82 4⁄5 in (175. 1655 (Washington. bankruptcy. oil on canvas. he was left lonely and poor in his old age. warm. SUBJECTS AND STYLE His subjects were biblical history (his preference). and loss of his grand house and massive personal art collection.8 cm). crowded work. or his own face). the activity of painting. He was intrigued by human skin. This is one of the last of over 75 self-portraits—paintings.1 x 43. 1669. Titus. The Three Crosses Rembrandt. Vase with Flowers. 33 4⁄5 x 27 3⁄4 in (86 x 70. especially the fleshy areas around the eye and nose in old faces (no other artist has ever painted them with such care and so convincingly). etching. One of Rembrandt’s best etchings: a complex. which resulted in wealthy portrait commissions and quickly won renown. London: National Gallery. purifying. 1670 (The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum) Observe his emotional manipulation of light and shade—light being warming. 1635 (London: National Gallery).5 x 210. 1636 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). He inherited his wife’s fortune on her early death but later his popularity declined. with a stunning exploitation of light and shade. the threatening. later work is looser in style. One of Rembrandt’s greatest achievements as a history painter. His direct honesty and intense personal scrutiny over the years reveals an aging face of a true human being. KEY WORKS Saskia as Flora. portraits. 15 x 17 1⁄4 in (38. oil on canvas. His beloved son. . Joseph Accused by Potiphar’s Wife. 1653.5 cm). And this is the secret to his other works. c. and how hand and body language convey emotion. The Blinding of Samson. He was also interested in showing emotional crises and moral dilemmas—you sense that he has experienced the intense feelings he portrays. revealing. He never flinched. heart-rending emotions. in a way that can evoke deep. He had a unique ability to find all humanity beautiful. dying 11 months later in Amsterdam. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. In fact. and landscapes. spiritual. drawings. At first money rolled in. resulting in debt. 1656. His palette is distinctive: rich.C .5 cm). not beautiful but with penetrating realism. Kassel (Germany): Gemäldegalerie. even in front of the toughest subjects (the Crucifixion. 1600–1700 201 His personal life was increasingly touched with tragedy. and prints. and comforting. and housekeeper common-law wife saved him from ruin but when they died (Titus at the age of 27). thanks to marrying a successful art dealer’s cousin.

Recent revival of interest due to reattributions by the Rembrandt Commission The Village Grocer Gerrit Dou. Munich: Alte Pinakothek 3 $200. 67 1⁄3 x 58 1⁄4 in (171 x 148 cm). focused light and shade (he trained initially as an engraver and glass painter). 1637 (Paris: Museum). c. as a consequence. obsession with surface show. dedicated to self-conscious illusion. high. Remembered as Rembrandt’s first pupil (age 15). Los Angeles: J. . In 1669. Flowers. so that several so-called 1647. 1654.5 x 29 cm). Portrait of Young Woman Holding Leather Fan (oils) Bol was a pupil of Rembrandt. The Hermit. Young Man Holding Ottoman Short Sword (oils) KEY WORKS Astronomer by of figures engaged at a window. he seems to have given up painting. The Dentist (oils) Also known as Gerard Dou. Paul Getty Museum 3 $325. Liked the formula of sitters posing by an open window. and less serious or gloomy. A conjurer’s world. Bol married a rich widow and. 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. and hidden symbolism.864 in 2001. Budapest: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $2.202 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Gerritt Dou b 1613 – 75 n DUTCH Govaert Flinck b 1615 – 60 n DUTCH 5 Leyden (Netherlands) 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. oil on canvas.030. Paris: Musée du Louvre. to whom his works have often been attributed (Rembrandt being more prestigious and much more valuable).000 in 1996. skilful special effects. Young Shepherdess with (St. 1670 (Washington. 1663 Musée du Louvre). 1639 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) A pupil of Rembrandt in the 1630s and strongly influenced by him in style and subject matter. DC: Angels Announcing the Birth of Christ to the National Gallery of Art) Shepherds. said to be by Flinck. oil Rembrandts are now on panel.000 in 1998. 15 x 112⁄5 in (38. Woman at a Window. Paul Getty Bridge and Ruins. Small-scale works with fine detail. Candlelight. Flinck was prolific and much esteemed in his own day. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Working very much in the master’s style. glassy finish. Dou often used this composition Ferdinand Bol b 1616 – 80 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. 1655 (Los KEY WORKS Countryside with Angeles: J. more elegant. brilliant colors. but his works are generally lighter. 1637–40 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Portrait of a Husband and Wife Ferdinand Bol. Paris: Musée du Louvre.

elegant. and a highly original and distinctive painter.400 in 1994. or old women asleep (very popular at the time). genre. which destroyed most of his work. 1643 (Dublin: National Gallery of Ireland) An Eavesdropper with a Woman Scolding Nicolaes Maes. London: Harold Samuel Collection. KEY WORKS Jacob’s Dream. 1650s (St. perspectives. Died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. Maes succeeded best when combining humor and complicity. 1654 (The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum) Carel Fabritius b 1622 – 54 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam. Used thick impastoed paint next to thin glazes (like Rembrandt). Delft 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. 1642 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie).C . but they had extraordinary taste and an infallible feeling for composition. near his studio. Sometimes silhouetted a dark figure against a light background (Rembrandt preferred vice versa). c. 1640.2 cm). 1655 (London: Harold Samuel Collection) “The Dutch had no imagination. Good. c. Used strong chiaroscuro (he was a pupil of Rembrandt) and soft focus. A Young Woman Sewing. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $771. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Budapest: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $708. KEY WORKS The Mocking of Christ. KEY WORKS The Beheading of John the Baptist. Later in life went in for small. Nicolaes Maes b 1632 – 93 n DUTCH 5 Dordrecht (Netherlands). and less than ten authenticated works are known. 18 1⁄4 x 28 2⁄5 in (46. Preferred cool colors to Rembrandt’s dark reds and browns. Immensely talented—Rembrandt’s best pupil. French-style portraits. Painted portraits.3 x 72. Possessed a dark early style that becomes lighter after c. still lifes. 1640 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum). 1600–1700 203 Did allegories and history paintings for public buildings. oil on panel. Mercury and Argos (oils) Had a tragically short life. Liked painting kitchen utensils. The Goldfinch. but not great. but they show great variety.” VINCENT VAN GOGH .428 in 1985. David’s Dying Charge to Solomon. Old Woman Making Lace in Kitchen (oils) Best known for his early genre paintings which often show kitchen life below stairs.1655. Antwerp 1 oils 2 Dordrecht: City Museum.

His soft. A Winter Landscape. Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane (The Agony in the Garden). Dutch Harbor in a Calm with Small Vessels Inshore (works on paper) Esaias van de Velde b C. 56 2⁄3 x 83 1⁄2 in (144 x 212 cm). fresco 2 London: National Gallery 3 $434. He spent much time at sea with the Dutch fleet.000 in 1999. Villagers Skating on a Frozen Pond. 1657 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) One of the founder members of the realist school of Dutch landscapes. Christ Crowned with Thorns. unstagey open space and atmosphere. pen and ink 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $975. 1650 (Los Angeles: J. especially in the anecdotal figures going about their daily business. c.000 in 1998. c. 1625 (Washington. Paul Getty Museum). His principal achievements are drawings of ships and small craft and pen paintings in ink on white canvas or oak panel. Private Collection.000 in 1990. He showed good detail. 1671 (St. 1672) to escape political confusion in Holland. London 1 oils. The Battle of Terheide. 1671 (London: National Gallery). Studied in Rome 1610–12. but eclipsed in popular esteem by his oil-painter son. Emigrated with family to England (c. Portrait of Laughing Violinist (oils) winter) are characterized by a feeling of natural.204 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Gerrit van Honthorst b 1590 –1656 n DUTCH 5 Italy. Best remembered now for Supper with the Minstrel and his Lute Gerrit van Honthorst. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1650s (Washington. 1619. The Hague 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $450. Also a prolific etcher and draftsman. accurate detail. Utrecht. Willem van de Velde (the elder) b 1611 – 93 n DUTCH striking treatment of illumination by artificial light—especially good when he hides light source and plays with silhouette. c. 1623 (London: National Gallery). Paul Getty Museum) KEY WORKS 5 Leyden (Netherlands). monochromatic scenes (often in . This use of artificial light and silhouettes greatly influenced the young Rembrandt. KEY WORKS Figures on Board Small Merchant Vessels. The paintings have meticulous. Rocky Landscape with Travelers and Horsemen on Path (oils) Talented maritime painter. c. oil on canvas. Christ Before the High Priest. 1591 – 1630 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem. Dutch Ships Near the Coast. 1620 (Los Angeles: J. London 1 oils. KEY WORKS Winter Games on the Town Moat. DC: National Gallery of Art). DC: National Gallery of Art) Only member of the Utrecht School to establish an international reputation. Much favored by royal and aristocratic patrons for his history paintings and allegorical decorations. 1618 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek).

Made meticulous preliminary drawings and measurements. 1642 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) River Landscape with Ferries Docked Before a Tower Jan van Goyen. The castle is real. After 1670.500 in 1998. The light-filled church interiors are a metaphor for universal laws of mathematics and optics. sand dunes. Paul Getty Museum 3 $2.C . New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. Prolific and much imitated. KEY WORKS Ships in a Calm Sea. Had many pupils. naval battles. Worked extensively from his father’s drawings.000 in 1999. KEY WORKS Interior of the Marienkirche in Utrecht. Uses high viewpoint and low horizon. 25 1⁄4 x 37 in (64. Haarlem. the setting imaginary. Painted in subdued browns and grays. Ships off the Coast.349. oil on panel. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1653 (St. oil on canvas. 1644 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Sea Battle of the Anglo-Dutch Wars Willem van de Velde (the younger). Repeated same motifs frequently—Dordrecht. 1637 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). His early work concentrates on accurately drawn and carefully placed fishing vessels on tranquil seas. Both the elder and younger van de Veldes were official naval war artists to the English crown. 1638 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle). . c.1 x 94 cm). KEY WORKS Skaters in Front of a Medieval Castle. 1700.65m in 2004.874. and cloud movement. he produced portraits of particular ships. Private Collection. The Hague 1 oils 2 St. Willem van de Velde (the younger) b 1633 –1707 n DUTCH 5 Leyden (Netherlands). London 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. space. Small English Man-o-War Firing a Salute (oils) Pieter Jansz Saenredam b 1597 – 1665 n DUTCH Precocious son of hard-working maritime-painter father. Village on the Banks of River with Ferryboat and Peasants (oils) One of the most important Dutch landscape painters. and Nijmegen River. Dutch Vessels at Low Tide. 1642 (London: National Gallery). enlivened by a flash of red or blue. Interior of the Nieuwe Kerk (oils) Supremely gifted painter of architecture —both specific buildings in Dutch towns and interiors of identifiable churches (the once decorated Gothic buildings that were whitewashed to satisfy the Protestant belief in plainness). watercolors 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. chalks. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1. 1600–1700 205 Jan van Goyen b 1596 – 1656 n DUTCH 5 Leyden (Netherlands). 1640s. 1661 (London: National Gallery). London: National Gallery 3 $1. The Morning Gun. Haarlem. Interior of St. Fort on a River. Los Angeles: J. A Windmill by a River. 1672 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) 5 Haarlem 1 oils. James’s Church in Utrecht. His later work (after 1693) was more freely painted. ships. and storms at sea. air. His paintings have attractive light. Likes gnarled oaks. The Anglo-Dutch wars (1652–84) were about control of trade routes. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum.

Uncle of the better known Jacob van Ruisdael. 1653 (London: National Gallery). 1600 – 70 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $3. uncritical. chose similar peasant subjects in his early work. watercolors 2 St. Ostade was a prolific painter (over 800 are known) and a skilled watercolorist and etcher. KEY WORKS Rustic Concert. Extensive River Landscape (oils) Prolific and well-known painter of landscapes and riverscapes.000 in 1997.465. earthy colors suit the mood. c. Both the peasants’ behavior and Ostade’s technique improve as his work develops (perhaps marrying a well-to-do woman toned down his style and subjects).206 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Adriaen van Ostade b 1610 – 84 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils. Rich. An Alchemist. with good atmosphere and busy human activity. Haarlem-born specialist in good-natured. He painted scenes that sum up a preconceived idea of Holland (water. Peasants Carousing and Dancing Outside Inn (oils) The Piper Adriaen van Ostade. Adriaen’s brother and pupil. Salomon van Ruysdael b C. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. 1638 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). lowlife scenes of peasants having a good time in their hovels or taverns. 1650s. flat .000 in 2004. Later on he developed a line in silvery-gray landscapes. drawings.432. oil on canvas. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $5. Isaak (1621–49). All his works found a ready market. A Peasant Courting an Elderly Woman. London: British Museum. 1661 (London: National Gallery).

404. c. 1652 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $3. 1648 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum).528. oil on canvas. buildings on horizon (town. c. The riverscape formula that he employed inventively juggles the following elements: compositions that always have a diagonal axis. There are also a few late still lifes with hunting themes. cows. Oddly unsuccessful as a painter.C . Dutch Landscape with Highwayman.000 in 1992. Panoramic River Landscape (oils) Pupil of Rembrandt who learned from the master’s landscape etchings and went on to produce a formula for large-scale. 1656 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Aert van der Neer b 1603 – 77 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 St. An Extensive Landscape. using thin paint on a light ground. with ghostly full moon or lit by burning candles) and winter landscapes (atmospheric. church). horizon across middle. windmill. He painted with broad. mature trees b 1619 – 88 n DUTCH 5 Rotterdam. sailing boats with flags. Good. cold colors and lots of skaters). rowing boats with fishermen. c. KEY WORKS Sailboats on the Wijkermeer. 1645 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) Philips Koninck lands. small figures to increase sense of vast space. Landscape with Medieval Castle. KEY WORKS Sports on a Frozen River. but not great. panoramic landscapes of Holland: high viewpoint. 1666 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland) An Extensive Landscape Philips Koninck. River View by Moonlight. cloudy skies. big skies)—applying a standard formula that was very popular with Dutch collectors. scudding clouds. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland. alternating bands of light and dark to give receding space. Winter Landscape with Figures on Path and Ice (oils) Specialist in night scenes (gloomily imaginative. 343⁄4 x 44 in (91 x 111. evening light on horizon. sweeping brushstrokes. . 1600 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1648 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Also failed as an innkeeper and went bankrupt. 1600–1700 207 on a river bank. KEY WORKS Wide River Landscape. reflections in water. with pale. 1666.8 cm).000 in 1997. The equal division of open sky and landscape is typical of this artist. the grain of the panel often shows through. Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $1.

c. foreground figures. a pink castle. harmonious. usually in a landscape with bare trees. Good at weather. white sky. Landscape with Bathers. KEY WORKS Cattle and Sheep in a Stormy Landscape. . Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).000 in 1996.57m in 2001. Two Cows and a Bull in a Meadow (oils) Jacob van Ruisdael b 1628 – 82 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem. watercolors 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection 3 $7. 1660 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) 5 Amsterdam 1 oils. 1647 (London: National Gallery). goats). Fording a Stream (oils) Small-scale landscapes of horsemen. atmospheres. London: National Gallery Best painter of cows (also horses. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $1. Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. Fishermen by Moonlight. hilly landscape. 1625 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) Paulus Potter b 1625 – 54 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 St.208 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Philips Wouvermans b 1619 – 68 n DUTCH Hendrick Avercamp b 1585 –1634 n DUTCH 5 Haarlem 1 oils 2 Dresden: Royal College. KEY WORKS Horses Being Watered. Noted for a few life-sized animal pictures.519. Landscape with Stag Hunt in Full Cry. Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $1. London: National Gallery. Uses high horizons and warm-colored buildings that intensify the coldness of sky and snow. He was prolific and about 700 known paintings are happily attributed to him. 1613 (Geneva: Musée d’Art et d’Histoire). Unpretentious decorative art at its best. observation of light. sheep. but more at ease on a small scale. 1650 (Las Vegas: Guggenheim Hermitage Museum) 3 $4. battle or hunting scenes (note trademark white horse). c. and a happy throng on the ice and snow. Simple compositions—clear. c. Popular.000 Two Undershot Watermills with Men Opening Sluice (oils) Jacob van Ruisdael was the principal Dutch landscape painter of the second half of the 17th century. Winter Scene (oils) Mute painter from Kampen in the Netherlands. His earliest known works date from 1746. KEY WORKS Winter Scene at Yselmuiden. 1656–60 (St. The WolfHound.75m in 2004. Also vanitas-type still lifes. the thin painting of his figures gives them vitality and movement. Specialized in atmospheric winter scenes. elegant coloring.268.

Dulwich Picture Gallery 3 $5. 1647. 1660 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie). casting long. London: National Gallery. a sense of proprietorship and timelessness.852. 1600–70. 1650 (London: National Gallery) Panoramic View of Haarlem. 17 3⁄4 x 29 in (45 x 74 cm). He is more naturalistic than his predecessors and it is possible to identify species of trees in his paintings (note how he likes rotten trees and broken branches). Essentially. 1648 (St. everything and everyone in their appointed place. Note how the golden light catches just the edges of plants. seascapes. 1665–69 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) A Herdsman with Five Cows by a River Aelbert Cuyp. His work has a certain amount of stock imagery although he can be quite inventive within the formula: mountains. The light floods in from the left. Melancholic. clouds. oil on canvas. c. harmony with nature. Oaks by a Lake with Watermills. Using Italianate. KEY WORKS The Sea by Moonlight. c. These winter scenes were painted in the studio. c. The Jewish Cemetery. Orpheus Charming the Animals (oils) Winter Scene with Skaters near a Castle Hendrik Avercamp. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). his paintings are descriptive (no hidden symbolism) with a yearning for grandeur. he was nephew to the landscape painter Salomon van Ruysdael (c. diameter 16 1⁄5 in(41 cm). with highlights laid on in thick. 1600–1700 209 Aelbert Cuyp b 1620 – 91 n DUTCH 5 Dordrecht 1 oils. He favors skies with rain clouds and flying birds (not convincing—it looks like a stage backdrop). Works like these were produced on commission for wealthy members of Dordrecht society. His work is painted on dark priming and. waterfalls. 1660–65 (Washington. Cuyp married a wealthy widow in 1658 and neglected his art for local politics. c. The Young Bull Paulus Potter. c. London: National Gallery.000 in 1994.C . as a result. soft shadows (surprising how few definite shadows there are). The patrician classes who commissioned and collected his work appreciated the qualities of order. He produced some of the most beautiful landscapes and riverscapes ever painted. golden light (which he took entirely from Italian paintings) he transformed his native Holland (especially Dordrecht) into a fantasy dream world. such as birds in flight. This is Potter’s most monumental work. stillness. Is it morning or evening? He was much loved and collected in England. Forest Scene. oil on panel. 1650. and winter scenes. watercolors 2 London: National Gallery. which epitomizes the start or end of a perfect day. He is also attracted to massive forms and often uses a low viewpoint to silhouette features against the sky. A Distant View of Dordrecht with a Milkmaid and Four Cows. or animals. 93 x 133 1⁄2 in (236 x 339 cm). Nice ambiguities and easily overlooked details. The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum. impastoed paint. the different spelling occurs regularly in their signatures) and had a second career as a surgeon. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). beaches and dunes. oil on wood. silvery skies and foliage. 1608–09. security. Sunset after Rain. KEY WORKS Son of a painter. . His father owned a factory for stamping and gilding leather. clarity. from sketches for sale in the local art market. has dark tones. c. Before 1650. c. 1648–52 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). 1660s (London: Harold Samuel Collection). he worked on panel but subsequently painted on canvas. He uses a warm palette of earthy golds and browns contrasted with cool.

One senses from the acuity of his observation and the minute care with which he applies the paint that he viewed this world. Terborch (or Ter Borch) was one of the finest and most inventive masters of the Dutch School. and silver and gray-blue. he sets warm. painting was a secondary activity for van der Heyden. Germany 1 oils 2 St. and occasional figures. London: National Gallery 3 $4. Andreas (oils) A prosperous inventor and designer of fire engines and lighting. The Inn of the Black Pig at Maarsseveen. his ability to draw us quietly into his intimate world and leave a lingering question over the secrets or affections that are being shared. his love of a lady’s neck and the light reflecting off a surface. Music Lesson (oils) Precocious and successful. Paul Getty Museum) Jan van der Heyden b 1637 – 1712 n DUTCH Meyndert Hobbema b 1638 – 1709 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. small-scale topographical and capriccio (see page 234) views of towns in the Netherlands and Rhineland. gold. 1668 (Detroit Institute of Arts) cloud—satisfying contrasts of warm and cool. detailed bricks against blue skies and fluffy white 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $8. Wooded Landscape with Travellers on a Path through a Hamlet (oils) Last of the major Dutch landscape artists of the 17th-century golden age. exquisitely balanced against dark backgrounds. c. very beautiful. restrained. c. His small-scale.000 in 1997. Famous for dexterous painting of walls and masonry. c. 1663 (London: National Gallery). c. and its objects (not forgetting the dogs) with the greatest of affection and pleasure. A typical composition is of buildings closing in on one side with an open area leading out of the picture on the other—another good use of contrast. KEY WORKS A View in Cologne. the rendering of fabrics and the way clothes are made. Italy.2m in 1997. his love of detail. 1668 (Los Angeles: J. The Message. Düsseldorf. 1658 (Lyon: Musée des Beaux-Arts). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. Haarlem. KEY WORKS A Stream by a Wood.008. View of the Jesuit Church of St. England. See how he uses gentle symbolism but without overt moralizing. A Lady at her Toilet. Spain. Paris: Musée de Louvre 3 $1. 1648 (London: National Gallery).210 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Gerard Terborch b 1617 – 81 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam. and gentle genre scenes show self-absorbed moments of a mundane world being raised to immortality by art. KEY WORKS The Swearing of the Oath of Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. hard and soft. His range is generally limited to repetitive scenes of finely painted dark landscapes with watermills and cottages round a pool. c. sharp. its people.26m in 2001. its ordinariness. 1660–65 (London: National Gallery). and yellow. Look for harmonies of brown. A Watermill. he gave up professional painting when he married in 1668 and became a wine gauger instead. 1665–68 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) . overgrown trees. its foibles. who is best known for still lifes and meticulous. c.

and enjoys. idleness. KEY WORKS A Young Woman Playing a Harpsichord. London: Wallace Collection. and diagonals. His lively. 1660–63 (London: National Gallery) Pieter de Hooch is a perennially popular Dutch master and one of the bestknown and best-loved genre painters. celebrating well-behaved middle-class life. ran a tavern and owned a brewery. feasts. DC: National Gallery of Art) . Watch out also for portraits. Skittle Players Outside an Inn. and generally depicts sunny courtyards and sunlit interiors. 34 1⁄2 x 42 in (87. A Dutch Courtyard. He also makes discreet use of symbols and emblems. Before 1655 he painted lowlife peasant and soldier scenes. c. Full of symbolism. His very late work (1670s) is feeble but his best work bears a similarity to that of Vermeer (see page 213). portrayed rich interiors with a bogus view of pseudoaristocratic life. c.7m in 1989. promiscuity. blue-green. after 1665. c. The lively and easy use of flowing. flooding them with warm light and leaving the foreground uncluttered. and landscapes. space and light—he creates views from one room or area to another and uses the geometric patterns of the tiled floors and courtyards to construct the illusion of space. From Delft. His compositions are carefully designed with well-placed verticals. usually with a single vanishing point. The complex symbolism indicates that the “father” holding the baby is a cuckold. Figures in an Interior with Man and Woman Seated at Table Playing Cards (oils) Steen. otherwise. DC: National Gallery of Art). It is known that he died insane but. Amsterdam 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $6. His best and most widely known work dates from his years in Delft (1654–c. Two Soldiers and a Woman Drinking. Pieter de Hooch b 1629 – 83 n DUTCH 5 Delft.C . Observe the way he plays with.8 x 107 cm). and households with stock characters and facial expressions (rather like a TV soap opera—and maybe his works fulfilled a similar need). etc. 1660 (Washington. Courtyard of House in Delft with Young Woman and Two Men (oils) Jan Steen b C. oil on canvas. who was his talented contemporary in Delft. religious works. 1660/61). 1659 (London: National Gallery). he moved to Amsterdam and. 1600–1700 The Christening Feast (detail) 211 Jan Steen. c. 1658 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum). the genre scenes carry an unambiguous (sometimes heavy-handed) message about drunkenness. were prolific and popular. 1658–60 (Washington. pale yellow) adds to the paintings’ vitality and reflects their character. one of the best and most important Dutch genre painters. little is known of his life. KEY WORKS The Pantry. mythological scenes. and he uses carefully worked-out geometric perspective. horizontals. 1664. c. crowded scenes of taverns.24m in 1992. 1626 – 79 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery 3 $2. juicy fresh colors (rose red.

5 x 38.96m in 2000. such as silk. Many of the objects and still-life details are symbolic. A few fruit pieces and landscapes. c.2m in 1992. Falconer’s Bag. KEY WORKS Hollyhocks and Other Flowers in a Vase. Note his liking for dark interiors—rooms with windows closed or curtains drawn.212 T H E BA RO QU E E R A Jan Both b C. he gained an impressive international reputation. Boy Bearing Fruit (oils) Son of Jan Baptist Weenix (1621–63) who called himself Giovanni Battista after his trip to Italy 1642–1646. 1695 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). A Dead Cock. KEY WORKS The White Peacock. marble. Weenix’s early still lifes caught the eye of the Elector Palatine. Fruit. c. Düsseldorf 1 oils 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $456. silver. 1653 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1690. His palette is warm and personal. and was skilled at textures. whose carefully organized compositions and meticulous technique and palette reflect the lifestyle of the Dutch bourgeoisie. 1702–20 (London: National Gallery). Still Life with Flowers. 1640s (St. Officer Paying Court to a Woman in Interior (oils) Still Life Jan Weenix. Italianate Evening with a Muleteer and Goatherds on a Wooded Path (oils) Dutch landscape painter who studied in Rome and introduced the Italianate Arcadian landscape. 1618 – 52 n DUTCH 5 Utrecht 1 oils 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $1. High-quality painter of intimate. vivid blues and greens. c. Smooth enamel-like paint.000 in 1995. 1646 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Gabriel Metsu b 1682 – 1749 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Amstersdam: Rijksmuseum 3 $1. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 19 1⁄2 x 15 in (49.426. Ornamental bouquets of asymmetrical flower arrangements. cool tones. KEY WORKS Italian Landscape.1 cm). and glass. 1723 (St. The Prodigal Son. or a dark corner. His son never visited Italy but continued his father’s . c. Birds. c. He also painted hunting trophies and still lifes. 1635–41 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). 1692 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). he worked directly from life rather than from studies. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). especially using reds and browns. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Jan van Huysum b 1682 – 1749 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $3. A Soldier Visiting a Young Lady. it is meant to be read as part of the meaning of the picture (a neat way of drawing you into the intimacy and secrecy of the scene). who employed him in Düsseldorf from 1702–14. Flowers and Fruit. Leeds: City Art Gallery. 1655–59 (Madrid: Museo del Prado) KEY WORKS popular Italianate seaports and courtyard scenes. c. Flowers in a Terra-cotta Vase on a Marble Plinth (oils) One of the most prolific flower painters. oil on canvas. not necessarily of the same season. if there is lettering or a document. Dead Hare on Plinth by Urn.000 in 1999. polite Dutch households. Portrait of Peter I. smallscale scenes of well-ordered. Bandits Leading Prisoners. 1723 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) Jan Weenix b 1640 – 1719 n DUTCH 5 Amsterdam. à la Claude. 1697 (St. to Holland. he does not usually make references to classical mythology. More detailed and literal than Claude (see page 182). Whenever possible.

The Only 35 works known Hague: Mauritshuis Museum. c. 1664 (Washington. Cupid Disarmed by Venus (oils) Now regarded as the finest Dutch genre painter. By stopping short he requires the individual eye and imagination to supply what it most desires to see and feel. (46. The Hague: Mauritshuis selects that tantalizing fraction of a second Museum. just before something that is anticipated which projects a slightly fuzzy image. memorable exceptions. The Hague: Mauritshuis Museum. 39 1⁄3 x 46 in focus—visually and emotionally he (100 x 117 cm). tantalizing Holding a Balance. he constantly reworked KEY WORKS Kitchen Maid. 18 1⁄3 x 15 3⁄4 in of the 19th century. Unrecognized in his own lifetime. Virginal. In the 1880s this famous work was sold in for certain. becomes clear and resolved. . Washington. c. and enigmatic human relationships. 1660–61. oil on canvas. c. This is perceptual and poetic creativity. With a few Holland for the equivalent of 50 cents. c. the same theme: the corner of a room.C . National Gallery of Art). exquisite. DC: observation of the organization of space. It is likely that Vermeer used a camera obscura. 1660–61. Girl with a Pearl Earring Jan Forgotten until the end Vermeer. The work was much but not yet fully perceived or understood admired by Marcel Proust. 1670 (London: National Gallery) Look closely: nothing is quite in View of Delft Jan Vermeer. along with manipulation of breathtaking skill and sensitivity. so often disappointing. 1600–1700 213 Jan Vermeer b 1632 – 75 n DUTCH 5 Delft 1 oils 2 Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum. Lady Standing at the light. oil on canvas.7m in 1990. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $2. 1656–61 (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum). Woman but with a unique.5 x 40 cm ). and in its full realization. Makes the eye linger over the seemingly innocent but precisely calculated interplay of cool blues and sensuous yellows and whites.

the Muse of History. such as genre painting The line of the tabletop draws the viewer’s eye in to the painting toward a vanishing point positioned just below the bulbous finial of the map’s roller bar The model represents Clio. 1665 This is one of Vermeer’s later and most ambitious works. and the interplay between two figures. like variations on a theme. the fulfillment of many years of experience. The painting has also had an interesting history—in 1677 Vermeer’s family petitioned the courts to prevent it from being auctioned to pay the artist’s debts. Vermeer confirms the status of painting as a liberal art. and discussion. The source of light is hidden behind a heavy curtain that is drawn aside to reveal the artist at work. observation. whose attributes are the wreath of laurel and a book in which she records all heroic deeds. intellectually and emotionally. who hung it in his private rooms at Berchtesgaden. It operates on two levels: visually. Typical of Vermeer is the intimate glimpse of the relationship between two people. especially on the curtain and the chairs. study. Note how Vermeer turns highlights. the regular pattern of a slate and marble floor.214 T H E BA RO QU E E R A The Artist’s Studio Vermeer c. into delicate beads of light. and during World War II it was confiscated from its Austrian owners by Adolf Hitler. it is a very subtle and intricate arrangement of space and light. It changed hands several times. meticulous observation of light. and precise handling of color. meticulously developed craftsmanship. . Vermeer often used the placing of a chair in the foreground. which symbolizes the fame that can be achieved by an artist. not unlike pearls The Muse of History carries a trumpet. Vermeer may be suggesting that an artist’s fame need no longer rest with traditional history painting but can be achieved with new subjects. The nine Muses were the goddesses of inspiration in the arts and sciences. it is a complex allegory about the art of painting.

the latter was still under the political control and cultural influence of Spain The artist’s easel points with new confidence toward the new republic of Holland The painter is not dressed in the clothes of his own day. The Northern Dutch provinces gained full independence from Spain in 1648. The line is reinforced by the angle of the tabletop. .C . The lack of candles refers to their waning power. The underlying structure of horizontals and verticals gives the picture its mood of stability and calm The vertical crease marks the frontier between Protestant Holland and Catholic Flanders. It would seem that Vermeer is connecting the art of his own era with the art of the time of the great masters van Eyck (see page 110) and van der Weyden (see page 111) TECHNIQUES Vermeer uses the tiles like stepping-stones to lead the eye into the composition. 1600–1700 215 The Artist’s Studio Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 47 x 39 1⁄2 in (120 x 100 cm) Location Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum The chandelier is decorated with the twoheaded eagle of the Hapsburgs. the Spanish royal family. The roof beams create a strong horizontal pattern continued by the map’s roller bars. but wears a 15th-century costume.

1630s (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery). Established a successful formula (polite.328. Many substandard works were produced by studio assistants. KEY WORKS Trial by Fire. earthy. 1665 (Private Collection) John Michael Wright b 1617 – 94 n BRITISH Sir Peter Lely b 1618 – 80 n DUTCH/BRITISH 5 Edinburgh. whose family name was van der Faes. which show richly dressed. 1610 – 46 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils 2 London Galleries 3 $161. KEY WORKS Portrait of John Banckes. England 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $263. mobile fingers. 1658 (London: National Portrait Gallery). Studio assistants were responsible for much poor-quality work in his name. Hampton Court Palace 3 $1. A few very fine early works show his talent for landscape and observation of unimportant faces. 1660 (London: Tate Collection). 71 3⁄4 x 56 1⁄3 in (182. London 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery. c.2 x 143 cm).216 T H E BA RO QU E E R A William Dobson b C. Duchess of Cleveland. he had a wonderful feel for light.754 in 1997. c.920 in 1992. Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery. which emphasize the sitter’s learning or bravery (or both). he established a successful practice during the reigns of Charles II and James II but his more direct and realistic style never quite suited fashionable taste. Half-length portraits: red-faced. 1685 (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery) . masklike faces with repetitive mouths and eyes) that emphasized status rather than realism or personality. Portrait of King George I of England (oils) Anne Hyde. KEY WORKS Elizabeth Claypole (née Cromwell). Became principal state portrait painter from the reign of Charles II to George II. slightly raffish-looking women with heavy eyes and long. direct style. Greenwich. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1635–40 (London: Tate Collection) fashionable. Italy. Lely settled in England in the early 1640s. c. A direct contemporary of Lely. St. 1640s–50s (St. Barbara Villiers. Chesterfield Portrait. Portrait of Sir Thomas Cricheley (oils) Brief career as a painter to the doomed court of Charles I at Oxford. Netherlands. Portrait of Lord Mungo Murray in Highland Dress (oils) German-born of Dutch parents. c. 1660s. Portrait of the Artist’s Wife. Rome. London 1 oils 2 London: National Maritime Museum. He died in poverty. Only 50 known paintings: nothing known pre1642. and especially notable for his A talented Catholic portrait painter who spent the 1640s and 1650s in Rome and France. conservative male subjects with classical allusions and visual references. and learned the virtues of allegory and elegance. When at his best. Robust. 1676 (London: Tate Collection). Petersburg: The Hermitage Museum 5 Haarlem. He was the principal portrait painter for Charles II. Two Ladies of the Lake Family. Thomas Hobbes. c. Duchess of York Sir Peter Lely. King Charles II. probably Philip Stanhope and brother Charles (oils) 3 $437. two boys. German-born. female portraits. 1669–70 (London: National Portrait Gallery) Sir Godfrey Kneller b 1646 –1723 n GERMAN/BRITISH 5 Amsterdam. KEY WORKS The Executioner with the Baptist’s Head. c.900 in 2000. but had settled in England by the age of 30.000 in 2003. The first wife of James II was reputedly more clever than beautiful.

Valdres (oils) 3 $42. Dahl was prolific and successful. Good on draperies. This famous cravat (right). c. formerly known as Sarah Churchill. and once belonged to 18th-century collector Sir Horace Walpole. Capriccio with Saint Paul before Agrippa (oils) Ambitious and successful. His earlier works are best. St. à la Venetian needlepoint. View of Olyo Farm. 1670/71. but poor characterization. but it lacks the necessary histrionic drama and excess (the British always believed that foreigners do that kind of thing better). King David Playing Harp. used diffused. This intricately carved piece meticulously imitates Venetian needlepoint lace. 1680s (London: St. limewood. even chimneys and walls. 1690. and the literati. 1695–1700 (London: National Portrait Gallery) . flowers. James’s Church. c. 1710 (London: Tate Collection). Cecilia an Organ England’s most famous woodcarver of all time. silvery tones and short brushstrokes. illusionistic Baroque wall and ceiling paintings for public buildings (including the Painted Hall of Wren and Hawksmoor’s naval hospital in Greenwich. c. Unknown Woman. 1716 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) “There is nothing on earth so terrible as English music except English painting. London 1 sculpture 2 Surrey (England): Hampton Court. Born in Sweden. Sussex (England) Petworth Park 3 $140. Psalm 48. he arrived in England c. c. Time. was so realistic that an overseas visitor was convinced it was the standard dress of an English gent.000 in 1999. The only English painter of fashionable. His theme was often cascades: fruit. paneling. fresco 2 London: Greenwich. National Maritime Gallery 3 $88.C . c. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. Produced competent portraits of aristocracy. royalty. and George I. Born of English parents in Rotterdam. as well as major stately homes where his work is found today. Very distinct personal style—his sculptures seem organically alive.” HEINRICH HEINE Michael Dahl b 1659 – 1743 n SWEDISH/BRITISH Sir James Thornhill b 1675 – 1734 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery. and Justice. London) and country houses. Retired from painting in 1728 to become an MP and country squire. Tate Collection 5 England 1 oils. Royal patrons included Charles II. leaves.000 in 1995. elegant style. fish. which tumbled down furniture. birds. Languorous. Duchess of Marlborough. Piccadilly). 1691 (London: National Portrait Gallery). William III. KEY WORKS Thetis Accepting the Shield of Achilles from Vulcan. 1600–1700 217 Grinling Gibbons b 1648 – 1720 n BRITISH/DUTCH 5 Rotterdam. Produced quality work. Writer Sir Horace Walpole often wore it as a joke. Kneller’s principal competitor. settled in London in 1689. 1680s (Suffolk: Petworth House) Woodcarving of a Cravat Grinling Gibbons. KEY WORKS Marble font. Ceiling. Truth. London: Victoria & Albert Museum.920 in 1989.


the universe. and convenience. explain the workings of the world. t the heart of 18th-century thought and politics was the Enlightenment—a belief that human reason would resolve political and religious dilemmas. reading. music. This duality is equally well represented in the two principal artistic styles of the century: the Rococo with its light-hearted subjects. and philosophy of the 18th century are full of references to the differences between sense and sensibility. so did education. Thus. the Age of Reason. and Neoclassicism with its serious historical subjects. France and England. FRANCE AND ENGLAND The principles of the Enlightenment were also reflected in the politics of the two major powers. and conjugal love became important. industriousness. rather than supporting ideologies. and oppression would be eliminated. but to emphasize that choice was part and parcel of human fulfillment. the art. 1700–1800 219 FROM ROCOCO TO NEO-CLASSICISM C. travel. but expressed in surprisingly . sensuality and self-denial. delicate colors. slavery. The Enlightenment also liked intellectual and emotional dualities. the 18th century. children. tyranny. By contrast. straight lines. and create harmonious relationships in which superstition. was a period of relative calm in which all the arts developed a refinement and elegance—often small in scale—suited to satisfying simple human needs and longings. landscape gardening. Ottobeuren. comfort. frivolity and morality. and asymmetric curves emphasizing frivolity. indulgence and sobriety. and precise outlines prioritizing morality and self-denial. 1700 –1800 The 17th century had been a period of religious confrontation and warfare. and human nature. parties. This emphasis on “a pursuit of happiness” manifested itself in many ways: family life. and sensuality.C . town planning. reason and emotion. not as competing ideologies that would fight Interior of Abbey Church. Bavaria In the 18th century Germany staged a cultural recovery. literature. A each other to the death. Spectacular church interiors were created from a blend of Baroque architecture and Rococo decoration. discussion. food.

French ideas through one of theory. Petersburg by Peter the Great 1714 Hanoverian succession in Britain 1729 Bach’s St. more properly Britain after its formal James Watt rotary steam engine Britain’s technological lead in the second half of the 18th century gave it a decisive advantage over its European trading rivals. Catholic France remained committed to the absolutist model of kingship established by Louis XIV. However Anglo-French rivalry was more than just a question of power politics. different ways. Both also had substantial colonial territories—chiefly in India and North America—backed by powerful military and naval forces. 1792. Industrialization boosted productivity and lowered costs. The French Revolution brought 10 years of political chaos to France. Matthew Passion first performed 1751 Diderot begins publication of L’Encyclopédie (to 1780) 1700 1704 Grand Alliance forces under duke of Marlborough defeat French at Blenheim 1720 1715 France ruled by regency of Philippe II. Britain’s superiority was clear. Musée de la Ville de Paris. upon death of Louis XIV 1735 War of the Polish Succession becomes Europe-wide conflict (to 1738) 1740 1740 Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia launches War of Austrian Succession (to 1748) . duc d’Orléans.220 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O . TIMELINE: 1700—1800 1703 Foundation of St. France had been ejected from India and North America and British naval superiority. After 1763. was rapidly evolving an early form of parliamentary rule. each stood for a fundamentally different approach to government. population growth. philosophical speculation. with the end of the Seven Years’ War. Both nations benefited from scientific discoveries. was emphatically confirmed. the linchpin of its maritime empire. unification with Scotland in 1707. English ideas were filtered though a prism of robust middle-class pragmatism. print.C L A S S I C I S M Cry of Liberty and the Departure for the Frontier Le Sueur brothers. Protestant England. and agricultural revolutions. during which the king and his family were executed and Europe was plunged into war. and with very different outcomes. As important. and aristocratic otherworldliness.

It was the clearest possible statement of the political and philosophical principles of the Enlightenment. and about to reap the economic benefits of an industrial revolution. Britain recovered. Goethe in the Campagna Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. and Russia (Catherine the Great) were all growing in influence and power. 1700—1800 221 INDEPENDENCE AND REVOLUTION British self-confidence received a stinging rebuff with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 by the American colonists. 64 1/2 x 81 in (164 x 206 cm). 1787. Poland was on the verge of extinction. reduced by the end of the century to little more than an impotent bystander. 1761 British destroy French power in India 1776 American colonies declare independence from Britain 1788 First British settlement in Australia 1793 Final partition of Poland 1799 Coup brings Napoleon to power in France 1760 1762 Accession of Catherine the Great of Russia 1763 Treaty of Paris confirms British supremacy in North America 1780 1777 Watt develops first true steam engine (Britain) 1789 French Revolution 1784 The Oath of the Horatii. oil on canvas. even if they lacked the global reach of France and England. Italy and Habsburg Spain were subsiding. the latter despite its still huge Latin American empire. as the bloodshed and tyranny of the “Terror” and then the dictatorship of Napoleon usurped the Enlightenment principles that the Revolution had sought to establish. and it succeeded in creating what would eventually grow into a new world power. an Anglo-Scottish enterprise that defined a British national identity. Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut. was a country that was kept unsteadily afloat by a volatile combination of aristocratic privilege. Prussia (Frederick the Great). Fraternity” soon became hollow words. corruption. In the end. this fatally flawed structure fell apart in the turmoil of the French Revolution of 1789.C . France. the whole centered on an inept monarchy. Like many other 18th-century writers and artists. Having lost her American colonies. Elsewhere in Europe the Austrian Habsburgs (Empress Maria Theresa). David (France) 1800 1798 Napoleon invades Egypt . and debt. Goethe visited Italy to seek inspiration among the Classical ruins. modeled on the examples of both France and England. and added enormous riches to a land already grown fat on modern agriculture. Equality. on the other hand. The revolutionary rallying cry of “Liberty. she simply went on to build a second worldwide empire. Ottoman Turkey was also shrinking in terms of power and territory.

he trained as a scene painter at the Paris Opéra from c. in 1719.” CAMILLE MAUCLAIR ON WATTEAU influence. The very titles of his works. Paris: Musée du Louvre.000 in 2000. grounded in an acute observation of reality. carefree exuberance. which was badly needed at the time. STYLE He is famous for inventing the fête galante or “courtship party”—a sort of stage set and dream world of perfectly mannered human love and harmony with nature. His last great work was a shop sign known as L’Enseigne de Gersaint.” which had been applied to the 16thcentury outdoor scenes of Giorgione (see page 140) and the Gardens of Love found in medieval manuscripts. become the spirit of the Rococo: daring. Created a fresh. 1702–07. chalk 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. but the grim English winter aggravated his condition and he died of TB in 1721. The character Pierrot: Gilles comes from the form of Italian improvised comedy known as commedia dell’arte. A laughing stock. unassuming style. airy. new. there is a melancholy that is sometimes accredited to his poor health. which could not be fitted into any existing category and for which he received the new title of “peintre de fêtes galantes. Pierrot: Gilles 1721. London: Wallace Collection 3 $3. His statues seem about to become flesh and blood and join the human activity. this mournful clown is the rejected lover and pitiable fool.222 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Jean-Antoine Watteau b 1684 – 1721 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils. There he had access to Rubens’s Marie de Medici series. he went to London. oil on canvas. From a Flemish town ceded to France from the Spanish Netherlands. Conversation. LIFE AND WORKS Watteau came from a poor family and had indifferent health throughout his short life.234. . 1721 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). Rural Pleasures. He then went to work for the curator of the Luxembourg Palace. which was a major “With a material art he has realized the miracle of representing a domain that it seemed only possible to evoke with music. Never sentimental. even though his own style was far more light and delicate. 72 4⁄5 x 59 in (185 x150 cm). His forms are often half-suggested and require completion in the imagination (as in love. where a half-spoken sentence or a snatched glance can be made to mean everything). He entered the French Academy in 1717 with A Journey to Cythera (right). Two years later. Artist from the Commedia dell’Arte in a Landscape (oils) The most important French painter of the first half of the 18th century. Breakfast in the Open Air. possibly to consult a famous physician. Le Conteur.” a variant of the term “fête champêtre” or “outdoor feast.

black. have become important references. but his color-flecking techniques influenced Delacroix and the later Post-Impressionists. . 51 x 76 1⁄2 in (129 x 194 cm). He possibly learned this method by studying Rubens’s drawings. the birthplace of Venus. During the French Revolution and with Neoclassicism. which he used to counterpoint frivolity with a melancholy. probably due to his careless techniques concerning his materials. 1715–18 (London: National Gallery). reputation suffered. or is departing from. 1720 (Washington. the island of Cythera. and pastels done from life. a combination of red. 1700–1800 223 A Journey to Cythera 1717. London: British Museum. oil on canvas. which he bound in large volumes. light. gouaches. suggesting the deeper issues of humanity. his Gesture. The Faux Pas. These numerous drawings. chalk on paper. 1710–21. It is not clear from Watteau’s composition whether the party is about to go to. he made exquisite red-and-black chalk drawings. However.C . Paris: Musée du Louvre. WHAT TO LOOK FOR At his death he was developing a more sober blending of his early Flemish realism with his playful fête galante. trois crayons. Watteau was a master of the French technique. DC: National Gallery of Art) Head of a Negro c. His delicate brushwork and pastel colors perfectly echo his subject. and white chalks set down separately on tinted paper. Curators now find that many of Watteau’s paintings are in poor condition. c. and facial expression. 1717 (Paris: Musée de Louvre). Italian Comedians. which he used as a repertoire for his paintings. KEY WORKS The Scale of Love c.

profligate. Simple. producing exquisite small still lifes and genre scenes that demonstrate harmony of order. widowed. 1736 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) François Boucher b 1703 – 70 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. The genre scenes crystallize moments of simple. Paul Getty Museum) Diligent artist.237. (St. Stockholm: National Museum 3 $2. Huntsman and his Servant (oils) Lancret was a chief follower of Watteau’s style. Chardin was criticized for not attempting more ambitious subjects.094 in 1988. Had similar subjects and style. c.224 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Still Life Jean Chardin. and for. 6 2⁄3 x 8 1⁄4 in (16. KEY WORKS Les Baigneueses (Women Bathing). the dignity of domestic labor. he instead preferred to perfect what he knew he could do best. Bathers. a world of narcissistic. 1735–36 (London: National Gallery) KEY WORKS Jean-Baptiste Pater b 1695 – 1736 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Subjects and style reflect his modest. self-indulgent luxury. a pair) Nicolas Lancret b 1690 – 1743 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Most . 1732.000 in 2003. open personality with love of craftsmanship. (albeit elegant) reality. The House of Cards. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). but his own style was more prosaic—he painted only the day-to-day A key artist of the sumptuous.8 x 21 cm). His works have a cruder color than Watteau’s. Jean Chardin b 1669 – 1779 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $2. Creator of lavish images of.3m in 1989. Fish. London: Wallace Collection. 1730–35 (Los Angeles: J. Popular with aristocratic collectors. c. Chinese Hunt. Les Amusements de la Campagne. DC: National Gallery of Art). Exemplified in paint the best qualities of the Age of Reason. The surfaces and textures of the still lifes are so believable that you want to touch them—you know exactly what everything is and where it is in space. The Dance. The son of a master carpenter. (London: National Gallery). Experience teaching Youth. such as childish pleasures. 1730 –35 (London: National Gallery). Vegetables. namely the French royal court of the mid18th century (this does not stop them from being wonderful paintings). c. 1735 (Washington. Liked theater subjects.000 in 1997. easy-to-understand symbolism. c. Epitomizes the full-blown Rococo style. St. and Cruets on a Table (oils) KEY WORKS The Four Ages of Man: Maturity. whereas Watteau could transform reality and endow it with the magic of poetry and dreams. and a man of simple tastes. His work doesn’t have the depth of feeling and the richness of color that is the hallmark of Watteau. London: Wallace Collection 3 $740. Pots. Note his loving observation of light and handling of paint. but his drawing and use of color lack confidence. La Musique Pastorale (oils. sober color. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $600. Although a member of the prestigious Royal Academy in Paris. restful intimacy. etc. The Swing (oils. a pair) Watteau’s pupil. overindulgent ancien régime of Louis XV. oil on panel. Dance before a Fountain. The Young Schoolmistress. pleasure in simplicity and relationships. Detroit Institute of Arts. A favorite of Madame de Pompadour.

1757 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). 1756 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). a brilliant marriage between his patrons’ needs (the subject matter) and style and technique—one of the hallmarks of great painting. and he played up to their enthusiasms by selling engravings of his works and elaborating their themes in notes in exhibition catalogs. satins. unattractive color. lavish silks.000 in 1998. . KEY WORKS Broken Eggs. In addition. In fairness. Became very successful but fell into obscurity with the revolution and died in poverty. it can seem so false you may well be moved to laughter rather than tears. Paul Getty Museum). pink flesh set among frothy and false vegetation. His overriding feature is excess of emotion—overexpressive faces and overdramatic gestures. and lace in the portraits—all painted with great technical skill and caressing sensuality. 1761 (Los Angeles: J. 1700–1800 225 magnificent with his depictions of the classical gods. Massachusetts: Worcester Art Museum. Reclining Girl. which are good and worth looking for.C . bad composition. Diana Bathing. Greuze’s anecdotal scenes were popular with a novel-reading public. Played to a pre-French Revolution audience that turned luxury and idleness into an art form. who (according to Boucher) enjoyed a similar lifestyle. Early on he had aspirations as a history painter. 1751 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) work. London: Wallace Collection 3 $900. You know what feeling he was trying to convey (or do you. 28 1⁄4 x 37 in (73 x 94. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Jean-Baptiste Greuze b 1725 – 1805 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Notice the acres of soft. KEY WORKS The Breakfast. like bad acting. Portrait of Benjamin Franklin (oils) Best known for his sentimental storytelling genre pictures and titillating images of young children that were part of his later Le Geste Napolitain Jean-Baptiste Greuze. oil on canvas. he did make some striking portraits. in fact?) but. also heavily sentimental pastoral and genre scenes. c. he designed for the royal tapestry works and porcelain factories and became King’s Painter in 1765. Boy with Lesson Book. Montpellier: Musée Fabre. 1765 (St. Many weaknesses: false emotion. The Laundress. 1742 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1757. 1739 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Had an unpleasant personality.3 cm). Spoilt Child. poor drawing.

the heroic certainties of the Baroque were giving way to the elegant intricacies of the Rococo (from the French “rocaille. In place of the large scale of the Baroque. 1746–54. and luxuriant landscape backgrounds— often overgrown. STYLE Light colors and deft brushwork predominate. fresco and stucco. Rococo painting concentrated 1775 1767 .226 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M THE ROCOCO By the early 18th century. idealized world. The Swing (see page 228) “Education de l’Amour” (modeled by Etienne Falconet after Boucher). A conspicuously courtly painting style. c. 1763. elegant and seemingly effortless. Completes the decorative cycle in 1752–53 with fresco of the continents. In the hands of its most outstanding exponents—the French painters Boucher and Fragonard. the world’s largest painting. German artists fused architecture and painting to create light-filled interiors that soar into visions of heaven. The subject matter. It was a shift in taste precisely reflected by Rococo art. Antiquity became a matter of scantily clad shepherdesses. small scale and highly wrought. Wies (Germany): Wieskirche. 1717 1750 Sophisticated 18th-century society placed a premium on intimacy. melting skin tones. porcelain. smiles entice and eyelids flutter. c. Allure is everything.5 cm). the Italian Tiepolo—the result is a captivating. self-evidently sexual. bosoms daintily exposed. is as typical as the handling: eroticism meets highly finished treatment. with a premium on highly finished.” a recurring motif in Rococo interior decoration). on aristocratic dalliance. shimmering surfaces in which the depiction of gorgeous fabrics.” meaning “shellwork. aristocratic patrons. KEY EVENTS 1702 1714 Flemish-born Watteau arrives in Paris Death of Louis XIV Watteau paints his elegiac A Journey to Cythera (see page 223) Tiepolo spends three years at Würzburg. never threatening— is relished for its own sake. limbs intertwine. ravished by muscular young giants. it appealed to sophisticated. The Rococo rarely lent itself to religious subjects. it was briefly supreme. SUBJECTS The Last Judgment (ceiling fresco) Johann Baptist Zimmermann. over the main staircase Boucher appointed director of the French Academy Fragonard paints his airy masterpiece. above all in France. 12 in (30. whether antique or religious. As a reflection of a supremely cultivated society. Draperies flow. but Tiepolo successfully linked the two.

It was an art that was self-consciously pleasing. the Rococo was being criticized for these apparent frivolities. As early as the Putti underline classical origins of this scene as well as its essential unreality mid-18th century. classical myths made most sense when transformed into scenes of ravished innocents. Precise painting of an apparently naturalistic setting highlights new interest in landscape Soft background lighting focuses attention on the principal figures in this tableau Bacchus and Erigone François Boucher 1745. London: Wallace Collection. 1700 –1780 WHAT TO LOOK FOR Boucher epitomized the gorgeous colors. what was left of Rococo sentiment had been obliterated. To seduce Erigone. Seduction. here aided by the (fatal) promise of wine. reflecting the privileged aristocratic world that brought it into being. oil on canvas.C . 39 x 53 in (99 x 134. Erigone swoons as her arm touches the fruit Flesh tones are precisely and lovingly rendered. sensually curved and exposed. Bacchus transformed himself into a bunch of grapes.5 cm). Yet at its best it encapsulated much more than aristocratic frippery. TECHNIQUES Darkened leaves are lit so that they appear iridescent at the edges from the light of the shaded sun. elegant legs. 1700–1800 227 c. Similar light plays seductively on the girls’ exposed breasts. and technical sophistication of the Rococo. exemplified in Erigone’s delicate. For Boucher. is a recurring theme. by the French Revolution in 1789. . highly finished surfaces.

but confident style suits his subjects. or have no clothes at all. from mythology. his seductive pinkand-green palette and soft. foliage. virtuoso.000 in 1999. oil on canvas. sensuous fingers. The Swing (Les hasards heureux de l’escarpolette) Jean-Honoré Fragonard. dappled light prefigure Renoir. nervous. chalks 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. landscape backgrounds. London: Wallace Collection 3 $7. London: Wallace Collection. Note the lap dogs and fleshy statues ready to join the fun. His exciting. 32 x 25 1⁄2 in (81 x 65 cm). sidelong glances. Died in poverty after the French Revolution. Le Verrou (The Bolt) (oils) Precocious. The trees were inspired by Tivoli Gardens. Rome.228 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Jean-Honoré Fragonard b 1732 – 1806 n FRENCH 5 Paris. and titillating private paintings. Even his drapery. France 1 oils. successful—much favored by the ancien régime for his easy-to-enjoy. He likes pink cheeks and heaving bosoms. 1767. Paints hands with long. and clouds froth with equal erotic intensity. Rejected the trappings of official art. . The participants in his pictures of love and seduction may be in contemporary dress. and futile resistance. passionate embraces. Look for occasional early works in a “correct” official style—which he soon rejected.776.

c. c. 1705–08. Paris. Venice: QueriniStampalia Galleria 3 $622. KEY WORKS The Grand Turk giving a Concert to his Mistress. His nephew. Ricci was widely traveled and was employed in London and Venice to create stage sets. 1715 (Los Angeles: J. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait with a Portrait of her Sister. c. Indianapolis: Museum of Art. drawing 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection. 1788 (St. and attractive people. and mythological pieces. 1727 (London: Wallace Collection). Vienna.800 in 1991. but is now. Landscape with Ruins. 1725 (Los Angeles: J. Vienna 1 pastels 2 Dresden: Gemäldegalerie. Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $250.8 cm). She was much sought after by the rich and fashion-conscious as she took her artistic skills around the capital cities of Europe. not quality. boudoir scenes. oil on canvas. England 1 oils 2 Windsor Castle (England): Royal Collection. England 1 oils. . 1730 (Art Institute of Chicago) Marco Ricci b 1676 – 1729 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Carle van Loo b 1705 – 65 n FRENCH 5 Rome. huge altarpieces. 1709 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi). The Last Communion of St. 17 1⁄2 x 12 1⁄2 in (44. which cleverly combine delicacy and graciousness with spontaneity.C .5 x 31.000 in 1998. 1730 (London: National Gallery) Known for her highly successful portraits in pastels. She inspired Maurice-Quentin de La Tour to use pastel. Washington. plus a judicious realism that neatly negotiates the fine divide between honesty and flattery. 1729 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Ships in a Gale Marco Ricci. An engaging eyeful of easy compositions. 1765 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). in 1745 she went blind. rightly. DC: National Gallery of Art). is now rated as highly. fresh color. pastel on paper mounted on canvas. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $478. 1741.5 cm). Worked in the Venetian tradition. Detroit Institute of Arts. Paul Getty Museum) Sebastiano Ricci b 1659 – 1734 n ITALIAN Rosalba Giovanna Carriera b 1675 – 1758 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. Most successful member of a family that dominated French painting in the mid-18th century. 1700 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum). light-filled fantasy or semitopographical landscapes. 1700–1800 229 KEY WORKS Bathers. c. c. Royal portraits. Female Personification of Summer (works on paper) Decorative painting at its best. No pretentious intellectualizing or moralizing.500 in 2001. Young Lady with a Parrot. An Opera Rehearsal (oils) Nephew of Sebastiano. Venus Requesting Vulcan to Make Arms for Aeneas (oils) Also known as Charles-André van Loo.000 in 2000. forgotten—his success due to quantity. 36 1⁄5 x 49 in (92 x 124. One of the last works the artist produced. 1776 (Washington. KEY WORKS Fishing Boats. KEY WORKS The Rape of the Sabine Women. Paul Getty Museum). Developed his own line of fresh. London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $105. Young Girl Reading. Worked in England 1708–16 and collaborated with his uncle on religious Caterina Sagredo Barbarigo as “Bernice” Rosalba Giovanna Carriera. The Stolen Kiss. Esther before Ahasuerus c. frothy. Mary in Egypt (oils) 5 Venice. Aeneas Carrying Anchises. Louis Michel (1707–71). c. Standard mythological and religious paintings.

which is more a mishmash of earlier Venetian artists and borrowings from Tiepolo than truly original. giving life and crispness. 32 1⁄3 x 16 1⁄2 in (82 x 42 cm). KEY WORKS Rebecca at the Well. He has a confident. They constitute one of the greatest artistic experiences of all time.230 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Giovanni Battista Pittoni b 1687 – 1767 n ITALIAN Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini b 1675 – 1741 n ITALIAN 5 Venice Accademia 1 oils 2 Venice: Gallerie dell’ 3 $443. Madrid 1 oils. where walls and ceilings seemingly disappear to reveal a celestial. and mythological subjects— was much sought after in his lifetime. Venus. c. which weave under and over color. which were influential in creating a fashion and demand for this type of work. richly colored. quick. Paris. historical. especially in England. 1725 (York: City Art Gallery).000 in 1998. Peter Giovanni Battista Pittoni. happily married to Francesco Guardi’s sister. Netherlands. Had a flashy. .000 in 2002. Large-scale schemes were the result of teamwork (the painting of the architectural settings being especially crucial). Omphale (oils) 5 Venice. oil on canvas. delicate technique with flickering dark outlines. resolute technique and uses luminous colors. Madrid: Royal Palace 3 $2. airy. watched by cherubs. and historical and allegorical figures in an epic fantasy world. Was successful. KEY WORKS St. Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $489. doe-eyed females. Würzburg. demonstrating that commercial and critical success is sometimes (often?) achieved by showing off. England. frescoes 2 Würzburg: Residenz. The preliminary sketches show a deft. saints. His work—religious. 1708–13 (London: National Gallery). and Faun (oils) Poor man’s Tiepolo. His great decorative schemes in situ (Venice. Easy-going. An Allegorical Monument to Sir Isaac Newton. The Delivery of the Keys to St. decorative compositions on a large scale (very much the Venetian tradition. but brought up to date). both at home and abroad. c. rather than through talent. England) Venetian painter. loosely painted style. 1710–67.005 in 1990. and astonishingly gifted. Prosdocimus Baptizing Daniel. The Marriage of the Elector Palatine. Bright. luminous. Christ entrusts the keys of heaven to the disciple Peter. Lamentation (oils) Full name Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Vienna. Observe his brilliant storytelling and perspectival illusion. illusionistic. 1720–21 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Giambattista Tiepolo b 1696 – 1770 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. sought after. Cupid. 1713–14 (London: National Gallery). Last of the great Venetian decorators in the Renaissance tradition. Bacchus and Ariadne. appealing. 1727–29 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Well-traveled (Germany. the Veneto.128. Madrid) are a truly miraculous combination of fresco and architecture on a vast scale. shimmering vision of happily radiant gods. and rich. but his work is now out of fashion and very underrated. Würzburg (Germany). Paris: Musée du Louvre. He loves rich textures.

1751. 1758 (Venice. 1760 (London: National Gallery). 1720–70.C . muscular men. Queen Zenobia Addressing her Soldiers c. Ridotto in Venice (oils) Abraham and the Three Angels Giambattista Tiepolo. preferring scenes of everyday life and witty anecdote. representing the Trinity. Venice: Scuola Grande di San Rocco. one of whom brandishes its sawn-off horn. JANSON Giandomenico Tiepolo b 1727 – 1804 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. oil on canvas. 1750s (Madrid: Museo del Prado). stage of illusionistic ceiling decoration is represented by its greatest master. c. Allegory of the Marriage of Rezzonico to Savorgnan.” H. 1752–53 (London: National Gallery). 1774 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts) “… the last.000 in 2005. 1752 (St. DC: National Gallery of Art). The Olympus. Apollo in his Sun Chariot (see pages 232–233). c. 1730 (Washington. Venetian goings-on from aristocracy to lowlife. . W. Skilled draftsman and printmaker. 1700–1800 231 flourished in his own right (but without his father’s celestial inspiration and vision). and most refined. c. with whom he worked on major projects and whose style he successfully imitated. dispassionate observation. The Bible tells how the prophet Abraham offered a meal to three angels. frescoes 2 Vincenza: Villa Valmarana 3 $874. theatrical gestures—but always avoids cliché and frivolity. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). The rhino is exhibited for the amusement of revelers. Horseman with Punchinellos. oil on canvas. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Pietro Longhi b 1702 – 85 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. He Exhibition of a Rhinoceros at Venice Pietro Longhi. Ca’ Rezzonico: Museo del Settecento) KEY WORKS Italian counterpart to Lancret and Hogarth (see pages 224 and 238) in that he successfully caught the 18thcentury taste for small-scale scenes of everyday life—in his case. The Display of the Elephant. They still sparkle with spontaneity and sharp. KEY WORKS The Marriage of Frederick Barbarossa. chalks 2 Venice: Querini-Stampalia Galleria 3 $775. KEY WORKS Theatrical Scene. second half of 18th century (St.500 in 1995. c. The Building of the Trojan Horse. The Tiepolo Family (oils) Son of Giambattista. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. c. London: National Gallery. 23 2⁄3 x 18 1⁄2 in (60 x 47 cm).

increasing the sense of heroic expansiveness Two other. astonishing fluency. painted world. they allowed him to create works that extend the real space of these vast settings into his imaginary. he displays a bravura disregard for historical accuracy. of the worldly Prince-Bishop of Würzburg.07 m) Location Würzburg Palace: Imperial Hall . no less magnificent. Tiepolo. The French court at Versailles was emulated by rulers in many parts of Europe. Among his most startling works are those at the Residenz. But as important. Apollo. and from a steeply angled perspective.97 x 14. That at Würzburg in Bavaria was unusual only in attracting arguably the greatest Rococo architect. Apollo Bringing the Bride Medium ceiling fresco Dimensions 22 8⁄9 x 46 1⁄6 ft (6. famed for his seemingly ceaseless invention.232 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Apollo Bringing the Bride Giambattista Tiepolo 1750 –51 Tiepolo was the most celebrated fresco painter of the 18th century. frescoes by Tiepolo complete the decorative cycle of the Imperial Hall Though only a fragment of a building is shown. Typically. Appearing luminescent in her majestic matrimonial splendor. or palace. The settings of Tiepolo’s frescoes were always crucial. Balthasar Neumann. He may have relished his mastery of illusionistic techniques for its own sake. and its most accomplished frescoist. who escorts her in his chariot to her wedding. and ability to tackle huge decorative schemes in record time. they created an astonishingly sumptuous decorative program. large ares of cloud-flecked sky are left blank. she is dressed as though in a painting by Veronese. Twelfth-century Germany—scene of the Burgundian princess Beatrice’s arrival for her marriage to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa—is transmuted into a sky-borne 16th-century Venice. the 16th-century Venetian painter. it implies a strongly imagined architectural setting The merging of painting and setting makes the fresco seem as if it is an extension of the elaborate space Beatrice is accompanied by the Sun God. With exceptional daring. Together. as well. who exercised a profound influence on Tiepolo.

apparently able to tackle any subject in the absolute certainty that it can be invested with his unique brand of epically elegant heroism. paint has to be applied at speed. Because the plaster dries rapidly. flickering style he excelled at. This demands an exceptionally sure touch. .C . Allegorical figures usher Apollo and Beatrice toward the princess’s future husband Tiepolo suspends reality to create a convincing parallel world Clouds and figures spill over the frame of the fresco into the real space of the room Tiepolo revels in his mastery of extreme foreshortening and the drama and excitement it projects. encouraging the deft.” COUNT CARL GUSTAV TESSIN Pale. 1700–1800 233 “He paints a picture in less time than it takes another to grind his colors. limpid colors add luminosity and underline the airy magnificence of the sky TECHNIQUES Fresco was well suited to Tiepolo’s style. These magnificent horses testify to his virtuosity.

contemporary of Canaletto. oil on canvas. Worked in Rome. 1730 (London: National Gallery). An elegant portrait painted in Rome by the Italian artist Batoni was the typical Grand Tour souvenir-cum-status symbol. Roman Ruins with a Prophet. and was much admired by the French. ancient ruins. especially for young English gentlemen. Panini trained in architectural drawing. KEY WORKS Roman Ruins with Figures. c. Peter’s. who anticipated Neoclassical taste. The Sermon of St. Had a good line in picturesque. who would return home with quantities of works of art with which they filled their country homes.843.1 x 27. It was very much the done thing in the early 18th and 19th centuries. Born in Piacenza and trained in the school of stage designers in Bologna. 96 3⁄4 x 70 4⁄5 in (38. Rome 1 oils 3 $3. His drawings were much sought after in his day.9 cm). Rome (oils) Ruins with Figures Giovanni Paolo Panini. Paul Amid the Ruins. Interior of St. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Wilton (UK): Wilton House. 1744 (St.000 in 2004. Highly successful view painter. 1751 (Vienna: Liechtenstein Museum) THE GRAND TOUR 18th century Once-in-a-lifetime tour around Europe to see the major sights and works of art. . and to experience life and broaden horizons. He was married to a Frenchwoman. Also known as Pannini. 1691 – 1765 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna. and views and events in modern Rome.234 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Giovanni Paolo Panini b C.

His early views of Venice (during the 1720s and 1730s) are the best. Paul’s Cathedral. . St. London. London: National Gallery. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie 3 $16m in 1992.C . drawings. London 1 oils. architectural details and opens up a scene by using several different viewpoints in one work. 48 x 72 in (122 x 183 cm). England: Royal Collection). A View of the Ducal Palace in Venice. but cunning fictions. London: National Gallery. Stunning use of perspective and composition (he may have used a camera obscura). accurate. He was much loved and collected by English Grand Tourists. anecdotal (figure) details and firsthand observation. Every year on Ascension Day the Doge of Venice went to the Lido to perform a ceremony whereby Venice was “married” to the Adriatic Sea. Rome: The Arch of Constantine. pre-1755 (Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi) The Basin of San Marco on Ascension Day Giovanni Antonio Canaletto. The Old Horse Guards. and also painted views of England. London. The Doge’s golden barge is moored ready. Views are not of reality. unexpected fall of light on a wall. Instantly recognizable. being surprisingly subtle and poetic (later works tend to become mechanical and dull). 1754 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). 1700–1800 235 Giovanni Antonio Canaletto b 1697 – 1768 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. See the way he enlivens perspective with crisp. but also the pageantry and history of a once-great empire in its dying years. Shows clever use of light and shade: judicious balance of both with razor-sharp shadows and an exciting. 1742 (Windsor Castle. KEY WORKS The Stonemason’s Yard. James’s Park. fluent drawings and sketches. oil on canvas. engravings 2 Royal Collection. from St. sense of something (unseen) happening around the corner. Also produced exciting. 1740. original. c. One of the few painters who has been able to capture not just the light and feel of Venice. 1726–30 (London: National Gallery). Delightful. with Figures Parading (oils) The most famous Venetian view painter of the 18th century.

drawings 3 $13. 1760–65 (London: National Gallery). 28 1⁄3 x 20 1⁄2 in (72 x 52 cm). View of the Giudecca and the Zattere. busy. misty. St. Bellotto’s views of Warsaw were used in the reconstruction of the city after 1945. Venice (oils) Prolific Venetian view painter and best-known member of a family of painters. 1730s (Washington. The cool. but his paintings sold for half the price of Canaletto’s. Guardi liked capricci—fantasy townscapes with real and imaginary buildings. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). and hazy. View of the Venetian Lagoon with the Tower of Malghera. Warsaw 1 oils 2 Dresden: Gemäldegalerie. Dresden. Bernardo Bellotto b 1720 – 80 n ITALIAN 5 Venice. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. Warsaw: National Museum. c. Guardi was widely collected in the 18th century. His charming Venetian scenes capture the spirit of the city more by atmosphere and mood than by topographical accuracy. c. 1775. A Seaport and Classical Ruins in Italy. sharp. Mark’s Square. Note the inaccurate perspective and seeming indifference when people or buildings get out of scale. Venice: The Grand Canal with the Riva del Vin and Rialto Bridge. His coloring is generally more somber than his uncle’s. oil on canvas.236 Francesco Guardi b 1712 – 93 n ITALIAN 5 Venice 1 oils. 1770s (London: National Gallery) KEY WORKS Landscape with Ruins Francesco Guardi. commissioned by the old-fashioned. and bigger-scale style of Canaletto (their works are usually hung together).000 in 1991. loose. small-scale style is in complete contrast to the intense. A nephew of Canaletto.218 in 1989. He painted views of northern European towns. oil on canvas. Fortress of Königstein (oils) View of Warsaw from the Royal Castle Bernardo Bellotto. c. 1772. aristocratic patrons who ruled them and . flickering style of painting. suppression of detail. cool colors and somber palette. Bellotto left Italy in 1747 because of family problems.943.642. never to return. from whom he learned his craft. 1770s (London: National Gallery). 1765 (London: Wallace Collection). An Architectural Caprice. Warsaw: National Museum 3 $5. relaxed.

silvery palette (he painted on darkly primed canvases). Established a formula that favored stock poses with stylish clothes. the Frauenkirche and the Rampische Gasse. KEY WORKS Christ in Glory with Four Saints. His impressive.3 x 89. 1700–1800 237 who employed him on a salary as court painter (Dresden. 1746 (London: National Gallery) Francesco Zuccarelli b 1702 – 88 n ITALIAN 5 Rome. 41 1⁄2 x 35 1⁄3 in (105. Zuccarelli’s work was usually made to become part of a decorative room setting. but a better response to trees and vegetation. careful attention to detail (lace. Time Orders Old Age to Destroy Beauty.C . Landscape with the Education of Bacchus. and dogs at the feet—or both.800 in 1993. KEY WORKS Landscape with a Woman Leading a Cow. c. 1750 (Los Angeles: J. Warsaw). Paul Getty Museum) Pompeo Girolamo Batoni b 1708 – 87 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 oils 3 $625. with beautiful results. The Neustadter Market in Dresden. easily painted pastoral landscapes and cityscapes. Vienna. Paul Getty Museum). blue-green. Architectural Capriccio. 1765 (San Diego Museum of Art) An Italianate River Landscape Francesco Zuccarelli. 1740s (St. His anecdotal detail is good . 1744 (Los Angeles: J. Wooded Landscape with Washerwomen by River (oils) A Florentine painter of Venetian-style high quality. Portrait of Sir Charles Watson (oils) He was a highly successful portrait painter. 1736–38 (Los Angeles: J. he is now virtually forgotten. but the figurepainting is more crude than Canaletto’s. large-scale works are distinguishable from Canaletto’s by their different subject matter and cooler. ruins in the background. especially of English visitors to Italy on the Grand Tour. Glasgow Art Gallery 3 $313. Zuccarelli produced sugary. stitches in clothing). Less imaginative use of space (used only a standard singleviewpoint perspective). Polished and finely painted work. softly colored. KEY WORKS Dresden.500 in 1997. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1750 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie). about in the same breath as Canaletto.8 cm). He knew exactly what his snobby clientele wanted and provided them with it. England 1 oils 2 Royal Collection. Rococo style and made him a founding member of the Royal Academy). Once spoken . Landscape with Shepherds. 1749–53 (Dresden: Gemäldegalerie). Venice. Was much admired by collectors of his day (especially the English. oil on canvas. who favored his soft. London: Christie's Images. Paul Getty Museum).

1742 (London: National Gallery). producing confident drawing and color-rich textures. Sir John Soane’s Museum 3 $602. In neither does he idealize nor criticize. Talented both as a painter and printmaker. The Lady’s Death William Hogarth. he laid the foundations that led to Reynolds and the Royal Academy. Brilliant as a storyteller. with a tough childhood. Self-Portrait William Hogarth.250 in 1991. moral subjects—slices of contemporary life.” He was a quirky. Painted attractive. The Rake’s Progress and Marriage à la Mode). The Shrimp Girl. but we are left to draw our own moral conclusions. anecdotal details and “warts and all” realism. The Edwards Hamilton family on Terrace in Kensington (oils) Hogarth is considered the “father of English painting. 1743. which were often developed as a series (for instance. Hogarth is best known for his portraits (individual and group) and modern. The Graham Children. argumentative antiforeigner. London: National Gallery. open faces in portraits and was especially good at representing children. KEY WORKS The Strode Family. he shows people and their behavior for what they are. Also a very fine handler of paint.238 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M William Hogarth b 1697 – 1764 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. 27 1⁄2 x 35 3⁄5 in (70 x 91 cm). Tate Collection. Hogarth helped to establish the first permanent public display of English art at the Foundling Hospital in central London. oil on canvas. engraving. engravings 2 London: National Gallery. c. Marriage à la Mode: VI. The final grimly comic scene in a story of a disastrous fashionable marriage. Private Collection. Showed engaging. c. 1745 (London: National Gallery) . 1738 (London: Tate Collection).

and his official full-length portraits are rather wooden. 1753–54 (Greenwich. His early work is often very labored and derivative. Robert Dashwood of Stanford Hall. In 1781 he went to Flanders and Holland. especially of women. Portrait of a Lady. His principal achievement is the brilliant way he used allusion and cross-references to enhance the dignity of his sitters and turn portraiture into a type of history painting. and afterward one can see the influence of Rubens and Rembrandt on his work. 1742–43 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). 1740 (London: National Portrait Gallery). c. and delicacy. and architecture.” 22nd Chief of Macleod. and the first President of the Royal Academy. in spite of repetitive and unimaginative poses. Devon. Lancashire 1 oils 3 $478.348. KEY WORKS Jacob Bacon and His Family. Portrait of Mr.C . At his best with small and intimate three-quarter-length portraits. 1764. from the 1760s onward. A discriminating collector of old-master prints and drawings. neatly dressed and arranged in their houses and parks. Tate Collection 3 $13. the careful painting of objects. The pose mimics an Antique statue of Mercury. London: National Maritime Museum). the beautiful use of light. Commodore Keppel. Was especially good with children. Portrait of Omai. Miss Janet Shairp. . drawings 3 $760. charm. where even the color of the iris is noted exactly. His intensity of observation is worthy of the best still-life painters: note the detail on costumes. and Mrs. The turn of the head on the body gives life to the figures. 1750–51 (London: Tate Collection) 5 London. antique statues. c. KEY WORKS Richard Mead. these have a lovely softness. is better. Portrait of Sir Edward and Lady Turner seated holding Lace and Basket (oils) Sir Joshua Reynolds b 1723 – 92 n BRITISH 5 London. Italy 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. Raised the status of portraiture. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait Shading the Eyes. His sitters are often in the poses of well-known examples of Greek and Roman sculpture or the Madonna and Child. the eyes. and the social standing of artists in Britain. c. Bradford (UK): Art Galleries and Museums. He made inventive use of hands and gesture to bring life and character to his figures. Lady Caroline Howard. Had poor technique—his pictures are often in bad condition because of his use of inferior materials such as bitumen and carmine. Nottinghamshire (oils) Small-scale family conversation pieces with doll-like figures (he used dolls as models). Successful with the newly emerging middle classes. the arts generally. DC: National Gallery of Art) Master Thomas Lister (The Brown Boy) Sir Joshua Reynolds. Gives us a charming and authoritative insight into 18th-century society. with lots of references to classical mythology. Wearing Robes and a Headdress (oils) Interesting and successful Scottish portrait painter who worked mainly in London. 91 x 55 in (231 x 139 cm). His later work. 1747 (London: National Portrait Gallery). but terrible as a “history” painter.000 in 2000. Italy 1 oils. Norman “The Red Man.000 in 1993.800 in 1989. 1700–1800 239 Arthur Devis b 1711 – 87 n BRITISH Allan Ramsay b 1713 – 84 n BRITISH 5 London. Standing in a Landscape. 1750 (Aberdeen: Art Gallery and Museums) Best known for his portraits. 1778 (Washington. UK: Dunvegan Castle). from 1739. oil on canvas. 1747 (Isle of Skye. Well connected.

Gainsborough’s sensibility and instinct. c. Paul Getty Museum). light-hearted seriousness. There are parallels with early Mozart (1756–91): interweaving of structure and texture. freely.5 x 105 cm). free chalk drawings. KEY WORKS “The Blue Boy. sympathetic observation and response to character in a face (especially that of a pretty woman). Andrews Thomas Gainsborough. or rouge on a matron’s face. c. Born in Sudbury. enabling him to capture the shimmer of silks and satins. Richard Brinsley Sheridan. 28 x 47 in (71 x120 cm). Suffolk. 1777 (Los Angeles: J. His landscapes are imaginary. and Mrs.240 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Thomas Gainsborough b 1727 – 88 n BRITISH Mr. His portraits after 1760 are of natural.504. the natural blush on a girl’s cheek. Also prints. Fashionable and successful. Wonderful paint handling. 1759. No fan of literature. oil on canvas. c. and his imaginative. Countess of Chesterfield. Ipswich. 7 and 11. whose topography is precisely recorded. His early works lack the easy relaxation of the later works. Observed with love. used very thinly. and sketchily. Bath 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. he went to London in 1740 and studied engraving before setting up as a portrait painter in 1752. London: National Gallery. his only great interest outside of painting was music. the rustle of breeze-touched foliage. c. London: National Gallery. his heart was more in landscapes (difficult to sell). Portrait of Anne. oil on canvas. Mrs. . physical pleasure in being alive. Victoria & Albert Museum. 44 2⁄3 x 41 in (113. experimental craftsmanship were the antithesis to Reynolds’s intellectualism and bad technique. 1749. 5 London. DC: National Gallery of Art) The Painter’s Daughters Chasing a Butterfly Thomas Gainsborough.000 in 2002. An amorous man. lyrical. Portrait of Colonel John Bullock (oils) Best known for his portraits (which he could sell). The newly married couple sit in their estate. poetic—a conscious escape from a hard day’s labor. they are charming but the portrait figures look like dolls and the landscapes concentrate on detail rather than atmosphere. Kenwood House 3 $3. Lovely.” c. untheatrical poses—gorgeous best clothes and hats. 1785 (Washington. 1770 (San Marino: Huntingdon Art Collections).

and literary activities. informal group portraits are his best The Drummond Family Johann Zoffany.C . better. Hygieia (oils) works—they capture the ease and prosperous confidence of Georgian upper-class society. painter. KEY WORKS Dawkins and Wood Discovering the Ruins of Palmyra. archeological. 1700–1800 241 Gavin Hamilton b 1723 – 98 n BRITISH 5 Rome 1 oils 3 $35. 1769. Portrait of Samuel Johnson. 1778–80 (London: National Portrait Gallery) Johann Zoffany b C. 1734 – 1810 n GERMAN/BRITISH 5 Rome. c.000 in 2001. 1772 (Royal Collection). and made a fortune painting native princes and British colonialists. picture dealer. 1765–72 (London: Tate Collection) James Barry b 1741 – 1806 n BRITISH 5 London. UK: Towneley Hall Art Gallery) Scottish-born. archeologist. London. India 1 oils 3 $4. Charles Townley’s Library at 7 Park Street. Zoffany’s portraits were popular with George III and Queen Charlotte. 1763 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). 1758 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). A pioneer of the international. Dutton Family in the Drawing Room of Sherborne Park. but outpaced by other. resident in Rome.000 in 1990. c. Achilles Lamenting the Death of Patroclus. KEY WORKS The Academicians of the Royal Academy. 1781–83 (Burnley. Also painted portraits and conversation pieces endowed with an austere charm. and sporting. . Look for good anecdotal details such as costumes. KEY WORKS The Progress of Human Culture. 1772–77 (Royal Collection). New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus. Italy 1 oils 3 $18. 1777–83 (London: Royal Society of Arts). artistic. His delightful. Florence. and severely intellectual branch of Neoclassicism. who became his patrons. Westminster. Venus Anadyomene (oils) Highly gifted Irish-born history painter who became a professor at the Royal Academy. only to be expelled in 1799 after a series of quarrels. Aimed for the top: large-scale history painting on the scale of Raphael’s Vatican frescoes. painters. He lived in India from1783 to 1789.000 in 1993.480. Gloucestershire (oils) Also known as John Zoffany. oil on canvas. Germanborn painter who established his career in Rome and London from 1760. Was so paranoid and pretentious as a person that he ruined his opportunities and died lonely and unloved. The Tribuna of the Uffizi.

confident method is in harmony with the temperament he sees in (or imposed on?) his sitters. 1793 (Washington. c. Note single dab of bright highlight on noses. oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $49. Scott’s “Waverley” novels made him the most important and influential Scottish novelist. 1798 (Aberdeenshire: Fyvie Castle). for Adam houses. 1771–75 (Burnley. strong-jawed male figures. UK: Nostell Priory) KEY WORKS Sir Henry Raeburn b 1756 – 1823 n BRITISH 5 Edinburgh. but was very good with children. broadly brushed technique using square brushes straight onto coarse canvas. Portrait of Mrs. without underdrawing—he paints directly from life. London 1 oils 2 Devon (UK): Saltram Park 3 $747. Scott Moncrieff. He has a strong. 1795 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). Note the matinée-idol style of portraiture—heroic stances and soft focus with “alone but self-assured” poses. Friend of the Prince of Wales (later Prince Regent). KEY WORKS Miss Eleanor Urquhart. Look for long. Mrs. His no-nonsense. Portrait of Sir George Stewart Mackenzie. James Gregory. and decorations. Group of Connoisseurs. A few unsuccessful large-scale oils. Marley. c. aquiline noses with very noticeable nostrils and shadows under the nose. 1780 (Washington. in the style of Reynolds. 1775 (Yorkshire. oil on canvas. faraway look. who often look dull and plain. 1814 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland) Portrait of Sir Walter Scott Sir Henry Raeburn. .242 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Towneley Hall Art Gallery). Mrs. c. miniaturist. His best works have no alterations or reworkings—he becomes messy and clumsy when he is forced to make changes. No-nonsense character. Look for pink faces and rich colors. 7th Earl of Cork (oils) Best remembered as the most fashionable and outstanding miniaturist of the 18th century. looking vaguely disheveled and adopting the stern. often against dramatic skies and landscape backgrounds. DC: National Gallery of Art). history paintings. Group Portrait of the Children of Edmund Boyle.5 x 59 cm). Ariadne Abandoned by Theseus. Unknown Lady of the Sotheby or Isted Families. theatrical play of light over face and costume. just as happy playing golf or speculating on property (went bankrupt). inventive. with carefully observed tones and shadows. 1774 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). He was never at home with female sitters. Married Maria Hadfield (1759 –1838). c. confident. She was partial to sentimental figures with pink faces and cheeks. London 1 oils 3 $270. 29 3⁄4 x 23 1⁄5 in (75. Isabella McLeod. delicate portraits. 1770–75 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). He was the first Scottish painter to be knighted. William Glendonwyn. and illustrator. Self-Portrait Hesitating Between the Arts of Music and Painting. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. c. c.000 Portrait of Philip Tisdal with his Wife and Family (oils) Best known for work done during her stay in England (1765–80). a successful Irish/Italian painter. His work is at its best with handsome. 1795 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Angelica Kauffmann b 1741 – 1807 n SWISS 5 Rome. 1810. DC: Hillwood Museum and Gardens). when she was very successful with elegant. c. Private Collection. UK: Best-ever Scottish portrait painter. Figures are bathed in light and animated by brilliant.000 in 1995.500 in 1998. 7th Baronet (oils) Richard Cosway b 1742 – 1821 n BRITISH 5 England 1 watercolors. c.

1800.” Landscapes were rarely regarded as an end in themselves. SUBJECTS AND STYLE The White House. The intimate and the ordered were valued above the dramatic. At any rate. Turner greatly admired Girtin’s brilliant watercolor technique and later said “Had Tom Girtin lived. I would have starved. Chelsea Thomas Girtin. It is then no surprise that the majority of these works were small in scale. London from Greenwich Hill John Robert Cozens c. Private Collection. it developed into a rich celebration of a distinctively English approach to nature. 1791. in buildings as much as in landscaped parklands. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Precisely rendered and closely observed details contrast with flat. . pale skies. a distinctive tradition of landscape painting was emerging in England. in the 18th century. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. is seen as a complement to nature rather than an intrusion. In the hands of a series of exceptional painters. This is a landscape that is fundamentally benign and tranquil. a reflection of the similarly well-ordered English society that produced it. the prevailing mood was accordingly almost always contemplative and calm. partly a reflection of 18th-century English landscape gardening. watercolor on paper. Rather. watercolor and black ink. Cozens strongly influenced Girtin and Turner. in particular of its domestication in an England that was increasingly prosperous and selfconfident. the impact of man. 1700–1800 243 THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE TRADITION 18th century From as early as 1750. they were considered evidence of the divine harmony of nature.C . who made copies of his works. the subtle reordering of nature for aristocratic patrons in imitation of the classical landscapes of 17th-century painters like Claude Lorrain. Similarly.

Rome. c. Fascinated by systems. The White House at Chelsea.000 Cetera. KEY WORKS Satan Summoning his Legions. oil on canvas. Lindisfarne. prefiguring those of Turner. London: Tate Collection.800 in 1997. Lake Albano. His work shows great sensitivity to light. 1770 (Washington. He is especially known for successful set-piece works that are a synthesis of idealized classical formulae and actual places.900 in 1996. KEY WORKS Caernarvon Castle. UK: Lees Collection) Snowdon Richard Wilson. Luminous skies full of atmosphere. Watercolor landscapes and etchings. also a landscape painter. DC: National Gallery of Art). Mountain Landscape with a Hollow. direct topographical views and sketches. Nottingham: City Museums & Galleries. but it can become overfamiliar and repetitious. 1776 (London: Tate Collection). A Blot: Landscape Composition. c. drawings 3 $444. c.244 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Richard Wilson b C. 1783 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum). 1762 (Washington. which he transformed into visions of classical Arcadia. Well traveled (Alps. c. might develop (still worth trying.000 in 1990. idea. KEY WORKS Village Along a River Estuary in Devon. DC: National Gallery of Art) John Robert Cozens b 1752 – 97 n BRITISH 5 Italy. notably during and after his visit to Italy 1750–57. England 1 drawings 3 $631. Had a wonderful sense of color and of the noble grandeur of nature. Naples). Welsh Landscape with Cottages Near Lake (oils) The first major British landscape painter. oils 3 $468. 1800 (London: Tate Collection) . Wilson was especially attracted to the Welsh countryside. Two Great Temples at Paestum. which were influenced by Dutch masters. 1713 – 82 n BRITISH 5 Wales. Gulf of Salerno. 1783 (Oldham. 1760s. c. 1770–80 (London: Tate Collection). London. Painted brilliant watercolors that pushed the interpretation of landscape and watercolor technique through to new frontiers. in which he shows how a landscape can be a vehicle for emotion and mood when made with imagination and inventive techniques. he produced lovely. but educated in Rome. c. Italy 1 oils 2 Cardiff: National Museum of Wales. Born in Russia. such as a landscape. 1746 (London: Tate Collection). Paris 1 watercolors. and light. 1760 (Cardiff: National Museum of Wales). Italy (works on paper) Alexander’s melancholic son. 1798 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). After Rain (oils) English landscape draftsman. as the Surrealists realized). Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $286. space. Italy. DC: National Gallery of Art) Thomas Girtin b 1775 – 1802 n BRITISH 5 UK. but died of consumption aged 27. Jedburgh Abbey from the South-East (watercolors) Alexander Cozens b 1717 – 86 n RUSSIAN/BRITISH 5 Russia. 1797–98 (Washington. In 1793 he went insane. KEY WORKS The Valley of the Rhone. The Valley of the Dee. c. 1761 (London: National Gallery). c. Wonderful early watercolors. Switzerland 1 watercolors. Sepulchral Remains in the Campagna. and famous for his method of using accidental blots on a piece of paper as a visual inspiration out of which an Potentially a rival to Turner.

Paris c. Leicester: New Walk Museum. balanced compositions and was able to capture the cool light and well-ordered topography of England. Peter’s in the Distance. The Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen. 1770 (London: Tate Collection) traditions and the new realism and Romanticism of Turner and Constable. London. 1767 (London: Dulwich Picture Gallery). Italy 1 watercolors. 1777 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada). KEY WORKS The Pont Royal. Travellers Attacked by Banditti. UK: Boughton House). seascapes. Produced successful Grand Tour souvenir views. painting Grand Tour souvenir views. England 1 oils. topographical painter in watercolor and oils. Italy. c. Created satisfying.793 Scene de Patinage à Hyde Park (oils) Strasbourg painter and stage designer who settled in England in 1771 and produced stagey landscapes and seascapes. Important as a link between the old Arcadian classical landscape . France. 5 England. 1765–68 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). France. He also painted battle scenes and biblical subjects in an energetic style. 15 x 22 in (38 x 56 cm). river scenes. as well as the intense light and rougher topography of Italy.960 in 1989. Marlow traveled in France and Italy in 1765–66. oils.C . Much traveled in the UK. The artist loved drama and designed stage sets for Drury Lane Theatre. 1788 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum) Battle Between Richard I Lionheart (1157–99) and Saladin (1137–93) in Palestine Jacques Philippe de Loutherbourg. 1790. KEY WORKS Landscape with Cattle. 1767. View of the Tiber and the Ripetta with St. and portraits of country houses. A Post-House near Florence. One of the first to celebrate the delights of English native scenery. c. oil on canvas. 1700–1800 245 William Marlow b 1740 – 1813 n BRITISH The Pont du Gard. c. drawings 3 $264. 1768 (Northamptonshire. Distant View of Rome with Vatican and Castel Sant’Angelo (oils) Successful. Jacques Philippe de Loutherbourg b 1740 – 1812 n FRENCH/BRITISH 5 France. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $92. 1781 (London: Tate Collection). oil on canvas. London: Charles Young Fine Paintings. c. c. Nîmes William Marlow. A Midsummer’s Afternoon with a Methodist Preacher.

His paintings often have unusual light effects and offer fascinating insights into the Age of Reason and nascent Industrial Revolution. truth beauty. 1765 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) George Stubbs b 1724 – 1806 n BRITISH 5 Northern England. was a successful portrait painter and established the tradition of Scottish genre paintings with anecdotal illustrations of Scottish life and history. modest pictures. measured.611. c. racing. John Ashton. is one of the most remarkable published works of art and science. 1783 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). Successful. oil on canvas. KEY WORKS Mares and Foals.120 in 1992.” JOHN KEATS 5 Italy. c. KEY WORKS A Neapolitan Music Party. and early industrial forges. personal fascination with the anatomy and character of the horse touched something more widespread and profound: man’s relationship with nature (wholly dependent on the horse until the invention of mechanical power)—plus the mid-18th-century belief in rational investigation as a means of understanding the natural world and comprehending the qualities of beauty. Cheetah and Stag with Two Indians. The exquisite. Stunning draftsmanship. 1767 (Private Collection). but not his forte). His deep. That is all … ye need to know.000 in 1995. Thomas Coltman about to Set Out on a Ride (oils) Known as the “Wright of Derby. Mrs. occasionally great. 37 x 49 in (94 x 125 cm). loving observation David Allan b 1744 – 96 n BRITISH “Beauty is truth. c. Stubbs’s inspiration was not real life but an Antique sculpture he saw in Rome in 1754. truth beauty. Rome. 1770. 1773 (Private Collection) of space. Mares and Foals beneath Large Oak Trees. careful. Developed new and original subjects: night scenes. Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. Also painted scenes of rural life. c. c. The Connoisseurs. portraits.246 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Joseph Wright b 1734 – 97 n BRITISH 5 London. . His book. drawings 3 $109. and horsebreeding. but always a loner. Produced wonderful. gentle color has too often been tragically destroyed by insensitive cleaning and restoration. 1775 (Private Collection). 1762 (London: Tate Collection).000 in 1984.” His paintings are models of rational beauty: subtle. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump. he was deeply influenced by a visit to Rome.” Talented and versatile painter. 1764–68 (Private Collection). harmonious.625. Portrait of Three Boys Wearing Windsor Uniform (oils) The Scottish Hogarth. 1768 (London: National Gallery). 1769 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Horse (1766). Portrait of the Royal Tiger (oils) The greatest-ever painter of the horse. Anatomy of the A Horse Frightened by a Lion George Stubbs. anatomy. Italy 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. Edinburgh 1 oils. KEY WORKS Two Boys Fighting over a Bladder. Tate Collection. the 4th Duke of Atholl and His Family. half-concealed geometry of horizontal and vertical structures around which play curving cadences (like Mozart). Derby (England): Museum and Art Gallery 3 $1. London. which exemplify the saying “beauty is truth. John. Mr. Wanted to be remembered as a history painter (de rigueur at the time. and the unspoken relationship between animal and man. London 1 oils 3 $4. c. and Mrs. with powerful patrons. Derby. He painted goodish. but out of the mainstream. scientific experiments. hunting.

9 x 12 4⁄5 in (23 x 33 cm). . and a great eye for detail and character. L. Private Collection. 1785 (Los Angeles: J. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) of animals and their owners or keepers. KEY WORKS Box-Lobby Loungers. Expressed all his observations with admirable economy of line. 1800. 12 x 10 in (30. Paris (works on paper) A French Coffee House Thomas Rowlandson.5 cm). animals were not considered a serious art subject (and still aren’t. Two Leopards Playing in the Exeter Change Menagerie (oils) Swiss-born. 1790s. A truly great painter.800 Place des Victoires. c. Paris-trained (by J. oil on canvas. chronicler of 18th-century life and morals. England: Royal Collection) Jacques-Laurent Agasse b 1767 – 1849 n SWISS 5 Switzerland. Germany. The Nubian Giraffe. England 1 oils 2 Geneva: Musée d’Art et d’Histoire 3 $5. 1787 (St. Walked the tightrope between observation and caricature with skill. KEY WORKS Sleeping Fox.5 x 25. worked in England. The Dinner. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. David. eager enthusiasm for life.81m in 1988. pen and ink with watercolor on paper. He was known for his faithfully observed. even today). France. Paris. but had a small output and died poor and unknown. Had huge technical facility. and as a vet). meticulously executed paintings Miss Casenove on a Grey Hunter JacquesLaurent Agasse.C . prints 3 $91. Revolutionary France was a popular target for British caricaturists. Paul Getty Museum). The artist was much influenced by Stubbs in subject matter and technique. 1794 (Private Collection). 1700–1800 247 Thomas Rowlandson b 1756 – 1827 n BRITISH 5 England. Prolific draftsman and printmaker. 1827 (Windsor Castle. the Low Countries 1 drawings.

Highly dramatic interpretations of literature in which facial expression and intense. Impoverished. Italy 1 oils. pen. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection. The Good and Evil Angels Struggling for Possession of a Child (pen and watercolors) Genuine visionary Romantic—truly inspired and driven by inner voices and sights. Manchester: Whitworth Art Gallery. 1784 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). etching with watercolor. Was obsessed with women’s hair. Swiss-born eccentric. 1795 (London: Tate Collection). 39 3⁄4 x 50 in (101 x 127 cm).000 in 1998. Neglected in his lifetime. Blake’s imagery and symbolism are highly personal but at heart is the wish to express his dislike of all forms of oppression. 1795 (London: Tate Collection). 1799–1800 (Washington. especially from the Old Testament. Championed creativity over reason. which are similarly stylized. Polynices. love over repression. Fuseli produced wonderful drawings. 1824. Inspired by Michelangelo. Uses biblical sources. Satan Starting from the Touch of Ithuriel’s Lance (oils) Also known as Johann Heinrich Füssli. Henry Fuseli b 1741 – 1825 n SWISS/BRITISH 5 England. Blake’s God is an oppressive lawmaker imprisoning the imagination. Michigan: Detroit Institute of Arts. Believed in the liberating power of the human spirit. watercolors. . Look for idealized human figures with spiritual expressions. oil on canvas. Job and his Daughters. technique. difficult to understand. 1819–20 (London: Tate Collection) William Blake b 1757 – 1827 n BRITISH 5 London. The woman represents Fuseli’s lost love. He had an extraordinary originality in imagery. c. 9 x 6 2⁄3 in (23 x 17 cm). drawings 3 $1. and ink on paper. An artist who created mostly small(ish) works The Ancient of Days William Blake. DC: National Gallery of Art) on paper—watercolors and drawings—and a combination of these with print techniques (engraving). individuality over state conformity. 1781.248 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M The Nightmare Henry Fuseli. KEY WORKS Frontispiece to Visions of the Daughters of Albion. Newton. Sussex 1 engravings. KEY WORKS Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking. Ghost of a Flea. he also had a special line in female cruelty and bondaged males. and a fascination with fire and hair. Anna Landolt.162. overdeveloped body language is all. Oedipus Cursing His Son. A defective technique has ruined many of his oil paintings. DC: National Gallery of Art). and Milton. Shakespeare. British Museum 3 $3. 1786 (Washington. and symbolism.5m in 2004.

made all the more powerful by a brilliant technique and a mastery of perspective.000 in 1999. 1760. Vienna. 1750–58 (Washington.745 in 2003. In a way they do. 1771 (London: National Gallery). His religious paintings. Italy. He is proof that having all the right credentials—being well taught. Painted flesh and faces that look impossibly and perfectly healthy. rich bottle-green. 21 1⁄2 x 16 1⁄3 in (54. Settled in Rome in 1740. overwhelming Romantic grandeur. The Arched Evil. Used inventive imagery. His etching work was continued by his son. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). His portraits are now considered better than his history paintings. Graz. archeologist. and printmaker (etchings). Hamburg: Kunsthalle. Quiet Sleep. fresco 3 $275.C .” one of the founders of Neoclassicism and one of the foremost artists of his day. Noli me Tangere. which moved from archeological exactitude to dramatic. 1770–83 (Vienna: Österreichische Galerie) . Studies of Four Figures. KEY WORKS Parnassus (ceiling fresco).5 x 41. His compositions and poses are so carefully calculated as to be merely stagey: notice how in the portraits the head often turns in one direction while the hands and body turn in the other. Wrote an influential theoretical treatise. light. trained by his uncles.” a series of busts. The Gothic Arch. KEY WORKS Round Tower. Piranesi was also a successful restorer and dealer in Roman art and artifacts. He thought the work would help heal and protect him from evil spirits. and Titian (color). The Adoration of the Shepherds (oils) “The German Raphael. which are Surrealist before time. and made a reputation from popular prints of Ancient and modern Rome. The Immaculate Conception.5 cm). and Spain. 1700–1800 249 Giovanni Battista Piranesi b 1720 – 78 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 engravings 3 $310. in which he explored facial distortions and grimaces after he started to suffer from delusions and paranoia. but in spite of their competence they also end up looking lifeless and contrived. The Hanged. Rich Franz Xaver Messerschmidt b 1736 – 1783 n AUSTRIAN 5 Munich. and shade. The Lecher. 1770–79 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) 5 Dresden.Venetian-born. whose Baroque busts won early approval with the Austrian Court. The Well. Rome 1 oils. c. 1749 (Washington. and obeying all the currently correct aesthetic principles—does not lead to lasting fame. Anton Raphael Mengs b 1728 – 79 n GERMAN textures and colors (especially a velvety royal blue. with an active studio. and was a committed teacher. Note his paint surface that looks like polished lacquer. mythologies. etching. KEY WORKS Character Heads: The Gentle. Bratislava 1 sculpture 2 Vienna: Österreichische Galerie 3 $4. Famous for his “Character Heads. and portraits consciously aimed to contain the best of Raphael (expression). many self-portraits. Later he became deeply influenced by famous Roman Republican heads after a visit to Rome and his style became more Neoclassical. Correggio (grace). well thought of in official circles. 1761 (Rome: Villa Albani).000 in 2005. and dusky pinks). Francesco. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). His most original works are images of fantastic prisons (1745–61). Three Standing and One Seated Pointing to Left (works on paper) Architect. DC: National Gallery of Art) Carceri d’Invenzione (Prisons) Plate IV Giovanni Battista Piranesi. 1749 (St. Worked in Germany.300. Ill-humored Man (sculpture) Sculptor.

and thus truth. it generated huge. Color schemes are often somber. such as Kenwood House. poses invariably sternly heroic. On the whole. It was a self-conscious return to what were thought the absolute. KEY EVENTS 1738 1755 1775 1789 1806 1815 Excavations begin at Herculaneum. not surprisingly since the vast majority of Classical art was pagan. and at Pompeii in 1748 Publication of Winckelmann’s Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works of Art Jacques-Louis David visits Rome. Derbyshire. 1808. Greece and Republican (not Imperial) Rome furnished most subjects. Paint is applied with smoothly precise consistency. Following a visit to Rome in 1754. the Scot Robert Adam actively sought to emulate the grandeur of Ancient Roman. persuasively advocating the “noble simplicity and calm grandeur” of ancient art. who settled in Rome after 1779. building in a series of opulent and imposing English houses. is stormed Work begins on the Arc de Triomphe by sculptor Claude Michel Clodion Restoration of the French monarchy and final overthrow of Napoleon at Waterloo Kedleston Hall. Greek especially. Neoclassical works became measured. STYLE The German theorist and art historian. but its most brilliant exponent. was the most influential Neoclassical sculptor.250 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M NEOCLASSICISM Neoclassicism was a deliberate reaction against the decorative priorities of the Rococo. underlining the supposed moral worth and superiority. Canova. interior of the marble hall designed by Robert Adam. of ancient art. and Bowood House. Religious subjects always coexisted uneasily with Neoclassicism. showing alabaster columns and plasterwork by Joseph Rose. radically fused contemporary political concerns with a new artistic language. Light falls evenly. grave. symbol of the ancien régime. SUBJECTS Paulina Bonaparte Borghese as Venus Antonio Canova. . Typically. though with brilliant highlights. 1760. dreary paintings of “improving” history subjects. and selfconsciously noble. c. the painter David. remaining there until 1780 French Revolution begins. Hampstead. subjects from Classical literature and history were favored. The Bastille. draperies are simple and chaste. marble. Self-sacrifice and selfdenying heroism were recurring themes. Johann Winckelmann. severe standards of the ancient world. decisively influenced Neoclassicism. Rome: Galleria Borghese. To Greek purity he brought an exceptionally finished technique. Wiltshire. Overwhelmingly.

and impeccably composed. Camilla (left). Three brothers (the Horatii) swear allegiance to the Roman Republic. it is also a statement about The helmets. Sabina (right) is one of the Curatii. The picture became a rallying cry for the French Revolution. The shadow of death is cast by the men over the women and innocent children TECHNIQUES Despite its massive size. oil 130 x 167 in (330 x 425 cm) on canvas. a Horatii. . and togas are copied from known Roman examples moral and political ideals. and is a deliberate celebration of the art. swords. Each of the three Doric arches frames a group of figures. and stern moral values of Republican Rome. 1784. it had been commissioned by Louis XVI. the color of passion and revolution The Oath of the Horatii Jacques-Louis David. is betrothed to a Curatii. Authoritative. suggesting both their isolation and their ties to each other The dominant color of the male grouping is a vivid red. but married to one of the Horatii. Ironically. the Curatii. heroic. She will be killed by her brother for lamenting her lover’s death. life. 1700–1800 251 1770 –1830 WHAT TO LOOK FOR This landmark painting was the high point of Neoclassical painting. Paris: Musée du Louvre.C . They choose loyalty to the state over personal emotion. but are also bound by ties of love to an enemy family. The Oath of the Horatii is painted with the fine and polished technique usually found in a small Dutch still life.

Famously commissioned to sculpt George Washington. inflexible). Pupil of the Baroque sculptor Balthasar Permoser in Germany. height 55 1⁄2 in (133. Germany. Madame Denis.5 cm). Bust of Alexander Pope (marble) Born in France but worked mainly in England. Survived the French Revolution. 1738 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). Delicate. for which he visited North America. his works emulate the busts of Ancient Greece and Rome. the Huntress. KEY WORKS St. George Washington as the Modern Cincinnatus. 1789 (Toulouse: Musée des Augustins) Jacques-Louis David b 1748 – 1825 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Diana. North America 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. drawings. whimsical works. marble. The majority of his works are portrait busts. London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2. KEY WORKS Dedalus in the Labyrinth Attaching the Wings to Icarus. Influenced by the Baroque before becoming a Neoclassicist. This likeness of the writer was commissioned by Voltaire’s niece. KEY WORKS George Frederic Handel. His works are characterized by a vitality seldom seen in those of his contemporaries. softly Neoclassical in subject and setting.252 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Jean-Antoine Houdon b 1741 – 1828 n FRENCH Louis-François Roubiliac b 1702 – 62 n FRENCH 5 Paris. in his case) without establishing a significant place in either.000 in 1997.544 in 2004. Brussels 1 oils. Rome. chalks 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $5. 1777 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1788 (Richmond: Virginia State Capitol). Woman Leaving the Baths (oils) One of a happy band of competent artists who bridge the gap between styles (Rococo and Neoclassicism. Bust of Benjamin Franklin (marble) One of the most important French sculptors of the 18th century. Love Fleeing Slavery. 1754 (Paris: Musée du Louvre).65m in 1996.542. Sir Isaac Newton.53m in 1990. France 1 sculpture 2 Cambridge: Trinity College 3 $1. 1781. Rome. Morpheus. 1790 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) 5 England. Paris: Bibliothèque de la Comédie Française. Bruno 1767. (Rome: S. Maria degli Angeli). austere. where he became the greatest sculptor of his time. volatile character— an artistic Napoleon (dictatorial. but Rococo in mood and lack of seriousness. 1755 (Cambridge: Trinity College) Comte Joseph-Marie Vien b 1716 – 1809 n FRENCH 5 France. studied in Rome after receiving the Prix de Rome in 1761. as though his statues are simply pausing in the middle of an action. Famed in his lifetime throughout Europe and America. Made his name sculpting statues of famous men and ornate tombs. Deeply François-Marie Arouet Voltaire Jean-Antoine Houdon. Born and died in France. Portrait of Suzanne le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau (oils) Passionate. . Rome 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $450.

oil on canvas. Body language and facial expressions used as drama. 1784–85 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). His flesh is as smooth as porcelain. KEY WORKS The Oath of the Horatii. You have to experience the sheer physical size of the big set pieces firsthand. Founder of French Neoclassical painting. but was an arts administrator as well as a creative genius. 1800 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) . Stern moral and artistic rules: behind the theater and storytelling is the ideological commitment to art as a public and political statement in the service of the state. 1803. Died in exile in Brussels. Château de Versailles. Even shadows and light seem to have been disciplined and regimented. especially in hands. differing only in the coloring of the cape. The Death of Socrates. tassles. 1793 (Brussels: Musée d’Art Moderne). feet. armor. Observe his attention to detail. 1800 Jacques-Louis David. Love of antiquity and archeological accuracy (Roman noses everywhere). never a hair in sight. and stones. 105 x 87 4⁄5 in (267 x 223 cm). If you want authority in art—this is it. busybody eyes.C . Four separate versions exist. 1787 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Portraits of victors of the French Revolution have direct. Death of Marat. 1700–1800 253 involved in the politics of French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. Madame Récamier c. with Napoleon Crossing the Alps on May 20th. No place for ambiguity: what you see and feel are as precise and as clear as can be. He applies the precision of the painter of miniatures on a massive scale.

In 1797. In 1817. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $547. females especially. Venice: Museo Correr. i. 1824 appreciated in the round. Theseus Slaying a Centaur. Pauline Borghese as Venus (see page 250) The leading Neoclassical sculptor. After 1815. with side trip to London. Pauline Borghese.254 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Antonio Canova b 1757 – 1822 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. Combined astonishingly accomplished technique— best works are highly finished—with rare talent for human figure. in a variety of winningly graceful poses. visited Paris again overseeing return of looted Italian art. moved to Venice. so no longer dependent on architectural settings. Many group sculptures can only be “Canova … invented a new type of ideal beauty. The Penitent Magdalene. 1779 (Venice: Museo Correr).200 in 1995. Canova’s most famous work was of Napoleon’s sister. Canova was fascinated by hands and fingers. Enjoyed early success with monuments to popes Clement XIV (1782–87) and Clement XIII (1787–92). 1796 (Genoa: Palazzo Bianca). closer to our taste than that of the Greeks.. enjoyed huge fame across Europe and was widely credited with reviving “lost art” of sculpture and frequently compared with best of the ancients. marble. 1781– 83 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). Paris: Musée du Louvre. a grateful pope granted him title of Marchese (marquis) of Ischia. Highly significant that many later works were created for museums rather than patrons. Austria 1 sculpture 2 Possagno (Italy): Museo Canova. Born Treviso. 1796–97. where opened studio in 1774. Theseus and the Minotaur. from different viewpoints. underlining the changing status of the artist. France. certainly the most celebrated. Cupid and Psyche Antonio Canova. KEY WORKS Daedalus and Icarus. 1780s (Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum). Visited Rome and Naples in 1780 as his interest in Neoclassicism developed.” STENDHAL.e. height 59 in (150 cm). Bust of a Lady (marble) in 1808 (see page 250). the French invasion forced him into exile in Vienna. settled permanently in Rome in 1781. St. . but in 1802 he accepted commissions from Napoleon after visiting Paris.

instead of employing live models. Russia. Best at sentimental.255 The Storm Claude-Joseph Vernet. coastlines. 1797.2 x 70. and especially shipwrecks. A museum was built in his honor in Copenhagen (1839–48). Stationed mainly in Rome. Mythological Figures (sculpture) Thorvaldsen is Denmark’s most important Neoclassicist.5 cm).507. oil on canvas. KEY WORKS View of Naples. La Duchesse de Gramont-Caderousse en Vendangeuse (oils) Claude-Joseph Vernet b 1714 – 89 n FRENCH 5 Rome. 32 1⁄3 x 27 3⁄4 in (82. a pair) Established a successful formula for rather stagey. Left France in 1789 to tour Europe. 1770 – 1844 n DANISH 5 Rome. 1806 (Copenhagen: Thorvaldsens Museum) Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun b 1755 – 1842 n FRENCH 5 France. Hebe. Denmark 1 sculpture. Shipwreck in Stormy Seas (oils. France 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée de la Marine 3 $3. KEY WORKS The Triumph of Alexander the Great. lushly colored portraits of fashionable women (allegedly painted Marie Antoinette 25 times). Avignon: Musée Calvet. evocative views of Italianate landscapes. although his works lack the Italian’s sensitive surfaces. Landscape at Sunset with Fisherman Returning. 1756 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Madame Perregaux. 1759 (Bruges: Groeninge Museum) Successful portraitist in last years of the ancien régime. UK: Harris Museum and Art Gallery). Vernet married an Englishwoman. oils 2 Copenhagen: Thorvaldsens Museum. 1777. Ranked alongside Canova. oil on canvas. and many of his clients were British Grand Tourists. he preferred to work from copies Portrait of a Young Woman Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. England 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $735.250 in 2003. Artist. 1810s (Preston. . KEY WORKS Hubert Robert. much admired by 18th-century collectors. Shipwreck. The Town and Harbor of Toulon. 1748 (Paris: Musée du Louvre).347 in 1984. 1789 (London: Wallace Collection) Bertel Thorvaldsen b C. The artist organized famous parties at which guests wore Greek costumes. 1788 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). c. His major project (commissioned by Louis XV) was 16 views of major French seaports (1753–65). His career took off with the statue Jason with the Golden Fleece. Wrote a good autobiography.000 in 2003. member of the French Academy. Stockholm: National Museum 3 $331. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts.

Son of poor Irish immigrants. earnest. and shook up less progressive artists.000 in 2000. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. KEY WORKS Venus Lamenting the Death of Adonis. from others.256 F RO M RO C O C O TO N E O C L A S S I C I S M Benjamin West b 1738 – 1820 n AMERICAN 5 US. His art is secondhand—derived. late-18th century (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Art). he married well (the daughter of a rich Tory merchant). Portrait of Sir Joseph Banks (oils) Pennsylvania-born and the first American artist to achieve international recognition. Slow. . He had the enviable ability of anticipating the next fashion and was thus always successful and in the public eye. England 1 oils 2 Washington. The Burghers of Calais. He later anticipated Romanticism by introducing melodramatic subjects of death and destruction with powerful contrast of light and shade. 1775 (Washington. indecisive as a person but assured. 1789 (Windsor Castle. Washington. Colonel Guy Johnson. England: Royal Collection) John Singleton Copley b 1738 – 1815 n AMERICAN 5 US. London (after Joshua Reynolds). he cleverly adapted Neoclassicism by delivering the same heroic message using modern rather than ancient history—this was popular with the public and collectors. talented. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $260. From 1770 onward. England 1 oils 2 London: National Portrait Gallery. He was also a popular portraitist. Europe. timid. Italy. Self-taught. His work is an acquired taste for modern eyes. rather flat. if not exactly copied. c. Elizabeth Coffin Amory (oils) The greatest American painter of the colonial period. New YorK: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $2. and pioneering as a painter. Trained and based in Europe after 1760.6m in 1987. wooden style that caught the taste for the Neoclassical. he became the second President of the Royal Academy. DC: National Gallery of Art. His early large works often portray obscure literary subjects and have a stiff. Mrs. DC: National Gallery of Art). and was employed by George III (who lost the American colonies).

and frothy) after his visit to Italy. Painted almost every contemporary of note. 1759. Watson and the Shark. 1785 (Windsor Castle. the rest are replicas. Wolfe died at the moment of victory. light shining on a forehead. 1782 (Washington. Late. it turned to a Frenchman. melancholic decline as he went out of fashion and felt exiled (he never returned to the US). DC: Museum of Fine Art. c. Characteristic features and touches are a pinkish-green palette. but he achieved great success in London with huge-scale modern-history paintings (heroic actual events presented as though they were moral tales from Ancient History). It did his portraiture no good. As late as 1784. Was a heavy drinker. especially Washington. loyalist who left for England in 1778. 1788 (Washington. England: Royal Collection) THE RISE OF AN AMERICAN SCHOOL mid-18th century From the mid-18th century. which show his own and his sitters’ liking for empirical realism. The Death of General Wolfe Benjamin West. and rapid execution without preliminary drawing. c. failed businessman. a number of painters appeared in Colonial America. established himself as the leading portrait painter. when the State of Virginia commissioned a statue of George Washington. Pre-1774. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1768–70 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). Dublin 1 oils 2 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. George Washington and Martha Washington. pompous.000 in 1996. Washington.000 in 1986. Private Collection. Was also a highly successful portrait painter and America’s first virtuoso exponent of the grand manner. KEY WORKS Paul Revere. Portrait of John Jay (oils) Penniless. The best known. sober works. a white dot on the end of a shiny nose. fearful that he would be dubbed a pacifist and Tory hanger-on. disliking politics.2 x 61 cm). This may have been a measure of growing American prosperity but the colony’s cultural insecurity was underlined by the fact that they all trained in Europe. Precise (overhard?) line. 1787 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). 1776–77 (Washington. Jean-Antoine Houdon. falling under the influence of Neoclassicism. Noah Smith and her Children. Note how he adapted to the grandmanner style of portrait painting (more decorative. England 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $210.C . 1798 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Gilbert Stuart b 1755 – 1828 n AMERICAN 5 US. The Three Youngest Daughters of George III. 1771. 1778 (Washington. An episode from the conquest of Quebec. 1796 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Ralph Earl b 1751 – 1801 n AMERICAN 5 US. softly modeled and silhouetted against a plain background. severe light and dark contrasts. London. returning in 1785. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $900. dignified portrait images of independence and self-assurance. Decisive. often in debt. Benjamin West. Dr. only three were made from life. uneducated son of a Rhode Island tobacconist. Notable for portraits of Connecticut patrons— typically. 1700–1800 257 Had two separate and successful careers and styles. The Copley Family. In 1774 he left Boston. His sketches of the sites of the battles of Lexington and Concord were turned into popular prints. DC: National Gallery of Art). high-quality. KEY WORKS The Skater. settled permanently in England. in Boston. 17 x 24 in (43. bad-tempered. Portrait of John Phelps (oils) Prominent member of a family of craftsmen and artists. He learned his trade in Edinburgh (1772) and London (1775) as an assistant to Benjamin West. A distinctively American school did not emerge until the 19th century. Produced Romantic. David Rogers. DC: National Gallery of Art). clear detail and enumeration of material objects. Mrs. Bigamist. carouser. . oil on panel. KEY WORKS The Striker Sisters. DC: National Gallery of Art). Of his 114 portraits of Washington. a plain likeness in their own familiar setting. and addicted to snuff.


Popular nationalism also drove the unification of Italy (after 1859) and of Germany (after 1866). proved tenacious.c. Ingres embodies 19th-century taste for Classical academic style combined with exotic Orientalism. Only Britain. and Hungarians rose against their Austrian rulers. above all the multinational Austrian Empire. 1863. but ideas of liberty. NATIONALISM AND REVOLUTION THE NAPOLEONIC ERA In Europe the decisive event of the early part of the century was the resurgence of France under the galvanizing influence of Napoleon. France. R omanticism was embraced by those who wanted to redefine the place of art and humankind in a rapidly changing world. Radical new styles were invented that delighted some and caused deep offence to others. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. There was fierce reaction against self-rule by conservative regimes. western Europe. Portugal. which had already seen the abdication of . Some artists followed the market. Paris. In 1812. and Scandinavia remained free of French control. Musée du Louvre. 1800—1900 259 ROMANTIC AND ACADEMIC ART C. motivated by money. at the height of Napoleon’s success. These conflicting ideologies clashed in 1848 when Poles. oil on canvas. Academicism was supported by those who resisted change and wanted art to maintain the cultural and social status quo. Greece. What had begun in 1789 as a struggle for liberty evolved into a war of conquest. 1800 –1900 The art of the 19th century was complex and multifaceted. French rule extended across almost the whole of The Turkish Bath (detail). Napoleon’s defeat in 1815 restored Europe’s pre-revolutionary status quo. Czechs. These attitudes to the art of the era reflect the complex politics of the 19th century. Growing demands for self-rule by oppressed minorities saw Belgium. and Romania emerge as independent nations by the end of the century. Serbia. once planted. engulfing central and eastern Europe in revolution. Old styles were revived or combined in unexpected ways. others were prepared to starve for the purity of their art. diameter 78 in (198 cm).

The crushing defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71 provided the final impetus for the unification of Germany. EARLY DAGUERRE CAMERA FROM THE 1840S TIMELINE: 1800—1900 1825 First passenger steam train (Britain) 1812 Napoleon defeated in Russia 1839 Photographs by Louis Daguerre exhibited in Paris 1837 Accession of Queen Victoria (Britain) 1848 Nationalist uprisings in central Europe repressed. INDUSTRIALIZATION Britain became increasingly aloof from European affairs. 1808. forcing a second king to abdicate and the inauguration of a new republic. preoccupied with its vast empire and the consequences of industrialization. Gradually. US-based English photographer Eadweard Muybridge. 150 x 254 in (380 x 645 cm). however. using a battery of cameras with fast shutter-speed. it replaced drawing as the most immediate method of making a record of visual Germany’s southern states committed themselves to the powerful new Prussiandominated German Empire and. PHOTOGRAPHY Photography was first demonstrated to the wider world by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre in 1839. following the downfall of Napoleon III. oil on canvas. were changing MUYBRIDGE PHOTOGRAPHS OF A JUMPING HORSE appearance. The memory of Napoleon influenced French politics throughout the 19th century. Napoleon’s nephew. and then Europe after 1850. Château de Versailles. one king in 1830. First Britain. mimicking those painted for the wealthy at a fraction of the cost. began to make studies of horses and humans in motion. In its wake. Congress of Vienna restores prerevolutionary order 1820 1830 Abdication of Charles X in France and accession of more liberal regime under Louis-Philippe 1838 Invention of first electric telegraph (Britain) 1840 1852 Accession of Napoleon III . France established the Third Republic. this was replaced by the Second Empire under Napoleon III.260 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Napoleon Giving Orders before Austerlitz Antoine-Charles Horace Vernet. This allowed people to see for the first time the action of a galloping horse. In 1852. last French king deposed 1804 Napoleon declares himself emperor of France 1800 1805 SpanishFrench fleet defeated at Trafalgar 1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo. In the 1870s. was also swept by popular uprisings. In its early years it was used principally for studio portraits.

848 ft (563 m) long. The impact of these enormous changes was highly significant for continental European art especially in France. At the same time an important shift in attitude toward Europe’s overseas colonies took place. confident identity and continued to expand westward. Huge new industrial cities appeared. EUROPE AND THE WORLD The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park. the iron-and-glass structure was 1. Germany proved ever more effective rivals. After the trauma of the Civil War of 1861–65. with railroads. The Modern was being born. After about 1870 empire in itself came to be seen as desirable. abolition of serfdom in Russia 1863 Paris Salon rejects Manet’s Déjeuner sur l’Herbe. 1800—1900 261 rapidly from rural to urban societies amid great social upheaval. Industrial processes and goods were displayed from all around the world.C . Originally the goal had been trade rather than territory. 1861 Unification of Italy. the United States established a new. significantly. steam ships. adding new states to the Union. and the electric telegraph causing a revolution in communications. though less so for Britain and the United States. Europe’s states engaged in a frenzied race to take over as much of the globe as they could. Britain had set the pace but France. first Salon des Refusés held 1876 Bell patents telephone (Britain) 1885 Development of first automobile (Germany) 1860 1859 Publication of Origin of Species (Darwin) 1867 Dual monarchy of AustriaHungary established 1870–71 FrancoPrussian War and unification of Germany 1880 1884 Berlin Conference initiates “scramble” for Africa 1900 1895 Invention of wireless telegraphy (Marconi) . and. It too became a major industrial power. London Built for the Great Exhibition of 1851. From 1870 onward the principles that had governed the western tradition for over 400 years began to dissolve.

Full name Francisco di Goya y Lucientes. hope and despair. his overriding interest was appearance and behavior. engravings.02m in 1992. Became principal court painter in 1799. . Was then pardoned by reinstated Ferdinand VII. Went to Madrid in 1763. Painted The Disasters of War series 1810–14. especially Manet (see page 307). LIFE AND WORKS Royal factory. Goya became stone deaf aged 48. In Madrid by 1775 and in 1776 began drawing tapestry cartoons for the An admirer of the French Enlightenment. and was one of the greatest portrait painters of all time. Madrid: Museo del Prado. STYLE Born in Saragossa. drawings 2 Madrid: Museo del Prado. 37 1⁄3 x 78 4⁄5 in (95 x 190 cm). Goya painted a nude and a clothed Maja. He understood youth and age. 1800. He influenced several French 19th-century painters. and the worst aspects of man’s inhumanity to man. London: British Museum (prints) 3 $7. returned to work on the cathedral in Saragossa in 1772. which was also the year he completed his Los Caprichos series. Bullfight—Suerte de Varas (oils) A solitary and lonely figure. causing him to be denounced to the Inquisition for obscenity. Retired to Bordeaux in 1824. He produced a wide range of powerful work. oil on canvas.262 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Francisco Goya b 1746 – 1828 n SPANISH 5 Spain. he worked for the Frenchheld Spanish court until 1814. sweet innocence. 1770–71. His art is about Spain and its The Clothed Maja c. France 1 oils. Visited Italy c. Following the Napoleonic invasion of Spain in 1808.

Plate 36. KEY WORKS The Duke of Wellington.8 x 20. Therese Louise de Sureda. drama. untraditional. published 1863. gray tones against color.c. c. Private Collection. they examine you and your views on human behavior as much as you scrutinize them. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Here Neither. impressionistic paintwork. and because his work is always beautiful to look at. DC: National Gallery of Art) . The Disasters of War 1810–14. 1800–1900 263 obsessions. 1803–04 (Madrid: Museo del Prado). With Goya one has the uneasy sensation that the relationship between viewer and sitter is reversed. He is hauntingly memorable because he is never judgmental (simply showing human behavior as it is). Goya created a series of 82 prints showing the brutality of war. etching. 6 1⁄5 x 8 1⁄5 in (15. The Third of May 1808. Intensity and introspection. 1814 (Washington. even when the subject matter is horrific.8 cm). His portraits are untraditional. free. 1812–14 (London: National Gallery).

Great admirer of the Italian Renaissance and Raphael. Florence 1 oils. 13th November 1805. Napoleon on the Battlefield at Eylau. 1792 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Notice the way he (usually. Napoleon Bonaparte Receiving the Keys of Vienna at the Schloss Schönbrunn. hands. His work conveys total certainty—his subjects were well established and officially approved: portraits. but not always) manipulated this artificial idealism and fused realism with distortion. poses. Bristol: City Museum shoulders. He created the most manicured paintings in the history of art—everything carefully arranged (hair. 1856 (London: National Gallery) The Valpinçon Bather Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Montauban (France): Musée Ingres 3 $2. 1796. with a total mastery of line and precise observation. 31 x 25in (79 x 65 cm). KEY WORKS The Sleep of Endymion. Male painter of aristocratic portraits. which portrays Napoleon as a Christ-like figure surrounded by dying French troops. Renowned for refusing to paint faces he did not find psychologically interesting.264 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Antoine-Jean Gros b 1771 – 1835 n FRENCH 5 France. all painted with the high “finish” required by the Academy. the body is distorted. even light)—and some of the most exquisite drawings ever made. and interest in Eastern exoticism. and never dead academicism: chubby hands with tapering fingers (can look like flippers). strong contrasts of light and shade. Eventually driven to suicide. Best known work is Napoleon in the Plague House at Jaffa (1804). 57 1⁄2 x 38 1⁄2 in (146 x 98 cm). Italy 1 oils. Sappho at Leucate. the back is too long. Napoleon on the Battlefield at Eylau (oils) the cort of Napoleon I. capable. Despite Neoclassical background. Painted in Genoa. yet drew his subject matter from modern life. To produce artistic harmony. Later works increasingly sterile. associated with KEY WORKS La Grande Odalisque. uptight personality.572 in 1987. and in-demand painter who gave up art in his mid-40s after inheriting a large sum of money. 1808 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) KEY WORKS Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres b 1780 – 1867 n FRENCH 5 Paris. brilliant handling of paint.132. Italy 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $695. oil on canvas.492 in 1989. pen and ink 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $328. 1814 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). for example. 1808 (Château de Versailles) David’s most famous pupil and the most successful painter of the early Napoleonic period. Became a writer. not the Antique. Tortured. where the sitter’s husband painting figures that are reflected in was president of the French Chamber of Commerce. mirrors. La Révolte du Caire (oils) Also known as Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy or Roussy. Paris: Musée du Louvre. He had an interest in mirrors. 1808. maybe his (and his society’s) whole world was that glassy reality/ Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson unreality of the looking glass? b 1767–1824 n FRENCH 5 France. nudes. Jupiter and Thetis (oils) One of the major heroes of French art and the master of high-flown academic illusionism. and mythologies. settings. A talented. and sloping Portrait of Madame Bruyère Antoine-Jean Gros. faces. 1801 (Bayeux: Musée Baron Gérard). strange necks. attitudes. oil on canvas. clothes.652 in 1988. and Art Gallery. he was a crucial precursor of Romanticism. Had David’s ability to manage huge-scale compositions with many figures. Loose. . 1827 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Rome. The Apotheosis of Homer. smiles. drawings 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. Madame Moitessier. so that the end result is alive and thrilling.

1800–1900 265 .c.

the subconscious was recognized as a mainspring of human activity. exoticism favored. and drama were actively championed. Landscapes became larger. frequently destructive.2 cm). brooding. color. STYLE It is no surprise that Romanticism resists neat categorization. SUBJECTS Heightened emotions dominated. allowing themselves freedom to express raw. artists struggled to come to terms with a world that had plunged from apparent certainty into chaos. For the first time. In stark contrast to the optimism of the 18th century. and the wonders of nature. Schlegel coins term “romantic poetry” Napoleonic coup: Bonaparte becomes First Consul (1804 Emperor) Constable’s Stour Valley and Dedham Church appears same year as Goya’s great antiwar polemic The Third of May forces. Artists turned away from the logical and rational. 1809. This was a world of vast. brushwork knew no limits. heroism. The artist turned the calm certainties of later 18th-century English landscape painting upside-down. M. vigorous brushwork. and themes of love. Turner.266 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT ROMANTICISM As the rationalism promised by the Enlightenment dissolved in the bloodletting of the French Revolution. W. a single definition is impossible. Colors exploded. Friedrich excelled in images of an implacable nature under whose vast skies man inevitably shrank. usually suppressed feelings. Heroic individualism defined Romanticism. and France. The desire to see everything as larger than life frequently expressed itself in bold color. humanity was seen as puny and subservient to nature. 9 1⁄2 in x 12 in (24. c. Couvent du Bonhomme. watercolors. key doctrine of Romantic feeling. 43 1⁄3 x 67 3⁄4 in (110 x 172 cm). and more threatening. oil on canvas: Berlin Staatliche Museum. 1798 1799 1814 Monk by the Sea Caspar David Friedrich. Chamonix J. Movement. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum. It appealed particularly to northern European temperaments and flourished most creatively in Germany. Britain. It also marked a decisive break with the conformities of the past. death. Perhaps predictably. almost always beyond the reach of man to control. the results were mixed. elemental KEY EVENTS 1789 1793 French Revolution Execution of Louis XVI: apparent triumph of new liberal French political order is followed by the Terror Wordsworth and Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads. . 1836–42.2 x 30. Self-expression in the modern sense—that the artist is not just uniquely well equipped to see into the human soul but has a duty to do so— inevitably led to a huge variety of artistic styles.

L’Hôpital Beaujon. 1800–1900 267 18th and 19th centuries WHAT TO LOOK FOR The Romantics believed in the freedom of the individual. The story and the painting scandalized the French nation. Géricault visited the local hospital. Whereas David’s art (page 252) encouraged service to the State. it decays. The Raft of the Medusa Théodore Géricault. It theatrically recreates a real-life incident when the captain of a The tattered remains of a billowing sail contrast with the menace of an approaching wave shipwrecked French frigate saved himself and abandoned the passengers and crew. In pursuit of authenticity. oil on canvas. The picture is not just fading. They were not interested in compromise—better to be a heroic success or a total failure. The face of death. . Paris: Musée du Louvre. A silhouetted figure against a dramatic sky features in many of Géricault’s works Emotions are deliberately played on. 1819. it is slowly disintegrating before our eyes. Here the survivors see the vessel that will save them. He even took a severed head and an assortment of limbs from the morgue back to his studio in the Faubourg du Roule. Géricault used bitumen. to make detailed studies of the sick and dying. Once dry. somber mood of the painting is not entirely deliberate. 193 x 282 in (491 x 716 cm).c. Géricault’s masterpiece encapsulates these virtues and takes art into the realm of political protest. a tar-based pigment. Géricault castigates the State for abandoning those who serve. A distraught father grieves over his dead son TECHNIQUES The dark. Géricault’s huge painting was intended to be deliberately challenging—to a complacent state presided over by a newly restored monarchy as much as to a smug bourgeoisie. to add luster to his color scheme.

which produced much preliminary work. 1824 (Paris: Musée du Louvre).400 in 1987. for instance). drawings. Directly inspired by the slaughter of the Greek population of Chios by the Turks.500 in 1998. lush reds. and costume history pieces. fiery hero of French Romanticism.765. England. often sketches: these are what you will most often see outside Paris. KEY WORKS Venetian Campanili. romantic subjects where the linking theme is heightened emotion. Had complex working methods. Saint Sulpice. with whom he worked closely. 1845–50 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). Verona. aged 26. Died of consumption. and often did. KEY WORKS Orphan Girl at the Cemetery. The English Delacroix. The Death of Sardanapalus. Paris: Musée du Louvre. without a specific point of focus or climax. Venice 1 oils. and death. 165 x 139 1⁄3 in (419 x 354 cm). which can only be seen in situ. Loves rich material and texture. Paris). historical events. c. The Palazzi Manolesso-Ferro on the Grand Canal. 1882 (Paris: Musée du Louvre) Richard Parkes Bonington b 1802 – 28 n BRITISH 5 Paris. Venice (oils) Scenes from the Massacre of Chios Eugène Delacroix. wild animals.268 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Eugène Delacroix b 1798 – 1863 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Works to savor and enjoy. Byron). Palais Bourbon. Lovely. struggle. Talleyrand. current politics. 1827 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Venice. with the Palace of Prince . pastels 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre. He chose big. 1826 (Maidstone Museum and Art Gallery). all done with consummate skill and ease. Odalisque. coppery greens. The Corsa Saint Anastasia. early loss. The Barque of Dante. A genius and a sad. watercolors 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $564. oil on canvas. Choc de Cavaliers Arabes (oils) Small in stature but big in spirit— the fashionable. luminous oils and watercolors of picturesque places (Normandy. 1824. Musée Delacroix 3 $7. Palais Luxembourg. Before the 1830s he produced set-piece works for the official Salon (now mostly in the Louvre). After 1833 his major works are set-piece official commissions (for the Bourbon Palace. Inspired by literature (Dante. England. Allegedly the illegitimate son of the aristocrat/diplomat. He uses color as the main means of expression: color and the play of light keep the eye moving. North Africa (visited in 1832). Was willing to shock with strong subject matter and vigorous style. small-scale. His later work exploited color theory and used complementary colors and the color wheel. especially through sexuality. and intense. Morocco 1 oils. His Journal is essential reading. fresh.

c. Venice: the Piazza S. 30 1⁄3 x 25 1⁄2 in (77 x 65 cm). Paris: Musée du Louvre. 5 x 8 1⁄5 in (13 x 21. Géricault’s compositions are memorably simple: he often uses silhouette against a dramatic sky and lifts the eye up to a single point of climax near the top of the picture. A psychiatrist encouraged Géricault to paint portraits of the insane. watercolor on paper. The Madwoman. innovative lithographs. temperamental. Watercolor sketches were made on summer travels to be used in the studio in winter. 1813–14 (London: National Gallery). and inspiring. and changed the rules of art with The Raft of the Medusa—the first rendering of a Portrait of a Woman Addicted to Gambling Théodore Géricault. Italy. Nottingham: City Museums and Galleries. and art). Portrait de Laure Bro. 1800–1900 269 contemporary political subject in a manner truly comparable with the grandest history painting (see page 267). . The Raft of the Medusa. 1828. Had an early death (fell off a horse). c. passionate (about horses. His strong sense of color and lively paint handling were sometimes ruined by the use of bitumen and poor-quality technique (was a lazy student. His early work was much influenced by Rubens (rich color and movement) and Michelangelo (muscles and monumentality). Géricault had two main subjects: horses and moments of danger or uncertainty (and often combined both). KEY WORKS A Horse Frightened by Lightning. virile. England 1 oils. c. Was wealthy and only painted when he felt like it. Scandalized French art and the political establishment. née de Comères (oils) A true Romantic: he was unorthodox. 1819 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). 1822–23 (Lyon: Musée des Beaux-Arts) Maffet. He depicts soulful human beings and horses (the expression in the horse’s eye is the same as in the human’s)—note his trick of turning the human face one way and the horse the other. Was hugely influential on Delacroix. 1828 (London: Wallace Collection) Théodore Géricault b 1791 – 1824 n FRENCH 5 Paris.21m in 1989. oil on canvas. women. should have studied harder). Marco.6 cm). The Undercliff Richard Parkes Bonington. His talents extended further: he was also a producer of stunning. Officer of the Hussars. depressive. 1826 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). 1822. 1814 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). drawings 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $5.

The proletarian emphasis was considered so dangerous that the painting was removed from public view until 1855. Delacroix’s use of color here is uncharacteristically subdued but serves to heighten the brilliance of the saturated tones of the flag. With restless energy but frail health. anticipating artists such as Monet (see page 310). He also investigated the juxtaposition of colors to increase their individual richness and vibrancy. their faces and bodies picked out by the dramatic halo of light shining behind Liberty. Charles X. supported the revolution. except the dyed-in-the-wool monarchists. This highly controversial painting commemorates the political uprising in Paris in July 1830. Delacroix had high hopes for the critical reception of this work. victims of the battle. Delacroix shows dying and dead men. berets. To the right lie two soldiers. many soldiers refused to fire on their fellow citizens—some even joined the rebel ranks . but he was disappointed. Delacroix conveys this by displaying a variety of hats worn by the streetfighters—top hats. TECHNIQUES Delacroix often used short. when Parisians took to the streets for three days in revolt against the greedy and tyrannical regime of the king. All classes of society. He died alone. and cloth caps are all represented. broken brushwork. exhausted by his artistic labors.270 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Liberty Leading the People Eugène Delacroix 1830 Leader of the French Romantic Movement in painting. a close friend of Baudelaire and Victor Hugo. Delacroix’s own life is like that of the hero of a romantic novel. he had many love affairs yet remained unmarried. His journals document his insights into color theory.

the artist echoes the colors of the tricolor flag in the dying patriot’s clothing The artist’s signature is written boldly in symbolic red with the date 1830. A mortally wounded citizen strains with his dying breath to take a last look at Liberty. finding Arab civilization more exciting than the dead history of the ancient world . Delacroix was in Paris during the three-day revolution but did not play an active part. His arched pose is a crucial element in the pyramidal composition.c. Significantly. Shortly after this he visited Morocco. He also prefigures the popular character Gavroche in Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables. On one of the towers flies the tricolor. 1800–1900 271 Liberty Leading the People Medium oil on canvas Size 129 x 169 in (330 x 425 cm) Location Paris: Musée du Louvre Emerging from the gunsmoke are the towers of Notre Dame. The tricolor flag was a symbol of the 1789 Revolution and Delacroix knew it would bring to mind the glories of the early Napoleonic Empire Liberty wears a Phrygian cap. a symbol of freedom during the French Revolution. Women played a leading role in the street fighting of the 1830 revolution Delacroix balances realistic detail with a powerful abstracted composition—a pyramid rising up to the right hand of Liberty The young patriot to the right of Liberty represents a popular hero named Arcole. who was killed in the fighting around the Hôtel de Ville.

1835. 1809 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). Dresden 1 oils. The five ships correspond to the figures on the shore. His work is also full of yearning: for the spiritual life beyond the grave. c. he was full of big ideas. The Polar Sea. 1808 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). for instance. but neglected in his day. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $3. each at a different stage of life’s journey. for intense experience. Although a meticulous and careful painter of small pictures. 1824 (Hamburg Kunsthalle) The Stages of Life Caspar David Friedrich. Times of day and the seasons. figures Winter Landscape Caspar David Friedrich. Look for his symbolism. Sunrise turning to sunset.5 x 94 cm). near the Baltic coast. . watercolors 2 St. 28 1⁄2 x 37 in (72. influencing late-19th-century Symbolists. oak trees and Gothic churches as representing Christianity. Monk by the Sea. oil on canvas. Born at Greifswald. London: National Gallery. Shoots of grass push through the snow to symbolize the hope of Resurrection.272 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Caspar David Friedrich b 1774 – 1840 n GERMAN 5 Copenhagen. looking out of windows or at the horizon as yearning. oil on canvas. and loaded with symbolism. dead trees as death and despair.213. for greatness. Leipzig: Museum der Bildenden Künste. Spaziergang in der Abenddämmerung (A Walk at Dusk) (oils) Now the best-known German Romantic landscape painter. 1811. but all his landscapes are imaginary or composite—painted out of his head. His Romantic relationship with nature was intensely spiritual and Christian. ships as the transition from the here and now to otherworldliness. 13 x 17 3⁄4 in (33 x 45 cm). Studied nature’s details closely. but later settled permanently in Dresden. not sitting in front of nature. when one state is about to become another.000 in 1993. KEY WORKS The Cross in the Mountains. c. or winter turning to spring as spiritual transition and hope of resurrection. drawings. Friedrich came into his own later.

where they welcomed others who shared their ideals of intensely spiritual subject matter and the religious properties of light. 1816–17 (Berlin: Nationalgalerie). Visited England in 1841 to advise on frescoes for the new Houses of Parliament. Runge was interested in trying to express the harmony of the universe and painted pantheistic. but later works evince the influence of German Gothicism.852 in 1990. Denmark 1 watercolors. They wished to revive German religious art in the manner of Perugino. Hamburg: Kunsthalle. The Recognition of Joseph by his Brothers. pen and ink 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $151. the museum of ancient art designed by Leo von Klenze. The Great Morning. His art brought him little fame in his lifetime. Also worked on frescoes for Frederick William IV of Prussia in Berlin but the project was canceled after the revolution in 1848. . Dürer. which has remained pivotal to the study and teachings of color. KEY WORKS The Vision of the Rabenstein. oil on canvas. he wrote a hugely influential treatise about it. Cornelius was also an accomplished book illustrator. Runge hoped to create a new art that would fill the voids created by revolution and the collapse of the old certainties. Eros with the Eagle (oils) Responsible for bringing frescoes back into prominence in the 19th century. fresco 2 Hamburg: Kunsthalle 3 $8. Joseph Interpreting Pharaoh’s Dream. Die Farbenkugel (The Color Sphere). Look for intense (often symbolic) color. 1802.c. Luke) in 1809 by art students Friedrich Overbeck and Franz Pforr. Studied at the Copenhagen Art Academy for two years. His early works are Neoclassical. well as portraits. The Hülsenbeck Children. where he spent most of his short life (died at 33).5 cm). 14 1⁄2 x 12 1⁄3 in (37 x 31. England 1 oils. chalks. mythical subjects as THE NAZARENES c. Greatly interested in the properties of color. including the early Pre-Raphaelites. They were nicknamed the Nazarenes and they dressed like monks. Also a musician and lyricist. 1809–10 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) Philipp Otto Runge b 1777 – 1810 n GERMAN 5 Germany. From 1810. They were a major influence throughout Europe. but he was recognized posthumously for his sharp—often naïve—style and vivid use of color. Study of Lily (works on paper) Born in Germany. they lived and worked in a monastery in Rome. 1811 (Frankfurt: Städelsches Kunstinstitut). He knew Freidrich (see opposite) and met Goethe. 1809 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle). 1818 –1840s A group of Roman Catholic German and Austrian painters who were brought together in Vienna as the Lukasbrüder (Brotherhood of St. 1800–1900 273 Peter von Cornelius b 1783 – 1867 n GERMAN 5 Italy. KEY WORKS The Lesson of the Nightingale. and the young Raphael. Spent several years in Rome (from 1811). 1816–17 (Berlin: Nationalgalerie) Self-Portrait Philipp Otto Runge. and the use of local German landscapes as background to religious and genre paintings. 1805–06 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle). 1804–05 (Hamburg Kunsthalle). where he joined the Nazarenes (see box below).773 in 1995. Commissioned by Louis I of Bavaria to paint the frescoes in Munich’s Glyptothek (1819–30). most notably of Faust. The Child in the Meadow.

1784–86 (Washington.000 in 2004. published in 1841. 1800 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) Emmanuel Gottlieb Leutze b 1816 – 68 n AMERICAN/GERMAN 5 US. DC: National Gallery of Art). (In another age he would have gone to Hollywood to make B-movies. London 1 oils 2 Washington. but then went to London and was arrested and very nearly executed in reprisal for the hanging of a British agent in America. then returned to London in 1808—but any hope of success was dashed by the War of 1812. Washington. Yale: University Art Gallery 3 $260. He took as his subjects the recent history of the triumphs of revolutionary American colonies. and good. July 4th. Grant in his Tent (oils) German-born. The Sortie Made by the Garrison of Gibraltar. Philadelphia-raised. Was antislavery and racism. 1806. easyto-understand. c. DC: Smithsonian Institute 3 $400. KEY WORKS Patrick Tracy. William Pinkney (Ann Maria Rodgers).) Why the bad timing? He served with Washington. Was noted for large. General Ulysses S. pretentious. Signing the Declaration of Independence. His last work was his autobiography. theatrical lighting. he returned to Düsseldorf in 1841 to study history painting and stayed there (making it a Mecca for US artists). 1843 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art).274 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT John Trumbull b 1756 – 1843 n AMERICAN 5 US.000 in 1986. and finally embittered. 1776. Would have made a great movie director. DC: White House. 30 1⁄4 x 24 1⁄4 in (77 x 61 cm). . patriotic scenes of American history. 1786–1820 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery). Mrs. Hamilton founded the First Bank of the United States. convincing faces done from life. he was imprisoned instead. c. The first college graduate (Harvard) in the US to become a professional painter (although his parents thought art to be a frivolous and unworthy activity). Washington. KEY WORKS Columbus before the Queen. Portrait of John Adams (oils) Ambitious. but this was going out of fashion. oil on canvas. Look for stagey compositions. 1861–62 (Washington. drawings 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. DC: Capitol Collection) Portrait of Alexander Hamilton John Trumbull. memorable. DC: Capitol Collection. Struggled to achieve success—had to earn his way as a portrait painter. Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way. Went back to the US. c. 1789 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). unfortunate (blessed with an uncanny sense of bad timing). Düsseldorf 1 oils. which he disliked. His main goal was to excel in history painting. Completed eight of a projected series of 13 and was commissioned by an unenthusiastic Congress to do four for the rotunda of the Capitol in Washington.

Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (oils) Hicks had a Quaker upbringing in Pennsylvania (and became a Quaker minister in 1811). 1851 (copy of an original painted in 1848). he learned the trade of decorative coach painting. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $900. reflecting the current political divisions among the Quakers. Quakers disapproved of art.” SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS Washington Crossing the Delaware River. c. The Cornell Farm. DC: National Gallery of Art) . He painted at least 60 different versions of Peaceable Kingdom between 1816 and 1849. KEY WORKS The Falls of Niagara. 1846 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art).000 in 1990. in the background William Penn concludes a treaty with the Indians. but illustrating Isaiah was acceptable. 25th December 1776 Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze. 1800–1900 275 “No subject can be proper that is not generally interesting. It ought to be either some eminent instance of heroick action or heroick suffering. The animals’ expressions change from tense and fearful to sad and resigned. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Late in his life Hicks also painted depictions of the Declaration of Independence and Washington crossing the Delaware River.c. 1825 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). The original work was damaged by fire in 1850. Edward Hicks b 1780 – 1849 n AMERICAN 5 Pennsylvania 1 oils 2 Washington. Initially. he is best known for his Peaceable Kingdom paintings illustrating Isaiah 11:6–9 (words are sometimes inscribed round the picture)—the belief in a peaceful coexistence. Noah’s Ark. 1848 (Washington. 149 x 254 3⁄4 in (378.5 x 647 cm). An otherwise untrained artist with a primitive style. oil on canvas.

in emulation of the many Italian examples. John Varley b 1778 – 1842 n BRITISH 5 London 1 watercolors 3 $79. 11 3⁄4 x 10 1⁄4 in (30 x 26 cm). Herefordshire. They used both oils—as favored by Crome— and watercolors—favored by John Sell Cotman. “Old Crome” was selftaught and worked only part-time as a painter. 21 1⁄2 x 32 in (54. Norwich: Castle Museum & Art Gallery. neither were there two leaves alike since the creation of the world. Artists of the Norwich School continued working through the 1880s. View of Mousehold Heath. Views of Bamburgh Castle. c. who took over as president after Crome’s death. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. KEY WORKS View of Bodenham and the Malvern Hills. 1809–10. 1812. who bought their works and hired them as drawing tutors. c. It was a provincial school in every aspect as the artists were actively patronized by local wealthy families. as opposed to studio work. whose landscapes are contemporaneous with Turner’s and who similarly began the development from topographical drawings to fully developed watercolor painting. This school was 19th-century England’s only successful attempt at establishing a regional artistic scene. oil on canvas.2 cm). Holman Hunt et al).276 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT THE NORWICH SCHOOL An important English school of artists founded by John Crome that grew from the Norwich Society of Artists (founded 1803). c. 1801 (London: Tate Collection). Cotman’s early watercolors are noted for their simplicity and translucency. Northumberland (watercolors) Sublime Romantic watercolor painter. not even two hours. The group produced landscapes.040 in 1996. From 1805 until 1833.” JOHN CONSTABLE . 1820 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) “No two days are alike. 1803 –1880s The Marl Pit John Sell Cotman. and favored outdoor painting. and marine scenes from around Norwich and Norfolk. watercolor on paper. Was most influential as a teacher (of Linnel. an annual exhibition was held in Norwich (the only exceptions being the years 1826 and 1827). near Norwich John Crome. coasts. A Half-Timbered House. Cox.5 x 81.

Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $19. 1800–1900 277 John Constable b 1776 – 1837 n BRITISH David Cox b 1783 –1859 n BRITISH 5 Suffolk. Rhyl Sands. c. Wivenhoe Park. Seems to know every square inch of ground and all the local day-to-day activity.000 in 1990. darker. The Hay Wain (see pages 278–279) 5 Birmingham. finished paintings (especially the “six-footers”) with which he hoped to make his reputation. Adonis. Late work much more emotional. Hereford 1 watercolors. and landscapes bursting with Romantic drama and emotion. also. KEY WORKS Moorland Road. DC: National Gallery of Art). Produced talented. Flanders. 1851 (London: Tate Collection). King George III’s Favourite Charger (oils) Brother-in-law of George Morland.C . He believed that nature. 1854 (London: Tate Collection) James Ward b 1769 – 1859 n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils. He was not appreciated in his time—died in poverty—although he was an inspiration to Géricault. and stormy skies. Memorable mostly for large-scale pictures of animals. freely executed oils and watercolors that capture the spontaneity of rapidly shifting light and breezes. Limited subject matter: he only painted the places he knew best. Constable combined a detailed objective study of nature with a deeply personal vision of his childhood scenery. 1811–15 (London: Tate Collection) Flatford Old Mill Cottage on the Stour John Constable. Note how the light in the sky and the fall of light on the landscape are directly connected (not so in Dutch landscapes). experienced in the open air. the layering of clouds to create perspective recession. small-scale. How does he get that sense of dewy freshness? Look at the way he juxtaposes different greens (full of subtle color variation) and introduces small accents of red (the complementary color) to enliven them. c. 1816 (London: National Gallery). and so forth. lived in Hereford. the figures. notably the vast Gordale Scar (Tate Collection) with bulging-eyed heroic cattle. He was a devoted family man. Birmingham. c.306. Gordale Scar. KEY WORKS Dedham from Langham. Weymouth Bay. with its dewy freshness. 1813 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). engravings 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $380. 1821 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). absent from the more labored.000 in 1996. Hampstead 1 oils 2 London: National Gallery. 1804 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). Crossing Lancaster Sands (watercolors) Well traveled (France. attempted it). oils 2 Birmingham (UK): City Art Gallery 3 $158. trees. shadows.760 in 1997. streams. sunlight. sometimes almost hidden in the landscape. 1811. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. exaggerated cliffs. Essex. The Lock (oils) One of the great landscape painters who pioneered a new type of plein-air painting based on the direct observation of nature. . more thickly painted. 1816 (Washington. Hampstead Heath. was full of moral and spiritual goodness. pen and wash. Wales). London. One of the few painters to make one feel wind and rain (the French Impressionists rarely. KEY WORKS Bulls Fighting. The sketches (not for public display) have a direct spontaneity. c. if ever. Note. London. Tate Collection.

Constable infuses the water with brown and orange hues. but Constable was in fact trying to create a new subject matter for painting. as Willy Lot’s cottage. with mankind working in perfect harmony with nature. The finished picture was made in his studio in London as stated in his signature. a golden age before the industrial problems of modern times. Constable was a slow worker. even today. such as in the figure of the man fishing. which is included along the bottom edge of the painting. but few of his fellow artists or collectors could accept it as serious art. The carefully observed high. Similarly. . Constable’s picture represents a nostalgic image of the English countryside. It is perfectly legitimate to read the picture in this way. Red is the complementary color to green. but when first exhibited. billowing clouds are a special feature of this part of eastern England. and the artist was hurt by the constant rejection of his work. with riots and farms burned down. At the time it was painted. and there are touches of red. there was an economic depression in agriculture. he would have been the inhabitant at the date of this picture TECHNIQUES If you look carefully. caused by water vapor drawn up from the nearby Stour Estuary The cottage on the left is known. He was a deaf and eccentric farmer who was born in the cottage and lived there for over 80 years. it failed to sell. To many people.278 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT The Hay Wain John Constable 1821 “Constable’s Country” is now a much visited beauty spot and this image adorns many tourist souvenirs. you can see that all areas of green are an interweaving of many different shades of green. and behind this work lie many small sketches made in the open air of this actual place. and so intensifies its impact. Constable put all his efforts into this picture.

The Hay Wain Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 51 x 73 in (130 x 185 cm) Location London: National Gallery . leading the eye toward the focus of interest. and loading hay onto a cart The dog is an essential part of the composition. It was added quite late in the development of the picture. which would cause the metal band around the rim to loosen In the far distance it is possible to see the haymakers in the fields carrying their scythes. The detail shows Constable’s traditional palette of earth colors. Constable avoids treating clouds merely as a backdrop and makes them an integral part of the picture The play of light and shadow over the land is consistent with the pattern of light and clouds in the sky The water prevents the wheels from shrinking. 1800–1900 279 Outside Willy Lot’s cottage a woman is either collecting water or washing clothes in the estuary. which is the hay cart. and his highlights of thick white paint.C .

KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. engravings 2 London: British Museum. argumentative. c. Overdramatic detailed representations of apocalyptic events from history—they anticipate the Hollywood spectaculars of Cecil B. small drawings in the 1820s. KEY WORKS Leading a Barge. Newcastle upon Tyne: Laing Art Gallery 3 $2. The painting was commissioned by the Duke of Wellington. 1825 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum). Child prodigy from Kent (the “Garden of England”). often showing laborers at work or rest. Lullingstone Park (works on paper) 5 England. The Eve of the Deluge. best known for his rural landscapes. His individual style. oil on wood. London 1 oils 2 Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland 3 $544. pastoral vision. 1813 (Pau: Musée des Beaux-Arts) Samuel Palmer b 1805 – 81 n BRITISH John Martin b 1789 – 1854 n BRITISH 5 London. direct. Return of Ulysses (oils) Romantic landscape painter who was successful commercially. Great Day of his Wrath. Made exquisite. Kent 1 watercolors. Oak Tree and Beech.280 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Sir David Wilkie b 1785 – 1841 n BRITISH 5 Edinburgh. 1822. 1816 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) The Chelsea Pensioners Reading the Waterloo Dispatch Sir David Wilkie. His manner became more contrived and Romantic after a visit to the Continent in 1825–28. England: Royal Collection). 38 1⁄4 x 62 1⁄4 in (97 x 158 cm). Impressive mezzotints. Had a very intense pastoral and Christian vision—nature as the gateway to a revelation of paradise. KEY WORKS The Bard.415. He believed that landscape paintings could carry a religious message—hence their intense visionary quality and style. Kensington Gravel Pits. de Mille. Mid-day Rest. 1840 (Windsor Castle.02m in 2000. 1825 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum) . Tate Collection. 1806 (London: Tate Collection). Early Morning. Martin’s work combines impressive scale and imagination with architectural detail and tiny figures. c. down-to-earth. KEY WORKS The Letter of Introduction. He provided artistic and financial support to Blake and Palmer. They win commendations for special effects rather than content. Linnell was an eccentric. Self-Portrait. with microscopic details. After his marriage in 1837. magical. Pandemonium (oils) Famous in his own day (but then went completely out of fashion). oils 3 $241.500 in 2003. he turned to a less intense. c. 1817 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $1. which embraced the narrative subjects of everyday life and loaded them with authentic detail. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection. 1811–12 (London: Tate Collection). classical. was very influential throughout Europe. France 1 oils.000 in 2003. 1851–53 (London: Tate Collection) John Linnell b 1792 – 1882 n BRITISH 5 England 1 watercolors. radical nonconformist.000 in 2003. London: Wellington Museum. and ambitious. He was much admired by the Prince Regent (George IV) who bought Wilkie’s paintings and ignored Turner and Constable. Spanish Girl (oils) Scottish. 1813 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland).

Approach to Venice. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection. freer style and imagery). using a wide-ranging source of inspiration (from Scotland to Italy). Snowstorm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth. hiding. . The greatest British painter yet (apologies. Turner was inspired by his own journey on a steam train. c. c. W. 281 6 1⁄4 x 9 1⁄2 in (17. He had a deep. Seascape.9 cm). W. watercolors. Look for the sun—where it is. 1818. personal response to nature. W. oil on canvas. 35 3⁄4 x 48 in (90. c. Turner b 1775 – 1851 n BRITISH 5 London. DC: National Gallery of Art) Rain. 1800–1900 Crichton Castle (Mountainous Landscape with a Rainbow) J. He left sketchbooks that show his working process. especially in his watercolors and later work. France. of a bitter northern winter. 1840. Complex personal—sometimes secret—symbolism. c. London: National Gallery. Turner. Constable). 1842 (London: Tate Collection).045. what it is doing. M. Had a never-ending interest in light. with fascinating technical and stylistic innovation. Italy. His early “old master” style changes dramatically after his visit to Italy in 1819 (introducing a brighter palette. Observe his ability to portray nature in all her moods. Applied a remarkable range of working methods. its physical qualities as light. but also its symbolism (rising. setting. 1835–40 (London: Tate Collection).8 x 121. KEY WORKS Mortlake Terrace. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art. Norham Castle. Steam.000 in 1984. from the sweetest and most lyrical to the stormiest and most destructive. frightening. M. Turner. and a deep reverence for the old masters. Switzerland. and Speed—The Great Western Railway J. of a balmy Mediterranean summer. 1843 (Washington. 1826 (Washington. warming.C . Scotland 1 oils. watercolor over graphite on wove paper. Note the detail in finished watercolors.1 x 24 cm). c. and so on). Sunrise. especially in his early work. DC: National Gallery of Art). M. Folkestone (oils) The champion of Romantic landscape and seascape. J. Clore Gallery 3 $9.

the sun setting in the east. he witnessed the Industrial Revolution and the dawn of the steam age. illuminates the ship and gives it a ghostlike quality The Téméraire was a ship of the line with 98 guns. he explores both these themes. correspondents to The Times attacked Turner’s lack of accuracy. The famous ship had been part of Nelson’s fleet. Turner always carried a notebook in his pocket. and made sketches of this historic event. Abroad.282 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT The Fighting Téméraire J. along with his Romantic response to the beauty of nature. She took her name from a French ship captured at Lagos Bay in 1759 The Fighting Téméraire Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 35 3⁄4 x 48 in (90. The silver light of a crescent moon. Woodington when they witnessed the Téméraire being towed up the Thames from Sheerness to Rotherhithe to be broken up. M. Turner 1839 Turner lived in revolutionary times. which he later transformed into this masterpiece. Turner’s art was at its best when it was inspired by a subject that resonated with history and with a sense of time. such as incorrect rigging. At home. On September 6th. W. 1838. F. he observed the French Revolution and the rise and fall of the Napoleonic Empire. fate. In 1877. and nature sweeping all before them. Turner was a passenger on a steamboat from Margate with the sculptor W.6 cm) Location London: National Gallery . In this late work. and the mast of the steamer incorrectly shown behind the smokestack.7 x 121. reflected in the water. and her moment of glory had come in 1805 with distinguished service at the Battle of Trafalgar.

The artist left a disputed will through which the nation received all his unsold works The first paddlewheel steamboat was launched in 1783. the first steam warship in 1815 – both in Turner’s lifetime Although Turner’s late works often received harsh criticism.Turner is reported to have seen the Téméraire on an evening with a blazing sunset. The Morning Chronicle singled out the poignantly symbolic “gorgeous horizon” TECHNIQUES Turner combined his early training in watercolors with the scope for variation in texture of oils to form a style involving washes of great fluidity and impasto details to evoke different surfaces. and by repeating the fiery glow of the sky in the burning gases streaming from the smokestack. .” Turner’s treatment of light and handling of paint influenced the young Monet. this composition was highly praised. who studied his works in London in 1870 Turner chose never to sell this picture. In his picture he exploits both the appearance and symbolism of the setting sun. The catalog contained lines from Thomas Campbell’s Ye Mariners of England: “The flag which braved the battle and the breeze. heightening each by contrasting them with a delicate new moon. The National Gallery acquired it in 1856 as part of the Turner Bequest. Turner was able to use the recently discovered synthetic pigments such as chrome yellow to bring a new brightness and intensity to his palette The picture was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1839. now no longer owns her.

Manet. Archetypal academic sculpture. Courbet. in Berlin in 1697. especially in France with its annual salon that was much patronized by Napoleon III and his Empress Eugénie. and the various Secession movements (see page 338). and remains. private and late 19th century. and established branches in provincial cities and in Rome. its example was widely followed. height 55 1⁄8 in (140 cm). funded by a princely ruler or a State. St. the first academy was founded in Florence in 1562. Oise (France): Château de Compiègne. Academies were at their most stultifying and conservative in the mid. Petersburg 1721. Paris: Musée de la Ville. 1855. Enormously influential between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. as well as in many THE 19 TH CENTURY principalities and municipalities in Germany. bronze. and Holland. 118 1⁄4 x 158 1⁄4 in (300 x 402 cm).284 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT THE ACADEMIES 1562 – late 19th century Academies were the official institutions. It had a monopoly of exhibitions and hiring models for life classes. organized art education. The exception was London where the Royal Academy was. Stockholm 1735. that arranged and promoted exhibitions.g. and Madrid 1752. A remarkable example of the imposition of centralized bureaucracy on the arts. THE FRENCH ACADEMY The academy par excellence was the French Royal Academy. Vienna 1705. oil on canvas. founded in 1648 under Louis XIV and directed by LeBrun. their most important achievement was to provoke young artists to react against them. 1874. Italy. In many ways. awarded scholarships. Gloria Victis Marius Jean Antonin Mercie.g. and dictated rules and standards. Switzerland. e. Empress Eugénie (1826 –1920) Surrounded by her Ladies-in-Waiting Franz Xavier Winterhalter. e. .

Cupidon. Smooth. oil on canvas. nude Venuses) invites us to suspend disbelief in reality. but his style. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1879. Bouguereau’s mythological paintings were avidly collected.C . Louis. 1800–1900 285 Cleopatra Testing Poisons on those Condemned to Death Alexandre Cabanel. Conventional. KEY WORKS Young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros. Private Collection. garish colors. His paintings of everyday peasant life are more convincing than his grander works because they do not aim so high (so cannot fall so low) and do not demand suspension of disbelief to the same degree. A Little Shepherdess. 1870 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1870s (Paris: Pantheon) invitation. His lofty rhetorical subject matter (for example. fashionable. contradicts or denies the The Birth of Venus William-Adolphe Bouguereau. . Death of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta. Now seen in true light—academic painting at its worst and most flatulent. 1862 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). which apes the reality of photography. Rome 1 oils 3 $3. 1880 (Los Angeles: J. firm flesh and rosy nipples. much sought after. and sold for huge prices. A recent revival of interest in his works has resulted in some massive prices at auction. oil on canvas. which anticipate (inspire?) the airbrushed girlie pin-ups of World War II or Playboy magazine. sickly. The Life of St. portraits. 1891 (London: Roy Miles Fine Painting) William-Adolphe Bouguereau b 1825 – 1905 n FRENCH 5 France. 118 1⁄4 x 85 3⁄4 in (300 x 218 cm). refusing to abandon the language and manners of a by-now debased Classical tradition. However. his work now looks curiously stilted and unconvincing—a dinosaur of art history. A warning that much-praised contemporary art can be dire (then and now). 1887. La charité (oils) Bouguereau was the archetypal conservative pillar of the French academic system in its final years. Alexandre Cabanel b 1823 – 89 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $400. hairless.000 in 1993. He delighted his public with largescale theme paintings and a dazzlingly accomplished technique.2m in 2000. banal subjects. Paul Getty Museum). Painted nudes. Art that aspires to be this great requires a convincing unity between subject and style. allegories. 1891 (London: Christie’s Images). KEY WORKS The Birth of Venus. Weak technique. c. Cleopatra Testing Poisons on those Condemned to Death (oils) One of the pillars of the establishment of late 19th-century Paris.

highly popular Munich-trained portrait painter. Portrait of Prince Regent (oils) Hans Makart b 1840 – 84 n AUSTRIAN 5 Munich. England: Royal Collection). Winterhalter also made lithographs. and haughty confidence. Europe 1 oils 2 Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $1. Makart delighted his rich clientele by plundering the art of the great masters of the Venetian Renaissance and the 17th and 18th centuries to create decorative allegories and historical images that promised (but in the end. Was a rapid worker. He captured their preferred self-image—royalty as bourgeoisie. Frauenporträt in ägyptischem Kostum (oils) A highly successful Viennese painter. 1844 (Los Angeles: J. crash barriers were erected around the painting to hold back overexcited crowds. 1870s (Vienna: The precociously talented son of an innkeeper. dark eyes. his portraits revealed this side of their personalities and gave a strong aesthetic thrill (they still do). Derby Day William Powell Frith. The First of May. heads confidently turned on overlong necks. Portrait of Princess Tatyana Alexandrovna Yusupova. straight onto canvas. dramatic. Despised by avantgarde artists such as Schiele and Klimt. His paintings have style. above all.6 x 223. 1870s (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). oil on canvas. Jeune fille de l’Ariccia (oils) He was a smooth-mannered. flowing hair. with an effortless. finely formed. Paul Getty Museum). 1856–58. c. to show off. intimacy. impersonal style.092. failed to deliver) great talent and emotional content. The Triumph of Ariadne. sloping shoulders. notably of the European monarchy (English. Isaac Cuthbert. Over-production led to uneven quality. Mrs. They were also hungry for aesthetic experience. and French) in their 19th-century golden age.000 in 1988. rich colors. KEY WORKS Princess Leonilla. long arms. 1875 (Vienna: Historisches Museum der Stadt) Franz Xavier Winterhalter b 1805 – 73 n GERMAN 5 Paris 1 oils 2 London: Wallace Collection 3 $1. KEY WORKS Elizabeth Farren.286 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Österreichische Galerie). elegance. When first exhibited. Charlotte Wolter as the Empress Messalina. free-flowing paint applied with total confidence and sensual pleasure. luscious. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Sir Thomas Lawrence b 1769 – 1830 n BRITISH 5 London. Observe the way he conveys the above: inventive. c. 40 x 88 in (101.200 in 2000. He was the chosen portrait painter of the ruling class of the richest and most powerful nation on earth—they believed it and he confirmed it.5 cm). and anecdote. . with crisp. 1858 (St. His work brilliantly combines formality. 1790 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). KEY WORKS The Dream after the Ball.6m in 1997. Lawrence went on to become the leading portrait painter of the day. Vienna 1 oils 2 Vienna: Österreichische Galerie 3 $223. self-conscious poses. 1851 (Windsor Castle. Belgian. white highlights that are deep pools of romantic experience and feeling. flowing dresses. London: Bonhams. 1817 (Paris: Musée du Louvre).

and inventive handling of light. unambitious. famous for his detailed.300 in 2003. 1850s (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). sophisticated. Study of a Nubian Young Man.287 Lord Frederic Leighton b 1830 – 96 n BRITISH 5 Frankfurt. admired by Queen Victoria. 1814. oil on canvas. races. panoramic chronicles of Victorian life (railway stations. Wirral (UK): Lady Lever Art Gallery 3 $1. Study. correct academic subject matter (portraits. and was called. oil on canvas. 1874–77 (London: Tate Collection). occasional quirky oil painting. Paris.701. Samuel Woodburn.000 in 2000. 1868 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). godlike. c. It is then that the warmth and freshness that is absent from his “official” works begin to come across. Used photographs but was reluctant to admit it. sculpture 2 London: National Gallery. biblical and mythological themes). 1877 (Liverpool: Sudley House) KEY WORKS Portrait of Arthur Wellesley (1769–1852). is himself: sketches from nature. For Worse (oils) A popular painter. Lawrence painted portraits of all the European victors over Napoleon. so-called great artist. The Railway Station. Unwisely attempted to do history and moral paintings.812. Sir John Julius Angerstein. London 1 oils. Refreshingly unpretentious. 1862 (Surrey: Royal Holloway and Bedford New College) Garden of the Hesperides Lord Frederic Leighton. 1840–56 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). So why are his works so often cold. and soulless? Because overt support for the status quo always wins support from those with most to lose—but lasting fame requires real innovation. the Michelangelo of his day. Very successful. 1892. Bought by the soap manufacturer Lord Leverhulme. color. . For Better. London: The Wellington Museum. The Bracelet (oils) The first British painter to be made a Lord. Surrey: Royal Holloway and Bedford New College 3 $3. Portrait of Charles Dickens. composition. instead of playing the pompous. His works are immaculate and faultless in every way: they display wonderful technique and draftsmanship. superb. Also notice the places where he lets go and. Aimed to be. On the Nile. Wirral (UK): Lady Lever Art Gallery. c. Tate Collection. c. Counted Queen Victoria among his buyers. 1st Duke of Wellington Sir Thomas Lawrence. Adept at art politics and diplomacy. joy at painting white textures. aloof. 1820 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). Rome. Athlete Struggling with a Python. c. and free from moral comment. 1823–28 (London: National Gallery) William Powell Frith b 1819 –1909 n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection. Look for borrowings from (also homages to) Michelangelo and from other great Italian and French masters (Titian. 1880s (London: Bonhams). Ingres). KEY WORKS Othello and Desdemona. 1853–55 (London: National Gallery). Cimabue’s Madonna Carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence. the seaside). Was educated in Europe. the epitome of the successful Victorian businessman.

Dedicated archaeologist. 1839 (London: Tate Collection) Sir Luke Fildes b 1843 –1927 n BRITISH 5 Liverpool.851. He used photographs and his own site drawings. landscapes. Portrait of Lord Ossulston (oils) fashionable. London. 1837 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). sculpture. KEY WORKS Venetians. 1877 (Private Collection) Hugely successful and much admired by Queen Victoria. 9 1⁄2 x 13 in (24 x 33 cm). Alma-Tadema’s paintings often fetched higher prices than quality old masters. 1885 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). lions. The Village Wedding (oils) A very successful and popular pillar of the establishment who freshened stale Victorian academic tradition with a whiff of acceptable new French ideas—loose paint handling. UK: Lady Lever Art Gallery. and polar bears). social themes. UK: Museums and Art Gallery). Was ideally in tune with his times—his animals express the key Victorian virtues: nobility. stags. 1908 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema b 1836 –1912 n BRITISH 5 Netherlands. naturalized British. success.500 in 1992. In the 1880s. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection. 1881. Dignity and Impudence. and an interest in light. male dominance. His small plein-air sketches. . Scotland 1 oils. Venice 1 oils 3 $462. KEY WORKS Phidias and the Parthenon.5m in 1995. Doctor. conquest. Portraits. courage. The Sculptor’s Model. Paul Getty Museum 3 $2. A Devotee. His Doctor was one of the most internationally popular paintings of the late 19th century. The Finding of Moses (oils) He was Dutch-born. modern subjects. Wirral. meticulously painted. 1868 (Birmingham. 1891 (London: Tate Collection). Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $1. oil on panel. Scene in Chillingham Park. and female subservience. Highly successful with the Victorian business classes for whom he produced The Tepidarium Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema. erotic but safe fantasy images of the leisured classes of Greece and Rome—usually the women in private with their clothes off. done on the spot. are as good as anything by Constable or French contemporaries.500 in 2003. pride. London 1 oils 2 Los Angeles: J. KEY WORKS The Old Shepherd’s Mourner.288 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Sir Edwin Landseer b 1802 – 73 n BRITISH 5 London. Landseer had a prolific output of sentimental portraits and animal and sporting pictures (particular affinity with Highland cattle.

Traveled in Italy in 1838–40. KEY WORKS Portrait of Frederik Sødring. using intricate watercolor technique (clever use of gouache) and obsessive detail. 1854 (Los Angeles: J. and understated symbolic details. but his doctors encouraged him to continue with his painting. Cairo John Frederick Lewis. KEY WORKS A Syrian Sheik.2 cm). The liveliest works are his sketches from nature (from which he made finished exhibition paintings). oil on panel. 1836 (Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst). engravings 3 $1. emphasis on cleanliness and orderliness (which is probably unreal and overexaggerated). Early work has sporting. Has recently become famous through his meticulous and obsessively detailed paintings of fairy subjects made in the 1850s. A View of One of the Lakes in Copenhagen. A View of a Street in Copenhagen. lived in Egypt (1841–51). Broadmoor (UK) 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $2. 1849–50 (London: Tate Collection). reassuring portraits of themselves and their dwelling places. and topographical subjects. Købke’s famous lake scenes were painted in the studio from numerous outdoor drawings and sketches. The Northern Drawbridge to the Citadel in Copenhagen. Also produced less good oils. famous for his impressive scenes of Egyptian markets. 12 x 8 in (30. The luminous calm hides a quiet national pride and strong sense of moral virtues. The Fairy Feller’s Master-Stroke. bazaars. KEY WORKS The Flight out of Egypt. Contradiction. Lewis preferred the solitude of Egypt’s deserts to the bustling social life of Cairo. Both sentiments are essential Biedermeier qualities and are revealed in his attention to detail. Egypt. 5 Bedlam.712 in 2000. 1838 (Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst) Richard Dadd b 1817– 86 n BRITISH Indoor Gossip. gifted painter who caught the prevailing Biedermeier middle-class taste for “Mad Dadd” murdered his father in 1843 and was locked up. oil on canvas.000 in 1992. Cairo 1 watercolors. Manchester: Whitworth Art Gallery.4 x 20. The Coffee Bearer. Visited Spain and Morocco (1832–34).26m in 1996. The Door of a Café in Cairo. and harems. Paul Getty Museum). 1836. View from a Window in Eckersberg’s Studio (oils) He was a short-lived (died of pneumonia). 1857 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). 1865 (London: Royal Academy of Arts) River Bank at Emilliekilde Christen Købke. 1800–1900 289 John Frederick Lewis b 1805 – 76 n BRITISH 5 London. 1832 (Copenhagen: Hirschsprungske Samling). Mercy: David Spareth Saul’s Life.775. wildlife. 1873. 1856 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). 1855– 64 (London: Tate Collection) . Paris: Musée du Louvre. c. and Titania (oils) Christen Købke b 1810 – 48 n DANISH 5 Copenhagen 1 oils 2 Copenhagen: Statens Museum for Kunst 3 $322. He was rejected by the Academy. 1837 (London: National Gallery). oils. Lilium Auratum (watercolors) Best-known member of a prolific artistic dynasty.C . Oberon. 7 1⁄2 x 12 1⁄4 in (19 x 31 cm).

Schroon Mountain. “The Course of Empire” and “The Voyage of Life” predict the rise and fall of American culture. The reason for the earlier works is a genuine response to the beauties of relatively virgin US nature unsullied by too much tourism. which give a birdlike feeling of being free to go anywhere. mountains. Lancashire). oil on canvas. His early picturesque Hudson River landscapes (done in the 1820s) interpret the American rural scene through the European conventions of the picturesque and sublime. 1837 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). 1838 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art). melancholic. His later work gets larger in scale and overlaid with literary and moralizing ideas. Scene in the Catskill Mountains (oils) The greatest American landscape painter. Uses high viewpoints. They often painted the Hudson River landscape interspersed with other scenes taken from all over the country. which to modern eyes can go completely over the top in the manner of bad operas or Hollywood spectaculars. Romantic. Hudson (New York State): Olana State Historic Site 3 $7. God-fearing and patriotic (and it shows). Thomas Cole. Canada. sublime vision of Romantics such as Turner.3m in 2003. The group’s vigor waned after the Civil War (1861–65). thereby establishing a new tradition for landscape painting in the United States. . and dramatic light (blood-red sunsets) to the fore. Catskill Mountain Houses (oils) Cole was British-born (Bolton. New York. exquisite painting of THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL Loosely organized group of American painters whose founding father. conservative. South America 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.5m in 1989. Combines landscape with biblical and historical themes. The Course of Empire: The Savage State. stunning vistas or panoramas of North and South America have natural phenomena (Niagara Falls). Home by the Lake. Frederic Edwin Church b 1826 – 1900 n AMERICAN 5 US. development. Major figure in American art—founder of the Hudson River School and the tradition of the grand landscape. Combined detailed observation of nature with the heroic. which he feared would gobble it up. often at odds with a world given to fast-changing materialism. View on the Catskill—Early Autumn. or artistic interpretation (unlike Europe). but it was a great influence on the Luminist School that followed. 1839 (Washington. 1830 (Art Institute of Chicago).290 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT KEY WORKS Distant View of Niagara Falls. New York: Fenimore Art Museum. The reason for the later work is his fear of the clash between this nature and an aggressive material culture. His large-scale. Catskill Mountains. Adirondacks. 1827. Note the thrilling shafts of light falling on the landscape. Europe 1 oils 2 New York: Munson-WilliamsProctor Art Institute 3 $1. but his family emigrated to the United States in 1818. This is one of four works inspired by James Fenimore Cooper’s novel. and combines this with the quasi-scientific observation of microscopic details—indicating his deep spiritual belief in the morality of Nature and presence of God in the largest and the smallest feature. The Notch of the White Mountains. DC: National Gallery of Art) Thomas Cole b 1801 – 48 n AMERICAN 5 Pennsylvania. 1836 (New York Historical Society). painted picturesque views of the beautiful Hudson River Valley in Upper New York State in the 1820s. which he also expresses in verse and diaries. Most of the artists associated with the school traveled widely throughout the US and worked in New York. 1820s –1870s Scene from “The Last of the Mohicans” Thomas Cole.

Author of simple. 1800–1900 291 Cotopaxi Frederic Edwin Church. 1859 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Off Mount Desert Island. Aurora Borealis. 1854 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Rio de Janeiro Bay. oil on canvas. open spaces where each element is placed with the utmost precision. DC: National Gallery of Art). South American Landscape. South America 1 oils 2 New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art 3 $1. clear compositions—wide. DC: National Gallery of Art) distant mountains and waterfalls. following in the footsteps of German explorer Alexander von Humboldt. Also remembered for “The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes.750. bright colors (used new. 1865 (Washington. Seascape: Sunset. He is best known for his haunting landscapes of flat lands with low horizons. Also finely detailed paintings of ships and coastlines. Heart of the Andes. KEY WORKS The Golden State Entering New York Harbour. metal pigments). 1861 (Detroit Institute of Arts).” MARCEL PROUST . c. Gloucester (US) 1 oils 3 $5m in 2004. Had a special ability to show that mysterious. heavy. He sketched Ecuador’s Cotopaxi volcano in 1857. his travels to Brazil where he did notable paintings of hummingbirds and orchids. 48 x 85 in (122 x 216 cm). Two Fighting Hummingbirds with Two Orchids (oils) Johnson Heade was an important Luminist and long-lived hack portraitist who “came good” after meeting Frederic Church in 1859. A master of the frozen moment when time apparently stops—creator of scenes of eerie unpopulated stillness with a golden light that suffuses all.1856 (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries). Michigan: Detroit Institute of Arts. The visual equivalent of transcendentalism in literature—the search for the essence of a reality beyond mere appearance.000 in 1987. Europe. and sharp. Maine. KEY WORKS Approaching Thunderstorm.C . 1859 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). slow decline (suffered from bad rheumatism in his hands). Niagara Falls. but in having new eyes. At his peak in the 1860s. Church made two visits to South America. 1856 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) Martin Johnson Heade b 1819 – 1904 n AMERICAN 5 US. 1862. Manchester Harbour (oils) Leading member of the Luminist School. ominous light that precedes a storm. 1867 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland) KEY WORKS Fitz Hugh Lane b 1804 – 65 n AMERICAN 5 Boston. 1864 (Washington. he had a long.

Did for the American West what Canaletto did for Venice. and “jolly flatboatmen.1 x 427. Evening on the Upper Colorado River. 1884 (Washington.000 in 1978. Made his reputation after a pioneering visit to The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Thomas Moran. Long Island. Art Gallery. The Much Resounding Sea. Yosemite Valley (oils) Bierstadt was German-born. Shooting for the Beef. 1882 (Bolton. he was the first significant painter from the Midwest. Country Politician. California. Inspired after accompanying a government expedition to Yellowstone. but raised in Massachusetts. 1868 (Washington. painting scenes of the American frontier. Mist in the Yellowstone (oils) He was a self-taught. The Squatters. Also worked in Switzerland and Bermuda. He also painted scenes of Venice (Turner again). The River Schuylkill.8 cm). Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $6. A Storm in the Rocky Mountains. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1850 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). with low viewpoints. c. and Aquarium). As formal as Poussin and as proudly documentary of his new Republic as any 17th-century Dutch master. KEY WORKS Nearing Camp. Had a decade of brilliant talent. Art Gallery. Born in Virginia and brought up in Missouri. 1863 (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries).” Contrived simple compositions bathed in golden light. 1866 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). Europe. depicting its natural grandeur in the style of Turner’s Romanticism. and California. 1872.4m in 2003. oil on canvas. 96 1⁄2 x 168 1⁄2 in (245. Irish-English émigré raised in Philadelphia. 1849 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum). Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains.4m in 2004.2 (oils) Thomas Moran b 1837 – 1926 n AMERICAN 5 US. and Aquarium 3 $4. good anecdotal detail. 1845–55. His superb watercolors are built up from pencil underdrawing and were much influenced by Turner. KEY WORKS Ferrymen Playing Cards. convincing but fanciful compositions. Brilliant oil sketches. and crisp use of light and shade. 1850 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) . 1847 (Missouri: St. Louis Art Museum). New York: Smithsonian Institute. He painted large-scale landscapes of the American West during the era of early railroads. Mexico 1 oils 2 Bolton (UK): Museums. DC: National Museum of American Art) KEY WORKS Yellowstone (1871). Jolly Flatboatmen No. 1890s (Private Collection) George Caleb Bingham b 1811 – 79 n AMERICAN 5 Missouri 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $980. Yosemite Valley.292 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Albert Bierstadt b 1830 –1902 n GERMAN/AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. UK: Museums.

C . and if at times in earlier days she would not even stoop to my way of thinking. M. Was also a producer of high-quality sculptures. 1800–1900 293 The Blanket Signal Frederic Remington. Reconnaissance (oils) The most famous painter of the cowboy West. had genuinely worked as a cowboy.” FREDERIC REMINGTON Frederic Remington b 1861 – 1909 n AMERICAN 5 US. Bigoted.1m in 2001. KEY WORKS Indian Braves. I have persevered and will so continue.7m in 1999. oil on canvas. Good at working in oils. published eight books. covering the Indian Wars of 1890–01 and the Spanish-American War (in Cuba) of 1898. The Death Song of Lone Wolf. 1902 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Charles M. KEY WORKS The Mexican Major. but then got better and better. One of the Native Americans employed by the United States Army as irregulars. was sympathetic to Indians. Was haunted by the notion that he was a mere illustrator (which in truth he was). oils. 1896. and had a sense of humor. Europe. Aiding a Comrade. Russell b 1864 – 1926 n AMERICAN 5 Montana 1 watercolors. The Wagons. 1902 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). 1904 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). His images of the “good” whites protecting “their” territory against the savage “foreign” Indians were consciously adopted by Hollywood cowboy movie directors. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. a military trend Remington strongly supported in the 1890s. North Africa 1 oils. rather than a “proper” artist—his late works experiment unsuccessfully with Impressionism and arty ideas. Disputed Trail (oils) He was the premier painter of the American West—alongside Remington but very different: Russell was self-taught. Keen writer. Remington also spent time as a journalist. c. US cavalry officer. Friend of Theodore Roosevelt. “Art is a she-devil of a mistress. sculpture 2 Montana: C. He didn’t hit his stride until 1900. but superb in watercolor. The Advance-Guard. 1890 (Art Institute of Chicago). 1910 (New York: Kennedy Galleries) . Smoking Up. 1889 (Art Institute of Chicago). Reproductions of his illustrations in Harper’s Weekly and other popular publications made him a household name throughout the US. Remington was a great mythmaker who liked to promote the idea that he was a former cowboy. or the Military Sacrifice. unsympathetic to Indians. sculpture 2 New York State: Remington Art Memorial 3 $4. Russell Museum 3 $2. Was pro the US cavalry. but in fact he was Yale-educated and lived mostly in New York. Also made sculptures. Coming Through the Rye. c. 1890 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). 1899 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art).

and place. Homer was a creator of highly satisfying. and a subtle ambiguity of meaning. Houghton Farm. Red Canoe (drawing) Homer was one of the great 19th-century painters. time. He was able to interpret nature in a way that convincingly reflected the American pioneering spirit. well-designed. 1872 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). The Turtle Pound. 5 US. His work has a strong narrative content (it’s no coincidence that he started out as a magazine illustrator). Note the solid.5 x 77. and produced strong. Made a pragmatic exploration of light and color. KEY WORKS Snap the Whip. and boldly painted pictures. practical people. more confident. unhesitating draftsman and frequent use of a silhouetted figure. 25 2⁄3 x 30 2⁄3 in (64. often in heroic attitude. Homer lived for many years on the Atlantic seaboard in Maine. The Sharpshooters. modern women. He was self-taught. Also painted exquisite. Note also the progression of his style and subjects as they grow larger. Has an enviable ability to simplify and leave out unnecessary detail. and freer with age and experience. fluid watercolors. England. c. 1900 (London: Christie’s Images) . 1878 (Private Collection). 1886. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $4. virile images: sea paintings of the Atlantic coast. He employs the imagery of children as a metaphor for the future of America. England 1 watercolors. fresh. Well traveled in the US. robust children. oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Paris. underlying moral message. The Herring Net. Andover (US): Addison Gallery of American Art. but he lifted his art beyond the ordinary by infusing it with a sincerely felt. 1885 (Art Institute of Chicago). c.2 cm). images of down-toearth. and the Bahamas. Uses strong contrasts of light and shade with assurance. especially when coping with adversity. Tending Sheep. stronger. 1898 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art).294 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Winslow Homer b 1836 –1910 n AMERICAN Eight Bells Winslow Homer. His no-nonsense practical painting is completely in tune with its subject matter. oil on canvas.4m in 1999.

unyielding personality. Eager boatman. precise draftsmanship and colors. Ryder was an admirer of the poet Edgar Allen Poe. c. The Trap Sprung (oils) The premier genre painter of mid-19thcentury America. 1877 (Philadelphia Museum of Art).C . Look for imaginative poses and movement. Cowboys in the Badlands (oils) He was Philadelphia-born and bred. Pragmatic but difficult. Employed human anatomy. The Gross Clinic. DC: National Gallery of Art). candid portraits are of people from a fairly narrow social circle. Studied in Paris and Spain.5 cm). and his sensitive portrayals of African-American farmers appealed to a public hungry for expressions of national self-awareness and self-consciousness. The Raffle (Raffling for the Goose). 1896–1908 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art) Roadside Meeting Albert Pinkham Ryder. Said by some to be the greatest of all American artists. 1875 (Philadelphia: Thomas Jefferson University).000 in 1983. his later period was more dreamy. Used jewel-like colors and thick. His images of farm life. Likes color and emotion but is even more interested in shadows— notice how he uses them to create space. medicine. He uses extra objects or incidents to tell the story behind a portrait. Clear. . Siegfried and the Rhinemaidens. He was considered to represent the height of poetic sensibility and was somewhat of a guru figure for the likes of Hartley and Pollock.8m in 2003. KEY WORKS Bar-room Scene. 15 x 12 in (38. drawings 2 Detroit Institute of Arts 3 $800. Had a deep interest in science. Paris 1 oils 2 Philadelphia: Museum of Art 3 $4. and how things work. 1888–97 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). romantic scenes such as Jonah and the Whale. achievement. c. atmospheric 19th-century interiors. 1901. William Rush carving his Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River. music-making. The Forest of Arden. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art. The Swimming Hole. KEY WORKS Siegfried and the Rhinemaidens. oil on canvas. 1837 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Philadelphia. Lived in Long Island and produced scenes of rural life that appealed to New York city-dwellers. 1888–91 (Washington.1 x 30. 1872 (Washington. motion. but he was little honored in his lifetime. workmanlike hands. His middle period (from 1869 onward) features matter-of-fact successful professionals.000 in 2004. Landscape (oils) He was an erratic bohemian character who painted brooding. 1884–85 (Texas: Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth) Albert Pinkham Ryder b 1847 – 1917 n AMERICAN 5 New York 1 oils 2 Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art 3 $180. The Race Track (Death on a Pale Horse). DC: National Gallery of Art). and light to animate compositions. but bad technique and the use of bitumen mean that most of his paintings are damaged beyond repair. 1800–1900 295 William Sidney Mount b 1807 – 68 n AMERICAN Thomas Eakins b 1844 – 1916 n AMERICAN 5 New York 1 oils. was a gifted teacher at the Pennsylvania Academy. rich. horse dealing. dark color harmonies. Like many symbolist painters. and perspective to make his pictures work. and position in society than in personality—and responded best to achievers (he was one himself). His frank. cumbersome paint. 1835 (Art Institute of Chicago). He had more interest in matters like status. and boats on stormy moonlit seas. Has any other painter observed shadows so accurately? KEY WORKS The Biglin Brothers Racing.

and the leading Pre-Raphaelite. and heavily worked watercolors. watercolors. Paris.000 in 2003. M. 1845–46 (London: Tate Collection) Dante Gabriel Rossetti b 1828 – 82 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. 1857 (London: Tate Collection) Work Ford Madox Brown. Rome. poet. oil on canvas. Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $3. The Last of England (oils) Trained in France and was a close follower of the Pre-Raphaelites. watercolors. detailed. Birmingham. Look for works of much intensity (the most desirable state of existence for artistic folk at that time). View of Bologna. c. Fine. sinuous hands. glistening hair. Gotthard Pass (watercolors) He was most important as a critic and writer. Bellinzona. Brown’s picture is intended to encapsulate the appearances and activities of the different social classes. 1849 (London: Tate Collection). Manchester: City Art Gallery. RA. c. KEY WORKS Girlhood of Mary Virgin. Chaucer at the Court of Edward III. England 1 oils. 54 x 77 2⁄3 in (137 x 197. which reached out to intellectual political activists. 1851 (Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales) John Ruskin b 1819 – 1900 n BRITISH 5 UK.000 in 2000. W. Pandora (works on paper) Ford Madox Brown b 1821– 93 n BRITISH 5 Antwerp. His femmes fatales are characterized by luscious lips. Mary Nazarene. Brilliant draftsman but his painting technique is a bit suspect. Also went in for romantic medieval themes. Highly detailed work—landscapes painted in the open air and figurative works containing social commentaries on contemporary life. His intensely observed and detailed watercolors reflect his passion and knowledge of geology and architecture. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection. The Seeds and Fruits of English Poetry.296 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT 1845–51 (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum). Europe 1 watercolors 2 Venice: Scuola di S. KEY WORKS He was a painter. As a painter had a central belief in the supremacy of truth to nature (not the same as a slavish imitation of nature). Turner. Switzerland. Had a complicated love life and died of alcohol and drug abuse. 1840 (London: Royal Academy of Arts).624. drawings 2 Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $334. 1852–65. Looking North toward the St. but abandoned this belief after 1858.3 cm). Rocco 3 $408. He is best known for images of erotic femmes fatales painted from the 1860s onward. UK: City Art Gallery. Too idiosyncratic to be successful in his own day. Early Pre-Raphaelite work is rather awkward and stiff at times. . and thick. KEY WORKS J.800 in 2004.

5 x 83. Note his spectacular command of light. The brotherhood was established in 1848 and lasted until c. 1867. KEY EVENTS 1848 1850 1855 1857 The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood holds its first meeting at 7 Gower Street. 1855. especially Malory’s Morte d’Arthur. with faces lit up by the glow. Vivid use of color—sometimes exquisite. Isabella and the Pot of Basil William Holman Hunt.6 cm). In early paintings seek out the stylized “PRB” monogram somewhere in the scene. Shakespeare.C . WHAT TO LOOK FOR The Rescue Sir John Everett Millais. 1853. The movement was much more long-lived and wide-reaching. an ambitious and confident group of seven male artists. especially those of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones. Scenes of chivalry and deep emotion. They often used one another as models. 1800–1900 297 PRE-RAPHAELITES 19th century Artistic movement stemming from the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB). a new generation of Pre-Raphaelites . especially the Bible. so the colors shone with luminosity. with the same scene often painted by several artists. Wilmington: Delaware Art Museum. the Romantics.7 cm). London The meaning of “PRB” revealed by mistake to a journalist Pre-Raphaelite paintings are shown at the Paris Exhibition Rossetti meets William Morris and BurneJones. They were also inspired by medievalism. rich and quite obvious symbolism. Women feature heavily in their works. so look for recognizable portraits and selfportraits among genre paintings. Based on Keats’s poem.7 x 38. They developed their own paint colors and came up with a new technique of painting on a “wet white” background. sentimentalism. the model was Holman Hunt’s pregnant wife. They decided art had “gone wrong” around the time of Raphael and sought to return to ideals shared by artists before Raphael’s time. strong literary references. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria. oil on canvas. such as Browning and Tennyson. 8 1⁄2 x 33 in (21. aged between 19 and 23. and contemporary poets. SUBJECTS AND STYLE Pre-Raphaelites drew their inspiration from literature. oil on canvas. 23 x 15 in (60. at other times gaudy.

Egypt. historical romances. KEY WORKS Ophelia. Look out for delightful. 1852 (London: Tate Collection). retiring. which sold as well as current-day rock group recordings. Famous and successful after 1877. fascination with materials and realistic details are very worldly. Sleeping (oils) He was an infant prodigy who became extremely fashionable. note also the commercial prints made from his paintings. Religious. with a meticulous. Val d’Aosta (oils) He was a devotee of Ruskin.04m in 1999. Painting trips to Italy and the Alps (as approved by Ruskin). Commercially more successful with later works (especially panoramic views of the ocean). obsessive. Palestine 1 oils. Europe 1 oils 2 Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery 3 $1. showing a personal (and typical Victorian) duality. with a streak of calculating shrewdness. producing work with insistent moralizing and didactic themes.000 in 1989. 1860–62 (Los Angeles: J. The Ransom. intensely detailed. rich. 1856 (London: Tate Collection). His paintings reflect his character and one aspect of the age he lived in. 1851–52 (London: Tate Collection). UK: Museums and Art Gallery). His early medieval and mythological subjects are heavily laden with mysticism and symbolism that look back to a “golden” age. 1856 (Birmingham.298 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT William Holman Hunt b 1827 – 1910 n BRITISH 5 England. emulator of Holman Hunt. choice of moral themes. 1863 (London: Tate Collection) Sir John Everett Millais b 1829 – 96 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. 1854 (Wirral. who encouraged him to become an artist . Italy. portraits (he needed the money with eight children and a lavish lifestyle to support). The Blind Girl. On English Coasts. UK: Lady Lever Art Gallery) KEY WORKS His virtuoso craftsmanship and attention to detail (natural and historical) makes it all look so easy. Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $3. often humorous. The Scapegoat. Founding member of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and pillar of the Royal Academy (became its president in 1896). Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery. yet the large-scale. Highly developed sense of 2-D design (due to his closeness to William Morris.47m in 2001. sketches. resulting in early. The Shadow of Death (oils) Hunt was a founding member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and its most consistent exponent. A quiet. strict observation of nature. A true Victorian. The later work is more freely painted. who verges on greatness but whose obsession with detail and coloring can be intense to the point of unpleasantness.72m in 1994. high-colored landscapes that are a tour de force of precise observation and technique. KEY WORKS Glacier of Rosenlaui. otherworldly painter. “Sometimes as I paint I may find my work becoming laborious But as soon as I detect any evidence of that labor I paint the whole thing out.” SIR JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones b 1833 – 98 n BRITISH 5 England 1 oils. tight style. watercolors 2 Birmingham: City Art Gallery 3 $1. precise style. and stubborn. but they are flabby by comparison with his earlier works. Florence from Bellosguardo. and famous. Birmingham (UK): City Art Gallery. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection. c. with subjects overtly designed to catch the fashion of the times and sell well— sentimental scenes. watercolors 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $2. chosen to fulfill a wish to escape from modern urban and industrial reality.848. Prince Entering the Briar Wood (oils) His early work (up to the 1850s) was genuinely Pre-Raphaelite. Paul Getty Museum) John Brett b 1830 – 1902 n BRITISH 5 England.

sculpture 2 Guildford (UK): Watts Gallery $1. 1880s (Liverpool: Walker Art Gallery) Fine Paintings). 1880 (London: Tate Collection) . London: William Morris Gallery. closeness to Ruskin). 1800–1900 299 St. Was also influenced known in his day as “England’s by early Renaissance art (such as Botticelli).121. and landscapes that reflect the tapestry and stained glass. King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid. 1880s (New York: Roy Miles KEY WORKS Choosing. KEY WORKS Music. now seem pompous and overambitious.” Produced portraits. George and the Dragon Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones.C . George Frederick Watts b 1817 – 1904 n BRITISH 5 England. Sir Galahad. gouache on paper. and illustrations influence of his two exemplars but can for texts of medieval and classical legends.800 in 1986. Italy 1 oils. Produced very successful designs for allegories. Hope (oils) instead of following a career in the Church) 3 and a technique that shows a love of He aimed to emulate the grandeur and meticulous craftsmanship (due to his achievements of Titian and Michelangelo. Burne-Jones worked closely with William Morris from 1855–59. 1864 (Private Collection). Michelangelo. His portraits are his best work. This painting postdates his visit to Italy with Ruskin in 1862. 1868.

The movement had a strong following. Refusing to hark back to historic or pastoral idylls. as well as with natural landscapes and human emotions. The Painter’s Studio. Russia. Thérèse Raquin 1855 1863 1867 . had been refused by the Universal Exhibition. oil on canvas. a poacher. a war veteran. and the US. so Courbet set up his own in a nearby tent. Realists wanted to depict the truth. KEY EVENTS 1848 1850 Revolution in France. shown at Salon Universal Exhibition. The losers include a Chinese. the movement became a mechanism for social change. rise to power of Napoleon III Courbet’s Stonebreakers. and Flaubert.300 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT REALISM The progressive movement in art and literature in the mid-19th century (especially in France). including The Painter’s Studio Manet’s Le déjeuner sur l'herbe at Salon des Refusés Publication of Emile Zola’s first major realist novel. Above all. being associated with new. Courbet mounts rival show. It rejected Academic art as being too artificial.” Realism was concerned with social realities. an Irishwoman. spreading into Germany. Realists wanted to cut through the cant of society—and not just in art. with artists from other traditions often borrowing the ideas and language of Realism. 1857. Realists also painted what they saw in everyday life. the Netherlands. The artist produced a manifesto to go with his exhibition. remarkable for its social realism. Whereas artists had traditionally romanticized the poor and their harsh existence. rejoicing in the contrariness of the natural world. genre scenes. and Romanticism as being too concerned with the imagination. the effective dictator of the French Second Empire Subject matter is diverse: portraits. which he entitled Le Réalisme. Its centerpiece. Balzac. with an exhibition of works by Gustave Courbet. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. landscapes. Millet was described by one critic as “a great painter who walks in clogs the road of Michelangelo. Zola. a Jew. 33 x 44 in (83 x 111 cm). The movement was highly influential. Dickens. It began in earnest in 1855. Realism dealt with the harshness of life. and with championing individuals’ rights. groups. as such. democratic ways of thinking. and a laborer Wearing huntsman’s dress is Napolean III. such as human degradation and poverty. In 1857. with antiestablishment causes. with a SUBJECTS committed political agenda. STYLE The Gleaners Jean-François Millet. and wanted to show fact rather than ideals or aesthetics. Realism also influenced literary giants such as Tolstoy.

1855. 1800–1900 301 C. We know a great deal about this work because Courbet described it in detail while he worked on it. This is Courbet’s unambivalent comment on the critics who were extremely powerful in shaping 19th-century artistic opinion. is a manifesto of Realism in which he sets out his central beliefs and opinions. Light enters through a window on the right side—the side of life. .C .” To his left are those who “thrive on death. The skull is resting on top of a newspaper. represented as the poor. and the losers in life. It shows his studio in Paris with three groups of figures. Courbet wanted his art to have similar qualities.” not just his enemies (notably A figure in the pose of the Crucifixion. uninhibited by rules or overrefined techniques. although painted early in his career. The artist is in the center. 1855 –1900 WHAT TO LOOK FOR Courbet’s masterpiece. a cloak and dagger. To his right are his friends—“those who thrive on life. but also the evils he fought against. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Napoleon III). The Painter’s Studio Gustave Courbet. which Courbet rejected the Head of State. which is the archetypal symbol of death. 142 x 235 1⁄2 in (361 x 598 cm ) oil on canvas. A skylight also lit the studio The plaster medallion of a woman’s profile is one of very few props depicted in the studio A large floppy hat with a feather. The art establishment frowned upon such subject matter This woman represents naked truth guiding Courbet’s brush TECHNIQUES The boy makes a crude sketch. and those exploited and oppressed by them. On a table to the left of the artist is a skull. the destitute. and a guitar—the typical gear of the Romantic artist On the easel is a large landscape. This “lay figure” symbolizes academic art. depicting the artist’s homeland.

Had a brilliant technique. 1888–89 (London: National Gallery). Manchester: City Art Gallery 3 $4. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. London. Flowers and fruit are highly worked and end up looking artificial. Paul Getty Museum). Palestine 1 oils. wooden portraits with sitters who look distinctly uncomfortable or bored. Bouquet de fleurs (oils) He was a painter of allegories inspired by music (especially Wagner). fashionable painter of small-scale polished depictions of society (especially slim-waisted women) at play. Benefited from close connections with his more gifted artistic contemporaries. KEY WORKS James Tissot b 1836 – 1902 n FRENCH Flowers and Fruit. still lifes. oil on canvas. 1878 (Los Angeles: J. Le banc de jardin (oils) Max Liebermann b 1847 – 1935 n GERMAN 5 Germany. His late religious conversion following the death of his much-painted mistress led to Bible illustrations. and stodgy. prints 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $3. 1873 (Art Institute of Chicago) 5 France. The Ropewalk in Edam. prints 2 London: Christie’s Images 3 $1. Bavaria Max Liebermann. Liebermann was regarded as a cultural enemy by the Kaiser because he admired modern foreign art (like French Barbizon and Impressionism). 1867 (Art Institute of Chicago). Brannenburg. 1904 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 France 1 oils.4m in 2003.8m in 1994. Used the earth-color palette of the old masters. which compensated for lack of depth and insight. 1894. Still Life: Corner of a Table. Produced freely painted. and rejected German nationalist and academic traditions.302 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Henri Fantin-Latour b 1836 – 1904 n FRENCH the modern rainbow palette of the French Impressionists. prints. but lived in London between 1871 and 1882. A Country Brasserie. which reassured his clients and appeal to modern-day nostalgia. where he became a highly successful. Portrait of Edouard Manet. KEY WORKS An Old Woman with Cat. The Garden of the Artist in Wannsee (oils) A successful painter of middle-class daily life and places—updated replay of Dutch 17th-century and Biedermeier art.2m in 2000. 27 1⁄2 x 39 1⁄3 in (70 x 100 cm). . drawings 2 London: The Fine Art Society. France 1 oils. Memorial Service for Kaiser Friedrich at Kösen. not very difficult paintings. 1865 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). not He was French-born.

Tissot’s art was attacked by the critics Oscar Wilde. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. c. scrubbed floors. 1874 (London: Christie’s Images). 1914 –15 (Stockholm: National Museum). Henry James. James Tissot. Carl Larsson b 1853 – 1919 n SWEDISH 5 Sweden 1 watercolors. Near Kattegat (watercolors) designer textiles. oils. 1899 (Private Collection). Became manic-depressive after 1906. Also portraits and self-portraits. c. 1864. and John Ruskin. c.345. simplicity) were internationally influential and established the idea of the Scandinavian style.C . Sitting Room—View Two. 1874 (Ohio: Toledo Museum of Art). L. 48 3⁄4 x 39 1⁄2 in (124 x 100 cm). 1885 (St. allegorical murals. The Midwinter Sacrifice. Earlier in his life he painted large-scale decorative. KEY WORKS Watering the Plants. L. Indian Summer. wife’s . Reading the News. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) KEY WORKS Portrait of Mlle. for its appeal to the nouveaux riches. oil on canvas. 1915 (Private Collection) A key Swedish artist whose idealized illustrations of his own country cottage (rustic furniture.714 in 1989. prints 2 Stockholm: Nationalmuseum 3 $1. Inner Voices (Christ Consoling the Wanderers). 1800–1900 303 London Visitors.

dressed up in their crinolines and bonnets on cloudy. 1830 (London: National Gallery). 1864 (Art Institute of Chicago). Shows wonderful observation of light and clouds in the sky and empirical exploration of space. c. KEY WORKS The Forum Seen from the Farnese Gardens. breezy days. gentle. Some works have darkened with time. Trod a difficult and not always successful path between Romanticism and realism. Also painted scenes of Venice. Had a sketchy style and was an exponent of plein-air spontaneity. artificial. Much copied and faked—there are said to be more “genuine” Corots in the US than all the pictures he painted in his lifetime. lyrical landscapes—are based on remembered emotions (“souvenirs”) and sketches from nature. He allowed nature to speak for itself. also enchanting figure paintings. soft focus.5m in 1984. 1826 (Paris: Musée du Louvre). Paris: Musée du Louvre. 1867–70 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) Eugène Boudin b 1824 – 98 n FRENCH 5 Northern France 1 oils. KEY WORKS Approaching Storm. Scène de plage (oils) Best known for charming small-scale beach scenes of vacationers on the Normandy coast (Trouville). and sought to convey both the spirit (Romanticism) and appearance (realism) of nature growing and vegetating. watercolors 2 Le Havre: Musée des Beaux-Arts 3 $1. Forest in Boisrémond. too. Paysage panoramique. KEY WORKS Sunset in the Auvergne. abolishing the convention of inserting human figures in order to animate or interpret the landscape. a forerunner of the Impressionists (very influential on young Monet). c. Italy 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée du Louvre 3 $3. head turned toward us—on Leonardo da Vinci’s masterpiece the Mona Lisa. La femme à la grande toque et à la mandoline (oils) A major landscape painter of the 19th century.000 in 2004. note the way he tightens the soft focus with sharp dark accents of paint. Corot has based the woman’s pose— hands crossed over one another. 27 1⁄2 x 21 2⁄3 in (70 x 55 cm). such as one finds on fall evenings. Cottage. more conventional (academic and sometimes ludicrous) landscapes. Paul Getty Museum) Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot b 1796 – 1875 n FRENCH 5 France. Kind. 1842 (Los Angeles: J. it’s probably not a Boudin. Théodore Rousseau b 1812 – 67 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Chantilly (France): Musée Condé 3 $485. If you can’t sense the breeze. Unquestionably at his best with his small plein-air. 1842. best-known paintings (post1860)—silvery green. and unusually unegocentric for an artist. the Netherlands. England. on-the-spot sketches (called pochades). His late. oil on canvas.304 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Woman with a Pearl Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. A bridge between the English landscape tradition and French Impressionism. and France. Ville d’Avray. Soleil couchant sur les sables du Jean-de-Paris (oils) An important pioneer of plein-air painting and principal figure of the Barbizon School (thereby linking Constable to Monet). Switzerland. He was excited by woods and trees. The Beach at Tourgeville-les-Sablons.000 in 2003. 1830–40 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum).467. Distinguish between the small-scale sketches made on the spot and the larger detailed works made in the studio. the earlier. Dramatic skies. But notice. 1893 (London: National Gallery) .

This picture was a star exhibit at the Paris World Fair of 1867.C . surrounded by the forest of Fontainebleau. His small-scale works describe a selfcontained world of humble people working on and with the land. and peace that is not overloaded with drama or symbolism. 1850 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). the way he worked The Angelus Jean-François Millet. and paved the way for Impressionism. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $3. The Sower.1m in 1996. meaning paintings that were begun and completed in the open air instead of inside the studio. so you feel you are standing on the same level as the people you see. The group made landscape as important as portraiture and genre painting. either the dignity or the cruelty of manual peasant labor. Notice the low viewpoint. or studio paintings that consciously set out to capture on canvas the qualities and sensations of being outside in the open air. 1847–48 (London: National Gallery). Freshly observed light. whose great innovation was to allow landscape and nature to speak for themselves without human intervention or presence. and vast numbers of reproductions were sold. depending on your point of view. The Wool Carder (oils) The son of a Normandy farmer. The leader of the school was Theodore Rousseau. 1800–1900 305 Jean-François Millet b 1814 – 75 n FRENCH 5 Paris. mid-19th century painters who worked in and around the French village of Barbizon near Paris. He portrays. PLEIN AIR PAINTING AND THE BARBIZON SCHOOL c. England. and the atmosphere. the paint. silence. 26 x 29 in (55. Works directly onto the canvas—so you can often see pentimenti (alterations). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) .) KEY WORKS The Winnower. 1852 (St. The Barbizon painters promoted the concept of “plein air” painting. who painted the final scenes of a rural world and lifestyle at the moment when it was beginning to disappear because of the industrialization of France. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1857–59. 1840–1870 A group of progressive. (It is as if his style and working methods were a sort of parallel with the way in which his peasants work the land. the light. sense of direct contact with the land. Netherlands 1 oils. Shows a magical stillness. engravings 2 London: National Gallery. and his carefully considered line. Peasant Girls with Brushwood.5 x 66 cm). oil on canvas.

near Besançon) the copper in the soil turns the vegetation that color. death. Montpellier: Musée Fabre 3 $2. and places he painted and valued down-to-earth. Note the “The sea’s voice is tremendous. destiny. The Source of the Loue. The Cliff at Etretat after the Storm. especially in his landscapes—it is not artistic license: in his beloved homeland (Ornans. but also to see what it was that inspired him and how real his “realism” is. the ocean. Portrait de Jo. uninspired.7m in 1998. 1872 (Caen: Musée des Beaux-Arts) . He chose large-scale subjects (such as life. The major exponent of 19th-century realism. Note his prominent red signature—what a big ego! KEY WORKS The Painter’s Studio. la belle Irlandaise (oils) Courbet was the radical scourge of corrupt Second Empire France and the tedious old-fashioned traditions of the French Academy. DC: National Gallery of Art).306 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Gustave Courbet b 1819 – 77 n FRENCH 5 France. His work can range from the most brilliantly inspired and executed to sloppy. the forest) and often produced physically large paintings.” GUSTAVE COURBET very unusual rich green. Switzerland 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1864 (Washington. 1869 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Brilliant. everyday activities. Portrayed toughness and realism—real people carrying out unglamorous. (see page 301). Had an intimate knowledge of all the activities. The Sea. The area is worth visiting for its stunning beauty. and bad painting. physical paint. provincial life more highly than fashionable Parisian glamour. but not loud enough to drown the voice of Fame crying my name to the entire world. people. gutsy technique with thick.

Madame Manet on a Blue Sofa. Has anyone ever used black so lusciously and with such visual impact? His work is a paradoxical combination of intimacy and aloofness: one of Manet’s personal characteristics was wanting to be accepted in official art circles but his whole approach to art and those in authority ensured that he wasn’t. wives. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum. c. bourgeois regime (French Second Empire). ink wash. and charcoal on paper. Still Life with Melon and Peaches. sketches. especially. 1860 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $24m in 1989. Had a prolific output: prints (he was a pioneer of lithography). His use of light. 1870 (Los Angeles: J. 1860 (Glasgow Museums). Europe 1 oils. KEY WORKS Olympia (see pages 308 – 309). but someone is often withdrawn or preoccupied and not immediately involved in what is going on.3 x 29. 1866 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). he was a father figure for the young avant-garde. His subjects are French men and women living in a corrupt. 8 x 11 3⁄4 in (20. Notice his captivating facial expressions. oils. KEY WORKS The Laundress. Works have a probing. DC: National Gallery of Art). even though his work was censored. many paintings show one or more people in a scene of great intimacy or drama. after 1860 (Washington. . Honoré Daumier b 1808 – 79 n FRENCH 5 France 1 prints. but the message is timeless. lawyers. prints. watercolors. DC: National Gallery of Art).5 cm). oil on canvas. 1800–1900 307 The Bar at the Folies-Bergère Edouard Manet.235.000 in 1993. DC: National Gallery of Art). artists. His compelling images observe the absurdities and obsessions of husbands. 1864. actors. Advice to a Young Artist. and atmosphere is as good as Rembrandt’s. The Fifer. hands—all speaking volumes. 1873 (Washington. He produced miraculous. 1881–82. or parodies traditional themes dear to the heart of academic artists. He was unique in that he had a brilliant. La rue Mosnier aux drapeaux (oils) A hugely important. drawings. Thus. key figure in late 19th-century Paris. shade. very influential. Gare Saint-Lazare. Paul Getty Museum) The Third-Class Carriage Honoré Daumier. Never judgmental or unkind. His fascinatingly ambiguous subject matter and style portray modern (sometimes seamy) urban and suburban life and people. Le fardeau—la blanchisseuse (oils) Edouard Manet b 1832 – 83 n FRENCH 5 France. small clay-model caricatures of politicians. sculpture 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2. some oil paintings after 1860 (he was never comfortable with the scale and technique—at his best with a smaller and more spontaneous scale and medium). greedy. very visual and sketchy painting technique. Makes the everyday sublime and moving. London: Courtauld Institute of Art. politicians. c. The Studio. Spurned by official art circles. 1874.C . etc. The bottles (from beer to champagne) symbolize this interaction. involving the use of large areas of flat color. Ignored the rich and famous. Upper-class dandies like Manet rubbed shoulders with workers and prostitutes at the Folies-Bergère. Railroads brought the rural poor to Paris seeking employment and a new life. body language. lively line. At his best he does both at the same time. engravings 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. c. The Print Collector. Took Courbet’s realism one step further. watercolor.” but is much more because he reveals universal truths about the human condition. and was never successful commercially. Went semiblind in 1870. 38 x 51 in (97 x 130 cm). 1874 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) Called the “greatest 19th-century caricaturist. 1866 (Washington. c.

aged 30. Sargent (see page 326) learned that Manet’s widow was about to sell the painting to an American collector. Olympia caused a storm of outraged protest. Goodlooking. Coming from a well-to-do Parisian family. It was obvious to everyone that the reclining woman was not a goddess. Here he has employed a professional model. She became a painter herself. but a prostitute.308 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Olympia Edouard Manet 1863 Edouard Manet never achieved his ambition: to be officially honored as the true modern successor of the old masters. He considered Olympia to be his finest work. and it was described as being crude. but the color harmonies are very subtle. and he never sold it. Manet mostly used his family and friends to pose as models. he was born to such a role. but ended life as an alcoholic Black is one of the most difficult of pigments for an artist to exploit as it can easily overwhelm and kill all other colors and qualities. Manet. There is no fine detail. This picture was shown at the official Paris Salon of 1865. When he died. Manet was nervous about how it would be received. it went to auction. Manet is the great master of black: he was able to use it to bring a rich tonality and elegance to his work. Victorine Meurent. There is virtually no shadow or modeling with soft light. who dressed with great care. Some critics saw this style as merely incompetent when compared with that of Ingres (see page 264). He uses a bold composition with strong outlines to the forms. and he warned Monet. and very gifted. . TECHNIQUES The candid style shows Manet at his best. he was always at ease in society. It was seen not as a modern interpretation of a respected theme. habitually wore the black frock coat and silk top hat that was fashionable in his day. charming. worldly-wise. as his famous painting Déjeuner sur l’Herbe had already caused a scandal. who organized a public appeal to buy it for the Louvre. but it did not find a buyer. The constant criticism and rejection of his work caused Manet to have a nervous breakdown in 1871. In 1888. strong. but as a crude parody of a sacred artistic tradition going back to the greatest masters such as Titian and Goya (see pages 143 and 262–263).

The bouquet symbolically suggests the sweet pleasures offered by Olympia The image of the reclining nude is one of the most revered in the old master tradition.The servant brings in flowers—a gift from a previous admirer—but Olympia does not acknowledge her presence. Manet knew that his audience would understand his reference to Giorgione’s Sleeping Venus (see page 140) Manet’s creation is not the goddess Venus. and an orchid in her hair. which he often painted for his own pleasure. She is explicitly naked with pearls at her neck and ears. but a young woman in a recognizable role. She is ready for her next client: the spectator of the painting. Her slipper dangles impatiently on her foot. Olympia Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 51 x 75 in (130 x 190 cm ) Location Paris: Musée d’Orsay . Manet was a master of still life.

Bassin aux nymphéas et sentier au bord de l’eau (oils) The true leader of the Impressionists—he was constantly exploring “What do I see and how do I record it in painting?” Monet had a never-ending interest in observing and painting that most elusive quality. 1899.3 x 93. but challenging and modern in its day. light—notably in the “Series” paintings. In old age Monet’s eyesight deteriorated because of cataracts and he depended on instinct and memory to paint his later works. Norway 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. KEY WORKS The Petit Bras of the Seine at Argenteuil. and garden 3 $29.520. under different light conditions (the Rouen Cathedral. crusty paint. Claude Monet b 1840 – 1926 n FRENCH 5 France.310 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Waterlily Pond Claude Monet. his garden. texture. studio. Spent 40 years (the second half of his life) creating The Japanese Bridge at Giverny Claude Monet. at Giverny. Note the thick. 1872 (London: National Gallery). Italy. The Haystacks. Paris: Musée Marmottan. 1918–24. which gets thicker as the light gets more interesting—particularly when it catches the edges of objects. haystacks. and interweaving of paint and color. at Giverny. scenes in London).1 cm). 34 3⁄4 x 36 2⁄3 in (88. London. 35 x 39 1⁄3 in (89 x 100 cm). London. 1904 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay).000 in 1998. He would sit in the middle of it and paint it. oil on canvas. Impression: Sunrise (see page 312). One of a series of 18 paintings depicting the Japanese bridge in Monet’s water garden. London: National Gallery. or The End of Summer. The Houses of Parliament. from scratch—a subject that he could control in every detail (except the light). Musée Marmottan. Waterlilies. 1908 (London: Christie’s Images) . Giverny (near Paris) for Monet’s house. oil on canvas. Stand back and enjoy the imagery— familiar and nostalgic for us now. where he painted the same subject dozens of times. Or stand close up to his compositions and enjoy the complexity.

buxom young girls. and hampered by being too anecdotal— it could often be one of those illustrations for a 19th-century novel that visualize a specific phrase or sentence in the text. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $71m in 1990. sensual. 1893. Rouen. which He was a second-rate painter who knew what talent was (one of the first collectors of great Impressionist paintings). which caress the canvas. firm breasts. 1880 (Rouen: Musée des Beaux-Arts) . Girl Combing her Hair. 1877 (Art Institute of Chicago). 36 1⁄2 x 29 in (92 x 74 cm). Le Moulin de la Galette (oils) Renoir was one of the first Impressionists. giving it a seductive. Did he never become bored by all that comfortable. Renoir was much influenced by Delacroix and Ingres. makes one think of soft feather cushions and Turkish Delight? See how the sensuality of his technique marries with the subject matter: long. and nature knocks them all flat. pink. You come to nature with your theories. 1907–08 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) “There is something in painting which cannot be explained. 1874 (Cardiff: National Museum of Wales). L’homme au balcon. but soon developed an individual and un-Impressionist style. Interesting work but essentially derivative. Note the blushes on the cheeks and the obsession with small. DC: National Gallery of Art. Wet Weather. oil on canvas. which pervades all his work. KEY WORKS The Gust of Wind. and that something is essential. the late works become rather repetitive at times. and less mush. Most remembered for his lyrical paintings of pink. free brushstrokes of warm color. boulevard Haussmann (oils) Pierre-Auguste Renoir b 1841 – 1919 n FRENCH 5 France. Socially conservative. The Boating Party (see page 313). female flesh. The early works have cooler colors. and who occasionally showed some in his own work. View of Rooftops (Snow). and soft-focus quality. more black. Recognizable pink-green-blue-purple palette—often too strident and overdoes the purple. Cropped compositions influenced by photography. especially street scenes with exaggerated.” PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR Gustave Caillebotte b 1848 – 94 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $13m in 2000. 1878 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). c. The early works have bite and observation. Typical Impressionist subject matter and technique (very similar to Monet and Manet). Italy 1 oils 2 Philadelphia: Barnes Collection.311 Bather Arranging her Hair Pierre-Auguste Renoir. At the Café. He is the greatest ever master of dappled light. plunging perspectives. he destroyed many works he deemed inadequate. Washington. KEY WORKS Rue de Paris. 1872 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). The Parisienne. Very prolific. Scenes of everyday contemporary Paris.

only Pissarro. brilliant colors intended to capture an instant briefly glimpsed define Impressionism. railroad stations. Whether picnics. the Impressionists pointed the way to a new way of seeing. the studio was abandoned for painting on the spot directly onto the canvas. and Monet. Sisley. Impermanence of light and atmosphere are his real focus. boating parties. Degas excelled in exquisite. still lifes. Monet aimed to capture fleeting moments. oil on canvas. mosaiclike brushstrokes in light. city views or sun-flooded landscapes vibrantly alive with color. satin ribbon and wood base. repainting same subjects in different conditions 1870 1874 1881 1886 1890 The modern world became paramount. Little Dancer. its goal simply to depict the immediacy of the world with complete fidelity. Yet in seeing this as accidental. The artists aimed at more than just spontaneity. the giant of the movement. height 38 1⁄2 in (97. Plein air (literally. . By replacing tonal gradations—the gradual lightening or darkening of a color to suggest shadows and depth—with tiny dabs of pure color. Private Collection. the emphasis was consistently on the world immediately surrounding the painter. escaping Franco-Prussian war. By painting rapidly. shimmering visual language of Impressionism—it naturally placed a premium on landscapes and outdoor scenes. SUBJECTS The here and now dominated. (19 x 24 3⁄4 in). remained consistently true to its goals. “open air”) painting (see page 305) not only demanded an immediacy on the part of the painter—the speed of work necessary was a key reason for the fragmented. As important. it prompted a strikingly different pictorial language that began the overthrow of the naturalistic tradition the Renaissance established. Paris: Musée Marmottan.312 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT IMPRESSIONISM Impressionism marked the birth of modern painting. joined by Sisley (1871) Critic derisively coins name “Impressionism” at first exhibition Renoir increasingly abandons Impressionism after visiting Rome Last Impressionist exhibition held Monet begins epic cycles. painting at Bougival on the Seine Monet and Pissarro in London. It amounted to a decisive rejection of the Academy’s ponderous “official” history-painting. 48 x 63 cm by Impressionism. 1872. polychrome bronze with muslin. Aged 14 Edgar Degas. apparently random. KEY EVENTS 1869 Monet and Renoir establish key Impressionism characteristics. 1880–81. Impressionism exulted in the everyday. It was never consciously revolutionary. slices of life. Yet although almost every major avant garde French painter of the period was influenced Impression: Sunrise Claude Monet.8 cm). the product of transitory lighting conditions and chance moments. STYLE Delicate.

C . heightening colors. a talented artist (see page 311) Renoir was an accomplished still-life painter. flirts with the actress Jeanne Samary. 51 x 68 in (129. TECHNIQUES Typically. since he constantly reworked the painting.5 x 173 cm). Renoir artfully used Impressionistic techniques to create complex groups of rhythmically composed figures. Paul Lhote. Fournaise (in the straw hat) was the proprietor of the restaurant celebrates the pleasures of youth and summer. is chatting to the proprietor’s daughter The Boating Party Pierre-Auguste Renoir. an apparently deliberate flaunting of the accepted canons of Academic painting. the man in the straw hat is Gustave Caillebotte. He had a reputation as a ladies’ man Baron Raoul Barbier. his seeming spontaneity was the product of painstaking labor. It unapologetically M. However. 1800–1900 313 1860s –1880s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Impressionism was near universally derided as “unfinished. with the traditions of European figure painting. . DC: Phillips Collection. Renoir’s Boating Party encapsulates Impressionism’s unshackled joie de vivre. Deep in conversation. reinforcing deft brushwork. The result was an unprecedented luminosity that shone through their work. 1881. above all in his quivering. a close friend of Renoir’s. The spontaneity is deceptive. and the debris of this meal is a sparkling achievement.” Critics complained that its subjects were trivial and its execution crude. oil on canvas. feathery brushwork. Impressionists used canvases with white backgrounds. wearing pince-nez glasses. Yet his most enduring achievement was to combine the visual imperatives of Impressionism. Washington.

1890 (Nice: Musée d’Art et d’Histoire) . then back to Impressionism. The Walk. Pissarro chose a wide range of subjects: landscapes (Seine valley). with predominant greens and blues. KEY WORKS The Harbor at Lorient. 1876 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Tate Collection 3 $3. 1893. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. DC: National Gallery of Art). and painters in their circle. diagonals). as if they could be worked further if he could decide what to do with them (a sign of his uncertainty?). The Climbing Path. Portrait of the Artist’s Mother and Sister. Musée d’Orsay 3 $4m in 2000. in effect. watercolors. Autumn. Eugène). modern cityscapes (Paris. Note the play of contrasts in content: rural against industrial. structures. Paul Getty Museum). Surfaces are thickly painted The Bridge at Moret Alfred Sisley.5 cm). portraits. peasant scenes (especially laundresses). Look for places. and unsettled artist who. 1869 (Washington. KEY WORKS View from Louveciennes. Like Constable. KEY WORKS Women Going to the Woods. Her works are. He often chose high viewpoints (such as cityscapes painted from windows). natural against artificial. Cache-cache (oils) She was a member of the Impressionists and effective hostess and go-between to the writers. free. takes his place as one of the major Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. delicate style derived from Manet (she married his brother.314 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Berthe Morisot b 1841 – 95 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils. 1869–70 (London: National Gallery). Les quatre saisons (oils) He was a reclusive. blues and purples) to produce the sensation of light. and connections. poets. L’Hermitage Pontoise. early landscapes to Impressionism and to experiments with Divisionism. oil on canvas. 29 x 36 2⁄3 in (73. nonetheless. transient against permanent. Sisley had to earn a living as a painter when the family business collapsed in 1870. curmudgeonly. Note the interesting color combinations (especially pinks and greens. He progressed from dark. warm against cool. horizontals. 1870 (Los Angeles: J. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum 3 $8m in 2004.2m in 2000. 1866 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art). drawings 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. then and now. an autobiographical diary. England 1 oils 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art. He also liked well-structured compositions (notice the verticals. Un jardin à Louveciennes. Floods at Port Marly. Always an anarchist and always poor. chemin de l’Etarche (oils) 5 France. old against new. 1869–70 (London: National Gallery) (sometimes patchily) with a sketchy look. England 1 oils. still lifes. but never really settled into a style with which he was completely at ease or that was completely his own. 1875 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) Alfred Sisley b 1839 – 99 n BRITISH/FRENCH Camille Pissarro b 1830 – 1903 n FRENCH 5 Paris. watercolors 2 Paris: Musée Marmottan.5 x 92. “The forgotten Impressionist”—the most underrated of the group. Rouen—note the factory chimneys). Cleverly used structural details like roads and bridges to take the eye through the landscape and link all the parts together. Attractive. Was most confident in later work. His developed palette is quite chalky and pale. Sisley only painted places he knew well and he particularly responded to the Seine and Thames valleys.

His technique. c. Notice how often he used the receding diagonal as the main armature for his compositions. 1800–1900 315 Woman Drying Herself Edgar Degas. Degas increasingly worked with soft waxy pastels as his eyesight deteriorated. pastels. his extraordinary capacity for drawing. pastel. 23 3⁄4 x 17 1⁄3 in (60 x 44 cm). conservative. London: National Gallery.28m in 1999. 1886 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) 5 France. 1876–77. experimented in many media: pastel. 1872–73 (Washington. and single. and attention to detail are equally self-absorbed—one of those rare. The Millinery Shop. 1888–92. prints. depending on touch and feel. Ballet and racing scenes are a means of exploring complex space and movement. Edgar Degas b 1834 – 1917 n FRENCH “Anyone can have a talent at 25. Worked and reworked the same subject or theme to achieve ever greater understanding and perfection. His technique shows the same qualities of precision and balance as classical ballet. Successfully bridged the gap between the old master tradition and modernity.8 x 98. Danseuse au repos (pastels) Degas was one of the greatest draftsmen of all time. even when he was old and nearly blind. or Dancer on the Stage Edgar Degas. and sculpture. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $25. Had astonishing color sensitivity.C . Even when the subjects of his portraits make eye contact. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Italy 1 oils. Degas was fascinated by meticulous but innovative craftsmanship. Shy. whatever the topic.4 cm). The Tub. Also was interested in photography—he borrowed and used the cut-off effect brilliantly. 49 x 38 3⁄4 in (103. they give nothing away. pastel on paper. haughty. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. 1884–90 (Art Institute of Chicago). and The Star. The difficulty is to have talent at 50!” EDGAR DEGAS KEY WORKS Madame René de Gas. perfect unions between subject matter and means of expression. Each picture shows a selfcontained and self-absorbed world. c. prints. DC: National Gallery of Art). .

richly painted flags at wartime parades act as an exciting visual motif and symbol of patriotism. 1918 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Childe Hassam b 1859 –1935 n AMERICAN 5 US. the Americans were the best and largest group of Impressionists.6m in 1993.4 cm). elegant portraits (style learned in Munich).316 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT c. Before that. and Ingres. In his earlier work. 1874 (Paris: Musée du Petit Palais). 1895. courageous color. gregarious. c. Next to the French. . the emphasis was on contre-jour. prints 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $7. Mary Cassatt b 1844 –1926 n AMERICAN 5 Paris 1 oils. oil on canvas. and cropped angled viewpoints that capture personal. KEY WORKS Musical Party. May 1917 (Washington. Paris 1 oils. Spottable influences from Degas. 1886 (Washington. 72 x 36 in (182. Peonies (work on paper) Chase was a prolific and versatile artist from a prosperous Indiana background. Cassatt settled in Paris. 1890 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). Developed two distinct styles. Produced attractive works with strong sense of design. Detroit Institute of Arts.9 x 91. Mother about to Wash her Sleepy Child. 1880 (Los Angeles County Museum of Art). meaningful moments of the well-to-do. KEY WORKS Grand Prix Day. Allies Day. 1891 (Art Institute of Chicago) William Merritt Chase b 1849 –1916 n AMERICAN 5 Munich. she also helped the Impressionists. She mixed with avant-garde and helped American collectors spend their loot (very Henry James). Flags. A friend of Degas. cultivated in the European manner (friend of Whistler). Afternoon on the Avenue (oils) America’s foremost Impressionist artist.7m in 1996. In the Box (oils) The daughter of a wealthy Pittsburgh family. 1887 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). prints 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $3.” where brightly colored. Successful. both direct and spontaneous: his early works are dark. DC: National Gallery of Art). Japanese prints. after 1890s they become light-filled French-Impressionist-style scenes of Long Island (Shinnecock). Manhattan’s Misty Sunset. as they did not often visit Paris until the 1880s. Hassam painted more than 4. Avenue of the Allies. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). but they were late in the day by 20 years—post-1890s. they had tended to learn their art in Germany.2m in 1998. Portrait of a Lady in Black William Merritt Chase. Best remembered for his late (post-1917) “flag paintings. Evening in New York. Chase is best known for his spirited portraits and still lifes in oil. New York 1 oils 2 Houston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $3. DC: National Gallery of Art). Girl Arranging her Hair. 1911 (Youngstown. heavy. The Bath.000 works (oil and watercolors). witty. Great Britain. flashy dresser.

whom he had met at Giverny in 1887. 1899 (Indianapolis: Museum of Art) KEY WORKS Julian Alden Weir b 1852 – 1919 n AMERICAN 5 Paris. Low Tide. He sometimes worked from photographs. Became president of the National Academy of Design. He died relatively young.2 cm).C . 1895 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Robinson was the leading American Impressionist painter. Nassau. drawings 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $400. DC: Smithsonian Institute. 1892 (Youngstown. Known only as Marie. Was conservative in technique and temperament. France 1 oils 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $1. Portrait of Moses Swaim. 1892 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). oil on canvas. c. Boats at a Landing (oils) At the Seaside. KEY WORKS Union Square. which he used by squaring up—traces of the grid can occasionally be seen on the canvas. he was a pioneer. 1884–87 (Washington. He found East Coast American light too bright compared with the light in France. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). The Brass Bowl. and had difficulty painting it. Was most successful in his smaller works. 1893 (London: Christie’s Images). DC: National Gallery of Art). watercolors. c. The Red Bridge. His early work was much influenced by Manet.9m in 1994. In the US. Watching the Cows. Riverside Yacht Club. and the brushstrokes too carefully considered. 1800–1900 317 At the Piano Theodore Robinson. 1867 (Indianapolis: Museum of Art). 1879 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). Bahamas (oils) Weir was the most academically successful American Impressionist. 1887. Painted landscapes and vignettes of village and farm life. c. his later years marred by poor health and poverty. particularly in watercolor and silverpoint. 1894 (Washington. later work is closer to Monet. but his Impressionist style is cautious by French standards—compositions are rather static. Miss Motes and her Dog Shep. DC: National Gallery of Art) . and was a close friend of Monet.8 x 64. Willimantic Thread Factory. US 1 oils. KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. He studied in Paris. He made several visits to France between 1876 and 1892. Theodore Robinson b 1852 – 96 n AMERICAN 5 US.000 in 1987. Washington. 1893 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art). the true identity of Robinson’s mysterious model remains unknown. 16 1⁄2 x 25 1⁄4 in (41. despite her appearance in numerous works.

c.4m in 1999. Was fascinated with biological procreativity. human feelings. triumphant finale to the sculptural tradition that starts with Donatello. nudes. The Gates of Hell. workaholic. and small models. He used studio assistants or commercial firms to make large-scale versions of his original models—what you see may never have been touched by Rodin (he wanted to disseminate his work widely). It was commissioned by the city of Calais to commemorate six 14th-century civic heroes. at the age of 77. Sinner. Observe the ways he uses the fluidity of clay and plaster (even when cast in bronze). to release his figures.7 cm). physically enormous. Paris. Note his stunningly beautiful recreation of (large) hands. 1880–1917 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1884–89. Married his lifetime companion Rose Beuret in 1917 in Meudon. Washington. embraces. which show ideas in evolution. impoverished beginnings. One of a number of casts of Rodin’s original plaster model. 1885 (St. A cast of The Thinker overlooks his grave in Meudon. Andromeda. kisses. He carried out an extraordinary and enriching hide-and-seek exploration with the processes of his art. Rose died two weeks later and Rodin nine months after. Italy 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Musée Rodin. Eve (sculpture) The glorious. untidy. Also sculpted portraits. 1885 (Private Collection). height 79 1⁄2 in (201. and the relationship between intellectual and artistic creativity. bronze. Rodin molded). c. Shy. DC: Hirshhorn Museum. and the unknown forces in nature. Bases are important because he makes his figures grow out of them. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) The Burghers of Calais Auguste Rodin. . even when borrowing from antiquity or classics). KEY WORKS The Thinker. Washes his figures in light (try to see them in natural light). Rightly spoken of in the same breath as Michelangelo (although they were quite different: Michelangelo carved. and whole body poses as an expression of human libido and anima (he always worked from life. friend of poets. 1880–81 (Private Collection). Became an international celebrity and was deeply attractive to smart women. San Francisco: Palace of the Legion of Honor 3 $4. His famous set-piece projects (such as The Gates of Hell ) evolved over many years.318 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Auguste Rodin b 1840 – 1917 n FRENCH 5 France.

1800–1900 319 The Kiss Auguste Rodin 1901– 04 One of the most powerful sculptures ever created. none of which were carved by Rodin. its influence reached far into the 20th century. Francesca was stabbed to death by husband Giovanni as she exchanged her first kiss with his brother Paolo after falling madly in love with him. Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta. anonymous surface. This version was commissioned by a wealthy Bostonian collector living in England The Kiss Medium marble Height 71 in (182 cm) Location Paris: Musée Rodin. Originally part of Rodin’s huge The Gates of Hell. the sculpture depicts the illicit lovers. The statue eventually became an independent work because the blend of eroticism and pure happiness didn’t fit The Gates’s damnation theme. It is a perfect example of Rodin’s ability to express intense emotion through the physicality of sculpture and one of the great images of sexual love. but depending on where you stand. Rodin believed man and woman were one entity united through erotic love . either lover can look like the instigator The Kiss exists in three different marble versions. whose story is told in poet Dante Alighieri’s masterwork The Divine Comedy (1321).C . Rodin’s profound knowledge of anatomy allowed him to incorporate subtle exaggerations and distortions in order to achieve his aim of rendering inner feeling through muscular movement The man leans down. London: Tate Collection (copy) The figures appear to emerge preformed from the stone. accounting for the smooth.

which mix and vibrate in the eye and are intended to give the same sensation as light itself. having produced very great work.320 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT DIVISIONISM 1880s Divisionism is the name for a way of painting. not what he saw or felt. Port of Concarneau. Seurat was its originator. and tiny. Used a formula of lines to express emotion: upward diagonal = happiness. 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) Georges Seurat b 1859 – 91 n FRENCH Paul Signac b 1863 – 1935 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. The Circus. Used color borders that complement the areas of color in the picture. using small dots of color. Lighthouse at Groix. KEY WORKS Model from the Back. More convincing as a theory than in practice. reclusive man who died suddenly from meningitis aged 31. small areas of pure color are put side-by-side on the canvas so that at a distance. His subjects are modern life and places. Signac spent a lot of time on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. he influenced others (Matisse. in which color effects are obtained optically rather than by mixing colors on the palette: i. . 81 2⁄3 x 121 1⁄4 in (207. a shy. but despite this. and from small dots to larger brushstrokes. downward diagonal = sadness. and so Signac became its chief promulgator. 1925 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art) Seurat. Port of Gravelines Channel. but he died young. His own work was overly theoretical and tidy. The originator of Pointillism and Divisionism. Why did he ignore the significance of vertical lines? He made wonderful drawings using soft black crayon on textured paper. preliminary sketches for his big works. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte Georges Seurat. There is hidden symbolism and references to old masters in the set-piece figure paintings. KEY WORKS Gas Tanks at Clichy. oil on canvas. 1887 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Pointillism is Divisionism as practiced by Seurat. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (oils) 5 France 1 oils 2 St. 1886 (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $4m in 1998. 1890 (Indianapolis: Herron Art Institute). harbor scenes became his favorite subjects. His work can seem austere and rigid because he painted according to workedout theories. drawings 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Through his work and writings he was the chief promulgator of the theory and practice of Divisionism. the eye cannot differentiate between them but mixes them together and so experiences another color (optical mixing). Seurat labored extensively over this piece. He moved from observed outdoor scenes to studio-based subjects. free. Color theories don’t work in practice because pigments lose their brightness and the mixing in the eye tends to end up as a gray mush. calme du matin (oils) Frenchman Signac was a patient follower and disciple of Seurat. Concarneau. Art Institute of Chicago 3 $32m in 1999.5 x 308 cm). A keen yachtsman. He applied the latest ideas of color and optical mixing—painting separate dots of pure color on the canvas (Pointillism). He was a dogmatic man. 1884–86.e. reworking the original as well as numerous preliminary drawings and oil sketches. horizontal = calmness. for instance). Art Institute of Chicago. 1925 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Good pleinair watercolors.

6m in 2000. expressive of mood. 1862 (London: Tate Collection). He chose simple subjects. Harmony in Gray. The thin paint surface belies the fact that he worked and reworked his pictures. Some works are still in their original frames. and later lived in Europe (France and England). France 1 oils. carefully placed shapes. he became interested in Oriental art and decoration in general. he developed a new style of painting and role for the artist. 1879 –80 (Private Collection) “If the man who paints [only what] he sees before him were an artist. Leading figure of the Aesthetic movement. Upright Venice. Why was he so tentative? Was he never at ease with painting? Arguably his best works are his prints. wiping away his efforts until he had reached his notion of perfection (which must have been agonizing for his portrait sitters). 1800–1900 321 Mother and Child on a Couch James Abbott James Abbott McNeill Whistler b 1834 – 1903 n AMERICAN McNeill Whistler. and Manet (he had to be up to date and in the forefront of fashion). London: Victoria & Albert Museum. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (see page 323). c. Much influenced by Japanese art. Note the subtle harmonies of soft color. watercolor. Chelsea in Ice (oils) A small. Played a major role in introducing modern ideas to British art. 5 England. 1870s. KEY WORKS The White Girl. designed by Whistler to harmonize with the painting. which he used after 1870. quarrelsome. 1871 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). witty. Look for painting as an aesthetic object and experience—the subject matter taking second place to the visual pleasure of color and form. Velasquez. egocentric. Was a contemporary of Oscar Wilde. and dandy artist who was born in the US. Arrangement in Gray and Black: Portrait of the Painter’s Mother. Nocturne: Blue and Gold. Look for his famous “butterfly” signature. 1872–77 (London: Tate Collection). the king of artists would be the photographer.C . His portraits say little about the sitter’s personality. Whistler wished his art to appear to be effortless. engravings 2 London: Tate Collection. in which he never lacked self-confidence. Glasgow: Hunterian Museum 3 $2.” JAMES ABBOTT MCNEILL WHISTLER . and suppression of detail. The hidden reality was very different.

a literary cult developed in France that explored the mystical. For Gustave Moreau. bold. Semi-human figures inhabit fantastic landscapes made more mysterious by brushwork that eventually approached the abstract.322 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT SYMBOLISM AND AESTHETICISM From the mid-19th century. went further still. ART FOR ART ’ S SAKE The Cyclops Odilon Redon. woodblock. London: Victoria & Albert Museum. Netherlands: Kröller-Müller Museum. it was exemplified by the Aesthetic movement. and strong outlines amounted to a pictorial language entirely different to anything then known in the West. it was echoed by Aestheticism. “the ambiguous world of the indeterminate. This was “a crusade on behalf of beauty. unusual viewpoints. Across the Channel in England. it was a means of infusing Academic figure painting with an allusive and richly imaginative new pictorial language. 1830s. the spiritual. In England. flat colors. the American-born Whistler its chief (and most notorious) champion in the visual arts. Otterlo. Japanese Ghost Katsushika Hokusai. tilted perspectives. spiritual. going so far as a court appearance to defend the integrity of the movement. c. .” which utterly rejected utilitarianism in favor of the exquisite.” a series of poets and painters in France increasingly elaborated a world in which imagination was allowed free rein. Their use of everyday subjects. whose later painting was based directly on his dreams.” a “poetic passion. a theme that resonated with the Symbolists’ obsession with spiritual transformation. Odilon Redon. this features a man turned into a snake on his death. as to some extent for the more Classically minded Puvis de Chavannes. 1914 (oil on canvas). who had argued for the rejection of conventional morality and the primacy of “pure sensation. JAPANESE ART The impact of Japanese prints on the transformation of the visual arts in Europe in the second half of the 19th century was crucial. or political—than the pursuit of pure “artistic sensation” reached a peak toward the end of the 19th century. From series of One Hundred Stories. SYMBOLISM Prompted by the poet Théophile Gautier. and the morbid.” in the words of the painter Odilon Redon. The idea that art could be an end in itself with no higher purpose—whether moral. Oscar Wilde was its best-known literary exponent. Redon’s highly personal vision later made him a hero of the Surrealists. It found an outlet in the visual arts in Symbolism.

haunting surface pattern. 1800–1900 323 late 19th century WHAT TO LOOK FOR That color and form. in particular their non-naturalistic handling of space and concentration on expressive surface patterns Like the Impressionists. Whistler continually sought ways to represent immediacy and the infinitely changeable nature of light Rapid brushwork. Whistler would wipe away his mistakes to leave only a thin film of transparent paint. Whistler’s unusual signature has similarities with the collector’s seals found on Chinese art. He was an enthusiastic and early collector of Oriental blue and white porcelain. light brushwork and subtle color harmonies were influenced by Velasquez. . Detroit Institute of Arts. But Whistler went much further. The result is a beguiling. irrespective of their subject matter. however painstakingly arrived at. of the transient made permanent TECHNIQUES Rather than build up thick layers of paint. scattering a shower of sparks into the night Whistler was deeply influenced by Japanese prints. The painting captures the drama and beauty of the fleeting instant in which a rocket explodes. c. 1875. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket James Abbott McNeill Whistler.C . conveys a sense of an instant captured. His nominal subject matter is dissolved until it becomes nothing but a complex interplay of color and form infinitely delicately rendered. The loose. 23 3⁄4 x 18 1⁄2 in (60 x 47 cm). could be expressive in themselves had been commonplace since the days of Delacroix. oil on panel.

To do his work full justice. KEY WORKS The Beheading of St. oozing romantic decadence and symbolism. The Prodigal Son. 1869 (London: National Gallery). and Munch. His archaic. c. his work now looks at best decorative. 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay) also admired by avant-garde painters such as Seurat. he influenced many who seem impossibly far removed from his style (such as Matisse). His was a valiant but ultimately unsuccessful attempt to make the Classical and Academic tradition relevant to the modern world. imaginative. KEY WORKS Diomedes Devoured by Horses. fantasy world of Bosch and the surreal dream world of Max Ernst. His work is sometimes dark and mysterious. workaholic. Today. prolific. . Panthéon. Paul Getty Museum). who were everything he was not. and was a Surrealist before his time. flat style searches for a “modern” simplification of form and color. c. His statuesque figures in landscapes are the direct descendants of the great Classical tradition. using a chalky white coloring with a stiff style that made his work look like a fresco. pastels. Moreau was much influenced by a tour of Italy (1857–59). His oeuvre divides in two: pre. 1876 (Paris: Musée Gustave Moreau). The Poor Fisherman. Sorbonne University. and successful artist.5m in 1989. Gauguin. Vase au guerrier japonais (works on paper) Pierre Puvis de Chavannes b 1824 – 98 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Paris: Hôtel de Ville (murals). it needs to be seen in situ in the elaborate Beaux-Arts Renaissance-revival buildings that he decorated (and which were themselves to be overtaken by the simplified architecture of Modernism). Orpheus. detached from literary connections. His early small-scale. After 1894 he overcame his neuroses and his art blossomed into radiant color and joyful subject matter. Le poète et la sirène (oils) An intense. not the outer eye. Hesiod and the Muse. 1881 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Young Girls by the Edge of the Sea. Woman on the Beach. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Odilon Redon b 1840 – 1916 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. but missed the target. either as experiments or to work out their final design and details. and a timeless monumentality for the figure. He produced a huge quantity of sketches and watercolors. these preceded his finished oil paintings. watercolors. unhappy childhood). but always sinister. determined to revive the tradition of history painting (actually in terminal decline) and to be a rival of the greatest old masters. introspective subject matter (he had a classic Freudian. His late watercolors (and some unfinished oils) are as free and sketchy as modern abstraction. he is better known for his later work. lifeless. His inspiration came from the inner mind. Musée d’Orsay. 1879 (Washington. and mythological subjects. then affixed to walls. and colors that unlocked his imagination.000 in 1998. literary. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3. He had a very recognizable dry technique. Used deeply worked surfaces and textures with inventive impasto. at worst. 1887 (St. Tried to touch big emotions such as hope and despair. sometimes bright and shimmering. black-andwhite drawings and prints had neurotic. talented. drawings 2 Paris: Musée Gustave Moreau 3 $2. drawings 2 Washington. L’enfance de Sainte Geneviève (oils) Puvis de Chavannes was internationally sought after in his day as the leading painter of large-scale murals to decorate public buildings. His smaller works were Redon became one of the principal fin de siècle Symbolist artists.324 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Gustave Moreau b 1826 – 98 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. He was active at the same period as the Impressionists.and post1894. 1865 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). glazes. prints. John the Baptist. 1879 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). DC: National Gallery of Art). Boston: Public Library (murals) 3 $850. A gifted teacher. it was only in the next generation (Matisse) that this would be fully unlocked. He was noted for erudite.4m in 2004. Salome. Worked on canvas. 1851 (Los Angeles: J. His idiosyncratic style is halfway between the strange.

Design for the front cover of The Savoy. The Isle of the Dead. Ophelia Among the Flowers. 1886 (Washington. 1905–08 (London: National Gallery). strange colors. How King Arthur Saw the Questing Beast. They are often large in scale and were turned into Japanesestyle screens. KEY WORKS The Trees. 1893 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). Very much the languid fin de siècle fashion. Died of tuberculosis at the age of only 25. 1892 (New Jersey: Princeton University Library). 1894 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Thomas Wilmer Dewing b 1851 – 1938 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. 4 (works on paper) Maurice Denis b 1870 –1943 n FRENCH 5 France. mythological figures in intense moody landscapes that are intended to trigger dreamlike reveries. contemplative works have no specific meaning. KEY WORKS Pan in the Reeds. master of the sinuous. The Gossip. insignificant subject matter. trivial. with beautiful tonal treatments. unreal colors of astonishing richness and intensity. la promenade au jardin (oils) He was a leading Symbolist who led reaction against Impressionism. Driven by theory. Les communiantes. Meticulous craftsman of Classical. fresco 2 St. erotic (sometimes pornographic). KEY WORKS Salome.C . stately. 1800–1900 325 His poetic. c. DC: National Gallery of Art). workaholic. No. DC: Sackler and Freer Galleries 3 $3. black-andwhite drawing and print. 1857 (Munich: Neue Pinakothek). Song (oils) A painter of accomplished works depicting elegant. 1907 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts) Arnold Böcklin b 1827 – 1901 n GERMAN 5 Switzerland. tubercular. Italy 1 oils 2 Basel (Switzerland): Kunstmuseum 3 $168. Petersburg: Heritage Museum 3 $467. 1891 (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum). small-scale easel painting is king. 1883 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Aubrey Beardsley b 1872 – 98 n BRITISH 5 England 1 drawings. Later. Gaulish Goddess of Herds and Flocks.087 in 2000. capturing the essence of fin de siècle decadence. Note the frames. A committed Catholic who applied his art to the service of church decoration. Kentaurenkampf (oils) Leading German Symbolist painter. sensual. Anemones and Lilacs in a Blue Vase. 1895–1900 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Highly original and gifted. Swiss-born. Germany. and Japan. Also produced studies for the above. Lady with a Lute.1 million in 2002. Düsseldorf-trained but most influenced by Italian art (especially . KEY WORKS The Letter. he developed an exquisite pastel technique and the ability to produce saturated. Had a boring private life—his eroticism was all in his mind. Whistler. distant women in tastefully furnished interiors or wandering in lush. strange juxtapositions. curious creatures. KEY WORKS The Two Sisters. decorative.300 in 1993. Observe his very fine drawing and print techniques. No realistic representation. Brilliant but controversial. Switzerland 1 oils. stylized or Art Nouveau appearance. 1912 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). Good example of Aestheticism—a pot-pourri of Pre-Raphaelites. The Shell. As effective (more so?) with his stage and costume design and book illustrations. 1910 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts) A self-taught. A Nightpiece. Art Nouveau illustrator. prints 3 $135. c. pastels and silverpoints. Founder member of Nabis. 1871–74 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum). 1890s (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). dreamy landscapes. Self-Portrait with Death as a Fiddler.000 in 2004. 1914 (Paris: Petit Palais) Raphael). 1906 (Munich: Neue Pinakothek). but now seems cloying and artificial. all drawn from the depths of the imagination (and from Symbolist writers such as Poe and Baudelaire). everyday subjects. His fascinating early subject matter anticipated Surrealism— floating heads. c. The result is paintings with deliberately flat. Orpheus and Eurydice.

. High-quality craftsman—his pictures are very carefully composed. La Hollandaise. and prostitutes. and thick. The painting was enthusiastically reviewed by Henry James in 1883. oil on canvas. Mark’s. France. drawings 2 Washington. He was fond of and used the sense of intimacy and unobtrusive observation that is one of the qualities of photography. heavily worked paint. without glamor. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $21m in 2004. 1906 (London: Tate Collection).000 in 1993. US 1 oils. 1896 (London: Tate Collection). Style perhaps best described as a French idiom spoken with a very strong English accent. Note the careful and diligent application of paint in his work. Brighton Pierrots (oils) The leading British painter of the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist period. behind which lay much work and preliminary drawing. 87 x 87 in (221 x 221 cm). Group with Parasols (oils) Sargent was the last seriously successful portrait painter in the grand manner. with a disregard for fashion. England. look for the lines of the underlying grid he used for squaring up (enlarging) the photographs. Also made good etchings. cheap interiors. his unusual color combinations and interesting light effects. as it destroyed any sense of intimacy. 1882. He chose down-to-earth subjects—street scenes. Venice. c. and painted them in an earthy manner. In his late work. Italy 1 oils. in a palette of muddy colors. Jack the Ripper’s Bedroom. The imagery for many late works was taken directly from newspaper photographs—a mistake. he lived mostly in The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit John Singer Sargent.326 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Walter Richard Sickert b 1860 – 1942 n BRITISH 5 England. prints 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $286. KEY WORKS Interior of St. Born in Florence. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. Sickert had personal links with French artists such as Degas. sometimes with striking or unusual viewpoints. music halls. 1906 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) John Singer Sargent b 1856 – 1925 n AMERICAN 5 France.

1908. DC: National Gallery of Art). Influenced by Velasquez. he had an enviable facility with light effects. time-consuming murals for public buildings in Boston (1890–1921). and very successful painter with a popular line in worldly-looking.C . Les Baigneuses (oils) Zorn was a prolific. and the odd sculpture. in flattering and relaxed poses. etchings. He had a brilliant oil technique—his assured fluid paint and bold compositions match the confident faces and expensive well-cut clothes of his sitters. Sorolla y Bastida was a painter of beach scenes. Europe. and rapid charcoal sketches. prolific. he painted the English aristocracy but made them more formal and aloof. Mrs. 1909 (Los Angeles: J. Shows a nice balance between (social) realism and idealism. prints 2 New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 3 $2. society portraits. Grew bored with faces and spoiled clientele: look for his preferred small-scale plein-air landscape sketches. Mrs. c. and France. He captured the spirit of the golden age that perished in World War I. Paul Getty Museum). Painted directly onto canvas—fast. KEY WORKS Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau). he succeeded with large-scale portraits of the nouveaux riches of the UK. DC: National Gallery of Art). His watercolor technique was less assured. He was very talented. Walter Rathbone Bacon. 1800–1900 327 Europe. He had a virtuoso. Paul Getty Museum) Girls from Dalarna Having a Bath Anders Zorn. Anders Zorn b 1860 – 1920 n SWEDISH Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida b 1863 – 1923 n SPANISH 5 Sweden.000 in 1990. prints 2 New York: Hispanic Society of America (murals) 3 $5. Zorn did much to preserve the folk traditions of the Dalarna region. 1905 (New York: Brooklyn Museum of Art) KEY WORKS The Relic. oil on canvas. talented. Adrian Iselin. he was an accomplished. oils. US. successful. In the 1880s and 1890s. US 1 watercolors. and rich. intimate glimpses of family and friends. 1897 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). His work successfully bridges the divide between the old masters and Impressionism. John Crosby Brown. Also produced uninspired. . Bathing Time (oils) Born and raised in Valencia. 33 4⁄5 x 20 4⁄5 in (86 x 53 cm). which cleverly—like Manet—suggests 1) equality with the old masters (Titian) and the modern (the Impressionists). Successfully bridged the divide between old masters and Moderns (like Sargent and Zorn). Made brilliant watercolors. c. 1883–84 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). and 2) (false) spontaneity. fluent style. He also painted elegant portraits of the rich and famous. where he was born. Was trained in Paris to use “au premier coup” technique—one exact brushstroke and no reworking. fleshy nudes in plein-air settings.61m in 2003. The Bridge of Sighs. free paint technique. 1888 (Washington. 1893 (Bilbao: Museo de Bellas Artes). showing them at their glittering best. 1907 (Washington. Stockholm: Nationalmuseum. and genre scenes. 1900 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Spain. Wounded Foot. His real interest was in light (he was friendly with the Impressionists. especially Monet) and precise matching of tones. After 1900. 1910 (Los Angeles: J. Court of Dances. US 1 oils. and internationally acclaimed painter with an easy. landscapes. KEY WORKS Mrs. Hugo Reisinger.608. c.

Gauguin developed his nonnaturalistic style during a stay in Pont Aven.” This inevitably led to a wide diversity of styles. This is the third version of the painting that Van Gogh produced. returns to Paris 1893. world’s underlying reality. a technique known as divisionism. The Scream (1893) combines northern brooding with Symbolist imagery Gauguin goes to Tahiti. with the result that the term “Post-Impressionism” can really only be applied to the period rather than a particular style. which has remained unchallenged ever since. “truth” in art did not have to mean naturalism. the attempt to show the world “as it actually is. and strong outlines. often dreamlike emotions. Art Institute of Chicago. painstakingly reworking his paintings to reveal the WHAT TO LOOK FOR Landscape at Pont Aven Paul Gauguin.328 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT POST-IMPRESSIONISM late 19th/early 20th century However liberating Impressionism was. 1889. Term “Neo-Impressionism” coined Van Gogh moves to Arles. Seurat pioneered a new monumentality. a number of painters sought to fuse the new visual freedom generated by Impressionism with greater emphasis on form and content. The four giants of the Post-Impressionist era were Cézanne. Cézanne achieved a similar sense of grave serenity by very different means. Gauguin. It was painted for his mother while recovering from a mental breakdown. Gauguin used flat color and distorted perspective. Furthermore. shoots himself in 1890 Norwegian Edvard Munch in Paris. Gauguin and Van Gogh both sought ways to express troubled. oil on canvas. its concentration on surface appearance and the moment inevitably limited its emotional range. was the first claim that art was what the artist asserted it to be. oil on canvas. Cézanne moves to Provence. after bouts of madness. SUBJECTS AND STYLE Modern life provides the dominant subject matter. Private Collection. From about 1880. 1891 1895 . 1888. This belief. KEY EVENTS 1886 Van Gogh joins brother in Paris. then back to Pacific 1895 Cézanne’s first major show 1888 1889 Van Gogh’s Bedroom at Arles Vincent van Gogh. The sheer variety of styles covered by the term Post-Impressionism highlights a crucial feature of the period: that the absolute standards governing Western art established in the Renaissance no longer applied. Van Gogh’s was tortured and highly expressive. Brittany. Van Gogh harsh colors. producing large-scale groups of figures painted using precise dots of paint. Where Cézanne’s work was intensely contemplative and minutely observed. Seurat and Van Gogh.

unknown. from syphilis. Had a decisive influence on the new generation (including Matisse and Picasso). oil on canvas. which remained unsatisfied. Sunflowers. 1897. at the age of 35. among them: South American art. intense. KEY WORKS Landscape. Japanese prints. Constant search for a personal and spiritual fulfilment. colors. in Brittany (especially in 1888) and from Tahiti in the 1890s. 1873 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). not external (which sparked a major quarrel with Van Gogh). pottery. Hence. 28 3⁄4 x 36 1⁄4 in (73 x 92 cm). simplified forms. saturated colors. The Vision After the Sermon. Gauguin had a poetic ability to evoke moods that were haunting. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum. Highly attracted to Tahitian feminine beauty. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). . and suffused with melancholy. Yearned for the simple life and died. Cambodian sculpture. 23 4⁄5 x 45 2⁄3 in (60. London: Courtauld Institute of Art. abandoned his career and family to become an artist. Although an acute observer of nature. part enigmatic portrait of three Tahitian children. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $35m in 2004. Also produced interesting woodcarvings. flattened. he believed that the source of inspiration had to be internal. Tahiti 1 oils. complex. 1901 (St. 1888 (Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland). 1902 (Essen: Museum Folkwang) The Meal Paul Gauguin. in the South Seas. and many works are as full of sexual as well as spiritual yearning. 1891. St. and Manet. Egyptian art. symbolism. His best work is from his visits to Pont Aven. Primitive Tales. prints 2 Washington. Plenty of scope for detective work on his visual sources. sometimes biblical. Riders on the Beach.5 x 116 cm). oil on canvas. look for symbolic. DC: National Gallery of Art. not natural. 1902 (Essen: Museum Folkwang). sculpture. medieval art. and sculpture. Rich coloring and distorted perspective combine to produce a work that is part still life.C . ambiguous. Maternité II (oils) Gaugin was a successful stockbroker who. 1800–1900 329 Paul Gauguin b 1848 – 1903 n FRENCH Nevermore Paul Gauguin. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Powerful subjects expressed with a strong sense of design: bold. 5 France.

and spiritual crises. cultured man. England. Gachet (oils) He was an odd and aloof child who became grim. best loved. impoverished. 25 3⁄5 x 21 1⁄2 in (65 x 54. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Otterlo (Netherlands): Kröller-Müller Museum 3 $75m in 1990. Portrait of Dr. failed love affairs. tracing every moment and emotion in his life. melancholic. Following his violent breakdown in Arles in May 1889. He took up painting at the age of 27 and wanted his art to be a consolation for the stresses and strains of modern life. who. Dismissed from his post as lay preacher for his too literal interpretation of Christ’s command to give away worldly goods to the poor. Rémy four months later. While the popular image of Van Gogh is of the tormented genius. despite the rapid pace of his output. he . drawings. and most expensive.5 cm). he was also an educated. after years of unfulfilling careers. Vincent van Gogh b 1853 – 90 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands.330 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Self-Portrait 1889. poverty. oil on canvas. LIFE AND WORKS Van Gogh came late to his artistic vocation. France 1 oils. difficult to love. His subjects are wholly autobiographical. put deep thought and planning into his art. engravings 2 Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum. Van Gogh produced this painting in the asylum at St. and suicidal— but he painted works that are now among the world’s best known.

Although an enormously productive period. He used paint straight from the tube. 1888 (Essen: Museum Folkwang). Van Gogh was reading a collection of poems by the American writer Walt Whitman. 36 1⁄2 x 28 3⁄4 in (92. He had a passionate belief in the importance of first-hand observation. under the influence of Impressionism and Japanese woodcuts encountered on his move to Paris. 1887 (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum). leaving 800 paintings and 850 drawings. Van Gogh had an instinctive. 1800–1900 331 found a new mission in art. His obsessive letters to his devoted brother. thrilling use of color. applied as thick as furrows. He was able to endow inanimate objects with human personality (as did his favorite author. moving away from the reproduction of literal visual appearances toward a symbolic and expressive synthesis. formed the source material for the quickly emergent cult that continues to grow around him. At the time he was planning Starry Night. which. developed into an expressive. so that his yellow chair becomes a symbol or image of Van Gogh himself. His swirling brushwork bristles with energy and emotional power. KEY WORKS French Street Scene with Access to a Vantage Point. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. one of which uses similar imagery. hurried style that is instantly recognizable. oil on canvas. Musée du Louvre). One of a series of 12 sunflower paintings by Van Gogh. New York: Museum of Modern Art. and he briefly entered an asylum in 1889. whose honest struggle he sought to portray.C . completing 200 paintings in his last 15 months alone. 1890 (Private Collection) Portrait of Doctor Paul Gachet. Prisoners Exercising. which takes on a life of its own. Starry Night 1889. Portrait of Armand Roulin. virtually unknown to the art world. Theo. the Man with the Pipe 1890. strange perspectives. 1890 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum). STYLE Sunflowers 1888. the majority of which were done during his stay in Arles. Peasant Girl in a Straw Hat Sitting in Front of a Wheatfield. swirling style. etching. London: National Gallery. 29 x 36 in (73 x 92 cm). His early subjects were Dutch peasants and workers. firm outlines. and he died at his own hand. 7 x 6 in (18 x 14 cm).1 x 73 cm). He distorted form and color in order to express inner feelings. He ranks with Cézanne and Gauguin as the greatest of the Post-Impressionist artists. his depression finally overcame him. This moralistic tone disappeared from his later art. An unsuccessful attempt to found an artists’ cooperative at Arles with Gauguin led to a breakdown (he cut off part of his left ear during a quarrel). self-taught. oil on canvas. which often explain work in detail. 1889 (Paris. like a child’s drawing. The Artist’s Room at Arles. . Charles Dickens). with yellow being especially significant in his works. but he also used color symbolism. which can be electrifying.

Deux lavandières au bord de la cascade (oils) His stiff. 1892 (New York: Josefowitz Collection) KEY WORKS borrowings from Egyptian and medieval art.023. Sérusier’s favored subject was Breton women at work. 1897 (Musée de Grenoble). Interior. bright. Bernard painted his own competent versions of Gauguin’s style (clear outline. Produced good. His work has an unconscious (genuine) naïvety. solid. He usually worked around a simple idea with a central single object. 1908 (St. Woman in a Black Hat. realistic works. including the “art is my favorite subject” enthusiasm. c. Good. woodcuts. who spread his ideas and was a founder member of Nabis. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Paul Sérusier b 1863 –1927 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $550. DC: National Gallery of Art).473.000 in 1998. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $4.577 in 2000. smiley faces. Breton Women on a Wall. Breton Landscape. He was a minor customs official who took up painting on retirement to supplement his pension. woodcuts. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $1. 1895 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Félix Vallotton b 1865 –1925 n SWISS 5 France 1 oils. simplification) is largely indebted to Gauguin. oil on panel. Study of Breton Women. flat colors. and Cézanne. he gave up painting and retired to Venice to write. Madeleine au Bois D’Amour (oils) A close friend of Gauguin. or every blade of grass).000 in 1993. . 160 1⁄4 x 84 2⁄3 in (270 x 215 cm). Portrait of Joseph Brummer (oils) The Talisman Paul Sérusier. Buckwheat Harvest.). Well-heeled and popular with fellow artists. He had all the qualities of a child. but was too hung up on theory—needed to loosen up his art. Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). On the Beach (oils) There was a short period when he was at the forefront of new ideas (1890–1901). otherwise forgettable. painting scenes of everyday life in original. 1891 (Rennes: Musée des Beaux-Arts). In the 1920s. 1890 (Washington. Was influenced by Japanese prints and French Symbolists. flat color). simplified form (he disliked straight lines. He was lionized by the young avant-garde (Picasso et al) because of the childlike vitality of his work. but not as good as he thought (although he did influence the Nabis). etc. France: Musée des Beaux-Arts). preferred curves. often satirical. 1903–04 (St. big signature. traditional. 1888–90 (Quimper. wobbly perspective. prints. Van Gogh. Solitude. round tabletops. Most important now for his writings—especially interviews with Cézanne—and as the editor of Van Gogh’s letters. sculpture 2 St.332 RO M A N T I C A N D A C A D E M I C A RT Emile Bernard b 1868 –1941 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza 3 $450. KEY WORKS Farmhouse at Le Pouldu. 1888. decorative style (firm outline. A disciple of Gauguin. Sérusier’s landscape was named The Talisman because it was so influential in the development of Symbolism. and a desire to please. 1888 (New York: Josefowitz Collection). obsession with arbitrary detail (every leaf on a tree.000 in 2003. He painted like a child. but on a bigger scale. KEY WORKS Seated Female Nude. with lesser Henri Rousseau b 1844 – 1910 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils.


. 1800–1900


He did what most children grow out of, or are taught not to do; he is a reminder that we may flourish best and achieve unexpected recognition if we are what we are and do not constantly strive to be what we are not.
KEY WORKS Self-Portrait of Rousseau, from L’Ile Saint-Louis, 1890 (Prague: National Gallery); Artillerymen, 1893–95 (New York: Guggenheim Museum); Child with a Puppet, c. 1903 (Winterthur, Switzerland: Kunsthalle); Jaguar Attacking a Horse, 1909 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts)

The Rugby Players Henri Rousseau, 1908, 39 2⁄3 x 31 2⁄3 in (100.5 x 80.3 cm), oil on canvas, New York: Guggenheim Museum. In 1908, Picasso organized a banquet with other avant-garde painters in Rousseau’s honor.

their uncertain, shadowy world; you sense that he was part of that world, not just an observer. The economy of the brushstrokes and the simplicity of the materials are as direct and basic as his subjects. He used paint thinned with turpentine that allowed fine, rapid marks, and unprimed cardboard, which he did not try to disguise—exploiting its rawness and color and the way it absorbs diluted oil paint.
KEY WORKS Woman Doing her Hair, 1891 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay); Quadrille at the Moulin Rouge, 1892 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); At the Moulin Rouge, 1892–95 (Art Institute of Chicago); Rue des Moulins, 1894 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
b 1864 – 1901 n FRENCH

5 Paris 1 oils; prints 2 Paris: Musée
d’Orsay. Albi: Musée Toulouse-Lautrec

3 $13.2m in 1990, Danseuse assise
aux bas roses (works on paper)

Toulouse Lautrec was the epitome of the bohemian artist: the crippled aristocrat who haunted the Parisian cafés and brothels, and commemorated their inhabitants in art of supreme quality. There is an extraordinary immediacy and tension in his work, resulting from his mastery of his subject matter and technique. The prostitutes and drunks, although sometimes close to caricature, are shown without sentiment or criticism—he loved them and understood them. The brilliant, wiry draftsmanship and thin, nervous paint seem to reflect
Le Divan Japonais Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892, 30 x 23 1⁄2 in (76.2 x 59.7 cm), lithograph, Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Passionate about lithography, Toulouse-Lautrec created many lithographic posters advertising Montmartre nightlife.



Paul Cézanne
b 1839 – 1906 n FRENCH

5 Paris; Aix-en-Provence 1 oils; watercolors; drawings 2 Philadelphia: Barnes Foundation. Paris: Musée d’Orsay 3 $55m in 1999, Rideau, cruchon et compotier (oils) Cézanne is considered the Mother and Father of modern art. A solitary, pioneering, difficult workaholic. He thought that his life and work were failures.

excitement for young artists such as Matisse and Picasso. His last years were marked by loneliness and poor health. Already suffering with diabetes, he died from pneumonia after being soaked in a downpour while painting outdoors.

At the heart of Cézanne’s painting was a determination to continue LIFE AND WORKS the highly disciplined French Classical tradition Cézanne’s ambitious epitomized by businessman father from Poussin, but to Aix-en-Provence terrified do so outdoors his son, who was saved and “from by his determined artistic nature.” In all sensibility. His father his works, he eventually allowed him combines a to go to Paris to study remarkable art, giving him a small faithfulness to allowance, and later a what he observes fortune. Cézanne never with a deep had to sell his work to awareness of live—a rare privilege. his emotional In 1870, he married Self-Portrait Paul Cézanne, response. His Hortense Fiquet and c. 1873–76, 25 1⁄5 x 20 4⁄5 in (64 x 53 cm), palette is usually they had one son, Paul. oil on canvas, Paris Musée d’Orsay. restricted to Cézanne’s early efforts Hailed by Picasso as “My one and earthy greens, were as inept as his social only master … father of us all.” reds, and blues, behavior, and he was and there may be an instinctive rejected as “incompetent” by the École underlying gridlike structure, as if des Beaux Arts. His subsequent lifelong struggle to find a coherent way of painting to hold the composition together resulted miraculously in work that became and define the different areas. a key influence on Modern Art. His first Cézanne did not originate new subjects: one-man show in 1895 caused huge rather his originality was in his way of seeing and painting. For example, his landscapes often took him weeks or months to complete. The difficulty was that the detail was always changing as the light changed—and even as he moved position. In other words, there never came a moment when he deemed any work to be finished—one of the reasons for his sense of failure, and why he rarely signed his work.

Still Life with Basket Paul Cézanne, 1888–90,
25 3⁄4 x 31 1⁄2 in (65 x 81 cm), oil on canvas, Paris: Musée d’Orsay. Cézanne worked so slowly that the fruit often rotted and he had to substitute plaster replicas.

His works have multilayered significance: central to Cézanne are the same (traditional) subjects painted over and over again in a constant attempt to record accurately what he sees, to express what he feels, and to produce


. 1800–1900


an aesthetically satisfying picture. Not easy, as these goals are constantly changing and are often in conflict; he achieves it in the works of 1885–1901.

Montagne Sainte-Victoire with Trees and a House Paul Cézanne, 31 x 39 in, (78 x 99 cm), oil
on canvas, Moscow: Museum of Modern Art of the West. Mt. St. Victoire is a well-known landmark near Aix-en-Provence, revisited frequently by Cézanne.

Cézanne’s paintings have an extraordinary power, as though you were seeing through his own eyes. Examine the marks that he makes— small, precise, beautiful, each in place for a reason. He only makes marks when he has seen and felt something. He also weaves the marks together to produce a harmony of color and design. Every picture surface trembles with the thrill and anxiety of his intense seeing, feeling, and making.
KEY WORKS The Artist’s Father, 1866 (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art); The Abduction, c. 1867 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum); Still Life with Apples and Oranges, c. 1895–1900 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay); Le château noir, 1900–04 (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art)

The Large Bathers Paul Cézanne, c. 1900–05, 81 3⁄4 x 98 in (208 x 249 cm), oil on canvas, Philadelphia: Museum of Art. The artist never painted from naked models; instead he assembled his nude compositions from photographs.



Pierre Bonnard
b 1867 – 1947 n FRENCH

5 France 1 oils; drawings 3 $6,232,000 in 2003, Matinée au Cannet (oils) He was one of the great masters of color. If Matisse is the king of color, Bonnard is the queen. Though less intellectual than Matisse, he shared his view that art should be a celebration of life and a source of visual joy. Painted the places, rooms, and people that he knew most intimately, notably his neurotic, bath-obsessed wife, Marthe. Early work is progressive, later work is deeply personal and stands outside the mainstream. Lovely, free drawings that are masterpieces of observation. The paintings were done in his studio from memory and from black and white notes and sketches—all that glowing color came out of his head. Stand well back and see how he creates thrilling spaces (rich, textured foregrounds and hazy distances). Walk forward and see how glorious color harmonies take over (blues, violets, greens, with glowing pinks and oranges). When really close, let the detail of flickering brushwork and subtle color weavings fill your eye. His work becomes brighter with age (unusual).
The Letter, c. 1906 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); Table Set in a Garden, c. 1908 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art); Bathing Woman, Seen from the Back, c. 1919 (London: Tate Collection)

The Almond Tree in Blossom Pierre Bonnard, 1947, 21 2⁄3 x 14 3⁄4 in (55 x 37.5 cm), oil on canvas, Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne. Bonnard’s last painting, which he was still perfecting while on his deathbed.

Edouard Vuillard
b 1868 – 1940 n FRENCH

5 France 1 oils; prints La table de toilette (oils)

3 $7m in 1989,

Vuillard was a shy, highly talented painter and printmaker who was in the forefront of new artistic ideas up to 1900, after which he retreated into his own comfortable, intimate world. He is best known for his glimpses of middle-class life—mostly cluttered domestic interiors. Had a nervous style, with busy surfaces that flicker with light or allow the image to build up like a mosaic. Was fascinated by repeating patterns, such as woven material or wallpaper. Rich, earthy palette. Warm sense of color. Pioneered simple design, strong color, and energetic brushwork. An enthusiastic photographer—his works show this, having a snapshotlike quality.
KEY WORKS Landscape: Window Overlooking the Woods, 1899 (Art Institute of Chicago); Vase of Flowers on a Mantelpiece, c. 1900 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art) Portrait of Théodore Duret, 1912 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)

Mother and Child Edouard Vuillard, 1900, 20 1⁄4 x 19 3⁄4 in (51.4 x 50.2 cm), oil on board, Private Collection. Vuillard never married, but remained deeply devoted to his widowed mother, who was a dressmaker.


. 1800–1900


Sir William Nicholson
b 1872 – 1949 n BRITISH

5 England 1 oils; prints 3 $246,750 in 2001,
Le début de la rue Montagne Sainte-Geneviève (oils)

Nicholson was a highly accomplished painter of landscapes, portraits, and still lifes, with an easy, fluid, intimate style and a wonderful eye for observation, composition, color, and light—and an ability to edit out the superfluous. Successful, and knighted for his achievements. Also made poster and theater designs, and woodblock prints. Ben Nicholson’s father.
KEY WORKS Beerbohm, 1905 (London: National Portrait Gallery); The Lowestoft Bowl, 1911 (London: Tate Collection)

Ferdinand Hodler
b 1858 – 1918 n SWISS

Free and expressive paint-handling—he used painting as a personal and emotional release. After a stroke in 1911, his work became increasingly loose, reflecting his physical handicap, awareness of death, isolation (he disliked Modernism), and melancholy at the defeat of the German Empire in 1918. Impressively versatile, he produced stunning, small, late watercolors and prints, which were easier to handle after his stroke and show thrilling emotional and technical invention. His plein-air landscapes (especially those around his house at Walchensee, Bavaria) hover between Impressionism and Expressionism and were a great commercial success in Berlin. Compositions in late works often lean curiously to the left. He painted a series of self-portraits every year on his birthday (after 1887).
KEY WORKS Nude Girl, 1886 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts); Centaurs Embracing, 1911 (London: Courtauld Institute of Art); Samson Blinded, 1912 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum); Magdalen with Pearls in her Hair, 1919 (London: Tate Collection); Self-Portrait with Straw Hat, 1923 (Basel, Switzerland: Kunstmuseum)

5 Geneva 1 oils 2 Bern: Kunstmuseum 3 $2,705,727 in 1998, Lake Silvaplaner (oils) A talented painter of monumental figure paintings, portraits, and landscapes. He painted modern narratives and allegories with a confident drawing style and strong outlines. Powerful, intensified color; his hatched brushstrokes and broken color give optical vibrancy. Untroubled by self-doubt, but sometimes falls into the trap of the pompously overserious statement. Liked silhouetted figures or mountains against a sky.
KEY WORKS Tired of Life, 1892 (Munich: Neue Pinakothek); Silence of the Evening, c. 1904 (Winterthur, Switzerland: Kunstmuseum)

Carl Milles
b 1875 – 1955 n SWEDISH

5 Sweden; Europe; US 1 sculpture 2 Lidingö (Sweden): Millesgården 3 $540,567
in 1989, The Small Water-Nymph (bronze)

Lovis Corinth
b 1858 – 1925 n GERMAN

5 Germany; Paris 1 oils; watercolors; prints 2 Berlin: Staatliche Museum 3 $1,310,400 in
2004, Walchensee, Morning Fog (oils)

His work is rarely seen outside Germany. Major figure who tried to reinvent the tradition of the old masters in a modern idiom. Ambitious, gifted, Prussian. In his traditional style he painted established subjects (portraits, still lifes, mythologies), using an earth palette and influenced by old masters, especially Rembrandt and Hals. In his modern style he painted frank, direct interpretations.

Greatest Swedish sculptor, and one of the most famous sculptors since Rodin (who was a big early influence). Best known for his large-scale fountains, which show his strong grasp of architecture. Widely traveled in Europe; later taught in the US, where he did most of his best work. Combined eclectic influences from his travels into highly individual style. Fused classical and Nordic cultures to create vigorous, unusual groupings. His figures are full of vitality, while his fountains are conceived as an architectural whole: figures must be viewed against the background of sky and water.
Folke Filbyter (Le cavalier de la légende), 1920s (Lidingö, Sweden: Millesgården); Fountain, 1936–40 (St. Louis, Missouri: Market Street); Orpheus Fountain, 1930s (Michigan: Cranbrook Art Museum); Pegasus and Bellerophon, 1940s (Iowa: Des Moines Art Center)




late 19th/early 20th century

In the 1890s, several groups of painters in Vienna, Munich, and Berlin sought to break away from the official academies and promote new ideas and styles. They labeled their new groupings Sezession, and their avant-garde exhibitions created considerable outrage and scandal. In the end, these groups were splintered by internal politics, leading to further breakaway groupings.

Founded by Gustav Klimt, who aimed to put Vienna on the international stage artistically by pursuing new avant-garde ideas, with links to other progressive artists all over Europe. In particular, Klimt wanted to create a union between the fine arts of painting and sculpture and architecture, and the applied arts of design and decoration.
Façade of Secession Building, Vienna
The new home for art, designed and built in just six months in 1898, was a rejection of the traditional architectural styles of the Austro-Hungarian empire.


French for “new art;” also known as Jugendstil or Sezessionstil in Austria and Germany and Stile Liberty in Italy. Art Nouveau describes a highly decorative style, most often seen in architecture and

the applied arts, which was at the forefront of fashion in the 1890s. It aimed to reject historical influences and create one encapsulating style for all the arts. The French-speaking version is organic and free-flowing; the German/Scottish version is geometric.
1892 Rejection of Munch’s early work by Berlin Artists’ Association. German artists start Munich Secession Klimt breaks away from the main Austrian academy and patron, Künstlerhaus, and establishes hugely successful exhibition (57,000 visitors) and magazine Ver Sacrum Leading German Impressionist Max Liebermann starts Berlin Secession movement First of Hector Germain Guimard’s Art Nouveau designs for Paris Metro




Sarah Bernhardt Alphonse Mucha, 1896, color
lithograph, Prague: Mucha Trust. Mucha was a Czech painter and designer who settled in Paris. His work was important in the development of French Art Nouveau.


. 1800–1900


Gustav Klimt
b 1862 – 1918 n AUSTRIAN

The Kiss Gustav Klimt, 1907–08, 71 x 71 in (180 x 180 cm),
oil on canvas, Vienna: Österreichische Galerie. The couple are surrounded by a cloud of gold, intended as a symbolic expression of the power of love.

5 Austria 1 oils; mixed media; drawings 2 Vienna: Österreichische Galerie 3 $26m
in 2003, Landhaus am Attersee (oils)

Klimt was the leading Viennese painter who broke away from convention to found the Viennese Secession movement and develop a highly original, sensitive style. Some of his most impressive projects were interior decoration. The intense, introverted subject matter reflects Klimt’s own personality (he was an oversexed workaholic), and fin de siècle Vienna (neurotic, idle, adulterous, gossipy, deeply conservative, but also packed with original talent and fresh ideas from Freud, Richard Strauss, Mahler, and so on). It also expresses his wish to explore modern sensibility and break free from old, stifling taboos and restrictions, and his wish to

demolish the snobby distinction between the fine artist and the craftsman. Klimt’s brilliant, inventive technique reflects his training (at the School for Decorative Arts, where he learned craft techniques), and his fascination with Egyptian art (flat and decorative) and Byzantine art (gold and mosaic). Notice the sensitive hands, hidden faces, private symbolism—he worked through suggestion rather than description in order to touch the inner feeling rather than the outward show.
Judith, 1901 (Vienna: Österreichische Galerie); Hope II, 1907– 08 (New York: Museum of Modern Art); Baby (Cradle), 1917–18 (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art)


. 1900—1970



1900 –1970

Young artists and writers in Western Europe welcomed the dawn of the 20th century with excitement and great expectation. They hoped and believed it would usher in a new era fueled by technological advances and democratic ideals that would result in economic and social improvements for the great majority of humankind.


rtists, architects, and ensgineers were to be at the heart of creating this brave new modern world that was to look different from anything seen before. In many ways their dreams were realized. The plethora of new styles and technical innovations that followed in rapid succession radically changed art and the environment, and testified to a freedom of thought and expression that was at times bewildering in its range and diversity.

confrontations or the terrifying destruction of human life and material heritage that would ensue.


What the idealists failed to predict, however, was the effectiveness of those forces that would seek to destroy, and very nearly extinguish, these new freedoms. They could not foresee the fierceness of the political
Young Lady and Her Suite Alexander Calder, 1970, painted steel, height 33 ft (10 m), Detroit, Michigan. One of the dreams of the first generation of Modern artists and architects was the creation of an ideal city.

The most terifying manifestations of the political struggle were the two world wars (1914–18 and 1939–45). By 1919, after more than four years of debilitating warfare on the Western Front, Britain and France, the victors of World War I and the world’s leading colonial powers, could still assert their dominant position in the world, despite the growing realities of American financial and political muscle. Germany, by contrast, was prostrate, politically and economically in turmoil, AustriaHungary was destroyed as a single entity, and Russia launched on a communist experiment that would bring misery and death to millions. After 1929, the Western economies, including that of the mighty US,

Frieze showing heroic Soviet workers, Moscow
Soviet art, like Nazi art, was monumental and deeply conservative. Both regimes ruthlessly crushed any form of individual expression.

able to contain the growth of prewar fascism in Europe, or offer a creditable alternative to communism.

suffered catastrophic depression. Germany and the Soviet Union, meanwhile, set about establishing totalitarian regimes that were irreconcilably opposed in their political ideologies, but had many features in common. Soon after Hitler began World War II in 1939, France was forced into ignominious surrender, and Britain into Churchillian defiance. In the end it was the unlikely alliance between American manufacturing might and Soviet manpower that secured a victory over Nazi Germany. After 1945, Europe had to acknowledge the reality of American dominance within the Western world. Neither Britain nor France had been

The efforts of France and Britain after the war to hold on to their empires were clearly doomed. Europe entered a period of austerity and introspection. From the late 1940s it was the threat of conflict between the US and the Soviet Union that defined international relations. Further, after 1949, a new factor was added to the balance of world power: the threat of nuclear war and humankind’s complete self-destruction. By 1970 the picture was very different. Whereas Germany in 1945 was a country reduced to rubble and occupied by its former enemies, its Western entity now boasted the largest economy in Europe. Over the

1900 Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams published, Vienna

1914–18 First World War

1919 Versailles peace settlement shrinks Germany and dissolves Austria-Hungary

1936 Stalinist purges in USSR; Spanish Civil War begins (to 1939) 1933 Hitler elected German chancellor


1907 Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon

1917 Russian Revolution

1929 Wall Street Crash precipitates global slump

and the Netherlands. Modern Art was of less interest. the center of gravity shifted to New York City. and to a lesser degree Italy and Spain. At the end of the 19th century this meant France. 1939 German invasion of Poland sparks World War II 1941 German invasion of Soviet Union 1947 New York takes over from Paris as the capital of the artistic avant garde 1956 AntiSoviet uprising in Hungary suppressed 1962 Andy Warhol’s Twentyfive Colored Marilyns. Against this turbulent background. Even the economies of Sovietdominated Eastern Europe grew. in fact. slipped into strategies for securing comfortable prosperity rather than achieving any great ideal. INTERLINKING was most under threat or was a new discovery. After 1945. 1900—1970 343 same period. Japanese surrender 1960 1957 Treaty of Rome: EEC created 1955 Warsaw Pact established 1962 Cuban missile crisis 1970 1967 Year of “Flower Power” and growing protests against war in Vietnam . artistic innovation was. almost every European country enjoyed an unprecedented period of economic growth. or where freedom of expression Soviet postcard from World War II Hitler suffers in the Russian winter as he runs from a hail of shells. as the US became the standard bearer for the Western democracies. greatest in those places that had experienced foreign occupation. and thereafter America’s dynamism and its tempting vision of a consumer society. New York This Art Deco skyscraper. but in Britain and the US. American financial aid to Western Europe. but perhaps what is most striking is the degree to which Modern Art and its early development in Europe and the US is interlinked with the fight for democratic freedom. made major contributions. Germany. a role it retained until 1939. New York 1969 US succeeds in landing men on the Moon 1940 1938 Hitler annexes Austria and border regions of Czechoslovakia 1950 1945 German surrender ends war in Europe. the Marshall Plan. Chrysler Building.C . where freedom of speech and conscience were taken for granted. The roots of this lay in the even more spectacular buoyancy of the US economy in the 1950s and 60s. and Paris became the capital of the avantgarde. Russia. All countries in the war used art to project their propaganda messages. was conceived in prosperity but opened during the Great Depression. The European Economic Community which started idealistically in 1957. kick-started Europe’s war-ravaged economies. drove developments around the world. a landmark of 20th-century architecture. launched in 1947. atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

26 x 36 1⁄2 in (66 x 92. oil on canvas. Although penniless. he experimented with Divisionism and absorbed a deep knowledge of color theory. . Matisse usually hides small images of himself in intimate portraits of others. he came to art late and almost by chance. aged 21. sculpture. drawings 2 Paris: Musée d’Art Moderne. La robe persane (oils) The King of Color—he celebrated the joy of living through color.7 cm). when. 1918. LIFE AND WORKS Matisse first studied law in Paris and worked as a legal clerk before taking up art studies at the influential Académie Julian and under Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. but not convivial. Vollard. of his career. altering the background and model’s proportions until he was happy. collage. he was given a box of paints while recovering from an appendicitis operation. Nice: Musée Matisse.344 Henri Matisse b 1869 –1954 n FRENCH 5 Paris. he bought from art dealer. 25 3⁄4 x 21 1⁄4 in (65 x 54 cm). he turned to Cézanne. A rare full painting of the master at work. Major hero of the Modern Movement and one of its founders. In 1899. In the late 1890s. In fact. oil on canvas. the discovery of the brightness and warmth of Mediterranean light. Maryland: Baltimore Museum of Art. on the FrenchSpanish border in the summer of 1904. He reworked this picture 22 times. 1935. Pennsylvania: Barnes Foundation 3 $17m in 2000. a small Cézanne Bathers which he kept all his life and used as inspiration at low or critical moments Self-Portrait Henri Matisse. Large Reclining Nude Henri Matisse. Coming from the gray cold light of northern Europe. which he first experienced in Collioure. where he met several of the future Fauves. and a bit of a loner. Vence (South of France) 1 oils. Professorial and social.

I must interpret nature and submit it to the spirit of the picture. without necessarily imitating nature. Look for white spaces around bright colors. sculpture often being an explorative extension of his painting. 1953 (London: Tate Collection) His work explores the full range of what color can do. by crowding. 1905–06 (Pennsylvania: Barnes Foundation). His hallmark piece when first exhibited. even when a bedridden invalid. 38 3⁄4 x 46 1⁄2 in (98 x 118 cm). and sensation. 1900–1970 345 “I cannot copy nature in a servile way. Serenity. with very few false turnings. armchair. The Snail. purifying. and his art continued to flourish with ever-increasing richness. joyous combination of subject matter (notably the open window. Explored color independently from subject matter and turned it into something you want to touch and feel. The open brushwork is deliberate. 1927 (Private Collection). even influenced by them. now still gracing the walls of many students as posters) and sculptor. At this period he also visited Morocco and came under the influence of Islamic and Persian art. plus the stained glass windows and vestments for the Chapel of the Rosary at Vence. et volupté (Luxury. he loved exploring the exotic. Matisse said he “dreamt of an art of balance and purity and serenity. especially oriental fabrics and ceramics with their strong decorative feel and heightened colors. as he experimented with paper cutouts and collages. His late gouaches on paper cutouts enabled him to carve into color. near Nice.” KEY WORKS The Joy of Living. 1904. From 1905–07. Matisse settled semipermanently in Nice. and opened a school for young artists. His Notes of a Painter (published 1908) is one of the most important statements of the principles of modern art. In many ways. Matisse’s principal concern was always with color. . and fascination with light and color. In the 1920s. and female nude). calme. Back. Statuette and Vases on an Oriental Carpet. and Pleasure) Henri Matisse. 1908 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum). juxtaposing. the illustrations for Jazz and La Cirque. 1909– c. To the end. Reclining Nude. This is brilliantly explored through his superb Odalisque nudes of 1920–25. The Black I–IV. he was champion of the young avante-garde. “I am unable to distinguish between the feeling I have for life and my way of expressing it. each aware of the other’s innovations. as the foremost Fauve painter. yet never in competition. Also a brilliant and innovative printmaker (1952 being the year of his printed blue nudes. and the way it could be used to create form. intensifying. and his glorious color which takes on a life of its own and is free to do its own thing. As a result. allowing them to “breathe” and reach their full visual potential. in later life they kept a respectful distance. relaxing. If in their earlier years they had competed for leadership of the avant-garde. reminiscent of Cézanne’s Bathers. still life. WHAT TO LOOK FOR Luxe. In his own words.” HENRI MATISSE was a revelation.” It was this apparent lack of aggression or need for controversy that puzzled Picasso.C . his later years are among his most fertile and inventive. emotion. SUBJECTS AND STYLE cooling. to give movement and life to the color and to register Matisse’s own presence and activity. both of which emphasize pattern and bold but subtle color. devoid of troubling or depressing subject matter … a mental soother … like a good Look for his life-enhancing. 1929 (London: Tate Collection). Paris: Musée d’Orsay. oil on canvas. heating.

Washington. oil on canvas. drawings 2 St. The chief group members were Matisse. Maurice de Vlaminck b 1876 –1958 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. insultingly labeled the brightly colored style of the paintings as the work of wild beasts (fauves). c. DC: National Gallery of Art. Vlaminck and André Derain were named the “Chatou Couple” after the Paris suburb where they painted together. 1910 (Washington.346 MODERNISM LES FAUVES The name was given to the movement at the 1905 Salon d’Automne exhibition held in Paris. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $10. but they are not. 1900 – 07 Matisse and Derain studied together in 1898 and Vlaminck. Painting was very much a secondary vocation at this time. blue. They were heavily influenced by Van Gogh and Cézanne. Louis Vauxcelles. Private Collection. and with strong simplified designs. By 1907. thickly and freely painted. It embodied Derain’s ideal of “color for color’s sake. he earned an income from his winnings as a racing cyclist. Art critic of the review Gil Blas. Derain was influenced by Monet’s paintings of the Thames River. Chatou. and Braque. 1910 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). 1905–06. 1906 (St. View of the Seine. DC: National Gallery of Art). One of the principal places of inspiration was Collioure in the South of France. . 1906 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). As a youth. loved the term. 19 x 25 in (50 x 65 cm). Separate the subject matter (which is actually not very innovative) from the way it is painted (which is). 1906. freely applied in flat patterns. although the dotted style eventually gave way. They express the mood of adventure and experimentation that captured the imagination of progressive young French artists at the time. superficially they look modern. 1906. c. 32 x 39 1⁄2 in (81. in the main. Color harmony is a central theme. and green—but wove them together to create a strong visual “fizz. was introduced two years later. yellow. But the group. He also wrote novels and his memoirs. Derain. Charing Cross Bridge André Derain. Still Life. He used a not very subtle palette of four colors—red. and maybe question the reason for this balance between the old and new. The River. His later landscapes degenerated into a boring formula.2 x 100. c. Vlaminck. most of the artists had moved on to explore new personal ideals. His early landscapes are full of color. Les pêcheurs à Nanterre (oils) He was both a volatile and boastful character who made a brief splash as one of the avant-garde Fauve artists in France c. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). DC: National Gallery of Art) Tugboat at Chatou Maurice de Vlaminck. as well as the Pointillism of Seurat. Tugboat on the Seine. oil on canvas.” Now an object could generate its own brightness. a friend of Derain. loosely formed around liaisons between the artists about the turn of the century. 1906 (Washington. Dufy.805 in 1990. and from performing as an orchestral violinist.3 cm).” KEY WORKS The Blue House.721. to wide choppy brushstrokes of stunning pure color.

in the early 20th . London 1 oils. clear. 1900–1970 347 Albert Marquet b 1875 – 1947 n FRENCH The Seine at Paris Albert Marquet. Intensifies local colors. oil on canvas. Le carnaval à Fécamp (oils) Marquet was a disciple of Matisse. 1906 (London: Tate Collection). Collioure (oils) century.309. He produced small-scale works in oil and watercolor. Charing Cross Bridge (see opposite). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $8.79m in 1989. He makes subtle use of color. Private Collection. c. and strong.549 in 1989. and French ports are the most effective and popular. Thus skies are always blue. confident compositions. open brushwork. and ships at anchor. Bateaux dans le port. sculpture. KEY WORKS André Rouveyre. Le Pont-Neuf. around the Seine. featuring docks. The scenes of Paris. DC: National Gallery of Art). Derain’s early works were extremely influential in the development of the use of color in Modern art. with an important series of views of London (Thames River) painted in 1906. harmonious color. He was one of the first artists to take an interest in African sculpture. cranes. tugs. simple design. but never gets away from them (unlike Matisse). His later work is mediocre and currently overrated. 5 France 1 oils. 1910 (Oslo: National Gallery) André Derain b 1880 –1954 n FRENCH 5 Paris. drawings 2 Paris: Musée National d'Art Moderne 3 $1. watercolors. the elimination of unnecessary detail (Matisse compared him favorably with the Japanese artist Hokusai). Southern France. KEY WORKS Portrait of Matisse. who developed an appealing and poetic style: strong. 1907. Early work is notable for attractive paint handling. leaves green (Matisse skies can be yellow. 25 3⁄4 x 31 2⁄3 in (65 x 81 cm). c. 1906 (Washington. exploiting color harmonies as well as color contrasts. Stayed (mostly) with traditional landscape themes. Winter on the Seine. 1904 (Paris: Musée d’Orsay). drawings 2 St. green … anything). Fauvist Marquet is well known for his panoramic views of the Seine and various French ports.C . Then he unwisely abandoned color and concentrated on form. and placing half-tones and full tones together. 1905 (London: Tate Collection). The Pool of London. 1927 (Private Collection) He is best remembered as Matisse’s main partner in creating Fauvist paintings in the South of France.

and immediately launched into a period of astonishing and profoundly influential creativity. with all the traditions of Western art. Yet. Paris. In 1907. This large canvas would have filled one entire wall of his studio. a plethora of new ideas. which was a building like a rabbit warren. although never fully resolves. and he disliked it).348 MODERNISM Les Demoiselles d’Avignon Pablo Picasso 1907 This celebrated painting is now hailed as one of the most momentous paintings in the history of art. refers to a notorious brothel in Barcelona. The painting explores. Picasso was working in Montmartre. Medium oil on canvas Dimensions 96 x 92 in (244 x 233 cm) Location New York: Museum of Modern Art . It would become a regular feature in his early Cubist paintings and throughout his life. the often forgotten reality is that for 30 years. The title (not chosen by Picasso. Picasso decisively broke with his own past. in a cramped and cluttered space with two dark rooms in an artistic colony known as the Bateau Lavoir. from which this work evolved. Picasso believed that art and the human figure could have a redemptive or “exorcizing” power. Here the target is prostitution and sexual disease Picasso would later turn this type of still-life imagery into small brightly painted sculptures Les Demoiselles d’Avignon This is the first indication from Picasso of an interest in still life. it was known only to a handful of Picasso’s friends and was hardly ever seen in public until purchased by MoMA in New York in 1938. He had been planning a large figure piece. It is also a theme that links him to Cézanne and Spanish art. Picasso always wanted to be seen as a reinventor of tradition rather than an iconoclast. Its significance is that through it. and had experimented with a brothel scene. established himself as the undisputed leader of the avant-garde.

space and form. splintered planes and patterns of light and dark rather than rounded volumes to create a sense of. 1900–1970 349 TECHNIQUES After seeing Cézanne’s work in the autumn of 1906. Picasso acquired two such pieces that had been stolen from the Musée du Louvre This figure begins to explore what would become a hallmark of Cubism: the combination of different viewpoints and profiles in a single figure . rather than an illusion of. Picasso began to experiment spatially with flat. In March 1907. The faces of these figures were repainted after Picasso had a “revelation” about African sculpture at the Ethnographic Museum in Paris in 1907 Early Iberian sculpture influenced the faces of the figures.C .

” Woman with a Guitar (Ma Jolie) Pablo Picasso. KEY EVENTS 1907 Picasso’s Les Desmoiselles d’Avignon (see pages 348–349) introduces the principle of collapsing form and figure distortion Braque and Picasso work closely as a team to create first “Analytical Cubist” works Picasso’s The Guitar first sculpture made by constructing parts rather than reducing Birth of collage and papier collés as “Synthetic Cubism” evolves Cubism’s effects influence Italian and Russian Futurist/Orphic movements 1909 1911 1913 1918 Portrait of Pablo Picasso Juan Gris. The great innovation was use of fragmented and choppedup forms. PICASSO AND BRAQUE The movement’s inventors were Picasso and Braque. oil on canvas. In the eyes of the Cubists. The woman in the title is Picasso’s mistress Eva Gouel (also known as Marcelle Humbert). Any sort of material. The principles of Cubism were worked out in 1907–1914. however humble or everyday. The works of 1910–11 are given the PRINCIPLES label “Analytical Cubism. New York: Museum of Modern Art.” and used monochromatic paint on canvas. Art Institute of Chicago. Paintings were no longer like a window. creating an effect like a puzzle that has been put together with the pieces wrongly joined. Sculpture was to be open and transparent rather than a solid object. art was to be about cumulative experience rather than mere observation. In the works after 1912. Their early Cubist works were all small scale. similar in effect and consequence to the invention of the internal combustion engine. 1912.350 MODERNISM CUBISM 1907–1918 Cubism was the most significant art and design innovation of the 20th century. Gris wanted to acknowledge Picasso as the father of the historic new artistic era. and the human figure. landscape. and wireless communications—all of them developed at about the same time. 1911. they stuck on the contents of wastepaper baskets in addition—this development is known as “Synthetic Cubism. but a forum where almost anything might happen. Cubism rewrote the rules and expectations as to how paintings and sculpture could be made. . 39 1⁄3 x 25 3⁄4 in (100 x 65 cm). 36 3⁄4 x 29 1⁄4 in (93 x 74 cm). oil on canvas. with conventional subjects such as still life. manned flight. could be used to make art.

Fantômas. Bottle of Rum and Newspaper.7m in 2002. especially blacks and blues. and shape (he loved music and you can sense it going through his head as he paints). and in his formative years he drew witty pieces for various publications. sand mixed with paint. .64m in 1986. Stand close to them and play the Cubist game of piecing together the final image from the fragmented images and clues. in the way romantic music delights the ear. 1913 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Late work famous for the bird image as a simple symbol of human spiritual aspiration. Playful use of lettering and speckled patterns. He often used a dark palette to great effect. KEY WORKS Landscape near Antwerp. and more antique. Le Guéridon. Café-Bar. He built on the example of Cézanne and the 18th century to lift decorative painting (especially still life) to new heights. tabletops. 1914 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Femme lisant (oils) Braque was one of the most innovative and majestic painters of the 20th century. and touches the heart rather than the intellect. they are often (and very effectively) shown in elaborate frames like mounts for brooches. and trompe-l’oeil wood graining. His works have complex geometric designs and grids. 1919 (Basel. collage 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $7. mixed media 3 $8. and his instinct for color. 1900–1970 351 Georges Braque b 1882 –1963 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils. oil on canvas.1949. and studio interiors. texture. and paint. such as guitars. He had a masterly reinterpretation of the traditional still life. Later work concentrates on still life. with the images slipping in and out of the different planes. papiers collés. Somehow reminiscent of French 18th-century marquetry furniture and its fine craftsmanship? KEY WORKS Violin and Playing Cards. Cubist innovations included the use of letters. stylish. Juan Gris b 1887 – 1927 n SPANISH Gris moved to Paris from Spain in 1906. He was one of the key early leaders of the avantgarde. earthy colors and images built up layer by layer. The artist rarely left the intimate world of his studio for subject matter. It wasn’t until 1910 that he turned to painting as a serious vocation. This is work that delights the eye. Stand back and see how his meticulously crafted. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). browner. DC: National Gallery of Art). highly decorative pictures look like expensive jewelry. and then invented Cubism with Picasso.C . line. 1906 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 1929 (Washington. Be totally at ease to enjoy the way he develops the language of Cubism. Private Collection. the human figure. Still Life: Le Jour. Still Life. His works show a wonderful sense of controlled freedom as he moves images and details around to create lyrical harmonies of color. DC: National Gallery of Art) Studio V Georges Braque. 1917 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts) 5 Paris 1 oils. 1915 (Washington. Produced important Fauve paintings. and fruit bowls into masterpieces of color and form. 1921–22 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Braque used rich. sculpture. 57 x 68 3⁄4 in (145 x 175 cm). His brilliant and inventive papier collés get better as they get older. concentrating mainly on still life. transforming everyday objects. Pot de géranium (oils) He was third in the hierarchy of the inventors of Cubism (after Picasso and Braque).

and personal interpreter of Cubism in traditional materials . Head Called “The Rabbit. 1911–12 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). His ambition was to create a new democratic art for and about ordinary people.1m in 2002. oil on canvas. The Two Sisters. why can it not be so for adults?).4m in 1989. Daphné. but spent his early years mainly as a painter. He had a modern. drawings. tapestries. he made a total commitment to sculpture. Lipchitz settled in Paris in 1909 and emigrated to the US in 1941. His early Cubist work was pioneering. Homme gothique (sculpture) Fernand Léger b 1881 –1955 n FRENCH 5 France.352 MODERNISM Two Women holding a Pot of Flowers Fernand Léger.” 1930 (Madrid: Reina Sofia National Museum). Portrayed hands as pieces of machinery. exploring their forms and using flowers as symbols of fertility. 1920s. c. 1912 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). concentrating specifically on welded metal as a material. and technique: the modern. KEY WORKS Woman with Hair in a Bun. 1935 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Julio González b 1876 – 1942 n SPANISH 5 Spain. Making jewelry and metalwork occupied González up until the 1920s. moral message. La femme en rouge et vert (oils) Léger was one of the giants of the Modern Movement and an ardent believer in the moral and social function of art and architecture. Shows muscular happiness and spiritual joy in an ideal world where work and play become one (if it can be so for children. He was an early. sensitive. plus the machine-made objects of their world. The Wedding. believed art should touch and transform all corners of everyday life. US 1 sculpture 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $1. France 1 sculpture. and posters—he He was one of the first artists to use iron as a sculptural medium. He was simple but not simplistic. Taught by his goldsmith/sculptor father how to use metals. Léger often painted two women together. Refreshingly cheerful and extrovert. Also made beautiful and strong drawings. He produced simple images and designs that contain sophisticated spatial and color relationships. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne 3 $3. but at the age of 50. London: Tate Collection 3 $20m in 2003. books. incorporating Picasso’s brutal humor. KEY WORKS The Smokers. oils 2 Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum. 1929–34 (Art Institute of Chicago). which was romantic and idealistic but also challenging (a fresh restatement of “man the measure of all things”). Figure (sculpture) A talented sculptor of Lithuanian origin. US 1 oils 2 Philadelphia: Museum of Art. New York: Guggenheim Museum. straightforward imagery. 1937 (Madrid: Reina Sofia National Museum) Jacques Lipchitz b 1891 – 1973 n FRENCH 5 France. After meeting Picasso in Barcelona. murals. stage sets. He achieved it through strong. 1920 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada). blue-collar worker and his family at work and play. Private Collection. films. Look for semi-abstract works on a grand scale. The Mechanic. style. González moved to Paris where he was reacquainted with his fellow countryman and they struck up a lifelong friendship.

1949 (Alabama: Birmingham Museum of Art) Raoul Dufy b 1877 – 1953 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils.8m in 2004. . 1913–14 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). which included book and stage design. 1909–10 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). The Baou de Saint-Jeannet. decorative works. He was one of the first to create a true abstract art. finally. Contrastes gothiques (oils) Kupka was a natural anarchist who settled in Paris at the age of 24 and stayed forever. then to a flirtation with Surrealism and. He had the potential to develop as a great pioneer of abstraction. Large Nude. This led to a more figurative. 1904 (St. complex Symbolism. much admired by fashionable beau monde of 1920s and 30s. the Artist’s Sister. The Regatta at Cowes Raoul Dufy. if sober and monumental. drawings 2 Prague: National Gallery 3 $1. Fête à Sainte-Adresse (oils) He was a talented painter who in the early days might have made the big time with Braque and Matisse—but who lacked their grit. 1934. drawings 2 Paris: Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 3 $2. terracotta. geometric blocks of color. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). arabesque style. Dufy was not interested in art theories or questioning the meaning of life. 32 1⁄4 x 39 in (82 x 100 cm). stone. linear drawing. 1917 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada). colorful. characterized by solid. He was always original. 1923 (London: Tate Collection) Frank Kupka b 1871 – 1957 n FRENCH/CZECH 5 France 1 oils. and bronze) in the 1920s. Free.029. c.657 in 1990. KEY WORKS Planes by Colors. easy subjects such as horse racing and yachting. 1919–20 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) 353 (plaster. c. Prints and tapestry designs. floating colors. was much praised in the 1930s–1950s. but lacked an underlying philosophical drive and the single-minded dedication to fulfil it— he was distracted by too many ideas. The Colored One. Mother and Child. clear. KEY WORKS Portrait of Suzanne Dufy.C . KEY WORKS Man with a Guitar. Seated Figure. 1916 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). 1900–1970 Vertical and Diagonal Planes. His vivacious art. watercolor on paper. Private Collection. Best known for accomplished. watercolors.

personal style perpetuate an enduring air of childlike innocence and wonder. 1906 (St. Le café de la Tourelle à Montmartre (oils) He was a popular painter known for not very challenging. His later work is lively. murals—which inevitably leads to uneven quality. Spain. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). 1912 (London: Tate Collection). Premier disque (oils) Delaunay was one of the pioneers of modern art. Sought new types of subject matter and made an early breakthrough to abstract painting. ceramics. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum) Robert Delaunay b 1885 –1941 n FRENCH 5 France. His best work was c. stained glass. Marizy-Sainte-Geneviève. 1910 (Washington. Anniversaire (oils) He was a Russian-born Hasidic Jew whose inspiration was his early cultural roots. Much supported by Russian-born wife. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Best remembered for the work . c. KEY WORKS The Red Dancer. He was one of the very few committed Christian artists of the 20th century. 1914 (Basel. which made him one of the leading Fauve painters and placed him almost on a par with Matisse. themes. His unique and personal marriage of subjects.296.354 MODERNISM Maurice Utrillo b 1883 –1955 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 London: Christie’s Images 3 $1. characterized by sharp perspectives and deserted streets. and slight (but has never lost its popularity). Femme fatale (oils) He was Dutch-born but considered an honorary Frenchman (settled in Paris 1897).7m in 1991. Simultaneous Open Windows.6m in 1990. Chagall Kees van Dongen b 1877 –1968 n FRENCH 5 Paris 1 oils 2 Moscow: Pushkin Museum 3 $5. His early work takes modern themes such as cities. Uses faces to convey expression. prints. He chose losers and the exploited as his subjects. in saturated. 1920 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art) KEY WORKS Marc Chagall b 1887 – 1985 n RUSSIAN/FRENCH 5 France. worst work is sugary. His dark palette reflected his gloomy subjects. sentimental. full of light and pleasure. most famously in his discs. Russia 1 oils 2 Nice: Musée Marc Chagall 3 $13. boldly painted works. DC: National Gallery of Art) KEY WORKS he produced from 1905 to 1913: they are genuinely original. 1911 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 1908 (St. Les Filles. drawings 2 St. 1908–16. the Eiffel Tower. and was also a theater and textiles designer. crustily painted views of Montmartre. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum 3 $1. and intended to celebrate the emotional and joyful impact of pure color. Christ in the Outskirts. 1904 (St. and soccer. An unhappy loner who deliberately stood outside the mainstream of Modern art. Woman in a Black Hat. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum) Georges Rouault b 1871 –1958 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils. but repetitive and unimaginative. Had a personal history of mental instability. expressing through them his bleak view of life and the activities and rituals used by human beings as they prey on each other in a struggle for survival. 1906– 08 (Tokyo: Bridgestone Museum of Art).612 in 1990. Best paintings generally early and pre-1950.3m in 2004. and quirky. Fille de cirque (oils) Rouault was an important French painter with a highly individual style. Sonia. which are abstract. vibrant colors. manned flight. Homage to Blériot. lyrical. Delaunay used color in a free and highly inventive way. KEY WORKS Red Eiffel Tower. 1907 (St. The black outlines and his choice of colors give a deliberate appearance of stained glass to his paintings—there is an iconlike quality in his figures. Portugal 1 oils 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $4. Nude with Raised Arm. Later work is less gloomy and contains small figures. Saint-Denis Canal. who produced equally talented art in a similar style. He was very prolific—paintings. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum).5m in 1990.

peripatetic life and consequent cultural eclecticism? The Fiddler. 1964–66 (Zurich: Kunsthaus) The Juggler Marc Chagall. 1929 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza).C . 1900–1970 Window. Cubist fragmentation. 52 x 39 1⁄3 in 355 concentrated on major stained-glass projects after 1950. Do the odd floating heads and bodies and his combination of simultaneous events in one picture reflect his own strange. 1917. Paris through the KEY WORKS (132 x 100 cm). The Rooster. Chagall settled in France in 1914. His art combines Russian folk art. . 1912–13 (Washington. 1913 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). DC: National Gallery of Art). War. 1943. oil on canvas. and Expressionist color. Private Collection.

As soothing as the sound of the waves of the sea. Princess X. a Romanian who settled in Paris. He made 28 versions of this piece. Born into a Romanian peasant family. simply but gracefully capturing the gentle elegance of a bird in flight. Interested in abstract ideals such as the purity of primordial (simple) forms. Constant reworking of selected themes—children. His studio became a work of art in its own right because of the way he grouped his work in it to bring out comparisons and reflections of light. 1916 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). settled in Paris in 1904. KEY WORKS The Kiss. human heads. simplicity of form (such as an egg shape). always sought to achieve a mystic symbolism in his work. Notice the bases that are an integral part of the whole work. Maquettes for the Endless Column. Bird in Space Medium bronze Height 56 3⁄4 in (144 cm) Location New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art The stone base is a wonderful contrast in texture and color to the lightness of the metal Nothing symmetrical or geometrical means this graceful turning bronze captures an innate sense of flightlike motion The light beautifully catches the yellow bronze as the sculpture starts to widen out and commence its gentle turn “Simplicity is not an end in art but we arrive at simplicity in spite of ourselves. Remained indifferent to honor and fame. birds. Endless pleasure can be derived from the contemplation of pure line. Some see it as a bird lifting into the air. Often seen as the pinnacle of Brancusi’s work. highly polished bronze stands five feet tall. His work shows tireless refinement and search for purity. modular columns. Mademoiselle Pogani. Its Minimalist poise and haunting presence creates a meditative stillness. Brancusi. Danaïde (sculpture) Brancusi was a seminal figure in 20thcentury art. 1920 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). 1937 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne) . Touches something very basic in the human psyche.” CONSTANTIN BRANCUSI Constantin Brancusi b 1876 – 1957 n ROMANIAN/FRENCH 5 Paris 1 sculpture 2 Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne (with a recreation of his studio) 3 $16.356 MODERNISM Bird in Space Constantin Brancusi 1923 A wonderful simplification of form and deeply sacred approach to his work made Brancusi highly influential in the development not only of 20th-century sculpture but of abstract art generally. others as a gigantic golden feather denoting the whole motion of flight. this gleaming. Student of Rodin. materials unadorned and unadulterated. light reflecting off surfaces. but was never an abstract artist—a reference to a recognizable nature is always present. Emphasis on the inherent qualities of materials. fascinated by universal symbols of life and fertility. with a profound influence on sculpture and design. 1909 (Paris: Montparnasse Cemetery).5m in 2002.

landscapes. and could be first seen there in avant-garde exhibitions. Modigliani created very recognizable portraits and splashy nudes. Nude on a Blue Cushion.and Cubist-like fragmentation of space around the figures. poetic. Side of Beef. such as Cézanne and El Greco. New York: Guggenheim Museum. He had a wide emotional range—from angelic choirboys to dead meat. DC: National Gallery of Art) He was a Lithuanian-born Jew who worked in Paris. Chaïm Soutine b 1894 –1943 n FRENCH 5 France 1 oils 2 Pennsylvania: Barnes Foundation 3 $8. almond-shaped eyes with a glazed and far-away stare. and moody. He had many influences: African art. decorative. His work shows uncontrolled distortion. which show the influence of his original. and depressive. 1916 (Milan: Galleria d’Arte Moderna). KEY WORKS Self-Portrait. This diversity of styles. 1917 (Washington. woman-beating. and activity has been labeled loosely as “Ecole de Paris” (School of Paris). She was the artist’s common-law wife and frequent subject. Cézanne. c. oil on canvas. tragic. Le pâtissier de Cagnes (oils) synthesis between the priorities of the old masters and those of modern art. simplified. artists. Unknown in his own lifetime although was recognized and supported by a few dedicated collectors. DC: National Gallery of Art). both highly stylized.C . c. 1917 (Washington. carved stone sculptures and his study of African and Oceanic art. spoiled. 1900–1970 357 THE SCHOOL OF PARIS 1900 –1950 From 1900 to 1950 Paris was the center of artistic innovation and attracted artists. 39 1⁄3 x 25 3⁄4 in (100 x 65 cm). 1911–12 (London: Tate Collection). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Cracked painting surfaces show the speed with which he worked. gifted. Undisciplined. 1918–19.460. Jeanne Hébuterne devant une porte (oils) He was a neurotic. Matisse-like simplification. Sensitive drawings. and connoisseurs from all over the world. Many influences. elongated noses. Good sculptures. 1925 (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery) Amedeo Modigliani b 1884 – 1920 n ITALIAN 5 France 1 oils. Notice the inclined heads with long faces on long necks. tubercular. At a distance. the churning distortions and paint handling become dominant. . dealers. painting over layers not yet dry. He had acute color sense and produced lovely harmonies of color. Landscape at Ceret. and flayed carcasses. Look for portraits. sculpture 2 Milan: Mattioli Collection 3 $28m in 2004. fluent line. collectors. All the major innovations from Cubism to Surrealism originated in Parisian studios. the paintings look controlled and neat. Art Nouveau. painterly. 1920 (London: Tate Collection). but this is not arbitrary. Chaïm Soutine. drug-addicted. povertystricken but talented pioneer who achieved a genuine and satisfactory Jeanne Hébuterne in a Yellow Sweater Amedeo Modigliani.001 in 2005. Paul Guillaume. Would he have gone on to greater things or was he burned out? His early death probably saved his reputation. but close up. KEY WORKS Head. 1916 (St. Picasso-like intensity and confident.

35 3⁄4 x 46 1⁄2 in (90 x 118 cm). rather than by description of forms and appearances. Egon Schiele dies in influenza pandemic Expressionism condemned as “degenerate art” by Nazi party number of works together as well (for example. and their influence continues in full force to the present day with many different individual styles. Several artists are killed in action. In 1911. oil on canvas. and free association. scale. You may need to see a large KEY EVENTS 1910 1911 Kandinsky paints his first abstracts Kandinsky writes the abstract artists’ chief treatise On the Spiritual in Art and establishes Blaue Reiter group Outbreak of World War I. heightened sensation. but it will reward the effort involved. 1962. One piece in a mixed show is often—frankly— meaningless. Early practitioners wanted art to become more like music. because all that you can hope to notice are the eye-catching or superficial qualities of the work. Expressionism was a particularly strong tendency in German art as a way of facing up to the spiritual and social crises that arose at the time of World War I. but does not represent or imitate any visible object or figure. these have since become the cornerstone of his reputation. Storm Tide in Hamburg Oskar Kokoschka. Marc embarked on a series of paintings of animals. ABSTRACTION A true example of abstract art has intellectual or emotional meaning (or both). and/or intense subject matter. drawing. including Franz Marc and August Macke Weimar Republic takes control in Germany. color.3 x 21. or a combination of these.358 MODERNISM EXPRESSIONISM AND ABSTRACTION Expressionism and Abstraction were key early trends in the development of Modern Art. 1912. EXPRESSIONISM Any style that conveys heightened sensibility through distortion of e.g.4 cm). conveying emotion and meaning by suggestion. Period of cultural and artistic diversity. Hamburg: Kunsthalle. . in an exhibition devoted to the artist) in order for you to begin to see fully and understand what the artist is trying to put over. Painted in the year of his Tate Gallery retrospective. 5 2⁄3 x 8 2⁄3 in (14. woodcut. Good abstract art is not easy to get to grips with. form. space. 1914 1919 1934 Faultier Franz Marc. Hamburg: Kunsthalle.

For Kandinsky.” verticals “warm. Wassily Kandinsky was among the first to create a truly abstract art in which color and form take on an expressive life of their own.” whereas green was “the attenuated sounds of a violin” his theories about the emotional properties of shape. and yellow. and the places where lines touched and planes overlapped had to be absolutely exact. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne. which are “youthful” A painting such as this should not be analyzed intellectually but allowed to reach those parts of the brain that connect with music According to Kandinsky’s theories. He could literally “hear” colors. yellow possesses a capacity to “attain heights unbearable to the eye and the spirit” TECHNIQUES Works such as this were planned and executed with the utmost care and precision by Kandinsky. . Kandinsky was interested in the connections between art and music. horizontal lines were “cold and flat. a quality that is known as synaesthesia. 1922. strong. line. angles. oil on canvas. which are “mature. and red” Black Frame Wassily Kandinsky. this work encapsulates Red was described as giving “the impression of a strong drum beat. Painted at the height of his creative powers. He left his academic posts in Russia. The artist contrasts curved lines.” right angles “cold. Painted just after Kandinsky began teaching at the Bauhaus.” with angular lines. Colors. controlled. disillusioned with the outcome of the Revolution. It was painted after he settled in Germany for the second time in 1922. and color.1900–1960 359 early 20th century WHAT TO LOOK FOR Starting out as a figurative painter.

A precocious. and a forerunner of Expressionism. self-portraits. and (at end of his life) religious works. watercolors. works are before his nervous breakdown in 1908. and guilt—a textbook case for Freud. Paris.871. Vienna: Graphische Sammlung Albertina. KEY WORKS The Sick Child. He was. Observe the way he worked through his neuroses in his paintings. are some of the most accomplished things he did. unhappy love affairs. rapidly filled with color. His paintings have a tense. woodcuts 2 Oslo: Munch Museum. but he had a rare ability to portray such intimate emotions in a universal way. couples or groups of figures in highly charged relationships. The best. nervous. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $18. He made anxiety beautiful. probing outline. He saw the human figure or spirit as animal rather than moral. 1893 (Los Angeles: J. 1885–86 (Oslo: National Gallery). Embrace. which gives them a strong sense of immediacy and urgency. however. sexuality. most intense. including portraits. as well as being able to touch his. Look for isolated. Town and River (oils) An intense. His early life was tortured by sickness. and Schiele was arrested and imprisoned on the charge of depraving children. Insisted on absolute freedom for creative individuality and self-determination. 1893–94 (Oslo: Munch Museum) Self-Portrait Nude Egon Schiele. His woodcuts. death.000 in 2002. National Gallery 3 $6.360 MODERNISM Egon Schiele b 1890 – 1918 n GERMAN 5 Vienna 1 oils. His work can still extract a genuine gasp. cityscapes in Art Nouveau style. Schiele often isolates his figures against a plain background—like specimens on a dissecting table. he also made many drawings and watercolors. Madonna. tragic. phallic symbols. so that we can recognize and even come to terms with our own inner fears. strange flesh colors.627. an obsessive interest in eyes and eye sockets. which exploit the grain of the wood. gifted draftsman. using scrubby paint (with scratch marks from the handle of the brush). if not the shock or horror of 100 years ago. often shown in silhouette. single figures. rejection. Look for intense color combinations. alongside simple and balanced compositions reveals much of his inner uncertainty and search for peace and stability. Haus in Aasgaardstrand (oils) The best-known Norwegian and Scandinavian painter. 1914 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza). short-lived genius whose art expressed his own self-destructive personality and the claustrophobic introspection of Sigmund Freud’s Vienna. Mourning Woman. It attracted fierce opposition from conservative society. and death. 1910. Krumau Landscape. prints. . His art concentrates on sexually intense subjects. together with his pregnant young wife.5 cm). Paul Getty Museum). Houses on the River (The Old Town).000 in 2003. 43 x 14 1⁄2 in (110 x 35. rejection. 1917 (Vienna: Österreichische Galerie) KEY WORKS Edvard Munch b 1863 – 1944 n NORWEGIAN 5 Oslo. bodies in contorted positions. gaunt faces lost in inner thoughts. He died. in the great flu epidemic. oil on canvas. The sketchy. Berlin 1 oils. recognized and successful in advanced circles. Starry Night. unfinished style. drawings 2 Washington. insanity. They are full of recognizable (almost clichéd) images of isolation. 1912 (New York: Museum of Modern Art).

“a poem about life. love. these patterns prefigure fully abstract painting Staring. 1900–70 361 The Scream Edvard Munch c. Munch devised a startling visual language to give expression to the neuroses that dogged his life: despair. The obvious primal quality of The Scream—Munch in fact painted two versions—conveys this profound sense of alienation and nightmare with shocking directness. The apparent haste with which the picture was painted is deceptive. it was planned and executed meticulously. greens. and death. by whom he was deeply influenced. their unnaturalness a striking metaphor for the central figure’s despair The Scream Media oil.C . tempera. 1893 Munch’s The Scream—one of the world’s most recognizable paintings—was part of his The Frieze of Life. Like the vivid sky. The composition is simple: the strong. A near formless landscape suggests a world dissolving into chaos. and pastel on cardboard Dimensions 35 x 29 in (91 x 73 cm) Location Oslo: National Gallery loneliness. hollow eyes on a skull-like face are a recurring feature of Munch’s deeply disturbed figures . rejection. unsettling diagonal of the bridge and rail contrasting with the opposing diagonal of the water. and Lurid reds. The principal figure is placed firmly in the center of the picture TECHNIQUES Paint is applied with a seemingly violent action—often with the brush handle— creating a potent sense of restlessness and distortion. and yellows fill the sky.” The project occupied him for much of his life: an attempt to find pictorial means to represent inner turmoil and angst. Much like Van Gogh. The horizon is relatively high and strongly emphasized.

and Fritz Bleyl. 1920–22 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) Ernst Ludwig Kirchner b 1880 – 1938 n GERMAN 5 Dresden. and figure painting. Nolde’s art hides a unique radical-regressive complexity. He was very interested in non-European “primitive” art. c. His early work was on the cutting edge of the avant-garde. Frauenkirch (Switzerland) 1 prints. Later associated artists included Nolde.62m in 1997. Paris.” A key member of Die Brücke. Adam and Eve. deriving from Matisse and the Cubists. Pechstein. seascapes (his best work). Orchids. Painted gypsy subjects after 1920. Great watercolorist. Berlin. Germany. DC: National Gallery of Art). Akte in der Sonne. engravings 2 Seebüll. oils 2 Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $1. sculpture 2 Davos (Switzerland): Kirchner Museum. Zigeunerinnen am Lagerfeuer (oils) Müller was an important but short-lived contributor to the German avant-garde. KEY WORKS Two Bathers. “Primitive.362 MODERNISM Emil Nolde b 1867 –1956 n GERMAN DIE BRÜCKE 1905 –13 5 Munich. Look for bright colors. why they rejected his art—perhaps he was (sadly) a curious case of arrested development. Moritzburg (oils) The Dancers Emil Nolde. He shares Expressionism’s strengths (spontaneity.704. They expressed radical political and social views through modern. artistically and politically? KEY WORKS Young Black Horses. Heckel. Nolde had been much influenced by a visit to New Guinea in 1913. passion. c. Germany: Stiftung Ada und Emil Nolde 3 $2. Uses bright. 1906–14 (Die Brücke). bold outline and color.000 in 2003. urban subject matter or landscapes and figures. Kirchner was sensitive. watercolors. Was a fully paid-up Nazi and never understood Important avant-garde group of German Expressionists based in Dresden. resulting in simplification and a conscious crudeness. Expressed the schizophrenic mood of his times in a highly charged. visual challenge) and weaknesses (too strident. 1925 (Private Collection). and deliberately unsophisticated techniques (most of the group were without proper training). Asia 1 oils. oil on canvas. founded by Kirchner. Had an instinct for color. prints. clashing colors and thick paint. saying “Everything which is primeval and elementary captures my imagination. 1916 (Dortmund: Museum am Ostwall). Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie. Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $4. Blumengarten (oils) A pioneering Expressionist and member of Die Brücke. soon runs out of steam).9m in 2002. . prone to mental and physical breakdown (terrible war experiences). Creator of landscapes. 1932 (Detroit Institute of Arts) Otto Müller b 1874 – 1930 n GERMAN 5 Germany 1 prints. but believed in racial purity and the concept of a master race. Powerful images of nudes in landscape. 1920 (Washington. The Artist and his Wife. Schmidt-Rottluff. but he never developed. and Van Dongen. most apparent when his work is seen from a distance.” rough texture. bold outlines. oils. 1920. This was Expressionism done with flair. Influential in the revival of the woodcut as an expressive medium. They were influenced by the latest Parisian ideas and primitive nonEuropean art. he was painting the same work in 1940 as in 1910 (but only Beckmann was able to sustain his original levels of Expressionist creativity and freshness after the age of 40).

Painted powerful. pessimistic images of nudes. Kirchner moved to Berlin in 1911 and became fascinated by the edginess of street life. Berlin. forceful. Pechstein was a painter and engraver who also designed decorative projects and stained glass. 1920–22 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) .600 in 1997. Berlin: Brücke Museum. and animals in landscape. nudes.261. he alienated his fellow avant-garde artists. DC: National Gallery of Art). using strident colors. Lake Constance 1 prints. Village Landscape (oils) 5 Dresden. Adam and Eve. 1910 (Berlin: Brucke Museum). KEY WORKS Two Bathers. intensified color. oils. Seated Girl (oils) A leading member of Die Brücke. Die Lesende (oils) A leading German Expressionist and member of Die Brücke. engravings 2 Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $1. engravings 2 Berlin: Brücke Museum 3 $1. KEY WORKS Gap in the Dyke. Committed suicide. making use of heightened. monumental style. 1913. His landscapes are more decorative. Palau Islands (South-East Asia) 1 prints. DIE BRÜCKE MANIFESTO tense.” Characteristic flat style. 1910 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) KEY WORKS Berlin Street Scene Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. noted for his instinctive. portraits. and anguish with a corresponding fierce and angular style. Self-Portrait as a Soldier. Expressionist style. 1915 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). using pure. Had a sketchy. Was called “the Giotto of our time. wiry technique. Dangast.” ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER. 1910 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art). Commercially successful. Untrained. Red Tower in the Park. unmixed colors and lyrical subjects of figures.6m in 2001. KEY WORKS Artillerymen. His later style (after 1945) is softer and more fluid. Leicester: Leicestershire Museum 3 $3. oil on canvas. c. Made powerful woodcuts and lithographs. 1900–70 363 “Everyone who renders directly and honestly whatever drives him to create is one of us. but still involves intense color. Berlin 1 oils. sculptures 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum. prints.C . 1915 (Ohio: Allen Memorial Art Museum) Max Pechstein b 1881 – 1955 n GERMAN 5 Dresden. Flanders. 1920 (Washington. Influenced by Matisse and Oceanic art. Reviled by the Nazis. which uses consciously harsh color and aggressive simplification. sickness. Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Erich Heckel b 1883 – 1970 n GERMAN b 1884 – 1976 n GERMAN 5 Dresden. 47 1⁄3 x 37 1⁄2 in (121 x 95 cm). Nelly. Seated Nude. Berlin. angular. 1910 (Frankfurt: Städel Museum) Heckel was a leading German Expressionist (member of Die Brücke).584. woodcuts.000 in 2000.

1926. If you have never looked at a picture this way before. Paris 1 oils. View From her Brother’s House in Bonn. Improvisation 31 (Sea Battle). Munich 1 oils 2 Munich: Lenbachhause 3 $600. and taught at the Bauhaus in the 1920s. prints 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum. then try to relax the eye and the mind so the color and shapes reach that part of the brain that responds to music—don’t analyze them. Lived in Germany 1896–1914 and 1923–33. 1911 (St. expressive. it can often be a strange. 1917 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art) Wassily Kandinsky b 1866 – 1944 n RUSSIAN 5 Munich. let them fill your field of vision.364 MODERNISM Accent in Pink Wassily Kandinsky. Münter was a leader of Der Blaue Reiter Group and Kandinsky’s partner and mistress from 1903 until 1914. Future (Woman in Stockholm). oil on canvas. He worked slowly from increasingly simplified figurative work through to sketchy abstracts and then hard-edge abstract. he cultivated an intellectual rather than instinctive approach to art. DC: National . but it will need time and patience. 1908 (Madrid: Museo ThyssenBornemisza). backed up by much theoretical writing. She broke for good from Kandinsky in 1917 and ceased to paint. 39 1⁄4 x 31 1⁄2 in (100 x 80 cm). Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). Had a complex. Munich: Städtische Galerie 3 $19m in 1990. Kind mit Puppe (oils) Strongly influenced by Fauvism. George I. Russia. multifaceted personality. and colorful still lifes and landscapes. Painted in the same year that the Bauhaus published his major treatise Point and Line to Plane. original. During this time she painted bold. Gallery of Art). 1926 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) Gabriele Münter b 1877 – 1962 n GERMAN 5 Düsseldorf. KEY WORKS St. 1908 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). but at the same time he had a strong physical sensitivity to color. 1922 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne). For example. KEY WORKS Interior. 1913 (Washington. which he could hear as well as see (a phenomenon called synesthesia). Black Frame. spiritual experience. exhilarating.000 in 2000. but float into them and let yourself go. Several Circles. Stand close to the paintings. Weimar (Germany). Fugue (oils) One of the pioneers of the Modern Movement and reputedly the painter of the first abstract picture. Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne.

1900–70 365 Franz Marc b 1880 – 1916 n GERMAN DER BLAUE REITER 1911 – 14 5 Munich. Woman in a Green Jacket. Made lyrical use of clear. and that their fate paralleled the apocalyptic future to be visited on mankind. Paris. 1913 (Bonn: Städtisches Kunstmuseum).744. Lady in a Park. and Münter.” came from the Kandinsky painting used on the cover of their Almanac. Market in Tunis (oils) A leading German Expressionist of Der Blaue Reiter group and the most French in outlook and expression—a joyful.000 in 2000. loosely grouped association of avant-garde German Expressionists. 1913 (Munich: Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst) An important. Paris 1 oils 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $7. oil on canvas. Their name. but he died. KEY WORKS The Tiger. The Almanac of 1912 included articles and illustrations by Der Blaue Reiter artists and the composer Arnold Schoenberg. Author of richly sourced. 1912. A possibly great talent. Kandinsky and Marc were the key members.59m in 1999. Promenade (with Half-Length of Girl in White). The Mandrill. but the group included Klee. an autonomous idea of an artist. watercolors 2 Bonn: Kunstmuseum 3 $3. 22 3⁄4 x 28 3⁄4 in (58 x 73 cm). simplification. and the power of color as a means of doing this. Kandinsky’s spiritualism. 1914 (Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie) . German Romantic notions of nature.” AUGUST MACKE August Macke b 1887 – 1914 n GERMAN 5 Berlin. Munich: Tunisia 1 oils. 1913 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum). Combined progressive French Cubist structure. Saarbrüken (Germany): Saarland Museum. which explores a vision of a unified world in which animals and the rest of nature exist in perfect harmony. agenda (Rhinelanders are more cheerful?). and oldfashioned. very personal art. 1914 (New York: Museum of Modern Art).C . Marc was a key member of the Der Blaue Reiter group. rather than anguished. Was killed in action at Verdun. Macke. vibrant color and figurative subject matter. They wanted to put spiritual values into art and used abstraction. Animals. “A work of art is a parable. and even a play by Kandinsky. Matisse-like expressive color. it is man’s thought. meaning “The Blue Rider. Der Wasserfall: Fraeun unter einem Wasserfall (oils) The son of a Munich painter. aged 27. KEY WORKS Garden on Lake Thun. based in Munich. 1912 (Munich: Städtische Galerie). Marc thought that animals had an inherent innocence that gave them access to greater truths than humans. Little Blue Horse Franz Marc. By 1914 he had become more abstract. 1913 (Cologne: Museum Ludwig). in the first German offensive in World War I.

brightly colored. 101 3⁄4 x 169 2⁄3 in (258 x 431 cm). Paul Getty Museum. Peasants’ War Series. Kollwitz became one of the great printmakers (especially of black-and-white woodcuts). Best work between 1885 and 1891 (he tends to repeat himself after that).366 MODERNISM James Ensor b 1860 – 1949 n BELGIAN 5 Ostend. oil on canvas. Still Life with Sea Shells. Brussels 1 oils. Also a sculptor. Flanders. print. She was politically committed.600 in 2004. engravings 2 Ostend: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $705. son’s death (World War I). self-portraits. 1902–08 (Berlin: Käthe-KollwitzMuseum). Russia 1 prints. Belated recognition. and gave importance to expressive hands and faces. Antiwar Day September 21.063 in 2003. woodcuts. An early masterpiece motivated more by a belief in the future triumph of Socialism than in Christian religion. Amsterdam. and much honored (except by the Nazis). KEY WORKS Still Life with Ray. Self-Portrait (watercolors) From a family of strong moral and social convictions. Bons Juges (oils) A talented loner remembered for his eccentric. nervously painted. Los Angeles: J. self-portraits. 1895–98 (Berlin: Käthe-Kollwitz-Museum). She placed emphasis on strength: of emotion. 1924. 1924 Käthe Kollwitz. High-quality drawings and engravings. 1923 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) Christ’s Triumphant Entry into Brussels James Ensor. a social reformer (but never revolutionary). sculpture. War against War. the Mothers. 1922–24 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Käthe Kollwitz b 1867 – 1945 n GERMAN 5 Berlin. Florida: Holocaust Museum. . and the Volunteers. KEY WORKS Weavers’ Revolt Series. watercolors. and macaber imagery (skulls. engravings 2 Berlin: Käthe-KollwitzMuseum 3 $149. The poster was published by the International Federation of Trade Unions. much of it deriving from childhood memories of objects in his parents’ souvenir shop. monumental). 1892 (Bruges: Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts). of the human body (she saw it as The Survivors. Chose personal themes—mother and child. suffering Christ). The Widow I. skeletons. 1888.

A brilliant. with strands in Europe and New York. 1900–70 367 Oskar Kokoschka b 1886 – 1980 n GERMAN Marcel Duchamp b 1887 – 1968 n FRENCH 5 Vienna. mixed media 2 Philadelphia: Museum of Art 3 $1. Fountain (replica). but Duchamp was the first to propose that the interest and stimulus of a work of art can lie solely in its concept or intellectual content—it doesn’t matter what it looks like. although he was significant in his day. New York 1 oils. The Bride. and society. Duchamp was applauded as one of the great gurus and heroes of the Modern Movement. Neustadt I (oils) From the same generation as Sigmund Freud. very freely painted and rich in color. 1912 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art). famous faces and views. His most effective work was in his “machine style” phase (1913–1920s). best remembered for his involvement with Dada. In Advance of the Broken Arm. but his work is possibly one of its greatest bores (it is possible to achieve both at the same time). 1915 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) DADA The first of the modern antiart movements. None are very interesting to look at per se. Bicycle Wheel (sculpture) The father of Conceptual art. as long as you can pick up the message. original lost). 1945 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery) Francis Picabia b 1879 – 1953 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Not quite a case of the Emperor’s clothes. Fountain (Urinal) (replica. London. 2. the artist had decamped to the US in 1915. see below). 1915 –22 . Made for a US exhibition. 1929–30 (Detroit Institute of Arts) 5 Paris. KEY WORKS Bride of the Wind. 1917 (remade 1964). To speak ill of Duchamp is to invite the wrath and derision of the entire modern art establishment.15m in 1990. A deep-thinking. Côte d’Azur 1 oils. porcelain. Man Ray. Also painted landscapes and townscapes. Jerusalem. KEY WORKS I See Again in Memory My Dear Udnie. 1917 (London: Tate Collection). The name (French for “hobbyhorse”) was probably chosen by randomly inserting a penknife into a dictionary. also from Vienna. Prague. anarchic character. Dresden. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). The ragbag of his few works are now icons of the Modern Movement (notably the urinal. life. offensive. 1914 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). US. Petite Udnie (oils) He was a quixotic. deep-feeling humanist. Expressionism. Ernst. prints. watercolors 2 London: Courtauld Institute of Art 3 $2. Its prominent figures (Arp. Very Rare Picture on Earth. However.C . when he used the inspiration of technical drawings to produce telling images that comment ironically on man’s relationship with machines (often with erotic overtones). and tatty to shock and to challenge all existing ideas about art. London: Tate Collection. mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $4. KEY WORKS Nude Descending Staircase.6m in 2002. in all honesty his work is quite limited and now looks distinctly tired.7m in 1989. but time to say that the suit is now threadbare and old-fashioned. Dresden. and Picabia) deliberately used the absurd. Duchamp. No. and Surrealism. charming but arrogant. Barcelona. Switzerland 1 oils. Marcel Duchamp. banal. He flirted with Cubism. he was best known for his powerful Expressionist portraits and self-portraits. 1914 (Basel. Responded best to strong. 1912 (Philadelphia: Museum of Art). sculpture. intellectual thug who continues to mesmerize and intimidate the art world from beyond the grave. height 24 in (61 cm).

culturally. A poet. animals.233 in 2003. KEY WORKS Merzbild 5B (Picture-Red-HeartChurch). mixed media. sculpture 2 Hanover: Sprengel Museum 3 $327. mixed media. 26 1⁄3 x 22 1⁄4 in (67 x 56. using light-hearted inspiration from plants. Cumbria. a successor near Oslo was destroyed by fire in 1951. and socially mad—Germany from 1914 to 1945. 1920 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 1947. with Woman Sweating. picked up in the streets of his native Hanover. cardboard cutouts. (It was destroyed by Allied bombs in 1943. His early roots were in Dada. Arp liked simplicity. torn paper collages. 1921 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). 1919 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Merz 163. 1946 (Kendal. especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Thank You. or satirical. His major (manic) project was “Merzbau”—a whole building filled with personal objets trouvés— a collage gone mad. oils 3 $2. relief. Femme (sculpture) YMCA Flag. His small-scale “Merzbilder” collages were created in great number and with extraordinary care. and sculptor as well as an experimenter. Flight. UK 1 collage. and chance.) Poignant attempt to create a new beauty on the ruins of German culture. but he was never political. best remembered for wood reliefs. pioneering advertising agency from 1924 to 1930. His work of 1922–30 is more consciously constructed (and influenced by Russian Constructivism and Dutch De Stijl). Merz Picture 32A (The Cherry Picture).368 MODERNISM Kurt Schwitters b 1887 – 1948 n GERMAN 5 Hanover.5 cm). . He used material that he. oils. and arrangement. polemical. poetic.671. Was influential. Head Jean (Hans) Arp. 1929. Produced a few high-quality. Norway. His early work is modest in scale and appearance. both in composition. literally. sculpture. Private Collection. Cumbria (UK): Abbot Hall Art Gallery. Germany. Merzbild mit Kerze (sculpture) He was a pioneering. Kendal. UK: Abbot Hall Art Gallery) Jean (Hans) Arp b 1886 – 1966 n FRENCH 5 France. and (after 1931) stone sculptures. traditional paintings and sculptures as a deliberate contrast to his avant-garde activities. where the artist settled in 1945. Died in England as a refugee. Switzerland 1 collage.800 in 1993. Arp regarded his simplified shapes as emblems of natural growth and forms. painter. Ambleside Kurt Schwitters. Took natural forms and sought bothered with to make sense of a world that he found politically. Schwitters ran a successful. biomorphic shapes. romantic loner who used the fragments no one His work is always personal or autobiographical—the artist as sacrificial victim or spiritual leader. content. and man. The title refers to the English Lake District.

Kunsthaus. Better when small scale. 1900–70 369 to perfect their shape and inner spirit. anti-Nazi).2m in 2002. 1935. Forest and Dove. Pioneer of the Surrealist desire to explore the subconscious and create a sense of disturbing out-of-this-world reality. Heartfield is perhaps best known for developing political photo-montage in Berlin in the 1920s and 1930s. highly expressive of its age. Paris. (60 x Entire City Max Ernst. such as forests and little bird “Loplop. The Elephant Celebes. oil on canvas. 1921 (London: Tate Collection). figurative images that seem to be painted dreams. Zürich: World War I. Five Fingers has the Hand. Le roi jouant avec la reine (sculpture) décalcomania (liquid paint patterns). Look for his own childhood memories. 1940 (Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Gallery) One of the leading Surrealists. Birds in an Aquarium. producing biting and memorable satire. his later work is more abstract and lyrical. New York 1 prints. analytical. 1921 (Private Collection). The Fall of an Angel. ours. 1916–17 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). Don’t be tempted into an overly serious. Ernst lived in France after 1921 (and in the US from 1941 to 1953). Took refuge in England from 1938 to 1950. KEY WORKS Collage with Squares Arranged According to the Laws of Chance. including oils and frottage. His experimental techniques were a means of activating or liberating his own imagination and. by extension. Early strange. He had an intense social and political commitment (left wing.920 in 2000. founder of Dada in Berlin in 1910. and artist created a whole series of works portraying cityscapes using different media.C . Relax. Sunday Walk (watercolors) KEY WORKS Adolf the Superman: Swallows Gold and Spouts Junk. where accident is used to liberate images in the subconscious. Max Ernst b 1891 – 1976 n GERMAN 5 Bonn.” Enjoy his unusual techniques: witty play with collaged images (one of the first to use them). Cologne. or historical approach to his work. he became with Jean Arp. Founder of Dada and Surrealism. La toilette de la mariée. oils 2 Bruhl. Original manipulator of media imagery and lettering. and anglicized his name as a protest against German nationalism. unforgettable image—less is more. 1927 (London: Tate Collection). 1920 (Berlin: Akademie der Künste). After serving in . frottage (rubbed patterns). KEY WORKS Massacre of the Innocents. and loses bite. c.⁄4The 81 cm). 1928 (New York: Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum) An artist and journalist. Notice the economy of means: Heartfield knew exactly what he wanted to say and went for the jugular with one The 23 3⁄4 x 31 3 in simple. 1922 (Private Collection). sculpture. Family. his lifelong friend. Germany: Max Ernst Museum 3 $2. collage. and enter into the imaginative play he sets up. Although his work is always imaginative. Settled in East Germany from 1950. 1920 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) John Heartfield (Helmut Herzfelde) b 1891 – 1968 n GERMAN 5 Berlin. His witty and inventive experimentation unites subject and technique to great effect. the leader of the Dada movement in Cologne. London 1 photomontage 2 New York: George Eastman House 3 $7.

He created sensitive. but well traveled. much influenced by Kandinsky and Matisse. watercolors. Blue-Green Forest. 1913 (Wiesbaden: Städtisches Museum). theater. Simultaneous Perception (oils) Goncharova was the leading member of the Russian avant-garde. c. Head: Red Light. Rayonist Composition. Well traveled in Europe and had an openly radical lifestyle. and bold blue outlines. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Modern Art. oils. 1922–23 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). drawings 2 California: Norton Simon Museum.200 in 2003. textiles. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). visual language with a consciously strong. 5 Russia. Effective emissary between the avantgarde movements in Russia and the West.” ALBERT EINSTEIN Head of a Woman Alexei von Jawlensky. KEY WORKS Landscape with a Red Roof. and Futurism. The artist gave up a military career for art at age 35. Paris 1 watercolors. Sophisticated work with strong French-Italian appearance and sensibility. drawings 2 Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 3 $420. c. 20 1⁄2 x 19 3⁄4 in (52 x 50 cm). 1913 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne) “Imagination is more important than knowledge. Reclining Nude (oils) He is best remembered as the founder of Rayonism (one of the briefly flourishing sub-Cubist movements before 1914). drawings 3 $1. Otherwise his work is not memorable. Portrait of Alexander Sacharoff. KEY WORKS The Laundry. DC: Hirshhorn Museum) . Fauvism. From Kiev. Used a progressive. prints 2 New York: Guggenheim Museum 3 $664. 1926 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art) on a Horse. 1911 (London: Tate Collection). masculine colors. earthy. strong. 1911. 1912 (London: Tate Collection). Lady with a Hat. ceramics. well born and connected (links to Pushkin family tree). her lifelong companion and collaborator) in 1915. Settled in Paris (together with Larionov. Paris. Switzerland. dated 1911 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). because imagination is infinite. religious-icon accent. 1912–13 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Natalia Goncharova b 1881 – 1962 n RUSSIAN 5 Moscow. Note his birth date—earlier than you might think—he was the same age as Matisse and Kandinsky. Paris 1 prints. sculpture. Bold. oil on cardboard laid on plywood. Rayonism. c. drawings. film. Schokko—Schokko mit Tellerhut (oils) Jawlensky was one of the minor masters of Modernism. small-scale works.4m in 2003. mystical. 1926 (Washington. Paris 1 oils. American Policeman. Composition (works on paper) She was a leading member of the Russian avant-garde. Designs for book illustrations. She was versed in early Cubism. His later years were blighted by ill health and poverty. Alexandra Exter b 1882 – 1949 n RUSSIAN Mikhail Larionov b 1881 – 1964 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. KEY WORKS Construction.000 in 2004. with simplified forms. London: Christie’s Images 3 $7. pure colors.78m in 1989. which showed objects broken up by prisms of light. 1913. Bathing Boys.370 MODERNISM KEY WORKS Soldier Alexei von Jawlensky b 1864 – 1941 n RUSSIAN 5 Germany. 1911 (St. Switzerland 1 oils. Left Russia in 1924. Russian peasant.

bravely facing an unknown future. Berlin 1 oils. Suprematist Composition. Black Square. c. Dynamic Suprematism. 56 Kasimir Malevich. Petersburg: State Russian Museum) .5m in 2000. New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $15. 1929 (St. or plunge into infinity. Malevich wanted to represent the nonobjective supremacy of pure feeling through the suggestion of geometric forms floating in pure white space. If you can do this. 1912 (New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery). oil on canvas. He is regarded as the most important Russian avant-garde painter of the Modern Movement. This new art reflects the search for a new utopia in which all the old. 1911. ready to regroup or twist and turn. 1900–70 371 Kasimir Malevich b 1878 – 1935 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. independent of gravity.C . Suprematist Composition (oils) Suprematist Compostion No. St. 31x 28 in (80 x 71 cm). Petersburg: State Museum of Russia. 1915 (Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum). See them as shapes floating in space. Don’t try and read the simple abstract forms in a literal or material way. 1916 (Cologne: Museum Ludwig). you can experience the excitement and optimistic uncertainty of this revolutionary period. collage 2 Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum. both social and mechanical. familiar values were to be replaced by new social organizations and new beliefs. The new Soviet world was to have been designed by and for engineers. KEY WORKS The Knife Grinder. From 1913 to the late 1920s he developed a new type of abstract art and the aesthetic and social philosophy of Suprematism.

Germany. Soviet disapproval meant the group fragmented across Europe. . 1938–40 (Museum of London) Birth of the Universe Antoine Pevsner. 2. KEY WORKS Construction in Space.200 in 1999. London. oil on canvas. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne 3 $240.” architectural art to reflect the modern world. influencing the fields of architecture and decoration. later joined by Rodchenko and brothers Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo. standing in Petrograd. Gabo created form through the description of space rather than mass. 1 Naum Gabo. 1944–45. plastic and nylon thread. Anchored Cross. Construction in Space with a Crystalline Centre. Pevsner’s later work was characterized by spiraling three-dimensional forms. Linear Construction in Space No. Oslo. Berlin. Meeting of Planets. and iron. He lived in Russia. Worked closely with elder brother. KEY WORKS Head No. UK. 1929 (Basel. 1933. His 3-D work emphasizes modern materials (such as Plexiglas). pointing at the North Star—linking the world and the universe. Expresses sophisticated aesthetic values plus social ideals—a vision of a transcendental order.372 MODERNISM Naum Gabo b 1890 – 1977 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. and the US. 1916 (London: Tate Collection). Vladimir Tatlin. larger than the Eiffel Tower. 1933 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). the way he loves to use projections in space and expresses the poetry of technology. and the Bauhaus and De Stijl movements. height 11 3⁄4 in (30 cm). 1 (sculpture) Also known as Naum Neemia Pevsner. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). he made conscious use of modern materials such as Perspex. and kinetic movement.000 in 2001. Note his mastery of the dynamics of spherical surfaces. developed “constructed. light. 29 1⁄2 x 41 1⁄3 in (75 x 105 cm). Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne. Antoine Pevsner b 1886 – 1962 n RUSSIAN/FRENCH 5 Russia. Fascinated by modern technology and engineering. self-taught pioneer of Russian Constructivism. He left Russia (together with his brother Nuam Gabo) in 1921 and settled in Paris in 1923. Died a much-respected figure. nonobjective art. University of Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard. A peripatetic. glass. Developable Surface (sculpture) He was the leading exponent of Russian avant-garde. and social reform. Vertical Construction No. Model of the Monument to the Third International Tatlin’s unrealized visionary project was for a steel-and-glass monument to the Revolution. US 1 sculpture 2 University of Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard 3 $458. Oslo 1 oils. Antoine Pevsner. 3-D form. 1961 (Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris) CONSTRUCTIVISM 1917 – 21 Important Russian avant-garde movement. They were concerned with abstraction. mixed media. Creator of 2-D and 3-D pieces. space. especially flight. new materials. space. Paris. Paris.

980 in 1987. 28 1⁄4 x 28 1⁄4 in (71. sculpture. Always demanded active participation from viewers. he believed that art must be in the service of the Revolution to create an ordered. Died in oblivion.C . sculpture 2 Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery 3 $504. design.5 cm). Made stage and industrial designs in the 1920s. Line (oils) An active Bolshevik with strong ideals. he was a creator of Constructivist abstractions. 1919–20 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). KEY WORKS Untitled. oils 2 Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery 3 $28. especially corner reliefs. He was rejected by Stalin. legendary founder of Russian Constructivism. tempera on canvas. Switzerland 1 prints. 95 (works on paper) A pioneering Modernist architect and artist. and his never-built tower (Monument to the Third International). which develop the links between art. oils. c. Composition. 1915 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). Famous for his relief constructions. KEY WORKS Line and Compass Drawing. Proun. prints. c. Black on Black. Paris 1 mixed media. sculpture. technological society. 1911 (Moscow: Tretyakov Gallery). Germany. Lived in Paris in 1913 and was much influenced by Picasso The Sailor (Self-Portrait) Vladimir Tatlin. 1900–70 373 El Lissitsky b 1890 – 1941 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia. Deadly rival of Malevich. c. KEY WORKS The Fishmonger. 1911–12. 1916 (Private Collection). 1923 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) and Futurism. mixed media 3 $550.000 in 1988. Project for Construction (drawing) He was the heroic. and art as a material and spiritual experience. Mother and Child.000 in 1990. and architecture. 1918 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 5 Russia. . Petersburg: State Russian Museum. Believed in art at the service of Revolution. St. 1912–13 (Private Collection) Aleksandr Rodchenko b 1891 – 1956 n RUSSIAN Vladimir Tatlin b 1885 – 1953 n RUSSIAN 5 Russia 1 photography.5 x 71. Proun No.

memories and states of mind shown as continuous time. Mercury Passing in Front of the Sun. La scala degli addii—salutando (oils) He was a leading Italian Futurist who had a brief. 38 3⁄4 x 43 1⁄4 in (89 x 109 cm). collective experience (crowds and riots). which he represented by using fragmentation and color—progressing from Divisionism via Cubism to clean-cut Abstraction. . but died falling from a horse. Civica Galleria d’Arte Moderna 3 $1. 1914 (Private Collection) Dynamism of a Dog on a Lead Giacomo Balla. oil on canvas. 1913 (Milan: Collection Gianni Mattioli). innovative. height 43 in (111 cm). KEY WORKS Street Noises Invade the House. bronze. New York: Museum of Modern Art. at the age of 34. sculpture. Dynamism of a Man’s Head. then adding color as a means of representing his ambitious subjects. He was interested in highly charged modern subjects. He is to later artists what Bleriot’s flying machine is to jet aircraft. The sculpture was first exhibited in plaster form in Paris in 1913. 1915 (Milan: Ricardo Jucker Collection) Boccioni was a leading Futurist painter and sculptor who embraced the verve of modern life and enjoyed conflict. emotions and experiences beyond the incidental trivia of time and place. New York: Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Joined a World War I bicycle brigade. key period from 1912 to 1916. sculpture 2 Milan: Collection of Riccardo and Magda Jucker. Balla recreated speed in this painting by superimposing several images in layers. Also produced theater design and poems. 1914 (Milan: Civico Museo d’Arte Contemporanea). flight. Innovative in adopting Unique Forms of Continuity in Space Umberto Boccioni.4m in 1990. 1911 (Hanover: Niedersächsische Landesmuseum). Declined after 1916 into decorative figuration. Romanza di una cucitrice (oils) French Cubist interlocking planes and fragmentation. His work was pioneering in subject and style.38m in 1988. Ditto for his sculptures. and later cast in bronze.374 MODERNISM Giacomo Balla b 1871 – 1958 n ITALIAN 5 Rome 1 oils. of which only four remain. 1913. His work is always on a small scale and not always successful— his ambitions often outran his technical abilities and the means at his disposal. Dynamism of a Cyclist. Interested in sensations: speed. movement and speed. 1912 (Milan: Civica Galleria d’Arte Moderna). movement. important. 1912. KEY WORKS Girl Running on a Balcony. and light. mixed media 2 Rome: Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna 3 $4. Umberto Boccioni b 1882 – 1916 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 oils. such as dynamic. The Charge of the Lancers.

such as trains. Why? And does evil political patronage irrevocably taint the art? KEY WORKS Dynamic Rhythm of a Head in a Bus. using the latest avant-garde styles such as Cubism. Futurism noisily promoted a worship of machinery. Under Chirico’s influence he turned to Metaphysical painting. 15 1⁄4 x 11 1⁄2 in (38. and intellectual.C . stage designer. Its main figures included Bocconi. It was widely influential. collage. Wyndham Lewis. His early work was dull. His most significant works are his Futurist paintings. 1900–70 375 Carlo Carrà b 1881 – 1966 n ITALIAN 5 Italy 1 oils 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $739. KEY WORKS Horsemen of the Apocalypse. 1958 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) . and in the 1930s grand Fascist monuments. Influential critic and writer on art. Sea = Dancer (oils) Severini was one of the creators of Futurism. Painter. Carrà. 1908 (Art Institute of Chicago). Autunno. Still Life with Fish.000 in 1990. speed.5 x 30 cm). Severini. His later work is hardly known outside Italy. Balla. modernity. or else very formulaic and trite. he had only a brief period of real significance. ritratto di Emilio Colombo (oils) He was a prominent Futurist painter and later a leading figure in the Metaphysical movement. dancers. The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli. Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Collection. 1915 (London: Tate Collection). gouache. After 1916 his paintings become less dynamic and more formally pure. Like other bright lights of the early avant-garde (such as Derain). and Joseph Stella. 1915 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). DC: Hirshhorn Museum). The spiraling collage was inspired by a plane dropping leaflets onto the Piazza del Duomo. Red Cross Train Passing a Village. “Art is nothing but humanized science. and revolutionary change. buses. and war machinery—all of them animated by Cubist fragmentation and strong colors. 1911–16. Suburban Train Arriving in Paris.3m in 1990. 1912 (Washington. rules. 1911 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Gino Severini b 1883 – 1966 n ITALIAN 5 Italy. 1906). with goals set out in a series of manifestoes urging a break with the past. Does a lasting reputation require longevity and large output more than talent? Fascist Italy (unlike its equivalent in Germany or Russia) produced some very fine architecture and public art. drawings 2 Rome: Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna 3 $3. Long-lived and adaptable. In the 1920s he made mural decorations (especially mosaics in churches). His work is of uneven quality—the Futurist paintings can be very good. Paris 1 oils. with precise adherence to geometric Interventionist Demonstration Carlo Carrà.” GINO SEVERINI FUTURISM 1909 –15 Originating in Italy (although it had adherents in Russia). writer. city streets. which have dynamic subjects. 1914. Early works combined Futurism’s dynamism with a Cubist feel for structure. and the only one not to center around Paris. Futurism was one of the most important early avant-garde art movements. but later rejected the avant-garde and advocated a return to a more naturalistic type of art. until he discovered Impressionism (in Paris.

72 x 125 in (182. KEY WORKS Praxitella. Timon of Athens—The Thebaid (watercolors) Lewis was a painter. Inventive. His work is always angular and awkward. Was happier with words than images. oil on canvas. short-lived but significant as the first organized movement toward abstraction in English art. c. The issue included articles by Ezra Pound (who coined the movement’s name) and T.376 MODERNISM VORTICISM An avant-garde British art movement. featuring a Wyndham Lewis woodcut.350 in 1993. with his fellow Vorticists. rather like the artist himself. 1921 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). Lewis was one of several young professional artists employed by the government to record their experience of the battlefront. spikey draftsmanship and his personal and inventive use of Cubist and Futurist styles and ideas. Interesting exploration of the concept of the man-cum-machine. aiming to shake up the stuffy British art world and society generally. 1919. drawings. the Vorticist review. writer. He was also the author of very strong drawings and paintings of World War I battlefields (he was an official war artist). Interesting later portraits. Canada: Beaverbrook Art Gallery) A Battery Shelled (Percy) Wyndham Lewis.8 cm). mixed media 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $73. and journalist. a difficult personality who had a brief flowering as a leading member of the English avant-garde. editor of Blast. Its lynchpin was Percy Wyndham Lewis. 1937 (New Brunswick. An angry young man who. London: Imperial War Museum. Eliot. Vorticism took Cubist and Futurist ideas. Self-Portrait. His powerful and original early work was among the first abstract art in Europe. producing his best work as an official war artist in World War I. creative use of faceted space and figures.8 x 317. UK 1 oils. 1921 (Leeds: City Art Gallery). but left a legacy on the development of British modernism. . The Mud Clinic. 1913 – 15 (Percy) Wyndham Lewis b 1882 – 1957 n BRITISH 5 Paris. Front cover of the Blast War Number. brought Modern art to Britain. S. Note his skilled. Later became a right-wing misfit and admirer of Fascism. The movement foundered after its sole exhibition in 1915. Another prominent figure was Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson.

500 in 1992. and Aquarium) 5 France. His skill at Cubist fragmentation led him to design and paint ship camouflage in World War I. and associated with Wyndham Lewis and the Vorticists in London.920 in 1998. 1914 (London: Tate Collection) William Roberts b 1895 – 1980 n BRITISH 5 France. labeled as indecent by his critics. San Miguel. 1914. frequently attacked by conservative critics for indecency. in a derivative way. The Cattewater. People at Play. 1915 (London: Tate Collection). Plymouth Sound (oils) He was a successful member of the avant-garde who ran through the voguish styles of his time: geometric and Cubist pre-1914. producing gloomy. 1912 (Paris: Père Lachaise Cemetery) David Bomberg b 1890 – 1957 n BRITISH 5 London. c. representational in the 1920s. abstract in the 1940s. UK 1 sculpture. height 236 1⁄4 in (600 cm). Epstein created a number of large-scale biblical subjects. 1913–14 (London: Tate Collection). His early experience as an advertisingposter designer is (too?) evident. Coventry Cathedral (UK). a figurative Surrealist in the 1930s. 1958. Toledo. The Return of Ulysses. Palestine.” . KEY WORKS The Rock Drill. which inspired much of his later work.C . The Perspective of Idleness.700 in 1998. Art Gallery. drawings. 1913–14 (London: Tate Collection). Member of pioneering Vorticists. UK: Museums. Rima. and his weakness is that he established a formula that became overrepetitive. 1914) when he pioneered Cubism and Vorticism in Britain. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection. He produced rather good work. Modigliani. and Brancusi in Paris while working on Oscar Wilde’s tomb. KEY WORKS Abstract Composition. 1940 (Bolton. Spain 1 oils. 1913 (London: Tate Collection). hoping to encourage a “new hope for the future. bronze. Birth of Venus (oils) Individual Modernist who developed an interesting and curiously homey version of the working man/urban life/machineage imagery and style pioneered by Léger. drawings. Briefly on the cutting edge of the avant-garde (c. 1920 (London: Christie’s Images) KEY WORKS St. The Tomb of Oscar Wilde. and carried out a series of controversial commissions. Then changed style.500 in 1990. Tin Hat (sculpture) He was an audacious and original sculptor. where he developed a lasting interest in ancient and primitive sculpture. Was influenced by Picasso. minor Expressionist paintings. 1922 (London: Hyde Park). Satellitium. oils. Leeds: City Art Gallery 3 $102. Afternoon (oils) Bomberg was the son of Polish Jewish immigrants. Italy. c. which were widely admired. Michael Vanquishing the Devil Jacob Epstein. prints 2 London: Victoria & Albert Museum 3 $240. Studied in Paris 1902–05. The Mud Bath. In later years he concentrated on bronze portrait busts of luminaries. KEY WORKS In the Hold. Settled in England in 1905. watercolors 2 London: Bonhams 3 $124. UK 1 oils. 1932 (Nottingham: Castle Museum). 1900–70 377 Edward Wadsworth b 1889 – 1949 n BRITISH Sir Jacob Epstein b 1880 – 1958 n AMERICAN/BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils 2 tempera 3 $274.

Painted traditional subjects. Gypsy life fascinated John. Fry.378 MODERNISM “A great man of action into whose hands the fairies had placed a paintbrush instead of a sword. unexceptional work— although always recognizably John.400 in 2003. His romantic bohemian temperament made him an increasing misfit—should have lived in first half of 19th century. Meudon (France) 1 oils 2 Cardiff (UK): National Museum of Wales. France 1 oils. 24 2⁄3 x 16 in (62 x 41 cm). 1908 (London: Tate Collection) Gwen John b 1876 – 1939 n BRITISH 5 UK. Dorelia in a Landscape Augustus John. in Brittany. rather monochromatic portraits and interiors. 1916. Author of tight.650 in 1990. Parade at Aldridge’s. He painted society portraits with style and panache. The Smiling Woman. Rather better than the contemporaneous Bloomsbury set (Bell. Had a sensitive talent. angular. London: Tate Collection 3 $265. Horse Dealers at the Barbican (oils) Bevan was an interesting. The Cab Horse. c. overintense (neurotic?). 1910–20 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). intensely colored landscapes—a personal interpretation of Post-Impressionism. simplified. 1907 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). and Grant). individual Modernist style—stiff. 1920s (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Robert Polhill Bevan b 1865 – 1925 n BRITISH 5 UK. oil on canvas. Paris. His wonderful early pieces show his great originality and talent. Interior (Rue Terre Neuve). simplified. His best works were his early drawings and the sensitive. underrated painter who studied in Paris in the 1890s and met Gauguin at PontAven. with successful. drawings 2 London: Agnew & Sons 3 $173. The Seated Woman (oils) She was the sister of Augustus John and mistress of Rodin. drawings.” (PERCY) WYNDHAM LEWIS ON AUGUSTUS JOHN Augustus John b 1878 – 1961 n BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils. chalks 2 London: National Portrait Gallery 3 $180. after 1918 it went to seed and he ended up doing competent. Dorelia in a Red Dress (oils) He was truly gifted and one of the best draftsmen of any period. c. minutely worked. with luminous colors. 1900 (Private Collection). if limited. Dorelia (Dorothy McNeil) was his mistress. c. KEY WORKS William Butler Yeats. and after his wife’s death. although limited in range and currently overrated compared with her brother. Unjustly underrated— deserves reinstatement. 1914 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) .850 in 1992. c. KEY WORKS Girl Holding a Rose. Private Collection. KEY WORKS Hawkridge. 1910 (London: Tate Collection). his lifelong companion. not the 20th. c.

C . Though fascinating as social documents. they practiced and 1920s –1930s promoted modern French art. Duncan Grant. human upper torsos and heads plus horses’ heads and ears silhouetted against a sky piled high with clouds. drawings 2 Dedham (England): Sir Alfred Munnings Art Museum. the play of light on landscape or horses’ flanks. On the artistic side. MerryGo-Round. An intellectual elite in rebellion against Victorian restrictions. Within them (and tucked away in portraits). My Horse and Myself. Munnings never doubted his own talent or the values that he celebrated (and it shows). He was president of the Royal Academy. Shared their interest in modern French art and painted better than they did. local races. artists. UK: Lady Lever Art Gallery) Mark Gertler b 1891 – 1939 n BRITISH 5 UK. 1900–70 379 THE BLOOMSBURY GROUP A loosely knit group of writers. The Friesian Bull. England: Castle House).750 in 1997. and Roger Fry were the artistic leading lights: their output was variable. but their confidence unshakeable. KEY WORKS My Wife. or gypsies. such paintings are his least interesting artistically. Good design and paint handling. 1920 (Wirral. 1910 (London: Victoria & Albert Museum). Boxers (oils) He was a talented artist from a poor.” just as some writers always write a good “story. note his genius for capturing a specific light effect. and spontaneous slices of life. KEY WORKS Head of the Artist’s Mother. c. unexpected viewpoints. A Group of “Bloomsberries” in Vanessa’s Bell’s Sussex backyard. priding themselves on their sexual freedom but frequently accused of snobbery. He had rare flashes of inspiration. poets. Figure studies (back views of nudes) and still lifes. Vanessa Bell.” At his best when he was at his most informal and inventive—in his pictures of horse fairs. 1911 (Dedham. and designers. Jewish immigrant family. Committed suicide. Shrimp on a White Welsh Pony. Grant is third from right. He is remembered primarily for his hunting and racing portraits of humans and horses. Though blind in one eye. He always painted a good “picture. Came to inhabit the fringes of the snobbish Bloomsbury set. landscapes. taking their name from the London district where they were based. England: Castle House). Castle House 3 $7m in 2004. Fry kneels with arm around bust. Sir Alfred Munnings b 1878 – 1959 n BRITISH 5 UK 1 oils. movement. 1910 (Dedham. Socially he saw only what he wanted to see. The Red Prince Mare (oils) The brilliant and successful Munnings was an artist who believed (like his clientele) that anything “modern” was a horrible mistake. he had acute vision. Southern France 1 oils 2 Leeds: City Art Gallery 3 $90. but too often his work lapses into a stock formula: half-way horizon. 1916 (London: Tate Collection) .

favoring the romance of teeming humanity. poor. but a great teacher and believer in young people. he studied in Paris and was a protégé of Robert Henri. others of stars such as Isadora Duncan. Vacation Home (oils) Philadelphia-born.8 x 82. Note his bravura brushwork. and liquid brushstrokes. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art.000 in 1990. watercolors. limited color. and Trotsky (yes. Knitters. Berna Escudero (oils) Henri was a charismatic. 1912 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts) The Little Dancer Robert Henri. They generally painted gritty. urban subjects (note his portraits of “my people”—Irish peasants. but ignored the reality of poverty and overcrowding. Himself (self-portrait). DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $420. sometimes harsh. c.380 MODERNISM ASHCAN SCHOOL c. Edward Hopper. Luks. New York 1 oils. male supremacy. who put together 5 Europe. 1906 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). 1891–1919 A progressive group of American painters and illustrators. 1916 –18. Central Park. France 1 drawings. unpolished style. 40 1⁄2 x 32 1⁄2 in (102. comprising Sloan. a braggart. urban scenes in a spontaneous.55m in 1998. KEY WORKS Antonio Banos. DC: Hirshhorn Museum 3 $600. Initially a newspaper illustrator. ItaloAmerican Celebration. KEY WORKS May Day. and Henri. overtly derived from Manet and the Ashcan School. Bellows. Painted Ashcan School scenes of New York lower-class life. and hard-drinking (he is said to have died from injuries in a brawl). oils 2 Fort Lauderdale: Museum of Art 3 $1. oil on canvas. He chose down-to-earth. The Bersaglieri. Washington Square. His work is popular imagery or illustration aspiring to the level of art. Chinese coolies. Henri produced a number of paintings of dancers—some of unknowns like the model for this portrait. They believed that art should portray the everyday. 1913 (Art Institute of Chicago) Robert Henri b 1865 –1929 n AMERICAN George Luks b 1867 – 1933 n AMERICAN 5 Philadelphia. Philadelphia.000 in 2003. c. drawings 2 Washington. Man Ray. Trotsky). KEY WORKS The Café Francis. High Bridge Park (oils) Luks was a vaudeville comedian. c. . Painted notable watercolors of his native Pennsylvania mining country. 1918 (Washington. hard-drinking. drawings 2 Washington. The Irish Girl. New York. in 1908 he founded The Eight.5 cm). New York 1 oils. rebellious. “real” style using dark tonal contrast. Rockwell Kent. Stuart Davies. the first art exhibition independently curated by artists in the US. and adventure. Henri links Eakins (he studied at Pennsylvania Academy) and Manet (he was in Paris from 1888 to 1890)—and his students: George Bellows. c. DC: National Gallery of Art) William James Glackens b 1870 – 1938 n AMERICAN 5 Philadelphia. and anarchic man. c. Paris. 1908 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). Produced attractive and competent images of everyday New York life (interiors and exteriors). American Indians) and had a direct. 1910 (Arizona: State University Art Museum). Glackens. 1905 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art). Leader of the Ashcan School. realities of life—especially New York City life—and rejected officially sanctioned art (which they said was “fenced in with tasseled ropes and weighed down with bronze plates”). He was also pugnacious.

No. KEY WORKS Cliff Dwellers. Superb etchings. Detroit Institute of Arts. T in Cream Silk. Lost the plot after 1928. 1920 (Minneapolis Institute of Arts) 5 Philadelphia. KEY WORKS Wake of the Ferry. 2. cozy. . slum dwellers. men-only Irish tavern. After 1914. Bellows’s evocation of an illegal boxing match was acclaimed at the time as a landmark of realism. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $25m in 1999. Santa Fe 1 drawings. and some of his sketches still decorate the walls. New York.C . painted 1909. prints. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. gritty subjects. drawings 2 Washington. His best period was pre-1913. lithograph by George Miller (1917). 1912. Square. DC: Phillips College). Mrs. Produced New York scenes of the working classes. 1907 (Washington. Later work too self-conscious and affected by theories of symmetry and the Golden Section. boxing matches— depictions of raw energy. worked in Santa Fe. 26 x 32 in (66 x 81. 1920 (Washington. 1900–70 381 McSorley’s Bar John Sloan. oils 2 Washington.4 cm). 1913 (Los Angeles: County Museum of Art). when he tackled tough. Polo Crowd (oils) Bellows was a leading member of the Ashcan School. c. oil on canvas. such as construction sites (Penn Station). Recruiting in Union A Stag at Sharkey’s George Wesley Bellows. DC: Hirshhorn Museum) George Wesley Bellows b 1882 – 1925 n AMERICAN John Sloan b 1871 – 1951 n AMERICAN 5 New York 1 oils. Sloan was a regular drinker at this working-class. 1909 (Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art). 18 1⁄2 x 23 3⁄4 in (47 x 60.7m in 2003. urban happiness. but modified harsh reality with an ideal of honest. Caught fleeting moments well. Easter Eve (oils) He was a member of the Ashcan School. Started as an illustrator/cartoonist with Socialist sympathies but was opposed to the idea of art as propaganda. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $2.2 cm). vaguely erotic. Austrian-Irish Girl.

oils. Used Abstraction Marsden Hartley. DC: National Gallery of Art). Typical of Hartley’s work of the period. such as rust and acid green. this painting shows the influence of Delaunay and Kandinsky in its interest in geometric arrangements of bands and circles. 6 (oils) The greatest American artist of the first half of the 20th century: original. prints. KEY WORKS The Aero. Studied with Matisse (in Paris 1905–08) and produced important Cubist paintings.5m in 2002. 1942 (Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art) 5 US. and color relationships.8 cm). DC: National Gallery of Art). 1914. One of the first Americans to use modern idiom. drawings 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. Later.382 MODERNISM Marsden Hartley b 1877 – 1943 n AMERICAN vigorous brushstrokes and jarring color contrasts.5 x 50. New York. Painting No. chalks 2 Washington. KEY WORKS Interior of the Fourth Dimension. Experimented with abstraction. His “Portrait of a German Officer” series (which commemorates his male lover) is the major monument of early American Modernism. oil on paperboard mounted on panel. 1915 (Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art. 1913 (Washington. Maine. Expressionist work (à la Soutine). mystical. His early Impressionist work was followed by paintings influenced by the German Expressionists. and Maine. Moved easily between established styles—produced pleasing results but compromised originality. New Mexico. Mount Katahdin. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $1. with Jewish subjects based on Russian memories. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $2.5m in 2002. c. DC: National Gallery of Art) . Max Weber b 1881 – 1961 n RUSSIAN/AMERICAN 5 New York. Europe 1 woodcuts. 24 1⁄4 x 20 in (61. c. Later produced several important series of paintings in Provence (France). New York (oils) Russian-born. 1913). 1914 (Washington. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. he was a gifted artist. Rush Hour. Washington. Europe 1 oils. whom he knew (met Kandinsky and Jawlensky in Berlin and Munich. homosexual.

Produced 3-D abstract painted reliefs and geometric paintings. 1930 (Washington. DC: 3 $2. 1935 (Indianapolis: Museum of Art) Burgoyne Diller b 1906 – 65 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. 1922–23 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). I don’t make paintings like theirs. First American artist to paint an abstract picture (1907–09). 1930 (Washington. Simple shapes. primary colors. KEY WORKS Painting. Steins. I make paintings like mine. and understated brushwork. Paris 1 oils. KEY WORKS House and Street. also witty collages and assemblages. was influenced by Matisse. Much influenced by Mondrian and the Dutch De Stijl movement (see page 389). Developed Synchronism— abstract. and Delaunay. 1945–51 (Private Collection) “I don’t want people to copy Matisse or Picasso. Reflections. semiabstract still lifes with spare. hot pinks. mixed media 2 Washington. Produced small-scale Davis was a leading American Cubist. Early American Modernist. Still Life (oils) Bruce was a member of an old Virginia family. and sold antiques. Snowstorm (oils) A shy. First Theme 1959–60 (oils) He is one of the most important American abstract artists. oils. avid sailor. Dragon Trail. derived from a love of land and seascape.000 in 1995. full of natural shapes. Second Theme. Mural for the Santa Monica Library. DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum) KEY WORKS Stuart Davis b 1894 – 1964 n AMERICAN 5 New York. Unappreciated in his lifetime. primary colors on white or black.000 in 1990. rhythms. geometric shapes. Good.1m in 2000. kaleidoscopic symphony of swirling. 1949 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Stanton MacdonaldWright b 1890 –1973 n AMERICAN 5 US. and essences of nature. Europe 1 drawings. Borrowed motifs from popular culture. Still Life: Transverse Beams. although it is entirely proper to admit their influence. Sand Barge. DC: Hirshhorn Museum 3 $1.” STUART DAVIS . Studied in Los Angeles and went to live in Paris in 1913. fragmented rainbow colors— derived from French artists such as Delaunay. and studied with Robert Henri (see page 380). both in appearance and his aspiration for social and spiritual reformation. Odol (oils) Arthur Garfield Dove b 1880 –1946 n AMERICAN 5 US. developed striking and individual abstract paintings and collages. DC: Phillips College). Lost the plot on return to US. Conception Synchromy (oils) He was an avant-garde American painter. considered a progenitor of Pop Art. 1931 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). DC: Hirshhorn Museum 3 $95. drawings 2 Washington. DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum 3 $440. DC: Hirshhorn Museum) lyrical work. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). later committed suicide. Gave up painting. Unrecognized. 1934–35 (Washington. destroyed work. 1932 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art). Visited Paris in 1904. notable for bright colors and jazzy rhythms. 1928–32 (Washington. KEY WORKS Untitled (Three Men with Hats in City Street). reclusive farmer manqué. KEY WORKS Foghorns. The Mellow Pad.2m in 1997. sculpture 2 Washington. From 1924. and thick paint like cake icing. Work did not sell. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $1. Fascinated by urban scenes and advertising posters. Initially trained in advertising (it shows to his advantage).1m in 2003. 1900–70 383 Patrick Henry Bruce b 1881 – 1937 n AMERICAN 5 New York. Paris. Paris Hirshhorn Museum 1 oils 2 Washington.C . 1929 (Colorado Springs: Fine Arts Center). London 1 oils 2 Washington.

and allegories full of symbolism. where he taught and painted. Before he rose to power. Born into the gifted. In 1937. Beckmann’s use of black (one of the most difficult pigments) is stunning and worthy of Manet. somber paintings. Departure. probably at the 1937 exhibition. Journey on the Fish. his understanding of the human condition is worthy of Rembrandt. 1921 (Missouri: St. Hitler supported himself through painting and continued to paint throughout his life. To sustain such Expressionist intensity and quality is a rare (unique?) achievement. In 1947. A Nazi-backed touring exhibition of modern and abstract art (with works by Beckmann. expressive.8 cm). The plan backfired and introduced modern art to huge crowds. Dix. Louis Art Museum).” Their underlying theme is the human condition and concern for the triumph of the human spirit. Beckmann’s works are very much of their time. 1934 (Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie). he chose voluntary self-exile to Amsterdam. 1945. Mondrian. 1932–33 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). . Many portraits.” and difficult. Detroit Institute of Arts.384 MODERNISM Max Beckmann b 1884 – 1950 n GERMAN 5 Frankfurt. Grosz. woodcuts. was coined by Hitler and the party’s chief theoretical spokesperson. by the Nazis.3 x 49. His work charts a central vein of the spiritual anguish of 20th-century Europe. Carnival.5m in 2001. Alfred Rosenberg. he experienced the horrors of World War I and the collapse of civilized values in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s. even now. 1942– 43 (University of Iowa Museum of Art) THE NAZIS AND DEGENERATE ART Nazi ideologues believed that any art that did not conform to a bourgeois ideal of wellcrafted. optimistic generation of the 1880s. rich colors. classed as a “degenerate” Self-Portrait in Olive and Brown Max Beckmann. Self-Portrait with Horn One of the great painters of the 20th century. Generally overlooked because never one of the Modernist “gang. self-portraits. A Little Yes and a Big No. figurative images portraying ideal heroism or comfortable day-to-day living 1930s was the product of degenerate human beings and perverted minds. he emigrated to the US. US 1 oils. Amsterdam. Produced beautiful. but do not belong to any “school” or “ism. “Degenerate” modern artists could not exhibit or work. strong drawing. Kandinsky. and many confiscated works were burned. for officialdom to pigeonhole. KEY WORKS The Dream. Adolf Hitler and Hermann Goering. entartete Kunst. 23 3⁄4 x 19 3⁄4 in (60. drawings 2 Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Art 3 $20. Painted while he was writing his autobiography. and Picasso) opened in 1937 to show how foul Degenerate art was. oil on canvas. The German term.

he seems to end up loving the ugly corruptness he records.000 in 1999. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum) Christian Schad b 1894 –1982 n GERMAN 5 Munich. detail. drawings. bitter observer and recorder of German society during World War I and the 1920s and 1930s as its moral and social values collapsed. provocative. mixed media 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $2. 1924 after marriage and fatherhood. New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $5. New York 1 prints. Neue Sachlichkeit (“New Objectivity”) describes a tendency for German art. collage 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $492. 1921 (Basel. modern style (in the sense of uncomfortable. Zurich 1 oils. Best known for his Neue Sachlichkeit work—a cool. the Pigeon-Chested Man. 1929 (London: Tate Collection). Portrait of the Lawyer Dr. including cold. Berlin. Wildwest (oils) Best remembered as the biting and original chronicler of the sad and corrosive period of Germany history between 1918 and the rise of Hitler. KEY WORKS Agosta. and took photos in the manner of Man Ray (see page 394). prints. He was recognized only after 1955. He emigrated to the US in 1933 and reverted to being a graphic artist. 1927. Pillars of Society. the Black Dove. Grey Day. and acid color. Bildnis einer Unbekannten (oils) George Grosz b 1893 –1959 n GERMAN He was a painter who also made collages and prints (woodcuts). after 1925. oil on canvas. for all his apparent criticism of it.000 in 1996. uncompromising. Private Collection. 1916 (London: Tate Collection). expressed in portraits of friends and powerful engravings. He was fascinated by street life yet. The Artist’s Parents. His terrifying personal World War I experiences made him a pessimist. misanthrope.C . steely portraits. Ugliness fascinated him—reflected in a powerful distortion of realistic observation with intense line. and Rasha. critical depiction of the German bourgeois society of the 1920s. and political activist (Communist).200 in 1998. 1900–70 385 Otto Dix b 1891 –1969 n GERMAN 5 Germany 1 prints. drawings.445. He was an early user of photomontage. AntiNazi. 1926 (Berlin: Staatliche Museum) Dix was a mocking. poisonous colors and artless style to create a feeling of instability and menace. . emphasized detail serves to highlight its emptiness. 1920 (Private Collection). The alienating spaces show how things and people become disconnected. angular. 30 x 24 1⁄4 in (76 x 62 cm). They chronicle the uncomfortable truth behind the respectable bourgeois façade.041. Fritz Glaser (oils) KEY WORKS Suicide. 1921 (Berlin: Nationalgalerie). The exaggerated. to turn away from Expressionism. oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. KEY WORKS Card-Playing War Cripples. Operation. 1929 (Munich: Städtische Galerie) 5 Berlin. His style softened c. Self-Portrait with Model Christian Schad. Schad abandoned painting in the Nazi era. His small-scale works (especially prints and drawings) are of a consciously artless. Note the repetition of certain stock types and faces. and anarchic).

He blended Cubist fragmentation of form (he studied in Paris) and the misty light and dreaminess of Romanticism (his German heritage). 11 1⁄4 x 8 1⁄4 in (28. Its teachers included Albers. architecture. akin to a broken glass pane in which buildings and seascape are the central subject. 1930 (Munich: Alte Pinakothek) THE BAUHAUS The most famous modern art school. A XI (oils) He was a lawyer-turned-artist and theoretical writer. He settled in Chicago in 1937. and photography. KEY WORKS The Bicycle Race. 1924 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). democracy and worker participation. abstraction. It opened in Germany in 1919 and was closed by the Nazis in 1933—the New Bauhaus was set up in Chicago by Moholy-Nagy in 1937. A II. on which so many others have been modeled. New York 1 woodcuts. Sought to create order and clarity using design. Feininger was New York-born and -based. Moholy-Nagy tried to expand the scope of photography through experimental techniques and innovative compositions. KEY WORKS Photogram. the Bauhaus. typography.500 in 2000. his influence on art and design training has been profound. remaining there until it was closed in 1933. and Schlemmer. prints 2 Los Angeles: J.3 x 20. 1946 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) Lyonel Feininger b 1871 –1956 n AMERICAN/GERMAN 5 Berlin. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. MoholyNagy. constructions. Talented printmaker (etchings). Quiet. 1919 – 33 . photomontage. An inspirational teacher. drawings. Geometric Abstract artist and leading member of. Poster by Joost Schmidt for Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar. Newspaper Readers II (oils) László Moholy-Nagy b 1895 – 1946 n HUNGARIAN/GERMAN 5 Europe.6 cm). drawings. DC: National Gallery of Art). Paul Getty Museum 3 $981. but spent most of his life in Germany (1887–1937). c. abstraction. 1926. July–September 1923. He influenced set designs for early films such as Max Reinhardt’s Cabinet of Doctor Caligari. mass production. Son of a concert violinist. Market Church at Evening. 1929 (Detroit Institute of Arts). Bauhaus artists recognized early on the importance of graphic design as a medium to express a corporate identity and image for the school. Provided the basis for the New Photographer’s movement.03m in 2004. watercolors 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum 3 $4. 1923 (Los Angeles: J. Feininger. The Bauhaus tried to teach the virtues of simple. Sailing Boats. Dual Form with Chromium Rods.386 MODERNISM At Coffee László Moholy-Nagy. Chicago 1 collage. highly influential in the fields of architecture and design. Paul Getty Museum). personal style. the moral and economic benefits of a well-designed environment. Klee. clean design. Kandinsky. A founder of Bauhaus. vintage gelatin silver photograph. and teacher at. 1912 (Washington.

Above all. 1934 (Bern. Dedicated teacher (Bauhaus). Ad Parnassum. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). let him take you back to the realm of childhood imagery. Hamburg: Kunsthalle. KEY WORKS Ancient Sound.788. watercolors. imagination. 19 3⁄4 x 27 1⁄4 in (50 x 69 cm). Auftrieb und Weg. and stimulated. drawings 2 Bern: Paul Klee Center 3 $4. Death and Fire. published his Pedagogical Sketchbook. while a world at peace produces realistic art. Creator of the chamber music of modern art—finely wrought. enriched. His work is always very sensual.C . spiritual character and was one of the most original pioneers of the Modern Movement. and delightfully and poetically odd. 1925 –26. Had an exquisite color sense and produced neat. Diana in the Autumn Wind. and a talented poet and musician. You will return to adulthood immensely refreshed. 5 Germany. and displayed his work at a Surrealist exhibition in Paris. and etchings. unpretentious abstracts. Segelflug (oils) Klee was a prolific author of drawings. personal imagery and the delicate. Note his quirky. 1940 (Bern. visually and mentally. 1932 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle). Bern (Switzerland) 1 mixed media. 1925 (Basel. which are reminiscent in some ways of medieval manuscript illumination (perhaps he drew on this tradition?). Had a fey. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). 1900–70 Paul Klee b 1879 –1940 n GERMAN The Golden Fish Paul Klee. and humor. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum) “The more horrifying this world becomes … the more art becomes abstract. smallscale works in many media.” PAUL KLEE . oil and watercolor on paper and board.000 in 1989. In 1925 Klee joined the staff of the Bauhaus. Don’t try to understand or intellectualize Klee—just enjoy his work and follow him wherever he chooses to take your eye and imagination (one of his wellknown writings is called “Taking a line for a walk”). precisely worked surfaces.

Paris. He uses the square because it is the most static of geometric forms. Berlin 1 oils. London. reclusive character who hated the green untidiness of nature. The most familiar works are the abstracts of the 1920s and 1930s.” was the name of a group of Dutch artists. Grosse Sitzendengruppe I (oils) A leading member of the Bauhaus. 1921 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Members and contributors included Piet Mondrian. Study for Homage to the Square Mild Scent. and the architect and designer Gerrit Rietveld. 1965 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) Oskar Schlemmer b 1888 –1943 n GERMAN DE STIJL 1917– 31 De Stijl (from the Dutch for “the style. Bauhaus Stairway. Emigrated to US in 1933. Theo van Doesburg. They have simple . Breslau. and is without movement. The collective advocated a geometrical type of abstract art. Red Blue Chair designed by Gerrit Rietveld. “Homage to the Square” sounds boring. KEY WORKS Head in Profile. Study for “Homage to the Square” (oils) One of the great artist-educators of the Modern Movement. He preferred simplification.000 in 1996. Group of Fourteen Figures in Imaginary Architecture. Color. “Homage to the Square” is the ultimate proof of this. prints. oils 2 Essen: Albers Museum. seeking laws of harmony that would be equally applicable to life and art. Pillar of the Bauhaus 1923–1933. 1930 (Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum).388 MODERNISM Josef Albers b 1888 –1976 n GERMAN/AMERICAN 5 Weimar. for instance) to really enjoy and appreciate what is going on. mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $18.08m in 1998. Best known for his “Homage to the Square” series (1949–70). with Black Contour. Basel (Switzerland): Kunstmuseum 3 $3. 1934 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Piet Mondrian b 1872 –1944 n DUTCH 5 Netherlands. and reflective inner states of mind. Theoretically and intellectually influential in his lifetime. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery 3 $600. 5 Weimar. rather than expression and dramatic impact. Despite Mist. and the journal they published—the 1920s’ most influential avant-garde art magazine. Most effective and at ease designing mural decorations for ballet and theater.75m in 2004. Austere. Had no commercial success. and Light. New York 1 oils. The hard surfaces and strong colors are a rejection of familiarity and sentimentality in favor of dynamic rationality. in which he experiments with nests of squares that explore values of light and degrees of temperature in contrasting colors and hues. the interplay of shape and form. but you need to get involved and experiment (by half closing your eyes. simplification. His highly original work combines investigations into perception with a simple beauty. New York. He was also an accomplished photographer and designer in stained glass. able to accentuate the color relationship. Bottrop Collection. KEY WORKS Glass. woodcuts. Liked quiet exploration and experiment. Boogie Woogie (oils) One of the pioneers of pure abstract art. sculpture 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museum. Painter and sculptor. social and spiritual form. but is visually fascinating because Albers understood that you can never predict scientifically what color is going to do. 1920–21 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums). 1918. and how it constantly catches you unaware and delights you. US 1 prints.

Note also the deliberate small scale and intimacy of most of his work. Composition in Red and Blue. you can (and are supposed to see) the brush marks. with immaculate. completed in New York.C . In fact. c/o HCR International. jazzily colorful work. Virginia. also. You have to see Mondrian’s work in the flesh to understand it. the hesitations—the struggle to achieve that harmonious balance and purity that he desperately wanted. DC: National Gallery of Art). oil on canvas. white. mechanical. 1924–25 (Washington. horizontal and vertical lines. 50 x 50 in (127 x 127 cm). © 2005 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust. anonymous surfaces. 1915 (Otterlo. and Black. Warrenton. Tableau No. New York: Museum of Modern Art. and easy. Netherlands: Kröller-Müller Museum). KEY WORKS The Gray Tree. 1939– 41 (Private Collection) “Abstract art … is opposed to a natural representation of things … it is not opposed to nature … It is opposed to the raw. IV with Red. Reproductions make his abstracts look bland. Blue. Yellow.” PIET MONDRIAN . Pier and Ocean. US elements: black. and primary colors only. 1900–70 389 Broadway Boogie Woogie Piet Mondrian. His goal was to find and express a universal spiritual perfection. but found so hard to attain. the alterations. His slow and painstaking progress through Symbolism and Cubism to abstraction repays patient study. 1912 (The Hague: Gemeentemuseum). but it is at one with human nature. Look out. primitive animal nature of man. 1942–43. for his late. but his imagery has become a commonplace of 20th-century commercial design.

In whatever style it was executed. at other times vague and suggestive. STYLE Still from the 1929 Surrealist film Un Chien Andalou by Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel. in bold. Dada. Arp. at the other end of the spectrum. favored simple. It could be highly finished.390 MODERNISM SURREALISM Surrealism was the most influential avant-garde movement of the interwar years. Cubism. it generally aimed to surprise. entirely abstract (Miró. André Breton. painter and sculptor. Perhaps not surprisingly for a movement whose origins were largely literary and which actively championed anarchy. and Freud were its starting points. and metal. flat colors. Object Meret Oppenheim. was to meld the unconscious with the conscious to create a new “super reality”—a surréalisme. diameter 9 1⁄3 in (23. Film was an ideal medium for Surrealism. Its enduring influence can be found notably in present-day advertising and avant-garde humor. often sexual. vaguely biomorphic shapes. Ernst experimented with a visual equivalent of stream of consciousness writing: frottage—rubbings taken from KEY EVENTS 1919 1924 1930 1936 1937 1939 André Breton and Philippe Soupault write Les Champs Magnétiques First Surrealist Manifesto issued. Oppenheim’s fur-covered cup. Surrealism in the visual arts almost immediately developed a bewildering variety of styles. in Paris Breton formally allies Surrealism with the Proletarian Revolution London International Surrealist Exhibition held Leon Trotsky and Breton write Manifesto for an Independent Revolutionary Art Outbreak of World War II sees exodus of Surrealist artists to New York worn surfaces to create chance patterns. frequently to disturb. Buñuel. saucer. New York: Museum of Modern Art. often to shock. Surrealist subject matter literally knew no limits. Magritte’s deadpan paintings exploit enigmatic juxtapositions. largely written by Breton. fur. working closely with Dalí. seemingly randomly assembled. sometimes highly specific. aiming at a kind of heightened realism (Dalí. created a disconcerting and deliberately unfathomable masterpiece. Its chief goal. and spoon encapsulate Surrealism’s determination to subvert the everyday world. asserted by its founder and leader. for example). for example). and always to create a dreamlike atmosphere. . 1936.7 cm) height 23 3⁄4 in (7. china. SUBJECTS The personal nature of the subconscious necessarily resists categorization. or.3 cm).

dead/alive. and collage. 1922. and so become fully mature. constructive/ destructive. married his own mother. pioneering work he explores methods of creating imagery that were to become a commonplace of Surrealist painting. oil on canvas.C . and the distorted scale suggests the struggle in gender relationships experiences and desires. Oedipus means “swollen foot”. and gouged out his eyes on realizing what he had done. The psychosexual interpretation is that the nut represents the female (the crack suggesting the vulva) The mechanical device that pierces the finger is one that was used to punch holes in the webbed feet of chicken so as to mark their age. upside-down eyes TECHNIQUES Paint is applied in a precise but anonymous manner. It suggests pain. who was an academic painter and devout Catholic. death. Ernst knew he had to escape the dominance of his father. he synthesizes his study and understanding of Freud’s ideas. In particular. The birds have human. Freud’s “Oedipus Complex” is an inability to break infantile dependence on parents. Oedipus Rex Max Ernst. In this archetypal. in Greek mythology he was the hero who unwittingly killed his father. The spike and the arrow stand for pain. 36 2⁄3 x 40 in (93 x102 cm). Imagery has been copied from magazines and prints. with his own In Freudian analysis. 1900–70 391 1920s –1930s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Ernst was the most complete Surrealist artist in the sense that he experimented with all techniques: figuration. notably about the juxtaposition of polarities such as the rational/irrational. the balloon and the birds represent a longing for escape and freedom The hand that cracks the nut is a metaphor for sexual intercourse. Private Collection. Ernst was obsessed by birds. . Ernst was a self-taught painter and a pioneer of collage. and gender ever since his pet cockatoo died on the day his sister was born. abstraction. penetration. and intercourse.

1925 (Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia). finally choosing one based on the detailed. c. meaning. 1951 (Kelvingrove. oils. and disturbing images. 1936. 43 1⁄3 x 32 2⁄3 in (110 x 83 cm). and one of the most popular painters of the 20th century. The second half of the painting’s title was added on the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. 1931 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Made a brief but major contribution to Surrealism.77m in 2000. New York 1 mixed media. Glasgow: Art Gallery and Museum) . Paris.” Using Freudian ideas about dreams and madness. intricate. He ought to have persisted with it. which are great and profound. he produced obsessional images in which detailed reality is suddenly transformed into different. Petersburg (Florida): Salvador Dalí Museum 3 $3. St. Look for the works of 1928–33. Briefly. but devoid of any real expression. sculpture 2 Figueras (Spain): Salvador Dalí Museum. as a true pioneer of the Surrealist movement. 1936 (Private Collection). “realistic. Ultimately just a flashy showman with a big ego and a long moustache—like a singer who churns out popular arias in a spectacular way. Philadelphia: Museum of Art. He was an artist of astonishing technical precosity and virtuosity. John of the Cross.Salvador Dalí b 1904 – 89 n SPANISH Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War Salvador Dalí. Ma femme nue regardant son propre corps devenir marches (oils) Dalí was a flamboyant self-publicist. KEY WORKS Seated Girl Seen from the Rear. Technically and imaginatively brilliant.” 17th-century Dutch masters—instantly popular and recognizable as “very skillful” (the optical illusions are breathtaking). Dalí created works to explore his “paranoiacritical method. The Persistence of Memory. Surrealist Composition with Invisible Figures. oil on canvas. 5 Spain. There is one exception to the above. Christ of St. He mastered almost any style (see early work). or freshness.

color. sculpture. sexual. liked experimentation and spontaneous action. from c. influential. 1945 (Private Collection). Enjoy the naughty thoughts. but repeats and makes rhymes of them. KEY WORKS 5 France. US 1 mixed media. Uses a limited number of forms. Mallorca: Pilar and Joan Miró Foundation and Museum 3 $11.77m in 2005. He draws on an (unconscious) memory bank of natural and landscape forms. The Look of Amber. Spain. light. 1929 (Washington. 1923 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Yves Tanguy b 1900 – 55 n FRENCH 5 Paris. Buffalo: Albright-Knox Gallery. Miró claimed that his imagery was sometimes the result of hallucinations caused by extreme hunger. Card Trick. Searched for a new visual language. 1924. The Red Sun Gnaws at the Spider. primitive). Lived in the US after 1940—had a big impact on Abstract Expressionists. DC: National Gallery of Art). . drawings.C . 1948 (Private Collection). ceramics. unconventional. which suggest generative power in nature. purged of stale meanings and appealing to the senses.5m in 2001. sculpture 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $883. dreamy. Miró is best known for his abstract and semiabstract works—highly structured. Disliked order. poetic. K (works on paper) He was a leading Surrealist painter and sculptor: experimental.945 in 1989. 1931 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) KEY WORKS Le port. Woman and Bird in the Moonlight. evolved (but never developed further) a style of imaginary landscapes (or seabeds?) full of weird and curiously compelling halfvegetable. oil on canvas. silliness. Let them suggest anything (especially something biological. c. Connecticut 1 oils 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $6. 1949 (London: Tate Collection) Harlequin’s Carnival Joan Miró. simple forms floating on fields of color. Mallorca 1 mixed media. 1900–70 393 Joan Miró b 1893 – 1983 n SPANISH André Masson b 1896 –1987 n FRENCH 5 Barcelona. Portrait of Mme. warmth. engravings. Leading Surrealist who explored the irrational and subconscious in intense. 26 x 36 3⁄4 in (66 x 93 cm). 1922 (London: Tate Collection). half-animal forms. KEY WORKS Pedestal Table in the Studio. La femme paralytique (oils) An artist whose reputation and influence is better known than his work. prints 2 Barcelona: Foundation Joan Miró. 1924. Deeply affected by World War I injuries. beauty. New York. Derniers Jours (oils) A self-taught Surrealist who. Paris. 1927. He experimented with “magic realism” before breaking into a new style. finely wrought paintings and drawings. Promontory Palace.

The Red City. St. mixed media 2 Los Angeles: J. 1936 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) The creator of memorable avant-garde Surrealist images. connoisseur. 1936–67 (London: Tate Collection) “A certain amount of contempt for the material employed to express an idea is indispensable to the purest realization of this idea. Silhouette. mixed media 2 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 3 $74. Made and painted good (if derivative) Surrealist works. Admired by. usually through photography. He was inventive (imaginatively and technically). KEY WORKS A Siren in Full Moonlight. Paul Getty Museum 3 $1. witty. 5 Belgium 1 oils 2 Bruges: Palais des Beaux-Arts. 1941 (Private Collection) . 1933 (Bern. 1916 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). Painted documentary portraits of the Dada and Surrealist heroes.” A friend of Picasso and Ernst.884 in 2003. Influenced by Magritte and De Chirico exhibition of 1926. Paris. sculpture 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $26. 1970. Paul Getty Museum) KEY WORKS Sir Roland Penrose b 1900 – 84 n BRITISH 5 London 1 mixed media. especially for women. Blue Body. Idesbald (Belgium): Paul Delvaux Foundation and Museum 3 $4. Impossibilité Dancer-Danger (oils) many media and styles—individually slight but collectively expressing her refusal to be categorized and pinned down. silver. Had a free spirit and disliked prescribed roles. true Surrealists. Private Collection. 1917 (Los Angeles: J. The Last Voyage of Captain Cook. prints. Red Head. Switzerland: Kunstmuseum). which means “leave me alone” in Basque. Cultivated a carefree persona with maxim that the least possible effort would give the greatest possible result. height 18 1⁄4 in (46 cm). The sculpture is named after an earlier Man Ray Surrealist film of 1927. Tout Toujours (oils) She will always be remembered for her Surrealist fur teacup Object (see page 390). writer. and symbolic. 1931 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). and collector—another shining example of the uniquely British “gifted amateur. Hollywood 1 photography.394 MODERNISM Man Ray b 1890 –1976 n AMERICAN 5 New York. delicate.698.” MAN RAY Paul Delvaux b 1897 – 1994 n BELGIAN The Aged Emak Bakia Man Ray. and anarchic. Sitzende Figur mit verschränkten Fingern. after the original of 1924. Oppenheim produced engaging. and classic buildings. Duchamp with Mill.5m in 2003. Emak Bakia. semideserted railroad stations or landscapes. Paris 1 sculpture.592 in 2002. 1937 (Private Collection). dilettante. Union Nocturne (oils) He was a rich and eccentric painter. dreamland images based on themes of naked women. vaguely erotic. whimsical work on many themes and in He was a loner who created a limited and repetitive oeuvre of finely detailed. he was a champion of Surrealism. KEY WORKS Night and Day. KEY WORKS Object (Le déjeuner en fourrure). collage. 1940 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). but not allied with. Witches and snakes are recurring images. Le miroir (oils) Meret Oppenheim b 1913 – 85 n GERMAN 5 Berlin.000 in 1999. nighttime.

Worked as a freelance advertising artist from 1924 to 1967. yearning for liberty (blue sky. but is saved by an active imagination and a sense of the absurd. candles). fresh landscapes). La Rosa. Married. Reproduction Prohibited. KEY WORKS Psychological Morphology. Like many other artists. Intended his work to exalt freedom and aid mankind’s struggle against oppression. Transformed the familiar into the unfamiliar by weird juxtapositions. Had a poetic agenda: searching for links between the cosmos. Author of strange. Washington. 39 2⁄3 x 32 in (100 x 81 cm). Used classic Freudian symbols and references—death and decay (coffins. The Song of Love. 1939 (Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario). 1948 (Private Collection). prints 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art. oil on canvas. 1953 (Houston: Menil Collection) Matta b 1911 – 2002 n CHILEAN Magritte was a leading Surrealist painter who made a virtue of his bowler-hatted. 1943 (Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art) The Human Condition René Magritte. His work risked becoming a tired formula (his very late work is). DC: National Gallery of Art. 1933. cheap-suited provincialism.5m in 1995. Rome. Empire des lumières (oils) Boymans-van Beuningen). He painted small(ish) oil paintings. gouache. Witnessed his mother’s suicide aged 13. sex (naked women. changes of scale and texture. Paris 1 oils. Famous for use of everyday objects plus deadpan style. and contradiction of expectation. without aesthetic virtue—imagery is everything. . dreamlike paintings with complex spaces and totemlike figures. and the human psychic space. Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Art 3 $11. The titles of his works (sometimes chosen by friends) are designed deliberately to confuse and obscure. Golconde. left for the US when World War II broke out but resettled in Paris in 1954. revolutionary spirit who was born in Santiago but settled in France in 1933 and became an early Surrealist. 1937 (Rotterdam: Museum 5 Paris. sausages. Themes of claustrophobia (closed rooms.C . the eroticism of the human body. phallic symbols (guns. creating mildly disturbing images suggesting the dislocated world of dreams. 1926 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). 1900–70 395 René Magritte b 1898 – 1967 n BELGIAN 5 Brussels. confined spaces = sexual repression?). His best work dates from the 1920s and 1930s. Disasters of Mysticism (oils) Roberto Sebastián Echaurren. KEY WORKS The Menaced Assassin. Used deliberately banal technique.5m in 2003. drawings 2 San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art 3 $1. Change of style after 1943. New York 1 oils. night). pubic parts). The term “magic realism” was coined to describe the conceptual tensions between the possible and the impossible in Magritte’s work. prints.

In 1904 he settled permanently in France. always conscious of which was the most appropriate for his subject matter and mood. and he divided All his work was highly egocentric in his early years between France and Spain.396 MODERNISM Pablo Picasso b 1881 –1973 n SPANISH 5 Barcelona. PAINTINGS His paintings display a bewildering range of technical and stylistic originality: he was the master of Classicism. he was the master of traditional techniques and a dazzling . intense.” with images of the circus and harlequins. There is a tendency to judge Picasso by his paintings. He visited Paris for the first sometimes blissful. Barcelona: Museu Picasso 3 $93m in 2004. by 1907 he us realize the truth. The and the human condition— Born into an artistic family starving artist aged 20. printmaker. and the ease with which he switched styles. The dictator outlived him by 32 months. He was convivial and energetic. two invite immediate exploration: the almost daily autobiography from ambitious. sometimes anguished. Picasso effectively lived in voluntary exile. Out of many themes. and its people.” was the champion of the avant-garde and PABLO PICASSO the pioneer of Cubism (see page 350).9 cm). SCULPTURE Minotaur Caressing a Sleeping Girl 1933. painted in Barcelona. which he attacked in his art. young. where he became the focus for the emerging School of Paris (see page 357). and led a turbulent. whereas his true forte was for work in 3-D. Garçon à la Pipe (oils) Picasso stands as the undisputed master and chief innovator of the Modern Movement. based in Paris. themes of death and deprivation. pure abstraction never interested him. South of France 1 oils. images. Here. half-starved young hopeful to husband and womanizer to sexually frustrated old man.” with frequent intimate talent showed itself at an references to sex and death. some way. he was equally inventive as painter. the inventor of Cubism. These became more numerous and interesting as he grew older (the quality of his paintings declines after 1939). You have to go back to Michelangelo to find anyone of equal genius or stature. His output of work was vast. too. Rome. early age. Paris: wide-ranging post-Freudian LIFE AND WORKS response to the human figure Musée National Picasso. Paris. Symbolism. and techniques. but he had the rare ability to developing his “Blue Period. pregnant lover. he vowed never to set foot in his land of birth while Franco lived. Private Collection. and Expressionism. sculpture 2 Paris: Musée National Picasso. and anticipator of Surrealism. sculptor.” with its turn self-comment into universal truths. Although deeply committed to Spain. ceramicist. and latterly in the south of France. his prodigious in Paris during his “Blue Period. 13 1⁄4 x 17 1⁄3 in (33. oil on canvas. However. its art. first “Art is a lie that makes evolving the “Rose Period. and often unhappy personal life (his many love affairs are legendary). drypoint engraving. Central to his art is a 3 Self-Portrait 1901. and theater designer. The bull is a metaphor for Picasso himself: frustratingly caught up in a marriage he wished to dissolve while committed to a secret. time at the age of 19. Passionately opposed to Franco’s political regime.6 x 43. 40 x 23 ⁄4 in (81 x 60 cm).

Picasso moved to Antibes with Françoise Gillot and began his carefree. 1901 (London: National Gallery). KEY WORKS Child with a Dove. inventive work in ceramics. 1937 (Madrid: Museo Nacional Centro Arte Reina Sofia) A Bull c. London: Bonhams. 21 2⁄3 x 18 in (55 x 46 cm). 1923 (Washington. constructions. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria. 1950. ceramic plate. painted in response to the bombing of the Spanish city by the Germans in 1937. After World War II. In fact. DC: National Gallery of Art). oil on canvas. . The Lovers. DC: National Gallery of Art). Guernica. Family of Saltimbanques. Girl on a Ball. 1905 (Moscow: Pushkin Museum).Weeping Woman 1937. and ceramics. innovator through welding. The picture was used as a study for Guernica (1937). many twodimensional works are simply ideas that itch to be realized in 3-D. Showing typical Cubist distortion. which have the attributes of paintings and sculpture. 1905 (Washington. Dora Maar. the model for this depiction of female grief is said to be Picasso’s then mistress.

His capacity for juxtaposing the unexpected and transposing one object into another by association links him with the Surrealists. but not too progressive. Focused on trench landscape and its destruction in World War I. Autumn Landscape (oils) One of the best British artists before 1950. romantic. Observe his humanity.” His work shows English eccentricity at its best and most convincing. Pre-Raphaelites. feelings. argumentative but inspired personality with a unique and personal vision and great talent. Boy at Breakfast (oils) He was a sensitive painter who made a slow. Smol. 72 x 86 in (83 x 218. photography 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $146. careful. serious. 1937–38 (Leeds: City Art Gallery). He worked as a war artist in both world wars. A Village in Heaven. Macedonia Sir Stanley Spencer.5 cm).000 in 2003.400 in 2004. or watercolor show a deeply personal firsthand response to landscape. Totes Meer (Dead Sea). mixed media. Lean. Earthy English palette. 1940–41 (London: Tate Collection) Travoys Arriving with the Wounded at a Dressing Station. deliberately outdated technique inspired by early Italians. and to objects in nature. spare. Like all true visionary eccentrics. Sussex 1 oils. Was a masterly and inspired draftsman. Potboiler landscapes earned him money. he managed to be separate from his own time and era. Spencer served in the army as a medical orderly and infantryman. parochial. and illustrated sexual liberation at a time when such things were “not done.992. and acerbic wit. Crucifixion (oils) A difficult. He was careful in every sense and very English. He had a dry. Dorset (all UK) 1 oils. KEY WORKS The Centurion’s Servant. humor. The Resurrection: Cookham. Ivon Hitchens b 1893 – 1979 n BRITISH 5 London.000 in 1990. of Europe but not in Europe. Circle of Monoliths. and paintings to capture the essential feel of a place—the so-called “genius loci. 1914 (London: Tate Collection). oil on canvas. 1935 (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art). 1939 (South Africa: Durban Art Gallery). and Moon. he successfully blended an English pastoral vision with an awareness of European modern art. His main . and Dutch and Flemish painters. which he saw as an earthly paradise. of a certain type: self-contained. 1924–26 (London: Tate Collection). gentle. Disregarded prevailing conventions (social and moral.” KEY WORKS Mineral Objects. and had an utterly personal agenda and unshakeable belief in his own vision and ability. self-assured. His best works are his religious and World War I subjects. as well as artistic). independent. Note how he abstracts from nature and organizes his perceptions. The voice of “I am English first and foremost. 1937 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Sir Stanley Spencer b 1891 – 1959 n BRITISH 5 Berkshire 1 oils. Monster Field. Sun. Imperial War Museum 3 $1. coastline. well-focused imagery and style. pastel. Self-Portrait with Patricia Preece. drawings 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $255. 1936 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum). yet totally of it. patient progress from figuration to abstraction. Preached. drawing 2 Cookham (UK): Stanley Spencer Gallery. flight and aircraft in World War II.398 MODERNISM Paul Nash b 1889 – 1946 n BRITISH 5 Kent. practiced. Sussex. polite. 1916. London: Tate Collection.” His small-scale works in oil. London: Imperial War Museum. Focus of his life and major work was around his home village of Cookham. It also provided the setting for his profound belief in the return of Christ for and among ordinary people.

1936. so that his forms can be read simultaneously as organic nature (rocks. cliffs.C . His work is a popular choice for international sculptural monuments but it looks best when in a landscape setting rather than in a gallery. UNESCO Reclining Figure. Also painted still lifes and nudes. elmwood. 1900–70 399 theme was landscape. Hertfordshire 1 sculpture. 1957 (Paris: UNESCO Headquarters). gritty. His romantic response to nature and the human figure is often expressed as a synthesis of the two. Direct carving Reclining Figure (LH 175) Henry Moore. and as human figures. one of the best-known British modern masters. 1936–37 (Leeds: City Art Gallery).5m in 2004. but was much influenced by Mexican. trees). Walk around his sculptures to investigate the constantly changing relationships between the different parts. 1936 (London: Tate Collection) Henry Moore b 1898 – 1986 n BRITISH and truth to materials were an imperative of his early work. Egyptian. He investigated ideas in his drawings and was a superb sculptural draftsman. an intense life of its own. height 25 1⁄4 in (64 cm). DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $7. 1929 (London: Tate Collection). “… a work must first have a pent-up energy. often in long horizontal format. Three-piece Reclining Figure: Draped (sculpture) Moore was a tough. and English medieval sculpture. in which color and form are increasingly abstracted to simple elements. independent of the object it may represent. important war drawings in 1940s. Declined when he used assistants for late public monuments. London. 1977 (Washington. Flirted with Surrealism in the 1930s. KEY WORKS Balcony at Cambridge. KEY WORKS Mother and Child. Moore was fascinated by the reclining nude. ambitious Yorkshireman. this was gradually replaced by a desire for monumentality. West Yorkshire: Wakefield Art Gallery. He consciously rejected Renaissance notions of ideal beauty.” HENRY MOORE . Among the first in England to sustain a development of post-Cubist painting. and mother-and-child images. Mirror Knife Edge. Moore was a founder of the English Surrealist Group in 1936. Winter Stage. drawings 2 Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art) 5 Leeds.

after visit to Greece (1953). and identification with. for instance. 1943 (Private Collection). and sculptor Henry Moore. She expressed in sculpture. for the first time. mysteries of nature. KEY WORKS Doves. “In the contemplation of nature we are perpetually renewed. the gallery overlooks Porthmeor Beach and exhibits modern and contemporary art. Greek titles. Ives 1 sculpture 2 St Ives: Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden 3 $1m in 2004. Her inspiration came from light. 1933 (London: Tate Collection). Pierced abstract form became a distinctive feature. Made some geometric carvings in the 1930s. The Family of Man: Figure I. Nicholson was a pioneer of abstract art in Britain. Her first such piece dates from 1931–32. although Hepworth’s starting point was nature. allowing Hepworth to explore the physical essence and inherent poetry of her materials. into simplified forms and pure color like Matisse (she had contact with the French avant-garde in 1932). Used strings to express emotional response and tension. 1928 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). indicate respect for Classical tradition. Cornwall. wood. adapting the final form to its own peculiarities. Look for a deeply emotional response to. Wallis’s naïve paintings later inspired many of the group. Initiated and developed pierced form to explore materials and evoke nature’s mystery and organic growth. which included artists Terry Frost.7cm). Private Collection. sculpture 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $1. Ives in Cornwall became a creative colony for British artists after the arrival in 1939 of sculptor Barbara Hepworth and her then husband Ben Nicholson. Patrick Heron.” DAME BARBARA HEPWORTH She had a lifelong belief in truth to materials—taking stone. England Opened in 1993. Son of Sir William Nicholson. the tradition of English Romantic landscape. St. These were distilled and abstracted. white stone. La Boutique Fantastique (oils) Involute 1 Dame Barbara Hepworth. bronze (after 1950) and making apparent the unique quality of each individual piece. . Sculpture with Colour (Oval Form) Pale Blue and Red. he married Barbara Hepworth in 1934. Minoan Head. nature and landscape.400 MODERNISM Dame Barbara Hepworth b 1903 – 75 n BRITISH ST. Tate St. Two Forms. 1972 (Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum) Ben Nicholson b 1894 – 1982 n BRITISH 5 England. who had discovered retired fisherman painter Alfred Wallis on an earlier visit to the town. Ives School. also beautiful drawings. not the human figure. She was much honored and revered both in her lifetime and subsequently.000 in 1990. Italy. Ancestor I (sculpture) Hepworth was a leading member of the first generation of British modern masters. IVES GROUP 1940s –1960 S 5 England. Switzerland 1 oils. Doyen of the St. natural materials. seasons.936. St. Paris. height 18 in (45. 1946. Ives. and one of the UK’s first modern artists. She searched for (and found) fundamental essences and elements.

Once the epitome of acceptable modernity. 1900–70 401 September 1963 Ben Nicholson. 1933–34 (London: Tate Collection). Christ in Glory. 1962 (Coventry Cathedral) . and Braque. he returned to the theme. his work now looks dated. Underrated. making interesting use of materials and scratched textures. KEY WORKS Somerset Maugham. Was also a book illustrator and stage designer. His work shows debt to modern European art—Cubism. country or urban. oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $247. stylized. February 1956 (menhir). 1931 (Manchester: City Art Gallery). Private Collection. White Relief. making it as well-tailored as a Savile Row suit and as well-mannered as a game of gentlemen’s cricket (both express deep passions as well as reserve). 1956 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) A serious. and painted. 1935 (London: Tate Collection). Sutherland’s landscapes reveal a fascination with organic forms and metamorphosis. Moved easily between a pared-down figuration and pure abstraction. Does the fact that his work looks equally at home in modern or traditional. The lean. prints 2 London: Tate Collection 3 $131. Mondrian. North Wales (oils) He chose traditional subject matter (landscapes and still lifes) for his paintings. France 1 engravings.C . assembled. Autumn at Stourhead. Notice the way in which he imposed English virtues of politeness or understatement on the unruly appearance of the European avant-garde. 1963. Nicholson explored abstraction through carved relief sculptures. making constructions out of boards that he cut.200 in 2003. Toad (oils) His work is a fascinating example of English tradition and modern idiom cohabiting. In the 1950s. KEY WORKS Beach with Starfish. His portraits (his best work?) show a fascination for facial forms that contain the inner personality (like a fossil in a rock). and drawings. 1949 (London: Tate Collection). In the 1930s. romantic imagery of landscape and architecture.050 in 2004. Rocky Valley. 1939 (Manchester: City Art Gallery) Graham Sutherland b 1903 – 80 n BRITISH 5 England. athletic look and sense of calculation rather than spontaneity was central to his competitive persona. reliefs. British or European settings suggest that it is bland—or does it mean it is the essence of international savoir faire? KEY WORKS St. well-regarded painter and printmaker notable for a very personal. oil and collage on fibrocement. but will come back into fashion one day. John Piper b 1903 – 92 n BRITISH 5 London 1 oils. Ives Bay: Sea with Boats. which enjoyed playing games (ball and psychological).

8m in 1995. A Marxist. His crowning achievements are the vast in-situ murals in Mexico. The large-scale murals he created in the 1920s and 1930s were designed for public spaces and express a utopian view of society—they are political statements of art in the service of society.200 in 2004. mural painting. cinemainspired angles and perspectives. Petersburg: Hermitage Museum). area 50. Look for monumental. US 1 oils. and future. earthy subjects. in terms of his charismatic personality (political revolutionary and turbulent love life). KEY WORKS Seated Nude. male and female. and still lifes. 1931 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) social realism at its most convincing. smaller-scale easel paintings and sketches: portraits. ft (4. Piero) into brilliantly organized and controlled decorative pageants. Baile en Tehuantepec (oils) 5 Mexico. The way he turns his vision into vast. physically and conceptually. true fresco. Niña Madre (works on paper) A prolific painter and writer who was deeply involved in progressive. Mexico City: Polyforum Siqueiros. 1929 (Mexico City: Palacio Nacional) Diego Rivera b 1886 – 1957 n MEXICAN José Clemente Orozco b 1883 – 1949 n MEXICAN 5 Mexico. in a cold and austere style. Was technically accomplished and quietly experimental (he made very early use of industrial paints and drip techniques). Also produced seductive. narrative scenes. Modernism (Cubist space). sculptural peasants and faces. David Alfaro Siqueiros b 1896 – 1974 n MEXICAN 5 Mexico. loved and financed by US mega-capitalists.645 sq. Table on a Café Terrace. and all races and cultures coexist in harmony. KEY WORKS Still Life. Mexico City: Carrillo Gil Museum 3 $883. meters). 300 lbs). and in the quantity and scale of his work—representing Orozco was one of the three great Mexican muralists (with Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros). crowded images is truly miraculous. His vision was a union between Mexico’s Indian history and a machine-age future in which past. His publicbuilding murals. direct. Zapata. 1915 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). Cellar (oils) Rivera was a giant—physically (6 ft. He synthesized first-hand knowledge of pre-Columbian art. 1913 (St. figures. watercolors 2 Guadalajara: Orozco Workshop-Museum. political causes in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. Paris. are based on his experiences of . fresco 2 Mexico City (fresco decorations in public buildings). Detroit Institute of Arts 3 $2. which are revolutionary manifestos in their own right and exploit daring. simplified forms of Giotto. Masaccio. He is revered as Mexico’s greatest painter. nature. science. humanity. and was unshakeably consistent in his style and belief. 1931 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums). and early Renaissance frescoes (monumental. The Aztec World.402 MODERNISM The March of Humanity in Latin America David Alfaro Siqueiros. Produced solemn (gloomy?) works with strong political commitment—art in the service of the people’s revolution. present. Italy. US 1 oils. Siqueiros considered this his greatest achievement and the union of all his discoveries.000 in 1989. acrylics 2 Mexico City (murals for public buildings) 3 $330. realism. 1964.000 sq. He revived the art of monumental. with a storyteller’s instinct for memorable detail. Europe 1 oils.

The Coming and the Return of Quetzalcoatl. with an exploration of themes of Mexican politics and identity. after losing her husband and her financial security. The Two Fridas. 1900–70 403 the Mexican Revolution and Civil War. showing the struggles and sacrifices of the people and the pain of needless suffering. Autorretrato con chango y loro (oils) Kahlo was one of the best-known Mexican painters. who created powerful.5 cm). 1938 (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery). Is her art merely parochial. or does it touch deeper levels of emotion? KEY WORKS Self-Portrait with Monkey. Arizona: Phoenix Art Museum.C . 1940 (New York: Museum of Modern Art) Frida Kahlo b 1907 – 54 n MEXICAN 5 Mexico 1 oils 2 Coyoacan (Mexico): Museo Frida Kahlo 3 $2. 1939. oil on masonite with painted frame. both physical (she was crippled in a car accident aged 15) and emotional (stormy marriage to Diego Rivera). . figurative images that synthesized her Suicide of Dorothy Hale Frida Kahlo. Dorothy Hale was a beautiful socialite who. 1926 (Mexico City: Casa de los Azulejos). 1932–34 (New Hampshire: Dartmouth College) sufferings. KEY WORKS Fresco series. 23 1⁄2 x 19 1⁄2 in (59. threw herself to her death from the window of her New York apartment. Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair.9m in 1995.7 x 49. 1939 (Mexico City: Museo de Arte Moderno).

oil on canvas. Beautiful etchings. Self-taught and precocious. Sleeping Girl. Haunting paintings of deserted Italianate squares with exaggerated perspectives. Italy. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $980. KEY WORKS Still Life. Paris. abstract painter (his style was never fully resolved—principally large . Private Collection. light. Natura Morta (oils) He was reclusive. Good pre-1920 metaphysical paintings. De Chirico’s poetic suggestions of the unpredictable were an inspiration for the Surrealists. isolated. sculpture 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $6. 1948 (Parma: Fondazione Magnani-Rocca). 1967–76 (Private Collection) 5 France. Melancholic curmudgeon with a brief period of true greatness. Japanese Girl with Red Table. Golden Afternoon (oils) His full name was Balthasar Klossowski de Rola Balthus. Switzerland 1 oils 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $3. to be enjoyed in silence.4m in 2004. Affirmation of time-honored virtues such as precise draftsmanship. clocks. Small scale. irrational shadows. almost abstract. Still Life. determined to establish the importance of craftsmanship.4m in 2004. 1914. engravings 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $1. US 1 oils. In Upper Regions (oils) A pioneering. reality and dream. around 1910–20. 1941–43 (Minnesota: Minneapolis Institute of Arts). Consciously worked against the modern grain— Hans Hofmann b 1880 – 1966 n GERMAN/AMERICAN 5 Paris. and the primacy of human figure. conscious creation of beauty. 1957 (Hamburg: Kunsthalle) The Mystery and Melancholy of a Street Giorgio de Chirico. oil paint. oversized objects. KEY WORKS The Uncertainty of the Poet. delicate color. and a sense of latent menace and ungraspable meaning. best known for his post-1920 still lifes of simple objects (such as bottles) of great delicacy and seductive. He painted landscapes and portraits. almost monochrome. 1926 (London: Tate Collection) Giorgio Morandi b 1890 – 1964 n ITALIAN 5 Bologna 1 oils. Slow. Munich. KEY WORKS The Balthus b 1908 – 2001 n FRENCH Living Room. 34 2⁄3 x 28 1⁄3 in (88 x 72 cm). well-connected intellectually (Bonnard and Rilke were family friends). careful workmanship. trains. observation from life. Italy. poetic simplicity. 1943 (London: Tate Collection). ideologically opposed to abstract art.404 MODERNISM Giorgio de Chirico b 1888 – 1978 n ITALIAN 5 Greece. low key. and gifted.000 in 2003. 1913 (London: Tate Collection). His work probes the area between innocence and perversity. but only moderately successful.35m in 1990. Late work is weak. The Painter’s Family. drawings 2 Washington. muted tones. The Great Metaphysician (oils) De Chirico was the originator of metaphysical painting. Much influenced by Nietzsche. US 1 oils. with Polish antecedents. Reclusive.

Hugely gifted and influential as a teacher. Tango (sculpture) A gifted Polish sculptor of great charm. c. KEY WORKS Classical Head with Headdress. 1957 (Washington. 1900–70 405 squares modified by thick pigment and bright color). The Dancer. His Parisian style was eclectic in the Classical Greek tradition. . scientific and sterile…” HANS HOFMANN moved to London around 1914 before emigrating to New York at the onset of World War I. 1908–09 (Wisconsin: Milwaukee Art Museum). cherry wood and gesso. the common denominator being a search for purity in form and materials.C . DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum 3 $2. In 1919. Impressed by American popular culture. After a decade of living the high life. he married an heiress and became a pioneer collector of folk art. US 1 sculpture 2 Washington. London. Was the key figure in bringing news of the European giants (like Picasso) to the younger generation of soon-to-be American Abstract Expressionists. the artist also borrowed from folk art to make observations of high society.6m in 1987. height approx. 34 1⁄3 in (88 cm). Standing Female Nude. Nadelman moved to Paris in 1904. 1920–22 (New York: Jewish Museum of Art) Elie Nadelman b 1882 – 1946 n POLISH/AMERICAN 5 Paris. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1959 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art) art—inspired wood sculptures (with a hint of the Hellenistic). KEY WORKS Autumn Gold. He “Imitation of objective reality is not creation… it is a purely intellectual performance. His sculptures often have the silhouettes of figures in Seurat’s paintings. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). Man in the Open Air. 1915 (New York: Museum of Modern Art). 1909 (Washington. His work is an interesting and successful synthesis of ancient and modern. 1918–24. she commissioned Nadelman to create a set of marble heads for her beauty salons. City Horizon. c. There he counted cosmetics queen Helena Rubinstein among his patrons. He himself created charming folk Tango Elie Nadelman. he lost everything financially in the economic depression that followed the Wall Street Crash of 1929.

The glass fronts of the boxes symbolically separate the real world from the dream. Often tinkered for years with images and contents of individual boxes. imaginative boxes. painted in monochrome. height 210 ⁄4 in 1 5 Iowa Chicago 1 oils. Munich 1 sculpture. 1972 n AMERICAN 5 US. oils 2 Washington. KEY WORKS Tilly Losch. painted wood. oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $230. which he filed away meticulously. they are poetic reveries rather than Freudian dream worlds. mixed media. Arbor Day (oils) (534 cm). usually black. This inspiration led her to create wall-sized assemblages. She only discovered her signature style in the 1950s—open-sided boxes made into reliefs.25m in 1985. for instance) or film stars he never met. Though often pigeonholed as Surrealist. each box containing an assortment of forms created from wood scraps. It is distinguished work that carries in it the sort of accumulated experience and mysterious gravitas that comes with old age. His quirky work reflects . tempera 2 Art Institute of 3 $1. Untitled (Medici Princess) (mixed media) The creator of strange. 1935 (Private Collection).3m in 2005. This is a welcome reminder that no one is ever too old to be creative: Nevelson’s best work was done in her 70s and 80s. Nevelson took the boxes that she had previously used as pedestals for her work and turned them into art. 1945 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada) Grant Wood b 1892 – 1942 n AMERICAN Mirror Image 1 Louise Nevelson. No sexual imagery—he disapproved of Surrealism’s dark. Many of the reveries are about travel that he never undertook (maps and images of Paris. Her sculpture is most impressive when on a large scale. and stained glass. KEY WORKS White Vertical Water. filling them with carved wooden forms. Lived lonely. small-scale. Scoured junk shops for bits and pieces. childlike landscapes. 1932 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). He was a painter of fantastical.000 in 1989. reclusive life in Flushing. Sky Cathedral. Also portraits.406 MODERNISM Louise Nevelson b 1899 – 1988 n GERMAN/AMERICAN Joseph Cornell b 1903 – C. mixed media. “unhealthy” aspects. It must be absorbed slowly just like the company or wisdom of the ancients. murals. New York. Untitled (The Hotel Eden). with his mother and crippled brother. DC: Smithsonian American Art Museum 3 $2. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts. Dawn’s Wedding Chapel I (sculpture) Born Louise Berliawsky in Kiev (family emigrated to the US in 1905). Nevelson was brought up with wood (the family business was timber) and was always dedicated to being a sculptor (to the point of abandoning her husband and child). 1969. 1958 (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery) 5 US 1 sculpture.

watercolors 2 New York: Memorial Art Gallery. oil on canvas. old-fashioned style. 1930 (Art Institute of Chicago). 1940 (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts). 1900–70 407 Steam Turbine Charles Sheeler. and free of human presence as any mass-produced objects.7m in 1983. 1928 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) Charles Sheeler b 1883 – 1965 n AMERICAN 5 US. Iowa-raised. Ohio: Butler Institute of American Art. The fifth in the series of six “Power” paintings commissioned by Fortune magazine. 22 x 18 in (56 x 45. Aerial Gyrations. 1953 (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art). Worked for Henry Ford and shared his belief that factories are temples of worship. he suffered a stroke and had to give up painting and photography. KEY WORKS My Egypt. romantic painter and photographer who turned the industrial landscape into works of art as carefully “Paintings must be looked at and looked at and looked at… No writing. 1927 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). KEY WORKS Fugue. and he never confessed to anyone. Replaced the sublimity of wild nature with the sublimity of the urban landscape.” CHARLES DEMUTH . The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere. Does it parody the chaste and sober virtues it proclaims or is it admiring them? His work never reveals the answer. no singing. 1954 (New York: Berry-Hill Galleries) old-fashioned virtues: sobriety. calculated. water towers. He had a painstaking. and just as enigmatic. and sexual morality. University of Rochester 3 $750. American Gothic is as famous in American art as the Mona Lisa is in Italian art. Europe 1 oils. In 1959. 1939. Europe 1 oils. no dancing will explain them. precise. stiff. Note his subtle colors and acute observation of light and shade. Stacks in Celebration. KEY WORKS American Gothic. often working in tempera. Welcome to our City (oils) The leading Precisionist of the 1920s and 1930s.000 in 1992. and the total absence of human presence. strict parents. Wood was the (closet gay) altar boy of American regionalism.7 cm). no talking.C . who produced small-scale views of industrial architecture (factories. 1932 (Ohio: Cincinnati Art Museum) Charles Demuth b 1883 – 1935 n AMERICAN 5 US. I Saw the Figure Five in Gold. 1931 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). photography 2 Washington. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $1. and silos). Landscape (oils) Sheeler was a dour. Daughters of the Revolution. carefully painted with a front-on view and emphasis on simplified geometry.

full of women and children.408 MODERNISM Edward Hopper b 1882 – 1967 n AMERICAN movie producers (like Hitchcock)—many of his pictures could be stills from a movie. Strong color sense and ability to create tense. 31 3⁄4 x 38 in (81 x 96. confined spaces. 1942 (Private Collection). His imagery is the American urban landscape and its inhabitants. KEY WORKS My Hills of Home. significant. Her paintings are in a naïve style with nostalgic images of idyllic rural life. Country Fair (oils) Née Anna Mary Robertson. in the 1930s. monosyllabic. Black Horses. wallpaper. 1942 (Art Institute of Chicago) Grandma Moses b 1860 – 1961 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Vermont: Bennington Museum 3 $180. and Impressionism (visited Paris in 1906–07 and 1909–10). and also Cape Cod.5m in 2005. Influenced by photography and the movies (avid moviegoer). and old clothes. Europe 1 oils. who became a successful and quintessential American painter. Collection of Mr. oil on canvas. New York inhabitant with a small-town puritan upbringing. 1958 (Art Institute of Chicago) Chop Suey Edward Hopper. Chair Car (oils) He was a taciturn. . not just an anecdotal story? His subtle space distortions that create a sense that something is wrong or about to happen? Similar talents are shown by the great black-and-white Early Sunday Morning. 1939 (Washington. tough technique (like many of his subjects). Spare. She copied details from popular prints. lean. Barney A.000 in 1993. Cape Cod Evening. Ebsworth. DC: National Gallery of Art). secondhand cars. watercolors 2 New York: Whitney Museum of American Art 3 $12. aged 70+. became a celebrity. Nighthawks. 1941 (New York: University of Rochester). Even when successful. electric light). and fabrics. 1929. Hopper preferred cheap restaurants. engravings. and memorable? Is it his magic way with light? His ability to simplify and generalize—to express a universal mood. and Mrs. Marvelous observation and recording of light (perhaps most notably harsh. KEY WORKS 5 US.5 cm). Making Apple Butter. How is he able to make the commonplace and banal so uneasy. 1930 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). A self-taught farmer’s wife from Virginia in Vermont who. her work was in turn endlessly reproduced as greeting cards.

Street to Mbari. 1941 (Detroit Institute of Arts). Her ability to simplify and intensify color. 1945. Ten Fugitives (oils) Lawrence’s was the first voice of an authentic art by and for African– Americans. West Texas.5 x 60 cm). Considered the High Priest of American Regionalism. 1930 (Washington. oil on masonite. 19 1⁄2 x 23 3⁄5 in (49. restless figures in heaving swirling spaces. From the Plains (oils) An influential but one-off artist. 1925 (Washington. 1964 (Washington. 1938 (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts). 1957 (Madrid: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza) Thomas Hart Benton b 1889 – 1975 n AMERICAN 5 Paris. and pattern has something in common with the best of the classic Disney cartoons. even surreal. Unusual and intense color combinations. anti-Modern and energetic self-publicist. Benton came from a national.4m in 1989. Jack-in-the-Pulpit No. lean. Many of her paintings depict her memories of that time. Determined painter of subjects that proclaim the authentic virtues of the Midwest. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3. 1900–70 409 DC: National Gallery of Art). He is most famous for the “Migration” series—60 small powerful paintings in a spare. Researched and understood the Great Migration and Ku Klux Klan persecution. DC: National Gallery of Art) . Her work will be remembered and valued far longer than many other 20th-century names that are currently in fashion or overpraised. plants become organisms like sea anemones. non-urban American life— bulging. Grandma Moses spent most of her life on a farm. Born in Atlanta. Georgia O’Keefe b 1872 – 1986 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. poetic life: mountains become flesh. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $290.3m in 1997. Cattle Loading. animal bones. Look for plants and flowers (often in close-up). Was a keen user of vulgar colors. DC: Phillips College). White Iris No. 1929 (Washington. 1930 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art ) Jacob Lawrence b 1917 – 2000 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 Washington. Ranchos Church. She made very powerful images of nature and architecture. and 1940s. Roasting Ears. Homeward Bound (oils) Down on the Farm in Winter Grandma Moses. KEY WORKS Black Iris. homophobic.C . notably Fantasia. resided in Harlem. Her intense and exotic imagery lay in that intriguing area between figuration and abstraction. which have a strong period feel of the 1920s. bold and simple patterns. Many of her paintings have the shifting and fantastic qualities seen in cloud patterns in the sky. outside the mainstream of modern art. DC: Corcoran Gallery of Art). Massachusetts: Addison Gallery of American Art). Tokyo: Fuji Museum. movement. 1926 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art). KEY WORKS Martha’s Vineyard. Red Hills with White Shell. which are strengthened by their understatement and the lack of any expression of hatred. first as hired help and then as the wife of a farmer. 1930 (Andover. and his works influenced Jackson Pollock. political family and was a cantankerous. with which her work was contemporary (Walt Disney: 1901–66). Very popular. Notice how she transformed all of them into something that has a strong unreal. US 1 oils 2 Missouri: Jefferson City. skulls live and see. 1930s.000 in 2003. modern style with intense colors. for murals in Capitol Building 3 $1. IV.7. KEY WORKS John Brown Forming an Organization among the Colored People of Adirondack Woods to Resist the Capture of Any Fugitive Slaves. mountains. 1948 (Art Institute of Chicago). c. The Wedding.

This did not happen until the mid-1940s when he was aged 50+ (he was a contemporary of Picasso. and deep feeling touched his work with a profound sense of the presence of fundamental and universal forces. and found objects. which he welded.7m in 1994. 1964 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). England. His work is at its best when on a large scale. poetic works made from iron. Venice: Peggy Guggenheim Collection 3 $10.000 in 1999. such as 12 x 24 ft (3.6 x 7.” was a tortured alcoholic. and of human worth. Number 6 Jackson Pollock. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $3. Cubi XXVII. Advance of History. Private Collection. New York. manipulated. Switzerland 1 oils 2 San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums 3 $130. Number 8. inventive. oil on paper laid down on canvas. 1967 (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums) KEY WORKS 5 US 1 oils. who swung between sensitivity and machismo. Every good painter paints what he is … When I am in my painting I’m not aware what I’m doing. and coaxed into constructions of great originality. rather than Pollock). serene and luminous. Cubi V (sculpture) Smith created beautiful.410 MODERNISM Mark Tobey b 1890 – 1976 n AMERICAN Jackson Pollock b 1912 – 56 n AMERICAN 5 US. steel. Composition. honest beliefs. elation and despair. Was influenced by spiritual faith (a convert to Bahai). enamels. as it is only then that the passionate.” JACKSON POLLOCK . Books and Apple.5m in 1989. 1951 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). Untitled (oils) Tobey was a sensitive artist who developed a very personal abstract style. 1957 (Harvard University: Fogg Art Museum). 1956 (Washington. out of small calligraphic marks and gestures. Pollock first showed his drip paintings in 1948 at the Betty Parsons Gallery. heroic. One of the most influential and original modern sculptors of his generation. 1950 (watercolors) This pioneering abstract painter of the New York School. mixed media 2 New York: Museum of Modern Art. Fragments in Time and Space. KEY WORKS Hudson River Landscape. DC: Hirshhorn Museum). 1948.2 m). His quiet modesty. and Japanese woodcuts. David Smith b 1906 – 65 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 sculpture 2 Washington. 22 2⁄3 x 30 3⁄4 in (57 x 78 cm). Far East calligraphy. Far East. nicknamed “Jack the Dripper. Amerindian art. 1965 (New York: Guggenheim Museum) “Painting is a state of being … Painting is selfdiscovery.

oil on canvas. 1952 (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia). 43 x 41 in (109. But why no footprints? KEY WORKS The Blue Poles: Number 11. (Washington. (A child of five cannot conceive or create on this scale.5 x 104 cm). Lavender Mist: Number 1. Look for the rhythms and flow in the threads of paint (they may be instinctive. 1950. The Deep. How many separate layers of paint can you see? It is just about possible to reconstruct his movements. . 1900–70 411 monumental nature of his achievement becomes apparent. but not arbitrary or careless). and so be “in” the painting at second hand. 1943. Paris: Musée National d'Art Moderne.) He put the canvas on the floor and stood in the middle with a large can of household paint—he consciously wanted to be “in” the painting and to become physically part of it. Inspired by a North American Indian myth about the moon and the feminine. DC: National Gallery of Art). 1953 (Paris: Musée National d’Art Moderne) The Moon-Woman Cuts the Circle Jackson Pollock.C .

Among its leaders. Private Collection. STYLE It grew out of Surrealism but was never a coherent movement and had no program. ultimately all Abstract Expressionist works can only be felt intuitively rather than understood. Faced with the real possibility of the denial of freedom of expression and the extinction of the human race. 1971. or fields of pure. oil on canvas. Kline’s early work was black and white. . commits suicide in his studio emotions and anxieties in distorted figurative images. Yet as with music. 1946 1947 1956 1970 Man on the Dunes Willem de Kooning. dripping paint onto huge canvases laid on the ground Pollock killed in car crash Rothko. Pollock dripped and flung paint onto his giant canvases. and create art that would take up these issues. deliberately modulated or contrasting color. suffering from deep depression. Rothko’s immense areas of subtly modulated color had precise. Still. meditative ends in mind. then smeared by newspapers. and New York replaced Paris as the capital of artistic creativity. torn between the desire to allow chance to determine how it fell and to control the final result. reaching maturity in the early years of the Cold War. later he used color. The spontaneity is illusory: each “gesture” was painted slowly and deliberately. Ballantine Franz Kline. 1948–60. and Gottlieb assert the basic goals of their art in a letter to The New York Times New Yorker art critic Robert Coates coins the term “Abstract Expressionism” Pollock develops new style of Surrealist-influenced “automatic” painting.412 MODERNISM ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM Abstract Expressionism grew out of the human tragedies of the Great Depression and World War II. Other artists aimed to express the deepest and most universal of KEY EVENTS 1943 Rothko. artists felt compelled to act. Styles were wholly personal. oils. It was also entirely American. Part of the artist’s passionate outpourings during the 1970s when his painting became an extreme frenzy of bold colors and paint layering. Los Angeles: County Museum of Art. SUBJECTS Sometimes energized forms (such as Jackson Pollock’s) were intended to be a near-documentary account of the artist’s struggle to create in his or her direct encounter with the canvas.

seeming to draw the spectator into what can feel like a parallel universe. contemplative and questioning. or Rothko’s layers of thinly applied color. large canvases—“portable murals” —that overwhelm and dazzle.C . too. Abstract Expressionist works were displayed unframed so that they would be perceived as a “presence” rather than a tangible object. Its impact derives in large measure from scale. the upper stacked weightlessly over the lower. 93 3⁄4 x 53 1⁄2 in (238 x 136 cm). Harvard: Fogg Art Museum. Still’s thick. with both appearing to hover over a delicate red base. However.” The Black and the White Mark Rothko. Rothko’s colors have an exceptional richness. Rothko spoke for them all when he said “… if you are moved only by the color relationships. Black in Rothko’s hands achieves a gentle luminosity: the sense of an “infinite void” is palpable . softedged blocks of color. inducing a kind of quasireligious feeling. oil on canvas. a seemingly infinite series of subtle gradations TECHNIQUES In a typical motif. Texture is important. you miss the point … I’m interested only in exploring basic human emotions. The effect of the work is deliberately sublime. It is alternately bold and assertive. Within a limited range. Rothko paints two hazy. 1956. almost relieflike blocks of color. whether Pollock’s rivulets and rivers of paint. 1900–70 413 late 1940s –1950s WHAT TO LOOK FOR Heroic imperatives dominate Abstract Expressionism.

In the complexity of paint and imagery lurk subtle layers of meaning. Rothko became a leading member of the New York School and pioneer of Color Field abstract painting. relax. using thrilling and unusual color juxtapositions. Look for his early work to see how slowly and carefully he reached this final. completely filling a space such as the Rothko room at Tate Modern or the chapel at St. and doom”—about fundamental (and romantic) emotions and passions. turning out Barnett Newman b 1905 – 70 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. developed a personal style of large-scale Color Field painting that attempted to touch emotions and aspirations beyond the power of words to express. Wonderful color sense. Thomas University. 1960 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art) Willem de Kooning b 1904 – 97 n DUTCH/AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils. and became one of the most consistent and longest-lived Abstract Expressionists. and complex textures and interweaving of paint.6m in 2003. Move around them so as to get to know them. Houston: St. 1952–53 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art). wait. White and Black on White (oils) A melancholic Russian émigré who settled in the US at the age of 10. DC: National Gallery of Art 3 $18. . very personal. Door to the River. expression. between abstraction and figuration (as skilled. stand close to the works. Look for everything or nothing. He produced his best work between 1950 and 1963. One of the few artists to achieve a genuine synthesis between figuration and abstraction—the image (most famously.8m in 1989. daring. Orange. New York: Museum of Modern Art 3 $14. soft-edged shapes and luminous. a leading Abstract Expressionist. Black. 1949 (New York: Guggenheim Museum). 1954 (Private Collection). sculpture 2 Washington. Green and Maroon. 1948 (Canberra: National Gallery of Australia).5m Newman. feeble (he had Alzheimer’s disease). which are a pleasure to look at. Who can or will explain the tortured female? KEY WORKS Woman and Bicycle. he lost control and direction. sculptures in 2002. His work is at its best seen on a large scale. KEY WORKS Multiform. Untitled (Violet. glowing colors. and breathtaking as a high-wire act). DC: Phillips College) work with arbitrary gestures. White Fire 1 (oils) 3 $3. His last paintings were. After 1963. the woman) and the abstract expressive gesture coexist and interact as equal partners. Interchange (oils) A Rotterdam-born painter and decorator who went to New York in 1926. sadly.414 Mark Rothko b 1903 – 70 n AMERICAN 5 US 1 oils 2 London: Tate Collection. Committed suicide. and splodgy decoration. Treat the works with the respect and care with which they were created and give them time to reach you. If you