Methods and techniques of paragraph development Q1. What are the different techniques of paragraph development? A2.

The different techniques of paragraph development are:

Techniques Illustration

Description Providing examples to explain the main idea The main idea is in bold letters.

Comparison and contrast

Bringing out similarities and differences to develop the main idea.

Cause and effect

Explaining the reasons for the end result

Sample History shows that India is a perfect example of unity in variety. It has always been a home to people of different castes, cultures and traditions. Invasions by the Afghans, Mughals, and Europeans etc have failed to divide this country. In fact the invaders themselves have become distinctly Indian over a period of time. Indian struggle for independence is a perfect example of this. People of different religions joined hands to defeat the British. Democracy gives equal rights to both the sexes in the society, but the ground reality is different. Studies indicate that these differences are more in rural areas than the urban ones. Women are constantly subjected to domestic violence, insufficient education and malnutrition. Democratic principles can only be put to practice when mindset of the people changes. Too much cricket is taking a toll on the cricketers. After the world cup win, cricket has turned out to be a cash cow for the businessmen. In India alone millions of dollars are spent on promotion alone. The players are forced to play more than their body permits. The player per match money is too much a lure. Granted that no one can say no to money but, can you take a risk on your career. Am I right Mr. Gautama Gambhir?

The web has surely brought the world closer. Students who know humbleness and social behaviour will remain away from misbehaver as mice remain away from cats. roblem and solution Discussing the solution to the problem posed Thoughts are things. and chatting became fun. In other words. and strangers with a click of a button. The lethal combination of three can achieve anything. not only were we able to send and receive messages quickly. This was the rise of instant messaging like YAHOO MESSENGER. The inductive method of writing contains the topic sentence at the end. They know the consequences. Example: (cause and effect technique) inductive method. Please note that the study of specific topics (in italics) can explain the main idea. Here the core idea is stated in the first sentence. This starts with school/home time teaching of manners and etiquettes. Powerful thoughts can be generated when purpose. This topic sentence is supported with individual examples later in the paragraph. Deductive Deductive method of developing a paragraph is the reverse of inductive method. which is the topic sentence of the paragraph. Gradually. In other words other sentences follow the topic sentence. Inductive method. What are the methods of paragraph development? A2. All of this began when an Indian by the name of Sabeer Bhatia invented HOTMAIL the first email service on the web. bosses.   .Classification Breaking the main idea into specific categories. Q2. persistence. individual supporting ideas appear one by one and in the end they lead to general statement containing the core idea. We are happy when we are able to communicate with our friends. This can be solved by inculcating values and ethics in the students. 2. Audio and video exchange facility was added. Recently face book has merged most of these facilities and added some of its own like profile and photo sharing. This method of writing moves from specific to general ideas. but also managed to exchange information instantly. colleagues. The different methods of paragraph development are: 1. and a burning desire are present at the same time. Student misbehaviour in the class is on an increase.

many people are involved in a battle against time to provide us that relaxing cup of morning tea. Example: Some buildings are marvels in their own right. If you choose. b. Once you are inside the building. Examples: The milk used in our daily morning tea takes a long journey to come to us. just know that they were just as lazy as their worse students. The steps involved in developing a product can be depicted in a paragraph of this kind. the ground floor welcomes you to proceed to subsequent floors via a circular staircase. c. Its journey begins 3 or 4am in the morning when vans from processing units collect it from the local milk contractors in the village or towns. The lawns are filled with exquisite variety of roses. The whole building is constructed with marble of highest quality. Revision of textbooks is the key to any teacher s class room success. Once inside the factory premises the milk is processed according to the highest standards. They were not doing their home work. Either some of them admitted that they did not know the answer or they simply gave confusing answers. The balconies too are circular in shape. Spatial method This method of writing gives a spatial description of an idea. Each sentence is logically related to the next. The description can depict the following movements: A. It is surrounded by a moat which used for boating. To enter the Jumbudweep it is necessary to cross a bridge built over the moat. To cut the long story short. it is eight stories high and cylindrical in shape like the Qutubminar in delhi. One of them is Jumbudweep in Hastinapur. Imagine your schools days when you noticed that some teachers were not able to give reply to the questions in the class. the vans deliver it to various distribution shops located at different locations in a big city. All balconies are filled with stone carved statues of lord mahavira. As you proceed you find every floor with its own balcony constructed on the outer side. Linear method The paragraphs prepared with this method present the logical progression of an idea or a process. the building holds religious importance for the Jains . If not. The moat is on considerable height and surrounded by sloping lush green lawns. you can view the surroundings from all sides on all the floors. .Example: A teacher who stops studying stops being a teacher. Now you must be aware of the truth. Thereafter. inside to outside. Located in old Hastinapur. bottom to top. left to right. The pasteurised milk is then polythene packed and loaded on to refrigerated vans. front to back. d.

then conveying this information to the reader in the minimum of words. 1. Here it is impotent to note that the antenatal stage cannot be missed out. adolescence 13-19. Q3. childhood 4-12. What are the steps involved in effectively writing a précis? A3. Examples: A human being lives through the stages of infancy. Précis involves summarizing documents to extract the maximum amount of information. and old age. 2. 3. childhood. What is condensation or précis writing? Enumerate the qualities of a good précis. For e. Compactness and coherence The passage should be a complete whole. and old age from 45 years. The presentations can be clockwise or anticlockwise. youth. Minimum no words should be used. youth 19-45. It is the first stage of a child s development and spans 9 months. Kiss method (keep it simple and short) should be used. Conciseness and clarity.g. adolescence. The art of condensation Q1. Following steps are followed while writing a précis: 1) Identify the reader and the purpose of the passage a) The detail and formality of the passage is also decided. A2.till death. Completeness All important ideas should find the place in the passage. Infancy ranges from 0-3 years. No ornamental phrases should be used. The words and sentences should have unity. . In other words ideas are presented as they occurred or appeared before us.Chronological method This technique presents ideas according to date or time.g. a chronological bio-data presents educational qualification in an anticlockwise manner. The following qualities are essential to a précis. For e. the summary of a formal report is more formal than the summary of a text book chapter for the students own use. All sentences should be well connected and the main theme (TOPIC SENTENCE) should run through them like the string of a necklace. Nothing important should be missed.

) d) Do not add your own comments. b) Use your own language. b) Change passive voice to active voice. she. them etc. b) It can be a word. interviewing is at best a hindrance. c) Follow all grammar rules. ( he. 6) Review and edit a) Eliminate long sentences. 5) Write the précis a) Express all ideas in simple words. they . . c) Use minimum words. These studies have disclosed that the judgement of the interviewers differ markedly and bear little or no relationship to the adequacy of the job. Q4. phrase or a short sentence. even if not asked to do so. c) Give a title. 4) Write a note from summary of each paragraph A) Write point wise summary.2) Read the original document a) First skim read the whole document (fast reading) to know the controlling idea. c) Use third person indirect speech. b) Then scan the whole passage to know how individual ideas contribute to the topic. and may even case harm. We can separate important ideas from the unimportant ones by this step. unity. Write a précis based on the following document: Experiments have shown that in selecting personnel for a job. 3) Write down the title witch sums up the theme of the passage a) The title is the précis of a précis because it indicates what the passage contains.paraphrase b) Pay attention on central components of a paragraph namely. and development. coherence.

This happens due to three reasons. Topic. c) There are three reasons for this. Précis Errors in judgement by selectors have shown that interviews are inadequate for job selection. .job interviews hindrance Point wise summary a) Experiments show that job interviews are inadequate for candidate selection.A4. b) The judgements of the interviewers are not according to job requirements.

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