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1 Introductory observations:
Human Population growth is the change in human population over time. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. It is known that population growth and economic development are effecting the environment. The interplay between population growth, resource
depletion/environmental damage has been debated much. There are those who think that high population growth causes stress on environment, and there are those who put less blame on population and more blame on economic development, industrial and agricultural practices that result in environmental damage. The fact is that both population growth and unsustainable economic development are cause for concern especially in developing countries. There is relationship between population growth and environmental damage. We may recall famous Erlich Equation: I=P*A*T I= Impact on environment P=Population A=Affluence (consumption) T=Technology coefficient Steve Jones, head of the biology department at University College London, has said, "Humans are 10,000 times more common than we should be, according to the rules of the animal kingdom, and we have agriculture to thank for that. Without farming, the world population would probably have reached half a million by now." The world‘s population has significantly increased in the last 50 years, mainly due to medical advancements and substantial increases in agricultural productivity.
The recent rapid increase in human population over the past two centuries has raised concerns that humans are beginning to overpopulate the Earth, and that the planet may not be able to sustain present or larger numbers of inhabitants. The population has been growing continuously since the end of the Black Death, around the year 1400; at the beginning of the 19th century, it had reached roughly 1,000,000,000 (1 billion). Increases in medical technology have led to rapid population growth on a worldwide level. Current projections show a steady decline in the population growth rate, with the population expected to reach between 8 and 10.5 billion between the year 2040 and 2050. In May 2011, The United Nations increased the medium variant projections to 9.3 billion for 2050 and 10.1 billion for 2100.
The scientific consensus is that the current population expansion and accompanying increase in usage of resources is linked to threats to the ecosystem The Inter Academy Panel Statement on Population Growth, which was ratified by 58 member national academies in 1994, called the growth in human numbers "unprecedented", and stated that many environmental problems, such as rising levels of atmospheric carbon
dioxide, global warming, and pollution, were aggravated by the population expansion. At the time, the world population stood at 5.5 billion, and low-bound scenarios predicted a peak of 7.8 billion by 2050, a number that current estimates show will be reached around 2022. India‘s population has crossed one billion mark. We are adding one more Australia in terms of POPULATION World reached: One billion in 1804 Two billion in 1927 Three billion in 1960 Four billion in1974 Five billion in 1987 Six billion in 2000 population It is expected to reach Seven billion in 2013 Eight billion in 2028 Nine billion in 2054
population each year. Have we devised programmers developmental that are
commensurate with this increase? If not, population factor alone would have significant contribution toward degradation of environment and
resource depletion. More people mean more pressure on resources, more consumption of energy, more production of wastes, including greenhouse gases-all having adverse effects
on environment. Though population growth has slowed down, it has to be stabilized at still lower level.
1.2 Meaning of human population:
The human population refers to the total human inhabitants of a specified area, such as a city, a country, a continent or the world, at a given time. In simple words, Total number of people living in a area at a given time is called its population.
1.3 Meaning of human population growth:
(Estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE–2000 CE.)
Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. In biology, the term population growth is likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to human populations in demography. In demography, population growth is used informally for the more specific
term population growth rate and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human population of the world.
1.4 Determinants of Population growth:
Population growth is determined by four factors, births (B), deaths (D), immigrants (I), and emigrants (E). Using a formula expressed as: ∆P≡B-D+I-E In other words, the population growth of a period can be calculated in two parts, natural growth of population (B-D) mechanical growth of population (I-E)
Mechanical growth of population is mainly affected by social factors, e.g. the advanced economies are growing faster while the backward economies are growing slowly even with negative growth. Exponential population growth-dN/dT=rN Logistic population -d
1.5 concept of Population growth rate:
In demographics and ecology, population growth rate (PGR) is the fractional rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases. Specifically, PGR ordinarily refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula:
(In the limit of a sufficiently small time period.) The above formula can be expanded to: Growth rate = crude birth rate — crude death rate + net immigration rate, or, ∆P/P = (B/P) - (D/P) + (I/P) - (E/P),
(where P is the total population, B is the number of births, D is the number of deaths, I is the number of immigrants, and E is the number of emigrants). This formula allows for the identification of the source of population growth, whether due to natural increase or an increase in the net immigration rate. Natural increase is an increase in the native-born population, stemming from a higher birth rate, a lower death rate, or a combination of the two. Net immigration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. The most common way to express population growth is as a ratio, not as a rate. The change in population over a unit time period is expressed as a percentage of the population at the beginning of the time period. That is:
A positive growth ratio (or rate) indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth ratio indicates the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero
indicates that there were the same numbers of people at the two times -- net difference between births, deaths and migration is zero. However, a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times. Equivalently, percent death rate = the average number of deaths in a year for every 100 people in the total population. A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than one indicates that the population of women is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of women is decreasing.
1.6 Excessive growth and decline:
Population exceeding the carrying capacity of an area or environment is
called overpopulation. It may be caused by growth in population or by reduction in capacity. Spikes in human population can cause problems such as pollution and traffic congestion, these might be resolved or worsened by technological and economic changes.
due to the populationreducing effects of war.7 History of concern: Concern about human population growth is relatively recent in origin. the growing desire of many women in such settings to seek careers outside rearing and domestic work. Throughout history. 1. populations have grown slowly despite high birth rates. such areas may be considered "under populated" if the population is not large enough to maintain an economic system. and intellectuals such as Thomas Malthus and physiocratic economists predicted that mankind would outgrow its available resources.8 Demographic transition The theory of demographic transition held that. and the decreased need of children in industrialized settings. By the beginning of the 19th century. it has been cited to explain the decline in birth rates in industrializing regions. the world population had grown to a billion individuals. after the standard of living and life expectancy increase.Conversely. it has been observed that after a certain level of development the fertility increases again. which made it possible to create bigger markets and armies. Mercantilists argued that a large population was a form of wealth. The latter factor stems from the fact that children perform a great deal of work in small-scale agricultural societies. as new data has become available. During the 750 years before the Industrial Revolution. 6 . This means that both the worry the theory generated about aging populations and the complacency it bred regarding the future environmental impact of population growth are misguided. However. since a finite amount of land was incapable of supporting an endlessly increasing population. plagues and high infant mortality. and works less in industrial ones. 1. Between these two extremes sits the notion of the optimum population. remaining under 250 million. Factors cited in the old theory included such social factors as later ages of marriage. family sizes and birth rates decline. the world's population hardly increased.
6. so the population still rises as the more numerous younger generation approaches maturity.85 to 2. who posits that this phenomenon occurs when a country has a population larger than its carrying capacity.87 to 2. "Demographic entrapment" is a concept developed by Maurice King. and exports too little to be able to import food.7 to 5. He claims that for example many sub-Saharan nations are or will become stuck in demographic entrapment. This will cause starvation. where she claims that the demographic transition occurs primarily in nations where women enjoy a special status.5.37 o Sub-Saharan Africa . a high standard of living tends to result in population Many countries have high population growth rates but lower total fertility rates because high population growth in the past skewed the age demographic toward a young age.3.75 to 2.66 o South America .3.41 o North America .99 to 3.47 to 1. the projected world number of children born per woman for 2050 would be around 2.65 between 1950 and 2005. For the world as a whole.6.5.99 o Oceania . Only the Middle East & North Africa (2. instead of having a demographic transition. where she claims women enjoy few special rights. no possibility of migration. In strongly patriarchal nations.05. the number of children born per woman decreased from 5.09) and Sub-Saharan Africa (2.2. A breakdown by region is as follows: o Europe .30 o Central America . Honorary Research Fellow at the University.Another version of demographic transition is proposed by anthropologist Virginia Abernethy in her book Population Politics.66 to 1.6.61) would then have numbers greater than 2.02 to 2.49 o Asia (excluding Middle East) . 7 .38 to 2.43 o Middle East & North Africa .53 Excluding the observed reversal in fertility decrease for high development.05.
This often leads to a spurt in population. STAGE Countries achieve a stable population once again with low birth 4: and low death rates but at a higher level of social and economic development. 8 . STAGE Typically seen in less developed countries where birth rates are 1: high but a large number of people die of preventable causes leading to a stable population. but birth rates remain high due to high fertility. STAGE Death rates fall steeply as deaths from preventable causes are 2: reduced by better food supply and improved public health. India is currently at the third stage. It defines four clear stages of population growth that nations often traverse in tandem with their socio-economic development. "Demographic transition" is a model that describes population change over time. STAGE Birth rates fall but population continues to grow because there are 3: a large number of people in the reproductive age group due to the high fertility of the previous generations. poor social development and limited access to health and contraceptive services. Population is stable but higher than in stage one. This transition from a stable population with high mortality and high fertility to a stable population with low mortality and low fertility is called demographic transition.
The chart below shows past world population data back to the Year one and future world population projections through the year 2050. World Population Growth.852. This gives a negligible population growth rate of 0. according to the United Nations Population Fund.8 billion 1960 3 billion 1965 3.2 billion 1900 1.8 billion 2011 7 billion 2025 8 billion 2043 9 billion 2083 10 billion estimate.55 billion 1955 2.7 billion 1999 6 billion 2006 6.5 billion 1985 4.Chapter-2 GLOBAL POPULATION SCENARIO The world population has grown tremendously over the past two thousand years. the world population passed the six billion mark.5% per year.91 billion by 2050. up from the present 81%. is estimated at 6.1 World Population: Some Facts The world population was 6. Four out of every five people in the world live in the developing world. It is projected to grow to 8. Latest official current world population WORLD POPULATION GROWTH Year Population 1 200 million 1000 275 million 1500 450 million 1650 500 million 1750 700 million 1804 1 billion 1850 1.823. the developing world will have 88% of the world's population. By 2050.85 billion 1990 5.30 billion in 2003.2% and a stable population in terms of numbers.3 billion 1970 3.6 billion 1927 2 billion 1950 2. for mid-year 2010.7 billion 1975 4 billion 1980 4. are estimated to be growing at the rate of 1. in Billion o World population is projected to cross the 7 billion mark in 2013.5 billion 2009 6.3 billion 1995 5. the 8 billion mark in 2028. In 1999. 2. 9 .472. on the other hand. The developing countries. the 9 billion mark in 2054. The developed world has reached a stage where the number of births equal to the number of deaths.
Population Growth in More and Less Developed Countries The increase in world population growth is mainly contributed by less developed regions which include majority of Asian. 10 . India alone accounts for about a fifth of the world‘s total population growth. It took 123 years to reach 2 o billion in 1927. Bangladesh and Indonesia. By 2050. Nigeria. six countries account for half of the world‘s annual growth of 77 million: India.o It has taken just 12 years for the world to add this most recent billion people (6 billion). Pakistan. 33 years to reach 3 billion in 1960. African and Latin American countries and most of this growth is taking place in the urban areas of these countries. o World population nearly stabilizes at just above 10 billion after 2200. 14 years to reach 4 billion in 1974 and 13 years to reach 5 billion in 1987. nearly 90 percent of the world‘s population will be living in less developed nations Today. o World population did not reach one billion until 1804. China. This is the shortest period of time in world history for a billion people to be added.
World Scenario The number of women of childbearing age more than doubled between 1950 and 1990: from 620 million to over 1. according to the UN. even if levels of childbearing continue to decline. 12 . Their numbers are expected to reach over 2 billion by the middle of this century.Women of Childbearing Age (15-49). The growing population of women in their childbearing years and their male partners will contribute to the future world population growth.3 billion.
with the population reaching 9 billion in 2040. An exception is the United States population. about half the level in 1950-1955 (5 children per woman).65 children per woman. Current United Nations predictions estimate that the world population will reach 9. By contrast. 13 . the world population will continue to grow until at least 2050. the population of the more developed regions will remain mostly unchanged.5 down to 2.05 children per woman.2 billion. o According to the United Nations' World Population Prospects report: o The world population is currently growing by approximately 74 million people per year. and some predictions putting the population in 2050 as high as 11 billion. global fertility is projected to decline further to 2.0 billion around 2050.0. at 1. o In 2000-2005. In the medium variant. where today's 5. which is expected to increase 44% from 305 million in 2008 to 439 million in 2050.3 billion population of underdeveloped countries is expected to increase to 7.2 Projections of world population growth o According to projections. o Almost all growth will take place in the less developed regions. assuming a decrease in average fertility rate from 2.2.8 billion in 2050. the average world fertility was 2.
nine countries are expected to account for half of the world's projected population increase: India. o By 2050 (Medium variant). United States 439 million. Nigeria 259 million. United States. Brazil 245 Democratic 189 million. Russia 109 million. Italy.6 billion people. listed according to the size of their contribution to population growth. Because deaths are projected to exceed births in the more developed regions by 73 million during 2005-2050. Sweden. Spain. Uganda. China would be higher still in this list were it not for its One Child Policy. Japan 14 . is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005.4 billion. These countries include Austria. the projected increase is from 75 years today to 82 years by mid-century. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Vietnam 120 million. o During 2005-2050. it is expected to be 66 years in 2045-2050. o In 2000-2005. which is estimated to have risen from 46 years in 1950-1955 to 65 years in 2000-2005. India will have 1. Egypt 125 million. Indonesia 280 million. In the more developed regions. Italy. million. Croatia. United Arab Emirates and United Kingdom.o During 2005-2050. including Germany. Bangladesh. Ethiopia. o The population of 51 countries or areas. is expected to keep rising to reach 75 years in 2045-2050. Singapore. o Global life expectancy at birth. China 1. o Birth rates are now falling in a small percentage of developing countries. Philippines 141 million. Portugal. the net number of international migrants to more developed regions is projected to be 98 million. Japan and most of the successor States of the former Soviet Union. Denmark. Among the least developed countries. population growth in those regions will largely be due to international migration. Mexico 132 million. net migration in 28 countries either prevented population decline or doubled at least the contribution of natural increase (births minus deaths) to population growth. Nigeria. Canada. Bangladesh 258 million. Pakistan 309 million. Ethiopia185 million. where life expectancy today is just under 50 years. Germany. and China. Qatar. Pakistan. while the actual populations in many developed countries would fall without immigration.
Iran 100 million.1 Decadal growth (%) 13.8 (%) 24. In 2050. Kenya 85 million and Asia Europe United Kingdom 80 million. in the 21st century.3 846. Recent extrapolations from available figures for population growth show that the population of Earth will stop increasing around 2070.103 million. Tanzania 85 million.8 (%) 21.1 439.4 1028. population will reach Africa 1.9 billion 5.6 1210.3 (%) 17.2 billion 674 million Turkey 99 million.6(%) 24.3 Demographics of India: Census Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Population (in millions) 361.6 (%) 23.3(%) 21.6(%) 15 . 2. o Walter Greiling projected in the Latin America & 765 million Caribbean North America 448 million 1950s that world population would reach a peak of about nine billion.2 548. Uganda 93 million. and then stop to grow. after a readjustment of the Third World and sanitation of the tropics.2 683.
64% as compared to the previous which was 21.422 (1.605 (1. which means one out of six people on this planet live in India while china is home for 19.Current Population of India in 2011 Total Male Population in India Total Female Population in India Sex Ratio Age structure 0 to 25 years 1.500. Pakistan and Japan (1-214 billion).000 males 50% of India's current population Currently.58%. o The figures show that India represents almost 17. Bangladesh.044.000 (586.700.350.210. o With the population growth rate at 1. India's Population in 2001 Population of India in 1947 1. the crown of the world's most 16 . Although. o For the first time after 1921.5 million) 940 females per 1. India‘s population growth rate has declined to 17. o In just 10 years India has added 181 million which is total population of Brazil.53 billion people by the end of 2030. while China is on the top with over 1.422 (1.12% in 2001.21 billion) 623. India is predicted to have more than 1. Indonesia.193.21 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world.35 billion) people. Brazil. o India‘s population is almost equal to the combined population of US.02 billion 350 million o India.210.193.4% of the world.7 million) 586.5% of the world's population. with 1.000 (623. there are about 51 births in India in a minute.
o Fertility rate is 2.000 villages and the rest 27.72 children born/woman (NFHS-3. 67. In 19652009. rapid decline in death rates or mortality rates and immigration from Bangladesh and Nepal.Sikkim with 607688 population. high fertility rate. has brought tremendous results for the latter.6 million populations which is 16% of India‘s population. failed to achieve the ultimate goal and the population of India since getting independence from Britain in 1947 increased almost three times. Haryana and Chhattisgarh together make up 2% of total Indian population. Maharashtra with 112. The efforts did produce positive results.000 population.4 deaths/1.000 people per year) is 22.15 deaths/1. o The birth rate (child births per 1.480 towns and urban agglomerations. Alarmed by its swelling population. 235. Whereas India has missed almost all its targets to bring the rate of population growth under control. The family planning program yielded some noticeable results. o sex ratio improved from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011. China's 'One Child Policy' in 1978. 53.8% in about 5. the contraceptive usage more than tripled and the fertility rate more than halved.) while death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals per year) is 6. o Most populated states Uttar Pradesh with 199. illiteracy. o About 72. India is all set to surpass china‗s position by 2030. however.000 live births (2009 estimated).22 births/1. The policy claims to 17 . More than 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35.2% of the population lives in some 638.000 population (2009 est. India started taking measures to stem the growth rate quite early. o Most populated among union territories is Delhi with 1.4 million which is 9% if India‘s population Punjab. Some of the reasons for India's rapidly growing population are poverty.populous country is on China's head for decades. o Least populated state. bringing down significantly the country's fertility rate. In fact India by launching the National Family Planning program in 1952 became the first country in the world to have a population policy. 2008) and Infant mortality rate is 30.
have prevented between 250 and 300 million births from 1978 to 2000 and 400 million births from 1979 to 2010. 18 .
fodder. intact. 19 .Chapter-3 Implications of human population growth More people mean more pressure on resources. water. and used for human habitation. fiber and associated materials. water. Natural components like land. 1)Availability of land: land is the most vital resource as it will be used for crops and other biological materials needed for food. Recent technological innovations helped a lot in solving the problems of resource depletion at a faster rate. forests. under conversion.5% 0f the earth‘s land area. Many countries lack adequate supplies of basic materials needed to support their current population. The world's current and projected population growth calls for an increase in efforts to meet the needs for food. Thus ‗resources‘ are means for attaining individual and social welfare. minerals. so our effects are felt on one quarter of the land. at a given time and place are ‗resources‘. more production of wastes. more consumption of energy. A global concern has been whether the present rate of global population growth will be sufficient to meet up the resource needs for mankind‘s survival and comfort? Thus there lies the quest for sustainable use of resources to meet up the ever increasing needs of human populations. wildlife. any real advances in well-being and the quality of life are negated by further population growth. Large percentages of earth‘s surface is covered by water. technology and education. Rapid population growth can affect both the overall quality of life and the degree of human suffering on Earth. including green house gases-all having adverse effects on environment. medicine. massive efforts are needed to keep social and economic conditions from deteriorating further. health care. dedicated to agriculture.1 More pressure on available resources: All means of satisfying human needs. In the poorest countries. 3. energy-or even man himself-are considered as resources as well as resource creating factors. While humans ourselves occupy only 0.
Thus. As a result the fresh water reserve depletes day by day too. 8.000 square miles or 696.43 hectare in USSR and 0.5 % of the world. available useful land may become a limiting factor.98 hectares in china.4%of the world total." Forty percent of the land area is under conversion and fragmented. remains intact. The World Resources Institute states that "Agricultural conversion to croplands and managed pastures has affected some 3. and there are concerns that the remaining reserves are greatly overestimated. The requirement of clean water is about 2. who point out that the Earth's population of roughly 6. Available fresh water resources are very limited. However.2% water lies in oceans as salt water. deforestation.65% remains as fresh water either on surface or as ground water. Some countries. As such.48 hectare as against 4. such as the United Arab Emirates and particularly the Emirate of Dubai have constructed large artificial islands. for example. but supports a population of 17. the population of India is concentrated in well watered plains.41% hectares in the USA.India has a total land area of 2. and urban sprawl.15% in frozen ice form and the remaining 0. per capita availability of land in the country is 0. The development of energy sources may also require large areas. while 2. the building of hydroelectric dams. agriculture has displaced one-third of temperate and tropical forests and one-quarter of natural grasslands. Usable land may become less useful through salinization. densely populated cities will use vertical farming to grow food inside skyscrapers. creating further problems.8 billion people could comfortably inhabit an area comparable in size to the state of Texas. agriculture and industry. erosion. The notion that space is limited has been decried by skeptics. or have created large dam and dike systems. which reclaim land from the sea to increase their total land area. the impact of humanity extends over a far greater area than that required simply for habitation. primarily in the Arctic and the deserts. less than one quarter.707 square kilometers). Some scientists have said that in the future. at least half of cultivable land is already being farmed. Furthermore. in the United States (about 269.3 billion [hectares] — roughly 26 percent of the land area. By most estimates. All totaled. like the Netherlands. desertification. The demand for fresh water has increased day by day and will increase with the rapid growth of population. 2)Inadequate fresh water: water is the most vital resource for life approximately 97.7 20 .
. 6 billion cu. Al Gore wrote.000 MW. use energyexpensive desalination to solve the problem of water shortages. Methods of manufacturing fertilizers from garbage. In addition energy consumption pattern also changes with time. oil. natural gas or nuclear materials. coal. only for drinking use as well as sewage Inadequate fresh water for drinking water treatment and effluent discharge.. The relative energy requirement in urban and rural areas from various sources varies distinctly. and agricultural waste by using thermal depolymerization have been discovered. a twenty-five-year period. viz. industry and household requirements are considerably to be more prominent than rural areas. they are already mined out partially... estimated annual energy availability lies somewhat between 2.." Approximately half of the oil produced in the United States is refined into gasoline for use in internal combustion engines. 3)More consumption of energy resources: more people mean more consumption of energy resources like fossil fuels. thus the global requirement is about purpose. For instance in urban area transport. If the current rate of exploitation continues and if there is no further new exploration of deposit then our mining activity might be completed by 2020. say. ". In most cases.liter per day. In his 1992 book Earth in the Balance. it ought to be possible to establish a coordinated global program to accomplish the strategic goal of completely eliminating the internal combustion engine over. M. like Saudi Arabia. sewage. Some countries. Optimists counter that fossil fuels will be sufficient until the development and implementation of suitable replacement technologies—such as hydrogen or other sources of renewable energy—occurs. Population optimists have been criticized for failing to take into account the depletion of the petroleum required for the production of fertilizers and fuel for transportation. As per estimates made by Geological Survey of India.50. 4) Depletion of mineral resources: a variety of both metals and non metals were exploited by the mankind over centuries. of which over 90% obtained from conventional sources. as well as other fossil fuels. 21 . In India. India has more than 22 types of minerals in considerably high quantity.
France. Malnutrition is one of the most common effects of these problems. A 2001 United Nations report says population growth is "the main force driving increases in agricultural demand" but "most recent expert assessments are cautiously optimistic about the ability of global food production to keep up with demand for the foreseeable future (that is to say.3. The poorest people in developing countries do not get adequate calories to develop their health properly. hunger. the observed figures for 2007 show an actual increase in absolute numbers of undernourished people in the world. There are millions of starving people throughout the world. Egypt and Iran rely on imports for 40% of their grain supply. Thailand and the USA . Most poor children and adults suffer from severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies. almost half of all children under age of 5 suffer from malnutrition. 923 million in 2007 versus 832 million in 1995. assuming declining population growth rates. until approximately 2030 or 2050)". Some scientists argue that there is enough food to support the world population.supply 90% of grain exports. In recent decades the US alone supplied almost half of world grain exports. These deficiencies cause failure of senses. from 5 to 20 million people die of starvation across the world. mental disorders and damage to vital organs. every year. In Ethiopia.2 Social implications of human population growth: 1)Food Scarcity: The population growth leading to population explosion causes severe economic disparities and gives birth to . malnutrition. And just 6 countries Argentina. particularly if sustainability is taken into account. Canada. Many countries rely heavily on imports however. Australia. and mass starvation. Yemen and Israel import more than 90%. As per estimates. The gap between the rich and the poor has increased due to population growth.competition for resources. price rise. The rich people are exploiting more resources than poor people.. However. but critics dispute this. the 22 .
not overpopulation." The U. there would be greater famine and malnutrition than the UN presently documents. MSNBC reported. This suggests that Third World poverty and famine are caused by underdevelopment. Furthermore. In a 2006 news story.650. daily Calorie consumption in poor countries increased from 1. a smaller proportion of the populations of developing countries is undernourished today than in 1990–92: 17% against 20%. "There are an estimated 800 million undernourished people and more than a billion considered overweight worldwide. the worldwide production of food had steadily increased up until 1995.932 to 2. has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world. without the Revolution. As world population doubled from 3 billion to 6 billion. as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the world. From 1950 to 1984.more recent FAO estimates point out to an even more dramatic increase. Food per person increased during the 1961-2005 period. and their distribution is not necessarily a zero-sum game. The amounts of natural resources in this context are not necessarily fixed. and the percentage of people in those countries who were malnourished fell from 45% to 18%. FAO's projections suggest that the proportion of hungry people in developing countries could be halved from 1990-92 levels to 10% by 23 .S. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states in its report The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006. others question these statistics. However. World food production per person was considerably higher in 2005 than 1961. grain production increased by over 250%. For example. due to the Revolution and the fact that more and more land is appropriated each year from wild lands for agricultural purposes. to 1.02 billion in 2009. that while the number of undernourished people in the developing countries has declined by about three million.The world population has grown by about four billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and most believe that. Global perspective about growing need for food Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. The number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished.
peak water. world price sat over $100 a barrel. In sub-Saharan Africa. peak grain and peak fish. He said food reserves are at a 50-year low but the world requires 50% more energy. and may already be in Afghanistan and Pakistan. A virulent wheat disease could destroy most of the world's main wheat crops. The knowledge and resources to reduce hunger are there.3 billion people. loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development. and growing consumer demand in China and India Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world. The fungus has spread from Africa to Iran. It is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain food security in a world beset by a confluence of "peak" phenomena. the number of malnourished people grew to 203.2015. according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa. climate change. Growing populations. Hunger and malnutrition kill nearly 6 million children a year. The FAO also states "We have emphasized first and foremost that reducing hunger is no longer a question of means in the hands of the global community. global population growth. if current trends of soil degradation and population growth continue the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025. falling energy sources and food shortages will create the "perfect storm" by 2030.4 million 10 24 . Africa In Africa. and more people are malnourished in sub-Saharan Africa this decade than in the 1990s. There is more food available and still more could be produced without excessive upward pressure on prices. An epidemic of stem rust on wheat caused by race Ug99 is currently spreading across Africa and into Asia and is causing major concern. food and water by 2030. leaving millions to starve. The world is richer today than it was ten years ago. the price of grain has increased due to more farming used in bio fuels.5 million people in 2000-02 from 170. the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) warned. What is lacking is sufficient political will to mobilize those resources to the benefit of the hungry. peak phosphorus. according to the UK government chief scientist. according to a report released by the Food and Agriculture Organization. The world will have to produce 70% more food by 2050 to feed a projected extra 2." As of 2008. namely peak oil.
is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005. Population as a function of food availability Thinkers such as David Pimentel. This was followed by subsequent population growth after subsequent agricultural revolutions. Virginia Abernethy. The United Nations projects that the population of 51 countries or areas. Japan and most of the states of the former Soviet Union. due to over extraction of groundwater in the North China plain. Critics of this idea point out those birth rates are lowest in the developed nations. Proponents of this theory argue that every time food production is increased. including Germany. Japan may face a food crisis that could reduce daily diets to the austere meals of the 1950s. a professor from Cornell University. More recent data indicate China's grain production peaked in the mid 1990s. Population increased after the Neolithic Revolution and an increased food supply. According to a 2004 article from the BBC.years earlier says The State of Food Insecurity in the World report. believes a senior government adviser. Populations of hunter-gatherers fluctuate in accordance with the amount of available food. This shows that when one limits their scope to the population living within a given political 25 . which also have the highest access to food. 46. the population grows. Italy. Some human populations throughout history support this theory. In 2001. and shrink in times of scarcity. Other Countries Nearly half of India's children are malnourished. Alan Thorn hill. In fact. according to recent government data. human populations predictably grow and shrink according to their available food supply – populations grow in an abundance of food. some developed countries have both a diminishing population and an abundant food supply.4% of people in sub-Saharan Africa were living in extreme poverty. China. Asia One survey says that nearly half of India's children are malnourished. the world's most populous country. Russell Hoffenberg and author Daniel Quinn propose that like all other animals. suffers from an obesity epidemic.
Iran. One suggested solution is for population growth to be slowed quickly by investing heavily in female literacy and planning services. Egypt. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be added worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. Food moves across borders from areas of abundance to areas of scarcity.a pattern that has been true for roughly 10. may soon do the same in larger countries. this hypothesis is not so simplistic as to be rejected by a single case study. which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries. Iran. Only Pakistan remains self-sufficient. there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits — Algeria. The water tables are falling in scores of countries (including Northern China. such as China or India. as in Germany's recent population trends . This over drafting is already leading to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. cultural norms and most importantly economic realities differ from nation to nation.clearly other factors are at work: contraceptive access. many of these countries are major exporters of food. as is the net quantity of human food produced .000 years. human populations do not always grow to match the available food supply. Desalination is also considered a viable and effective solution to the problem of water shortages. Four of these already import a large share of their grain. That some countries demonstrate negative population growth fails to discredit the theory. After China and India. and Pakistan. Mexico.boundary. and India) owing to widespread over drafting beyond sustainable yields. Even with the over pumping of its aquifers. China has developed a grain deficit. Additionally. if technology is not used. Other countries affected include Pakistan. Food scarcity As a result of water deficits Water deficits. the US. Additionally. on the global scale the world population is increasing. But with a population expanding by 4 million a year. This effect has contributed in driving grain prices upward. it will also soon turn to the world market for grain. Nevertheless. since the human development of agriculture. 26 . and Mexico.
epidemics and war. it is not overpopulated. housing. The world‘s poorest people are found in Africa. and mental illness. generate more waste etc. need more medicines for cure. Even government lands like railway platforms. Green lands in urban areas and even sea beeches have been reclaimed for housing and industrial purposes. create more pollution. and Eastern Europe. poverty has caused drug dependence. hunger and poverty. It has been observed by ecologists the world over that powerful people and 27 . it consumes about 40% of resources of the world alone and produces not less than 21 % of the world‘s carbon dioxide which is a green-house gas. 3) Poverty: Conditions of having insufficient resources or income are called as poverty.2) Overcrowding: There is limited habitable place on the earth. 4) Increasing Consumption: It is a simple truth that more people consume more food. Increasing crowd in cities is aggravating the problem of pollution and insanitation leading to the spread of epidemics. drink more water. make more noise. degradation of environment. People are migrating towards cities in search of jobs and cities are becoming overcrowded. drinking water. and parks etc. disease outbreaks. Overpopulation. Semi-urban lands and cultivable lands near cities have already gone under construction of houses. wear more clothes. demographic trends and welfare incentives are primary causes of poverty. In developed countries. are being seriously encroached. Latin America. Many of these countries have entered the second stage of Demographic Transition in which a high birth and reduced death rates along with a rising life expectancy accelerates the population growth. We may take the example of United States of America. inability to meet the cost of living. unequal distribution of resources. Lives in developing countries represent a picture of misery. Though. famine. The overpopulation has caused severe stress on land which has further stressed forests and agricultural areas. clothing. Asia. They always struggle for shelter and clothing. crime. areas around monuments. inadequate education and employment. need more houses to live. poverty is the lack of the basic human needs like food. and health services. In its extreme form. They often suffer from malnutrition. Some countries of the world have nearly stabilized their population but their life style has become consumption based.
column or statue of historical importance built-in the past to remind future generations about a famous person or event. People who migrate from rural areas and work in cities often face difficulties and most of them spend their nights as homeless. Play Grounds. Gradually.developed nations consume more resources than weak and poor people and developing or under developing countries. So is happening with most of our uncared monuments today. Parks. 28 . But facilities may be limited. Merely. They take shelter on pavements. this condition is the by-product of the explosion of population. they build temporary houses on those places and start keeping their families there. Community Halls. Railway Junctions. There is heavy traffic on roads round the clock. Thus. 20% of the world‘s population lives in developed and richest countries. increase in the rate of consumption at one end is causing an increase in hunger and crime at the other end. there may be a great rush and competition for availing facilities causing severe stresses on those facilities. 5) Encroachment on Monuments : A monument is a building. 6) Stress on Common Social Facilities: We need facilities and facilities both on home front and on social front. abandoned railway buildings and on spaces left around historical monuments. So. More people require more use of available facilities. All these social facilities are often heavily polluted due to careless practices of human beings. Most of our monuments and old government buildings are being badly encroached by people who after sometime try to become owners of those areas. Thus. Bus Stops. This is illegal and criminal attitude. However. One can see long lines of people standing for hours for their works. Hospitals and even roads are some common social facilities that are facing heavy stresses due to population explosion. According to United Nations the world‘s richest 20% of population consumes about 86% of resources of the world. the population growth and the changing pattern of consumption are responsible for the severe stress on environment. Some of them start business works on those places and gradually a colony of such persons is established.
this problem can be 29 . 3. many people in our societies have lost civic sense. water supply.3 Health implications of human population growth Population growth leads to malnourishment. As a result. maintenance of drainage systems. However. rickets). Some of them drop their domestic wastes (including plastics) into drains or throw away garbage on roads. However. starvation and diseases. basic education etc. discharge of raw sewage and solid waste disposal. those services have become unable to perform properly. inaccessible. care of animals (dogs and cattle) on roads. Rich countries with high population densities have low rates of infant mortality. excessive air and water pollution. or non-existent health care. High rates of infant mortality are caused by poverty. and new viruses that infect humans. Intensive factory farming to support large populations. High infant and child mortality. community health care. It has excessive load of work on bodies providing civic services. It results in human threats including the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria diseases. Those services include cleanliness. malnutrition or poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e. the poor are more likely to be exposed to infectious. Starvation. malnutrition and inadequate. waste disposal. including overcrowded living conditions.7) Stress on Common Civic Services: Services provided by municipalities or municipal corporations to civilians are called as civic services.g. Over population has caused severe stress on civic services. On the other hand. Low life expectancy in countries with fastest growing populations Unhygienic living conditions for many based upon water resource depletion. Increased chance of the emergence of new epidemics and pandemics For many environmental and social reasons. rich countries with high population densities do not have famine. Some persons draw most of the supply water through electric pumps and all the other inhabitants of the area go without water.
more consumption of fossil fuels and more pollution of air. The Ecological Impacts of population growth includes . It also requires more means of transport. 3. land and water. Advanced agriculture requires utilization of more water. o Impacts of Population Growth on the Physical Environment Physical environment means – non living environment or the land. soil and minerals. More cultivable land has been made available by clearing forests and by reclaiming wet lands. more population means more mouths to eat food which requires more agricultural production. The utilization. Application of fertilizers and pesticides makes the soil infertile. air. More agricultural production demands two things – (i) (ii) more cultivable land. Thus growth of population leads to pollution of air.reduced with the adoption of sewers. and all aspects.living and non-living. overuse and misuse of physical resources increased manifold due to the growth of human population. land and water.4 Environment and ecological implications of human population growth The scientific study of inter-relationships among organisms and between organisms. its infant mortality rate fell substantially. Thus ecology relates to environment and ecological impacts of population means impacts of population on environment and its various components. Pakistan installed sewers. of their environment is called as Ecology. For example. Different types of pollutions are causing a number of problems in the physical environment that are further affecting the biological 30 . Clearing of forests has its own serious impacts and the environment on the whole gets imbalanced. water. More population means more space to construct houses and availability of more consumer goods. As it has been told earlier. ponds and green belts. more fertilizers and more pesticides. and Advanced agriculture. after Karachi.impacts of population growth on Physical and Biological components of the natural environment.
Frequent water crises often lead to migration of people and animals to other places thus causing overload on the resources of those areas. o Impacts of population growth on biological environment The population explosion of earlier days and of present day also. Let us have some glimpses of these imbalanceso For expanding cultivable land. As for biological environment. hence most of the natural processes have been altered seriously that have caused serious imbalances in ecosystems. 31 . Vast varieties of plants and animals have been killed due to water crises. Since most of the components of the physical components are under serious threat due to population explosion. Human Population has stressed most of the biological systems. These destructive activities of human being have driven away many species of wild animals and have caused extinction up to considerable level. And. Ecosystem is the smallest unit of the biosphere. o Frequent water crises in many parts of the world caused failure of agriculture leading to hunger and starvation. Thus habitats of varieties of birds. and other animals have been destroyed through human activities. Some of those reasons are forest fires and Jhooming. Intensive agriculture and mining have also caused large scale destruction of habitats. all the biological components are bound to suffer the consequences. has already caused and still it is causing serious impacts on the global environment.environment seriously. Therefore from above discussion it is clear that population growth leads to deforestation. comprising flora and fauna as well as biological diversity. It is also called as slash and burn cultivation. forests have been cleared on large scales. Illegal timber trade by timber mafias and local pressure for fire wood have further depleted our forest resources. Jhooming is the practice of growing crops after clearing forest land by burning the vegetation. Forests have also been cleared for setting up of industries and for urbanisation. depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution. There are other reasons of forest destruction also.
the present review will only briefly touch upon some of the important ecological consequences of demographic transition. induced by population growth has caused serious depletion of biodiversity in many parts of the world. shrinking forests. The already densely populated developing countries contribute to over 95% of the population growth and rapid population growth could lead to environmental deterioration. Bio. they cause massive ecological damage by the wasteful. if current greenhouse gas emission trends continue. The panel's best estimate scenario projects a sea-level rise of 15 to 95 centimeters by 2100. the mean global surface temperature will rise from 1 to 3. fragmentation of land holding. In many developing countries continued population growth has resulted in pressure on land. The ecological impact of rising oceans would include increased flooding. however. o Habitat destruction and overexploitation of resources etc.diversity is the species richness in a particular area and its depletion causes serious losses of a number of factors that are vital for running up of ecosystems. o Generation of waste due to increasing consumer culture and population explosion is causing spread of serious epidemics and deaths of people in many parts of the world. coastal erosion. their food production and essential water supplies.5 degrees Celsius in the next century. loss of plant and animal species. collapsing fisheries. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has projected that. unnecessary and unbalanced consumption the consequences of which could adversely affect both the developed and the developing countries. Patterns of precipitation 32 . and salivation of aquifers and coastal crop land and displacement of millions of people living near the coast. The review on "Promotion of sustainable development: challenges for environmental policies" in the Economic Survey 1998-99 had covered in detail the major environmental problems. Developed countries are less densely populated and contribute very little to population growth. Global warming due to increasing use of fossil fuels (mainly by the developed countries) could have serious effects on the populous coastal regions in developing countries.o Poaching and killing of wild animals and illegal trade in their body parts have already caused extinction of several species of animals. rising temperatures. and policy options for improvement.
fertilizers and industrial effluents. High level of biomass burning causing large-scale indoor pollution. Tropical deforestation and destruction of mangroves for commercial needs and fuel wood. Intense grazing by domestic livestock Poaching and illegal harvesting of wildlife.are also likely to change. adverse effect on species diversity: Conversion of habitat to some other land use such as agriculture. The per capita forest biomass in the country is only about 6 tons as against the global average of 82 tons. Increase in commercial activities such as mining and unsustainable resource extraction. Encroachment on habitat for rail and road construction thereby fragmenting the habitat.000 ha to 453. Some 70-80 % of fresh water marshes and lakes in the Gangetic flood plains have been lost in the last 50 years. water stagnation. soil salinity and low productivity. soil erosion. Greenhouse gas emissions are closely linked to both population growth and development. developmental activities either to meet the growing population or the growing needs of the population as well as changing lifestyles and consumption patterns pose major challenge to preservation and promotion of ecological balance in India. pesticides. high use of chemical fertilizers pesticides and weedicides. forestry operation. could substantially alter the relative agricultural productivity of different regions. Some of the major ecological adverse effects reported in India include: Severe pressure on the forests due to both the rate of resource use and the nature of use. Increase in agricultural area.000 ha in the last 50 years. 33 . Slower population growth in developing countries and ecologically sustainable lifestyles in developed countries would make reduction in green house gas emission easier to achieve and provide more time and options for adaptation to climate change. urban development. Rapid population growth. The country‘s mangrove areas have reduced from 700. which combined with increased average temperatures. Degradation of coastal and other aquatic ecosystems from domestic sewage.
it might be possible to initiate steps to see that the natural carrying capacity of the environment is not damaged beyond recovery and ecological balance is to a large extent maintained. implementation. It is imperative that the environmental sustainability of all developmental projects is taken care of by appropriate inputs at the planning. result in reduction in per capita income and resources. this.5 Economic implications of human population growth Population growth and its relation to economic growth has been a matter of debate for over a century. improved employment 34 . 3. monitoring and evaluation stages. The early Malthusian view was that population growth is likely to impede economic growth because it will put pressure on the available resources. Contrary to the Malthusian predictions. environmental protection and equity. several of the East Asian countries have been able to achieve economic prosperity and improvement in quality of life in spite of population growth. This has been attributed to the increase in productivity due to development and utilization of innovative technologies by the young educated population who formed the majority of the growing population. in turn. Because of these. life styles. changing technologies. Disturbance from increased recreational activity and tourism causing pollution of natural ecosystems with wastes left behind by people. industrial and agricultural uses leading to increased river pollution and decrease in self-cleaning properties of rivers. increasing consumption pattern will all have adverse impact on environment. Availability of appropriate technology and commitment towards ensuring sustainable development is increasing throughout the world. Increasing water requirement leading to tapping deeper aquifers which have high content of arsenic or fluoride resulting health problems. Diversion of water for domestic. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992) acknowledged population growth. rising income levels. These countries have been able to exploit the dynamics of demographic transition to achieve economic growth by using the human resources as the engine driving the economic development. will result in deterioration in quality of life.Over fishing in water bodies and introduction of weeds and exotic species. Ensuring that there is no further deterioration depends on choices made by the population about family size.
then this leads to adopt poor means of life.6Urbanization The proportion of people in developing countries who live in cities has almost doubled since 1960 (from less than 22 per cent to more than 40 per cent).1 billion people will live in cities. 3. India shares this global trend toward urbanization (Figure 8). By 2030. as with the same income sources one has to spent more as number of people increases in family unproductive investment Slow growth of Per Capita Income: per capita income will be less if there is population growth. Following are the adverse effects of population growth on the Indian Economy: Adverse effects on savings: with population growth. adverse effect on quality of life: population growth leads to lower standard of living as more income is needed to fulfill the demands or daily needs of more members in the family but if there is less income and family is large in size. Poverty and inflation are aggravated by bad government and bad economic policies. there will be low savings. 35 . while in more developed regions the urban share has grown from 61 per cent to 76 per cent. Many countries with high population densities have eliminated absolute poverty and keep their inflation rates very low. it is expected that nearly 5 billion (61 per cent) of the world's 8. Urbanization is projected to continue well into the next century. Poverty coupled with inflation in some regions and a resulting low level of capital formation.with adequate emoluments has promoted saving and investment which in turn stimulated economic growth. underutilization of labor : as there is large number of population. it is not possible to make optimal utilization of human resource Unemployment: with the increase in population there is more pressure on employment services and it is not possible to give employment to large number of humans.
Urbanization is associated with improved access to education. the number of mega cities had grown to 17(13 in developing countries). Cities and towns have become the engines of social change and rapid economic development. In 1960. Better communication and transportation now link urban and rural areas both economically and socially creating an urban-rural continuum of communities with improvement in some aspects of lifestyle of both. Like many other demographic changes. of these five in India). information has flowed outward. India‘s urban population has doubled from 109 million to 218 million during the last two decades and is estimated to reach 300 million by 2000 AD. As a consequence cities are facing the problem of expanding urban slums. The ever 36 . more than 10 per cent of the world's population will live in these cities (1. and most of these new "mega cities" are in developing regions. By 1999.Globally. urbanization has both positive and negative effects. (18 in Asia. health care. employment. the number of cities with 10 million or more inhabitants is increasing rapidly. It is projected that there will be 26 mega cities by 2015. As people have moved towards and into cities.7% in 1950). these result in increase in age at marriage. reduction in family size and improvement in health indices. only New York and Tokyo had more than 10 million people.
A large proportion of the rural work force is small and consists of marginal farmers and landless agricultural laborers. Agriculture is the largest and one of the most important sectors of the rural economy and contributes both to economic growth and employment. higher contraceptive use. and prevent them from breaking out of the shackles of poverty. the number of rural poor has in fact increased due to the population growth. Poor tend to have larger families which puts enormous burden on their meager resources.increasing reach of mass media communicates new ideas. both wages and productivity are low. These in turn result in poverty. 3. But the rapid growth of urban population also poses some serious challenges. family size preference and family planning options are now reaching formerly isolated rural populations. Urban population growth has outpaced the development of basic minimum services. For instance. housing. This phenomenon has affected health care. There is substantial under employment among these people. points of reference. increasing waste generation at home. in many ways. appreciated and sought. This can create demand for services for mothers and children. offices and industries. awareness about the glaring inequities in close urban setting may lead to social unrest. All these have adverse effect on ecology and health. and available options are becoming more widely recognized. including reproductive health. sewerage and solid waste disposal are far from adequate. Its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product has declined over the last five decades but agriculture still remains the source of livelihood for over 70 per cent of the country‘s population. it is estimated that 320 million people are still living below the poverty line in rural India. Increasing automobiles add to air pollution. There are substantial differences between the states in the proportion of rural and urban population (varying from almost 90 per cent in Assam and Bihar to 61 per cent in Maharashtra). In States like 37 . and fewer unwanted pregnancies.7 Rural population and their development Over seventy per cent of India‘s population still lives in rural areas. water supply. Though poverty has declined over the last three decades. smaller healthier families and lead to more rapid population stabilization. coupled with poor waste disposal facilities result in rapid environmental deterioration. radio and television programmers that discuss gender equity. Poverty persists in urban and per-urban areas.
in turn. may not wish to do manual agricultural work. it is imperative that programmers for skill development. In most of the states non-farm employment in rural areas has not grown very much and cannot absorb the growing labor force. Those who are getting educated specially beyond the primary level. resulting in increasing pressure on land and resulting land fragmentation. Rural poor have inadequate access to basic minimum services. Greater education. prevents the development thus creating a vicious circle. it will be possible to enable them to attain their reproductive goals. In India. water withdrawal is estimated to be twice the rate of aquifer recharge. In States like Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh. lack of awareness. There are ongoing efforts to improve these. achieve substantial decline in the family size and improve quality of life. water demand substantially exceeds sustainable water supply. awareness and better standard of living among the growing younger age group population would create the required consciousness among them that smaller families are desirable. but with the growing aspirations of the younger. inadequate and poorly functional infrastructure. but the population density is high and so there is a pressure on land. if all the felt needs for health and family welfare services are fully met. low energy intake and under nutrition. and this. because of poor connectivity. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh population is growing rapidly. by 2020 about one fourth of the global population may be facing chronic and recurring shortage of fresh water. In this context. It is estimated that currently 430 million (8% of the global population) are living in countries affected by water stress. Low productivity of small land holders leads to poverty. They would like better opportunities and more remunerative employment.8Water supply : In many parts of developed and developing world. The entire gamut of existing poverty alleviation and employment generation programs may have to be restructured to meet the newly emerging types of demand for employment. as a result 38 . vocational training and technical education are taken up on a large scale in order to generate productive employment in rural areas. population growth rates are much lower than in many other States.Tamil Nadu where replacement level of fertility has been attained. educated population these efforts may prove to be inadequate to meet the increasing needs both in terms of type and quality of services. 3.
food production has kept pace with the population growth. 3. Thus. Consequently there has been a reduction in the per capita availability of pulses (from 60. In India one of the major achievements in the last fifty years has been the green revolution and self-sufficiency in food production. excessive use of water has led to water logging and increasing salinity in some parts of the country. At the other end of the spectrum. in the next five decades. There is very little arable agricultural land which remains unexploited and in many areas. a movement towards making water harvesting. It is estimated that the global population will grow to 9 billion by 2050 and the food production will double. Evolution of global and national food security systems has improved access to food. therefore. tapping deeper aquifers have resulted in larger population groups being exposed to newer health hazards such as high fluoride or arsenic content in drinking water. improvement in purchasing power and changing dietary habits (shift to animal products) may further add to the requirement of food grains.water tables are falling by one to three meters every year. agricultural technology improvement may not be able to ensure further increase in yield per hectare. Food grain production has increased from 50.9Food security Technological innovations in agriculture and increase in area under cultivation have ensured that so far. the food and nutrition security could become critical in many parts of the world especially in the developing countries and pockets of poverty in the developed countries.7 grams in 1951 to 34 grams per day in 1996) and coarse grains.82 in 1950-51 to 200. It is a matter of concern that while the cereal production has been growing steadily at a rate higher than the population growth rates. storage and its need based use part of every citizens life should be taken up. Simultaneously. 39 . Eventually. It is. both lack of water and water logging could have adverse impact on India's food production.). imperative that research in biotechnology for improving development of food grains strains that would tolerate salinity and those which would require less water gets high priority.88 million tons in 1998-99 (Prov. the coarse grain and pulse production has not shown a similar increase.
This in turn could have an adverse impact on their protein intake. Coarse 40 . as a result the disease has virtually disappeared from Central India.Over the last five decades there has been a decline in the per capita availability of pulses. During the last few years the country has imported pulses to meet the requirement. There has been a sharp and sustained increase in cost of pulses. so that essential pulse requirement of growing population is fully met. One of the benefits of this change is virtual elimination of pellagra which was widely prevalent among low income group population in Deccan Plateau whose staple food was sorghum. Over years the coarse grain production has remained stagnant and per capita availability of coarse grain has under gone substantial reduction. Over the last three decades the rising cost of pulses has made Kesari Dal more expensive than wheat or rice and hence it is no longer given to labourers as wages for work done. The pulse component of the ―Pulses and Oil Seeds Mission‖ needs to receive a major thrust in terms of R&D and other inputs. Till eighties in central India wages of landless laborerswere given in the form Kesari Dal which was cheaper than cereals or coarse grains. there has been a shift away from coarse grains to rice and wheat consumption even among poorer segment of population. Rising cost of pulses had a beneficial effect also. so there is substantial decline in per capita pulses consumption among poorer segment of population. Consumption of staple diet of Kesari Dal led to crippling disease of neuro lathyrism.
may not only substantially bring down the subsidy cost without any reduction in calories provided but also improve "targeting" . multipronged strategy to combat the major nutritional problems and to improve nutritional status of the population. marasmus. 3. they can thus provide higher calories for the same cost as compared to rice and wheat.as only the most needy are likely to access these coarse grains. Kwashiorkor. Another area of concern is the lack of sufficient focus and thrust in horticulture. 41 . because of this. these factors led to wide spread prevalence of infections and ill health in children and adults. Coarse grains which are locally produced and procured if made available through TPDS at subsidized rate.10 Nutrition: At the time of independence the country faced two major nutritional problems. blindness due to Vitamin-A deficiency and anaemia were major public health problems. poor access to safe-drinking water. low-literacy. sanitation and health care. pellagra. The other was chronic energy deficiency due to poverty. similar efforts need be taken up in other states also.grains are less expensive than rice and wheat. Famines no longer stalk the country. There has been substantial reduction in moderate and severe under nutrition in children and some improvement in nutritional status of all segments of population. availability of vegetables especially green leafy vegetables and yellow/red vegetables throughout the year at affordable cost both in urban and rural areas has remained an unfulfilled dream. goitre. beri beri. marasmus. The country adopted multi-sect oral. lathyrism. States like Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh have initiated some efforts in this direction. one was the threat of famine and acute starvation due to low agricultural production and lack of appropriate food distribution system. Kwashiorkor. During the last 50 years considerable progress has been achieved. Health and nutrition education emphasizing the importance of consuming these inexpensive rich sources of micronutrients will not result in any change in food habits unless there is harnessing and effective management of horticultural resources in the country to meet the growing needs of the people at affordable cost. beri beri and blindness due to severe Vitamin-A deficiency have become rare.
Exploring feasibility of providing subsidized coarse grains to families Below Poverty Line (BPL) Operational strategies to improve health and nutritional status of the growing numbers of women and children include: 42 .However. Providing subsidized food grains through TPDS to the families below poverty line. it is a matter of concern that milder forms of Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and micronutrient deficiencies continue to be widely prevalent in adults and children. 3. vegetables and other foodstuffs needed to fully meet the requirement of growing population. it is essential that appropriate strategies are devised to improve food and nutrition security of families. In view of the fact that population growth in India will continue for the next few decades. identify individuals/families with severe forms of CED and provide them assistance to overcome these problem. pulses. Operational strategy to improve the dietary intake of the family and improve nutritional status of the rapidly growing adult population would include: 1. 2. 4. Improving in purchasing power through employment generation and employment assurance schemes. Ensuring adequate agricultural production of cereals.
c) immunization and health care. b) get appropriate cereal pulse . if no improvement after 2 months refer to physician for identification and treatment of factors that might be responsible for lack of improvement. 43 .1) Pregnant and lactating women . 7) Nutrition education on varying dietary needs of different members of the family and how they can be met by minor modifications from the family meals. 6) Monitor for improvement in the identified undernourished infants. a) screen by weighment to identify children with moderate and severe under nutrition b) provide double quantity supplements through ICDS.4 times a day – appropriate help in ensuring this through family/community/work place support.screening to identify women with weight below 40 Kgs and ensuring that they/ their preschool children receive food supplements through Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS). Intensive health education for improving the life style of the population coupled with active screening and management of the health problems associated with obesity.vegetable based supplement fed to them at least 3 . unless there is specific reason supplementation should not be introduced before 6 months (d) immunization. 3) Well planned nutrition education to ensure that the infants and children do a) continue to get breasted. b) improve dietary intake to these children through the mid-day meal. 4) Children in the 0 . c) screening for nutrition and health problems and appropriate intervention. children and mothers. growth monitoring and health care. 2) 0-6 months infants . 5) Primary school children: a) weigh and identify those with moderate and severe chronic energy deficiency. adequate antenatal intrapartum and neonatal care.5 age group.Nutrition education for (a) early initiation of lactation (b) protection and promotion of universal breast feeding (c) exclusive breast feeding for the first six months.
Religious and ideological opposition to birth control has been cited as a factor contributing to overpopulation and poverty. Under this law. like the People's Republic of China. and can be denied food if they do. stickers) needs to be produced and distributed throughout the communities such as at local places of worships. "The intervention can be widespread and done at a low cost. there are several mitigation measures that have or can be applied to reduce the adverse impacts of population growth.1 Birth regulations Population growth is related to the issue of birth control. Other societies have already begun to implement social marketing strategies in order to educate the public on overpopulation effects. brochures. ―The approval by Afghan President Hamid Karzai of the Shia Personal Status Law in March 2009 effectively destroyed Shia women‘s rights and freedoms in Afghanistan. women have no right to deny their husbands sex unless they are ill. 4. Certain government policies are making it easier and more socially acceptable to use contraception and abortion methods. An example of a country whose laws and norms are hindering the global effort to slow population growth is Afghanistan. schools and at car parks (taxis / bus stands). All of these mitigations are ways to implement social norms." Such prompts work to introduce the problem so that social norms are easier to implement. sporting events. Some leaders and environmentalists (such as Ted Turner) have suggested that there is an urgent need to strictly implement a China44 . In societies like China. Population growth is an issue that threatens the state of the environment in the mentioned ways in previous chapter and therefore societies must make a change in order to reverse some of the environmental effects brought on by current social norms.Chapter-4 Mitigation measures While the current world trends are not indicative of any realistic solution to human population growth during the 21st century. use strict measures to reduce birth rates. fact sheets. some nations. A variety of print materials (flyers.‖ All of these examples use principles of social psychology to show how a strong correlation to the damage to the planet caused by the rapid population growth. the government has put policies in place that regulate the number of children allowed to a couple. local food markets.
4. implemented a forced sterilization program in the 1970s. and the market would determine what the license fee for each additional child would cost. which hampered Government program for decades. so these credits could not be hoarded by speculators. with 86% of these deaths occurring in the sub-Saharan Africa region and 45 ." Birth credits would allow any woman to have as many children as she wants. so the credits would serve more as a wake-up call to women who might otherwise produce children without seriously considering the long term consequences to themselves or society.like one-child policy globally by the United Nations. but they lack access to information.2 Education and empowerment One option is to focus on education about overpopulation. and to make birth-control devices like male/female condoms. and is blamed for creating a public aversion to family planning.000 women die annually of complications from pregnancy and abortion. political opponents and ignorant men were also believed to have been sterilized. but many unmarried young men. The actual cost of the credits would only be a fraction of the actual cost of having and raising a child. nearly 40% of pregnancies are unintended (some 80 million unintended pregnancies each year). family planning. marketable birth license plan" he calls "birth credits. Urban designer Michael E. affordable means and services to determine the size and spacing of their families. then the first child would be free. for example. and birth control methods. men with two children or more had to submit to sterilization. late Prime Minister of India. as long as she buys a license for any children beyond an average allotment that would result in zero population growth (ZPG). pills and intrauterine devices easily available. Officially. An estimated 350 million women in the poorest countries of the world either did not want their last child. Extra credits would expire after a certain time. because this would help control and reduce population gradually. do not want another child or want to space their pregnancies. some 514. In the developing world. Worldwide. If that allotment was determined to be one child. This program is still remembered and criticized in India. Arth has proposed a "choice-based. Indira Gandhi.
like also Saturn. Geoffrey Landis of NASA's Glenn Research Center in particular has pointed out that "[at] cloud-top level. In the United States. It may be possible for other parts of the Solar System to be inhabited by humanity at some point in the future.S. Additionally. Clarke. with the majority in the asteroid belt. "the 46 . famous inventor of the futuristic concept of molecular nanotechnology. many because of malnutrition or preventable diseases. It was announced in June 2008 by the Minister of Health and Population Hatem el-Gabali.South. In Mining the Sky. K. including Carl Sagan.000 times the carrying capacity of Earth using just the asteroid belt and that the Solar System as a whole could sustain current population growth rates for a thousand years. Marshall Savage (1992. as one could construct aerostat habitats and floating cities there easily. suggesting this could happen within a few centuries. 8 million infants die. Venus is the paradise planet". The government has set aside 480 million Egyptian pounds (about 90 million U. especially from lack of access to clean drinking water. and Neptune. 1994) has projected a human population of five quintillion throughout the Solar System by 3000. in the upper layers of their atmospheres. John S. dollars) for the program. Freeman Dyson (1999) favors the Kuiper belt as the future home of humanity. Gerard O'Neill suggested building space habitats that could support 30. even afford a gravitation almost exactly as strong as that on Earth (see colonization of Venus). Lewis suggests that the resources of the solar system could support 10 quadrillion (1016) people. Egypt announced a program to reduce its overpopulation by family planning education and putting women. Venus would. have argued that shipping the excess population into space is not a viable solution to human overpopulation. 4. based on the concept that breathable air is a lifting gas in the dense Venusians atmosphere. almost half of pregnancies were unintended. Arthur C. in 2001. and Isaac Asimov. According to Clarke.3 Extraterrestrial settlement In the 1970s. Many authors. has suggested in Engines of Creation that colonizing space will mean breaking the Malthusian limits to growth for the human species. Eric Drexler. Uranus.
Gerard O'Neill's calculations show that Earth could offload all new population growth with a launch services industry about the same size as the current airline industry. but the physical impracticality of shipping vast numbers of people into space to "solve" overpopulation on Earth. However.population battle must be fought or won here on Earth‖. A hypothetical extraterrestrial colony could potentially grow organically. The problem for these authors is not the lack of resources in space (as shown in books such as Mining the Sky. with most of the inhabitants being the direct descendants of the original colonists 47 .
it will be possible for them to meet all their needs. the transitions can be completed rapidly. For India the current phase of the demographic transition is both a challenge and an opportunity. Simultaneously. If there is synergy between these transitions. The opportunity is to utilize available human resources to achieve rapid economic development and improvement in quality of life. health transition and reproductive health transition.Chapter-5 Conclusion Demographic transition is a global phenomenon. achieve the desired family size and enable the country to achieve population stabilization rapidly. private and voluntary sectors. 48 . If the population now has ready access to good quality services at affordable cost. The challenge is to ensure human development and optimum utilization of human resources. education transition. . there will be substantial improvement in human development and economic development. In the next two decades the population growth will be mainly among the young adults who will be more literate. All these affect human development. aware and likely to make optimal use of available facilities. There is universal awareness about the need for these services. The focus of planners. India is currently in the phase of demographic transition during which where it will be possible for the country to accelerate the pace of decline in fertility. improvement in economic social and human development. population growth is inevitable in the initial phases of the transition. Over the last five decades the country has built up a massive healthcare infrastructure for delivery of FW services to the population in the Government. there are ongoing economic transition. program implementers and the people during the next two decades will have to be in achieving the synergy so that India can achieve rapid population stabilization. The RCH program envisages wider range of services and improvement in quality of services provided. Demographic transition does not occur in isolation.
about. Publication. Ecology: Basic & Applied.1984.C. Flowler. http://geography. Santra S. http://en.htm..org/wiki/Environmental_issues 4.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_India 5. Affluence and Technology  3.wikipedia. P-250. http://en. Rethinking the Environmental Impacts of Population.about. http://geography.com/lr/demographics/15359/1 6. Websites: 1.C. McGraw Hill. M. New York. http://dieoff. (2nd ed.D. 3. 2004.about.com/od/populationgeography/a/populationgrow. Energy &the Environment.).htm 49 .com/od/obtainpopulationdata/Population_Statistics. 1994. 2.htm 2.John M. http://geography. New Delhi.Bibliography Book: 1.org/page111. Environmental Science: General Perspectives.wikipedia. Environmental Science. Santra S..
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