Selection and Sizing of Batteries for UPS Backup

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Over the past few years. SCI often supplies batteries with a UPS and aids customers with their decision on battery selection. Sealed Nickel Cadmium. S. As a result. are available in a wide price range. Maintenance-free Gelled Electrolyte. This made the selection rather simple. Pocket Plate Liquid Electrolyte An understanding of the various operating parameters. Suspended Electrolyte. this battery will be used as a reference for comparing the other battery types. maintenance requirements and cost is vital in choosing the most advantageous battery for the application. Note: Since the lead acid/calcium battery is the most commonly used battery for UPS back-up in the U.AMETEK SOLIDSTATE CONTROLS Selection and Sizing of Batteries for UPS Backup Abstract Until only a few years ago. Sizing information charts which show manufacturers’ names are used for illustrative purposes only. today. but only presents alternatives for consideration. a number of different types of batteries have appeared on the market. Choosing the proper battery for the application then becomes one of examining these various parameters and choosing the one most suitable for the particular application.) Battery Type Lead Acid Plante’ This battery is manufactured by utilizing a lead grid framework into which lead oxide paste or pure lead is applied.200 kVA. special care must be exercised in the construction of these batteries. Sealed Lead Acid (Special Alloy). Introduction As a UPS manufacturer. Where an example of various types are referenced. the types of batteries for use with Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS) were limited to perhaps two or three. The following types of batteries are generally selected for use with a UPS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Lead Acid/Plante’ Lead Acid/Antimony Lead Acid/Calcium Lead Acid/Calcium. these batteries are more expensive than some other types (For example 2-2 1/2 times the cost of lead acid/calcium battery). The following paper is a comprehensive analysis of various battery types and methods for sizing these batteries utilizing the various battery manufacturers’ data available for sizing. require varying degrees of maintenance and have different warranty periods and life expectancies from two or more than twenty years. 2 . Since lead paste and the grid framework is rather soft. The plates are then formed by applying an electric current (charging) which forms lead dioxide on the positive plate and sponge (porous) lead on the negative plate. Maintenance-free. Maintenance-free Liquid Electrolyte Lead Acid/Calcium. This paper does not favor one battery type over another. environmental requirements. They exhibit varied specifications. some of the suitable sized batteries available are reflected for a moderately sized UPS (In the range of 10 .

At the end of 20 years. is low and the Plante’ battery can tolerate operation at high temperatures better than the various lead acid alloyed types. GC. calcium. Yuasa-Exide type CC. It is able to provide approximately 1. EA. MCX NCX PDQ. Hydrogen gas generation and consequential water usage is approximately ten times that of the lead acid/Plante’ and the lead acid/calcium battery. As with most UPS applications.1. This battery will gas the same as the lead acid/calcium battery. Initial cost is approximately the same as the lead acid/calcium battery.AMETEK SOLIDSTATE CONTROLS The Plante’ battery is both mechanically and electrically durable. Because this battery is sealed. NAX. Lead Acid (Special Alloy). Lead Acid/Calcium The lead acid/calcium battery is manufactured by utilizing a lead calcium alloy grid in the grid construction to increase the strength of the plates. Because this type of battery generates hydrogen gas when charging and because the sulfuric acid electrolyte does evaporate to some extent. There is also a need for periodic monthly equalization.. This battery may be selected where frequent discharging is expected. MAX. Suspended Electrolyte. it will have lost approximately 20% of its original capacity. especially watering. it can be used in any position and will not leak electrolyte even if the case becomes cracked. C&D type DCU. Lead Acid/Calcium Gelled Electrolyte (GellCell) Sealed The gelled electrolyte sealed lead acid/calcium maintenance-free battery is designed for up to 20 years of operation requiring no routine maintenance and carries a one-year full replacement warranty. antimony. There is no 3 . FTC. meaning it is physically smaller than an equal lead acid (liquid electrolyte) battery. KCW LCW. DS. LC. the lead acid antimony battery will have lost approximately 20% of its original capacity. It is. these batteries must be used in a room which is well ventilated to the outside and kept away from delicate electronic equipment. Adequate ventilation becomes more important. therefore. Since it is sealed and has a gelled electrolyte. Examples of some available types of gelled electrolyte sealed lead acid/calcium batteries include: Johnson Controls type UPS. also increases. DX. This battery carries one year full replacement warranty and a five year expected life when used in a float application such as a UPS back-up. Since it is more expensive to parallel smaller battery banks than to supply a single large bank.200 full discharges during its 15 year warranted life. This battery offers an excellent cost versus service reliability advantage. it becomes necessary to parallel banks for longer back-up times or for larger UPS equipment. Cost is approximately 60-70% of the standard lead acid/calcium battery of equal size. the hydrogen and oxygen gas generated during charging recombines immediately within the cell. Lead Acid/Antimony This battery is manufactured by utilizing a lead antimony allow in the grid construction which increases the strength of the plates. This sealed battery can safely be used in an unventilated room making it suitable for applications where ventilation would be expensive or impractical. Hydrogen gas generation and consequential water consumption is the same as the lead acid/Plante’ battery. ET. the battery will be floating on the charger most of the time.000 . Examples of some available types of lead acid/antimony batteries include Chloride type FAP.50%. Example of an available type of maintenance-free lead acid/calcium batteries is: DelcoRemy. and even when discharged. KC. This battery will also likely deliver its full rated capacity after 25 years of operation. GNB type MAT. Manchex DMP. GT. XT. YCP. ventilation is required. consequently.000 . This battery. may not normally be fully discharged. etc. Yuasa-Exide type CA. C&D type DU.200 full discharges during its 25 year warranted life. in fact. EMP. does not require routine equalization and it is capable of only approximately 100 full discharges during its 20 year warranted life. GA. At the end of 15 years. it vents no gas into the atmosphere under normal operating conditions. Examples of some available types include Chloride type YAP. special and expensive mechanical construction is not necessary. Lead Acid/Calcium Maintenance-Free Liquid Electrolyte The lead acid/calcium battery is designed for 3-5 years of maintenance-free operation. This battery also has a high energy density. i. Thus. KU. water addition. NAT. Because the battery is sealed. Yuasa-Exide type. It utilizes a high specific gravity electrolyte with a large electrolyte capacity. The batteries will vent to release pressure as a safety precaution when a specific internal pressure is reached. when maintained at a float voltage of 2. FCP. Sealed The lead acid (special alloy) battery is the newest sealed battery appearing on the market utilizing an electrolyte that is suspended in porous material. This battery is presently manufactured in only a limited number of sizes. This lead acid/antimony battery is able to provide approximately 1. Examples of some available types of lead acid/calcium batteries include: GNB type DSC. the most popular battery in the United States for UPS back-up. The frequency of maintenance. YHP. DKR. (Note: Batteries are normally rated at the nominal temperature of 77° F (25°C). EC.1.e. Initial cost compared to an equal size lad acid/calcium (20 year life) battery is approximately 35 . GU. Maintenance. the price advantage is quickly lost when a system would require a large number of parallel banks.25 volts/cell.

Kilowatts per cell 2. Normal service life should extend beyond the warranted 20 years. VC. Ampere per cell 4 . to monthly visual checks and quarterly measurements of voltages and specific gravity. These batteries do not experience the severe shortening of life when operated at elevated temperatures and performs better at low temperatures than do the lead acid batteries. Generally. Kilowatts per bank 3. this information is supplied in one of three ways: 1. L. so is maintenance. but there are no corrosive gases as it true with lead acid types. It has a high energy density and is physically smaller than an equal lead acid battery. Initial costs are approximately three times that of the lead acid/calcium battery. Its cost is approximately 1 to 1. M. Batteries which will be operated at higher or lower temperatures continuously should be calculated specifically for that temperature. NICAD batteries do emit hydrogen and oxygen gas. consequently. Examples of some available types of NICAD batteries include: Chloride type VHP. Saft/Nife type H. VB. Liquid Electrolyte Nickel cadmium or NICAD batteries are the most expensive of the various types of batteries previously discussed. for example an EDP installation. Remember that these batteries require routine maintenance and have costs associated with that maintenance over the life of the battery. Figure 1 summarizes the features of the various types of batteries discussed in this paper.Pocket Plate. Battery Sizing Battery manufacturers provide various types of information for sizing batteries. all of which must be completed and recorded in order to maintain the warranty. It is completely sealed venting gas only as a safety precaution under high internal pressure. MP. Examples of this type of battery include: (Hawker) Chloride type VA. Although 92 cells of nickel cadmium are required to equal 60 cells of lead acid. they can be installed directly next to delicate electronic equipment. Consequently. EP. This battery can be used in an office environment or in an unventilated room. Your UPS or battery supplier can assist you with these calculations. Maintenance can range from none at all for maintenance-free types. All battery sizing calculations in this paper have assumed a standard room temperature of 77° (25°C). products of electrolysis. It is totally maintenance-free battery with a warranted life of up to 20 years and an expected life of approximately 10 . When maintained at the recommended float voltage. this battery still has the advantage of being smaller in size and weight for a given capacity. periodic equalization is not required. LP.2 times that of the lead acid/calcium battery. a four or five year life may be all that is required with the thought in mind that in four years the entire computer system may be outdated and replaced with a new “state-of-the art” device requiring a different size UPS and battery. Water consumption is relatively low and.14 years. FIGURE 1 Battery Type Lead CalciumFlooded Cell Lead CalciumVRLA Lead calciumVRLA Lead AntimonyWet Cell Nickel CadmiumWet Cell Typical Warranty 20 Years 10 Years 20 years 15-20 Years 20-25 Years Life Expectancy 20 years 5 years 12-15 Years 15 Years 20-25 Years Hydrogen Gas Evolution Low To Moderate None None High Low Approximate Number of Deep Discharges 100 200 200 400 1000 Initial Cost Comparison to Lead Calcium 100% 30-50% 80-120% 100% 200-300% It should be noted that in the same installations. Nickel Cadmium .AMETEK SOLIDSTATE CONTROLS liquid to spill.

75 volts/cell. 60 cells of either 3CX-11 are required which will supply 19. it is important to first calculate the total kilowatts required to operate the particular UPS at a given load (usually assuming full load). AL Example Calculation: = Determine the battery required for a 20 kVA UPS operating at full load with an efficiency of 86%.310. this will normally be 105V per bank or 1.324kW x 60 cells) for 30 minutes. the kW / cell equals . a load power factor of 0.310 kW . Equation 2 kW / cell = 20 x .86 x60 The UPS manufacturer will also recommend the battery be discharged to a specific end voltage per cell. FIGURE 2 5 . such as that in Figure 2 for this 20 kVA UPS. For a 60 cell lead acid battery.4 kW (0.8 = . Utilizing the battery manufacturer’s supplied information. Therefore.8 and no additional DC loads. Utilizing the preceding formula. Equation 1 KW/cell = KVA PF EFF No. The UPS is a 130 VDC system requiring 60 cells of lead acid batteries and requiring 30 minutes of back-up time. Cells = = = = KVA x PF EFF x Number Of Cells KVA of the load Power factor of load + AL Efficiency of the UPS at the given load Number of cells required. The number of cells required will be specified by the UPS manufactured. Any additional loads on the battery expressed in kilowatts.AMETEK SOLIDSTATE CONTROLS Normally information supplied for lead acid batteries designed for short discharge times (5-120 minutes) is in the form of kilowatts per cell tabulated for various back-up times.

a load power factor of 0. Equation 5 DC Amp = KVA x PF x 1000 EFF x DCV + AL KVA PF EFF DCV AS Example Calculation: = = = = = KVA of the load Power factor of the load Efficiency of the UPS at the given load Average Discharge Voltage . An average current will be calculated at this voltage. one must determine an “average current for the particular UPS. 104% of 105V equals 109V. 92 cells of HB705P are required which will supply 213 amps for three hours. Consequently.AMETEK SOLIDSTATE CONTROLS Long term discharge lead acid batteries and most nickel cadmium batteries are sized using charts expressed in available amps for specified periods of time.8 and 30 amps of additional DC loads. For these calculations.68 Amps . 60 cells with an end voltage of 1 .75V/cell will equal 105V/Bank.14V per cell for the 92 cell bank. The battery supplying a UPS will be delivering less current when the batter is at 120" than will be necessary as the battery discharges down to a lower voltage. Utilizing the preceding formula: Equation 6 DC Amps = 20 x . it is recommended that one calculate battery current based upon 104% of the final end voltage of the battery bank.8 x 1000 + 30 = 200. Figure 3 6 . Consequently. this is 109V Additional loads expressed in amperes Determine the battery required for a 20 kVA operating at full load with an efficiency of 86%.86 x 109 The UPS manufacturer has recommended an end voltage of 105V per bank or 1.For a 130 VDC system. Using Figure 3 for this 20 kVA UPS and additional 30 amp DC load. For example. The UPS is 130 VDC system requiring 92 cells of nickel cadmium batteries and requiring three hours of back-up time.

1 Hour backup and 8 hour recharge time. a short term discharge battery can be recharged to 85% capacity in 8-10 times the discharge time. The following formula can be used to calculate battery charger size.86 130V Then: I = 171A x 1Hr x 1.8 PF = 171A B 0.AMETEK SOLIDSTATE CONTROLS Battery Charger Sizing Once a battery has been discharged.86 109V I = 20.6 + 143 = 167. it is important to restore the battery to full charge as quickly as possible in order to be prepared for the next power outage and.000VA x 0. to prevent permanent damage to the battery. in the case of all lead acid batteries.15 C + 143A 8Hr I C = 24.000VA x 0. I = 20.8 PF = 143A I 0. In general. Equation 7 I xT xK D Charger size in Amps = B TR Where: I = Battery Current Required = B +I +I I A Inverter VA x Power Factor DC to AC Efficiency DCV I = Inverter Current Required = I Inverter VA x Power Factor DC to AC Efficiency Float Voltage I = Any additional DC Loads in amperes A T = Battery Discharge (Run) Time in hours D T = Battery Recharge Time in hours R Example Calculation: Determine the charger required for a 20kVA UPS with a 60 cell lead acid battery. no additional DC loads. Assuming the UPS is a float configuration where the charger also supplies the inverter with DC power.6Amps 7 . A long term discharge battery can be recharged to 85% capacity in a minimum of 8 hours provided the charger is sized properly.

Publication 41-3162 “Stationary Battery Installation & Operating Instructions”. November 1978 Johnson Controls. Publication 41-30. “Rechargeable Batteries And Chargers . Publication 12-610 “Nife Block Battery Technical Data”. Instructions For Installation & Maintenance”. Ratelco. 8 . Publication SPUK21 “Stationary Lead Acid Battery Systems”. Publication 12-800.00. January 1983 Chief Engineer “ The Battery Handbook”. 2R. Inc. Publication SEE-1195 “Chloride Powersafe Batteries”. Stationary Battery Division Stationary Battery Division Stationary Battery Division C&D (Charter) Batteries C&D (Charter) Batteries Saft/Nife Incorporated Chloride Standby Batteries Chloride Standby Batteries Chloride Standby Batteries Graham. Publication V4537-2-E “Float Plate Standby Power Batteries. Publication 41-3116 Johnson Controls.AMETEK SOLIDSTATE CONTROLS References: Stationary Battery Division Johnson Controls. “Sealed Lead Acid Batteries For UPS Application”. Publication 50. Alvin G. November 1980 Johnson Controls. “Lead Calcium Battery System Cell Equalization”.. Form 7636. “Recommended Periodic Inspection And Maintenance Activities”.GeVCell”. Publication 41-2635R. “Stationary Batteries. C&D Presents”.

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