P. 1
MSPE

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10/22/2015

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# Q1

Q2
Asphalt
Surface
Temp(℃)
UGL
(σ3)(KN/M^2)
Strain (ε3)
Asphalt Base
Course(ε2)
40℃ 5.1600E+01 3.5000E-04 1.6300E-04
20℃ 2.7310E+01 2.3260E-04 6.1000E-05
10℃ 2.2650E+01 2.1000E-04 3.1000E-05
–12.5℃ 1.7910E+01 1.8410E-04 1.9900E-05
Modelling and Simulation in Pavement
Engineering
Assignment
Cao Jie
The total tyre contact area is 360mm*250mm, and a 2D axial symmetric model is applicable in this case. We can define
our single element's dimension by 180mm*125mm (1/4 of total contact area). With a 6 by 6 elements, a plate sublayer
mesh can be created. plate dimension of each sublayer is same, 1.08m*0.75m. For the whole pavement structure is
made of 5 layers, Asphalt surface layer 4cm,Asphalt binder layer 8cm, Asphalt base layer 22cm, UGM 30cm, Subgrade
100cm, which have the numbers of sublayers by 2, 4, 11, 3, 3 respectively. In terms of 3 dimension, there are 20 nodes
for each element.
The descriptions of boundary condition: for the subgrade layer is resticted in x,y,z direction,which means no movement in
these directions. For the UGM and Asphalt layers, there is no movement in x,z direction, here we only consider the vertical
displacement. And the interface elements are defined flexible coupling between the two layers.
By selection of certain element in the software, the following FE calculation results can be determined
Q3
The diagrams demonstrate the strain and stress
states depends on different temperatures. In a
low temperature a relatively low deformation is
showed and the stiffness of asphalt layer is
higher than high temperature. At the higher
temperature variations can change the asphalt
binder rheology. A high strain is appeared
cause the stiffness is lower and asphalt layers
transfer higher stress to the UGL.
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
40℃ 20℃ 10℃ –12.5℃
UGL σ3 (KN/M^2)
0.0000E+00
2.0000E-05
4.0000E-05
6.0000E-05
8.0000E-05
1.0000E-04
1.2000E-04
1.4000E-04
1.6000E-04
1.8000E-04
40℃ 20℃ 10℃ –12.5℃
Asphalt Base Layer(ε2)
0.0000E+00
5.0000E-05
1.0000E-04
1.5000E-04
2.0000E-04
2.5000E-04
3.0000E-04
3.5000E-04
4.0000E-04
40℃ 20℃ 10℃ –12.5℃
Q4
Surface
Temp
(℃)
Strain
(ε)
Allowable
Cycle(Nf)
Surface
Temp
(℃)
UGC
(N/mm2)
E UGL E v2
Allowable
Cycle(Nf)
40 3.5000E-04 9.352E+51 40 5.1600E-02 250 144.794 9.0238E+21
20 2.3260E-04 1.63348E+53 20 2.7310E-02 250 144.794 5.6690E+42
10 2.1000E-04 3.34076E+53 10 2.2650E-02 250 144.794 6.9743E+51
-12.5 1.8410E-04 8.39468E+53 -12.5 1.7910E-02 250 144.794 8.7561E+65
Surface
Temp
(℃)
Asphalt
Base
Course(ε22)
Allowable
Cycle(Nf)
40 1.6300E-04 1.5541E+16
20 6.1000E-05 9.5879E+17
10 3.1000E-05 1.6392E+19
-12.5 1.9900E-05 1.0520E+20
For which Nf=(9300/ε)^7 For which Nf=10^(1/0.7*(0.00875*Ev2/(σz*1.5)-1))
The lower amount of strains value means a better fatigue resistance. And also with a lower temperature, the
layers seemed to be more durable, which with high value of load cycles. This also explain at a lower
temperature asphalt pavements have a better performance. The allowable load cycle between pavement layers
are also vairous. In the same temperature condition, Subgrade layers have a highest ALC, by contrary asphalt
layers have the lowest. To improve the performance and durablity of pavement we can also increase the
thickness of each layer, but this also caused a problem to increase the total stress on the subgrade layer which
In which Nf=(SF/F)*a*ε^k,with F=2.1 SF=1.5 a=2.82
and k=-4.194
Q5
Depth Node Stress S33 Strain E22 Stress S22 Str.S33 Strain E22 St.S22
[cm] [kN/m2] [-] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [-] [kN/m2]
1 6722 -549.695 -0.000052614 -687.77 -549.747 -0.000016146 -823.72
3 6540 -542.342 -0.000041209 -591.765 -541.952 -0.00001254 -674.851
5 5922 -524.711 -0.000030593 -570.18 -522.696 -0.000009248 -557.748
7 5740 -495.869 -0.000020751 -445.007 -492.034 -0.000006292 -432.532
9 5558 -456.696 -0.000012063 -330.177 -451.368 -0.000003718 -322.132
11 5376 -411.313 -0.000004374 -224.81 -404.437 -0.000001493 -226.377
13 3914 -363.281 0.000001915 -145.195 -354.647 0.000000468 -140.343
15 3732 -314.907 0.000006961 -78.734 -304.666 0.000002239 -62.658
17 3550 -267.726 0.000011598 -16.229 -256.338 0.000003863 6.963
19 3368 -222.884 0.000016048 43.776 -210.81 0.000005403 71.668
21 3186 -181.125 0.000020503 103.014 -168.791 0.000006924 133.01
23 3004 -142.988 0.000025139 162.605 -130.769 0.000008485 193.964
25 2822 -108.949 0.000030126 224.702 -97.159 0.000010139 253.741
27 2640 -79.559 0.000035634 290.002 -68.427 0.000011938 316.371
29 2458 -55.563 0.000041841 360.399 -45.204 0.000013942 380.143
31 2276 -38.068 0.000048957 437.631 -28.438 0.000016217 450.139
33 2094 -28.84 0.000057221 523.513 -19.677 0.000018843 526.285
39 1452 -25.36 0.000016894 -7.841 -17.444 0.000032611 2.123
49 1270 -23.037 0.000043292 3.547 -17.052 0.00004185 5.94
59 1088 -20.971 0.000066043 13.398 -16.928 0.000050241 9.364
80.5 498 -19.859 0.00010191 -5.132 -17.516 0.000076674 -5.324
113.5 316 -19.191 0.000103882 -3.96 -17.898 0.000084703 -4.352
146.5 134 -16.724 0.000048269 -6.972 -16.026 0.000039634 -7.051
40 Deg. -12.5 Deg
Full Layer Bound
-600
-500
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
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Vertical Stress (KN/M^2)
40℃
-12.5℃
-0.00004
-0.00002
0
0.00002
0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
0.0001
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
-0.00008
-0.00006
-0.00004
-0.00002
0
0.00002
0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
0.0001
0.00012
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
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Depth below the Surface(cm)
40℃
-12.5℃
Depth Node Stress S33 Strain E22 Stress S22 Node Stress S33 Strain E22Stress S22
[cm] [kN/m2] [-] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [-] [kN/m2]
1 6936 -549.037 -0.00012535 -497.659 6936 -548.47 -1.7E-05 -871.489
3 6754 -540.817 -0.000071576 -387.504 6754 -536.593 -8.38E-06 -549.805
5 680 -525.112 -0.000018015 -347.369 6055 -513.516 1.2E-08 -246.898
7 498 -502.944 0.000037936 -74.134 5873 -484.764 8.274E-06 58.374
9 316 -479.139 0.000093225 191.113 5691 -457.291 1.652E-05 351.018
11 134 -463.997 0.000149278 455.057 5509 -440.729 2.491E-05 639.238
12 1 -458.721 0.000171479 561.118 5376 -435.057 2.824E-05 757.65
12 3381 -463.564 -0.000184051 -911.115 2003 -440.598 -3.25E-05 -1289.8
13 3332 -455.605 -0.000162582 -824.018 1954 -431.87 -2.92E-05 -1172.78
15 3150 -436.018 -0.00011252 -624.346 1772 -410.864 -2.15E-05 -889.357
17 2968 -400.812 -0.000069044 -445.618 1590 -373.221 -1.45E-05 -633.585
19 2786 -355.935 -0.000030625 -283.422 1408 -325.356 -8.18E-06 -404.857
21 2604 -306.21 0.00000422 -133.718 1226 -272.194 -2.25E-06 -194.704
23 2422 -255.544 0.000036834 4.343 1044 -217.595 3.412E-06 2.687
25 2240 -207.111 0.000068526 132.829 862 -164.719 8.989E-06 191.582
27 2058 -163.585 0.00010057 252.312 680 -116.338 1.464E-05 378.094
29 1876 -127.382 0.000134224 362.924 498 -75.157 2.053E-05 562.91
31 1694 -100.937 0.000170859 461.583 316 -44.231 2.683E-05 755.068
33 1512 -87.046 0.000212097 548.317 134 -27.587 3.374E-05 956.606
34 1379 -82.131 0.000229754 600.966 1 -21.539 3.663E-05 1044.527
34 6294 -87.057 -0.000119605 -99.881 4916 -24.252 6.35E-06 -11.2
39 6245 -74.777 -0.000049712 -63.165 4867 -22.881 1.854E-05 -5.643
49 6063 -59.39 0.000062102 -9.023 4685 -21.302 4.147E-05 3.876
59 6621 -43.885 0.000151625 35.783 4503 -19.959 6.17E-05 12.276
80.5 5291 -32.289 0.000220516 -4.487 3913 -19.385 9.695E-05 -5.174
113.5 5191 -26.272 0.000178176 -3.281 3731 -18.976 0.000101 -4.018
146.5 4927 -19.869 0.000083343 -6.703 3549 -16.62 4.706E-05 -6.983
No Layer Bound
40 Deg. -12.5 Deg
-600
-500
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
-600
-500
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
0 50 100 150 200
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Vertical Stress (KN/M^2)
40℃
-12.5℃
-0.0003
-0.0002
-0.0001
0
0.0001
0.0002
0.0003
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
-0.00006
-0.00004
-0.00002
0
0.00002
0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
0.0001
0.00012
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
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Depth below the Surface(cm)
-12.5℃
40℃
As the chart showed above,the horizontal strains are deverse greatly in the
Asphalt layer(0-34cm). The no bound layer(Green) changed acutely,especially
high strain at the buttom of each asphalt layers,since high stress value cause
sliding between 2 layers.The full bound layer(Blue one) tend to be more stable
in increment of the strain.Which can couple the two layers and tranfer the
stress and strain . Moreover this kind of bound can also dilute the stress and
strain, leading them to another layers or directions.
The picture shows in the right indicates a very high stress at the buttom of
asphalt layers,this is the case without bound layer. It is obvious that the stress
can not efficiently tranfer to other layers.The high tensile stress may also
cause cracking and rutting which we are always trying to avoid. On contrary
this risk will be greatly reduced in the bound layer with flexible binder material.
-0.0003
-0.0002
-0.0001
0
0.0001
0.0002
0.0003
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
-0.00008
-0.00006
-0.00004
-0.00002
0
0.00002
0.00004
0.00006
0.00008
0.0001
0.00012
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
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Depth below the Surface(cm)
FLB 40℃
FLB -12.5℃
NLB -12.5℃
NLB 40℃

0000E-04 3.0 0.0000E+00 30.0 (KN/M^2) Asphalt Base Layer(ε2) 1.0000E-05 6. In a low temperature a relatively low deformation is showed and the stiffness of asphalt layer is higher than high temperature.5000E-04 2.0 50.0000E-04 2.0000E-04 8.5℃ The diagrams demonstrate the strain and stress states depends on different temperatures.4000E-04 1.0000E-05 0.0 20.0000E-05 4.5℃ 40℃ 20℃ 10℃ –12. A high strain is appeared cause the stiffness is lower and asphalt layers transfer higher stress to the UGL.5℃ Subgrade Strain (ε3) 4.0000E-05 0.0000E-04 1. At the higher temperature variations can change the asphalt binder rheology.6000E-04 1.Q3 UGL σ3 60.5000E-04 1.2000E-04 1.8000E-04 1.5000E-04 3.0000E-05 2. .0000E+00 40℃ 20℃ 10℃ –12.0 40℃ 20℃ 10℃ –12.0 10.0000E-04 5.0 40.

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