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Mathematics Syllabus for secondary schools

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MATHEMATICS

**Curriculum Development Centre
**

Ministry of Education Malaysia

2004

namely Mathematics for primary schools. and develop higher order problem solving and decision making skills to enable pupils to cope with daily life (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP. The Malaysian towards this initiative. Mathematics for secondary schools provides opportunities for pupils to acquire mathematical knowledge and skills. The policy to change the medium of instruction for Science and Mathematics subjects follows a phased implementation schedule and is expected to be completed by 2008. AMP) challenges. Mathematics and Additional Mathematics for secondary schools. competency and inculcate positive attitudes towards mathematics among pupils. improve . As with other subjects in the secondary school curriculum. provide greater opportunities for pupils to improve their knowledge and skills in mathematics because of the richness of resources and repositories of knowledge in English. Beginning 2003. Mathematics taught in English. The Malaysian school mathematics curriculum aims to develop mathematical knowledge. Pupils will be better able to interact with pupils from other countries. In the teaching and learning of Mathematics. English is used as the medium of instruction for Science and Mathematics subjects.PREFACE their proficiency in English. On behalf of the Curriculum instrumental in the development of scientific and technological Development Centre. Director Mathematics aims to inculcate noble values and love for the nation in Curriculum Development Centre the development of a holistic person. coupled with the use of ICT. and thus make the learning of mathematics more interesting and exciting. school curriculum offers three mathematics education programs. the provision of quality mathematics education from an appreciation to those who have contributed in one way or another early age in the education process is thus important. who in turn will be able to Ministry of Education contribute to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. Science and technology plays a critical role in realising Malaysia’s The development of this Mathematics syllabus is the work of many aspiration to become a developed nation. Malaysia. Since mathematics is individuals and experts in the field. the use of technology especially ICT is greatly emphasised. I would like to express much gratitude and knowledge.

spiritually. the society and the nation at large. based on a firm belief in God. • to maintaining a democratic way of life. who • BELIEF IN GOD possess high moral standards. and who are • LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY responsible and capable of achieving a high • UPHOLDING THE CONSTITUTION level of personal well-being as well as being • RULE OF LAW able to contribute to the betterment of the • GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY family. physically balanced and harmonious. MALAYSIA. • to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort shall be equitably shared. emotionally and to modern science and technology. her peoples. pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles: designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent. towards further developing the potential of • to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse individuals in a holistic and integrated cultural traditions. . manner so as to produce individuals who are • to building a progressive society which shall be oriented intellectually. RUKUNEGARA DECLARATION OUR NATION. Such an effort is WE. being dedicated • to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples.

context throughout the teaching and learning of mathematics. To teachers. Together with these. Acquainting pupils with the life-history of well-known development and communication ability of pupils. infused curriculum provides opportunities to pupils from various backgrounds throughout the teaching and learning process. subsequently present information clearly and precisely. measurement. Technology used in the teaching and systematically in solving problems and making decisions. In giving opinions and solving problems either orally or in writing. diagrams. to enable them to make effective decisions. The intrinsic values of mathematics namely thinking systematically. thoroughly. and see the relevance of mathematics in daily life. solve problems and communicate mathematically. The development of mathematical Importance is also placed on the appreciation of the inherent beauty of reasoning is believed to be closely linked to the intellectual mathematics. Hence. tools to enhance the teaching and learning process and not to replace and hence contributes to the holistic development of the individual. the skills of Research & Development in mathematics deviation from the original meaning. build and evaluate mathematics conjectures to appreciate mathematics. Pupils are trained to select information presented in the demands of a progressive nation. and statements. contribute to the and levels of abilities to acquire mathematical skills and knowledge. In line with the nation’s objective to create a knowledge. In keeping with the National Education Philosophy. will go a long way in motivating pupils enable pupils to recognize. strategies to solve problems are widely used in the teaching and learning of mathematics. this end. this field assumes its mathematical and non-mathematical language. and be creative in mathematics. graphs. the information of which is easily available reasoning skills are also incorporated in the mathematics activities to from the Internet for example. pupils are guided in the correct usage of language and mathematics Mathematics is essential in preparing a workforce capable of meeting registers. Technology in education supports the mastery and achievement of the As a field of study. To avoid the areas to be continually seen as mathematics to cope with daily life challenges is integral to realising separate and pupils acquiring concepts and skills in isolation. efforts mathematics is linked to everyday life and experiences in and out of are taken to ensure a society that assimilates mathematics into their school.INTRODUCTION The general Mathematics curriculum has often been seen to comprise of discrete areas related to counting. algebra A well-informed and knowledgeable society well versed in the use of and solving of problems. Pupils are nurtured from an early age with the skills to different contexts. is nurtured and developed at school level. Pupils will have the opportunity to apply mathematics in daily lives. the nation’s aspiration to become an industrialised nation. geometry. interpret and represent role as the driving force behind various developments in science and information in tables. moral values are also introduced in formulating alternatives and solutions when faced with challenges. . without any based economy. This learning of Mathematics. and technology. are to be regarded as discipline encourages meaningful learning and challenges the mind. equations or inequalities. moulding of character and the inculcation of positive attitudes towards Pupils are then able to seek relevant information. mathematics mathematicians or events. the Mathematics accurately. diligently and with confidence. Mathematics trains the mind to think logically and desired learning outcomes. Thus. As such. for example calculators.

In everyday situations. NUMBER. and theorems CONTENT ORGANISATION related to Number. acquiring skills. recognising the properties of shapes and working with • collecting and handling data. group work results. measurements (SHAPE and SPACE). Information gained from • solving problems. and homework helps in • making decisions. The mathematics curriculum for the secondary school enables pupils to: 1 understand definitions. and hence enables the provision of effectively aimed lessons. 9 inculcate a positive attitude towards mathematics. 4 communicate mathematically. and face the challenges in everyday 8 acquire mathematical knowledge and develop skills effectively life brought about by the advancement of science and technology. subtraction. needs the following: 3 acquire basic mathematical skills such as: • knowledge and skills related to numbers such as counting and computing (NUMBER). and effectiveness of the instructional activities. concepts.Assessment. 5 apply knowledge and skills of mathematics in solving problems AIM and making decisions. The use of good assessment data from a variety of sources also provides valuable information on the development and • recognising and representing relationship mathematically. Shape and Space. interrelated. that is. 6 relate mathematics with other areas of knowledge. and use them responsibly. RELATIONSHIP. On-going assessment built into the daily lessons • using algorithm and relationship. and multiplication and division related to Number. and apply 7 use suitable technologies in concept building. and Relationship. and responses to questions. mathematical knowledge effectively and responsibly in solving solving problems and exploring the field of mathematics. • knowledge and skills related to shapes and space such as • measuring and constructing. and OBJECTIVES 10 appreciate the importance and beauty of mathematics. . laws. progress of pupils. SHAPE and SPACE. in the form of tests and examinations helps to gauge • representing and interpreting data. improving the teaching process. The mathematics curriculum for secondary schools aims to develop individuals who are able to think mathematically. principles. an individual generally and Relationship. problems and making decisions. Shape and Space. The content of the curriculum is presented in three areas that are 2 widen the use of basic operations of addition. • making estimation and rounding. pupils’ achievement. allows the identification of pupils’ strengths and weaknesses.

1 Whole Numbers the teaching and learning process: (a) Place value of digits in whole numbers. and division involving fractions. rules. multiplication and steps namely interpreting the problem. (b) Place value of digits in decimals. carrying out the strategy. systematic and creative thinking skills (c) Mixed numbers. namely NUMBER. together with reasoning skills so as to produce an individual (d) Addition. . This area is a continuation of the primary school mathematics curriculum. • development of logical. and RELATIONSHIP followed by a 1. subtraction. of which contribute towards becoming a responsible citizen.4 Percentages list of topics that defines the scope for each area. the following areas require attention during 1. moderate and cooperative. (c) Rounding decimals. all versa. planning the strategy. subtraction. (b) Rounding whole numbers. and reflecting on the solution obtained so that pupils can effectively solve problems in daily 1. NUMBER principles. division involving whole numbers. multiplication and CONTENT division involving decimals. (a) Conversion of decimals to fractions and vice diligent.2 Fractions life. as well as the use of mathematics to solve problems in various situations. (a) Equivalent fractions. • development of problem solving skills that involves four main (c) Addition. confident.3 Decimals of Malaysian society which include being systematic. laws. multiplication and who is able to think logically and rationally. This section outlines the important elements in each area. • knowledge and skills related to patterns. subtraction. (c) The use of percentages in comparison. general 1. (d) Addition. The scope The teaching and learning of mathematics put emphasis on the of this area is as follows: understanding of concepts and the mastery of skills in the three areas stated above. accurate. SHAPE and SPACE. As such. and analyse and solve related problems. (a) Percentage and symbol. not wasteful. • inculcation of the intrinsic value of mathematics and the values 1. relations and others for the purpose of recognising and understanding relationships involving The understanding of numbers enables pupils to make calculations and numbers and shape (RELATIONSHIP) estimates. (b) Increase and decrease of a certain quantity in terms of percentage. (b) Proper and improper fractions.

(b) Square roots. (g) Properties of angles related to parallel lines.1 Basic Measurements multiple. 1. (a) Length. (c) Common multiples and the lowest common 2. (a) Types of polygons.2 Lines and Angles (a) Squares. (b) Unit of measurement of angles. (c) Addition. (c) Conversion of numbers in base 2.1. mathematics curriculum. 5 and 8. (d) Cube roots. 8. (a) Numbers in base 2. (d) Factors and prime factors. Knowledge and skills in this area and their (d) Addition. (d) Intersecting lines. (b) Integers. 1. Shape and space is an important component in the secondary school (c) Negative fractions and negative decimals. (b) Multiples. (a) Angles. (e) Common factors and the highest common factor. (b) Numbers in standard form. Square Roots. 5. (f) Properties of angles related to quadrilaterals. (b) Place value of digits in numbers in base 2. (d) Properties of angles related to triangles.7 Squares. 1. (c) Cubes. subtraction. SHAPE and SPACE (a) The + and − signs in numbers. The scope is as 1. (b) Line symmetry. (e) Properties of angles related to intersecting lines. geometry. 5 and (e) Types of quadrilaterals. Cubes and Cube Roots 2. (b) Mass.8 Standard Form (f) Parallel lines. (a) Significant figures. .6 Multiples and Factors follows: (a) Prime numbers. (h) Properties of angles related to regular polygons.5 Negative Numbers 2.3 Polygons division involving numbers in standard form. Improving division involving negative and positive understanding in this area helps pupils to effectively solve problems in numbers. 8 and 10 (g) Regular polygons. (c) Types of angles.9 Number Bases (c) Types of triangles. subtraction. multiplication and 2. from one base to another. (c) Time. pupils can also improve their visual skills and appreciate the aesthetic value of shapes and space. multiplication and application in related topics is useful in everyday life. At the same time.

5 Geometrical Construction 2. (b) Distance along a meridian and along a parallel of latitude. 2. (f) Properties of angles related to tangents to a circle. 2. (b) Nets.12 Angle of Elevation and Angle of Depression (a) Angle of elevation. 2. 2. cosine and tangent of an angle. (a) Locus of a moving point satisfying a condition.9 Pythagoras’ Theorem (a) Perimeter.8 Geometric Solids (c) Front and side elevations of solids.11 Bearings 2. (a) Types of geometric solids. 2.15 Earth as a Sphere (c) Surface area of geometric solids. right-angled triangles) (b) Scale drawing. 2. (e) Tangents to a circle. (a) Orthogonal Projections. an angle. (a) Pythagoras’ theorem. (b) Converse of the Pythagoras’ theorem. (d) Nautical mile and knot. (a) The circle and its parts. perpendicular bisector. quadrilaterals. (b) Bearings. (d) Volume. a perpendicular to a line. a triangle.14 Plan and Elevation (g) Common tangents to circles.4 Perimeter and Area 2. (a) Longitudes and latitudes.7 Circles (b) Angle of depression. (b) Two-dimensional locus of a point satisfying more than one condition. (b) Plans of solids. (c) Angle between two intersecting planes. (a) Normal to a plane and the projection of a line (d) Properties of angles related to circles and cyclic onto a plane. (b) Area of triangles and quadrilaterals. 2. 2. . a (a) Measurement of angles in degrees and minutes. an angle bisector.10 Trigonometry (a) Construction of a line segment.13 Lines and Planes in Three Dimensions (c) Area of a circle and area of a sector.2. (b) Circumference and arc length. (b) Angle between a line and a plane.6 Loci in Two Dimensions (a) Compass directions. parallel lines and a (c) Solution of triangles (based on the solution of parallelogram. (c) Shortest distance on the earth’s surface. (b) Sine.

3. The expression of the relationship in these forms becomes useful and an effective tool in 3. Therefore. RELATIONSHIP (b) Simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns.16 Transformation 3. division involving algebraic fractions. multiplication and 3. The scope of learning is as (a) The expression ax2 + bx + c. (e) Expansion and factorisation. alphabet. multiplication and (b) Graphs of functions. (c) Simultaneous linear equations in one unknown.2 Algebraic Expressions (b) Distance between two points. (g) Addition.9 Graphs of Functions (f) Algebraic fractions.3 Algebraic Formulae (a) Types of transformations − translation. a graph. (c) Subject of a formula. 3. follows: (b) Factorisation of a quadratic expression.4 Linear Equations (a) Linear equations in one unknown. The relationships between several quantities can often be found in 3. rotation and enlargement. basic necessity. (b) Algebraic formulae.5 Linear Inequalities daily life. an equation or an inequality. subtraction. (c) Similar shapes. (d) Parallel straight lines. expressions. (d) Addition and subtraction involving algebraic (c) The equation of a straight line y = mx + c. 2. > and >. <. (b) The intercepts on the x-axis and the y-axis. (b) Isometry and congruence. (a) Variables and their representations by letters of reflection.1 Indices (c) Quadratic equations. a formula. 3. . (c) Algebraic expressions.8 The Straight Line division involving algebraic terms. (a) Introduction to indices. (b) Addition. (a) Representation of unknown by a letter of the (c) Mid-point between two points. subtraction. (a) Functions.6 Quadratic Expressions and Equations problem solving and communication. the handling of relationships such as recognizing (a) The symbols <.7 Coordinates (a) The Cartesian coordinate system. a formula or a law and making generalisations of a situation becomes a (b) Linear inequalities in one unknown. 3. 3. the alphabet. (b) The laws of indices. A relationship can be expressed in the form of a table. (a) The gradient of a straight line. 3. (d) Combination of transformations.

(a) Direct variation. “if and only if”.17 Probability (b) Equal matrices. (f) Measures of central tendency: mode. (d) Histogram and frequency polygon. “some”. (d) The probability of complementary events. (c) Direct proportion. (c) Quantifiers . (a) Collection of data. 3. pie chart and line graph. 3.12 Variations (e) Cumulative frequency and the ogive. (a) Introduction to logic. 3. (e) Combined events. the empty set. (c) The solution of an equation by graphical 3. involving matrices. (g) Deduction and induction. frequency tables and class intervals. modus ponens and (b) Quantity represented by the area under a graph. (c) Joint variation.“all”. (a) Sample spaces.13 Matrices (a) Introduction to matrices. 3.10 Gradient and the Area under a Graph (e) Implications . “or”. 3. mean and (b) Inverse variation. modus tollens. “not”. (d) Rate. (g) Measures of dispersion: range and inter-quartile range. (c) The probability of an event. 3. (a) Quantity represented by the gradient of a graph.syllogism. median. (c) Addition. . (c) Pictograph.11 Ratios and Proportions (a) The ratio of two quantities. (d) Operations on statements .16 Statistics (b) The ratio of three quantities. (e) The 2 × 2 inverse matrix.“and”. (b) Equal sets. variables. bar chart. 3. (f) Arguments . the universal set and the complement of a set.14 Sets (a) Introduction to sets. (d) The region representing an inequality in two (b) Statements. (c) Operations on sets. (f) Solution of simultaneous linear equations in two (f) The probability of combined events.15 Mathematical Reasoning method. unknowns by the matrix method. (d) The 2 × 2 identity matrix.“if”. (b) Frequency. subtraction and multiplication (b) Events. subsets.

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