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Chapter 34 Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

Conceptual Problems

1 •

observed by (a) the Young double-slit experiment, (b) diffraction of light by a small aperture, (c) the photoelectric effect, (d) the J. J. Thomson cathode-ray

experiment.

[SSM]

The quantized character of electromagnetic radiation is

Determine the Concept The Young double-slit experiment and the diffraction of light by a small aperture demonstrated the wave nature of electromagnetic radiation. J. J. Thomson’s experiment showed that the rays of a cathode-ray tube were deflected by electric and magnetic fields and therefore must consist of electrically charged particles. Only the photoelectric effect requires an

explanation based on the quantization of electromagnetic radiation.

correct. (c)

is

2 ••

photons per second. The wavelength of A is λ A = 400 nm, and the wavelength of B is λ B = 600 nm. The power radiated by source B (a) is equal to the power of source A, (b) is less than the power of source A, (c) is greater than the power of source A, (d) cannot be compared to the power from source A using the available data.

Two monochromatic light sources, A and B, emit the same number of

B

Determine the Concept Since the power radiated by a source is the energy radiated per unit area and per unit time, it is directly proportional to the energy. The energy radiated varies inversely with the wavelength ( E = hc λ ); i.e., the longer the wavelength, the less energy is associated with the electromagnetic  (b)
is correct.
3 •
[SSM]
The work function of a surface is φ. The threshold

wavelength for emission of photoelectrons from the surface is equal to (a) hc/φ,

(b) φ/hf, (c) hf/φ, (d) none of above.

Determine the Concept The work function is equal to the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the material. A photon that has that energy also has the threshold wavelength required for photoemission. Thus, hf = φ . In

addition, c = fλ . It follows that hc

λ

t = φ

, so λ

t = hc φ and
(a)

is correct.

1

2

Chapter 34

4

cathode, no electrons are emitted, no matter how intense the incident light is. Yet,

when light of wavelength λ 2 < λ 1 is incident, electrons are emitted, even when the incident light has low intensity. Explain this observation.

••

When light of wavelength λ 1 is incident on a certain photoelectric

Determine the Concept We can use Einstein’s photoelectric equation to explain this observation.

Einstein’s photoelectric equation is:

K

max

= hf φ

where φ , called the work function, is a characteristic of the particular metal.

Because f = c/λ:

K max

=

hc

λ

φ

We’re given that when light of wavelength λ 1 is incident on a certain photoelectric cathode; no electrons are emitted independently of the intensity of the incident light. Hence, we can conclude that:

hc

λ

1

φ < 0

hc

λ

1

<

φ

When light of wavelength λ 2 < λ 1 is incident, electrons are emitted, electrons are emitted independently of the intensity of the incident light. Hence, we can conclude that:

hc

λ

2

φ > 0

hc

λ

2

>

φ Thus, photons with wavelengths greater than the threshold wavelength λ = c f , where f t is the threshold frequency, do not have enough energy to eject an electron from the metal.

t

t

 5 • True or false: (a) The wavelength of an electron’s matter wave varies inversely with the momentum of the electron. (b) Electrons can undergo diffraction. (c) Neutrons can undergo diffraction. (a) True. The de Broglie wavelength of an electron is given by λ = h p . (b) True

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

3

6 •

then (a) the speed of the proton is greater than the speed of the electron, (b) the speeds of the proton and the electron are equal, (c) the speed of the proton is less

than the speed of the electron, (d) the energy of the proton is greater than the energy of the electron, (e) Both (a) and (d) are correct.

If the wavelength of an electron is equal to the wavelength of a proton,

Determine the Concept If the de Broglie wavelengths of an electron and a proton

are equal, their momenta must be equal. Because m p > m e , v p < v e . (c)

is correct.

7 •

the wavelength of the proton is (a) greater than the wavelength of the electron, (b) equal to the wavelength of the electron, (c) less than the wavelength of the electron.

A proton and an electron have equal kinetic energies. It follows that

Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of a particle can be expressed, in

terms of its momentum, as K

energies and the fact that m e < m p to determine the relative sizes of their de Broglie wavelengths.

. We can use the equality of the kinetic

2

= p 2m

Express the equality of the kinetic energies of the proton and electron in terms of their momenta and masses:

Use the de Broglie relation for the wavelength of matter waves to obtain:

Because m e < m p : 2
p
2
p
p
e
=
2
m
2m
p
e
2
h
2 h
2
=
⇒ m λ
2
2
p
p
2
λ
2m λ
m p
p
e
e
2
2
λ
< λ
and
> λ
λ e
p
e
p
and
(c)
is correct.

2

= m λ

e

e

8 •

value of x, and P(x) is the probability density function. Can the expectation value

of x ever equal a value of x for which P(x) is zero? example. If no, explain why not.

The parameter x is the position of a particle, <x> is the expectation

If yes, give a specific Determine the Concept Yes. Consider a particle in a one-dimensional box of
length L that is on the x axis on the interval 0 <x L. The wave function for a
particle in the n = 2 state (the lowest state above the ground state) is given
2
by
ψ
2 (
x )
=
sin 2π
x ⎟ ⎞ (see Figure 31-13). The expectation value of x is L/2
L
L

4

Chapter 34

9

identical systems under the same conditions, the results must be identical. Explain how this statement can be modified so that it is consistent with quantum physics.

••

It was once believed that if two identical experiments are done on

Determine the Concept According to quantum theory, the average value of many measurements of the same quantity will yield the expectation value of that quantity. However, any single measurement may differ from the expectation value.

10 ••

numeral 2 painted on the other three sides. (a) What is the probability of a 1 coming up when the die is thrown? (b) What is the expectation value of the numeral that comes up when the die is thrown? (c) What is the expectation value of the cube of the numeral that comes up when the die is thrown?

A six-sided die has the numeral 1 painted on three sides and the

Determine the Concept The probability of a particular event occurring is the number of ways that event can occur divided by the number of possible outcomes. The expectation value, on the other hand, is the average value of the experimental results.

(a) Find the probability of a 1

coming up when the die is thrown:

(b) Find the average value of a large

number of throws of the die:

(c) The expectation value of the cube

of the numeral that comes up when the die is thrown is: 3
1
P 1
( )
=
=
6
2
3
×
1
+
3
×
n
=
2 =
1.5
6
3
3
3
×
1
+
3
×
2
n
=
= 4.5
6

Estimation and Approximation

11 ••

measure the Compton wavelength, λ C . The students obtain the following wavelength shifts λ 2 λ 1 as a function of scattering angle θ :

[SSM] During an advanced physics lab, students use X rays to

θ λ 2 λ 1

45º

0.647 pm

75º

1.67 pm

90º

2.45 pm

135º

3.98 pm

180º

4.95 pm

Use their data to estimate the value for the Compton wavelength. Compare this number with the accepted value.

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

5

Picture the Problem From the Compton-scattering equation we have

λ

2

λ

1

=

λ

C

(1

cosθ

) , where

λ C

= h m c

e

is the Compton wavelength. Note that

this equation is of the form y = mx + b provided we let y = λ 2 λ 1 and x = 1 cosθ. Thus, we can linearize the Compton equation by plotting

Δλ = λ

2

λ

1

as a function of 1cosθ . The slope of the resulting graph will yield

an experimental value for the Compton wavelength.

(a) The spreadsheet solution is shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows:

 Cell Formula/Content Algebraic Form A3 45 θ (deg) B3 1 − cos(A3*PI()/180) 1 − cosθ C3 6.47E^−13 Δλ = λ −λ 2 1
 θ 1− cosθ 2 −λ 1 λ (deg) 45 0.293 6.47E−13 75 0.741 1.67E−12 90 1.000 2.45E−12 135 1.707 3.98E−12 180 2.000 4.95E−12

The following graph was plotted from the data shown in the above table. Excel’s Add Trendlinewas used to fit a linear function to the data and to determine the regression constants. 6.0E-12
5.0E-12
Δλ = a(1 − cosθ) + b
− 12
a =
2.48
×
10
m
4.0E-12
− 13
b
= −
1.03
×
10
m
3.0E-12
2.0E-12
1.0E-12
0.0E+00
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Δλ, m

1 cosθ

6 Chapter 34

From the trend line we note that the experimental value for the Compton wavelength λ C,exp is:

The Compton wavelength is given by:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ C :

Express the percent difference between λ C and λ C,exp : λ
=
2.48pm
C,exp
h hc
λ
=
=
C
2
m c
m c
e
e
1240 eV nm
λ
=
= 2.43pm
C
5
5.11
×
10 eV
λ
− λ
C,exp
exp
λ C,exp
% diff
=
=
λ exp
λ exp
2.48pm
=
1 ≈
2%
2.43pm

1

12 ••

constant h, using a photoelectric apparatus similar to the one shown in Figure 34-

2. The students are using a helium–neon laser that has a tunable wavelength as the light source. The data that the students obtain for the maximum electron kinetic energies are

Students in a physics lab are trying to determine the value of Planck’s

λ

K max

 544 nm 594 nm 604 nm 612 nm 633 nm 0.360 eV 0.199 eV 0.156 eV 0.117 eV 0.062 eV

(a) Using a spreadsheet program or graphing calculator, plot K max versus light

frequency. (b) Use the graph to estimate the value of Planck’s constant. (Note:

You may wish to use a feature of your spreadsheet program or graphing calculator to obtain the best straight-line fit to the data.) (c) Compare your result with the accepted value for Planck’s constant.

Picture the Problem From Einstein’s photoelectric equation we have

K max

= hf φ , which is of the form y = mx + b , where the slope is h and the K max -

intercept is the work function. Hence we should plot a graph of K max versus f in order to obtain a straight line whose slope will be an experimental value for Planck’s constant.

(a) The spreadsheet solution is shown below. The formulas used to calculate the

quantities in the columns are as follows:

 Cell Formula/Content Algebraic Form A3 544 λ (nm) B3 0.36 K max (eV)

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

7

 C3 A3*10^−19 λ (m) D3 3*10^8/C3 c/λ E3 B3*1.6*10^−19 K max (J)
 λ K max λ f = c/λ K max (nm) (eV) (m) (Hz) (J) 544 0.36 5.44E−07 5.51E+14 5.76E−20 594 0.199 5.94E−07 5.05E+14 3.18E−20 604 0.156 6.04E−07 4.97E+14 2.50E−20 612 0.117 6.12E−07 4.90E+14 1.87E−20 633 0.062 6.33E−07 4.74E+14 9.92E−21

The following graph was plotted from the data shown in the above table. Excel’s Add Trendlinewas used to fit a linear function to the data and to determine the regression constants.

7.E-20 6.E-20
=
af
+
b
K max
34
a =
6.19
×
10
J
s
5.E-20
− 19
b = −
2.83
×
10
J
4.E-20
3.E-20
2.E-20
1.E-20
0.E+00
4.6E+14
4.8E+14
5.0E+14
5.2E+14
5.4E+14
5.6E+14
max (J)K

(b) From the trend line we note that

the experimental value for Planck’s constant is:

(c) Express the percent difference

between h exp and h:

f (Hz) − 34
=
6.19
×
10
J
s
h exp
h
h
h
exp
exp
% diff
=
=
1
h
h
− 34
6.19
×
10
J
s
=
1
6.6%
− 34
6.63
×
10
J
s

8

Chapter 34

13

in Problem 12 is constructed from one of the following metals:

••

The cathode that was used by the students in the experiment described

 Metals Tungsten Silver Potassium Cesium Work function 4.58 eV 2.4 eV 2.1 eV 1.9 eV

Determine which metal composes the cathode by using the same data given in Problem 12. (a) Using a spreadsheet program or graphing calculator, plot K max versus frequency. (b) Use the graph to estimate the value of the work function based on the students’ data. (Note: You may wish to use a feature of your spreadsheet program or graphing calculator to obtain the best straight-line fit to the data.) (c) Which metal was most likely used for the cathode in their experiment?

Picture the Problem From Einstein’s photoelectric equation we have

K max

= hf φ , which is of the form y = mx + b , where the slope is h and the

K max -intercept is the work function. Hence we should plot a graph of K max versus f in order to obtain a straight line whose intercept will be an experimental value for the work function.

(a) The spreadsheet solution is shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows:

 Cell Formula/Content Algebraic Form A3 544 λ (nm) B3 0.36 K max (eV) C3 A3*10^−19 λ (m) D3 3*10^8/C3 c/λ E3 B3*1.6*10^−19 K max (J)
 λ K max λ f = c/λ K max (nm) (eV) (m) (Hz) (J) 544 0.36 5.44E−07 5.51E+14 5.76E−20 594 0.199 5.94E−07 5.05E+14 3.18E−20 604 0.156 6.04E−07 4.97E+14 2.50E−20 612 0.117 6.12E−07 4.90E+14 1.87E−20 633 0.062 6.33E−07 4.74E+14 9.92E−21

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

9

The following graph was plotted from the data shown in the above table. Excel’s Add Trendlinewas used to fit a linear function to the data and to determine the regression constants.

7.E-20 6.E-20
=
af
+
b
K max
34
a =
6.19
×
10
J
s
5.E-20
− 19
b = −
2.83
×
10
J
4.E-20
3.E-20
2.E-20
1.E-20
0.E+00
4.6E+14
4.8E+14
5.0E+14
5.2E+14
5.4E+14
5.6E+14
f (Hz)
(b) From the trend line we note that
1eV
− 19
=
2.83
×
10
J
×
φ exp
− 19
the experimental value for the work
function φ is:
1.602
× 10
J
=
1.77 eV
max (J)K

(c) The value of φ exp = 1.77 eV is closest to the work function for cesium

.

The Particle Nature of Light: Photons

14 •

(a) 450 nm, (b) 550 nm, and (c) 650 nm.

Find the photon energy in electron volts for light of wavelength

Picture the Problem We can use E = hc/λ to find the photon energy when we are given the wavelength of the radiation.

(a) Express the photon energy as a

function of wavelength and evaluate E for λ = 450 nm:

(b) For λ = 550 nm:

E =

E = hc
1240 eV nm =
=
2.76 eV
λ 450 nm
1240 eV nm =
2.25 eV
550 nm

10

Chapter 34

(c) For λ = 650 nm:

E = 1240 eV nm =
1.91eV
650 nm

15

of frequency (a) 100 MHz in the FM radio band and (b) 900 kHz in the AM radio band.

Find the photon energy in electron volts for an electromagnetic wave

Picture the Problem We can find the photon energy for an electromagnetic wave of a given frequency f from E = hf where h is Planck’s constant.

( a ) For f = 100 MHz:

( b ) For f = 900 kHz:

E

E (
34
)(
6
1
= hf =
6.626
×
10
J
s
100
×
10
s
1eV
26
=
6.626
×
10
J
×
19
1.602
×
10
J
7
=
4.14
×
10
eV
(
34
)(
3
1
= hf =
6.626
×
10
J
s
900
×
10
s
1eV
− 28
= ×
5.963
10
J
×
19 J
1.602
× 10
9
= eV
3.72
×
10

16 •

(a) 1.00 eV, (b) 1.00 keV, and (c) 1.00 MeV?

What are the frequencies of photons that have the following energies

)

)

Picture the Problem The energy of a photon, in terms of its frequency, is given by E=hf.

(a) Express the frequency of a

photon in terms of its energy and evaluate f for E = 1.00 eV:

 (b) For E = 1.00 keV: (c) For E = 1.00 MeV:

f =

f

f

=

=

=

=

=

E 1.00eV =
− 15
h 4.136
×
10
eV
s
2.42
× 10
14 Hz

1.00 keV

 4.136 × 15 10 − eV ⋅ s 2.42 × 10 17 Hz 1.00 MeV 4.136 × 15 10 − eV ⋅ s 2.42 × 10 20 Hz

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

11

17 •

(a) 0.100 nm (about 1 atomic diameter) and (b) 1.00 fm (1 fm = 10 15 m, about 1

nuclear diameter).

Find the photon energy in electron volts if the wavelength is

Picture the Problem We can use E = hc/λ to find the photon energy when we are given the wavelength of the radiation.

The energy of a photon as a function of its wavelength is given by:

(a) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E for λ = 0.100 nm:

(b) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E for λ =1.00 fm = 1.00 × hc
E
=
λ
1240 eV nm =
E
=
12.4 keV
0.100 nm
1240 eV nm
E
=
=
1.24 GeV
− 6
1.00
×
10
nm
 10 −6 nm: 18 •• The wavelength of red light emitted by a 3.00-mW helium–neon laser

is 633 nm. If the diameter of the laser beam is 1.00 mm, what is the density of

photons in the beam? Assume that the intensity is uniformly distributed across the beam.

Picture the Problem We can express the density of photons in the beam as the number of photons per unit volume. The number of photons per unit volume is, in turn, the ratio of the power of the laser to the energy of the photons and the volume occupied by the photons emitted in one second is the product of the cross- sectional area of the beam and the speed at which the photons travel, i.e., the speed of light.

Express the density of photons in the beam as a function of the number of photons emitted per second and the volume occupied by those photons:

Relate the number of photons emitted per second to the power of the laser and the energy of the photons:

Express the volume containing the photons emitted in one second as a function of the cross sectional area of the beam:

ρ =

N =

N

V

P

P

λ

=

E

hc

V = Ac

12 Chapter 34

Substitute for N and V and simplify to obtain:

ρ =

 P λ = P λ = 4 P λ hc 2 A hc 2 ( π 4 d 2 ) hc π 2 d 2

where d is the diameter of the laser beam.

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ρ:

ρ

4

(

3.00 mW

)(

633nm

)

= π

(

6.626

×

10

34

J

s

)(

2.998

×

8

10 m/s

)

2

(

1.00 mm

)

2

=

4.06

× 10

13

m

3

19 •

produce light that has a wavelength near 1.55 μm. How many photons per second are being transmitted if such a laser has an output power of 2.50 mW?

[SSM]

Lasers used in a telecommunications network typically

Picture the Problem The number of photons per second is the ratio of the power of the laser to the energy of the photons.

Relate the number of photons emitted per second to the power of the laser and the energy of the photons:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate N:

N

N

=

=

=

P

P

P

λ

=

=

E

hc

hc

λ

(

)(

2.50 mW 1.55

m

μ

)

×

10

34

10

16

s

J

1

s

×

8

10 m/s

(

)(

)

6.626

1.95

×

2.998

The Photoelectric Effect

20 •

frequency and wavelength for the photoelectric effect to occur when monochromatic electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface of a sample of tungsten. Find the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons if the wavelength of the incident light is (b) 200 nm and (c) 250 nm.

The work function for tungsten is 4.58 eV. (a) Find the threshold

Picture the Problem The threshold wavelength and frequency for emission of photoelectrons is related to the work function of a metal through φ = hf = hc λ . hc

We can use Einstein’s photoelectric equation t

t

K max

=

λ

φ

to find the maximum

kinetic energy of the electrons for the given wavelengths of the incident light.

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

13

(a) Express the threshold frequency

in terms of the work function for

tungsten and evaluate f t :

Using c = fλ, express the threshold wavelength in terms of the threshold frequency and evaluate λ t :

(b) Using Einstein’s photoelectric

equation, relate the maximum kinetic

energy of the electrons to their wavelengths and evaluate K max :

(c)

Evaluate K max for λ = 250 nm:

f

t

λ t

K

K

=

=

=

max

max

φ 4.58eV =
− 15
h 4.136
×
10
eV
s
1.107
×
10
15 Hz
=
1.11
× 10
15 Hz
8
c 2.998
× 10 m/s
=
= 271nm
f
1.107
× 10
15 Hz
t
hc
=
E
φ
=
hf
φ
=
−φ
λ
1240 eV nm
=
4.58 eV
200 nm
=
1.62 eV
1240 eV nm
=
− 4.58eV
250 nm
=
0.380 eV

21

300 nm is incident on a sample of potassium, the emitted electrons have maximum kinetic energy of 2.03 eV. (a) What is the energy of an incident photon? (b) What is the work function for potassium? (c) What would be the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons if the incident electromagnetic radiation had a wavelength of 430 nm? (d) What is the maximum wavelength of incident electromagnetic radiation that will result in the photoelectric emission of electrons by a sample of potassium?

When monochromatic ultraviolet light that has a wavelength equal to

Picture the Problem (a) We can use the Einstein equation for photon energy to find the energy of an incident photon. (b) and (c) We can use the photoelectric equation to relate the work function for potassium to the maximum energy of the photoelectrons. (d) The maximum wavelength of incident electromagnetic

radiation that will result in the photoelectric emission of electrons can be found

from λ t =

hc φ .

(a) Use the Einstein equation for

photon energy to relate the energy of

the incident photon to its wavelength:

E = hc
1240 eV nm =
=
4.13 eV
λ 300 nm

14

Chapter 34

(b)

equation, relate the work function for potassium to the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons:

Using Einstein’s photoelectric

Solve for and evaluate φ:

(c) Proceeding as in (b) with E = hc λ gives:

(d) Express the maximum

wavelength as a function of potassium’s work function and evaluate λ t : = E −φ
K max
φ = E − K
=
4.13eV
2.03eV
max
=
2.10 eV
hc
=
−φ
K max
λ
1240eV nm
=
− 2.10eV
430 nm
=
0.78eV
hc
1240 eV nm
λ
=
=
= 590 nm
t
φ
2.10 eV

22 •

in the photoelectric emission of electrons from a sample of silver is 262 nm.

(a) Find the work function for silver. (b) Find the maximum kinetic energy of the

electrons if the incident radiation has a wavelength of 175 nm.

The maximum wavelength of electromagnetic radiation that will result

Picture the Problem (a) We can find the work function for silver using φ = hc λ and (b) the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons using Einstein’s t

photoelectric equation.

(a) Express the work function for

silver as a function of the maximum wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation that will result in photoelectric emission of electrons:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate φ :

φ

=

φ = hc
λ
t
1240 eV nm =
4.73eV
262 nm

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

15

(b) Using Einstein’s photoelectric

equation, relate the work function for

silver to the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate K max :

K

max

K max

=

=

= hc
E
−φ =
φ
λ
1240eV nm
− 4.73eV
175nm
2.36eV

23 •

frequency and maximum wavelength of electromagnetic radiation that will result in the photoelectric emission of electrons from a sample of cesium. Find the

maximum kinetic energy of the electrons if the wavelength of the incident radiation is (b) 250 nm and (c) 350 nm.

The work function for cesium is 1.90 eV. (a) Find the minimum

Picture the Problem We can find the minimum frequency and maximum wavelength for cesium using φ = hf = hc λ and the maximum kinetic energy of

t t

the electrons using Einstein’s photoelectric equation.

(a) Use the Einstein equation for

photon energy to express the maximum wavelength for cesium:

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate

λ :

t

Use c = fλ to find the maximum frequency:

(b) Using Einstein’s photoelectric

equation, relate the maximum kinetic

energy of the photoelectrons to the wavelength of the incident light:

Evaluating K max for λ = 250 nm gives: hc
λ
=
t
φ
1240 eV nm
λ
=
= 653 nm
t
1.90 eV
8
c 2.998
×
10 m/s
f
=
=
t
λ
653nm
t
=
4.59
× 10
14 Hz
hc
=
φ
K max
λ

K

max

=

= 1240 eV nm
250 nm
3.06eV

1.90eV

16 Chapter 34

(c) Proceed as in Part (b) with λ = 350 nm to obtain:

K

max

=

= 1240
eV nm
350 nm
1.64 eV

1.90

eV

24 ••

wavelength 780 nm, the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is 0.37 eV. What is the maximum kinetic energy if the surface is illuminated using radiation of wavelength 410 nm?

When a surface is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation of

Picture the Problem We can use Einstein’s photoelectric equation to find the work function of this surface and then apply it a second time to find the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons when the surface is illuminated with light of wavelength 410 nm.

Use Einstein’s photoelectric equation to relate the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electrons to their total energy and the work function of the surface:

K max

=

hc

λ

φ (1)

The work function of the surface is given by:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate φ:

Substitute for φ and λ in equation (1) and evaluate K max :

φ

= E K

max

=

hc

K

λ max 1240eV
⋅ nm −
φ =
0.37 eV
780 nm
1240
eV nm
K
=
1.22
max
410 nm
=
1.80 eV

=

1.22eV

eV

Compton Scattering

25 •

electrons at θ = 60°. (Assume that the electrons are initially moving with negligible speed and are virtually free of (unattached to) any atoms or molecules.)

Find the shift in wavelength of photons scattered by free stationary

Picture the Problem We can calculate the shift in wavelength using the Compton

relationship

=

h

Δ

λ

(1

cosθ )

.

m c

e

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

17 The shift in wavelength is given by:
h
Δ
λ =
(1
cosθ )
m
c
e
Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δλ:
34
6.626
×
10
J
s
Δ
λ
=
1
cos60
°
)
=
1.2 pm
(
− 31
)(
8
) (
9.109
×
10
kg
2.998
×
10 m/s

26 •

shift in wavelength is 0.33 pm. Find the scattering angle. (Assume that the electrons are initially moving with negligible speed and are virtually free of

(unattached to) any atoms or molecules.)

When photons are scattered by electrons in a carbon sample, the

Picture the Problem We can calculate the scattering angle using the Compton

relationship

=

h

Δ

λ

(1

cosθ )

.

m

e

c

Using the Compton scattering equation, relate the shift in wavelength to the scattering angle:

Solving for θ yields:

Δ

θ

λ

=

=

h

m c

e

cos

1

(1

1

cosθ )

m c

e

h

Δ

λ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ :

θ

= cos

1 (
− 31
8
)(
9.109
×
10
kg 2.998
×
10 m/s
) (
1
0.33pm
)
⎟ =
30
°
34
6.626
×
10
J
s

27 •

wavelength of the photons that are scattered at an angle of 135° with the direction of the incident photon beam is 2.3 percent less than the wavelength of the incident photons. What is the wavelength of the incident photons?

The photons in a monochromatic beam are scattered by electrons. The

Picture the Problem We can calculate the shift in wavelength using the Compton

relationship

=

h

Δ

λ

(1

cosθ )

.

m

e

c

Express the wavelength of the incident photons in terms of the fractional change in wavelength:

Δλ

λ

= 0.023

λ

=

Δ

λ

0.023

18 Chapter 34

Using the Compton scattering equation, relate the shift in wavelength to the scattering angle:

Substituting for Δλ yields:

Δ

λ

λ

=

=

h

m c

e

(1

cosθ )

h

0.023 m c

e

(1

cosθ )

Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ:

λ

=

6.626

×

10

)(

J

s

34

) (

(

×

10

31

×

8

10 m/s

)(

0.023 9.109

kg 2.998

1

cos135

°

)

=

0.18nm

28 •

energy of one of these photons? (b) What is the wavelength of the photons scattered in the direction opposite to the direction of the incident photons?

(c) What is the energy of the photon scattered in this direction?

Compton used photons of wavelength 0.0711 nm. (a) What is the

Picture the Problem We can use the Einstein equation for photon energy to find the energy of both the incident and scattered photon and the Compton scattering equation to find the wavelength of the scattered photon. (a) Use the Einstein equation for
hc
1240
eV nm
E =
=
=
17.4 keV
photon energy to obtain:
λ
0.0711nm
1
(b) Express the wavelength of the
h
λ
=
λ
+ Δ
λ
=
λ
+
(1
− cosθ )
2
1
1
scattered photon in terms of its pre-
scattering wavelength and the shift in
its wavelength during scattering:
m c
e
Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ 2 :
− 34
6.626
×
10
J
s
λ
=
0.0711nm
+
1
cos180
°
)
=
0.0760 nm
2
(
− 31
)(
8
) (
9.109
×
10
kg
2.998
×
10 m/s

(c) Use the Einstein equation for

photon energy to obtain:

E = hc
1240
eV nm
=
=
16.3 keV
λ
0.0760 nm
2

29 •

momentum of the incident photon and the momentum of the photon scattered in

the direction opposite to the direction of the incident photons. Use the

For the photons used by Compton (see Problem 28), find the

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

19

conservation of momentum to find the momentum of the recoil electron in this case.

Picture the Problem Compton used X rays of wavelength 71.1 pm. Let the direction the incident photon (and the recoiling electron) is moving be the positive direction. We can use p = h/λ to find the momentum of the incident photon and the conservation of momentum to find its momentum after colliding with the electron.

Use the expression for the momentum of a photon to find the momentum of Compton’s photons:

Using the Compton scattering equation, relate the shift in wavelength to the scattering angle: − 34
h 6.626
×
10
J
s
p
=
1 =
λ 1 71.1pm
− 24
=
9.32
×
10
kg m/s
λ
= λ
+
λ
(1
− cosθ )
2
1
C

Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ 2 :

λ

2

=

71.1pm

+

(2.43

×

10

12

m)(1

cos180

)

° = 76.0 pm Apply conservation of momentum
to obtain:
p
1 = p
− p
⇒ p
= p
− p
e
2
e
1
2
Substitute for p 1 and p 2 and evaluate p e :
34
6.626
×
10
J
− 24
− 23
p
= 9.32
×
10
kg ⋅ m/s
s ⎞ ⎟ =
1.80
×
10
kg m/s
e
76.0pm

30 ••

electrons initially at rest. A photon in the beam is scattered in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the incident beam. (a) What is the change in wavelength of the photon? (b) What is the kinetic energy of the electron?

A beam of photons have a wavelength equal to 6.00 pm is scattered by

Picture the Problem We can calculate the shift in wavelength using the Compton

relationship

=

h

Δ

λ

(1

cosθ )(λ

=

C

1

cosθ ) and use conservation of energy to

m c

e

find the kinetic energy of the scattered electron.

20 Chapter 34

(a) Use the Compton scattering

equation to find the change in wavelength of the photon:

Δ

λ

=

=

=

λ

C

(

1

(

2.43

×

cos

10

θ

12

)

m

)(

1

2.43 pm

cos90

°

)

(b) Use conservation of energy to

relate the change in the kinetic

energy of the electron to the energies of the incident and scattered photon:

Find the wavelength of the scattered photon:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the kinetic energy of the electron (equal to the change in its energy since it was stationary prior to the collision with the photon):

Electrons and Matter Waves hc
hc
ΔE
=
e λ
λ
1
2
= λ + Δλ =
6.00 pm
+
2.43pm
λ 2
1
= 8.43pm
1
1
ΔE
=
1240eV ⋅ nm ⎜
e
6.00pm
8.43pm
=
60 keV

31 •

wavelength.

An electron is moving at 2.5 × 10 5 m/s. Find the electron’s de Broglie

Picture the Problem We can use its definition to find the de Broglie wavelength of this electron.

Use its definition to express the de Broglie wavelength of the electron in terms of its momentum:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ:

λ =

h h

=

p

m v

e

λ

6.626

×

10

34

J

s

=

×

= 2.9nm

10

31

kg

×

5

10 m/s

(

)(

)

9.109

2.5

32 •

momentum and (b) its kinetic energy.

An electron has a wavelength of 200 nm. Find (a) the magnitude of its

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

21

Picture the Problem We can find the momentum of the electron from the de

Broglie equation and its kinetic energy from λ =

1.226 K

nm

, where K is in eV.

(a) Use the de Broglie relation to

express the momentum of the

electron:

(b) Use the electron wavelength

equation to relate the electron’s wavelength to its kinetic energy:

Solving for K gives: − 34
h 6.626
×
10
J
s
p =
=
λ 200nm
− 27
=
3.31
×
10
kg m/s
1.226
λ =
nm
2
1 2
K = ⎛ ⎜ 1.226 eV
nm ⎞
200 nm
− 5
=
3.76
×
10
eV

33 ••

of 150 keV. Find (a) the magnitudes of their momenta and (b) their de Broglie wavelengths.

An electron, a proton, and an alpha particle each have a kinetic energy

Picture the Problem The momenta of these particles can be found from their kinetic energies. The values for the electron, however, are only approximately correct because at the given energy the speed of the electron is a significant fraction of the speed of light. The solution presented is valid only in the non- relativistic limit v << c. The de Broglie wavelengths of the particles are given by λ = h/p.

(a) The momentum of a particle p, in

terms of its kinetic energy K, is given by:

p = 2mK

Substitute numerical values and evaluate p e :

p e

 = 2 m K e = = 2.092 × 10 − 19
1.602
×
10
C ⎞
(
31
)
2 9.109
×
10
kg
150 keV
×
eV
22
22
N
s
=
2.09
×
10
N
s

22 Chapter 34

Substitute numerical values and evaluate p p : − 19
1.602
×
10
C ⎞
(
− 27
)
p
=
2
m K
=
2 1.673
×
10
kg
150keV
×
p
p
eV
21
21
=
8.967
×
10
N
s
=
8.97
×
10
N
s Substitute numerical values and evaluate p α :
27
19
1.661
×
10
kg
1.602
×
10
C ⎞
=
2
m
K
=
2
4u
×
⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 150keV ×
p α
α
u
eV
⎠ ⎝
20
20
=
1.787
×
10
N
s
=
1.79
×
10
N
s
(b) The de Broglie wavelengths of
the particles are given by:
h
λ =
(1)
p
− 34
Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate λ e :
h
6.626
× 10
J
s
λ
=
=
e
− 21
p
e 2.092
× 10
N
s
=
3.17 pm
− 34
Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate λ p :
h
6.626
× 10
J
s
λ
=
=
p
− 21
p
8.967
× 10
N
s
p
=
73.9fm
− 34
Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate λ α :
h 6.63
×
10
J
s
λ
=
=
α
− 20
p
α 1.79
×
10
N
s
=
37.0fm
34 •
A neutron in a reactor has kinetic energy of approximately 0.020 eV.

Calculate the wavelength of this neutron. Picture the Problem The wavelength associated with a particle of mass m and
1240 eV ⋅ nm
kinetic energy K is given by
λ =
.
2
2 mc K

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

23

Substituting numerical values yields:

λ = 1240eV nm
=
0.20 nm
2 (
940 MeV
)(
0.020eV
)

35 •

Find the wavelength of a proton that has a kinetic energy of 2.00 MeV.

Picture the Problem The wavelength associated with a particle of mass m and 1240 eV nm

kinetic energy K is given by

λ = .
2
2 mc K
λ =

Substituting numerical values yields:

= 1240eV nm
2 (
938MeV
)(
2.00 MeV
)
20.2fm

36 •

(a) 1.00 nm and (b) 1.00 fm?

What is the kinetic energy of a proton whose wavelength is

Picture the Problem We can solve Equation 34-15 ( 1240 eV ⋅ nm
λ =
) for the
2
2 mc K

kinetic energy of the proton and use the rest energy of a proton mc 2 = 938 MeV to simplify our computation.

Solving Equation 34-15 for the kinetic energy of the proton gives:

(a) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate K for λ = 1.00 nm:

K =

(

1240 eV nm

)

2

2 mc λ

2

2

K =

(

1240eV nm

)

2

2

(

)(

938MeV 1.00 nm

)

2

= 0.820 meV

(b) Evaluate K for λ = 1.00 fm:

K =

(

1240eV nm

)

2

2 938MeV 1.00fm

(

)(

)

2

= 820MeV

37

Davisson and Germer’s experiment was 54 eV. Calculate the wavelength of the electrons in the beam.

The kinetic energy of the electrons in the electron beam in a run of

Picture the Problem If K is in electron volts, the wavelength of a particle is 1.226
given by λ =
nm
K

provided K is in eV.

24 Chapter 34

Evaluate λ for K = 54 eV:

λ = 1.226
1.226
nm
=
nm
=
0.17 nm
K
54

38 •

Find the energy of electrons that have a wavelength equal to this spacing.

The distance between Li + and Cl ions in a LiCl crystal is 0.257 nm.

Picture the Problem We can use 1.226
λ =
nm
K

, where K is in eV, to find the

energy of electrons whose wavelength is λ.

Relate the wavelength of the electrons to their kinetic energy:

Solving for K yields:

Substituting numerical values and evaluating K gives: 1.226
λ =
nm
2
1 2
⎛ 1.226 nm eV
K
= ⎜
λ ⎠
2
1 2
⎛ 1.226 nm eV
K = ⎜
=
22.8 eV
0.257 nm

39 •

equal to 70 keV. Find the wavelength of these electrons.

[SSM]

An electron microscope uses electrons that have energies

Picture the Problem We can approximate the wavelength of 70-keV electrons 1.226
using λ =
nm
K

, where K is in eV. This solution is, however, only

approximately correct because at the given energy the speed of the electron is a significant fraction of the speed of light. The solution presented is valid only in the non-relativistic limit v << c.

Relate the wavelength of the electrons to their kinetic energy:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ: 1.23
λ =
nm
1.226
λ =
nm
= 4.6 pm
3
70
×
10 eV

40 •

What is the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron that has a speed of

1.00 × 10 6 m/s?

Picture the Problem We can use its definition to calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron with speed 10 6 m/s.

Wave-Particle Duality and Quantum Physics

25

Use its definition to express the de Broglie wavelength of the neutron:

Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ n :

λ

n

λ

n

=

h

h

=

p

n

m v

n

n

=

6.626

×

10

34

J

s

×

10

27

×

6

10 m/s

(

)(

)

1.675

kg 1.00

= 0.396 pm

A Particle in a Box

41 ••

states of a neutron in a one-dimensional box of length L = 1.00 ×10 15 m = 1.00 fm (about the diameter of an atomic nucleus). Make an energy-level diagram for this system. Calculate the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted when the neutron makes a transition from (b) n = 2 to n = 1, (c) n = 3 to n = 2, and

(d) n = 3 to n = 1.

(a) Find the energy of the ground state (n = 1) and the first two excited

Picture the Problem We can find the ground-state energy using

E

1

=

h

2

2

8mL

and

. The wavelength of the

electromagnetic radiation emitted when the neutron transitions from one state to

the energies of the excited states using

E n =

n

2

E

1

another is given by the Einstein equation for photon energy (

E =

hc

λ

).

(a) Express the ground-state energy:

E 1

=

h

2

8m L

n

2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E 1 :

 ( 6.626 × 10 − 34 J ⋅ s ) 2 1eV 8 1.6749 × 10 − 27 )( kg 1.00 × 10 − 15