You are on page 1of 56

-

skkV
skV> ] \V> >
skV>AD, [MBVz\ 629 702

kD! kV^!!
kX| KkD

skV> ]D, 5 EVV >,


]k_o, [ 600 005
[A^ kV Bz,
\VD.
skkVl[ k 2012 > z EiB D uB
>V[ x>_ \V \> V\>VD, EkV \VVVkD
E>m. kV| xkmD zD, \zD _ka
VB \V[[ ]k ^ skkVl[
V kkD. D\V[^ VB V>l_ >, >Fk
, \M>z >V| gB J[D [VV[ [M
>k gzD.
p V\i >k[ k>V ]D g V][ k 18D
>]D, Nm V][ k 23D >]D k[.
z>k[ ^ kzD , V]VD. k 20
\VEkV, Ek\VzB s>V^ gzD.
m z]D c^ s> kBV[m. kV[
kVs_ [^ V]VD.

z,
k[ l_,
skkV

k 2012

>VE: (044) 28440042/28442843


~\l_: vkpt@vkendra.org

>kD 27

k 2012

k 10

>M] . 7/, g|>V . 75/, V| >V . 140/,


J[V| >V . 200/, g>V (10 g|^) . 700/,
kV| g| >V 20 V^.

skkV / k 2012

sD

\V>D \]D
V> V kVu V]_ ckVz[ \>V
B g[* z\V^ gu V^. kB
c>V_ # >k^ EB_, VV>VD, x>VB
kV gB m_ BVu V^. >B
z\VD, D E>m skV> ]D
V kl| m. >[ B z\VV_
ckV V> >D [m gzD. kl_ 1) BVQk_B,
, 2) skVt] pV\, 3) VyM pi, 4) pi
[ 5) ]QV D> [VB[, 6) sBVB,
A, 7) VB ]z>, 8) \> V\>V EkV, 9) ]
] k] V> Vm \z V[m, 10) #B [
V>V >sBV V> >z V[m, 11) pV\i
kVt skV>, 12) kVt skV> V>][
Vm \z V[m. >B \V\M> {sB
\BD _k[ k {sBV y >]V. ku^
\> V\>V, EkV gBV[ c > \V> ]_
E>|^m. D\V>D 19D >] ] EkVl[ > V^
gzD. \> V\>V B >VvV>D [ o_ m
k EkV \[z c>E> E z] D\V> \]\V
>VD:
kV xD sk>V| m V^ k|D.
]\VoV Q[ gVE k|D.
Q \|> k|D. k^ D s
[z \]_ ]B km V^ k|D.

\BV A]^ EV g>m V


kbD. gV_ cVV k|D. VB
EB^ kz >BVm. kVk uD >V[
V VBD >VV [ V]m V^
k|D. k uB >[ VB> VD
V|D klVm. V]BD, TD
k\]Vm. kVm, _ v>D Vm VB]_
k|D.

skkV / k 2012

>uB \M> s ! WBt_V> g^ !


xD TVVm. BV]uz cB D,
zB D, czB D, \u xxD
EB_ \z sk>V| W>V\V >V\_ ka
k|D.
V\>Vv[ > >V[ kuAmkV[. B^, V|
^ k|D. MB ] V_ V w k|D.
VBD E ^ Eu ^ ku gBKD
V KD VEBV k k|D. ku
V k[k V ckV^ mA m
\]\VD >s k|D.
ZD kD B\_. cu|, Bo_ VkD, l_
DD, zo_ D, gv]_ t|z, ku luEBV_
w V^ k|D. >M\l_ >s \u _
J[Vkm \M>^ \]l_ c Vk_ ]xD
|D u B_V VkxD >V[ k|D. z m
t t xBD.
sBu `B c>B VD |m J[ Va^
>k E>zD, ]BVD, kaV| V\ >D
x>oBkuuz \|\ B[ k|D. _
^ kV| k|D. TV s a
Vm

kD \VE \V>D Nm ^
k 13 x>_ \V 13 k

k 14 c ]\ V^, k 17 sB V>E, k
18 pV\i k>V ]D, k 19 ] EkV >
V^, k 20 \V EkV, Vo , k 21
[V| >VF\Va ]D, k 23 p V\i k>V
]D (Nm V][) k 24 c [E ]D,
k 27 ] gV ]BV ]D, k 28 >B
sQV ]D,
\V 7 \VE \D.

skkV / k 2012

k>][ cV^

kD D {DVD (251)
\VB cW>D

V> Vl[ ViBD


g\Vz V[z V>^ [m ? cW>D
[m.

V>>VV NiQ
NiQ: v>V VsD]x
VsD]x:
#A kkV
kkV: >\
>\: V>
V>: (3)
x>_ V>D kkV[. >[ D saA W. >[
Q k V^[
>VA V^m. >uz
D
>V[m
kVFD
c|.
m
# V ^
s[m.
V>
V>:
saA,
>VD D, QV
saA, N
N: AsD > [
> s k V^
s k [ .
B V \ l V _ ,
Q B V m ,
AV^[
c
VmV_
>VuD
>[m.
kz ^ c^. MVV k^s [
ck> W Fk>uV, m |[m.
kkV g\Vs[ > kD; B k[ ;
kVk k[ V[. gVB\ |z]! >[ \_oB
. V, \b k[ V>^ (V>VBD)
gkB MB k[ kVF [ u FB|[m.
(V>V) xBk[ >V[. kB >V[m

skkV / k 2012

x^ gk A[^ QV]B^ nm,


B_A[^ \]B^ nm, V[ x>oB nm, \D
(bkm) (A]) VD, E>D D W. k kVFz
|[. kB VbD kV_^. ku[ JD \>
kkV[ kV_^ JD, #V^ s[V[.
o x>oBku s[V[. gk k[ #A
#V^ sk[ |[V[.
k[ kkV[ [w|[V[. M_ k[
clB_VD, kk ka_ >>D [ k
V wm _[V[.
kkV[ [ m D
skV[ [mD [Vk
| D. k[
c\l_
g\VkVB
m # c_D
c^B sV_ m
kk[ _[. >VKD
k[ k kV [
|[V[. k >\
V>D D x>_ V_ z].
D\QV> D x>_
xBuE. |>|m kD
V> uB , kk V> c^ [>V_,
k[ x[\ [V[.
>
>: g\Vk D\[ [ V]_ g\Vz V[z V>^
c| [ l_ kD x>oBk, > x>oB
cAV m kV?
s
s: ]_ xV| mD _; AVzD czD, >kVD
(#) g\V _VxD m>V[ V[z V>^ g[.
(# cD sV g m, x>_V>D;
# cD NB\V m VD V>D; V,
sBV Wl_ cD B>D J[VD V>D. VD,
s x>oB W_ m s| m ][
>\V [m. V[VD V>\VB A, QVD, g>\V
(E>V>\V) [m.
kV sV_,

skkV / k 2012

AD x k > D
sB z, k>D
WW>|[m. _V
clKD zD g\V
[
[
c
|[m. _V clD
g\Vs_ Wum
V | [ m .
k > V \ V B
g \ V s B
mlD
Vk[,
g\Vk
mlKD
Vk[ [>[ V^
c] FB|D. _VsV_, VBD D Vm V_,
c^D g\V, kB coV_ w| m\|\
V|D. Vm, cW>^ ]k\V km m
k>\Vm (\V I 7 V VI ii 1) s> >MEAD
u>Vs|D. VB >mkD x>oB D ]om m
kV| u>Vs|D. _V g\VD [ [>
u\[, cW>^ mD x[ k[. >
\V Vm sD>m.
>M[ > g\VkVB skD, sV[ g\VkVB
kkV[ [ >Fk g\V, gBk [ [>
Wl_ sk [>uz kD x>oB ^ >V
km >k\V uB>! m > l_
c]|>|m. u\ >B|[m. m>V[
[MD k]VsV_ c[ > w s]zD (V v xii 2)
[D kVB_ \x\V m.
skxD sV|D [ [m, [V >
cm[m. >vD, VQD kD NB \VB,
B>D (>V[VW) ku[ nB\VkB. mD
\x\V c>m. m cW>][ \mVD\]_
m; tl_ zD TD, \t_V clD, co_
zD TD \t_V >mkxD kV. (V[zD
g\Vk) (II v i) c Wl_ g\Vs[ (QD) B>xD
>V[V WD [ [m, >kV c\BVzD, M_
ku_ kV|^ mD _.

skkV / k 2012

(>M czD Vm, kV|^ >D >[^


m V^[V. B]_,
B>xD (>V[V WD)
_VkuD >[^ m
V^[m. z B>D
[m >D c^m
BzD >BVt gzD (\V6)
s > D s B D
>V_, mk>^ mD
>V>[ k > \
>VD [m Wm.

vk>VV
>
vk>VVS>
>: Q
Q: v>V VsD]x
VsD]x:
s s> A>vV syB
syB: V>
V>: (4)
Vkm V>D >vD gzD. >[ D W
(k>) gzD. ]_ c (Q) c^ m gzD. >uz
^ c|. >V[m kVF^ c|. m z\
sB s[m, O[m.
>v[ [m WB >[ V Vm
(k>VD). sa]zD Vm Q c, \ ]^
V W gzD; m ka Vm; m
AV^_ J mV_ >V[[m. m \][ *m,
AV^z BV ] s| _[m.
V][ #|>V_, sD, >V \^ ku[
#|>V_, \\Vm, ky ]V_, ]
V[m. Wl_ \D saA Wl_ m
Vk >Vu\[m; gV_ A#|>_^ mt[
>uVk [kD m |^m. k[
VbDVm, >D c^B saA[ ]^
Eku V| _[V[. ( 2. iv iii 9) mVk
>kk> cW>]_ \\VB tcB> >k>l_ A[^
mD [V s|[ [ sB> mkBz
Wl_ \\VB >k>, \B c[m ( iv 5)
[ |^m. A[V| |l_ \\Vm c^
>VzD. BVB Q c, s_, c^\]s[
kk |m V^[>V, m >: Q x
sB km gzD. k[ >v ( cBk[)

skkV / k 2012

|[V[.
OV^^
[B, [ >V[D
l[ VE k[ gkV[. >V_
k[ >v[ |kV[. skD
[m O V^ Vm
m. Vm k[ #
s[V[. z
s|D ckV kD
]^ gzD. gk m z\ O
gzD. >v[ [m VD V>D gzD.

B q>V V\D V\B>


q>D; q]>VD >
>:
kD B] > q>D
QV kV>\BV BV>A >Vx
>Vx:
VQ yB
yB: V>
V>: (5)
g> cD D Wl_, czk, OV^
>D sDAk]_! k>D V]_! VQ[ D
J[VD V>D g> c> >[ \V Vm.
kM]_ _VD kV|^ uk gs|[. k[
kD c ]E gs|[V[. k[ g>]_
][V[. k[ WBD g>> Ok. k ,
saA gB W[ k]uz OwkVl_ gkV[.
c
c: saA, D W[ (k>[) Vm
DD, kV>k c\ WB m V^V]zD cD
gzD. sa_ #V^^ VbD c^. s_ k
_. gk czk[ z[ cVuV
B[|>|^m. >[JD >V[ g> cD [ WB
(k>B) k]_ V| k BKD. (_m) cD D,
c\B cV> W, J[ WKD (k>KD)
\\V [m. gk g> cD [ VuV x>B
om > >B c>[m.
B = z, Vm, q> = czk[, DkD =
> kD, B] = V]_. D V\D = >
OD s>D V\B> = sDAk]_.
g> c]_ D sxD BVm. ( [m
V^^ kV ckV, kV[ ks>\V Vm gzD)
mk >D gzD. > g> c> >[ \V

skkV / k 2012

Vk[ >>VD: k[ >: kV|^ BV>k[


[ |[m. M_ \^ xkmD, , cD
[, s>\V | WD, \][ \VV|
gzD. > k>l_, \^ (mk>^) mD,
kM ]_. gV_ k >D (\ V[) B_A
wm ss_. _VmD, czD, s[ _
k]uz V]> V>V[ > k>. Q
c\B\V k^ [k \]_ saA, W_
>V[D ] gzD. > ]^ ]\V Vk V[
W^ k. > k> QV D = Ql[ ]kkD
[w|D. M_ ]_ \VV| mD skD
_. m Ql[ ]kkD. s[ _, _V
V^D k|] BxBV>, >V[k> V[ W
m. k [ V_ B[|]Bm, QB >s >M>
> D _. k[ g>\B\Vk[. kB
g> z m k>m? m[D _V\l_ m
g> z k>m. m[D [>[? \D (A)V^
VD, ku s>VD ]B xBuE Fk>
m[D. k[ g>\ kkVss_. M_ > [D
\V>_. V>V \^
kmV, xBuE >kV\_
zD WB \E, g>
O>V. M_ k[
xBuEl_ m xuK\V
s|zD Wl_ V[.
> k>D B \
g>D ( iv iii - 32) mk \
g>D [[m.
k \uD saA W[ k c
(c>D) kVu gkV[. gk k[ >V x: |kV[.
(_m kM]_ >V[ > VD, kVD x>oB ][
D (Wu) c^m. g> c]_ >VKD k[
VQV (c^k[) |[V[. M_ k[ x>B
WVB , saA gBku[ x[ >k[ k[
QcBk[ [m M_, kV> (V>)
Q cs[ >MEA^ z Vk[ k[
k! \ukV _s>\V > xBk^. VQV
[m J[VD V>D gzD.

skkV / k 2012

vkk vkQ V
> BVDB
VS>
BVM
BVM: vkB kVBB N >VVD (6)
k mzD ~k. k >D >k.
k >D c^ m Bzk (>BVt[). k
mzD >VukVF. mk mD >V[ aD D
gzD.

: = >[ B_V k>l_ zD Vm >


VQVk[. WBD vkk
vkk: = ]uzD ]].
kVD c^, m [\zD ]]. DAk>uz
\VV, ]uzD ~kVB k VQMD m
l_ kVk _. > k> kVBxD [m.
V >D N vVDB \: (V>V 2 iv viii 2) wBk
\>V_ _z|> >M g\V V[
[m. (V >[ EB\V Vm( V
D\D). _Vs> kV|zD c^k>V k.
>D k. gk k >D >k.
>D c^ m ||mk. k c^ Owm
>D Kmk. mk g[V. > V]V_
>V[ k, \VV|[ B > >Vus[V.
V]V_ k mzD >VukVF. gk k
m clzD >V[txD, atxD.

{DVxD, VBZD
kVt EkV>V

{D {m>o[ ]
]: E _ {D { cm o|m.
{BVm Vl_ | \^ \^ \ |m
_| > cEz|t k VF D [ {[ W
FB|[m. D[ ]kVo Em D o|m.
[V kl_ {mD Vm, o|m. > {
\V|[m.
w>B QV> uD nVB[
k> AM> { cA k]][m. V_V_
u|D ]kVo^ tz> ] kVF>k. >B
]kVo u|mk]_ ^ >Vm sV\_ ~|V_
tB > m sw FmsVD. V^ {D {>

10

skkV / k 2012

luE FB xBuEV>k, {D[ ]B Am V^k


xBVm. >k xBuE F>V_ \uV[ m BV>V
xD, ]B\V xD [> cT^.
V[ ]kVo[ ] V]m V][. s^
\uV[>V[ zD [ tD [V_ DxD.
]B c>V_ {D
{m>_ \Vk *m WB\V
ss u|mD. gV_
m_oB\V cVV
m >co[ kV
bkD
>

c\Vus|D. m\KD A]B


] D ,
W \ D
c|bD. co_ \m
zD ] >
s|D.

kVt EkV>V

]BV]_ cV>
c[ 3, 6, 12 >k^ c
{D c^. m cVB> _VD s
s|D. \D k> >|zD. {D [m ] kVF> \]D. m
\][ *m tB ss u|>k_m. kV\Vk
u zD V^ >V|[ ] >Vz[. {D
m>_ co_ A]B ]B Az]s|m.
nm k\V cVm ViBV {D {>k|D. m
wV zD. g> ] >D. kD c Aml
k. \Vk c>V_ 50 >k {D {m^. AmD,
xD cz^ WB V^. > AM> u ]
kVF> VM gzD. > >FT VM ^ D
mD K> kVD. {D {mDVm >D |s
WuzD Q [ c^.
{D {mkz MB ] tz> z_ kVFzD. \D sm
zsm \ D. VlKD, \VlKD ^ cVk
VzD Vm > M\BV V {>VD. WVkV c^
s_ > {m^. ulV, ]lV cVD Vm
^ > {m^. MB\_ > VD VVD.
>V|[ > {mkm, \mz \]B

skkV / k 2012

11

V|zD. A^l_ \D zsD. g[* uz


kzD.
\]^ ]KD > E>m {D>V[
{D>V[: \]^
_VkuKD >BVBm {D >V[. m \VD D T|u
BV >k_m. m \]D {D [ >VzD.
\]^ mzD clD g\VD {D >V[. Ek V][
x[V_ {D kD. VVB[ m \]]uz x[V_ {D
kD. kV k>\]xD, cW>xD {D [ >Vz[.
VBZD {D [ >Vzm. _k >k>z gz]
V|zD Vm {D [ {mVD. ][ FB|D
Wk>^ mD {D [ mkzD. {V][ \\B
c\BVD, Vm\V sKD BVVKD k xBVm.
Vk], g][ \^ >[ \B k
xBs_. >[ ] >Bm.
BV]l_ zD [MBVEz pV\\]D
BV, kV >V] V> kz ZD BV, [
kV > kz VBZ \]D BV m. VE kV
Z D kV k>V]zD mszD {D
> gV, V, BVB \D D\][ V_
]D \k\V c^>V, \]_ BVz k>V> ]^
c^kV BVz c\l_ k>V> E c^>V, k >
\]> D FBVD. {DV> ]D D Fk
]BuA>\V ] V.
k^ KD, x]KD
> zD.
VBZ \]D
\]D: VB \]][
V^: ~k[ \\B
]BVD FkV\V! k
c
>k.
k
ka>z>k. k QVD, ,
ku[
ckD.
k
VD, BV\BD
szk. k D z
R|kVV!
QV km [V_
[? >u\BD cD zD

12

skkV / k 2012

^ [ BVD | c g\V [
>kV > F[m. AM> VBZB k>[ [BVzD.
BV VBZlD V> F[S^. cz, #B
>D V]S^. k D\> c cz
c>D. mk VBZl[ c\BV (k>) V^. BV
luEl[ x]W \Vk^, V \ l[ . mk
z R|km [ V^ V^VD.
VBZ \]]_ [m V\^ c^. {D, , Ak: k:
>, vsm, kBD, V, >kB. > [m B^ JD
DV[ \ |m. y\N [m kaV zzD.
]BV> zzD. ]BV BVV>BV [m
V>.
VBZ \]> nm _ W] W] {>k|D.
1) {D 2) , Ak: k: 3) > vsm kBD 4) V >kB y\N
5) ]BV BVV>BV. D\]> {mDVmD D FD
VmD kV ]KD u W> k|D.
(g>VD [ g BVV, kV_RD 3
D k[ Vv, [, >[ gV)

] F]^

VDAl_ >^
#mz, AmVB |> VDAl_ p\[
VVB kVt Vso_ ] \B kzA[ \VV| EA
um. ]. E[m VV ]\] BDA M, ]\] B
t, ] V> VVt, ]. \V kVt, ]\]
\V, B V, ]. Vi[ gBV s>_
WE > c>sAm gED kwV^. VV> z\[,
[ VVD, lVB\ gB V^, VuVa^,
V_^ gB EA WE^ D u. V\ \[ V_
WB D kw. swV A gEB^
g] \>D, V>V.

\ k] i[ k^ WkV

skkV / k 2012

13

E>\[D
D. EV >s, R, V\V>AD \VkD

1768) c_ _ka m?

_m m? m m [> uB x\BV sD
> V_ VD \V>_ [ u|
km [ >_ skV>D F>V^.
>[ V> V_ >V[ _m m uB
m^ VD Wm [.
\Vu^ >ks_ [ V^.
m k>^, >o, i, A>
\V]_ \V\VV] gBV
]D]D kuA] V^. D V_
D [ V_Kz s\V m^
uV^| [. k u ^
1) [A\, 2) ]BD, 3) ]V\, 4) AD,
5) \BV kV gB nmD B\D [
V_|D. 6) #F\, 7) ]], 8) >kD,
9) ~ Az>_, 10) [_ {m>_ gBk
WB\D [ V_|D. m m VmkV VD _ka
[ V_VD.
>. kyk, V\V>AD

1769) Vs c >k _VD c\BV


g[*kV]BV?
_Vs> \M>KD, _kD, kD
V^. c\BV kwQD, Vo kwQD
V^. _ gEBD, gEBD V^.
kVkB \|D km V| k V xBVm.
mVk ms]_ VD uz ]V>V_
k^ {k >k F>VKD \z tz> k>xD, \VuxD
cV[. > z Vs c >k VD
DAVD [ V^, \]VD [ V^. Dt]_ >V[
_ z^ _. k]Vkm |\ [
]VVD. ]VA ]\V >V_ {k >k FD
Vm k>xD ]\V m.

14

skkV / k 2012

V oi, \i[A#, [MBVz\ \VkD

1770) g\Vg\V] >z> sD [?


g\V [ V_Kz >[ uB [ V^.
V>V \M>z >V[ [ V_Kz VuV_ >
D, csV_ ckV cDA [ V^. VD k>
\M>z >V[ [ V_Kz cl J, V[ [
V^|D. [D VD g[*]_ cB> \M> >V[ [
V_Kz \D [ V^|]V^kV. \D >V[ [,
m[> >m [> sDAm. [D VD
g[* kE > \M> _m m, m m [ >D
sk A]B >V[ [ ckV. m sQVD [
w|D. [D k> \M> >[B g>>B >[
kk\V uV. > kE kl_ E \V cVsB
DV V[ [ g[\ QVM ckV. \M> k
k g[\V [ V_KD skm V VzD. >uB
kD g\V], g\V kD [ V_|D. kEl[
] ]_ sk[, s|km [ |
Vm. k |D [ m s|D.
. m, ^BV|, z\ \VkD

1771) kz bkm VD\^


\|\V? VD [ FB V>V [?
>tV_ c^ x>>Vl]uzD \u
Vs__ 3500_ >V[ VD\^ Fk>V z
||^m.
\uku_
VD\ _V>kD
F V ^ .
VD\z^D

_VD Vs_ FB
xBVm. k_ g]k^
|D z^ sD,
kk_ y u EA
luE u luEBVD \|D
>V[ FB xD. k
]\M
y|kV
[
z|kV^. V>][ ZD
V >k D l_ k> FD c\B
\Vu xBVm [ ym m.

skkV / k 2012

15

VBDA# Q xVD \Vk[

1772) V]^ aBV\_ >uz ^l_ V]


V[> kVzkm >V[ V\V? m BV?
V> V^^, >^ ku[ l_
\M>z> [ xD [ E DV^. k^
\M>[ _ kD z|DD, x>VBD, \>D gBku[
A>V^. gV_ > k\V V^V_
\M>z] [ xBs_. > >V_sB
cmV^k>uz x[ EB_kV]^ cm V|
sV^. kV_ >M>M \M> b [ {|
xBs_. x>VB]_ >V >V[ szD z
c >B {| kz B[|] VV^.
> {| kB W>|mD xBuEBV _sKD,
KD m|z ka kzm. E
>_ m|z c\BV >kD
k >m. gVKD x>VB]_ u\B
WV|D k ka_ ku V EB_kV]V_ xB
s_. [ V] kuAmk]KD, W>|mk]KD
EBKz xB z c|. \KD _VD >V] s|[
bzxBV_ V] aBVm. pV\i V[k^
>]_ k> _VD cBkV ]V^. _VD
cBm[ \mkD >V[ \M>z]uz [ >k |m.
V]B uB bzxB x>VB sQVM^ \uz
V|[ J sB_ V^[ JD VV^.
]BVs_ c^ V] ^ V|\BVk. [V_ m
\Vs_ _. V]_ _ [m V[
xV^>\V \ cs_ B bzx^ D V|z
c>kVm. V> V[ x>VB> >B [
JD b c\BV \mk> V| kk
V\iD, kVt skV>D V|V^. EB_,
VV>VD, \V>mkD, J VmVA, {| k, z c
x>oB EV E^ [VV[ [M m
ku tD \DVV \_ V| bzx
JD Vm >k gzD. [V sBD V] ku\^
_V> x>VB^ ]K\ \mkD km sk
_.
V] ku\ _V> \uz nVVsKD,
\VsKD V|[ u>VD, D
|B\Vk.

16

skkV / k 2012

_. AV>\[, VBDA# Q xVD

1773) D V[ w\BV _szD, Vm


zD _szD [ s]BVD?
V> V[ VDB _sl_ [> V gEB[
kV \Vkz c>V\V ]>m. gEB,
\Vkz lK^ cz [AD, _xD
BV s. , _VD, wz, x>VB
[\ gBk _sl[ VV >. k
z D xBmkxD >m. [B _sl_
>B uz^ {D | s. >k_ ,
z> cm VzD kuz B xBmkD
>|[. \M>z^ zD \>V ] k>uz
kVFA^ _sl[ \B >Vs_. ku
>|D \M>^ W> xBuE Fm xVV _s J\
ku > k^m. >B V Vm n[[
[ sQVM s_ VD, [_ kE
BV>kVD \M>^ \V s|kV^ [ >
>sm^V.
]M, x, sm \VkD

1774) szxD g[*D z\V?

>tw]_ zz, _, VD, g|, \l_, E] E, ~,


BV, \V|, >, VVDA gBk k ka| x]
> >^ [. t^ EkuVkm g[*
c^ k zD.
VV _wD, WkVB_ kzA \Vk

1775) >uV>B >xl_ V| uz^


zm k[. >uz VD DxB
AVD, ]VD \]wm k[kV?
ku BV>>V_ VD | VV\V?

skkV / k 2012

17

kV x>VB uz ckVzk]_ AV^,


]V^ ku[ u \KD \KD gVFE
sQVM^ Fm kV^. x>VB][ g\>
m \M>[ g\ [ zD B
AV ]V^ F[. VD c V[ Vm
\VMB \ [ V| VtB V_D,
VV T >D > |m B[|] VV^.
nm, g g|z x[V_ V][ z
cuVJ VD c V[Vm >\ \] E_
Tz guB VuVak B[|]V^. AV
]VV_ zD tB [\ ku >x
\M> \^ ]D]D V| cm m ka|
AM>\V u >^ kVl[ \V um >V[.
V> >k >uzD, D >k >uzD c^
kV| V[m m. >V_ uz kEl_ AV ]V^
D BVu[ []_ nBt_. \KD ] >mk
_ VKD, AV ]V^ uzz \V
kk >[. ]B> uB V^ s
> VKD ]B> [uB ]M[ kV D
\> ]D >V|D. c>V[ JD uz
szkm >V[ AV ]V[ z. V>V_ >V[ kVt
skV>[ \Vs gB V> Wk]> V| _sl_
V\VB, \VV>[ xBmk> kuA]V.
\l_ ]. z >V [ >Va_ WkV \VV>D V|D
uz kVk u A>D ]^V. ]_ \VV>>
>V_ [B kVwl[ Ez y V
xD [m s|^m. x]W n.. ]Vz
luE >D DV V> x]W gVFE wD \VV>\V
VV^ [ g]_ kl|^m. k
mD >uV \M>[ kVB ckVzk]KD,
E y]KD, x[ B >k]KD, AV
]V^ BVu xD [> V|[.
zD [ B_ _k ku VD wm kk>
u QD VFm V^.
E. EV, AmV\D, k^R

1776) x[V^ F> VkD E z|D_


>Vk>V [V. m c\BV? >uz
VD cV?
18

skkV / k 2012

VmkV kVl_ m[D kDVm \B ^


BVD, V]D D V^ DVKD z>Fk
kaVD, J>V>B kaVD kuAmkBV
\m^. ]_ \V>mkxD, sQVxD, x>VB cD
[ ][. J>V>B kaV|D, z>Fk kaV|D
tz> [\B >km B|^m.
J >V luEBV

1777) \] x>o_ ]Bk BV?


\] BVD ]B>V V_k]_. \]
k^ [ \] iV [ V_ B[|mk.
uk kM[ JV Vu_ ]zD > cB>
{^ \B >kD tz> E xMkz k
V|D. k ^ [. ^ [ V_ g]_
B [ V>\V \Va BV^. c\B k^
[ V^. \] k Vk
kk k^, {B k^, B k^,
W> k^, BVA k^ gBVD
c|. kkB uA ]z B k[ \] ksV
ck\VkV >[ V V^kV.

] F]^
_ \VkD VAD VD c V>mk ]
swVkD, kVt skV> ] swVkD, c^j
Bk[ mwA[ EA VVu.
#mz \VkD VVA]_ \V. E[ \VBD\VD,
kVMD sVB k_ {] V>D kw ] V_^ V
sVB m]B cuV\V VVV^. >\
gEB . *V k^ kwB V zw>[
c^> k>m.
#mz \VkD xAD _ \VkD
AVAD gB V ^^ uV D ] ]sz
, ] ^, zw> kA, c^j mwA
gBkuz D >>. _, Ek V^,
AVAD V^, mVtAD V^ ]B [B
kaV|, uV c^> >Vm. zw>[ c^>D
>V[.

skkV / k 2012

19

>B> ]|D
MB >^
V Bm

1781) \>k kVD


Ek >[ u ] > c|. k[ sib _m
VVBM[ B VmD c \VV[, k[ >s_
_Kl_ BVD >D BV\_ VVB, , sib
V[ Vu sV_ k>m gm. c
k[ >[ Vm_ >VzD \ g
Vu^ >[ Vm_ s> Vk>
>[JD V s>V mkV[. Vm_
\B V V]V_ kz
\B sB[ [ B kwVlu.
Ek\V
ka|l_
m]D
VmkV[. EkzD, sibzD B
mD >t_ [ kz V] k,
Ek\V[ V] EkVD, V] sibkVD
>Vu\>V. D Ek >V VEB |
]m, >V[ u k> #A sibz VVm
[ g]m[ sibs[ J xBuE>V[! s>
k \M>B c^m. \^ >^ , >D \uD \
\|D cb>_ V[ cVB> sB_ ysu
km^. z >> k_ k >[ V\> V[
E> > Asl_ zD V xBVm [ kV> V^
c^k. E s[ V zm \VV>D [ VD
Fk.

sVV Bm

1782) c>D Fkm V


_, >Vk
AM> kV kV> B \V>k V ikVs[
] VF] [ Wz km. D\VA

20

skkV / k 2012

Vz>kVlo>V; D tD ]\Vsm. >


]V\V \Vus xD. gBV_ \V>kV k]BD,
z D VF ]VD k\V >D ] F[.
Vm kVF x\VBV_ V\D Fm
V[! [V. VD [ gkMD k
V>[. gk[, c[V_ c[ >VB V|
x> c E V [V. V[ >
V_o V, m kzD V]>uVk_.
> B[|] V^ sDAkz >V_
B[ [kV WB\VF u|D. gV_ VV >B
V\V\D V[ V_o V[. >B u
V_ k Akm V[ cEB z
m km.

]kVt c>V[ Bm

1783) sB >
i kVD, D V >[ T|z
VV^. >[ kz _xl_ kkuA cVD
F>V[. k[ [D _k>V k|D [ ikV[
gE V|>V. >uz z kVD,
D w >[ T|z
VV^. kD >[ k]u tz>
]D, [AD, kVz k
A>V[. gV_ >V! kB
Vm gB \ \V| m Vlu.
z kVM[ > WBVBD
ABs_. k[ kVMD V[. Ak
w >M[ \
\VD ^ [ |
V^?
kV[
]_
V[V. V! > w
>z [M]_ c]BV
] c|. gV_ >
\\V| >V[ kzD zD
|s_
V
W[
V>m. Vm >
>D sm.

skkV / k 2012

21

m
m: kVzD, >zD |s_ > VD, >
\M>D >_V Wus \VV. k VmD >[ >M[
g[* [\l_ VD V| AV. VD DxB zB
A]lV_ kVM[ VB AmV^ xBVm. ]_ VD
DxB y\ >V WV\V ]_ DxB [\
\m m. kVM[ s]l_ WBVBxD c|, M\D
[\D c|.

]kVt c>V[ Bm

1784) bz >BV> l
BV] BV>kVB[ BD VV[. kB
\ >V _ nDm >D c[ [. s_
V\]uz kB BV>kVB[
>V[. 49 > x
m luV_ sV[. gV_
nD>Vkm >B |k>uz
xzED lD kal_ V
VV\_ VF s. >V_
>B xBs_. _
xMk xuV>[ gE\D
>m. BV>kVB[ kD VF
lD, xzED [ V[.
xMk xuV> V[V.
[M]_ xzE _, lD
_. gV_ cz >]D V_[. > >l[
_ VF _oV_ xzEB m \_
zkmV_ m V|. z B >l[ > u
lV_ |kmV_ Vk b. xMk[
BV>kVB[ F>V[. xkmD > > u
xzEl[ _ u luV_ | W[
V>m. Vl_ \u > sm {V^.
nD>Vkm >BV u lu_ || Wum. Vm
AmE m sm. > \m. BV]l_ m
k \m. xMk xuV> V[V. >B
|kmV_ VD yV mV_ >l[ lu
sm VD VD ^. u xzEB
|z^. > u zD u lu s^.
BV>kVB[ B F>mD >D Am.

22

skkV / k 2012

m
m: kV\Vs[ >^, m^, \>D _V\
u^. k BV\l_ >k. k c\BV
>D, mD \>x\V >V_ ku
sz k k Vm. >D, mxD uBV
uk. >]xD, g>xD g\Vs[ c\BV
B_A^ gzD.

V>VkVt ] Bm

1785) VV V\>k m su >


V\>k g[*]_
x[Bk.
kB
zV> kz V\D FB
u >]>V. mk c[
tB ] gzD. gV_
c A] V >[
z|D]D
V\>k
>[B ] EB>
V_s_.

V\>k

V\>k kV]_ gV^


ml_ VBD ukV.
wVD V^ >l_ ku
suV. T| ]D |> kV
>z
mB

V|kV. V\>kz V[z


V>^ c|. kD mz V|D l_
c>kV^. kD >l_ VF V mB su
FkV^. > V^ [ V\>k ]BV]_ gm VF
cV]>V. V>^ >z VV^. El_
V\>k >BVV >z [V. >uz^ kVBV^
m VF sV^. >l_ BV\ _. suV> m[
V\>k T| ]DV. m suVF? [ V>^
V^. z> sz suV\? z
suV\! [_VD V>^ BV V^. V[
z mB su|\V [ V\>k V. V>D
[V^. T|z kl_ uV^ >. V\>k >[
mB_VD > uV[ *m s>V. z

skkV / k 2012

23

\V\V, ~V _ # V| km T_ km sV.
V>^ V^. m suVluV?
V\>k
V\>k: gD. z su[ [V. D Vm zD
[ V>^ V^. wVD V^ [V V\>k. Vm
z k>V. V\>k V *m s> m \^
kV V| VV^. BV D V|V^? z|D]
k>xuV^. m sB ]D km [
BVE>V^. gV_ V\>k kz c] V[V.
kVy^. z D c] m k
[ s \VV. V\>k mz D kms>V? [
_VD .
V\>k T|z^ VV. \V\V, ~V k]>
z| _ k V| k>V. > z|D]D
VV. [ gBD! > z|_ V >\V
\Vsm. B V TEBm. V\>k V>D
V[V. c^ x> ]D |m V| t>
>VD V|m s|^. kV[ >[ > VmD
VVuV[. k DBk k[ VmD s|km
_.

.. kVkVM Bm

1786) Vs_ >, VsV|


VFs|\V?
V>][ \uz z]l[ Em \VV]_ kVmVD [
xMk >V. k QV zD Vm >[ E>Vs[
\ l_ k F>V. Vl_ E>V K^
VsKz VF AM> >B V_ V. kVmVD
B ]m >BVV k]V[. V^ V \V>
sBVV z k>V. Vm\, E x>oBku[ \V>
sB sV>V. kVmVD kVBVD kV| V.
nBV u ^. E>V VsKz VF V. V[
VsKz VF k wm km cz s
V_K[. z \V> s >BVm.
kVmVD VsKz {V[. Vm z g[* >
V_o V>V. > k[ V]_ m. >B>
>Vm.

24

skkV / k 2012

Vm V[V. >V[ A xk]KD Tm.


_VD E^. \M>^ \|\_. cl^ V^
_VkuD E^ >[ E>Vk |s| kVmVD
z ]D. Vm \V| l_ > Vm\
Jl_ kVF km, Vm\B ][ V>m. >uz
[z _ sm. kVmVD \]_ \V s|D D
>m. gV_ Vso_ \M>[ c>D k[ V]_ om
V >m. > \V|D ^ V|> cl JV s|D
V _kV! > clD Em Vukm >[ AM> \
_kV? kVmVD \V[ _ VF [A[ > >
V|>V[. [A \V! cz _k. c[ ck Em V|.
kB \|D V|.
Vm E>V z k>V. kz gBD!
Vm\B ][D \V \[ kVmVD > V|V
ss_B!
E>V >D VV. xV^B [ FVF?
E>V >V[ _V clKD Tm [
Vm >V Vso_ VuVa ^. > \V|D [
cl J kVEzD V >V. > V[ s \V[
[V[ kVmVD. E>Vz >[ * EA k>m. BV,
Vs_ VsV| Vlu. Vs_ V[ z |m
k\V[
c \[ Vz >V[ m.

1787) QV][ _
QVD [m kBV saA W [V zV>.
Vm ^ # VS^. m c
>BVm. zV> >z >> \ EBD\V u
zV. EBD\V^ Vm >V[ zz\ ]\D Fm
V>V^. EBD\V^ zV>D km [ k zV
[ AV V[V^.
zV> V. k[ zV[ [ cz >>V_
k [ ]\D Fm VVF?

skkV / k 2012

25

EBD\V^ ]_ V[V^. k zV [> z


>BVm. V^ k >> A][ T|z k>Vm >V[ k
\u V_ zV [m z >>m. mk kB
B_V >Vu\ >V[ [ Wm V>[.

1788) mD cl kV>_
Vk]_ ]D xMk >ki [ w.
>ki >BVV>z 60 ^ >V^. kz
s> >BVV> u V|m >V. V^ >BVV>
BV]z AV. D c[ k sDV^.
>ki >BVV> W> s]>V. V[ V_KD \]>
| V| V^k|D. B][Vm V[ |
zV>z ]V V[
D, V>Vkm #V_ zV>z
m V sDA[
sDA[ [ \]> c V_ k|D.
^ > sV> \]> Ds_. kV>V
>ki >BVV> s| {sV^. BV [ ]BV>[
\|D zV>[ >V[. B]_ [>V>V[. kal_
V|V_ \[[ V_ M[ V| k>m. > \[[
\ Bx]B k kVzk[. k[ >[ klD
V[. D \ VmD B]_ k]>V_ >V[ k^
k FkV^. gk BVVkm g m V|
kV^. kz V[ \ > s][. k[ V|D.
>Vm \u \^ Bm V k FkV^.
> V|z >BVV>D, ]BV>D km >V^.
kl [B]D V_Kk>uV ]BV> m
V| VV^. >BVV>D c[ VV. | D
cB# zV> >kz ]V V[ m Vk|D
[ _ V. > [ V[>V[ x>o_ m
Vk|D [ \]> _ zo_ V[V[. kD
V[ >V[ x>o_, V[ >V[ x>o_ [ VlV^.
>Vm V|V_ \[[ sBAuV[. k^ kD [
V V|V^? [ V[. >ki >BVV>
V[V. nBV [ > ]_ \xk x>>[\
kV. kV WB kV, [D kVkV. >V_>V[
VD D >uV V V|VD. \[[ V[
[Vk x>>[\ Fk>V? [ >[
V_KD klz c>sV[. k V[
kl >VD x> WB B k k k

26

skkV / k 2012

V| m VV^. VBk^ m V| _ Wz
k>m. >BVV>D, ]BV>D s> s| [.

1789) Vk\
[kVB _BV V\[ Bm : [ _Ek\! z
> >VB c>sBV V|>>uz tz> [. V[
[[zD cz [kVk [ [
_EkD |BB V[. >u >V[ VD
k| V>[

1790) BV F> VBD?


>D]lz E[ kV_, B kV_ [ |
\[^ >. k^ tz> zDA Fk^. z
k]zD \>V> zw>
]mk]_ ]\ tk [
zw>[ >VF ^sV^.
B[
wm
V|
\>V>D VV. V> B[
cuV x> D\V km
V| k[ V? [
V. Bk[ B kVo[ kVF
>m. kMD m ]_ ks_.
kVB m V| ^ k[ cVm sV[.
\>V> [D c>zo_ V. k[ V?
> >kD BV_ ]_ V_ xBs_. [D c>
zo_ V> \D V. ^ ? B kV_ ZE|
V s>m V| { VV[. T|z^ z^
[ >k >VV^ V| VV[. E[ kV_ z^
km [ [ glu [ V[. [ J s|
V ]_ V[V[. >D B kD_ > >k VD \V
VVD. k[ VV\_ VF sVVD. k >V>m
VD>V[ [ >|V^. B EV Vlu.

] F]
z\ \VkD k^V[ s, oVAD, V
^l_ uV > ] V>^ . DVD
z>VD wz ] ] _ uV ~|V
k>.

skkV / k 2012

27

kD z[V kE

k tm VmVm ?
>Va_ ObD; kax
_ [.
1) k tzD >Va_ ObD [[
guD?
) m^, E ][D V^, kD, \ kD
gB Wk^ Vm ku VmVm
t[.
g) xl_ A]B g ] V| km
[. zD k ][. l_
WWm>_, > k ^ |>_, >Vm V
kz \Vu uV| F>_, kuz J ]>_.
)
>M>M
>Va_
Ob^ ^
guD ]Bk.
\_
\V
\Vu k VD.
kl_ m |V^^
V| km V|k>
][ cwkV_ W>
xBVm. k^ >VaV,
]\, u> ,
WkV ]\ kuz
]_ uV|^ FB
uk|D. c w k ^
uk|D; s>_
B_
uk|D.
_s> A B[
|> u k|D. wz
x K D, >Va_
ObKD
s> B [ | >
k|D.

28

kDz[V kEz
JV^
tzD >Va_
Ob
[u^

tb s

skkV / k 2012

2) > E WkVD : m k E |V|


c] [m. kz[V> xl_, \VV> s>]_
E[ B ||> k|D. E \m
>>_, EB ]zD ]^ D, kD
B[|m>_ \|D V>Vm. Bu E V_o[ \Vu
k Bk|D. VBV, k [z
B[|> uk|D E[ >V> \||>
V\V[ B[|> k|D. E ][D
V^, |^ ku zs, A]Bku
l_ V| km sVD. k kVD w [D
\VVD; l[ _Kl skVVD.
l m l|>_, lwuE gBku \uV^VD.

3) > l O m : >uz uk VD V|D


c \KD B^ xl_ K> k|D; \Vu
Obl kVB, >VcD, \B z, D^ (A
k^) cD V_V, V| ku
B[|>VD.

4) \ kVmVA : VmVzD cw, V[ skVBD,


|\V^ |>_, cw, zl^, \ V^,
^>Vz skVBD gBk uV|V [u|
k[.

5) WkVD : zD E\V, ] B[>D s>]_


B[|> k|D. t>_, k ku[ JD k
W]KD skVB cu]B VD. ] >
B[|]V_ > >z>_ cm V>_ gBk m
kD. _VD kV_ >Va_ Ob B[|>VD.
>uz | xBuE >k. skVBD, g|, \V|, Va, [
k>_, \D k>_, l cu] ku m F>V_
]\ tzD, cu] tzD. > tA >Va_ Ob^
x\BV B[, x>VBD xkmD [| ku u
k|D.

6) kz[V kV\l_, J >V^,


Wk[ z : kE [m | xBuE. skVB
^ cu]B ]m, kD z[V\_ , k kD
skVB [ _B >V V k|D. x>VBD
xk>D, >[[ wm Vk|D. \M>M[ xBuE
^ ]KD skVB\ ] s_ | xBuE gzD. m

skkV / k 2012

29

>M>MB ]D \M> m, V^ V]>


xl_ AD x>VB\V [Ms|D. _VD um
VBD >k. |xBuE [ k Vm. _D,
Bcm>_ V EV_ \|D k m sVm.

7) c^j >V \A VVu^ :


[V| BV, >B sV BV, c^j z,
\Vu uV| gsVm. k (B s_ ^) c^j
B> \[MB xzD. c^j >V \A
a>VazD. ku _V\ s|D. >V_ Aw_
\KD \KD oD. c^j \[ B_]D z[s|D.
Aw_ \Vu [z WkVD Fm, VV>V kEB
V| kD l_ c^j \^ ] VkV^.

8) c^j \[ ~|V| >V[ k m


c>D : uk [| >V Z]BV m k
FD \D, ] Wkuk>uV, zV
D \D z ]D WkB zD
> . kD >Vm zD.

9) \^ \^ x[D : \^ \^ x[D
[z ]k\V BVEm FB|D . ]]uV
\ [m. \^ > u m >^ [
c\ VV|D k V]m. ) k^ BV
Vk k FB k|D. k] k^ Fm
>k|D. BV ]_ > [z m V^
>BVV k^ k|D. g) c^j \[
]\ ckV k|D. ) V\ \^ BV
VV>V [\^ k|D. Bu k^ \D|>
k|D. ~) J \[ u\D, c^D ckV
k|D. c) ku z^ A]B A]B \uV^DVmD
z[ m kV >V> c|bD VmD
c^j \[ D k[m. ) c^j xBuE >B
z \D|> cw k|D. c^j z^ c^j
z \VuV FBVm. z>VV k FB
k|D. kR WkV, k] Fm V|ms|
ssk|D.

10) kz[V kV\z, | xBuE^ [ >k?


) cwk E ][M V k, Aw_ kVs
WkVD FV. |> kB_V E \m B[|mV. k

30

skkV / k 2012

E V_o VD a[. kV, E V_o


V[ >kBV z V| k|m.
g) lwuED, l ]t|kmD > E
|V| WkV ]][ k|D. Vm>V[ yB
E[ gm z w zD. c^j_
E^ E\> ][D, clkVD gm >||D.
) W][ l cD \V] , |> kB_VD \D
k>_, lko k>_, z k|>_ gBku x>_ cwk
Vk FBk|D.
~) Vm ]V V, OwkVl_ gBku_ m
Dm cwkD \V] E]m B_k|D.
c) >B > \V|>_, [, c^ x>oBk _
m kV_ JD kB>_ gB E^, Vm kVV
uk|D. > W_ BVk|D. >M>M
cwkV_ > k Vm.
) >\_ zD ], zD ku[ , g|, \V| ku[
V>V_ \VV\_ k|\VV_ V\D u\BV
>V_ >V[ k zD.
) VDB s> k|\VV_ x>VBD xkmD
u\[ k F>V_ >V[ c|.

11) c^j Wk^, \A^ ku[ z


) >VaV m cu]B VD.
g) |V^, W] ku ]VD. [, tA, su
guVD.
) cu] ] ]zD A]B k (c^, s>^,
skVB ^) ku > VVD.
~) Bu k^ z[V\_ Vm V^VD.
c) V\ s_ x>VB |\V k]^ Fm >VD.
) V^ kzzD WkD E \Vu V|
kVD.
) cwk gVFE / skV k[ VD.
) >V| Wk[ >k_^ E c>kVD.
n) \^ >^ s [D [z B[|> k
[VD. EA z[ (c_ xuV, k l
FkV ) >k WkuVD. (>VD)

]\]. M [, 2 \B ,
>V V, VDVD,
[ 600 024

skkV / k 2012

31

uz kE

]BxD >VxD
s. V\V>[

>VD [ k>V, V> k \VB \z,


VBVV, \Vo k], Ek], [
gBV B^ Wz k[. V, z\[ [ BD
W|[.
\Vo > D kzD >D. k \BV
\[. >D V kal_ g| k>V. sb \[^
k
Vm
VV\
V. sibkV b,
\VoB am, ^
VVu^ [ k
V. \BVV|,
\Vol[ >\VBD [
Vu[m. z D,
D zkV Vm, [
V. ]| Vm. \Vol[
V_ \] Wsu. kVVl[
kV[ k > xD?
kV[ D\V ks_ k>V.
>[ E VBV_ J[ WD >V\V V. ]_ \m k
V> FkVVD. \[[ z VVBV k >V.
D\VBV k]k kV[ sibk. k k|Vz
D\] kVD [V. V|> kV * \Vo Bs_.
]_ k c]BV W[, >V[ kB W> m
|mV^D k sibkVMD V_osV. \Vo
>\kV[. k k_K>_ xBVm [ kVz >D.
\Vol[ k]_ T\V \\> k >V, |
VV. \[[ zs[ gV s_. >
T> B[|] V| kV[ k BBV T]
sV. kV[ sk\V sVAV \[[ x[ kk|>V.
kB | s_ zD, V>VxD s.

32

skkV / k 2012

J[VD k D _. >\V o >[ >BB V


>[*m >[ VB kzD kVMD V. kV[
kV Fm k V>V c_ >^sV.
> z kVM[ i]uz >[ s> \Vo
\m sV. [V VD >Vkm >|>>D Fm VD V|>
kVz]l_ m kk xBuE FVD. V]_ V>
V_ k[ V|> kVz k V|s Vm\Vm.
gk _ (VDA) B ]D ] FB >kB BVm.
Vm > Dk]_ [V c>D c|. \Voz
\^ >V^. k^ \VoB, x [ > D\V
kk> V>V^. kD >VF\ V >m.
zw>B >[ \*m V| V k^ gV^.
gV_ k\V >[ >> >Vu> V^ k^.
k^ [A mk\V \VBm! zw>B V[
sk|D [ k k^ c^]_ >m. uV]_ k^
>BV m zw> iz V >[ s>
Wku VV^. [ kV[ k gk]m
kz x] V|>V.
kV BKzD \sV ]B_ c|.
\ \uz Vkz, _VlD g|z
>Bk>m. ku kz VD x[ D AV^ E!
AM> BV][ |k, \Vo >Vu|, V>V]_ >^V.
> V]uz kVBV, kV[ >k >V. pV\V
k skVt][ BV> V>V. i k>V]_ k
>\A][ V`B BQ> \uVk | ] k>V.
>kV BKz VBE>\V uB_^.
MAV][, E, NB EAs[ kt]_ k>k.
k vV\ V>M[ \[. kV o_ E, \Vsibs[
\V D\Vs[ kt] [ |^m. k
\[ VV. k sib sV]. ][
>\lV sk^ kB >V* ]B |
E. MkV[ AV kkD |m VV. ][
m kkD |>V. kD El[ V|z k>.AVk
m m>, AV VF El[ \l_ s>m. >[ V_kD
]D m >[ VzD AV ElD k Vm.
AVk V ]BD F> E > >[ l_ |m
VV. >[ B_V c [ m, AVk s|s V_o
ElD sD F>m. >V[ AVs V c]

skkV / k 2012

33

]>VD, >[ E y m k>D k VD


[D E V. AVk >s k>D u V^ m
D\] s_. \[D s| V|s_. >[ cD_ m
\Vt> m, AVs[ z \\V, ]uz V|D
\[ x[ k>V. m D\] kB>Vlu. El[
>Vl_ AV s>>V_, kB >V \VtD k|D [m
m.
>VE[ >_ AVD [V >_ >V \VtxD
k. EB>V V AVs[ BV ]\V
>m. \[M[ co_ m \KD \KD \VtD k
|m. gV_ >_VD Vs[ z \D gs_.
>[D, >[ ]B>D V> Fm V sk
km^ [ E \[ cm D k >s_.
>D V V k >VE[ ] xl_ cV>V.
[ gBD V^. AVD, mD >^ BkkD >V km
>\ \[ kV]. >V[ kz _ [ V_V>
El[ VB >k^ Vu. kBkz >[ c V>
kwzk]_ EB >kD z c>V\V VV^.

34

skkV / k 2012

_z|DD _wD

_> M>Vzkm m?
gV
_ V[ V[ V| Au EB >
gkV. k >D y>E (V) o_ V: c^
zw>z c^ [ ^ V| xD. c^
>kVD.
k c_z D \m V|^,
kB g\V E|>Vy^.
M_ kB g\V^ VB Ao_
kV[. cV_ sKD VxBVm
^ k|\VV_ k V xBuE
b^. k cV_ g gVy^.
M_ clkV [V _k]_.
uV]_ > >B Wumt_. ^ s_^ c^
zw>^ s__ m B|D clDA^.
[B zw>^, k >D k
]V^.
t
ku^m
Eku
>>|zD
W>^
k^x[
c|.
>[
[
c^ \^
c D
kkV^. Vm
V|m k^
k >
^. >\V] B^ cVkm B_A>V[, _VzD

skkV / k 2012

35

>\V] B^ cVzD [ k >u^. >


* w gk\V kz c>s F^.
D\V] >_ k ^ BV|km tB y\B
cVzD. > k xBVm. zw> k B^ \M>
kEl_ z; ku >s BVm. JE>D,
D, \V k _VD >Vu sBV]^. k T_
W]>m M_ z kVD zw>l[ >[D >
wVm, kk kVm. gV_ T[ w_ [AD ]]D
g>xD W>>V \m sVV, zw>
V |s Vm tz> kVFA ]V^D
]\B km V^D. ^sz ]_^ c| [ m
DAD. kV_ ]V^ xD [ m DAD. E
y xD [ zw> DAD. kuV_ zw>l[ uz
g\ ckVm. A>[\ zm. kVl[
WB\u ]^ >zw>B ]D Bxmk]_.
Em VB D [B\BV>m. m z|D>D,
D kFm. kBV_
>m. \V D, k w A]B
V_ V k c>m. V> V_ , VD
A[ ABD kVB Vm EtD k
\z gu_ >m.
c^ zw>l[ kVs_ A> c ]m s|^.
kV VD >uz _ A>> E Wt^ m
V|^. V^ [m 24 \ D W>m. ]_ 1520 WtD
D mz^. zw>z A>D m V|km [
i\V? zD kwD V zw> VmD >M\l_
k>Vm.
ko, m[D ku zw>^ B_Vk
ck_k^. T| wo_ xD, V_ kD
>VMz\VV_ > \[\BV c xm. D
cuVm[ D Fm, VD zw>[ > V
VV|VD. >V_ ]iD z[B k E
zw>VD VD D F>V_ k [V
zD!
VD \E[ >uV WB >
s|VD. \B]_ VD B >k uB
B _V\_ VF s|VD. c^ \ \V>V\V>D

36

skkV / k 2012

V> _]uV, k] z>k^ kVD _mV


wm V^.
t kA Ao]uz zw> wm
_K^. kz , [A, m cb>_ x>oB
uz^ xD g|D. >B k^ zw>[
c_D, \D, EA gBku ckVzk]_
z\\V s^, g> s^, W> s
cVzD. zw> z >BVkm V|zD Vm cVzD
[D >o_ [D gBku u V^D. [A VD,
VD u V^D.
E \D V]_ Vz V|m. k
kVFA VV, [ [ VDB z|D B
>V] k^ [V^. [ VD ck|D.
\sBVD, >VBVD ]_ [D VbD \ c|
[ VD ck|D. k^ k > _KD ]\
uk^ [ >uz V^ _. k^ \sBV, >VBV
]_ ] ]] k> >uz VD. L. . V [
\E WA [V. T sQV]_ ]zD
x>VB]_ m[B_ > c|. x>VBD >Va_
Ob> kV| km^m. [B^ uz
>V^ guD s> xBmkxD _V>m [
mV^. Vz kD V|m. [l[ ,
>VF\ [m, [ *m \>|D >uVo m[VF [
D\Vz V^[m. g k k_kV, >VD
k k_k^ [ k^ V V^ sDAD kB
VV]uz >VF\ V m. nBV! > z
sD ABk _. >VBV m, E[E \M>
clz >[ BV> >m, [ V|m, >> ~m,
[[ VmV m, Mk V Akm k
cB>m!|> >xl[ gVBD, \D, VmVA
c, WA>[\, \ ku >Vl[ B _kV
y\VMm!
V \KD k>Vkm
k>Vkm: >xl _ >VF\VV
>V_, Dk xBV> z [\ cVzD. VZ
x>VB]_ cm VFs s|>, \]V >VF\
>VVuD.
>VF\l[ \\B B Vu_ kVt skV>
V. cB t cB>m [l[ >s>V[.

skkV / k 2012

37

M_ z >V[ t c[>\V B\ k^ u
V^V^. luE |m V^V^.
uVB TD g> [AD, AD zw>l[
kVs_ D DBD, WA >[\BD u
>m. >> >[ zw>D [A V|k>uz t
c[>\V ka kB [lD [AD D
V|km>V[. [l[ VAD >B>. zw> >[
>>lD B sBB ]Vm. >> [A
Vk|D. zw> D m k|D. >>B
u zw> ]D W V^km k >[ _
>B.
uV^ zw>z >B tB [A,
|V|k. zw>^ uV[ |V|s_ m
[\ k|\VV_, VD k|\VV_, uV^
|V WBVB\V xlKD c]BVD, [A
[lKD kkw k|D. zw> k]_
>k^, kBmz kDVm, Vm[ >^
zw> k> ]D VV^. m
kkV, [ c[ ]D >[ kVB
VzV^.
cl Em \]>_, > \]>_ >[ >D
>D > \]>_, Vzkm s] \]>_,
Vm Vm \]>_ gB uz uV, >D
c>V k^ JD zw>^ \]_ ]B FBk|D.
#B, \BV Awo[ xBmk> zw>^ c>_
k t >kBV uz^ gzD.
\Ml_ VE WB Vm. Vl[
z \M>^ >u m _ sz
D Vm \|D Vl_ z m _K^. c^
zw>z c>V\V ]^! \^
V^.
D ] kVs_ E sB^ xB kD V\_ V
[. gV_ B E Dk^ c^> kk.
ku BVD | Vuk]_ >V[ M\ m.
E[E [A B_ D\V_ u VV xBk|D.
D\ u zD B wB V^ VV D\V_

38

skkV / k 2012

Bk|D. _VkuuzD \V, cD [m \M>!


\M>D [A V ka kB c_
u>. ^ u k|S^ [
V|k>!D _K^ VV|, [VD ku VD
k|] s_ [V_ kuz > VD BVm.
[\[ >V_, >Vkm \z^ \m zD zw>B
VmD >VmsV\_ >V_, D kV WD,
\D V| EzD. zw>l[ m
uzD Dx^ VD km V^k|D. ^s
zD \Vz, D gk_, VV|D zD, k, ]>
\V[\ k|D. k^ k BkVkV,
x]BkVkV \Vu\VV! D \V D\ BkVzD
_m w| > V FD.
VD D zw>z s| _B t \]A^ Vm,
gw\V \B DB. [A^ [V. k D\
kMm V^[V. VmD D\ g>D, c>sABD
\z >kBV V>_VD k k[V. ^ D\
VmD s|k]_; t \BKD kB
V\V D\ kam[m [ DB D
zw>z VD k|D. > >Bk\V D, D
zw>z W> > V|m, BV KD
k^ x[ _ kakzzD.
> \V] uz \]|, \M>z>V[ c| [
V^ kVD. VsB yu]_ Dt [
k o m. Dtz^ \ cEl_ kVk. ku[
z *VF c uVz kmsV_,
z lV Dtz^, \l_ m w
{km o_ Tm cl s|s|D. kVkD >
V_ |^. > uA> WE sQVMD
]A Fm^m. > s VD > u
VV k|D. Dtz^ B ]BV z> \][.
cl_ [ u k|[. >V_ VD DA^,
>^ V[ku[ x>VB \A, z ku Vm
VBD [VD. ku[ uz \]|
_VsV_ > zD, \AD cV xBVm. \M>VB
VD [ > c\B A V| ku Vk
u\D, [AD kVwk|D.
([ k>V> k 1995)

skkV / k 2012

39

] Wk
\V. Vl[ AM>
kV kV
V
]. D. N>VB m_V, c>s V]], Am_o
z kD Vm tz> \BV> c|. k
skV> V WkVB> ckVBk [>uV
\|\_. gV_ k \BV ]^ cwV. m
\sD VD ]]_ k *]_ >V[ ]>VD. km
\s >V k> F] z tz> ]EB >m.
kVt >BV>V, V\i\D, [
]. V Vl[ \ Vuz { wA. E>
>>D, c V J k\V k D V|
T V]_ ckVB E EizD ][ V \>^
k. k t>\V
>BxD, k D
BuBV u>V. m
k kB kVs[
B
WkuBVm
>V xBV> > ku
V
s>]om
km. kVt skV>
*mD k c>E> >B
EB][
*mD,
k
V> ] _Bum.
>V
V>VkV,
EuBV ka] ]. V
\> V WkVBD
\]_
]B>

W E [ \ V
[[zD Wm WuzD. V[ >[ _l_ wKD,
>uKD, \uKD _V_ w| _ \]om \V
nDm cB]_ BuBVk \m^ Vl_ ]. V

40

skkV / k 2012

B kVt skV>[ E [MBVz\B m[


AM> y> >D [ Wlom c][ AM> BV] \BD
[ Wz cB]Bm. wVm ObD V
^ D\ ~m V[ glD g|z [AD, >
WkVBD kV >]l[ sB|D B]B
k]zD. \uD kV]_ VmD t|>V
l_ cD xk]Ktm BV]^ z km [
Vkm c].
]. g. kV\[, ]B VmVA \D, Am_o
V[ VB t \V D u>[.
k FB k|\[ kB \Vk cED,
\M>z]uz >V|Ak>uV ]BV| B E>D
[ mD k>. V WkVBxD, ]xD kVt
skV>[ EB]uzD, kB uzD \m
V[ k\V VDBt V[ *>V kB c]BV
DzD kVD >VEBV szD.
]. V V, VV\[ c, Am_o
]. V V uA>\V \M>. V[ k
19601965 kV_ D u[. k 196869D k_
skV> V WkVBD \uD skV> ]]uV
W] ]|D l_ ~|>Vm V^ ]m kwD.
kB \ { wA. V[ wm s>
c[.
V E, VV\[ c
V| >[ tD E>^ ] E>^
J BV^ k wm s>V_ ]. V Vl[
\ tt m\Vm. skV> V WkVBD
|k]_ kB z c\lB ~| Bum. m
kB \suz [D kB W VmD
Vu|k> c] FD.
]. V , >] VV, V] W>[ VEB l[
\ _, _V, pV\i t[ _, ]
kVt skV> c\lB Am Vk^
E k^ 1) V> Wk]>, 2) >V Vi ] V,
3) V V gk.

skkV / k 2012

41

> E] u JkD ]B Q^ \|\_Vm


cD xk]Kx^ QzD, kB
V]uz \|\_Vm kD uV|z\V zs[ x
c>>D Am V>. VB V>\_,
k V WkVB> \|D ckVs_. gV_ >uzD
\V gV >V V skV> ]>
\>V. k^ c[ J x|z_VD kVtl[
V^^ [ s ] _k. mk Vl[
tB A.
]. .. kV[, \]B ] \ \uD ] t[
c>s>k, Am_o
skV> V WkVBD \uD skV>
]][ >V >k ]. V Vl[ \ F]
kB zD, D sDzD ]EB >m.
>VVz >[\, \l[V_ ]BV| B> ~|V|,
>VVuk>uV gkD k _VD k >[>
VVs_ skV> V WkVB W> QVV>
kD >xz c V>mk]uV c>\V
W[Vm.
]. V>z\V, VV, \V_ >i
p Vl[ \ VD _VzD >M V>
\uD >B wVzD. m c\lB ~|FB xBV>m. V[
VBV| B >VA k]zD VB>
u>[. V[ \V_ >E[ x>_kV >Vm 1978_
k EDVsuz sBD F>V. mk km E kBV
zD [ V[ VmD Ws_.
]. s \V_, xD
V[ p V Vl[ \> m g>
m\>[. z p VBV| VD wt>m.
x>VB]uz k gu k> B\u B V[ cBkV
\]>[. [MBVz\l_ skV> V WkVB B
>V W F> km z> V>B | V[
sB>[.
kB \kV_ V| \BV, B\u, cB>
g[\Vk wm sm. kB g[\V V]BB k
V][.

42

skkV / k 2012

]. . V\i[, WkV BV, VyB sBV k[,


xD
p V >V> \c]l[ c>sBV_ > cBVD
[> \_VD V>V. p V D _VD V_
> c^ >MBVk k>V. c sKDVm >
kVk>uz { c[>\V \V g [V.
k >M \M>[ kV c Vm \M>V
sk\VkV gxD [>uV { c>VD. kz
V> z|DD [ [D _. kVt skV>[ g\
tz> c>V_ ck\m k _V ]D,
]\D cBVm kB V> [ [V
Vm [\V \VuV. k [[D W kVt
skV>z WkVBD [ V.
skV> V WkVBD kVt skV>z
WkVB\V ]>V >V[ m
VzD WkVB\. c\l_ \V[z \BV>
Fkm \z V\ \BV> Fm V^k>VzD. m \z
tB V\VzD.
\c][ B sVxBuE, tD V
WlKD \u m, >uzD \V kMD
D, k Vl[ xB\V s zVzD. k
kV[ \uD k [ >x >Vm
ckJ|D. V ckVzD ][ V \>[ {
[ BVD. c], W>\V k[c^, ]BVs[
VmD xm\BBV>, gV_ VmD \[ szD
V[ { [ BVD k.

F]
p V [ > kV kVu
_ A> ks_ skV> ] V[
, 5, EVV >, [ 600 005
[ xkl_ kl|^m. s . 70/\ k] i[ k^ WkV

skkV / k 2012

43

V> Wk]>
VEB ]\]. g. VD \BD

Wk]>l[ _s E>D, VV|D


Wk]>l[ VV| kV VzV| Fm gVBVD.
1) >uVo _s >kzD, wKzD u bD, mD
(g]_ J[ (g ) z|D. kVE>_, m>_,
, zw>z u>_. 2) Ek >V _sx
V[ _s x, 3) _s uzD x^,
4) _s zV ]B V _s, 5) V|
kE _s, 6. >B sV _sD, >B c|D
_sD, 7. x _s.

V>ku bD, mD, u>_


u>_: k,
>sD t [B\BV>m ]B Wk]>,
VD, D B[|]D, zw>^ \]_
u VED wFm kV AVD
s^V. zw>lD
J[D V[zD >V_
k? gEB
ssV_ zw> >D
Am V^ BVm.
zw>l[ x[ J[
w^, J[ \^, J[
zE^, m^ _m J[
k zw> V
gEBB zw> V
>V
z w > B D
F>V_ zw> cuV>V|
]_ bD ]\B
u s|D. kV u
k V| zw>
>VVk ^sz
sVbD gu k
k|D. J[ _m V[z ]_ zD V

44

skkV / k 2012

]_ Eku m km s| ElzD V^[


[ zw>lD V_ zw> >VV E]m
sD. z kz_ c^ Bk_ kz >D
uzD V zw>lD m w^, s>^
V[ku J[ kBm zw>B V| k Fm,
BkD zw>B ^s FBVD. k|\[
Bk^ >BV>mV_ m >kV s V_ kz[
> zw>D zD\Vt| m BV sB
>V\V VbD. VV| >VA|] z> D 10
m k l[[ V VV\
zzD Vu [ | [ |D
V> Am V^D gu_ k|D. >
gu zw> , A^ B[|mD x u
szV V> Wk]>.
x>_ > zw>lD V ]_ wD m
gEB s| Vkm ]_ > Vo^ [?
J[Vkm ]_ > m^ c^? [
Dxl_ A^ zw>^ \D kD VV
Vsm sV V_ zw>^ gk>V|
B m V^D.
zw>z a>_ D Dxl_ >V
uVD. |mVV \ V||^ [
V[Vkm > |m V| zw>lD E u
^s VD. E zs \][ cEl_
|Bm [ V[Vkm > V u FB
kVD. _ k x^ m. Vm
cuV^. _ > x^ c^? gEB
V_ zw>^ cuV\V V[z x^ c k.
V^ xl[ >V_ cm, cm zs z
kB k>m. Vm > x^ _ c^?
gEB V_ zw>^ z#\V J[ x^ ]_
k. _, a>_ x u _k
k\V, \E\V ka V V> Wk]>.
kV _, kz>_ z u>uzD V>
Wk]> |m ^ kax^ tD B^kBVD,
k\VD, zw>[ BxBuED, gk>D
#|kBVD c^. _, a>_, kz>_, _ x>oB
> xD kuuV zX|D (+, -, x, = ) u>[

skkV / k 2012

45

u \uD uB kV
c> Wk]> \uV ka _s l_ k>
~|VuzD, u ]V| B guKzD E> |mV|.
u \uD k|> k >
>V\V ^, >Vt_V ^
z|km kwD. u V| zE \M>^ Vm
VkV _m l|km VkV km |, |
zE \M>V m k^ t >V>V| Bzk>
VV. >z mB V> zE \M>[
k>VF> x>V| >V V|D kD zE \M>
^ km u, B c^
kV szkV. kV W>_, >_ k
>D u A]B, u B
kax mV Wk]>.
kV \]O gu kzD _sl, ]D,
>Va_ OxD kzD x B[|]D >]
kzD kakD ^V Wk]>. VE V>_, VF
[>_ V[ s zw>^ \uV^D V>
> k A BKD kVFA V^V V>
Wk]>.
> u>_
u>_: kD Vu_ VD,
D, cD, clD uB k
zw>z A xB_k>uz x[ V V
V zw>^ BV kVFm kEB\VzD.
V, \ VE VbD VmD, BVD
VmD zw> \]_ u|D D, VED,
cD k|> c>D s mD
kV>D. VD, \VED
x|] >[[ > A|D Vm Vb>_,
>_, _ [D DJ[ AzD B
A u|m. ^ V[. V V[
B _m VV| >VAB B_^ _m
c u F] Vm^ [.
cBV Vm sk, _m ^ V> sk
kVFVuV kl|m. _ \Va cB zw>
A>]_ V|zD ]uz VmD kV>B
gEB | ] V_D, kV>B kVED
u>V| kV>z \kkD V|m \]_ ]m
V^m.

46

skkV / k 2012

D ms
g.E. >Vb
D\V V_k
D\Vs[ sV^
skzD x[ kVtl[
s^ ztaVF
c>. >VF
Vm EBk
>[ BBVm
Vm VV^ D\V.
cm \D
c\l_
]> A>D.
> s [
[\V x[
m>V[ c[ u
BVD [MD
|mV\B
c[ u
BVD c[MD
|mV>>
|m>>[
VD.
kVtl[
g[* \w
V \
|]Bm.
A]B k>V>D
Aml um.
\Vk
gVk
Vm
M>VF w>m.

cW>^ c>V
Z]BVF s|
c^ Z]BVF u.
V^ kVt
z\V x_
z|D
JkD kB_kl_
k >>.
k k>M_
k>k
x VF]
k> \V| [
kz| k>m.
m k>
_ \B]_
m VV.
x[[ x_V_
x \|D x>m.
B>V_ >Bk
>m >l_ VF>V.
s> VzD
c> x_zD
B z>
k >V[.
x_z x[[
kVt \V
] VV.
gk V
Vm!

skkV / k 2012

47

kVt skV>, sQVD g[*D


V g. E>DD
V> E[ x>[\ sQV gV, x[V^
>k, V> b] gBD, [V^
m>k c b] gBD
([MBVz\ skV> ]D \ml_ uV| F]> >t
VVsB k_ k_k
k_k!! Q xVt[ W swVs_
26.01.2011 [ guB W l[ >twVD)
gV_ D \>V[ [? kVt skV>
xV> kwz[V. \z t _ zD
\B [z guk>[ JD, D
l_ Vm zD B
[z Fk>[JD, VD D\
|] V^VD. D >
]m V^VD. s>]_
BV VD x[,
kVlKD, x>VB]KD tD
sD> \, Vu>
\ gu xk_ t>
WB s|kVD!
z V[ >
V_oBV k|D. >>
\VMB >V [ T
Bm. p>D > [
kmz V| k>V. V>
Vk _V>k k >B ]B]_ V[ sBA
V^[. _ ] kVF> VV > >V.
k> s> ]VD u kz KA >Bm. k
sDB BVzD V >BV kwVD. gk k
>V[ >s m>V. V|z, ]BVD FB VFsV.
m k^ a>. >[ _V> V]_ V| WkD
>m [ V VV, V|z ]D k>V.
z kB k ]> x>_ w. k^
VVz VD sV^. cV_>V[ [ z|DD V\V

48

skkV / k 2012

Vlu. x[V^ VV gB\m V. D\V >V >k


m. c z >Bk >BVm. cz V[
y\ F] xD? > w V^. cz
[ >BV\_ VD. ^ V WV>kV s|s|
VF s^. [ k c^ sE. kD [D,
zw>D s|s| VF sV. s>D VD D \B
guV\_ s|s|DVm, VD ]VV> s^ u|[.
kVt skV> ^V. V, BV\,
u>V^, > J[ >^ >VD k\B, ]KD V\
\[ k\B VD [ BV| am k|D [>uz
xB VD. km x[B V>D [>uz V[ >D
sD V> V\][ kV>D uk kE >
V|_, \_V> z][ kV >>V| >
s>mz kkm >V[.
kVt skV> 25.03.1896 [ VkV|
_w][ m >>V VuVa guV.
TV Qz, Nm AM> _[
t>kV D gzD, a gzD. k J[s>\V
cBVEB u [V. k^ (D) AM> _z
> s_ m J[ >mk D
D>VBD >. [ mk>D, [V[
sEiVk>D. J[Vkm k>D. ku^, mk>,
sEiVk> s V> \_ DV[\l.
k]^, kV| |l_ l_ z>k^.
kVt skV> V. z^ ]B\Vm mkV
>mD k. kM]_ c\BVm _VD
V. kV kzD, \M>zD B c^
kz VD V| sm.
c_ Z]BV >M g\ [m \VB \Vu k [
sQVD Wm s>V k ]V. u\V, Bx^
V ksV V[ [> * \m \M>[ ku,
cVsB g\B kV[ [V kVt. >>V[
k> k>V>D [m. > gw\V, \V, u[
xBmkD \]_ D gzD. > cD V
m V_ >V[m. [ z|D \VD, V]
\VD. u, >u kuV_ w V[ [ VD.
Vkm V \_ kVkD [

skkV / k 2012

49

Vk>V[ (>D\u) Wm VV^ [m


[ VD t \]uz V| k[m.
>D BV\_ sQVM^ k> k>V>
>mkmz t kV^. sQV][ s]^ m
s>]KD BVkzD Vmk. t[V>sB_ uB
\Vk_o[ \[V|[ \V\V, zkVD \VM_
uB iV[ \[VV, VA V^ uB Vm
V^BV, > V _zD c>_.
V^^ c\BVk [ DBVm
c[ m z]KD c^ sQVMB m.
m s>\V cVsB Q c>B\V F>m. zkVD
\VML_ / m^ \ [ V^,
VA uB EA V^l_ VD, ]D [,
[V[V \Vk_k [ V^, s|D
>VD uV[ mkV]_ xD FB.
kuz gw\V >mk VD >VxD c|.
sQVMz, Bul[ s]^ \VV\_ Wm
mD Bul[ _k W_ > s]^
k>V[kmD kM[ B gzD. (zA: Bu s]^
\VV\_ Wm k [>uz sQVD \z >
kVz]D V|s_) As~A uB > k s] u
>m Vk VD c\BV zD [ ]VVD.
iV[ \[V| [ g| >> Vk kD
gKD c\BV zD [ ]VVD. (VD
VV, > s] \KD \KD \ V^VD. A]B
s]D |VD) Bu >Vu][ s]
k[ BV mVD. >uzD V_ \B VkBV
(\B Vk [\BV) >Mz k|D. kk k>
V| wKz uD k|D.
kVt skV> > Vk [ xBuE
F>V. g|z x[ k BB T sQV]_
> DxD V\ V^BV|D, VA V^ g|D
k> k>V>]_ m x|k]_. (>VD)

]uV sD W] c>s
MB ]. . \]kV[, [
50

skkV / k 2012

Vl_V kVs_ co_ Bu


k[ z
V k. ] D. E>V

c_ ]l[ >\ >Vm D


D: g, c_ ]l[
AM> >VmkV D, V>D Bu k_ t
xB\V>VzD. co[ m k ]uzD g>V\VF
zD. > >Vm cl >VmkD ||mD [>
B kBm. k B>V, k>>V, kD
mk\V VV ]V_ >s BV\ [m
c_ _. > c_ zD x>VB EzD,
V[V[ WBV g[*mzD D kVV m
>B >VmkVzD. >][ c_ >Vu Wz g>V\V
>Vmk kV W]_ kzk]_ >k _.
Eu[ VV WBV\_ [ Wz >Vmk
|m [ \V[^ . c_ > VDBxD V>
>FTD B >[\B D VDB\ kmz V|
km^m. VDB\V \M>^ sm kD VFzD,
sl[ Vm cVzD VFzD ]ys gF \uV^D
T \mkm >uVm VDBD D EB_A A
Vm V| km. [ >, [ ot[ >, [
k[ > B_ c>V gF FB kkm
>B >VmkB gzD. >Vms[ >[\, EB_A^ m
]>V_, z>V_ u|D z^, D ckVzD W,
c^ m mD ^ D VDB sB
x\BV kV\V. m a V^ _, ^ ]z
WVm. x>B >xl[ A VD, VB >xz
|m D VD V> QV> >a[
kxz| kVD.

D [m [? g >][ c_, c^ ]l[


>\ >Vm \VzD. sm, c_] [ w|D.
coK^ m c_ cA[ B_| >\
]BD, \ co[ ]BD tm V|^>VzD.

V>D
V>D: > c_ c^ ]l[ >\ >Vm
V>\VzD. >VmD \uB ]B V|^m.

skkV / k 2012

51

co_ (g () ) >VmD, V> >VmD


^. >> V_ cKz u , V> >Vm^
tz| \D. tz| B_|D. >xD, gVB >xD
m, >[ >[\B k|mD. >Vm c
cs[ tz D, coK^ m k >VmV \V ]l_
ckVzD >Vm \VzD. >Vkm [ >V[V \V, \V
]l_ k k >VmkV \V xBV> Wz [ WD
>Vm >VmkVzD. coK^ \B>V , y, Vu D
, >, kV> D J[ >V_ z|>|, c_
>Vm_ \V B_|, ]l_ >D k|mD
] \VzD. \[ [ km VDB
\mk]_ uAB>_. [ > c^B
][ J>Vm \VzD.

][ B_A
B_A: > sk D ]BVBD k|D
[>V_ kVD. m m >D m mz
BVm [ Du^ D. ][ >mk B_A k
E>V> u_ sm B_ D >_ zV ]\]
o_ > BVD. >Vkm l[ >[\B >m.
B. , \ , , QV , Ek D nm
^ kD c^Bm \VzD. kB
]uz \B\Vm. \uB nm kV ckV,
B_|D ][ W>Vmz c|. cl>Vm
D \[\BVm? _, W>_, Os>_,
\]BV_, VV_ ([Am zo gu_) D
WD, E, A, \D, D, g^>[\ gBkuuz
\BD gzD. >uV M _sl_ gFmkD >BV
gF^ \uB W_ zD [m AV^
kB [. V>D >mk Wl_ o WB zzD.
co[ c^ \]^ D o WB zzD. o _V>
D co_ _. {D [ o \zD WDBmVm
\zD WD^ oB >k>V_ > {[
cszD ] V> B_ gzD. xD, V>xD
m. kV coKD cVzkm. oB cKz
>km. > Wz u, BV kVz u c^j
c|k>VzD. D >mk Z]l_ ^ B_ M_ V>D
B BVzD. > |D clz \B\VzD. B
BV]_ g> \BV]_ \V|D D V>D
>[ > ck >Vu]uz g] gzD.

52

skkV / k 2012

k^ >V\l[ >^

]_ V ]k
kVD
EkAVD >mk c p pV] QV \V[,
V] QV D , 15 V[ T],
_VBD, ~V| 638 003, ^ 114, s . 30/
Ek\V VuD m]V_^ \VkV
\VM[ EkAVD tz> A um. V >^
> {] tz> WD\] VV^. > VKz k kBV
kVt^ c ]^V.
kB VuVa
>Vzm ^ kwB
kw^. gVBD, Vu,
A, , \ gB
>V_ gB _
> cl kVs[
JVD [> kVt^
|m V|V. _ c^
>V ]B k>^ D >D
[>
z|V.
EkB ]uz >
V\ D\V
]m. [ gB k[
kkD V| VE >km
V[ gB VV_
^ Fk> zD.
QD [ V_Kz >l[ [ z]l_ c^ Jz]
[ sD A]>V c^m. kV BV V] sD, >k
kVs[ sD, AM> kVs[ xBmkD, QV
zAD o_ ss^. >kV _ V>D
guVz V[ k |m V Vz
> A kk> >m > Vu>uzBm cB>V
c^. D, z V|m \wD c> _ m.

]uV sD W] c>s skV>V


[R g os _ k (o)
[600 049
53
skkV / k 2012

] F]^

>[VEl_ \B swV
>[VE VE skV> Vso_ 14 \B kzA_ m
340 \VkD, 45 uVD, \B \VV_ u.
kVt V> ] >V Vt, BV nB[,
V> VAiD, c^j [^ V>V, [BV VB[,
V gBV zw> kV]. V \BV tBV \ \]B
cz uV| F>V. VD, , >M A, >Fk ]\M
kD, zV_ gB EA WE_ >VV\V ^
kw. WE uV|D, >kKD ] >V Vt.
Vs_ zD V^l_ ]. \z zw>
_kz kwV. _ x>_k ] ,
]. xm gBVD EA gu. WE uV|D, >kKD
. \Vk].
k] swV . >D\V^AD, VV\,
. >D\V^AD Vz, Ek, VAD, \BzE gB
_ VVm. > V ^l k]
BD, kwzD swVkD m ].
mVtAD, zD gBkD k]B ka|
zw>z _ka V.
Vs_ \B] A]BDA#, [V \z[
^l_ xVD ]. ]\] V] k>D, Ak
>. [ gBV EA gu. m V\_ m
k]> VBVz _ s \mk\l
E >. VD \V _ \VsB^ >V|
A>. 166 k VBVD, 24 k EBVD B[
u. >k_ s. \z.
Vs_ KkD _>E^, Bk^, \B
kzA \Vk^ gBV m Kk]_ k]
]. ]. VVt EA guV. >k_ \z.
z\ \Vk]_ _TB[s, Vs V ^^
uV D ] D kw.

z\V. V, 2 V] , ,
[ 600 117.
54

skkV / k 2012

. >D\V^AD, \BzE, >, VD,


z\VAD gBV uV > \V [ m
].
z\ \Vk][ k^V[ s, V[Vs,
gVzD, \Vs, _TB[s, k_[z\V[s,
D s gB V ^^ k] B >[
xBmk> zw>^ cD kD ] V>.
>[>V\zD skV> swVs_ V| V,
>_ V, V, V WE^, V^, >
>_, VV, k] gBk _k V_
kVl[ Vm wz >. >k [. ]
VB[, . V[, V gEB s. Vi >s, u.
^z\[ gBV EA guD c>s^ FmD swV ku
c>s.

>> V| xVD
]D _ \VkD V| _ ]D D
\mk\ c>s[ v x>BV Nm |W^l_
xV\ ]u. V g>D o, ]. i[ gBV
EA gu [V kw. \_W^ >B k ]
\VkD, .. Wk VV \_ \VsD, V
z c>s F>. 35 V\_ m 201 VBV^
V]| 39 s \m\z
k Ez . WE uV|D, >kKD
]\] [. k]
Printed by

: Shri. Pravin V. Dabholkar at M/s RNR Printers


and Publishers, 8, Thandavarayan Street,
Triplicane, Chennai - 600 005.

Published by : Shri. Pravin V. Dabholkar for Vivekananda


Kendra Prakashan Trust, 5, Singarachari
Street, Triplicane, Chennai - 600 005.
Editor

: Shri. P. Parameshwaran, P r e s i d e n t,
Vivekananda Kendra, Vivekanandapuram,
Kanyakumari - 629 702.

skkV / k 2012

55