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ا ا م او ا م ا آ ل او م ا م

او م ا

او ا ا ارد — ذ

ل او م ا م ا ةد ة آ

آ ا فا إ ناّور

.2006-2005 : ا ا

ا دا إ نا ر

ا ا م او ا م ا آ ل او م ا م

او م ا

او ا ا ارد — ذ

ل او م ا م ا ةد ة آ

آ ا فا إ ناّور

ا دا إ نا ر

.2006-2005 : ا ا

ﻡﻴﺤﺭﻝﺍ ﻥﻤﺤﺭﻝﺍ ﷲﺍ ﻡﺴﺒ

ﻙـ

ﻴﹶﻠﻋ ﷲﺍِ

لُ ﻀـﹶﻓ ﻥﺎـﹶ

ﻜﻭ ،ﻡﹶﻠـﻌﹶﺘ ﻥـﹸﻜﹶﺘ ﻡﹶﻝ ﺎﻤ ﻙـﻤﹼ

ﻠـﻋﻭ

ﻡﹶﻝ ﺎﻤ ﻙـﻤﹼ ﻠـﻋﻭ ﺎـــــــﻤـﻴـِﹰ ﻅـﻋ ( 113 :

ﺎـــــــﻤـﻴـِﹰ

ﻅـﻋ

ﻠـﻋﻭ ﺎـــــــﻤـﻴـِﹰ ﻅـﻋ ( 113 : ﺔﻴﻵﺍ -ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺴ)

(113 : ﺔﻴﻵﺍ -ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺴ)

ﻠـﻋﻭ ﺎـــــــﻤـﻴـِﹰ ﻅـﻋ ( 113 : ﺔﻴﻵﺍ -ﺀﺎﺴﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺴ)

آ

ﻞﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﻡﺎﲤﻹ ﻢﻴﻈﻌﻟﺍ ﻪﻠﻀﻓ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻨﻴﻠﻋ ﻦﻣﻭ ﺎﻧﺎﻄﺧ ﺩﺪﺳ ﻥﺃ ﻩﺮﻜﺷﺃﻭ ﷲﺍ ﺪﲪﺃ .ﻊﺿﺍﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﻞﻠﻣ ﻥﻭﺩ ﻩﺬﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺮﺷﺃ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﻦﺑ ﻢﺳﺎﻘﻠﺑ ﻞﺿﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﻱﺫﺎﺘﺳﺃ ﱃﺇ ﺔﻓﺩﺎﳍﺍ ﻪﺤﺋﺎﺼﻧﻭ ﻪﺗﺎﻬﻴﺟﻮﺘﺑ ﺎﻣﻮﻳﹰ ﻲﻠﻋ ﻞﺨﺒﻳ ﱂﻭ ،ﺎﻫﺭﺍﻮﻃﺃﻭ ﺎﻬﻠﺣﺍﺮﻣ ﻞﻛ ﱪﻋ .ﺍﲑﺧﹰ ﷲﺍ ﻙﺍﺰﺟ

ﻖﻴﻓﻮﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﻚﻟ ﰐﺎﻴﻨﲤ

ﺓﺪﻋﺎﺴﳌﺍ ﺪﻳ ﱄ ﺪﻣﺃ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻒﻴﺻﻮﻟ ﺪﻴﻌﺳ ﺫﺎﺘﺳﻷﺍ ﱃﺇ .ﺡﺎﺠﻨﻟﺍﻭ .ﻊﺿﺍﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﻱﺪﻬﺟ ﺭﺎﲦ ﻢﻜﻳﺪﻫﺃ ﻢﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﺒﻠﻃ ﻞﻛ ﱃﺇ

نا ـــــــ ر

ءا هإ

.ﻊﺿﺍﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﻲﻠﻤﻋﻭ ﻱﺪﻬﺟ ﺓﺮﲦ ﻱﺪﻫﺃ ﺎﻨﻠﺟﺃ ﻦﻣ ﺍﲑﺜﻛﹰ ﺢﻓﺎﻛ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻲـﺟﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﰊﺃ ﱃﺇ ﺎﻨﺘﻳﺎﻋﺭ ﻞﻴﺒﺳ ﰲ ﺖﺤﺿ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔـﻠـﻴﻟﺩ ﻲﻣﺃ ﱃﺇ .ﺍﲑﺧﹰ ﷲﺍ ﺎﻤﻛﺍﺰﺟ ﺮﻳﺪﻘﺗﻭ ﺀﺎﻓﻭﻭ ﺔﺒﳏ ﻥﻮﺑﺮﻋ ﱄﺇﹼ ﺱﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﻗﺃ ﺎﻳ ﺎﻤﻜﻴﻟﺇ ،ﺀﺎﲰﺃ ﺓﺪﻴﺣﻮﻟﺍ ﱵﺧﺃﻭ ،ﺓﺰﲪ ،ﻦﻳﺪﻟﺍ ﺮﺼﻧ ،ﲔﺳﺎﻳ ،ﻝﺩﺎﻋ ،ﲔﺴﺣ : ﰐﻮﺧﺇ ﱃﺇ .ﻡﺎﺴﺣ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﲑﻐﺻ ﱃﺇ

. ا ـ ـ َـ و

.ﱄﺍﻮﺧﺃﻭ ﻲﻣﺎﻤﻋﺃ ﻦﻣ ﱵﻠﺋﺎﻋ ﱃﺇ .ﻪﺘﻠﺋﺎﻋ ﻞﻛﻭ ﺔﻟﻮﺒﺳﻮﺑ ﻥﺎﺴﺣ ﻲﻣﺃ ﻩﺪﻠﺗ ﱂ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻲﺧﺃ ﱃﺇ .ﻥﺍﻭﺮﻣ ﻡﺎﻘﻟ ﻖﻳﺪﺻ ﺰﻋﺃ ﱃﺇ .ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺪﻟﺍ ﺀﻼﻣﺯ ﻞﻛ ﱃﺇ

نا ـــــــ ر

ﻲﺠﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺎﺠﻝﺍ
ﻲﺠﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺎﺠﻝﺍ

: ﺔـــﻤﺩﻘﻤ

ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺒ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻘﻴﻤﻋ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﻐﺘ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺎﻫﺯﺭﺤﺃ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺜﻝﺍ ﺕﺜﺩﺤﺃ ﺩﻘﻝ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺤﻀﺍﻭ ﺎﻬﺤﻤﻼﻤ ﻭﺩﺒﺘ ﺓﺭﻴﻁﺨ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻌﺒﺘ ﻪﻨﻋ ﺞﺘﻨ ﺎﻤﻤ،ﺎﻫﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻓ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺙﺎﺤﺒﻷﺍ ﻪﻴﻝﺇ ﺕﻠﺼﻭﺘ ﺎﻤ ﺏﺴﺤﻭ، ﺀﺍﻭﺴﻝﺍ ﺩﺤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻤﺩﻘﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ

ﺔﻤﻅﻨﺃ ﻲﻓ لﻼﺘﺨﺍ ﺩﻭﺠﻭﺒ ﻲﺤﻭﻴ ﺎﻤ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺎﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﺠﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﺩﻌﺘ ﻡﻝ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ . ﺔﺴﻭﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﻪﺘﺎﻁﺎﺸﻨ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴ ﻨﻹﺍ ﻕﺘﺎﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻊﻘﺘ ﻙﻝﺫ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺅﺴﻤ ﻭ ،ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻹﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻪﻨﺃ ﻻﺇ،ﺓﺩﻴﻔﻤ ﺎﻌﻠﺴﻭ ﺓﺩﻴﺩﺠ لﻤﻋ ﺹﺭﻓ ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻊﺴﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﻓﻭ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺒ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ ﻲﻔﻓ ﺔﻤﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺎﺒ ﺎﻘﻨﺎﺨ ﻥﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻭﺠ ﺢﺒﺼﺃ ﺩﻘﻓ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻤﺩﺘﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻫﺎﺴ ، ﺕﺎﻜﺭﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﻡﺩﺍﻭﻋ ﻭ ﺔﻗﺎﻁﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻝﻭﺘ ﺕﺎﻁﺤﻤ ﻭ ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺨﺍﺩﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺜﻌﺒﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﻴﻭﻠﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺎﻓﻵﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﻴﺒﻤ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﻤﺴﻸﻝ ﻑﺜﻜﻤﻝﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻯﺩﺃ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﻁﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺭﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﺴﺘ ﻡﻝ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ لﻴﺼﺎﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ . ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺔﻴﺭﻀﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺩﺘﻤﺍ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻁﺨﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻠﺤﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺏﺭﺎﺠﺘﻝﺎﻓ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻺﻝ ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻁﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﻴﺭﻀ ﻭﻫ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺒ لﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﻴ ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺭﻤﺩ ﺎﻤ ﺍﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﺔﻴﺭﻜﺴﻌﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺌﻴﻬﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺎﻬﺒ ﻡﻭﻘﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﻭﻨﻝﺍ . ﺎﻬﺌﺍﺭﺠﺇ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻩﺭﺎﻀﻤ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﻭ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﻓﺎﻜﻤﻝ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺩﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻌﺴﺘ ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘﻝ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺔﻝﻭﺎﺤﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﺍﺭﻤﻌﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻭﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺠﻤﺍﺭﺒ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻋﺇ ﺎﻫﺭﺍﻭﻁﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺎﻴﺴ ﺕﻝﺍﺯ ﻻ لﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ.ﻡﻴﺩﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻫﺭﺎﻁﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﻋ ﻼﻀﻓ ، ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤ ﻡﺠﺤ ﻭ ﻡﻗﺎﻔﺘ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺯﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻭﻫ ﻭ ﺔﻔﻠﺨﺘﻤ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘ ﺕﺍﺫ ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻲﺸﻔﺘ ﻭ ﺔﻝﺎﻁﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺭﻘﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ لﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻷﺍ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺎﻜ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻴﻨﺎﻌﺘ . ﺔﺌﺒﻭﻷﺍ ﻭ ﻭ ﻲﻨﻁﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺎﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﺩﺤ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻌﺘﺘ ﺔﻴﻤﻝﺎﻋ ﺩﺎﻌﺒﺃ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤ ﻥﺇ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﻌﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺭﺒﺇﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﻤﺘﺅﻤ ﺩﻘﻋ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﺍﺭﻁﺃ ﺕﻋﺭﺎﺴ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ، لﻭﺩﻠﻝ ﺔﻗﻼﻁﻨﻻﺍ ﺔﻁﻘﻨ 1972 ﻡﺎﻌﻝ " ﻡﻝﻭﻬﻜﺘﺴﺍ ﺭﻤﺘﺅﻤ " ﻥﺎﻜ ﻭ، ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﺭﺎﻁﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺎﻴﻗﺎﻔﺘﻻﺍ . ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻭﻅﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺡﻼﺼﻹ ﺎﻴﻌﺴ ﻲﻤﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﻜﺭﺤﻝ ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ

لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﺩﻘﻤﺒ ﺱﻴﻝ ﺔﻤﺨﻀ ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻤ ﺀﺎﺒﻋﺃ ﻭ ﻑﻴﻝﺎﻜﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﺝﺎﺘﺤﻴ ﻥﻜﻝ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤﻝ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺩﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺒ ﻻ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ، ﺎﻫﺭﻴﺘﺍﻭﻓ ﺩﻴﺩﺴﺘ ﻭﺃ ﺎﻬﺼﻴﺼﺨﺘ ﻕﻠﺨ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻷﺍ ﺔﺌﺒﻌﺘ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻅﺎﻔﺤﻝﺍ لﺒﺴ ﻥﻴﺒ ﻥﻤ ﻥﺇ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻘﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺍﺭﺸﺎﺒﻤ ﺍﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺭﺜﺅﻴ ﻑﻭﺴ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺏﺎﻴﻏ ﻥﺇ ﻭ، ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤ ﺭﻭﺼﻘﻝﺍ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ ﺕﺴﻴﻝ ﺭﺍﺭﻀﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﺒﺴﻨ ﻥﺃ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺘﺒﺜﺃ ﺩﻘﻓ ، ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ . ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﺃ ﻯﺩﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﻌﻨﺍ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ ﺎﻤﻨﺇ ﻭ ﻩﺩﺤﻭﻝ ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﺔﻴﻭﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻝﺎﺒ ﺍﺭﻭﺭﻤ ﺓﺭﺴﻷﺎﺒ ﺍﺀﺩﺒ ﻲﺌﻴﺒ ﻲﻋﻭ ﻕﻠﺨﻝ ﺔﺤﻠﻤ ﺔﺠﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ . ﺭﺍﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻉﺎﻨﺼ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻴﻘﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻻﻭﺼﻭ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ

ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻝ ﺎﻤﻝ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺅﺴﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺍﺀﺯﺠ ﻲﻨﺒﺘ ﺓﺩﺩﻌﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻊﻴﻁﺘﺴﺘ ﺕﺎﻴﻭﻝﻭﻷﺍ لﺎﺨﺩﺈﺒ ﻻﺇ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻰﺘﺄﺘﻴ ﻥﻝ ﻭ ،ﺕﺎﻜﻭﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﺠﺘﻻﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻘﺌﺎﻓ ﺓﺭﺩﻘﻤ

ﻭ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻝﺎﺤ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻓﻭﺘ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺞﻤﺍﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻤﻀ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ

ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻘﻴﻗﺩﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤﻝﺎﺒ ﻕﺭﻁﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ،ﻩﺎﺒﺘﻨﻼﻝ ﺭﻴﺜﻤ ﻭ ﺭﻤﺘﺴﻤ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻬﻤﻴﺩﻘﺘ

ﺔﻜﺭﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﻜﻤﺘ ﻭ ﺕﻼﻴﻭﺄﺘ ﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺴﻔﺘ ﺀﺎﻁﻋﻹ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠ لﻜ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﺕﺎﻴﻋﺍﺩﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻉﻭﻤﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻲﺌﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺀﻭﺭﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﻋﺭﺎﺴ ﺩﻘﻝ ﺏﺘﺎﻜﻤ ﺕﻌﻀﻭ ﺎﻤﻜ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤﻝ ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻀﻓ ﺹﻴﺼﺨﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻤﺩﻘﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺕﺩﺍﺯ ﻭ ،ﻑﺩﻬﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﺒ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ لﻴﺒﺴ ﻭﻫ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﺒﻋ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺒ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺎﻨﻴﻘﻴ ﺎﻴﻨﻘﺘ ﻭ ﺎﻴﻨﻓ لﺌﺎﺴﻭﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﺎﻜﻤﺇ ﺎﻅﻭﺤﻠﻤ ﺎﻨﺴﺤﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﺇ ﺙﺎﺤﺒﺃ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨ ﺕﺘﺒﺜﺃ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﺕﺴﻤ ﻱﻭﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﺭ ﻥﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻊﺠﺍﺭ ﻙﻝﺫﻭ ، ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺴﻨ ﻊﺠﺍﺭﺘ ﻲﻓ لﺠﺴ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻬﻌﻓﺩ ﺎﻤﻤ ﻥﻴﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﻥﻴﻠﻤﺎﻌﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻴﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﻭ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻌﺴﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻁﻗ . ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻡﻬﻁﺎﺸﻨ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻔﻴﻅﻨ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘ ﻉﺎﺒﺘﺇ ﻭﺃ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ ﺽﻴﻔﺨﺘ لﺍﺯﻴ ﻻ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻉﺎﻁﻗ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺜﻤ ﻥﺴﺤﺃ ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺃ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻅﺤﻼﻴ ﻭ ، ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻬﺒ ﻥﻴﻤﺘﻬﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺎﺠﺭ ﺕﺍﺩﻭﻬﺠﻤ ﻡﻏﺭ ،ﻕﻴﺭﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺍﺩﺒ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻻﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯ ﺕﻠﺠﺴ ﺙﻴﺤ ﺏﻭﺘﻜﻤ ﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻉﺎﻁﻗ ﻲﻓ ﺹﻭﺼﺨﻝﺎﺒ

ﻥﻴﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﻠﻋﺎﻔﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻲﻤﺎﻨﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺩﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ،ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻗﻹﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻠﺤﻤﻝﺍ . ﺎﻬﺒ ﻕﺩﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻤﺩﻝﺍ ﺏﻝﺎﺨﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺫﺎﻘﻨﺇ ﻥﺎﻫﺭ ﻕﺤﺒ ﻭ ﺩﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝ ﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻲﻓ

: ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻜﺸﻹﺍ لﻴﻜﺸﺘ ﻲﻓ لﺎﻌﻓ ﺭﻭﺩ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻝ ﺎﻤﻝ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﻱﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﺎﻫ ﺔﻨﺎﻜﻤ ﻡﻼﻋﻺﻝ ﻥﺇ ﺏﻭﻌﺸﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻷﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﻨﻗ ﻁﺒﺭ ﻭ ، ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻫﺎﻅﻤ لﻴﻌﻔﺘ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺒ ﺕﺯﻴﻤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺓﺯﺭﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﺴﻝﺍ لﻌﻝ ﻭ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺎﺒ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﻭ ﻡﻤﻷﺍﻭ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤ ﻡﻗﺎﻔﺘ ﻲﻫ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺎﻤﺴﻴ ﺓﺭﺼﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻫﺩﺘ ﺕﺎﺒﺒﺴﻤ ﻯﺩﻌﺘﺘ ﻭ ، ﻊﻴﻨﺼﺘﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻜﺭﺤ ﺝﺎﺘﻨ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺕﺎﺒﺒﺴﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﺼﻘﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﻓﻭﺘ ﻯﺩﻤ ﻭ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﺭﺩﺒ ﺎﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﻕﻠﻌﺘﺘ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﺍ . ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ لﺜﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤ ﻊﻤ لﻤﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠ ﻋﺎﻔﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ ﻯﺩﺤﺇ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤﻝ ﻲﻜﺭﺎﺸﺘ ﺭﺎﺴﻤ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺎﻫ ﺍﺯﻓﺎﺤ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ ﺭﻴﻫﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘ ﻥﺇ ﻪﺠﺍﻭﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻀﻘﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ،ﺔﺴﻭﻤﻠﻤ ﺔﻘﻴﻘﺤ " ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻹﺍ ﺔﻨﻁﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ " ﺢﺒﺼﺘ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻴﻘﺒ ﺱﺎﺴﺤﻹﺍ ﻕﻴﻤﻌﺘ ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻜ ﻲﻫ ﻡﺎﻋ ﻪﺠﻭﺒ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺩﺌﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻠﻝ ﺕﻴﺭﺠﺃ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺭﺎﺸﺃ ﺩﻘﻝ ﺍﺭﻭﺩ ﺔﻋﻭﻤﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺓﺀﻭﺭﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭﻝ ﻥﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ، ﺓﺩﻴﺩﺠ ﻑﻗﺍﻭﻤ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﺠﺘﺍ لﻴﻜﺸﺘ ﻲﻓ ﻭﺃ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ لﻴﻜﺸﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺍﺭﻴﺒﻜ . ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﺇ ﺔﻠﻴﺴﻭ لﻜ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺓﺭﺩﻗ ﻲﻓ ﺎﺘﻭﺎﻔﺘ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻜ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻕﺌﺎﻘﺤﻝﺍ لﻌﺠﻴ ﺭﻤﺘﺴﻤ ﺭﻴﻏ ﻭ لﺼﻔﻨﻤ ﻭ ﺃﺯﺠﻤ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﺵﻗﺎﻨﻤ ﻥﺇ لﺜﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺹﺼﺨﺘﻤ ﻲﻤﻠﻋ ﺏﻭﻠﺴﺄﺒ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﺇ ﺔﻌﺒﺎﺘﻤ ﺙﺩﺤﺘ ﺎﻤ ﺍﺭﺫﺎﻨﻓ ،ﺔﻘﻴﻗﺩ ﺭﻴﻏﻭ ﺔﻠﻤﺎﻜ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻴﻀﺍﻭﻤ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠﺒ ﺔﺤﻀﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺔﻁﺎﺤﺇ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻙﺭﺘﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ، ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺔﻌﺒﺎﺘﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻑﺭﺼﻨﺘ ﺎﻤ ﻥﺎﻋﺭﺴ ﻭ ،ﺭﻴﺜﻤ ﺏﻝﺎﻘﺒ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺠﻝﺎﻌﺘ ﺎﻤ ﺎﺒﻝﺎﻏ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﺯ ،ﺭﻭﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺔﻓﺭﻌﻤ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺎﻤﺎﻤﺘ ﺓﺭﻴﺎﻐﻤ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﺎﻤﺇ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻴﻁ ﻲﻓ لﻤﺤﺘ ﺔﻴﻤﺴﺭ ﺭﻅﻨ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﻭ ﻥﻋ ﺭﺒﻌﺘ ﺕﺎﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺏﻠﻏﺍ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻡﻴﺨﻀﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﺒﻨﺎﺠ

ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺭﻌﺸﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻭﻫ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺤﻁﺴﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻴﻭﻬﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﺒﻨﺎﺠ ﺎﻤﺇ ﻭ ﺔﻐﻝﺎﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ لﻴﻭﻬﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻪﺘﺤﺼ ﻭ ﻪﻁﻴﺤﻤ ﺱﻤﺘ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ لﻭﺎﻨﺘ ﺩﻨﻋ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﺔﻝﺯﻌﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺀﺎﺼﻗﻹﺎﺒ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺎﺒ ﻥﻴﻤﺌﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻴﺼﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﻕﻴﺴﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﺩﻋ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ ،ﺹﻭﺼﺨﻝﺍ ﻪﺠﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ . ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺔﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻭ ﺔﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻠﻴﻭﻁ ﺕﺍﺭﺘﻔﻝ ﻼﻤﻬﻤ لﻅ ﺔﻴﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﻥﻋ ﺙﻴﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ ﺭﻭﻫﺩﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﺠﺤ ﻉ ﺔﻨﺭﺎﻘﻤ ﺎﻴﺒﺴﻨ ﺎﺜﻴﺩﺤ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻬﺒ ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻻﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻭ ، ﻥﻤﺯﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻙﻭﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺸﺭﺘ ﻭ ﻪﻴﺠﻭﺘ ﻲﻐﺒﻨﻴ ﻪﻨﺎﻓ ﻡﺘ ﻥﻤ ﻭ ، ﻥﻁﻭﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤ ﻪﻨﻤ ﻲﻨﺎﻌﺘ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻜﺭﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻪﻌﻓﺩﻴ ﺎﻤﺒ ﻱﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﻔﻠﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ . ﻪﻴﻓ ﺵﻴﻌﻴ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﺔﻤﺩﺨﻝ ﺎﻬﻔﺌﺎﻅﻭ ﻪﻴﺠﻭﺘﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴ ﻭ ﺓﺀﺎﻔﻜ ﻊﻓﺭ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻤ ﻭﻫ ﺎﻤﻜ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻕﺌﺎﻘﺤ لﻘﻨﻝ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻤﺎﻤﺃ ﺢﺴﻓ ﻭﻝ ﻩﺭﺎﻤﺜ ﻲﻁﻌﻴ ﻑﻭﺴ ﺔﻴﺭﻴﻫﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ . ﻲﻌﻗﺍﻭ ﻭ ﻕﺩﺎﺼ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ،ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺙﺤﺒﺘ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻕﺒﺴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺎﺴﻴﺴﺄﺘ ﻭ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝ ﺎﺠﺫﻭﻤﻨ " ﺔﺒﺎﻨﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤ" ﺎﻨﺫﺨﺘﺍ ﻭ ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ : ﻩﺩﺭﻤ ﻱﺭﻭﺤﻤ لﺍﺅﺴ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﻕﻠﻁﻨﻨ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﺍ ﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍ ؟ ﻱﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌ ﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﻭﺩ ﻭﻫ ﺎﻤ

:ﺕﻻﺅﺎـــﺴﺘﻝﺍ

؟ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁ ﻲﻫ ﺎﻤ .؟ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺙﻴﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ لﻫ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺕﺎﻤﺎﻤﺘﻫﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﺘﻼﻜﺸﻤﻭ ﺔﻴﻠﺤﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﻁﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﻊﻗﻭﻤ ﻭﻫ ﺎﻤ .؟ﺔﻴﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ .؟ﺎﻬﺘﻼﻜﺸﻤﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠ ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﺍ ﻯﺩﻤ ﺎﻤ

ﻲﻓ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘﻭ ﺱﻴﺴﺤﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺕﻤﻫﺎﺴ ﻯﺩﻤ ﻱﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ .؟ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ

:ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺨﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﺃ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﻷﺍ ﺎﻤﺄﻓ ،ﺔﻴﺘﺍﺫﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻬﻝ ﺎﻨﺭﺎﻴﺘﺨﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﺃ ﻊﺠﺭﺘ : ﻲﻠﻴ ﺎﻤﻴﻓ ﺎﻬﺼﺨﻠﻨﻓ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺀﺍﺭﺠﺇ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻨﻌﻓﺩ ﺎﻤ ﻭﻫﻭ ،ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﺅﺸﺒ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻗ - . ﺔﻴﻨﻁﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺘﻜﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺼﺭ ﺀﺍﺭﺜﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻨﻤ ﺎﻤﺎﻬﺴﺇ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ .ﺔﻤﺍﺩﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘﻭ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﺍﺭﻤﺘﺴﻻ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ - ﺩﺍﺭﻓﺃ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﻼﻜﺸﻤﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻗﺍﻭ لﻘﻨ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻪﺒﻌﻠﺘ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﺩﻝﺍ - .ﺔﻴﻭﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻜﻭﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻩﺩﻴﺸﺭﺘﻭ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻌﺒﺒ ﺱﻴﻝ ﺕﻗﻭ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤ ﺎﻬﻨﻭﻜ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻠﻝ ﺎﺠﺫﻭﻤﻨ ﺔﺒﺎﻨﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤﻝ ﺎﻨﺭﺎﻴﺘﺨﺍ ﺏﺒﺴ ﻊﺠﺭﻴ لﺎﻤﺸﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺏﻁﻗ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺕﻝﻭﺤﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺕﺜﺒﻝ ﺎﻤ ﻡﺜ ،ﺔﻴﺤﺎﻴﺴ ﺔﻴﺭﺜﺃﻭ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﺎﻜﻤﺇ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ "لﺍﺩﻴﻤﺴﺃ " ﺏﻜﺭﻤﻭ "ﺏﻠﺼﻝﺍﻭ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﻠﻝ ﺭﺎﺠﺤﻝﺍ ﺏﻜﺭﻤﺒ " ﺕﻓﺭﻌﻓ ،ﺩﻼﺒﻠﻝ ﻲﻗﺭﺸﻝﺍ . ﺔﻤﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﺼﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺎﻬﻝ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺤﻭﻝﺍ ﻑﻻﺁ ﻰﻝﺇ : ﻲﻠﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻫﺭﺼﺤﻨﻓ ﺔﻴﺘﺍﺫﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﻷﺍ ﺎﻤﺃﻭ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠ لﻤﺸﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻉﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻨﻝﻭﻴﻤﻭ ﺔﺤﻤﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺎﻨﺘﺒﻏﺭ - ،ﺎﻴﻓﺍﺭﻏﻭﻤﻴﺩﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺠﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺎﻜ ﺕﺎﺼﺎﺼﺘﺨﻻﺍﻭ ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻝﺍ . ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏﻭ ،ﺔﺤﺼﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺎﻴﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﻥﺎﻜﻤ ﻥﻋ ﻑﺸﻜﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻨﺘﺒﻏﺭ - .ﻉﻭﻤﺴﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﻲﺌﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺍﺫﺇ ﺎﻤﻋ ﻑﺸﻜﻝﺍ ﻭ ،ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﺃ ﻯﺩﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ ﺔﻓﺭﻌﻤ - .ﻪﻤﺎﻤﺘﻫﺍ ﺔﺠﺭﺩﺒ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻪﺒ ﺔﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻑﻭﺭﻅﻠﻝ لﻤﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﺎﻨﻴﻠﻋ لﻬﺴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺎﻨﻴﻠﻋ لﻬﺴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻨﺌﺎﻤﺘﻨﺍﻭ ﺎﻨﺒﺭﻗ - . ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﻊﻤ :ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻑﺍﺩﻫﺃ : ﻲﻠﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻑﺩﻬﺘ . ﻉﻭﻤﺴﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﻲﺌﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺞﻤﺍﺭﺒ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠ ﺹﺌﺎﺼﺨ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ -

ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻬﺘﺭﻅﻨﻭ ،ﻲﻠﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺹﺌﺎﺼﺨ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ - .ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻭﺃ ﻉﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻋ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﻝ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻴﻝﻭﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻴﻘﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ -

.ﻡﻬﻴﺩﻝ ﺓﺩﻫﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍ .ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻴﻨﺎﻜﻤﺇﻭ ﺞﻤﺍﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻨ ﻥﻋ ﻑﺸﻜﻝﺍ - ﻲﺌﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﻜﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﻑﺸﻜﻝﺍ - .ﺔﻤﻬﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺎﺠﺭ ﺽﺭﺘﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻭﻌﻤﻝﺍﻭ ،ﻉﻭﻤﺴﻤﻝﺍﻭ :ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ ﻑﻴﻅﻭﺘ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺙﺤﺒﺘ ﺎﻬﻨﻭﻜ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ لﺜﻤﺘﺘ ﺭﻴﻫﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﻫﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺓﻭﻘﻝ ﺍﺭﻅﻨ ﻥﻭﻴﺯﻔﻠﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻋﺍﺫﻹﺍ ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻭ ،ﺎﻬﺘﻤﺩﺨ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ . ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﻁﺴﺍﻭﺒ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻫﺩﺘ ﻥﻤ ﻑﻴﻔﺨﺘﻠﻝ ﺔﻨﻜﻤﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﻠﺤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﻫﺎﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻝﺎﺘﻝﺎﺒﻭ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻓﺭﻌﻤ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﻜﻤﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ ﻥﻤﻜﺘ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻡﻬﺘﺎﺠﺎﻴﺘﺤﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﺎﻤﺎﻤﺘﻫﺍ ﺭﺜﻜﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﺔﺤﻴﺭﺸﻝﺍ . ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﻴﺒﺜﺘ ﻭﺃ لﻴﺩﻌﺘ ﻭﺃ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯ ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﻴ ﻰﺘﺤ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ :ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺞﻬﻨﻤ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻑﺩﻬﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻼﻁﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺙﻭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻤﻀ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺝﺭﺩﻨﺘ ﺔﻴﻠﻴﻠﺤﺘ ﺔﻴﻔﺼﻭ ﺔﻘﻴﺭﻁﺒ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍﻭ ،ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﺒﻁﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠﻝﺍ . ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻗﺩﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻤ ﺞﻫﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺞﻬﻨﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﻤﺘﻌﻨ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻨﻴﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﻜ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺱﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻡﻴﻭﻘﺘ ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤﻴ ﻰﺘﺤﻭ ﺙﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﻪﺒ ﻥﻴﻌﺘﺴﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻕﻴﺭﻁﻝﺍ ﻭﻬﻓ ،ﻲﻤﻠﻋ ﺙﺤﺒ ﻱﺃ ﻲﻓ ﻱﺭﻭﺭﻀ ﺭﻤﺃ ﻪﻨﻷ ﺔﻓﻭﺭﻌﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨ ﻰﻝﺇ لﻭﺼﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻐﺒ ﻪﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ لﺤﺍﺭﻤ لﻤﺎﻜ ﻲﻓ ﻪﻌﺒﺘﻴﻭ

ﻥﻋ ﻑﺸﻜﻝﺍ لﺠﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺎﻜﻓﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺴﻠﺴﻝ ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﻡﻴﻅﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻓ ﻭﻫ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺞﻬﻨﻤﻝﺎﻓ ﻥﺫﺇ

(1)

.

.

(2)

ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺔﻨﻫﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻘﻴﻘﺤﻝﺍ

.10 ص ،(1962 ، ا ا راد :ة ه ا ) ، ا ا أ ، آز ل -(1) .08 ص ،(1987 ، ا ت ا نا د : ا ا ) و ه و ا ا ، ن ز -(2)

ﻰﻠﻋ لﻭﺼﺤﻠﻝ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﺭﺁ ﻉﻼﻁﺘﺴﻻ ﻥﺍﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ لﻭﺯﻨﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻲﻀﺘﻘﺘ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ ،ﻡﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﺍ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘﺒ ﻙﻝﺫﻭ ،ﻡﻬﻨﻤ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺢﻴﻀﻭﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺞﻫﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﻗﺃ ﻪﻨﻷ ﻲﺤﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺞﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻲﻀﺘﻘﺘ ﺔﻴﻨﺍﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻼﻁﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﻭﻗﻭﻝﺍﻭ ﻉﺎﻀﻭﻷﺍ لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﻉﺎﻀﻭﻷﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻘﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ

.

(1)

ﺎﻫﺭﻭﻬﻅ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻌﻓﺍﺩﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﻷﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺎﻬﺒ ﺔﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﻭﺭﻅﻝﺍ

ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻤﺌﻼﻤ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﺢﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺞﻬﻨﻤ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺨﺍ ﺎﻨﻴﺄﺘﺭﺍ ﺩﻘﻓ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ ﻲﻋﻭ ﻯﺩﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻱﺃ ﺎﻬﻘﻴﻘﺤﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻰﻌﺴﻨ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻑﺍﺩﻫﻷﺍﻭ ،ﺔﺤﻭﺭﻁﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻨﺘﻴﻝﺎﻜﺸﺇﻭ . ﻡﻬﻴﺩﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻤﻨﺇ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﻭﺩﻭ ،ﻡﻬﺘﺌﻴﺒ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ ﻥﻴﻴﻌﻤﺎﺠﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﻴﻴﻭﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺍﺩﻬﺠﻭ ﻻﻭﻁﺃ ﺎﺘﻗﻭ ﺏﻠﻁﺘﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ لﻤﺎﺸﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﺢﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻊﻘﻨ ﻻ ﻰﺘﺤﻭ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺕﺍﺩﺭﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺩﺤﻤ ﺩﺩﻋ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﺒ ﻲﻔﺘﻜﻨ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺎﺒ ﺢﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺞﻬﻨﻤ ﺎﻨﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ ،ﺎﻔﻋﺎﻀﻤ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨﻝﺍ ﻑﻴﻨﺼﺘ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﻜﻤﺇ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻨﺩﻭﻘﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻲﻀﺎﻴﺭﻝﺍ ﻲﺌﺎﺼﺤﻹﺍ ﺞﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ ﺕﻻﻻﺩ ﺔﻴﺎﻬﻨﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻨﻴﻁﻌﺘﻝ ﺎﻔﻴﻜﻭ ﺎﻤﻜ ﺎﻬﻠﻴﻠﺤﺘ ﻊﻴﻁﺘﺴﻨ ﻰﺘﺤ ﺎﻬﺒﻴﻭﺒﺘﻭ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ لﺼﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ . ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﺭﺁﻭ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﺠﺘﺍ ﺎﻬﺒ ﺭﺴﻔﻨ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﺍ :ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻴﻤﺠﺘ ﺕﺍﻭﺩﺃ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺠ ﻲﻓ ﺕﻤﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﺩﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻌﻓ ﻯﺩﻤﺒ ﻁﺒﺘﺭﻴ ﻲﻤﻠﻋ ﺙﺤﺒ ﻱﺃ ﺡﺎﺠﻨ ﻥﺇ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻤﺯﻼﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺠ ﻲﻓ ﺙﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺒ ﻥﻴﻌﺘﺴﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻴﺴﻭﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻨﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍﻭ

ﻥﻤ ﻉﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ لﺜﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﺘ ﺎﻤ ﺓﺩﺎﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻤ ﺕﺍﻭﺩﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ ﺩﻗﻭ .

ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤﺒ

(2)

. ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍﻭ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺔﻅﺤﻼﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻫﻭ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻭﺼﺤﻝ ﺍ ﺽﺭﻐﺒ ،ﺔﻴﻨﺍﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ

: ﺔﻅﺤﻼﻤﻝﺍ - ﺃ ،ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺠ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻴﺍﺯﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻝ ﺎﻤﻝ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻁﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻅﺤﻼﻤﻝﺍ لﺨﺩﺘ ،ﺩﻌﺒ ﻥﻋ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝ ﺎﻨﺘﻌﺒﺎﺘﻤ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻜﺭﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻐﺒ ﺔﻅﺤﻼﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ ﺩﻗﻭ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻠﻋﺎﻔﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻁﺒﺭﻭ ،ﺭﻴﺴﻔﺘﻝﺍﻭ لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻨﺘﺎﻅﺤﻼﻤ ﻭﻠﺨ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻲﻨﻌﻴ ﻻﻭ ﺩﻴﺼﺭ لﻴﺼﺤﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺍﺩﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺩﻋﺎﺴ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ ،ﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺹﻭﺼﺨﻝﺎﺒﻭ ﺽﻌﺒﻝﺍ . ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺔﻔﺼﺒ ﺭﺌﺍﺯ ﺠﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻤﺎﻋ ﺔﻔﺼﺒ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﻭﺤ ﻲﻓﺭﻌﻤ

.29 ص ،(1985 ،ب ا ا : ا ا ) ا ا آ ا د ،ش ر -(3) .48 ص ،(1999 ، ز او ا راد : د ا ) ت او ت ا ا ه ،ر أ -(4)

: ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ - ﺏ

ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻲﻫ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺠ ﻲﻓ ﻻﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﺭﺜﻜﻷﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﺩﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ . ﺎﻬﻌﻤﺠ ﺩﺍﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺎﺒ ﺙﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻭﺯﺘﺒ ﻡﻭﻘﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﺤ ﺒﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺙﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺙﺩﺤﺘ ﺱﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻡﻭﻘﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ،(ﺔﻬﺠﻭﻤﻝﺍ ) ﺔﻨﻨﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ ﺩﻗﻭ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﺕﻼﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﻕﺒﺴ ﺔﻤﺌﺎﻗ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺩﺩﺤﻤ ﺔﺒﺎﺠﺇ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺼﺘﻘﺘﻭ ،ﺏﺘﺭﻤ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﻷﺍ ﻪﺠﻭﺘ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ ﻡﺯﺎﺠ ﻲﻨﻴﻘﻴ . ﻥﻴﻌﻤ ﻡﺎﻅﻨ ﻕﻓﻭ ﺎﻫﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻫﺭﻓﻭﺘﻝ ،ﺔﻨﻨﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻪﺘﻌﻴﺒﻁ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻤﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻉﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺍ\ﻩ ﻥﺇ

ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺕﺎﻤﻴﻤﻌﺘ ﺔﻏﺎﻴﺼﺒ ﺢﻤﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﺯﻼﻝﺍ ﻁﺒﺍﻭﻀﻝﺍ : ﻥﺎﻴ ﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ - ﺝ

ﺫﺇ ،ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﺩﻷﺍ ﻥﻋ ﻪﺒ ﺯﻴﻤﺘﺘ ﺎﻤﻝ ﺍﺭﻅﻨ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺓﺍﺩﺄﻜ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺎﻨﺭﺘﺨﺍ ﻊﻤﺠ ﺔﻝﻭﻬﺴ ﻥ ﻩﺭﻓﻭﺘ ﺎﻤﻝ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﺩﻷﺍ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺓﺀﺎﻔﻜﺒ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﺘﻭ ،ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺍﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍ

ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅﻝﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﺩﺠﻭﺘ ﺎﻤ ﺭﻴﺭﻘﺘﻝ ﺔﻴﻔﺼﻭﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ،ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺕﺎﻔﺼﺍﻭﻤ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﺃ ﻥﻤﻀﺘﻴ ﻥﺃ ﺩﺒ ﻻ ﻪﻨﻤ ﻭﺠﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﺩﻬﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻕﻘﺤﻴ ﻰﺘﺤﻭ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﺔﺒﻭﺠﺃ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺔﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺢﻴﺘﺘﻭ ﺙﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﻕﺤﺒ ﺓﺭﺒﻌﻤ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻭﻜﺘ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ

(1)

.

(2)

.

ﻭﺃ لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻠﻝ ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻗ ﺔﺤﻀﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺎﺠﻹﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺔﻴﺠﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻋ ﻯﺭﻴﻭ ،ﺩﻌﺒ ﺎﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﻌﻤ لﻤﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻨﻤﻀﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﻷﺍ ﻁﺒﻀ ﻯﺩﻤﺒ ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﺠﺭﺩﻝﺎﺒ ﻁﺒﺘﺭﺘ ﺎﻤﻨﺇ ،ﺩﻌﺒ ﺎﻤﻴﻓ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ لﻤﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ

ﻯﻭﺘﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ لﻜﺸﻝﺍ ﺙﻴﺤ ﻥﻤ ﺀﺍﻭﺴ ﺓﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ

(3)

.

،ﺎﻨﺘﻴﻝﺎﻜﺸﺇﻭ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠ لﻜﺒ ﺔﻤﻠﻤﻭ ﺔﺤﻀﺍﻭ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﺍ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﺃ ﻥﻭﻜﺘ ﻥﺃ ﻥﺎﻜﻤﻻﺍ ﺭﺩﻗ ﺎﻨﻝﻭﺎﺤ

ﺔﻠﺌﺴﻷﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺍﺩﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍ ﺎﻫﺭﻭﺎﺤﻤ ﺀﺎﻨﺒ ﺎﻬﻤﻫﺃﻭ لﺤﺍﺭﻤ ﺓﺩﻌﺒ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﻷ ﺎﻨﺘﻏﺎﻴﺼ ﺕﺭﻤ ﺩﻗﻭ ﺕﻠﻤﺘﺸﺍ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﺼﻔﺒ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺎﻬﻨﺃ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻜﺸﻹﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻋﺭﻔﺘﻤﻝﺍ

و ا :تو ) ا ا آ ا ه ا ، ا و ق ن -(1) .1636 ص ،(1992 ، او ، ا ا راد :ة ه ا ) ا ا ق و ه ،يو و ن ا ا -(2) .371 ص ،(2002 .306 ص ،(1983 ، ه ا ) ا م ا ا ه ،لا ا ح -(1)

لﻫﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺫﺘﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻀﺭﻋ ﺩﻌﺒ ﺎﻬﻤﻴﻜﺤﺘ ﻡﺘ ﻻﺍﺅﺴ 25 ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻠﻤﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻭﺎﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ . ﻥﺎﺼﻘﻨ ﻭﺃ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯ ﻱﺃ ﻙﺭﺍﺩﺘ ﻑﺩﻬﺒ ﺹﺎﺼﺘﺨﻻﺍ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺩﻋ ﺔﻏﺎﻴﺼ ﺓﺩﺎﻋﺇ ﺹﻭﺼﺨﺒ ﻥﻭﻤﻜﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﻻﺅﻫ ﻪﻅﺤﻻ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺎﻀﻌﺒ ﺎﻨﻠﺠﺴ ﺩﻗﻭ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﺃ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺎﻬﺒﻴﺘﺭﺘ ﺭﻴﻴﻐﺘ ﻭﺃ ،ﻪﻴﻓ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺭﻭﺤﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺽﻌﺒ ﻊﻗﻭﻤ ﺭﻴﻴﻐﺘﺒ ﻭﺃ

. ﻪﻴﻝﺇ ﻲﻤﺘﻨﺘ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺸﺃ ﺎﻨﺼﺭﺤ ﺎﻨﻨﺈﻓ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺦﻤ ﻭﺃ ﺏﻝ ﻲﻫ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒ ﻥﺄﺒ ﺎﻨﻤ ﺎﻨﺎﻤﻴﺇ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﺃ ﻊﻴﻤﺠ لﻭﺎﻨﺘﻤ ﻲﻓﻭ ﺔﻤﻭﻬﻔﻤﻭ ﺔﺤﻀﺍﻭ ﺔﻠﺌﺴﻷﺍ ﻥﻭﻜﺘ ﻥﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺹﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺏﻭﺸﻴ ﺩﻗ ﺽﻭﻤﻏ ﻱﺃ ﻲﻓﻼﺘﻭ ﺩﺭﻔﻨﻤ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺔﺒﺎﺠﻹﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﻭﻨﻜﻤﺘﻴ ﻰﺘﺤ ،ﺔﺴﻭﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ

. ﺔﺒﺎﺠﻹﺍ

لﻜ ﻲﻓ ﻑﺩﻬﻨ ﺭﻭﺎﺤﻤ ﺔﻌﺒﺭﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﻜﺫﻝﺍ ﺎﻨﻔﻠﺴﺃ ﺎﻤﻜ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩﺒ ﺹﺎﺨﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻴﺒﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻥﻤﻀﺘﻴ : ﻲﻠﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺩﺤﺍﻭ . ﺔﻴﻠﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻬﺘﺌﻴﺒﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻗﺍﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻉ ﻼﻁﻀﺍ ﻯﺩﻤ - .ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺓﺩﻭﺠﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻬﺘﺭﻅﻨ - .ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ - .ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﺜﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻬﺘﺭﻅﻨ - 2006 ﻲﻔﻨﺎﺠ 26 2005 ﺭﺒﻤﺴﻴﺩ 28 ﻥﻴﺒ ﺓﺩﺘﻤﻤﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﺘﻔﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘﺒ ﺎﻨﻤﻗ ﻡﻴﻠﺴﺘ ﻱﺃ ،ﺓﺩﺤﻭﻤ ﺔﻘﻴﺭﻁﺒ ﺔﺒﺎﻨﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤﺒ ﺔﺴﻭﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻱﺃ ﺔﻌﻓﺩ 15ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻴﺨﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘﺒ ﺎﻨﻤﻓ ﺓﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﺍ ﻱﺃ ﻉﺎﻴﻀ ﺏﻨﺠﺘﻝﻭ ، ﺩﻴﺒ ﺩﻴ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ .ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺏﻠﻏﺍ ﻉﺎﺠﺭﺘﺴﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻨﻨﻜﻤ ﺎﻤﻤ ،ﺓﺭﻤ لﻜ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﺍ 20 :ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤ

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﻋﺎﺴﻴ ﻪﻨﻭﻜ ﻲﻤﻠﻋ ﺙﺤﺒ ﻲﻝ ﻲﺠﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺓﻭﻁﺨ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ

ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺞﻫﺎﻨﻤ ﻲﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ ﻕﻔﺘﻝ ﺩﻘﻝﻭ ،ﻥﺍﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘﻭ ﺱﺎﻴﻗ ،ﻲﻨﻤﺯﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ ،ﻲﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ :ﻲﻫﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺌﺭ ﺩﻭﺩﺤ ﺔﺜﻼﺜ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ لﻜﻝ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ

ﻱﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍﻭ

(1)

.

، راد نود : ر ا ؛1ط ) ا ث ا دا ا تا ا ، ا ا ، -(1) .30 ص ،(1985

: ﻲﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ - ﺃ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﻜﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﺩﺤﻝﺍ (ﺭﺎﻤﻋ ﻱﺩﻴﺴ ،ﺭﺎﺠﺤﻝﺍ ،ﻲﻨﻭﺒﻝﺍ ) ﺙﻼﺜﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻴﺩﻠﺒﻭ ﺔﺒﺎﻨﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤ لﺜﻤﺘ : ﺎﻤﻫ ﻥﻴﻴﺴﻴﺌﺭ ﻥﻴﺒﺒﺴﻝ ﻥﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺭ ﺎﻴﺘﺨﺍ ﻡﺘ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻬﻝ ﻥﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺨﺎﺒ ﻙﻝﺫﻭ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻡﻜﺤﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺤ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻨﺘﺒﻏﺭ - . ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺭﺭﻀﺘ ﺔﻴﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺭﺎﻁﺇ ﻲﻓ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﺹﺌﺎﺼﺨﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺎﻨﺘﻝﻭﺎﺤﻤ - .ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ : ﻲﻨﻤﺯﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ - ﺏ ﺎﻋﺎﻔﺘﺭﺍ ﺕﺩﻬﺸ ﺓﺭﺘﻔﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﺃ ﺙﻴﺤ ، ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﻤﺯﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﺩﺤﻝﺍ 20062005 ﻲﺘﻨﺴ لﺜﻤﺘ ﺩﻭﻬﺠﻝﺍ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺀﺍﻭﺴ ،ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﻓﺎﻜﻤﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﺩﻭﻬﺠ ﻲﻓ ﺎﺴﻭﺴﺤﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻌﻤﺠﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻁﻗ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻭﺃ ،ﺔﻴﻨﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻤﺴﺭﻝﺍ . ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ لﺤﻤ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤﻝﺍ : ﻱﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ - ﺝ ﻡﻬﺴﻨﺠﻭ ﻡﻫﺭﺎﻤﻋﺃ ﻑﻼﺘﺨﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﻴﻴﻌﻤﺎﺠﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﻴﻴﻭﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻓ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﺩﺤﻝﺍ لﺜﻤﺘﺘ ﺔﻤﻠﻌﺘﻤ ﺔﻘﺒﻁ ﺎﻬﻨﻭﻜ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﺘﻴﻤﻫﻷ ﺍﺭﻅﻨ ﺔﺌﻔﻝﺍ ﻩﺫ ﻫ ﺎﻨﺭﺘﺨﺍ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﻫﺍﻭﺘﺴﻤﻭ . ﺎﻬﺒ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺎﻨﻴﻠﻋ لﻬﺴ ﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻭﻫﻭ

:ﺎﻬﺘﺍﺭﻴﻐﺘﻤﻭ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﻴﻋ

ﺎﻬﻨﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﺀﻭﺠﻠﻝﺍ ﻡﺘﻴ ﺎﻤ ﺓﺩﺎﻋ ﻭﺃ ﺕﺍﺩﻫﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻋﻭﻤﺠﻤ ﺎﻬﻨﺃ ﻱﺃ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺔﻘﻴﺭﻁﺒ ﺭﺎﺘﺨﻴ ،لﻜﻝﺍ لﺜﻤﻴ ﺽﻌﺒ

(1)

.

ﺔﻴﻠﺼﻷﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤ لﺜﻤﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺽﺭﺘﻔﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﻫﺍﻭﻅﻝﺍ

ﺔﻘﻴﺭﻁﺒ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻙﻠﺘ ﻥﻤ ﺀﺯﺠ ﺎﻨﺭﺘﺨﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺭﻔﻤ لﻤﺎﻜ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﺭﺠﺇ ﻥﻤ ﻻﺩﺒ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻴﻝﺇ لﺼﻭﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨﻝﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﻌﺘ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﺀﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻙﻝﺫ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻕﻴﺭﻁ ﻥﻋﻭ ،ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ ﻑﻴﻝﺎﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍﻭ ﺩﻬﺠﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﻗﻭﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺘﺨﻴ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻥﻷ ،ﻲﻠﺼﻷﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ . ﺔﻌﻴﺭﺴﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻘﻴﻗﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﺎﺠﻹ ﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻭﺼﺤﻝﺍ

ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺩﻤﺘﻌﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻫﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺩﺼﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻨﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ لﻭﺤ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺭﻘﺘﻔﻴﻭ ﺓﺩﺩﺤﻤ ﺔﻴﻨﻤﺯ ﺓﺩﻤﺒ ﺍﺩﻴﻘﻤ ﺙﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻋ ﺔﻴﻋﻼﻁﺘﺴﻻﺍ ،ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤ لﺜﻤﺘﻭ ﻩﺩﻴﻔﺘﺴ ﺎﻬﻨﺃ ﺩﻘﺘﻌﻴ ﺕﻻﺎﺤ ﺙﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺘﺨﻴ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ ،ﺱﻭﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻠﻝ ﺔﻤﺌﻼﻤ ﺎﻫﺍﺭﻴ ﺎﻤﻜ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺭﻔﻤ ﺩﺩﻋ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﺔﻘﺒﺴﻤ ﺔﻔﺼﺒ ﺙﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺭﻘﻴﻭ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻘﻁﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺭﻔﻤ 300 ﺎﻬﻤﺠﺤﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﺼﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺎﻨﺭﺘﺨﺍ ﺱﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻰﻠﻋﻭ لﻭﺍﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﺘﺴﻭ ،ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ لﻜ ﻉﺎﺠﺭﺘﺴﺍ ﻡﺘ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺔﺒﺎﻨﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺜﻤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﻜﺴﻝﺍﻭ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺱﻨﺠﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﺴﻝﺍ ﻲﻫﻭ ،ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﻐﺘﻤ ﻕﻓﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘ ﻲﺘﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺔﻴﻝﺎﺘﻝﺍ

(2)

.

. ﻲﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ

(1)- Claude Javeau, L’enquête par questionnaire manuelle à l’usage de patricien ( 2 eme Ed :

Belgique : Ed de l’université de Bruxelles, 1978) , p. 26. ) م او م ا يأ ا ث ا او ا ب ا ، أ آزو ا -(2) .142 ص ،(1999 ، ا ا راد :ة ه ا

. ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺴ :( 01 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

% ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻝﺍ

ﺩﺩﻌﻝﺍ

ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺭﻤﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻔﻝﺍ
ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ
ﺔﻴﺭﻤﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻔﻝﺍ

% 60

180

ﺔﻨﺴ 22 -15

% 19.3

58

ﺔﻨﺴ 35 -26

% 16.7

41

ﺔﻨﺴ 45 -36

 

%04

14

ﺔﻨﺴ 55 -46

% 2.3

7

ﻕﻭﻓ ﺎﻤﻓ ﺔﻨﺴ 56

%

100

300

ﻉﻭﻤﺠﻤﻝﺍ

: لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺭﻗ

ﻥﻴﺫﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻫ %60 ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺒﻭ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺩﺭﻓ 180 ﻥﺃ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨ ﺢﻀﻭﺘ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻱﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺒ ﻡﻜﺤﺒ ﻙﻝﺫ ﺭﺴﻔﻨﻭ ،ﺔﻨﺴ 25 -15 ﺔﻴﺭﻤﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻔﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻥﻭﻤﺘﻨﻴ ﻥﻴﻴﻭﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﻠﻁﻝﺍ ﻡﻫ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﺃ ﺏﻠﻏﺃ ﻥﺃﻭ ، ﺏﺎﺒﺸﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻓ ﻥﻤ % 75 ﻥﻤ ﻥﻭﻜﺘﻴ

. ﻥﻴﻴﻌﻤﺎﺠﻝﺍﻭ

. ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﺱﻨﺠ :( 02 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

% ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻝﺍ

ﺩﺩﻌﻝﺍ

ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺱﻨﺠﻝﺍ
ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ
ﺱﻨﺠﻝﺍ

% 50.3

151

ﻰﺜﻨﺃ

% 49.7

149

ﺭﻜﺫ

%

100

300

ﻉﻭﻤﺠﻤﻝﺍ

: لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺭﻗ 149 ﺎﻤﺃ ﺙﺎﻨﻹﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻫ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ %50.3 ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺒﻭ ﺍﺩﺭﻓ 151 ﻥﺃ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨ ﺭﻬﻅﺘ ﻱﻭﺴﻨﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺄﺒ ﻙﻝﺫ ﺭﺴﻔﻨﻭ ﺭﻭﻜﺫﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻫ %49.7 ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺒﻭ ﻥﻴﺭﺨﺁ ﺍﺩﺭﻓ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻅﺤﻼﻨﻭ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺏﻝﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﻭﻫ

ﺽﻌﺒ ﻡﻬﻌﻤ ﺎﻨﻴﻘﻠﺘ ﻥﻴﺫﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻜﺫﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻨﺭﺎﻘﻤ ﺙﺤﺒﻠﻝ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﻴﻠﺒﺎﻗ ﺙﺎﻨﻺﻝ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺹﻭﺼﺨﻝﺍ . ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻤﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻉﺎﺠﺭﺘﺴﺍ ﺩﻨﻋ ﻭ ﺃ ﺔﺒﺎﺠﻹﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ ﺀﺍﻭﺴ ﺕﺎﺒﻭﻌﺼﻝﺍ . ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻠﻝ ﻲﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ :( 03 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

% ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻝﺍ

ﺩﺩﻌﻝﺍ

ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ
ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ
ﻲﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ

%51.3

154

ﻥﻴﻴﻌﻤﺎﺠ

% 48.7

146

ﻥﻴﻴﻭﻨﺎﺜ

% 100

300

ﻉﻭﻤﺠﻤﻝﺍ

: لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺭﻗ ،ﻥﻴﻴﻌﻤﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻫ % 51.3 ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺒﻭ ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺩﺭﻓ 154 ﻥﺃ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺞﺌﺎﺘﻨ ﻥﻴﺒﺘ ﺩﻌﺘ ﺔﺒﺎﻨﻋ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤ ﻥﺄﺒ ﻙﻝﺫ ﺭﺴﻔﻨﻭ ،ﻥﻴﻴﻭﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻫ %48.7 ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺒﻭ ﻥﻴﺭﺨﺁ ﺍﺩﺭﻓ 146 ﺎﻤﺃ ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺩﻠﺒ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻌﺘ ﺎﻫﺩﺤﻭﻝ ﺭﺎﻤﻋ ﻱﺩﻴﺴ ﺔﻴﺩﻠﺒ ﻥﺃﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻌﻤﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻁﻗﻷﺍ ﺭﺒﻜﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺀﺎﻴﺤﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺍﺩﺩﻋﻭ ،"ﺭﺎﺘﺨﻤ ﻲﺠﺎﺒ ﺔﻌﻤﺎﺠ " ﺎﻬﺒ ﺩﺠﻭﻴﻭ ،ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺭﺭﻀﺘ . ﺭﻴﺭﺴ ﻑﻻﺁ 03 ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺓﺩﺤﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻌﻴﺘﺴﺍ ﺔﻗﺎﻁ ﻕﻭﻔﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻤﺎﺠﻝﺍ

: ﻡﻴﻫﺎﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ : ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ - ﺃ ﻥﻴﻌﻤ ﺭﻤﺃ لﺎﺼﻴﺇ ﻱﺃ ﺍﺭﺎﺒﺨﺇ ﻩﺭﺒﺨﺃ ،ﺎﻏﻼﺒﺇ ﻱﺃ ﺎﻤﻼﻋﺇ ﺭﺩﺼﻤ :ﺔﻐﻝ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﻤﻠﻜﺒ ﺩﺼﻘﻴ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻴﺨﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﺩﺭﻭ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺭﺨﺁ ﻑﺭﻁﻜ ﺔﻝﺎﺴﺭﻝﺎﺒ ﺩﻭﺼﻘﻤﻝﺍ لﺒﻘﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻠﻜﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ

ﻡﻬﺘﻠﺼﻭﺃ ﻱﺃ ﺎﻏﻼﺒ ﻡﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﺕﻐﻠﺒ لﺎﻘﻴﻭ ،لﺎﺼﻴﻹﺍ ﻱﺃ ،ﻍﻼﺒﻹﺍﻭ ﻎﻴﻠﺒﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻨﻌﻤﺒ ﺏﺭﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻝ

(1)

.

ﺏﻭﻠﻁﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﻲﺸﻝﺍ

ﺏﻭﺸﻴ لﺎﻜﺸﺇ ﻭﻫﻭ ،ﻕﻴﻗﺩ لﻜﺸﺒ ﻩﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺒﻭﻌﺼ ﺡﺭﻁ ﺎﻤﻤ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻡﻴﻫﺎﻔﻤ ﺕﺩﺩﻌﺘ ﺩﻘﻝ

. ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻝﺎﺒ ﺔﻁﺒﺘﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻴﻫﺎﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﻠﻏﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺢﻠﻁﺼﻤ ﺝﺎﺘﺤﻴ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ ،لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻲﺤﻠﻁﺼﻤ ﻥﻴﺒ ﻁﻠﺨ ﺩﺠﻭﻴ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻨﺎﻴﺤﺃ ﺭﺼﺘﻘﻴﻭ ،لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ لﻤﺸﻴﻝ ﺎﻨﺎﻴﺤﺃ ﺢﻠﻁﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻊﺴﺘﻴ ﺙﻴﺤ ،ﺔﻴﺒﺭﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﻐﻠﻝﺍ . ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺎﻨﺎﻴﺤﺃ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻡﻴﻫﺍﺭﺒﺇ" ﻯﺭﻴ ﻪﺘﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ،ﺩﺤﺍﻭ ﻰﻨﻌﻤ ﻥﻼﻤﺤﻴ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻥﺃ "ﺭﺩﺒ ﺩﻤﺤﺃ " ﻯﺭﻴ ﺏﻨﺎﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺀﻻﺩﺇ ﺎﻬﻨﻷ ،ﻊﺴﺍﻭﻝﺍ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅ ﻥﻋ ﺭﻴﺒﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻭﻫ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺢﻠﻁﺼﻤ ﻥﺃ "ﻡﺎﻤﺇ لﻋﺎﻔﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻨﻌﺘ لﺎﺼﺘﺍ ﺔﻤﻠﻜ ﻥﺃ ﻥﻴﺤ ﻲﻓ ،ﺔﻜﺭﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍﻭ لﻋﺎﻔﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺭﺒﻌﻴ ﻻ ﺩﺤﺍﻭ

ﺔﻜﺭﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍﻭ

ﺀﺎﻘﺘﺴﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺭﻴﺸﻴ ﻭﻬﻓ ،ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﺎﻤﻫﺍﺩﺤﺇ لﻤﻜﺘ ﺕﻗﻭ ﻲﻓ ﺱﺒﻝ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺩﻴ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻅﻔﻝﻭ ﺔﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ﻥﻴﺭﺨﻵﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﺒﻭ ﺀﺎﻁﻋﺇﻭ ﺔﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ لﻭﺼﺤﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍ

(2)

.

(3)

.

ﻉﻼﻁﻹﺍ لﻴﺒﺴ ﻲﻓ ﺝﺍﺭﺨﻹﺍ ﺓﺭﻜﻓ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻱﻭﻁﻨﻴ ﻰﻨﻌﻤﺒ ،ﻯﺭﺨﺃ

ﺩﻴﻭﺯﺘ ﻑﺩﻬﺘﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻝﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ ﻁﺎﺸﻨﻝﺍ ﻪﺠﻭﺃ ﺔﻓﺎﻜ :ﻪﻨﺄﺒ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ "ﻥﻴﺴﺤ ﺭﻴﻤﺴ " ﻑﺭﻌﻴﻭ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻤﻴﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺒﺨﻷﺍﻭ ﻕﺌﺎﻘﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﻓﺎﻜﺒ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻱﺩﺅﻴ ﺎﻤﺒ ،ﻑﻴﺭﺤﺘ ﻥﻭﺩﺒ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤ ﺔﻘﻴﺭﻁﺒ ﺭﻭﻤﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺭﺠﻤﻭ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﺌﻓ ﻯﺩﻝ ﺔﻠﻤﺎﺸﻝﺍ ﺔﻁﺎﺤﻹﺍﻭ ﻙﺍﺭﺩﻹﺍﻭ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻓﺭﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻨﻜﻤﻤ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ ﺭﺒﻜﺃ ﻕﻠﺨ ﻰﻝﺇ

ﺔﻴﻨﻤﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻠﻝ ﻲﺒﺭﻌﻝﺍ ﺯﻜﺭﻤﻝﺍ :ﺽﺎﻴﺭﻝﺍ ) ﻪﺘﺍﺯﻴﻤﻤﻭ ﻲﻤﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻺﻝ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﻠﻁﺘﻤﻝﺍ ،ﺏﻴﻬﻠﻝﺍ ﺩﻤﺤﺃ -(1)

. 19 ﺹ ، ( 1996 ،ﺏﻴﺭﺩﺘﻝﺍﻭ .15 ص ،(1997 ، ا ا راد :ة ه ا ) م ا يأ او ل ا إ ، ا -(2) .93 ص ،( ر نود ، ا ء ا راد : ؛1ط ) م ا ع ا ،ةر ةر -(3)

ﻥﻋ ﺔﺤﻴﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﻕﺌﺎﻘﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﻓﺎﻜﺒﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻤﻠﻝ ﻥﻴﻘﻠﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠ

(1)

.

ﺔﺤﻭﺭﻁﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺓﺭﺎﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﻊﺌﺎﻗﻭﻝﺍﻭ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﻝﺍ

ﺱﻔﻨ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻫﺎﺠﺘﺍﻭ ﺎﻬﻝﻭﻴﻤﻭ ﺎﻬﺤﻭﺭﻝﻭ ﺭﻴﻫﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻘﻌﻝ ﻲﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﺒﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻭﻫ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﺜﻼﺜ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻓﺍﻭﺘﺘ ﻥﺃ ﻲﻀﺘﻘﻴ ﺎﻤ ﺍﺫﻫﻭ ،"ﺕﺭﺠﺘﻭﺃ " ﻙﻝﺫ ﻥﻋ ﺭﺒﻋ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺕﻗﻭﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻗﺩﻝﺍ ،ﺔﻤﺎﺨﻀﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﻷﺍ ،ﺔﺜﺍﺩﺤﻝﺍﻭ ﺓﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻫﻭ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺕﺎﻔﺼﺍﻭﻤ

: ﻲﺌﺍﺭﺠﻹﺍ ﻑﻴﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ،ﻲﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻭ ﻕﻴﻗﺩﻭ ﻕﺩﺎﺼ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺙﺍﺩﺤﻷﺍﻭ ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﻕﺌﺎﻘﺤ ﻥﻋ ﺭﺎﺒﺨﻷﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺎﺒ ﺩﺼﻘﻨ . ﻡﻬﻴﻓ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﻴﻌﻤ ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤ ﻭﺤﻨ ﺭﻴﻫﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﺜﺇ ﻑﺩﻬﺒ ﻱﺩﺎﻴﺤﻭ ﺩ ﺭﺠﻤ : ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ - ﺏ

ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﺩﺩﻌﺘ ﻥﻤ ﻊﺒﺎﻨ ﺩﻴﻘﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫﻭ ،ﺱﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﺔﻀﻤﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻡﻴﻫﺎﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻭﻬﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ لﺯﻨﻭ لﺤ ﻱﺃ ،"ﺃﻭﺒﺘ " لﻌﻔﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺏﺭﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻝ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﺀﺎﺠ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻠﻝ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻅﺎﻔﻝﺃ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻐﻠﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻋ ﺝﺭﺩﻓ ،"ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ " ﻭﻫ لﻌﻔﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻥﻤ ﻡﺴﻻﺍﻭ ،ﻡﺎﻗﺃﻭ

ﺕﺎﻓﺩﺍﺭﺘﻤﻜ ﺓﺀﺎﺒﻤﻝﺍﻭ

ﺁﻭﺒﺘ ﻥﺃ ﻪﻴﺨﺃﻭ ﻰﺴﻭﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻨﻴﺤﻭﺃﻭ ":ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ ﻪﻝﻭﻗ ﻲﻓ ،ﻡﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﻥﺁﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﺩﺭﻭﻭ

.( 87 : ﺔﻴﻵﺍ ،ﺱﻨﻭﻴ ﺓﺭﻭﺴ ) " ﺎﺘﻭﻴﺒ ﺭﺼﻤﺒ ﺎﻤﻜﻤﻭﻘﻝ

ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺒ ﺩﺼﻘﻴﻓ Environnement ﺔﻤﻠﻜ ﻥﺈﻓ ﺔﻴﺴﻨﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﺔﻐﻠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺃ

ﻅﻔﻝ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﻴﻓ ﺔﻴﺯﻴﻠﺠﻨﻹﺍ

ﺎﻤﺃﻭ

ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺎﺒ ﻁﻴﺤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍﻭ

ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ لﻤﺸﺘﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﺜﺅﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﻭﺭﻅﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻝﻻﺩﻠﻝ Environnement . ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍﻭ ﻑﻭﺭﻅﻝﺍ :ﺎﻬﺒ ﺩﺼﻘﻴﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻝ ﻲﻨﻘﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻨﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﻝﺍ لﻜﺸﺘﻭ ،ﻕﻴﻗﺩ لﻜﺸ ﻲﻓ ﺡﻭﺍﺭﺘﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ،ﺔﻴﻓﺎ ﻘﺜﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ

(2)

.

(3)

.

ﺔﻐﻠﻝﺍ

،

(4)

ﻲﻓ

ا ا : ر ا ) ع ا ر م او ا ت ا ،نا ر أ ا -(1) .246 ص ،)1993 ، ا .12 ص ،(2004 ، ا ه ا ؛1ط ) ا و م ا ،ة -(2) ،(ةر ار آد ر ) م ا و ا ن ا ث ا ا ا م أ ، أ ير ا -(3) .10 ص ،1995 ، ا ا (4) Mereille Maurin, Hachette Encyclopédique Illustré ( Paris : Maury Imprimeur SA. 2 éme Ed, 1996), Environnement, p.43.

ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺎﺒ ﻰﻤﺴﻴ ﺎﻤ ﺎﻬﻤﻜﺤﻴﻭ ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝ

ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﺒﻭ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺎﻤﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺀﺎﻀﻔﻝﺍﻭ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍﻭ ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻤﺍﻭﻗﻭ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻨﻌﺘﻭ ﺕﺂﺸﻨﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺎﻬﻌﻀﻭ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻀﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻙﻝﺫﻜﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺤ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜ

ﻪﺘﺎﺠﺎﺤ ﻉﺎﺒﺸﻹ ﻕﻓﺍﺭﻤﻭ : ﻲﺌﺍﺭﺠﻹﺍ ﻑﻴﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻭ ﺎﻤﻭ ﺀﺎﻀﻓﻭ ﺀﺍﻭﻫ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﺯﻴﻔﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻝﺍ لﻜ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﺩﺼﻘﻨ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﻁﺼﻻﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ لﻤﺸﺘﻭ ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺎﻤﺒ ﺕﺎﺘﺎﺒﻨﻭ ﺕﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻭ . ﻪﺘﺎﻗﻼﻋﻭ ﻪﺘﺎﻁﺎﺸﻨ ﺎﻬﻝﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺩﻴﻭ ﻪﺘﺎﻴﺤ ﻡﻅﻨﻴﻝ ﺎﻬﻌﻀﻭﻭ ﻥ ﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺎﻬﺜﺩﺤﺘﺴﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ لﺎﻜﺸﺃ لﻜ ﻡﻀﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻊﺴﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻲﻫ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ . ﺔﻁﺒﺍﺭﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻜﺒﺎﺸﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻗﻼﻋﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺎﻤﺒ : ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ - ﺝ . ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍﻭ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻡﻭﻬﻔﻤ ﻥﻴﺒ ﻕﺭﻔﻨ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻨﻴﻠﻋ ﺕﻻﺎﻜﻭ ﻥﻤ ﻲﺌﻴﺒ ﻊﺒﺎﻁ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤ لﻘﻨ ":ﻪﻨﺄﺒ ﻲﻤﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻙﻨﺒﻝﺍ ﻪﻓﺭﻋ ﺩﻘﻓ لﻭﻷﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ﻩﺭﺎﻜﻓﺃﻭ ﻪﺌﺍﺭﺁ ﻰﻠﻋ ،ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﺎﻌﻤ ﺀﺍﺭﺜﺇ لﺠﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻤﻭﻜﺤ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺕﺎﻤﻅﻨﻤ ﻭﺃ

"ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﺠﺘ ﻪﺘﺎﻜﻭﻠﺴﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﺇ ﺔﻁﺨ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﺽﺍﺭﻏﺃ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻰﻌﺴﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻭﻫ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻋﻭﻤﺠﻤ ﺏﻁﺎﺨﺘﻭ ،ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺔﻓﺎﻜ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﺘ ﺔﻤﻴﻠﺴ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺱﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤ

ﻩﺫﻫ ﺀﺍﺩﺃ ﻡﻴﻴﻘﺘ ﺎﻫﺩﻌﺒﻭ ﺔﻁﺨﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ ﻡﺘﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻓﺩﻬﺘﺴﻤ ﺕﺎﻋﻭﻤﺠﻤ ﺓﺩﻋ ﻭﺃ ﺱﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻨﻴﻌﺒ

(1)

.

(2)

.

(3)

.

.

(4)

ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﻁﺨﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻬﻝ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻑﺍﺩﻫﻸﻝ ﺎﻬﻘﻴﻘﺤﺘ ﻯﺩﻤﻭ لﺌﺎﺴﻭﻝﺍ

.33 ص ،(1992 ) 48 و ا ن ا ا ،« ي ا ع ا ت ا تا » ، ا أ -(1)

.22 ،21 ص ،(1993 ، ا تار ا : ا تار ا ؛1ط ) ا ن ، ا ا ار -(2) (3)- Gillian Martin Mehers, Manuel de Planification de la Communication Environnemental Pour la Région Méditerranéenne ( Suisse : Editeur Suisse, 1992), p.01. .135 ص ،(2000 ،ح ا : ا ا ) ا ا ا ت ه ا ، أ -(4)

ﺓﺩﻨﺎﺴﻤﻭ ﻊﻴﺠﺸﺘ لﺠﺍ ﻥﻤ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﻘﺘﻝ ﻲﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻹﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻪﺒ ﺩﺼﻘﻴﻓ :ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ﻥﻴﻴﻨﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻁﻭﺘ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻌﻓ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺎﻬﻠﻌﺠﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒ ﻊﻴﺭﺎﺸﻤﻭ ﺕﺎﺴﺎﻴﺴ

ﺭﻤﻷﺎﺒ

: ﻲﺌﺍﺭﺠﻹﺍ ﻑﻴﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻑﻠﺘﺨﻤ ﺎﻬﺜﺒﺘ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤ لﻤﺤﺘ ﺞﻬﻨﻤ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﻁﺨﻝﺍ ﻙﻠﺘ ﻭﻫ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺎﺒ ﺩﺼﻘﻨ ﻪﺌﺍﺭﺁ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻪﻴﺠﻭﺘ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﻑﺩﻬﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﺇ لﺌﺎﺴﺭ لﻜﺸ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ . ﺎﻬﺘﻴﻤﻨﺘﻭ ﺎﻬ ﺘ ﻨﺎﻴﺼﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ لﺠﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻴﺒﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻪﺘﺎﻜﻭﻠﺴﻭ ﻩﺭﺎﻜﻓﺃﻭ

: ﻲــــﻋﻭ ﻝﺍ - ﺩ . ﻩﺩﺤﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻥﻤﺎﻜ ﻭﻫﻭ ،ﻲﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﺱﺎﻜﻌﻨﺍ لﺎﻜ ﺸﺃ ﻰﻠﻋﺃ ﻭﻫ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ

ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻠﻝ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻡﻬﻓ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻴﺒﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻙﺭﺘﺸﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻘﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻌﻠﻝ ﻲﻠﻜﻝﺍ لﻤﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻭﻫ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍﻭ

(1)

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(2)

.

ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﻲﺠﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ ﺱﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻁﺎﺸﻨ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻼﺼﺃ ﻊﺠﺭﻴﻭ ،ﻲﺼﺨﺸﻝﺍ ﻩﺩﻭﺠﻭﻝﻭ ﻲﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺍ

ﻪﺒ ﺔﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻙﺍﺭﺩﺇﻭ ﻪﺘﺍﺫ ﻙﺍﺭﺩﺇ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﻲﺴﺎﻜﻌﻨﺍ ﻲﻠﻘﻋ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﺍ ﻭﻫ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻭﻀﻌﻜ ﺎﻬﻴﻝﺇ ﻲﻤﺘﻨﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻋﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍﻭ

ﻰﻝﺇ ﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﺩﻋﺎﺴﺘ لﺎﺼﺘﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻥﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ "G Mead ﺩﻴﻤ ﺝﺭﻭﺠ " ﺏﻫﺫﻴﻭ

ﺔﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﻭﺭﻅﻝﺍ لﺜﻤﺘ ﻭﺃ ﻥﻴﺭﺨﻶﻝ ﺝﺎﻤﺩﻨﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘﻭ ،ﻥﻴﺭﺨﻵﺍ ﺭﻭﺩﺒ ﻡﺎﻴﻘﻝﺍﻭ ﻪﺴﻔﻨ

ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻅﻝ ﺎﻴﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺎﻁﺭﺸ

: ﻲﺌﺍﺭﺠﻹﺍ ﻑﻴﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻁﺒﺍﺭﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﻊﻗﺍﻭﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ لﻘﻌﻝ ﺔﻴﻨﻫﺫﻝﺍ ﺔﻁﺎﺤﻹﺍﻭ ﻙﺍﺭﺩﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﺠﺭﺩ ﻰﻠﻋﺃ ﻭﻫ . ﻪﻴﻓ ﺵﻴﻌﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻡﻭﻗ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺨﺍﺩﺘﻤﻝﺍﻭ

: ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ - 5 ﺕﻻﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻬﺒﻨﺍﻭﺠ ﺕﻌﺴﺘﺍ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻭﻬﻔﻤ ﺭﻭﻁﺘﺒ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻡﻭﻬﻔﻤ ﻁﺒﺘﺭﺍ ،ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﺯﻴﻔﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺎﻫﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻭﺼﺤﻤ ﺩﻌﺘ ﻡﻝﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻘﺜﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ

(3)

.

(1)- Gillian Martin Mehers, op.cit, p.81. ،7ط ،(1992 ، او ا راد :تو ) م آ . ، د .بو ل زور .م فا إ ، ا ا -(2) .586 ص ، ا .88 ص ، ا ،(1995 ، ا ا راد :ة ه ا ) ع ا س ، -(3)

ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻝﺎﺒ ﻑﻴﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻫ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﻑﺍﺩﻫﺃ ﺕﺤﺒﺼﺃ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ . ﺎﻴﺒﻠﺴ ﻭﺃ ﺎﻴﺒﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺱﻜﻌﻨﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝ ﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ

ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻨﺒ ﺭﺸﺎﺒﻤ لﻜﺸﺒﻭ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻩﺭﻭﺩﻝ ﺩﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﻙﺍﺭﺩﺇ ﻪﻨﺄﺒ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ "William Illtson ﻥﻭﺴﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻴﻝﻭ " ﻑﺭﻋﻭ

(1)

.

.

(2)

ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ

: ﻲﺌﺍﺭﺠﻹﺍ ﻑﻴﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻭﻫ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍﻭ ،ﻪﺒ ﻁﻴﺤﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻙﺭﺍﺩﻤ ﺔﻠﻤﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺏﻨﺎﺠ ﻭﻫ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ،ﺎﻫﺭﺎﺜﺁﻭ ﺎﻬﺒﺎﺒﺴﺃ ﺙﻴﺤ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﻡﻬﻓ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺍﺭﺒﺨﻝ ﺩﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻜﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺎﺒ ﺎﻤﻠﻤ ﺩﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﺢﺒﺼﻴ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﻑﺩﻬﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺎﻬﻠﺤ ﻕﺭﻁﻭ . ﺎﻬﺒ ﻩﺭﺜﺄﺘﻭ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻯﺩﻤﻭ ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺎﺒ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ لﻜ ﺭ ﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻯﺩﻤﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤﻭ

ا ، ا لو ا ه ا ) إ ح إ ، ا ا ا -(1) .56 ص ،(1996 ،ة ا (2)- William Illtson and Harald M.proshonsky, An introduction to Environmental Psychology, ( New York, 1974), p.24.

ﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺒﻨﺍﻭﺠ ﻲﻓ ﺹﺨﻠﺘﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻁﺨﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻨﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ ﺩﻘﻝ : ﻲﺘﻵﺎﻜ ﻲﻫﻭ ، ﺔﻴﻨﺍﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍﻭ . ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ : لﻭﻷﺍ لﺼﻔﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﻲﻤﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻌﺼﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻜﺸﺇ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ لﺎﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺝﺫ ﺎﻤﻨ : ﻊﺒﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ لﺼﻔﻝﺍ . ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﻝ ﺔﻴﻤﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻕﺤﻝﺍ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝ ﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻌﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ لﺼﻔﻝﺍ . ﺎﻬﺘﺍﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻑﺌﺎﻅﻭ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻗ ﻡﻬﻔﻝ ﻲﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺭﻭﺤﻤﻜ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻲ ﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ : ﻊﺒﺍﺭﻝﺍ لﺼﻔﻝﺍ . ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻝﺎﺤ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺎﻴﺴﻝﺍ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﻴﻨﺍﺩﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺒ لﻴﻠﺤﺘ : ﺱﻤﺎﺨﻝﺍ لﺼﻔﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻝ ﺇ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻅﻨ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻅﻨ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ . ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺭﺜﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻥﻴﺜﻭﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﺓﺭ ﻅﻨ : ﻊﺒﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ

ﻱﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺎﺠﻝﺍ
ﻱﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺎﺠﻝﺍ
لو ا ــــ ا ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ
لو ا ــــ ا
ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ

. ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ

ﻡﺘﻬﻴ لﻤﺎﺸ ﻲﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﺭﻭﻅﻨﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﺘﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﺎﻨﻴﻠﻋ ﻡﹼﺘﺤﻴ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﺎﻌﺒﺃ ﺔﻴﺩﺩﻌﺘ ﻥﺃ ﻙﺸ ﻻ ﻥﺃ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺘﺒﺜﺃ ﺩﻘﻓ .ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﻴﺩﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻕﻘﺤ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﺔﻠﺼﺍﻭﺘﻤ ﺓﺭﻭﺼﺒ ﺔﻴﺒﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﺒﻠﺴ ﺔﻴﻠﻋﺎﻔﺘ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﻪﻨﻤ ﺔﻝﻭﺎﺤﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻡﻅﻌﻤ ﻲﻓ لﺨﺩﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻨﻜﻤ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘ ﻭ ﺎﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺍﺭﻭﻁﺘ ﺓﺭﻁﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻤﺘﺴﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻪﺘﻭﻗ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻭ ،ﻪﺘﺎﺒﻠﻁﺘﻤ ﻭ ﻪﺘﺎﺠﺎﺤ ﻉﺎﺒﺸﻹ ﺎﻬﻌﻴﻭﻁﺘﻝ . ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺔﻬﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺔﻘﻠﻁﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻫﺭﺎﺜﺁﻭ ﺓﺭﺼﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﻀﺤﻝﺍ ﺹﺌﺎﻘﻨ ﻭ ﺏﻭﻴﻋ ﻑﺸﻜ لﺒﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻪﻨﻜﻝ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﺒﺘ ﺭﻭﻬﻅﻭ ،ﺎﻫﺭﺍﺩﻫﺇﻭ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ ﻑﺍﺯﻨﺘﺴﺍﻭ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺜﻤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺒﻠﺴﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﻤﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﺯﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺭﻘﻔﻝﺎﻜ

ﻰﺘﺤ ،

. ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻠﻝ ﺔﺤﻝﺎﺼ ﺭﻴﻏ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺤﺒﺼﺃ ﺦﺴﺭﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻠﻝ ﺭﻫﺎﻗ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻥﺄﺒ ﻯﺭﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﻫﺍﺫﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺤﺼﺃ ﺩﺎﻘﺘﻋﺍ لﻁﺒﻴ ﺎﻤ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺩﻘﻝﻭ ،"ﻥﻭﻜﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺩﻴﺴ ﺱﻴﻝ ﻭ ﻥﻭﻜﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻴﺴ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ" ﻥﺃ ﺓﺭﻜﻓ ﺩﻜﺅﻴ ﺎﻬﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻪﺘﻴﻭﻀﻋ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻴﺭﻭﻁﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻝﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻯﺭﻨ ﺎﻴﺍﻭﺯﻜ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺎﻨﺭﺘﺨﺍ

ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏ

. ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ

. ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺭﻭﻅﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺏﻠﻁﻤﻝﺍ : ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺌﺭ لﺤﺍﺭﻤ ﺔﻌﺒﺭﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺏﻨﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻡﻴﺴﻘﺘ ﻡﺘﻴﻭ :( ﻲﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻁﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤ ) ﺭﻔﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤ - I ﺎﻨﺒﻜﻭﻜ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻡﻜ ﺎﻨﻝ ﺢﻀﻭﺘﺴ ﻕﻴﺤﺴﻝﺍ ﻲﻨﻤﺯﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﻋ ﺀﺍﺭﻭﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻌﻴﺭﺴ ﺓﺭﻅﻨ ﻥﺇ

ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻴﻗ ﺭﺫﻌﺘ ﺙﻴﺤ ﻥﻴﻨﺴﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻥﻭﻴﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻑﺼﻨﻭ ﻥﻴﻴﻼﺒ ﺔﻌﺒﺭﺃ ﻥﻋ ﺩﻴﺯﻴ ﺎﻤ لﺒﻗ ﺎﻴﻨﺍﻭﺩﻋ

ﻪﻴﻠﻋ

. ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﺯﻴﻓﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜ ﺕﻼﻋﺎﻔﺘ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﺕﻨﺎﻜﻭ ، ﺎﻴﻨﻭﻤﻵﺍ ﻭ

ﻥﺎﺜﻴﻤﻝﺍ :لﺜﻤ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﺒ ﺎﻴﻨﻏﻭ ﻥﻴﺠﺴﻜﻭﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻴﻝﺎﺨ (ﻡﻴﺩﺴﻝﺍ)ﻱﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻑﻼﻐﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻜ ﺩﻘﻓ ،

(1)

.30ص ،(2002 أ) 48 ا ب آ ،« ا ث ء ا » ، مز -(1)

ﻭ ﻡﺤﻔﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻤﺨﻀﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺎﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﻨﻭﻜﺘﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺎﻤﺒ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺭﻬﻅ ﺎﻫﺩﻌﺒ

ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ لﺎﻜﺸﺃ لﻜﺒ ﺞﻌﻴ ﻼﺌﻭﻤ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﺕﺤﺒﺼﺃ

ﻲﻓ ﺭﺜﺅﻴ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺩﺨﺃ ﺔﻴﺭﻁﻔﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ لﻜﺸﺘ ﺀﺩﺒ ﻊﻤﻭ ،ﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺩﺤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻝﺎﺴ ﻁﻴﺤﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻪﺴﻔﻨ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ لﻅ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻊﻤﻭ ،ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻝﺍ ﻪﻌﻓﺎﻨﻤ ﻭ ﻪﻀﺍﺭﻏﺃ ﺔﻤﺩﺨﻝ ﺎﻫﺭﺨﺴﻴﻭ ﻪﺘﺌﻴﺒ . ﺎﻬﻝ ﺍﺩﺍﺩﺘﻤﺍﻭ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻠﻝ ﻼﻤﻜﻤ ﺍﺀﺯﺠ ( ﻲﻔﻁﻘﻝﺍ ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤ ) ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ - II ﺓﺭﻴﻐﺼ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻤﺠ لﻜﺸ ﺙﻴﺤ ،ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻪﺘﺌﻴﺒ ﻊﻤ لﻋﺎﻔﺘﻴ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺃﺩﺒ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻲﻓﻭ ﺀﺍﺫﻐﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻌﻤ ﻥﻭﻜﺭﺘﺸﻴ ﺍﺩﺭﻓ ﻥﻴﺴﻤﺨﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺓﺩﺤﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺩﻌﺘ ﺩﻴﺯﻴ ﻻ ﺔﻗﺭﻔﺘﻤ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﺜﺅﻴ ﻡﻝﻭ ،ﺭﺍﺭﻘﺘﺴﻻﺍﻭ ﻥﻤﻷﺍ ﻭ

ﺩﻴﺼﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻪﺒﻴﻝﺎﺴﺃﻭ ﻪﺘﺍﻭﺩﺃ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻭﻁ ﻡﺜ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﺴﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﺅﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻫ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺒﺨ ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻜﺍ ﻉﺎﻁﺘﺴﺃ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺭﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻑﺸﺘﻜﺍﻭ ،ﻥﻜﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺱﺎﺒﻠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺀﺍﺫﻐﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﺠﻭ ﺔﻠﻘﻝ ﺎﻁﻴﺴﺒ ﻥﺎﻜ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻥﺃ ﻭﺩﺒﻴ ﻭ .ﺔﺒﺎﺘﻜﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻐﻠﻝﺍ لﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﻭ ﻑﺭﺎﻌﻤﻭ

ﻙﻝﺫﺒﻭ ،

(1)

ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻘﺒ ﻥﻤ لﻭﺭﺘﺒﻝﺍ

.

(2)

ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻩﺩﺍﺩﻋﺃ

.( ﻲﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤ ) ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ - III

ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻭ ،ﺎﺒﻴﺭﻘﺘ ﺔﻨﺴ ﻑﻝﺃ 12ﻲﻝﺍﻭﺤﺒ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺜﻝﺍ ﺕﻘﺒﺴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻫﻭ ﻲﻓﻭ ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﻑﺸﺘﻜﺍ ﻭ ﻪﺘﺎﺒﻠﻁﺘﻤ ﺕﺩﺍﺩﺯﺍﻭ ،ﻩﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺍ ﻕﺎﻁﻨ ﻊﺴﺘﺍﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺩﺍﺩﻋﺃ ﺕﺭﺜﺎﻜﺘ

ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺎﺒ لﺨﻴ ﻡﻝ ﺩﻭﺩﺤﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻪﻨﻜﻝ ﺎﻴﻠﺠ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ﺃﺩﺒ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ

ﻭ ﺭﺼﻤ ﻭ ﻥﻴﺼﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﻴﺩﻘﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻀﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻴﺨﻴﺭﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﺸﺘ ﻭ ،

ﻭ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺢﻝﺎﺼﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺨﺴﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻝﺎﻘﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﺕﺴﺭﺃ ﺩﻗ ،ﻙﻴﺴﻜﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺩﻨﻬﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﺕﺎﺒﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺘﺎﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺜﻝﺍ ﻙﻠﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺕﻠﺜﻤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ،ﺎﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻅﺎﻔﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻀﺤﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺀﺎﻔﺘﺨﺍ ﺏﺒﺴ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﺒﻭﺭﺜﻨﻻﺍ ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻋ ﻊﺠﺭﻴﻭ .ﻲﻋﺭﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻁﺍﺭﻓﻹﺍ ﻡﺩﻋ

(3)

ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ

.13 ص ،(1997 ، او ز او ة ا راد :ن ؛1ط) ءاو ا و ءا ا ا ،ت ا ج ا أ -(1) .14ص ، ا -(1) .23ص ،(1992 ، ز ا و و ا را ا :ة ه ا ) ة ا ا ،ن -(3)

ﺭﻭﻫﺩﺘ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻴﻨﺎﺒﺴﺇ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻴﺭﻭﺴ ﻥﻤ ﺕﺩﺘﻤﺍ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤ ﺎﻬﺘﺩﻬﺸ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻻﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻘﻓ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ

(1)

.

.( ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤ ) : ﺔﺜﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ - IV ﺕﺭﻬﻅﻓ.ﺎﻬﺘﺸﻴﻌﻤ ﺕﺎﺒﻠﻁﺘﻤ ﺕﺭﻭﻁﺘﻭ ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺩﻋﺃ ﺕﺩﻴﺍﺯﺘ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻲﻓﻭ ﺕﻤﻨﻭ ،ﻲﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﻁﺎﺸﻨﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻭﻁﺘﻤ ﺕﻻﺁ ﺕﻤﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍﻭ ﺕﻼﺼﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ لﻘﻨﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﺕﺩﺍﺯﻭ ،ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻉﺎﻘﺒ لﻜ ﻭﺯﻏ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻥﻴﻴﺒﻭﺭﻭﻷﺎﺒ ﻊﻓﺩ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺔﻴﺒﺭﻐﻝﺍ ﺎﺒﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻤﺴﺃﺭﻝﺍ ﺕﻨﻜﻤ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ لﺍﻭﻤﻷﺍ ﺱﻭﺅﺭ ﻡﻜﺍﺭﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺍﺯﻐﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺤﺘﻓ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺒﻭﻬﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﺭﺜﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﻭ ﻊﺌﺎﻀﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻊﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﻡﺠﺤ ﺩﺍﺩﺯﺍﻭ ،ﺔﺜﻴﺩﺤ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺩﻴﻝﻭﺘ ﻭ ﺭﺎﻤﺜﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻥﻤ لﺎﻤﻋﻷﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺭﺃ

. ﺕﺎﺠﺘﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻬﻝ ﻕﺍﻭﺴﺃ ﺩ ﺎﺠﻴﻹ ﺩﻴﺤﻭﻝﺍ لﻴﺒﺴﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺭﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺃﺩﺒ ﺔﻴﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻫﺩﺘ ﻭ ﻲﺘﺎﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻁﻐﻝﺍ ﻊﺠﺍﺭﺘﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ لﻜﺂﺘ ﻥﺇ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺎﻴﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻋ ﺏﺭﻋﺃ ﺩﻗﻭ .ﺔﻴﻨﻴﺘﻼﻝﺍ ﺎﻜﻴﺭﻤﺃﻭ ﺎﻴﺴﺁ ﻭ ﺎﻴﻘﻴﺭﻓﺇ ﻲﻓ ﻲﺒﻭﺭﻭﻷﺍ ﻲﻨﺎﻁﻴﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻭﺯﻐﻠﻝ ﺕﻀﺭﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﺭﻴﻤﺩﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﻐﺘﻝﺍ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ ﻎﻝﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻬﻘﻠﻗ ﻥﻋ ﻭﻫ ﻭ ﻲﻔﻴﺭﻝﺍ ﺡﻭﺯﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅ ﺯﻭﺭﺒ ﻭ ،ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘ لﻼﺘﺨﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻫﺎﺴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻲﺒﻭﺭﻭﻷﺍ

ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ لﻼﺘﺨﻻ ﻡﺎﻫ ﺭﺸﺅﻤ

.( ﺔﺜﻴﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ) : ﺔﻌﺒﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝ ﺍ - V

ﺕﻌﺴﻭﺘ ﻭ ،ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﺴ ﺩﺍﺩﻋﺃ ﺕﺩﻴﺍﺯﺘ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻭ ﺔﻘﺒﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻠﻝ ﺩﺍﺩﺘﻤﺍ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺩﻌﺘ ﻪﺘﻴﻫﺎﻓﺭ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘﻝ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻩﺭﺨﺴ ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘ ﻭ ﻲﻤﻠﻋ ﻡﺩﻘﺘ لﺼﺤ ﻭ ،ﻪﻝ لﻴﺜﻤ ﻻ لﻜﺸﺒ ﻥﺩﻤﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﻱﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻑﻼﻐﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻏ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﺕﺭﻴﻐﺘﻓ .

ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻺﻝ ﻲﻤﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻡﺠﺤﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺩﺯﺍﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﺒﻭﺼﺨ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﺭﺎﻀﻨ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺩﻘﻓ ﻭ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺜﻭﻠﺘ

1950 ﻡﺎﻋ ﺫﻨﻤ ﺕﺜﺩﺤ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻤ %90 ﺔﺒﺴﻨ ﻥﺃ ﺙﻴﺤ ،ﺎﻔﻌﻀ 55 ﺭﺍﺩﻘﻤﺒ ﻥﻴﺭﺸﻌﻝﺍ

ﻁﻘﻓ

(2)

.

(3)

ﻪﺒ ﺔﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﺒﻠﺴ ﺱﻜﻌﻨﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ

(4)

.

.250ص ،(1995 ، ا ا راد : ) ا ا م ه ،ن ا ا -(1) .252 ص ، ا -(2) .03ص، (1996 ، ر ا و ا ت ار ا آ ا :ض ا ) ا و أ ،ي ا ها إ -(3)

.14 ،13 ص ،(1998 ، آ آ ه ا ) ا ث ر و ، ح -(4)

ﻭ ﺎﺒﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒ ﺔﻜﺭﺤ ﺭﻭﻬﻅ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺯﻭﺭﺒﺒ ﺔﻠﺤﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﺯﻴﻤﺘ ﺩﻘﻝ

ﻪﻨﻤﻭ ﻱﺭﻴﻫﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺝﺎﺠﺘﺤﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﺠﻭﻤﻝ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺼﺘ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﻴﺘﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﻨﺴ ﺕﻓﺭﻋﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻝﺎﻤﺸﻝﺍ ﺎﻜﻴﺭﻤﺃ ﺕﻐﻠﺒﻭ ."ﻡﺎﻨﺘﻓ ﺏﺭﺤ" ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﻴﺒﻤﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻜﻴﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﺩﻀ ﺙﺩﺤ ﺎﻤ

،1972 ﻡﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ لﻭﺤ ﻡﻝﻭﻬﻜﺘﺴﺍ ﺭﻤﺘﺅﻤ ﺩﺎﻘﻌﻨﺎﺒ ﺎﻬﺘﻭﺭﺫ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻲﻋﺎﺴﻤ

ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻴﺒﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﺩﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﺓﺭﻭﺭﻀﺒ ﻲﻋﻭﻝﺍ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺴﺎﺤ ﺎﺠﺭﻌﻨﻤ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ

ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﺎﺴﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻁﻁﺨﻤﻝﺍ لﻜ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻋﺇ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ

. ﺎﻌﻤ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻙﻼﻫ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻱ ﺩﺅ ﺘ . ﻲﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻨﻴﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻅﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺏﻠﻁﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻨﻴﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﻭﻘﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﻌﻨﻤ ﺎﻤﻜ ﺕﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺎﻫ ﺍﺭﻭﺩ ﻥﺎﻴﺩﻷﺍ ﺕﺒﻌﻝ ﺩﻘﻝ

ﻭ ﺔﻴﺤﻴﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﻭﻬﻴﻝﺎﻜ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺩﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺀﺎﺠ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺕﺎﺘﺎﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﺒﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻙﻼﻫﺇ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺕﻤﺎﻗﺃ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﻭﻁﻨﻴﺸﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺴﻭﺩﻨﻬﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺫﻭﺒﻝﺎﻜ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﺴ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺕﺎﻨﺎﻴﺩ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺅﺴﻤ ﺎﻬﻠﻜ ﺩﻜﺅﺘﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻠﻝ ﺕﺎﻴﻤﺤﻤ ﺔﻤﻴﺩﻘﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻀﺤﻝﺍ . ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﺍ

ﻊﻤﺠﺘ ﺎﻬﻨﺃ لﺒ ،ﻥﻴﻴﺒﺭﻐﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﻤ ﺯﻭﺎﺠﺘﺘ ﺓﺭﻅﻨ ﻲﻬﻓ ﺎﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻭ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﺓﺭﻅﻨ ﺎﻤﺃ

ﻭ ﻡﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﺭﻤﺍﻭﻷ ﻉﺎﻴﺼﻨﻻﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﻤﻴﻹﺎﺒ ﻁﺒﺘﺭﻴ ﻲﺤﻭﺭ ﻭﻫ ﺎﻤﻭ ﻱﺩﺎﻤ ﻭﻫ ﺎﻤ ﻥﻴﺒ . ﺔﻔﻴﺭﺸﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﺴﻝﺍ : ﺔﻤﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺁﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﺹﻭﺼﻨﻝﺍ - I

ﺹﻭﺼﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﻌﻝﺎﺒ لﻔﺤﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ،ﻥﺁﺭﻘﻝﺍ لﺯﻨﻤ ﻥﻭﻜﻝﺍ ﻕﻝﺎﺨ ﺩﺤﺍﻭ "ﻪﻝﺈﺒ" ﻥﻤﺅﻴ ﻡﻠﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ

ﺓﺭﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻡﻭﻘﺘﻭ .

ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺵﻴﻌﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﺀﻼﺠﺒ ﺢﻀﻭﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺁﺭﻘﻝﺍ : ﻥﻴﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ

(1)

.71ص ،(1997، آ آ ه ا )، إ ؤر ا نزا ا ، -(1)

: ﻥﻭﻜﻝﺍ ﻕﻠﺨ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻴﻜﻔﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ لﻤﺄﺘﻝﺍ - 1 - I ﺭﺒﺩﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴﻭ ،ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ ﻪﻘﻠﺨ ﻲﻓ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻜﻔﺘﻴﻭ ﺭﺒﺩﺘﻴﻝ ﺔﻴﺁ ﻪﻠﻜ ﻥﻭﻜﻝﺍ لﺠﻭ ﺯﻋ ﷲﺍ لﻌﺠ ﺩﻘﻝ ﺕﺎﻴﻵﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ ﻡﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﻥﺁﺭﻘﻝﺍ لﻤﺸﻭ ،ﻲﻤﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﺌﺎﻌﺸ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻴﻌﺸﻭ ﺓﺩﺎﺒﻋ ﺭﻜﻔﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ

ﺓﺭﺨﻵﺍ ﺓﺄﺸﻨﻝﺍ ﺄﺸﻨﻴ ﷲﺍ ﻡﺜ ﻕﻠﺨﻝﺍ ﺃﺩﺒ ﻑﻴﻜ ﺍﻭﺭﻅﻨﺎﻓ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺍﻭﺭﻴﺴ لﻗ" :ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ لﺎﻗ ﺙﻴﺤ

ﻲﻓ ﺍﺫﺎﻤ ﺍﻭﺭﻅﻨﺃ لﻗ ":ﺎﻀﻴﺃ لﺎﻗﻭ ،[20 ؛ﺔﻴﻵﺍ :ﺕﻭﺒﻜﻨﻌﻝﺍ] "ﺭﻴﺩﻗ ﺀﻲﺸ لﻜ ﻰﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻥﺇ

، [ 101 ؛ ﺔﻴﻵﺍ : ﺱﻨﻭﻴ ]" ﻥﻭﻨﻤﺅﻴ ﻻ ﻡﻭﻗ ﻥﻋ ﺭﺫﻨﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻵﺍ ﻲﻨﻐﺘ ﺎﻤﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺍﻭ ﺎ ﻤﺴﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﻥﻭﻠﻜﺄﻴ ﻪﻨﻤﻓ ﺎﺒﺤ ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺎﻨﺠﺭﺨﺃ ﻭ ﺎﻫﺎﻨﻴﻴﺤﺃ ﺔﺘﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻡﻬﻝ ﺔﻴﺁﻭ " :لﺠﻭ ﺯﻋ لﺎﻗﻭ ﻪﺘﻠﻤﻋ ﺎﻤﻭ ﻩﺭﻤﺜ ﻥﻤ ﺍﻭﻠﻜﺄﻴﻝ ﻥﻭﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺎﻨﺭﺠﻓ ﻭ ﺏﺎﻨﻋﺃﻭ لﻴﺨﻨ ﻥﻤ ﺕﺎﻨﺠ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺎﻨﻠﻌﺠ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻕﺤﺒ ﻭﻋﺩﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻵﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏﻭ ،[33،34،35؛ﺕﺎﻴﻵﺍ:ﺱﻴ] " ﻥﻭﺭﻜﺸﻴ ﻼﻓﺃ ﻡﻬﻴﺩﻴﺃ . ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ ﷲﺍ ﻕﻠﺨ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺒﺩﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ لﻤﺄﺘﻝﺍ : ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻤﻝ ﺭﻴﺨﺴﺘ ﻝﺍ - 2 - I

ﷲﺍ ﺭﺨﺴ ﺩﻘﻝ ،[61؛ﺔﻴﻵﺍ :ﺩﻭﻫ ] " ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻡﻜﺭﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻜﺄﺸﻨﺃ ﻭﻫ " :ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ لﺎﻗ

ﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﺭﻴﻤﻌﺘ ﻲﻓ ﻪﺘﻝﺎﺴﺭ ﺀﺍﺩﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺩﻋﺎﺴﺘﻝ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ لﺠﻭ ﺯﻋ

ﻥﻤ ﻪﺒ ﺝﺭﺨﺄﻓ ﺀﺎﻤ ﺀﺎﻤﺴﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ لﺯﻨﺃﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺍﻭﺎﻤﺴﻝﺍ ﻕﻠﺨ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﷲﺍ " :ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ لﺎﻗ ﺱﻤﺸﻝﺍ ﻡﻜﻝ ﺭﺨﺴﻭ ﺭﺎﻬﻨﻷﺍ ﻡﻜﻝ ﺭﺨﺴﻭ ﻩﺭﻤﺄﺒ ﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻙﻠﻔﻝﺍ ﻡﻜﻝ ﺭﺨﺴﻭ ﻡﻜﻝ ﺎﻗﺯﺭ ﺕﺍﺭﻤﺜﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻔﺘﺴﻴ ﻲﻜﻝﻭ .[33، 32 ؛ﻥﻴﺘﻴﻵﺍ :ﻡﻴﻫﺍﺭﺒﺇ ] " ﺭﺎﻬﻨﻝﺍ ﻭ لﻴﻠﻝﺍ ﻡﻜﻝ ﺭﺨﺴﻭ ﻥﻴﺒﺌﺍﺩ ﺭﻤﻘﻝﺍﻭ ﻡﻜﺎﻨﻠﻌﺠ ﻙﻝﺫﻜ ":ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ لﺎﻗ ،ﺀﻲﺸ لﻜ ﻲﻓ ﺎﺠﻬﻨﻤ ﺔﻴﻁﺴﻭﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﺴﻹﺍ لﻌﺠ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻥﻤ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ، [ 143 ؛ ﺔﻴﻵﺍ : ﺓﺭﻘﺒﻝﺍ ] " ﺍﺩﻴﻬﺸ ﻡﻜﻴﻠﻋ لﻭﺴﺭﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻜﻴﻭ ﺱﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﺍﺩﻬﺸ ﺍﻭﻨﻭﻜﺘﻝ ﹰﺎﻁﺴﻭ ﺔﻤﺃ ﺎﻨﺘﺒﻨﺃ ﻭ ﻲﺴﺍﻭﺭ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺎﻨﻴﻘﻝﺃ ﻭ ﺎﻫﺎﻨﺩﺩﻤ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻭ " :ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ لﺎﻗ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻕﻘﺤﺘﻴ ﻰﺘﺤﻭ ﺀﻲﺸ لﻜ ﺎﻨﺇ " :ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ لﺎﻗﻭ ،[19 ؛ﺔﻴﻵﺍ : ﺭﺠﺤﻝﺍ ] " ﻥﻭﺯﻭﻤ ﺀﻲﺸ لﻜ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒ ﺎﻨﺭﻜﺫ ﻭ ﺩﺩﺼﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺩﺭﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻵﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ،[49 ؛ﺔﻴﻵﺍ :ﺭﻤﻘﻝﺍ ] " ﺭﺩﻘﺒ ﻩﺎﻨﻘﻠﺨ . ﺭﺼﺤﻝﺍ ﻻ ﺭﻜﺫﻝﺍ لﻴﺒﺴ

:ﺔﻔﻴﺭﺸﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﺴﻝﺍ -II ﺽﺭﻌﺘ ﺩﻘﻓ ﺍﺫﺇ ،ﻲﻤﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﻊﻴﺭﺸﺘﻠﻝ ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻫ ﺔﻔﻴﺭﺸﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﺴﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ

.ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻤﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻑﻗﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺙﻴﺩﺎﺤﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻠﺴﻭ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻰﻠﺼ ﻲﺒﻨﻝﺍ :ﺕﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻤﺎﻌﻤ ﻥﺴﺤﻭ ﺭﺎﺠﺸﻷﺍ ﺱﺭﻏ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺙﺤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺙﻴﺩﺎﺤﻷﺍ -1-II ﺍﺫﺇ " :لﺎﻘﻓ ﺔﻗﺩﺼﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺭﺠﻷﺎﺒ ﺭﺎﺠﺸﻷﺍ ﺱﺭﻏ ﻡﻠﺴﻭ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻰﻠﺼ ﷲﺍ لﻭﺴﺭ ﻁﺒﺭ ﺩﻘﻝ ﻻﺇ ﺎﺴﺭﻏ ﺱﺭﻐﻴ ﻡﻠﺴﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻤ " ﺎﻀﻴﺃ لﺎﻗﻭ ،"ﺎﻬﺴﺭﻐﻴﻠﻓ ﺔﻠﻴﺴﻓ ﻡﻜﺩﺤﺃ ﺩﻴ ﻲﻓ ﻭ ﺔﻤﺎﻴﻘﻝﺍ ﺕﻤﺎﻗ ﺎﻤﻭ ،ﺔﻗﺩﺼ ﻪﻝ ﻭﻬﻓ ﻊﺒﺴﻝﺍ لﻜﺃ ﺎﻤﻭ ،ﺔﻗﺩﺼ ﻪﻝ ﻪﻨﻤ ﻕﺭﺴ ﺎﻤﻭ ،ﺔﻗﺩﺼ ﻪﻝ ﻪﻨﻤ لﻜﺃ ﺎﻤ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻰﻬﻨﻭ ، -ﻡﻠﺴﻤ ﺢﻴﺤﺼ- "ﺔﻗﺩﺼ ﻪﻝ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻻﺇ ﺩﺤﺃ ﻩﺭﻭﺯﻴ ﻻ ﻭ ،ﺔﻗﺩﺼ ﻪﻝ ﻪﻨﻤ ﺭﻴﻁﻝﺍ لﻜﺃ ﷲﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺞﻋ ،ﺎﺘﺒﻋ ﺍﺭﻭﻔﺼﻋ لﺘﻗ ﻥﻤ" :لﺎﻘﻓ ﺕﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ لﺘﻗ ﻥﻋ ﻡﻠﺴﻭ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻰﻠﺼ ﻲﺒﻨﻝﺍ ." ﺔﻌﻔﻨﻤ ﻲﻨﻠﺘﻘﻴ ﻡﻝﻭ ﺎﺜﺒﻋ ﻲﻨﻠﺘﻗ ﻥﻼﻓ ﻥﺇ ﺏﺭﺎﻴ :لﻭﻘﻴ ﺔﻤﺎﻴﻘﻝﺍ ﻡﻭﻴ

: ﺎﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻑﺍﺭﺴﻹﺍ ﻡﺩﻋﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻅﺎﻔﺤﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺙﺤﺘ ﻲﺘ ﻝﺍ ﺙﻴﺩﺎﺤﻷﺍ - 2 - II ﺔﻋﺭﺎﻗﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺯﺍﺭﺒﻝﺍ :ﺙﻼﺜﻝﺍ ﻥﻋﻼﻤﻝﺍ ﺍﻭﻘﺘﺍ ":ﻡﻼﺴﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺓﻼﺼﻝﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ لﻭﺴﺭﻝﺍ لﻭﻘﻴ ﺔﺒﺎﺒﻐﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻴﻓ لﺴﺘﻐﻴ ﻻﻭ ﻡﺌﺍﺩﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻜﺩﺤﺃ ﻥﻝﻭﺒﻴﻻ ":ﺎﻀﻴﺃ لﺎﻗ ﻭ ،"لﻅﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻕﻴﺭﻁﻝﺍ ،ﺽﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﺒﺭﻫﻭ ﺔﻓﺎﺨﻤ ﺭﺨﺃ ﺩﻠﺒ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺩﻠﺒ ﻥﻤ لﺎﻘﺘﻨﻻﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﻲﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﻰﻬﻨﻭ ،" ﻪﻴﻓ ﺭﺒﺼ ﻥﻤﻭ ﻑﺤﺯﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺎﻔﻝﺎﻜ ﻪﻨﻤ ﺭﺎﻔﻝﺍ ":ﻡﻼﺴﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺓﻼﺼﻝﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ لﺎﻗ ﺫﺇ ،ﻥﻭﻋﺎﻁﻝﺎﻜ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻁﺴﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ لﺍﺩﺘﻋﻻﺍ :ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﻪﻴﺩﻫ ﻥﻤﻭ ،"ﺩﻴﻬﺸ ﺭﺠﺃ ﻪﻝ ﻥﺎﻜ ﻪﻝ لﺎﻘﻴ ﺎﻨﺎﻁﻴﺸ ﺀﻭﻀﻭﻠﻝ ﻥﺇ ": ﻡﻼﺴﻝﺍﻭ ﺓﻼﺼﻝﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ لﺎﻘﻓ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻑﺍﺭﺴﻹﺍ ﻡﺩﻋ ﻭ ﻼﺜﻤ ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺎﻜ . " ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺱﻭﺎﺴﻭ ﺍﻭﻘﺘﺍﻭ ﻩﻭﺭﺫﺤﺎﻓ ﻥﺎﻬﻝﻭﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﺵﻭﻴﺠﻠﻝ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺭﻤﺍﻭﺃ ﻭ ﺎﻴﺎﺼﻭ ﻥﻴﻌﺒﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻴﺩﺸﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻔﻠﺨﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻴﺴ ﻲﻓ ﺀﺎﺠﻭ "ﻥﺎﻴﻔﺴ ﻲﺒﺃ ﻥﺒ ﺩﻴﺯﻴﻝ" -ﻪﻨﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻲﻀﺭ- "ﻕﻴﺩﺼﻝﺍ ﺭﻜﺒ ﻭﺒﺃ" ﺔﻴﺼﻭ ﺎﻫﺭﻬﺸﺃﻭ ،ﷲﺍ لﻴﺒﺴ

ﻩﺎﻴﺎﺼﻭ ﻥﻤ ﻥﺎﻜﻭ ﻡﺎﺸﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺵﻴﺠ ﺱﺃﺭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻪﺜﻌﺒ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻋ

. - ﺄﻁﻭﻤﻝﺍ – " ﺔﻠﻜﺄﻤﻝ ﻻﺇ ﺍﺭﻴﻌﺒ ﻻﻭ ﺓﺎﺸ ﻥﺭﻘﻌﺘ ﻻﻭ ﻪﻨﻗﺭﻔﺘ ﻻﻭ ﻼﺨﻨ ﻥﻗﺭﺤﺘ ﻻﻭ ﺍﺭﻤﺜﻤ

ﺍﺭﺠﺸ

(

1 )

ﻥﻌﻁﻘﺘ ﻻﻭ

":ﺭﺸﻌﻝﺍ

.115 ص ، آذ ، أ -(1)

ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﺭﻴﻴﻐﺘ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻨﻜﻤ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺕﺎﻗﻭﻠﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺌﺎﺴ ﻥﻋ لﻘﻌﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ ﷲﺍ ﺯﻴﻤ ﺩﻘﻝ ﻁﺒﻀﻴﻭ ،ﻪﺘﻴﺸﺎﻤﻝ ﻲﻋﺍﺭﻤ ﻭﺃ ﺎﻬﻋﺭﺯﻴ لﻭﻘﺤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻲﺘﺎﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻁﻐﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻐﻴ ﻭﻬﻓ ،ﻪﻌﻔﻨﻴ ﺎﻤﺒ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻭﺼﺤﻠﻝ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺏﻘﻨﻴﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﺭﻔﺤﻴ ﻭﻫﻭ ،ﻪﺘﺠﺎﺤ ﺕﻗﻭﻝ ﺎﻬﻨﺯﺨﻴﻭ ﺭﺎﻬﻨﻷﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤ ﺏﻭﺴﻨﻤ

ﻩﺩﻬﺠﻭ ﻲﻨﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ لﻤﻌﻝﺍ ﺞﺘﺍﻭﻨ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏ ﻭ ﺔﻗﺎﻁﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻭ ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﺎﺨ

ﷲﺍ ﻪﺤﻨﻤ ﺎﻤﻜ .

ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺭﺘﺤﺎﺒ ﻡﺯﺘﻠﻴﻭ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻅﻓﺎﺤﻴ ﻥﺃ ﻁﺭﺸ ﺓﺭﻭﻤﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻉﺎﻘﺒ ﻰﺘﺸ ﻲﻓ ﺵﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺭﺤ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ،ﻡﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﻪﺒﺎﺘﻜ ﻲﻓ ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ ﷲﺍ ﻪﻨﻤ ﺭﺫﺤ ﺍﺩﺎﺴﻓ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻬﺒ لﻼﺨﻹﺍ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ ﻭ ،ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺭﻴﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ ﻡﻬﻘﻴﺫﻴﻝ ﺱﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻱﺩﻴﺃ ﺕﺒﺴﻜ ﺎﻤﺒ ﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺩﺎﺴﻔﻝﺍ ﺭﻬﻅ ":ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘ لﺎﻘﻓ

. [ 41 ؛ﺔﻴﻵﺍ – : ﻡ ﻭﺭﻝﺍ ] " ﻥﻭﻌﺠﺭﻴ ﻡﻬﻠﻌﻝ ﺍﻭﻠﻤﻋ ﻕﻭﻘﺤ ﺓﺭﺭﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻓﻭﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﺩﺩﻬﺘ ،ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ لﻼﺨﺇ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ

ﻩﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﻊﻴﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻕﻭﻘﺤﺒ ﻡﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺩ ﺭﻘﻴ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺒ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﺒ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﻨﻻﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻤﺩﺎﻘﻝﺍ لﺎﻴﺠﻷﺍ ﻲﻤﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﻉﺭﺸﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﻬﻴ ﻭﺃ ﺭﻀﻴ ﻭﺃ ﺙﺒﻌﻴ ﻥﺃ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﺇ ﻱﻷ ﻲﻐﺒﻨﻴ ﻻ ﻪﻴﻠﻋﻭ ،ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﺠﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻕﻭﻘﺤﻝﺎﺒ ﻡﺍﺯﺘﻝﻻﺍ ﻊﺠﺸﻴ

(1)

(2)

.

: ﻲﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻅﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ - III

ﻲﻓ ﺀﺎﺠ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﻲﻨﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﻕﻤﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﺫﺠﺘﻤ ﺔﻤﻴﺩﻗ ﺓﺭﻜﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺀﺎﺠ ﺎﻤﻴﻓ ﺕﻤﺩﻗ ،ﺔﻤﻴﺩﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﺭﻏﻹﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﻀﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﺒﺭﺘﻨﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ )ﺎﻴﻝﺎﺤ ﻑﻭﺭﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺃﺩﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻨﻭﺩﻤ ﺔﻴﺨﻴﺭﺎﺘ ﺓﺭﺎﺸﺇ لﻭﺃ ﻩﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﺎﻤﻋ "ﻥﻭﻁﻼﻓﺁ" ﺏﺘﻜ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻤﺤﻴ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ ﻊﻀﻭ ﺓﺭﻭﺭﻀ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻋﺩ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻋ ،( ﻊﻓﺍﺩﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ ( ﺩﻘﻨﻝﺍ ) ﻪﺒﺎﺘﻜ ﻲﻓ ﻥﺍﺩﺃ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻋ ﻭ ،( ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺘﻜ )ﺭﻴﻗﺎﻘﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻉﻭﻨ ﻱﺃ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ

(3)

.

ﺓﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﻻ ﺔﻴﺒﻠﺴ ﺓﺭﻭﺼ ﺎﻤﻫﺭﺒﺘﻋﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ لﻜﺂﺘ ﻭ ﺕﺎﺒﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﺔﻝﺍﺯﺇ

ﺎﻤﻬﻤ ﺩﺭﻓ ﻱﻷ ﺯﻭﺠﻴ ﻻﻭ ،ﺔﻋﺎﻤﺠﻠﻝ ﻙﻠﻤ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺨﻝﺍ ﻥﺈﻓ ﻲﻨﺎﻤﻭﺭﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺃ . ﺕﺎﻜﻭﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ لﺜﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺏﻗﺎﻌﻴ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻥﺈﻓ ﺍﺫﻝ ، ﺔﻴﻜﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻩ ﺫﻫ ﻲﻓ ﻑﺭﺼﺘﻴ ﻥﺃ ﻪﺘﻔﺼ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ

ص ،(1998 ، آ آ ه ا) م ا ا نزا ا ا ،ص ا ح ا -(1) .26 ،25 (2)- Edith Brown Weiss, Justice pour les génération futures, (Paris : Edition Sang de la terre,1993), P.16.

.250 ص ، آذ ،ن ا ا -(3)

ﻡﻬﺘﺌﻴﺒ ﻊﻤ ﺎﻴﺒﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻼﺼﺍﻭﺘ ﺍﻭﺩﻠﺨ ﺏﺭﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺈﻓ ﻲﻠﻫﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺒﺭﻌﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﻀﺤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤﺃ

ﻭ ﻡﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﻥﺁﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﺹﻭﺼﻨ ﺕﻭﺘﺤﺍﻭ ،ﻡﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻅ لﻼﺨ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﺩﺘﻤﺍﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻭﺍﺭﺤﺼﻝﺍ

ﻲﻓ ﻪﺘﻭﺭﺫ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻻﺍ ﻎﻠﺒﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﺅﺸ ﻡﻬﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻔﻴﺭﺸﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﺴﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺎﺒ ﺔﻐﻝﺎﺒ ﺔﻴﺎﻨﻋ ﻡﺎﻜﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻭﺩﺸﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻔﻠﺨﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﺒﺃ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﻲﺴﻝﺩﻨﻷﺍ ﻭ ﻲﺴﺎﺒﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﻌﻝﺍ . ﺓﺭﺫﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺕ ﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﺘﺎﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻡﻬﺘﺍﺭﻭﺼﺘ ﺍﻭﺤﺭﻁ ﺩﻗ ﺔﻀﻬﻨﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﻋ ﺔﻔﺴﻼﻓ ﻭ ﺏﺎﺘﻜ ﻥﺃ ﺩﺠﻨ ﻑﻭﺴﻓ ﺎﺒﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻨﻠﻘﺘﻨﺍ ﻭﻝﻭ ﺔﻴﻗﺍﺭ ﺔﺸﻴﻌﻤ ﻕﻘﺤﻴ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺩﺩﺤﻴ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻤﺤﻴ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ ﻊﻀﻭﻝ ﻉﺎﻁﻗﻹﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺴﻴﻨﻜﻝﺍ لﺎﺠﺭ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺭﻁﻴﺴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻅﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﺼﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺌﺎﺴ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ،ﺭﺸﺒﻠﻝ . ﺔﻌﺸﺒ ﺓﺭﻭﺼﺒ ﺎﻫﻭﺒﻬﻨ ﺙﻴﺤ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ لﻜ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺩﺼﺃ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﺕﻗﻭﻝﺍ ﻙﻝﺫ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻗ ﺭﺍﺩﺼﺇ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻗﺎﺒﺴﻝﺍ ﺍﺭﺘﻠﺠﻨﺍ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺩﻘﻝ ﻡﺤﻔﻝﺍ ﻕﺭﺤ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻜﺤﺘﻠﻝ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ لﻭﺃ 1273 ﻡﺎﻋ "لﻭﻷﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﺩﺇ" ﻙﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﻬﻋ

(1)

.

ﻥﺍﺭﻴﻨﻝﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍﻭ ﻱﺭﺠﺤﻝﺍ

ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﺴﺂﻤ ﺕﺫﺨﺃﻭ ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻜﻓﻷﺍ ﺕﻐﻁ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺍﺩﺒ ﻊﻤﻭ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ ﺎﻫﺀﺍﺭﻭ ﺔﻔﻠﺨﻤ ﺎﻜﻴﺭﻤﺃ ﻭ ﺎﺒﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺭﻜﺘﺘ ،ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﻓﺎﻜﻤﻝ ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻗ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘ ﻊﻀﻭ ﻰﻝﺇ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﻋﺭﺎﺴ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ ﺕﺎﻴﻓﻭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺎﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻠﻝ ﻲﻝﻭﺩ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ ﻊﻀﻭ ﺓﺭﻭﺭﻀ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺼﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﺕﺩﺎﻨ ﻭ . ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻨﺯﺍﻭﺘﻤ ﻭ ﺔﺴﻨﺎﺠﺘﻤ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻕﻘﺤﻴ ﻭ ﺎﻬﻨﻋ ﻉﺎﻓﺩﻠﻝ : ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ لﺎﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﺩﻘﺘﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒﻝ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺭﺠﺘﻝﺍ - 1 - III ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤﺒ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺕﺎﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘ ﺭﺍﺩﺼﺇ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺔﻤﺩﻘﺘﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺏﻠﻏﺃ ﻰﻌﺴﺘ ،ﺔﻤﻴﻠﺴ ﺎﻬﺒ ﻅﺎﻔﺘﺤﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻤﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻪﺠﻭﺃ ﻡﻴﻅﻨﺘ ﻭ ﺀﺍﺩﺘﻋﻻﺍ لﺎﻌﻓﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻫﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺩﺼ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﺔﺤﻓﺎﻜﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺌﺍﺭ ﺓﺩﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻻﻭﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺭﺠﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﻨﺎﻜﻭ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺭﺩﺼ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻜﺤﺘﻠﻝ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ لﻭﺃ 1815 ﻡﺎﻋ -ﻍﺭﺒﺴﺘﺒ – ﺔﻨﻴﺩﻤ ﺕﺭﻤﺘﺴﺍ ﻭ ،ﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻘﻠﻁﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﺨﺩﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺤﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻠﺤﻤ ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻗ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻥﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺤﺘﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﻬﻝﺍ " ﺕﺭﺩﺼﺃ ﺙﻴﺤ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻡﻜﺤﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ

.11ص ،(2002 أ) 48 ا ب آ ،« د و د ءا ا ث » د -(1)

ﺓﺩﻭﺠ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻘﺒ ﻪﺘﻠﻤﻜﺘﺴﺍﻭ 1963 ﻡﺎﻋ "ﻑﻴﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ " "ﺔﻴﺌﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻜﺤﺘﻠﻝ

(1)

.

1967 ﻡﺎﻋ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ

ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺎﻴﺴ لﻭﺤ 1969 ﻡﺎﻌﻝ ﻲﻜﻴﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻲﻨﻁﻭﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻨﻫ ﺓﺭﺎﺸﻹﺍ ﺭﺩﺠﺘﻭ ﺍﺭﻴﺭﻘﺘ ﻡﺩﻘﻴ ﺓﺩﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻻﻭﻝﺍ ﺱﻴﺌﺭ ﺢﺒﺼﺃ 1970ﻡﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﻠﻴﻭﺠ ﺭﻬﺸ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺀﺩﺘﺒﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻨﺴ لﻜﻝ ﺽﺭﻋ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺎﻜﻴﺭﻤﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻀﻭﻭ ﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻨ ﻪﻴﻓ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ "ﺱﺭﻐﻨﻭﻜﻝﺍ" ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻴﻭﻨﺴ ﺎﻀﺭﻗ ﻡﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ لﻭﺤ ﺔﻁﻘﻨ 37 ﻥﻤ ﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﺎﺠﻤﺎﻨﺭﺒ -ﻥﻭﺴﻜﻴﻨ – ﺱﻴﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﺕﻨﺴ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﺎﻔﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤﻝ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﺕﺂﺸﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻭ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤﻝ ﺭﻻﻭﺩ ﺭﻴﻴﻼﻤ 04 ﻎﻠﺒﻤﺒ

،1972 ﻡﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﺒﺭﻐﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﻨﺎﻤﻝﺃ ﻭ ﺓﺩﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻻﻭﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺀﺎﻀﻭﻀﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺤﻠﻝ ﺕﺎﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ

ﻥﺃ ﻅﺤﻼﻴﻭ

ﻥﻭﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻅﻨﻤ ﺭﺎﻁﻗﺃ ﺕﻠﻤﻋ ﺎﻤﻜ ،

(2)

ﺎﻴﺒﺴﻨ ﺔﺜﻴﺩﺤ ﺕﺎﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ لﺜﻤ

.ﻪﻋﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﻑﻠﺘﺨﻤﺒ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻜﺤﺘﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻨﺎﻗ ﺕﺎﻴﻝﺁ ﻊﻀﻭﺒ

()

(OECD) ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ

ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻓﺃ ﺔﻨﺎﻬﺘﺴﺍ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻜ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺎﻬﻨﺃ ﻻﺇ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻅﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺍﺩﻭﻬﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻏﺭﻭ ﺽﺭﻓ ﺔﻓﺩﻬﺘﺴﻤ ﺕﺎﺒﻭﻘﻌﻝﺍ ﺩﺩﺸﺘ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ لﻌﺠ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺭﻤﻷﺍ ،ﺎﻬﺘﻔﻝﺎﺨﻤﺒ ﻡﻬﺘﻻﺎﺒﻤ ﻡﺩﻋﻭ ﺎﻬﺒ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﺕﻗﻭﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻊﻴﺭﺸﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺈﻓ ﺍﺫﻬﻝﻭ ،ﻑﺎﻜ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﻭﺠ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ ﺢﺒﺼﺃ ﺓﺩﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻻﻭﻝﺍ ﻲﻔﻓ ﺔﻴﻨﻁﻭ ﺱﻴﻴﺎﻘﻤ ﻊﻀﻭﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻀﻘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﺒﺎﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯﻝﺎﻜ ،ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺓﺭﻭﺼﺒ ﺭﻭﻁﺘﻴ ﻲﻝﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺱﻴﻴﺎﻘﻤ ﻊﻀﻭﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺒﻗﺍﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻁﻁﺨﻤ ﻊﻴﺴﻭﺘ ﻭ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻨﻝ

ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺨﺩ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻤﺍﺭﺼ

ﻥﺃ ﻻﺇ ،ﺎﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺔﻤﺩﻘﺘﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﺭﺎﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺀﺍﺭﺠﻹﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﺃ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻏﺭﻝﺎﺒﻭ ﻥﺃ ﺩﻜﺅﺘ "ﺔﻴﻤﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻅﻨﻤﻝ" ﺔﻌﺒﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻨ ﺔﺒﻗﺍﺭﻤ ﺯﻜﺍﺭﻤﻝ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ

(3)

.

و ا : ه ا) ، ا ا ر أ : ، ا ث ، ا و ا ا -(1) .14 ص ،(1972 ، ا نو ،م ا و ا ا : ) ن ا و ا ا ت ا ،يو ا ا م -(2) .506 ص ،( ر . د ا ار أ را لود و ود 23 ا و يد ا نو ا -(*) .21ص ، آذ ، ا و ا ا -(3)

ﺱﺎﺒﺘﺤﻻﺍﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﻓﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﺙﺎﻌﺒﻨﺍ ﻥﻤ %28 ﻲﻝﺍﻭﺤ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻝﻭﺅﺴﻤ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ

ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻱﺭﺍﺭﺤﻝﺍ

(1)

.

ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻷ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ ﻲﻓ لﺸﻔﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻥﺎﻴﺤﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﻲﻓ ﻯﺩﺃ ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺩﺩﻌﺘ ﻥﺇ ﻥﻁﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﻁ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﺘﻓﺭﻌﻤ ﺭﺫﻌﺘﻴ ﻲﻝﺎﺘﻝﺎﺒ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﺴﺭﻝﺍ ﺩﺌﺍﺭﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻫﺭﺸﻨﺒ ﻲﻔﺘﻜﻴ ﺕﺎﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘﻝﺍ – ﺎﻨﻫ ﺩﺼﻘﻨﻭ ﺎﻬﻨﻼﻋﻹ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻥﻋ ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﺠﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﻋﺩ ﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﻤﻭ ،ﻱﺩﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﺩﺩﺤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻘﻠﻝ ﻡﺌﺍﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﺸﻨﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻤﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ -ﺔﻴﺭﻴﻫﺎﻤﺠﻝﺍ ﻡﻼﻋﻹﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ

. ﻪﺘﺍﺫ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤﻝ ﻊﻀﻭ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻥﺄﺒ ﻪﻴﻭﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝ ﺎﺒ

:ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤﻝ ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻲﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻁﻹﺍ -2-III

ﺕﺍﻭﻨﺴ لﻼﺨ ﻅﻭﺤﻠﻤ ﺩﺍﺭﻁﺎﺒ ﺕﻤﻅﺎﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ لﺎﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﺭﻓ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺩﺠ ﻉﺭﻓ ﺯﻭﺭﺒ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﺠﺭﺩﺒ ﺕﻤﻬﺴﺃ ﺩﻗ ﻲﻀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺉﺩﺎﺒﻤﻠﻝ ﻲﻝﻭﺩ ﻥﻴﻨﻘﺘ لﻭﺃ ﺔﺒﺎﺜﻤﺒ ﻕﺤﺒﻭ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻠﻝ ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﻪﺒ ﻲﻨﻌﻨﻭ ﻡﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻭﺘﺴﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﻘﻠﻁﻨﺍ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻤﺒ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻨﺎﻘﻝﺍ ﺩﻋﺍﻭﻘﻝﺍ لﻜ ﻲﻓ ﻭ ،ﻲﺌﺎﻨﺜﻝﺍ ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ،ﻲﻤﻴﻠﻗﻹﺍ ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ، ﻲﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ :ﺔﺜﻼﺜ ﻡﺍﺭﺒﺇ ﺓﺭﻭﺼ ﺱﺎﺴﻷﺎﺒ ﺕﺫﺨﺘﺍ ﺩﻗ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺩﺠﻨ ﺔﺜﻼﺜﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻭﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻤ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤ . ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻕﻴﺜﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻗﺎﻔﺘﻻﺍ ﻡﺌﻼﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻤﻴﻅﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻁﻹﺍ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻤﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻠﻗﻹﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻅﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﻠﻜﺸ ﺩﻘﻝ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺔﻴﻋﺭﻓ ﺓﺯﻬﺠﺃ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﺈﺒ ﺎﻬﻨﻴﺒ ﻕﻴﺴﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻤﺤ لﺎﺠﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺤﻭﺘﻝ ﻰﻨﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﻉﻭﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺠﻠﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ "ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻠﻝ ﺓﺩﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻤﻷﺍ ﺞﻤﺎﻨﺭﺒ" لﺜﻤ ﺕﺎﻴﻝﺁ ﺭﻴﻓﻭﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻫﺭﻭﺩﺒ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻅﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺕﻤﺎﻗ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﻪﺘﺍﺫ ﻉﻭﻀﻭﻤﻝﺎﺒ . ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻀﻘﺒ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ

( ∑∑∑∑)

لو ا ه ا ) ، ا ا ا ر ا ا تاد ر ا د ،يو ا ا م -(1) .05 ص ،(1995 ،ة ا ا ، ا ا ه ا ا ا ل و ا نو ا جذ لو ا ه آأ -(*)

. ECOLOGY ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺏﻠﻁﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺕﺎﻋﺍﺭﺼﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺏﻭﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﺏﺸﻨﺘ ﺎﻤ ﺍﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﺕﻨﺎﻜﻓ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺎﺒ ﻡﺩﻘﻝﺍ ﺫﻨﻤ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻡﺘﻫﺃ :لﺜﻤ لﺌﺍﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﻔﺴﻼﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻴﺭﻜﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﺎﺘﻜﻝ ﺎﻋﻭﻀﻭﻤ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ لﺠﺃ ﺕﻠﻅﻭ ،ﻡﻫﺭﻴﻏﻭ "ﺱﻭﻤﻴﻠﻁﺒ"ﻭ "ﺕﻴﻝﻭﺒ"ﻭ "ﺱﻭﻨﻴﻝﺎﺠ"ﻭ "ﻭﻁﺴﺭﺃ"ﻭ "ﻥﻭﻁﻼﻓﺃ"ﻭ "ﻁﺍﺭﻗﻭﺒﻴﻫ" ﻰﺘﺤ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺭﻔﻤ ﻥﻴﺘﻼﻝﺍ ﺔﻝﺎﺤﺭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻕﻴﺭﻏﻹﺍ ﺔﻔﺴﻼﻔﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻩﺭﻴﻏ ﻭ ﻭﻁﺴﺭﺃ ﺕﺎﺒﺎﺘﻜ ﻭ ﺓﺭﻴﻬﺸﻝﺍ (1406-1332)"ﻥﻭﺩﻠﺨ ﻥﺒﺍ" ﺔﻤﺩﻘﻤ ﺕﺭﻬﻅ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻋ ﻱﺩﻼﻴﻤ ﺭﺸﻋ ﻊﺒﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﺎﻴﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻔﺴﻠﻓ ﻭ ﻉﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻅﻨﻤ ﺙﺤﺒ لﻭﺃ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻕﻼﺨﺃﻭ ﺏﻭﻌﺸﻝﺍ ﻊﺌﺎﺒﻁ ﻲﻓ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺥﺎﻨﻤﻝﺎﻜ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﺃ ﻥﻋ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺙﺩﺤﺘ ﺙﻴﺤ

.

(1)

ﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ

:ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ ﺭﻭﻁﺘﻭ ﺓﺄﺸﻨ -I ﺱﻤﺎﺨﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻬﻨ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻓﺍﺭﻐﺠﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻓﻭﺸﻜﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﺘﻓ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ ﺕﺩﺍﺩﺯﺍ . ﻥﻭﻴﻝﺎﻐﺘﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺒﺴﻷﺍ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻕﻝﺄﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺩﻼﻴﻤ ﺭﺸﻋ ﻥﻤﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ( ﻥﻴﻨﺍﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﺡﻭﺭ )"ﻭﻴﻜﺴﻴﺘﻨﻤ" ﻭ ( ﺔﻴﺭﻭﻬﻤﺠﻝﺍ ) "ﻥﺍﺩﻭﺒ" ﺕﺎﺒﺎﺘﻜ ﺕﺭﻬﻅ ﻡﺜ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﻷ ﻡﻬﻀﺭﻌﺘ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﻜﻔﻝﺍ ﺹﺨﻴ ﺎﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻓﻭ ،ﻱﺩﻼﻴﻤ ﺭﺸﻋ ،ﺀﺎﻴﺤﻷﺍ ﻡﻭﻠﻌﺒ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤ ﺓﺩﻴﺩﺠ ﺭﺎﻜﻓﺃ ﺕﺭﻬﻅ ﻱﺩﻼﻴﻤ ﺭﺸﻋ ﻊﺴﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺍﺩﺒ ﻲﻓﻭ ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ . " لﺯﺘﺍﺭ ﻙﻴﺭﺩﻴﺭﻓ " ﻭ " ﺕﻝﻭﺒﻤﻫ " ﻭ ﺭﺘﻴﺍﺭ " لﺎﺜﻤﺃ ﺩﺩﺠ ﺩﺍﻭﺭ ﺭﻬﻅ ﻡﺜ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﻜﻔﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﻋ " ERNEST HEACKEL" "لﻜﻴﻫ ﺕﺴﻨﺭﺃ" ﻲﻨﺎﻤﻝﻷﺍ ﺭﻜﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﻲﺠﻤﺒﻭ ﻊﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﻑﻴﻜﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﺒ لﺩﻴﻝ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ ﺱﺴﺃ ﻪﻌﻀﻭﺒ ﺔﻴﻋﻭﻨ ﺔﻠﻘﻨ

ﺎﻬﻁﻴﺤﻤ : ﻥﻴﻘﺸ ﻥﻤ ﻥﻭﻜﺘﺘﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻨﺎﻨﻭﻴﻝﺍ ﺔﻐﻠﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻘﺘﺸﻤ " ECOLOGY " ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﺇ ﺔ ﻤﻠﻜﻭ

(2)

.

.17ص ،(1997 ،ع ا ؛7ط) ا و ا ،ب ا -(1) ،(1984 ،ت ا آو : ا ؛3ط) ، ا ا ت ارد ن ا و ا ،نو و -(2)

.12،11ص

،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻪﺒ ﺩﻭﺼﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻜﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﻁﺴﻭﻝﺍ ﻲﻨﻌﺘ ﺓﺭﻴﺨﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫﻭ ،"OIKOS" ،"LOGY" ﻡﻠﻋ ﻭﻫ ﻡﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻰﻨﻌﻤﻝﺎﻓ ﻲﻝﺎﺘﻝﺎﺒ ﻭ ،ﻡﻠﻋ ﻪﺒ ﺩﻭﺼﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺙﻴﺩﺤ ﻭﺃ ﺽﺭﻋ ﻲﻨﻌﺘ ﻭ "LOGY" . " ECOLOGY " ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ

ﻁﺒﺭﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﺍﺩﻌﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﺩﻭﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻤﺠﻤ ﻭﻫ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ ﻥﺃ "لﻜﻴﻫ ﺕﺴﻨﺭﺃ" ﻯﺭﻴﻭ

.

(1)

ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻌﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺘﺌﻴﺒﺒ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ

ﻥﻴﺒ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ":ﻪﻨﺄﺒ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ "Allain Bombarett" "ﺕﺭﺎﺒﻤﻭﺒ ﻥﻻﺃ" ﻑﺭﻌﻴﻭ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻥﻤﻀﺘﻴ ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺎﻫﺩﺠﺍﻭﺘ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﺸﻴﻌﻤ ﻕﺭﻁ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﻴﺫﻐﺘ ﻡﻅﻨ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ

"ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﺹﺌﺎﺼﺨ ﻭ ﺥﺎﻨﻤﻝﺎﻜ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ

ﻉﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﻡﻝﺎﻋ ﻰﻝﺇ لﻀﻔﻝﺍ ﻊﺠﺭﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ ﻡﻭﻠﻋ ﺕﺩﺘﻤﺍﻭ

ﻊﻴﺭﺸﺘﻝﺍ" ﻥﺍﻭﻨﻋ ﺕﺤﺘ 1915 ﻡﺎﻋ ﺎﺒﺎﺘﻜ ﺭﺩﺼﺃ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻋ "Charles Gaipain" ﻲﻜﻴﺭﻤﻷﺍ . " ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺤﻷ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻉﺎﻤﺘﺠﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ،ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻌﺴﺍﻭ ﻥﻴﺩﺎﻴﻤ ﺱﻤﺘ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ ﺕﺤﺒﺼﺃ ﺩﻘﻝ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﺇ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺒﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ

Julien" ﺩﻴ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﺒﺭﺜﻨﻷﺍ ﻡﻭﻠﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ ﺕﻠﺨﺩ ﺎﻤﻜ ،

. " Cultural Ecology " ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻘﺜﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﺠ ﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ ﻭﺤﻨ ﻪﻫﺎﺠﺘﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﻭ " Stewart ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨ (1945-1939 )ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺏﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﺩﻌﺒ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺭﻭﻁﺘ ﺩﻘﻝ ﺱﺭﺍﺩﻤ ﺓﺩﻋ ﺕﻠﻜﺸﺘ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺼﺃ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ ﻪﺘﺩﻬﺸ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺏﺍﺭﺨﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ ،ﺔﻴﻜﻴﺭﻤﻷﺍ-ﺔﻴﺯﻴﻠﺠﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﺴﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ ، ﺔﻴﺴﻨﺭﻔﻝﺍ -ﺔﻴﺭﺴﻴﻭﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ :ﺎﻫﺭﻬﺸﺃ . ﺔﻴﺘﻴﻓﻭﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ ، ﺔ ﻴﻓﺎﻨﻴﺩﻨﻜﺴﻻﺍ . Ecology ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ ﻡﺎﺴﻗﺃ - II ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻁﺎﺸﻨﻝ ﺔﻴﺒﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨ ﻉﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺭﻬﻅ :ﻲﻘﻴﺒﻁﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ -1-II ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ لﻼﺘﺨﺍ ﻭ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﻫﺎﻅﻤ لﻜﺒ ﻉﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻡﺘﻬﻴ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ

(2)

.

(3)

ﺔﻴﻨﺍﺭﻤﻌﻝﺍ

، ع او ا م ا ا ا ا ي ر ا ةرو ا ،« او ا » ،ف ا ث -(1) .133 ص ،(1995 سر ) .18،17 ص ،(1991 ز ا و قو ا راد :ندر ا ) ا ا و ا ، ن إ -(2) (3)- Jean Philippe Barde, et, Christian Garnier, Environnement sans Frontières, ( Paris :

Editions Seghers, 1971),P.331.

ﻭ ﺔﻴﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﺩﺎﺼﺭﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺥﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ ﻭ ﺀﺎﻴﺯﻴﻔﻝﺎﻜ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺎﻤﻭﻠﻋ لﻐﺸﻴﻭ

. ﻪﻴﻓ ﺵﻴﻌﺘ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻁﺴﻭﻝﺍ ﻊﻤﻭ ﺽﻌﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒﺒ ﺎﻬﺘﻗﻼﻋ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻴﺼﺤ ﻭ ﻑﺭﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﻤﺘﻌﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻭﻫﻭ :ﻲﻔﺼﻭﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ -2-II ﺔﻤﺌﻼﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻁﻭﺭﺸﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻜﻭﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺘﺍﺩﺎﻋﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺘﻤﻅﻨﺃ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ لﻭﺤ .ﺎﻬﺌﺎﻘﺒ ﺭﺍﺭﻤﺘﺴﺍ ﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻴﺤﻝ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻑﻭﺭﻅﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻁﻭﺭﺸﻝﺍ لﻴﻠﺤﺘﺒ ﻉﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺹﺘﺨﻴﻭ :ﻲﻠﻴﻠﺤﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ -3-II ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤ ﻭﺃ ﺓﺩﺭﻔﻨﻤ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻑﺩﻬﺒ ،ﺎﻫﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺓﺩﻭﺠﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ . ﺕﻼﻋﺎﻔﺘ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻭﺴﻴ ﺎﻤﻭ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﻫﺍﻭﻅﻝﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﺒ ﻥﻭﺜﺤﺎﺒﻝﺍ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻡﺘﻬﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻭﻫﻭ :ﻱﺭﻭﻁﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﻠﻋ-4-II

ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺝﺫﺎﻤﻨﻭ ﺭﻭﺼﻝ ﺕﺎﻴﺼﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺭﻴﺭﺎﻘﺘﻝﺍ ﺡﺍﺭﺘﻗﺍ ﻊﻤ

لﺠﺃ ﻥﻤﻭ ،

ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏ

(1)

.

: ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ - III ﻊﻤ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺎﻫﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ لﻋﺎﻔﺘﺘ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤ ﻪﻨﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ "Ecosystem" ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﻌﻴ ﺙﻴﺤﺒ ،ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﺯﻴﻔﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻊﻤﻭ ،ﺽﻌﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻝﺎﺤ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻠﻝ ﻲﻁﻌﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ،ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻴﺒ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻉﻭﻨ ﺄﺸﻨﻴ ﺎﻬﻝﻼﺨ ﻡﺘﻴ ﺓﺩﺩﻌﺘﻤ ﺕﺎﻴﻭﺘﺴﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﺌﺍﺫﻐﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺴﻠﺴ ﻕﻴﺭﻁ ﻥﻋ ،ﻲﺘﺍﺫﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻔﺘﻜﻻﺍ

ﻭ.

ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻘﻠﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻜﺒﺸ ﻲﻓ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﺤﺘ ﻭ ﺔﻗﺎﻁﻝﺍ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘ ﻭ لﺎﻘﺘﻨﺍ : ﺎﻤﻫ ﻥﻴﻴﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﻥﻴﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻥﻤ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻑﻝﺄﺘﻴ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻥﻭﻜﺘﺘﻭ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻫﺎﻅﻤﺒ ﻊﺘﻤﺘﺘ ﻻ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻲﻫﻭ :ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤﻝﺍ -1-III ﺀﺯﺠ :ﺀﺍﺯﺠﺃ ﺔﺜﻼﺜ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﺴﻘﺘﻨ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏﻭ (ﺙﺜﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺀﺎﻴﺤﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻠﺨﻤ ) ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻌﻝﺍ .ﺏﻠﺼ ﺀﺯﺠ ﻭ ﻱﺯﺎﻏ ﺀﺯﺠ ﻭ ﻲﺌﺎﻤ

(2)

.06 ،05ص ،(1990 ، را : ) ث ا و ا ، د -(1) .135 ص ، آذ ،ف ا ث -(2)

ﻭ ﺱﻔﻨﺘﻭ ﺔﻴﺫﻐﺘ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻫﺎﻅﻤﺒ ﻊﺘﻤﺘﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ لﻤﺸﺘﻭ :ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤﻝﺍ -2-III ﺔﻜﻠﻬﺘﺴﻤﻭ ﺔﺠﺘﻨﻤ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺀﺍﺫﻐﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻝﻭﺼﺤ لﻜﺸ ﻡﺠﺤﺒ ﻡﺴﻘﻨﺘ ﻭ ،ﺭﺜﺎﻜﺘﻭ ﺔﻜﺭﺤ

ﺔﻠﻠﺤﻤﻭ

. ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻪﻨﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻴﻤﺠ ﻕﻔﺘﺘ ﺎﻬﻨﺃ ﻻﺇ،ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﻭﻬﻔﻤ ﺕﻝﻭﺎﻨﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻑﻴﺭﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﺜﻜ ﻡﻏﺭ ﺎﻤﺒ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺜﺅﻴ ﺎﻤ لﻜ ﻭﻫ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋﻭ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻴﻴﻐﺘ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻌﻝﺍ ﺏﻴﻜﺭﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺜﺅﻴ ﺎﻤ لﻜ ﻙﻝﺫﻜﻭ ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﺇﻭ ﻥﺍﻭﻴﺤ ﻭ ﺕﺎﺒﻨ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏﻭ ،ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺤﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺭﺎﺤﺒﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍﻭ ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ : لﺜﻤ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺩﺴﻓﺃ ﻪﺘﺎﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﺒ ﺭﺼﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺎﻓ ،ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺎﻤﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﺩﻬﻴ ﺭﻁﺨ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ ﻕﺤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﻴﺭﺠ ﺩﻌﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺤﺒﺼﺄﻓ،ﺢﻠﺼﺃ . ﻰﻝﺎﻌﺘﻭ ﻪﻨﺎﺤﺒﺴ ﷲﺍ ﺎﻫﺩﺠﻭﺃ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺍﺯﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻌﺴﺎﺸ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤ ﺎﻴﻤﻭﻴ ﺢﺴﺘﻜﺘﻭ،ﻥﺎﻜﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﺎﻤﺯﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﻋ ﺩﺘﻤﺘ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺜﺁ ﺕﻝﺍﺯﻻ ﺔﻴﺭﺫﻝﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﻠﺴﻷﺍ ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻭ ﺓﺭﺼﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺩﻭﻌﻴ ﺏﺒﺴﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺍﻭﺠﻭ ﺍﺭﺤﺒﻭ ﺍﺭﺒ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍﻭ ﻪﻋﺍﻭﻨﺃﻭ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﺃ ﻡﻫﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺙﺤﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺽﺭﻌﺘﻨ ﻑﻭﺴﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍﻭ . ﻪﻨﻋ ﺔﻤﺠﺎﻨﻝﺍ . ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻭ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﺃ : لﻭﻷﺍ ﺏﻠﻁﻤﻝ ﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺫﻨﻤ ﺭﻭﻬﻅﻝﺎﺒ ﺕﺃﺩﺒ ﺩﻗﻭ ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻑﺭﻁ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺜﺩﺤﺘﺴﻤ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻠﻝ ﺔﺒﺒﺴﻤﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﺏﻠﻏﺃ ﻥﺇ ﺩﻌﺒ ﺎﻤﻭﻴ ﺩﻴﺍﺯﺘﺘ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﻠﻅ ﻭ ،ﻪﺘﺎﻴﺤ ﻲﺤﺎﻨﻤ لﻜ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﻤﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍﻭ ﺔﻝﻵﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻜﺘﺒﺃ .ﺔﺜﻴﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺏﻴﻝﺎﺴﻷﺎﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺩﺨﺃ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻡﺩﻘﺘﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯ ﻊﻤ ﻡﻭﻴ ﺎﻫﺭﻁﺨﺒ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻌﺸ ﻥﻴﺤ ﻥﻴﺭﺸﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﻑﺼﻨﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﺤﻀﺍﻭ ﺎﻫﺭﺜﺃ ﺭﻬﻅ ﺩﻗﻭ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤ ﻭ ﺏﺎﺒﺴﺃ ﺭﻭﺤﻤﺘﺘﻭ ،ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﺼ ﻭ ﻪﺘﺤﺼ ﻰﻠﻋ . ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﻁﺼﻻﺍ ﻭ

ﺔﻴﻜﻴﻨﺎﻜﻴﻤ ﺔﻔﺼﺒ ﺙﺩﺤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ :ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ -I ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﺨﺼ ﺕﻌﻓﺩﻨﺍ ﺔﻨﺴ ﻥﻭﻴﻠﻤ 65 ﻭﺤﻨ ﺫﻨﻤ ﻪﻨﺃ ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﻘﻴ ﻼﺜﻤﻓ ،ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﺏﻜﻭﻜ ﻰﻠﻋ

(1)

.

.23 22، ص ،(2003 ، ا راد : ا ا ) ،ث ا ا ا ،رادرد -(1)

ﻥﻭﻴﻠﻤ 10 ﻪﺘﻭﻗ ﺍﺭﺎﺠﻔﻨﺍ ﺔﺜﺩﺤﻤ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺭﺘﻤﻭﻠﻴﻜ 14-10 ﻥﻤ ﻲﻝﺍﻭﺤ ﺎﻬﻀﺭﻋ ﺀﺎﻀﻔﻝﺍ

لﻭﻘﻴﻭ ،ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻭﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﺤﻠﺴﻷﺍ لﻜ ﺭﺎﺠﻔﻨﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻤ ﻑﻻﺁ10 ـﺒ ﻯﻭﻗﺃ ﻱﺃ ﻥﻁﺎﻐﻴﻤ

ﺔﻓﻭﺩﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺒﺍﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺏﺤﺴﻝﺍ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ ﺭﻴﺼﻘﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺩﺌﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﻷﺍ ﻭﻫ ﻥﺎﻜ ﺩﻴﺭﺒﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺀﺎﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺨﺒ ﻭ ﻥﻭﺒﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺴﻜﺃ ﻲﻨﺎﺜ لﺨﺩ لﻴﻭﻁﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺌﺭ ﺔﻔﺼﺒ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺕﺎﺠﺭﺩ ﺕﻌﻓﺭﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﺎﺠﺯﻝﺍ ﺕﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﺃ ﺕﺯﺯﻌﻓ ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻘﺒﻁ ﻲﻓ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻏ

لﺍﻭﺯ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﻤﺩﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨ ﻥﺎﻜﻭ ،ﺎﺒﻴﺭﻘﺘ ﺔﻴﺘﺎﻬﻨﺭﻬﻓ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ 20 ﺭﺍﺩﻘﻤﺒ ﺓﺭﺍﺭﺤﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﺭﻴﻤﺩﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﻫﺎﻅﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ .ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﻷﺍ ﻑﺼﻨﻭ "ﺕﺍﺭﻭﺼﺎﻨﻴﺩﻝﺍ"

ﻥﻴﻜﺍﺭﺒﻭ لﻭﻴﺴﻭ ﺭﺎﻁﻤﺃﻭ ﺩﻋﺭﻭ ﻕﺭﺒ ﻥﻤ ﻯﺭﺨﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺒﺒﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺩﺎﺴﻓﻹﺍ

ﻪﻠﻌﻔﻴ ﺎﻤﺒ ﻡﻴﻠﺴﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻰﻀﺭﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻥﻤﺅﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻺﻝ ﺩﺒﻻ ﻙﻝﺫ لﻜ ﺀﺍﺯﺇ ﻪﻨﺃ ﺩﻴﺒ ،لﺯﻻﺯﻭ ﻲﻫ ﺎﻤ ﺭﺩﻘﺒ ﺔﻴﺜﻴﻭﻠﺘ ﺕﺴﻴﻝ ﻲﻬﻓ ﻪﺴﻔﻨ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﻴﻜﺤ ﺔﻴﺎﻏ ﻥﻋ ﻡﺠﺎﻨ لﺠﻭ ﺯﻋ ﻪﻨﻷ ،ﻕﻝﺎﺨﻝﺍ

ﺕﺎﺠﻭﻤ ﻭ ﺭﻴﺼﺎﻋﻷﺍ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺎﻬﻋﻭﻗﻭ ﺩﻨﻋ ﺙﺭﺍﻭﻜ ﻕﻠﺨﺘ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﺃ ﺭﻴﻏ ،

ﻥﺎﺤﻀﻭﻴ ﻥﻴﻴﺘﻵﺍ ﻥﻴﻝﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺭﻴﻤﺩﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺜﻵﺍ ﺕﺍﺫ لﺯﻻﺯﻝﺍ ﻭ ،"ﻲﻤﺎﻨﻭﺴﺘﻝﺍ"ﻱﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﻤﻝﺍ

: ﻙﻝﺫ

(1)

ﺔﻴﺤﻼﺼﺇ

" ﻲﻤﺎﻨﻭﺴﺘ " ﻱﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﺩﺍﻭﺤ ﺭﻁﺨﺃ : ( 04 ) لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

-ﻲﻤﺎﻨﻭﺴﺘ– ﻱﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﺩﺤ ﻊﻗﻭﻤ

ﺩﺩﻋ

ﺔﻨﺴﻝﺍ

ﻰﻠﺘﻘﻝﺍ

.ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ-ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻜﻨﺎﻨ

3000

1854

.ﻲﻠﻴﺸﻝﺍ لﺎﻤﺸ

25674

1868

.ﺓﻭﺎﺠﺭﺠﺒ

23500

1883

.ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ -ﻭﻜﻴﺭ ﻥﺎﺴ

26360

1886

.ﺎﻴﺴﻴﻨﻭﺩﻨﺍ-ﺍﺩﻨﺎﺒ ﺭﺤﺒ

3620

1899

.ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ -ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻜﻭﺘ

2144

1923

.ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ -ﻭﻜﻴﺭ ﻥﺎﺴ

3000

1933

.ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ-ﻭﺩﻴﺎﻜﻨﺎﻨ

1997

1964

.112ص ، آذ ،رادرد -(1)

.ﺓﺩﺤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻻﻭﻝﺍ -ﺎﻜﺴﻻﺃ

119

 

.ﻥﻴﺒﻠﻔﻝﺍ -ﻭﺭﻭﻤ ﺞﻴﻠﺨ

8000

1976

.ﺓﺩﻴﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﻨﻴﻏ -ﺎﻴﻨﻭﻐﻴﻨ-ﺍﻭﺒﺎﺒ

2182

1998

National Geophysical Data Center ، NOAA : ﺭﺩﺼﻤﻝﺍ

: لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺭﻗ

-ﻱﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺠﻭﻤ ﻥﺃ ﺀﺎﻴﺤﻹﺍ ﺀﺍﺭﺒﺨ ﺩﻜﺃ ﺩﻘﻝ ،ﺔﻴﺭﻴﺩﻘﺘ ﺭﺸﻋ ﻊﺴﺎﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻗﺭﺃ

. ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺭﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻤﺩ ﺩﻗ 2005 ﻡﺎﻋ ﻱﺩﻨﻬﻝﺍ ﻁﻴﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺏ ﺭﻀ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ - ﻲﻤﺎﻨﻭﺴﺘ

. ﻥﻴﺭﺸﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﺭﻘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻼﺘﻗ ﺭﺜﻜﻷﺍ لﺯﻻﺯﻝﺍ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ ( 05 ) لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

 

ﺓﻭﻗ

ﺎﻴﺎﺤﻀﻝﺍ ﺩﺩﻋ

ﻊﻗﻭﻤﻝﺍ

ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘﻝﺍ

ﻡﻠﺴ)لﺍﺯﻝﺯﻝﺍ

(

ﺭﺘﺸﺭ

7.5

70.000

ﺎﻴﻝﺎﻁﻴﺇ-ﺎﻨﻴﺴﻴﻤ

1908 ﺭﺒﻤﺴﻴﺩ 28

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ

8.3

143.000

ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ-ﻭﺘﻨﺍﻭﻜ

1932ﺭﺒﻤﺘﺒﺴ 01

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ

8.6

200.000

ﻥﻴﺼﻝﺍ-ﻭﺴﻨﺎﺠ

1926 ﺭﺒﻤﺴﻴﺩ 16

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ8.3

200.000

ﻥﻴﺼﻝﺍ-ﻎﻨﻴﻨﻴﺯ

1927

ﻱﺎﻤ 22

7.6

70.000

ﻥﻴﺼﻝﺍ-ﻭﺴﻨﺎﺠ

1932ﺭﺒﻤﺴﻴﺩ 25

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ7.5

60.000

ﻥﺎﺘﺴﻜﺎﺒ-ﺎﺘﻴﻭﻜ

1935

ﻱﺎﻤ 30

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ7.3

110.000

ﻕﺸﻋ

1948

ﺭﺒﻭﺘﻜﺃ 05

ﺎﺘﺴﻨﺎﻤﻜﺭﺘ-ﺩﺎﺒﺃ

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ7.8

66.000

ﻭﺭﻴﺒ

1970

ﻱﺎﻤ 31

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ8.0

255.000

ﻥﻴﺼﻝﺍ-ﻥﺎﺸﻐﻨﺎﺘ

1976

ﺔﻴﻠﻴﻭﺠ 27

ﺔﺠﺭﺩ7.5

50.000

ﻥﺍﺭﻴﺇ

1990 ﻥﺍﻭﺠ 20

U.S.Departmment of the Interior.U.S.Geological Surv ey : ﺭﺩﺼﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺩﻴﺒ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﺭﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺙﺍﺩﺤﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻊﻤ لﻤﺎﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺩﻘﻝ

ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﺠﺎﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺓﺀﺎﻔﻜﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺩﻘﻝﺍ ﺱﻔﻨﺒ لﻤﺎﻌﺘﺘ ﻥﺃ ﻊﻁﺘﺴﺘ ﻡﻝ

ﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ لﻌﻔﺒ ﺙﺩﺤ

: ( ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﻁﺼﻻﺍ ) ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻝﺍ - II ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺜﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺍﺩﺒ ﺩﻨﻤ ﺔﻌﺒﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ ﺕﺎﺴﺎﻴﺴﻝﺍﻭ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻊﻀﻭﻝﺍ ﻥﺇ ﺩﺍﻭﻤ ﺕﺎﻤﺩﺨﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻊﻠﺴﻠﻝ ﺓﺭﺼﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﺩﻴﺍﺯﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻙﻼﻬﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻁﻤﻨﻭ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻐﻴﻠﺒ ﺔﻴﺜﻭﻠﺘ ﺭﺎﺜﺁ ﻕﻠﺨﻭ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻁﻐﻀ ﺩﻝﻭ ﺍﺫﻫ لﻜ ،ﺔﻗﺎﻁﻝﺍ : ﻲﻠﻴﺎﻤ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻡﻫﺃ ﻥﻤﻭ ،ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻠﻝ ﺎﻴﺜﻭﻠﺘ ﺭﺜﻜﻷﺍ لﻤﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺔ ﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻉﺎ ﻁﻗ

(1)

.

: ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ - 1 - II . ﻡﺎﺨﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﺭﺠﺎﺤﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺩﻋﺎﺼﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﻠﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺌﺯﺠﻝﺍ . 1

. لﻤﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻬﻠﻘﻨ ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ ﻭﺃ ﻡﺎﺨﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻴﻤﺠﺘ ﻥﻜﺎﻤﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺎ ﻁﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺒﻐﻝﺍ . 2 . ﺏﻠﺼﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻱﺭﺠﺤﻝﺍ ﻡﺤﻔﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻋ ﺎﺼﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺒﻐﻝﺍ . 3 ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻠﻔﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺒﻐﻜ) ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ ﺓﺭﺩﺎﺼﻝﺍ ﺙﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ .4 .( ﻡﻭﻴﻨﻤﻭﻝﻻﺍ soxﺕﻴﺭﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺴﺎﻜﺃ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻏ لﺜﻤ)ﺔﻁﺭﺸﻷﺍ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﺨﺒﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﻴﺫﻤﻝﺍ .5 .( ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻕﺭﻭﻝﺍ ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻭﻗﻭﻝﺍ ﻕﺍﺭﺘﺤﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺓﺭﺩﺎﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﺎﻤﺼ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺩﻋﺎﺼﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺓﺭﺸﺘﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﺒﺭﻜﻭﺭﺩﻴﻬﻝﺍ :لﺜﻤ)ﺩﻋﺎﺼﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﺒﻀﻝﺍ .6 . ( ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻭﺭﺘﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ :لﺜﻤ)ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻠﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﻥﻋ ﺔﺜﻌﺒﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ .7 . ( ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻓﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﻘﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺤﻭ ﻥﻋ ﺭﺩﺼﺘ ﻲ ﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻌﻝﺍ . ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﺕﺍﺩﺤﻭ ﺕﺎﻔﻠﺨﻤ . 8

(ﻕﺌﺍﺭﺤ ،ﺕﺍﺭﺎﺠﻔﻨﺍ )ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺙﺩﺍﻭﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺔﺜﻌﺒﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ .9

(1)

.

،(1997، ا او ا ا ا :ة ه ا ) . ، ا ، او ا -(1) .20 ص

. ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﻭﻠﺘﻝ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ - 2 - II

. ﺕﺎﻴﺎﻔﻨﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻱﻭﺘﺤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻙﻠﺘ ﻭﺃ ﻊﻴﻨﺼﺘﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤ ﺕﺎ ﻨﺍﺯﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺏﺭﺴﺘ ﻝ ﺍ . 1 .( ﻡﻭﺭﻜﻝﺍ لﺌﺍﻭﺴ : لﺜﻤ ) ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻔﻠﺨﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺴﺍﻭﺭﻝﺍ . 2 ﻥﻤ ﺔﻤﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺭﺴﺘﻜ )ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻥﻤ ﻲﻀﺭﻌﻝﺍ ﺏﺭﺴﺘﻝﺍ .3 .( ﺔﻴﻨﺩﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺢﺌﺎﻔﺼﻝﺍ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺕﺎﻤﺎﻤﺼ ﻱﺩﺅﻴ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ،ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺎﺒ ﺙﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺞﺘﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻲﻀﻤﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻁﻤﻝﺍ .4 . ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺭﺎﻬﻨﻷﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤ ﺔﻀﻭﻤﺤ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺭﻁﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤ ﻊﻤ ﺎ ﻫﺩﺎﺤﺘﺍ

ﻥﻤ ﺏﺭﺴﺘﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺎﻔﻨﻝﺎﻜ )ﻲﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﺼﻝﺍ ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺏﺭﺴﺘﻝﺍ .5

.( ﺔﻴﻓﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ لﻼﺨ

(Thermal pollution) ﺎﻴﺭﺍﺭﺤ ﺎﺜﻭﻠﺘ ﺙﺩﺤﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻨﺨﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺭﺒﺘﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤ .6 : ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ - 3 - II

.( ﺫﻻﻭﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﺙﺒﺨ : لﺜﻤ ) ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺴﺍﻭﺭﻝﺍ . 1 . ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺴﺭﺘ ﻥﻋ ﺊﺸﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝ ﺍ ﺙ ﻭ ﻠﺘ . 2 . ﺔﻘﻠ ﻐﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻤ ﻥﻋ ﺄﺸﻨﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ . 3

ﺕﺎﺒﺴﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻜﺒﺸ ﺕﺎﻔﻠﺨﻤ :لﺜﻤ )ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﺒ ﻡﻁﺤﺘﻝﺍ ﺓﺯﻬﺠﺃ ﻥﻋ ﺓﺩﻝﻭﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻠﺨﻤﻝﺍ .4

(ﺔﺠﺘﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺌﺯﺠﻝﺎﺒ ﻡﻜﺤﺘﻠﻝ

(2)

.

(3)

.

: ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻠﻝ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤ - 4 - II ﻲﻋﺭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺴﻭﺭﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﻱﺭﻝﺍ ﺏﻴﻝﺎﺴﺃﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻁﺎﺸﻨﻝﺎﻜ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻠﻝ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤ ﺩﺠﻭﺘ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺜﺅﺘ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﻤﺴﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺍﺩﻴﺒﻤﻠﻝ ﻁﺭﻔﻤﻝﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﻻﺎﻓ ،ﺕﺎﺒﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﺒﺇ ﻭ ﺭﺌﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﻴﺒﻤ ﻲﻜﻴﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﺡﻼﺴ ﻰﻘﻝﺃ 1972-1965 ﻡﺎﻨﺘﻴﻓ ﺏﺭﺤ ﻲﻔﻓ ،ﺔﻴﻓﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ

ﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺎﻔﻌﻀ 13ﻕﻭﻔﻴﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘﺒ ﻲﻀﺍﺭﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺎﺘﻜﻫ ﻥﻭﻴﻠﻤ 1,5 ﻲﻝﺍﻭﺤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜ

ﺕﻻﻵﺍ ﻡﺩﻬﺘﻭ .

(1)

ﺔﻠﻴﻭﻁ ﺓﺩﻤﻝ ﺓﺭﻴﻁﺨ ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﺇ ﺕﺎﻔﻋﺎﻀﻤ ﻕﻠﺨ ﺎﻤﻤ ،ﻪﺒ ﺡﻭﻤﺴﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻨﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﺼﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﺒ ﻲﻘﺴﻝﺍ ﺭﺜﺅﻴ ﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺒ ﺔﻴﺤﻼﻔﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﺤﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﺎﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻑﻭﺭﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤﻓ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ لﻘﻨﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭ ﻡﻬﺴﺘ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ لﻴﺼﺎﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ

ﻥﻭﺒﺭﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺴﻜﻭﺃ ﺯﺎﻏ ﻥﻤ ﻥﻁ 01 ﻲﻝﺍﻭﺤ ﺩﺤﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻕﻠﻁﺘ

ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﺭﻜﺴﻌﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺌﻴﻬﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺒ ﻡﻭﻘﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺏﺭﺎﺠﺘﻝﺍ لﻌﻔﺒ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺼﻴﻭ . ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺙﺩﺍﻭﺤﻝﺍ

(2)

.

. ﺙﻴﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﺼﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺙﺩﺍﻭﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻁﺨﺃ : ( 06 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻭﺩﺠﻝ ﺍ

ﺭﺍﺭﻀﻷﺍﻭ ﺎﻴﺎﺤﻀﻝﺍ

ﺓﺩﺎﻤﻝﺍ

ﺦﻴﺭﺎﺘﻝﺍ

ﺩﻠﺒﻝﺍ

ﻥﺎﻜﻤﻝﺍ

1900ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 500 ﺢﻴﺭﺠ

ﻡﻭﻴﻨﻤﻝﻷﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺘﻨ

1921

ﺎﻴﻨﺎﻤﻝﺃ

OPPU-

ﻭﺒﻭﺃ

ﺔﻴﺒﺭﻐﻝﺍ

 

لﻴﺘﻗ 200

ﻡﻭﻴﻨﻤﻝﻷﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺘﻨ

1942

ﺎﻜﻴﺠﻠﺒ

TESSENDERLOO ﻭﻝﺭﺩﻨﻴﺘ ﺴﺘ

ﺕﺎﺌﻤﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ136

ﻊﻴﻤﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ

1944

USA

CLEVELAND-

ﺩﻨﻠﻨﻔﻠﻜ

ﻰﺤﺭﺠﻝﺍ

ﺭﻴﻏ ﺩﺩﻋﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 400 ﻰﺤﺭﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺩﺤﻤ

ﻡﻭﻴﻨﻤﻝﻷﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺘﻨ

1947

USA

TEXAS-CITY- ﻲﺘﻴﺴ ﺱﺎﺴﻜﺘ

2500ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ245

ﺭﻴﻴﺜﻻﺍ لﻴﺜﻴﻤﻴﺩ

1948

RFA

ﺩﻭﻝ

ﺢﻴﺭﺠ

LUDWIGSHAFEN-

ﻥﺨﺎﺸﻐﻴﻓ

ﻥﻤ ﻑﻻﺁﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ400 ﻥﻴﻫﻭﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﻴﻗﻭﻌﻤﻝﺍ

ﻕﺒﺌﺯﻝﺍ

1959

ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ

MINAMATA-

ﺎﺘﺎﻤﺎﻨﻴﻤ

(ﺎﺘﺎﻤﺎﻨﻴﻤ ﺓﺭﻴﺤﺒ ﻲﻓ)

ﺕﺎﺌﻤ ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 92 ﻰﺤﺭﺠﻝﺍ

ﺔﻁﺤﻤ ﻲﻓﺭﺎﺠﻔﻨﺍ)ﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ (ﻭﺭﺘﻴﻤ

1970

ﻥﺎﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ

OSACA-

ﺎﻜﺎﺴﻭﺃ

ﺢﻴﺭﺠ 75 ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 38

( ﺓﺭﺎﻤﻋ لﺨﺍﺩ ﺭﺎﺠﻔﻨﺍ ) ﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ

1972

لﻴﺯﺍﺭﺒﻝﺍ

SAOPAOLO-

ﻭﻝﻭﺎﺒﻭﺎﺴ

ﺢﻴﺭﺠ 20ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 30

ﻡﺎﻁﻜﻻﻭﺭﺒﺎﻜ

1974

ﺎﻴﻨﺎﻁﻴﺭﺒ

FILIXBOROUCH-

ﻍﻭﺭﻭﺒﺴﻜﻠﻴﻓ

(1)-Anderson, J, Ecology for environmental sciences(London: Edward Arnold

Pub,1981),P.95.

.12ﺹ ،ﻩﺭﻜﺫ ﻕﺒﺴ ﻊﺠﺭﻤ ،ﺭﻔﺼ ﺩﻭﻤﺤﻤ -(2)

 

(ﻊﻨﺼﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺎﺠﻔﻨﺍ)

     

ﺢﻴﺭﺠ 200

( Tcdd)ﻥﻴﺴﻜﻭﻴﺩﻝﺍ

1976

ﺎﻴﻝﺎﻁﻴﺇ

SEVESO-

ﻭﺯﻴﻔﻴﺴ

ﺢﻴﺭﺠ 22ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 30

ﻙﺎﻴﻨﻭﻨﻤﻻﺍ

1977

ﺎﻴﺒﻤﻭﻝﻭﻜ

PASSA.CABALO- ﻭﻝﺎﺒ ﺎﻜﺎﺴﺎﺒ

ﺕﺎﺌﻤﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 216 ﻰﺤﺭﺠﻝﺍ

ﻥﻼﻴﺒﻭﺭﺒﻝﺍ

1978

ﺎﻴﻨﺎﺒﺴﺇ

-ﺱﺎﻜ ﺎﻔﻝﺃ ﺱﻜﻭﻝ LOS.ALFAQUES

150 ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 100 ﺢﻴﺭﺠ

ﻁﻭﻐﻀﻤﻝﺍ ﻊﻴﻤﻤﻝﺍ ﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ

1978

ﻙﻴﺴﻜﻴﻤﻝﺍ

XILATOPEC- ﻙﻴﺒﻭﻁ ﻼﻴﺴﻜ

لﻴﺘﻗ 48

ﺕﺎﻗﻭﺭﺤﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺨﺒ

1979

ﺍﺩﻨﻻﺭﻴﺇ

BANTRY BAY- ﻱﺎﺒ ﻱﺭﻁﻨﺎﺒ

ﺢﻴﺭﺠ 77 ﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 41

ﺱﻭﺒﺤﻤ ﺯﺎﻏ

1980

ﺎﻴﻨﻭﻝﻭﺒ

VARSOVIA-

ﺎﻴﻓﻭﺼﺭﻓ

ﺔﻤﺴﻨ 17000 لﻴﺤﺭﺘ

(ﺏﺭﺴﺘ)ﻥﻴﻻﻭﺭﻜﺁ

1982

USA

LAFT-

ﻁﻓﻻ

ﻰﺤﺭﺠﻝﺍ ﻑﻻﺁﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ750

ﺩﻭﻗﻭ ﺏﻭﺒﻨﺃ

1984

لﻴﺯﺍﺭﺒﻝﺍ

CUBATAO- ﻭﺎﻁ ﺎﺒﻭﻜ

ﺭﻴﻏ ﺩﺩﻋﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ 1500 ﻰﺤﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺩﺩﺤﻤ

-ﻥﺎﺘﻭﺒ-ﻥﺎﺒﻭﺭﺒ

1984

ﻙﻴﺴﻜﻴﻤﻝﺍ

MEXICO-

ﻭﻜﻴﺴﻜﻴﻤ

ﻑﻻﺍﻭ لﻴﺘﻗ2500

ﺎﺘﺎﻨﺎﻴﻴﺴﻭﺴﻴﻠﻴﺜﻴﺴ

1984

ﺩﻨﻬﻝﺍ

BHOBAL-

لﺎﺒﻭﻬﺒ

ﻰﺤﺭﺤﻝﺍ

 

ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻻﺍ ﻕﺴﻨﻝﺍﺭﻴﻤﺩﺘ ﺔﻠﻴﻭﻁ ﺕﺍﻭﻨﺴﻝ ﺭﻬﻨﻠﻝ

ﺔﻴﻘﺒﺌﺯ ﺔﻴﺒﺸﻋ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻀﻤ ﻕﻴﺭﺤ ﺩﻌﺒ ﻥﻴﺍﺭﻝﺍﺭﻬﻨ ﻲﻓ

1986

ﺍﺭﺴﻴﻭﺴ

BALE-

لﺯﺎﺒ

ﺔﻤﺴﻨ ﻑﻝﺃ 200 ﻥﺎﻤﺭﺤ .ﺏﻭﺭﺸﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ

ﻭ ﻥﺍﺯﻨﺎﺒﻭ ﺔﻠﻴﻘﺜ ﻥﺩﻌﻤ ﺭﻬﻨ ﻲﻓ ﺕﻏﺭﻓﺃ ﻙﻴﻨﺴﺭﺁﻭ ﻕﻴﺭﺤ ﺭﺜﺇ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺍﻭﻠﻝﺍ

1988

ﺎﺴﻨﺭﻓ

- TOURS-ﺭﻭﺘ

ﺭﻴﻏ ﺭﻴﺘﺴﺠﺎﻤ ﺔﻝﺎﺴﺭ)ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﺎﻬﺘﻨﺎﻜﻤ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ،ﺩﻤﺤﻤ ﻲﺸﺎﺸﻋ:ﺭﺩﺼﻤﻝﺍ

. 38 ﺹ ، 2002 ﺔﻨﺴ ،ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻌﻤﺎﺠ ( ﺓﺭﻭﺸﻨﻤ

: لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺭﻗ ﺙﺭﺍﻭﻜ ﻑﻠﺨ ﺎﻤﻤ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻺﻝ ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻨﻜﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﺼﻘﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﺭﺠ ﺙﺩﺍﻭﺤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺕﻌﻗﻭ . ﺎﻬﺜﻭﺩﺤ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﺤﺼ ﻭ ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘ ﻰﻠ ﻋ ﺕﺭﺜﺃ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﺇ

. ﺙﻭﻠ ﺘﻝﺍ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ : ﻲﻨﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺏﻠﻁﻤﻝﺍ ﻪﺘﻴﻨﺒ ﻥﻷ ﻊﺴﻭﺘﻝﺎﺒ ﺎﻬﻝ ﺢﻤﺴﻴ ﻡﻝ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻹﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﻜﻝ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺩﺠﻭ ﻡﻴﺩﻘﻝﺍ ﺫﻨﻤ ﺏﺒﺴﺒ ،ﻥﺎﻜﻤﻝﺍﻭ ﻥﺎﻤﺯﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﻭﺩﺤﻤ ﺎﻬﻠﻌﺠﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺎﻬﺒﺎﻌﻴﺘﺴﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﺎﻤﺌﺍﺩ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺔﻜﺴﺎﻤﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﺨﻀﻝﺍ ﺩﺸﺤﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﺭﺼﺤ ﻭ ﺀﺎﺼﺤﺇ ﺭﺫﻌﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺢﺒﺼﺃ ﻲﻝﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻁﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻊﻤ ﺎﻴﺩﺭﻁ ﻕﻓﺍﺭﺘﻴ ﺭﻤﺘﺴﻤ ﺩﺎﻴﺩﺯﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻫ لﺒ ،ﺩﺤ ﺩﻨﻋ ﻑﻘﺘ ﻡﻝ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ :ﻲﻠﻴ ﺎﻤﻜ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻑﻴﻨﺼﺘ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﻭ .ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ : ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ - I ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻉﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺍﺫﻫﻭ ،ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺎﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻅ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻭﻬﻅ ﻕﻓﺍﺭﺘ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻴﻔﻁﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﻴﺜﺍﺭﺠﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺎﻴﺭﻴﺘﻜﺒﻝﺎﻜ ﺎﻴﺒﺴﻨ ﺎﺜﻭﻠﺘ ﺙﺩﺤﺘ ﺔﻠﻋﺎﻓ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻥﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻭﻫ ﻙﺘﻔﺘ ﻡﻴﺜﺍﺭﺠﻝﺎﻓ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻤ ﻑﻴﻔﺨﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﻤﺄﺒ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ لﻔﻜﺘﺘ .ﺕﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﺸﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﻭﻴﻁﻝﺍ ﻯﺫﻐﺘﺘﻭ ،ﺽﺭﺍﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﺎﻀﻌﻠﻝ ﺀﺍﺫﻏ ﺕﺍﺭﺸﺤﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻜﺘ ﻭ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒﺒ ﻲﻓﻼﺘ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﻭ ،ﻲﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﻹﺍ ﻡﺎﻅﻨﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻕﺎﻁﻨ ﻲﻓ ﻙﻝﺫ لﻜ ﻙﻴﻝﺍﻭﺩ ﺍﺫﻜﻫﻭ ،ﺓﺭﻴﺨﻷﺍ ﻑﻴﻠﻐﺘ ﻭ ﺏﺎﺸﻋﻷﺎﺒ ﻱﻭﺍﺩﺘﻝﺎﻜ ،ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁ ﺔﻔﻴﻅﻨ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻓﺩ ﺕﺎﻴﻨﻘﺘ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺎﺒ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺭﻁﺨ ﺯﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻥﺇ ":ﻡﻠﺴﻭ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻰﻠﺼ ﷲﺍ لﻭﺴﺭ لﺎﻗ ﺩﻘﻓ ،ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏﻭ ﺔﻤﻌﻁﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻁﻐﺘ ﻭ ،ﺕﺎﻴﺎﻔﻨﻝﺍ

ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭﻝﺍ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﺎﻤﻜ .

"ﺀﺎﻔﺸ ﻪﻝ ﻊﻀﻭ ﻻﺇ ﺀﺍﺩ ﻊﻀﻴ ﻡﻝ لﺠﻭ

،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺭﻀﺘﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﻜﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ لﻴﺩﺒﻜ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺔﺤﻓﺎﻜﻤ ﺎﻬﺘﺩﺎﺒﺇ ﺩﺍﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺸﺤﻠﻝ ﻥﻴﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﺩﻋﻷﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺎﻜ

(1)

ﻥﻤ ﺓﺩﻴﺩﺠ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﺕﺎﺒﻨﺘﺴﺍ ﻭﺃ ،ﺎﻫﺩﺤﻭ ﺕﺍﺭﺸﺤﻝﺍ ﺭﻀﺘ ﻭ ﺎﻴﺭﻴﺘﻜﺒﻝﺎﺒ ﺔﻴﺘﺎﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺵﺭ ﻭﺃ

.ﺕﺎﻓﻶﻝ ﺔﻴﻌﻴﺒﻁﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻭﺎﻘﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺓﺭﺩﻗ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺭﻭﺫﺒﻝﺍ

ﺭﻴﻭﻁﺘﻭ ﺙﺍﺩﺤﺘﺴﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻤﺩﻘﺘﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﺩﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺙﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﺎﺨﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﻭﻤﺌﺎﻘﻝﺍ لﻤﻌﻴ ﻙﻝﺫﻝ

(2)

. ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﺭﻁﺨ ﺏﻨﺠﺘ لﺠﺃ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﻁﺼﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺏﻴﻝﺎﺴﻷﺍ

.100 ص ، آذ ،رادرد -(1) راد :ض ا ) ا و ا ارد إ او ا ، ا ا ي و ها إ -(1) .182 ص ،(1988 ، ز او ا

: ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ - II : ﻲﺘﻵﺎﻜ ﺎﻬﻔﻴﻨﺼﺘ ﻥﻜﻤﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻁﺸﻨﻷﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺏﻝﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﺠﻨﺘ : ﺔﻴﻭﺩﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺫﻏﻷ ﺍ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤ - 1 - II ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﺘﺒﺴﻨ ﺕﺩﺍﺯ ﺍﺫﺇ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻲﺒﻠﺴ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺔﻴﻭﺩﻸﻝ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺒﻜﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ ﺕﺎﺒﻜﺭﻤ لﻘﺘﻨﺘﻭ ،ﺎﻬﺘﻴﺤﻼﺼ ﺓﺩﻤ ﺕﻀﻘﻨﺍ ﺍﺫﺇ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﺍﺭﻁﺨ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺔﻴﺫﻏﻷﺍ لﻜﺸﺘﻭ ،ﻡﺴﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻤ : ﻼﺜﻤﻓ ،ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻴﺌﺍﺫﻏ لﺴﻼﺴ ﺭﺒﻋ ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﻴﺒﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﺴﻨﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺯﻜﺭﺘﻴ ﻭ ﻲﻨﻫﺩ ﻁﺴﻭ ﻲﻓ ﻻﺇ ﺏﻭﺫﻴ ﻻ ﻪﻨﺃ ﻪﺼﺍﻭﺨ ﻥﻤ (ﻲﺘ.ﻱﺩ.ﻱﺩﻝﺍ) . ﺔﻴﺌﺍﺫﻐﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﺴﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺎﻬﻨ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻌﻗﺍﻭﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﻯﺩﻝ ﺯﻴﻜﺭ ﺘﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺩﺯﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ : ﺔﻴﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺎﻀﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﻤﺴﻷﺍ - 2 - II ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺓﺩﻤﺴﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﺒﺼﺨﻤﻝﺎﻓ ،ﻲﻋﺍﺭﺯﻝﺍ ﻁﺎﺸﻨﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺹﻭﺼﺨﻝﺎﺒ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﺘ ﺕﺎﺒﻜﺭﻤ ﻲﻫﻭ

ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺯﺘ ﺎﻬﻨﻜﻝ ،ﻰﺼﻗﻷﺍ ﺩﺤﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻬﺘﻴﺠﺎﺘﻨﺇ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯﻝ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻑﺎﻀﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻌﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺢﺸﺭﺘﺘﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺏﺴﺭﺘﺘ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺎﻫﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ ﻥﻷ ،ﺔﺒﻭﻏﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺎﺠﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺜﻵﺍ

ﺔﻴﺌﺍﺫﻐﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﺼﺍﻭﺨ ﺕﺎﻋﻭﺭﺯﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﻘﻔﻴ ﺎﻤ ﻭﻫﻭ .

ﻲﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺎﻫﺍﻭﺘﺤﻤﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﻭﺼﺨ ﻥﻤ لﻠﻘﻴﻭ ﺎﻬﻝ ﻥﻜﻝ ،ﺎﻬﺠﻼﻌﻝ ﻭﺃ ﺎﻬﻨﻴﻤﺴﺘﻝ ﻲﺸﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﻠﻋ ﺏﻴﻜﺭﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻓﺎﻀﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﺘ ﺎﻤﻜ . ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﺘﺍﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ

)

(1)

ﺔﻴﺤﻁﺴﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺜ ﺭﻬﻅﺘ ﻡﺜ ﺔﻴﻓﻭﺠﻝﺍ

.

(

: ﻁﻔﻨﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤﻝﺎﺒ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ - 3 - II ﻲﻓﺎﺼﻤﻭ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺝﺍﺭﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻡﺠﺎﻨﻤﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺏﺭﻘﻝﺎﺒ ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺴﺭﺘﺘ ،ﻕﺒﺌﺯﻝﺍ ،ﺭﻴﺩﺼﻘﻝﺍ ،ﺱﺎﺤﻨﻝﺍ ،ﻡﻭﻴﺩﺎﻜﻝﺍ ،ﺹﺎﺼﺭﻝﺍ) ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺩﻫ ﺭﻁﺨﺃﻭ ،ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﺤﺘ ﺏﻴﻘﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺭﻔﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ ﺔﻴﻁﻔﻨﻝﺍ ﺕﻭﻴﺯﻝﺍ ﺏﺭﺴﺘ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﺠﻨﻴ ﻭ .(ﺦﻴﻨﺭﺯﻝﺍ . ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻤﻴﻜﻭﺭﺘﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﻡﺠﻨﻴﻭ ﺭﺎﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻭﺃ ﺔﺴﺒﺎﻴﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺕﻭﻴﺯﻝﺍ ﺏﻭﻴﺠ ﻥﻋ

.287 ص ، آذ ،ض لد -(2) ارأ ت نأ ار ا و ا ة ط ا ا ا ءا ا نا ا د ث -( ) . ار ا و ا ه

: ﺔﻴﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ - ﺔﻠﺌﺎﺴﻝﺍ - ﺔﺒﻠﺼﻝ ﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ - III : ﺎﻬﻨﻤ ﺭﻜﺫﻨ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﺓﺩﻋ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺎﻫﺭﻭﺩﺒ ﻡﺴﻘﻨﺘ ﻭ

ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻭ ﻊﻨﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﺠﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻠﺨﻤ لﺜﻤ ﺔﻌﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻫ :ﺔﺒﻠﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ-1-III . ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﺎﻤﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺠﺴﻨﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻋ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻱﻭﺘﺤﺘ ﻭ ﻲﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﻑﺭﺼﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤ لﺜﻤ :ﺔﻠﺌﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ-2-III ﻭ ﺎﻴﺭﻴﺘﻜﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﺒﺴﻨ ﺎﻬﺒ ،ﺔﻴﺭﺍﺭﺤ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻌﺸﺇﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻭﺜﺭﺠ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻋ ﺭﻴﻏ

ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﺔﺤﺼ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﻁﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺜﺅﺘ ﺎﻬﻠﻜ ﻭ ،ﺕﺎﻴﺭﻁﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺕﺎﺴﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ

ﻩﺫﻫ ﺭﻁﺨﺍﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﻁﺼﻻﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻝ ﺭﺼﺤ ﻻ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﻲﻫﻭ :ﺔﻴﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ-3-III . ﻥﻭﺯﻭﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻓﺯﻨﺘﺴﻤ ،ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ

. ﻥﻭﺯ ﻭ ﻷﺍ ﺔﻘﺒﻁﻝ ﺔﻓﺯﻨﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ : ( 07 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

(1)

.

ﺔﻴﻠﺠﻬﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺌﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﺭﻭﻠﻜﻝﺍﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻨﻭﺒﺭﻜﻭﺭﻭﻠﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻨﻴﺠﻭﺭﺘﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ

 

ﺔﻴﻨﻭﺒﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ

CMcL ﻡﺭﻭﻓﻭﺭﻭﻠﻜﻝﺍ

22ﻥﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ-

3

CHFcL

2

CCL ﻥﻭﺒﺭﻜﻝﺍﻭﺭﻭﻠﻜ ﻊﺒﺍﺭ-

4

3

ﺯﻭﺭ ﺘﻴﻨﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺴﻜﺃ

COﻥﻭﺒﺭﺎﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺴﻜﺃ لﻭﺃ-

ﻥﻭﺒﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺴﻜﺃ ﻲﻨﺎﺜ-

CO

2

 

CFCL 11ﻥﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ- CFCCL 12ﻥﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ-

2

ﺩﻴﺴﺎﻜﺃ

 

CH

4

ﻥﺎﺘﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺯﺎﻏ-

C

2

F

3

CL

2

113ﻥﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ-

NOXﻥﻴﺠﻭﺭﺘﻴﻨﻝﺍ

 

ﺭﻴﻏ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﺒﺭﻜﻭﺭﺩﻴﻬﻝﺍ- ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺘﻴﻤﻝﺍ

C

2

F

4

CL

2

114ﻥﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ-

C

2

F

5 CL

115ﻥﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ-

   

،(ﺓﺭﻭﺸﻨﻤ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺭﻴﺘﺴﺠﺎﻤ ﺔﻝﺎﺴﺭ) ﻲﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺔﺠﺘﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﻑﻴﻝﺎﻜﺘﻝﺍ ،ﻁﺍﻭﺭﺯ ﺀﺍﺭﻫﺯﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻁﺎﻓ :ﺭﺩﺼﻤﻝﺍ

. 24 ﺹ ، 1999 ﺔﻨﺴ ،ﺭﺌﺍﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﺔﻌﻤﺎﺠ

ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﻴﺠﻭﺭﺩﻴﻬﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻭﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺠﻭﺘ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ :لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺭﻗ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﻴﻔﺴﻭﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﻘﺒﻁ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺌﻭﻀﻝﺍ -ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻋﺎﻔﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻫﺎﺴﺘ . ﻱﻭﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﺯﻭﻷﺍ ﺏﻭﻀﻨ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻱﺩﺅﺘﻭ ﻡﻠﻜ 50 : ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﺯﻴﻔ ﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ - IV : ﻲﺘﻷﺎﻜ ﻲﻫﻭ ﺔﻘﺒﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﺘﺌﻓ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺌﻓ ﻱﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻲﻤﺘﻨﺘ ﻻ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﻉﺍﻭﻨﺃ ﻲﻫ

.105ص ، ،رادرد -(1)

: ﻲﺌﺎﻀﻭﻀﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ - 1 - IV ﺕﺍﻭﺼﻷﺍ ﺓﺩﺸ ﺱﺎﻘﺘﻭ ،ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺏﻭﻏﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺔﻠﺨﺍﺩﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﺼﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺞﻴﺯﻤ ﻲﻫ ﺀﺎﻀﻭﻀﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ،ﻁﺴﻭﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ لﺒﺴﻴﺩ 30 ﻰﻝﺇ لﺼﺘ لﺯﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺩﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻀﻭﻀﻝﺎﻓ "لﺒﺴﻴﺩﻝﺍ" ﺓﺩﺤﻭﺒ ﺕﻭﺼ ﻊﻤ ﻊﻔﺘﺭﺘﻭ ،ﻁﺴﻭﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ لﺒﺴﻴﺩ 80 ﻰﻝﺇ ﺭﻭﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻜﺭﺤ ﻊﻤ ﻉﺭﺎﺸﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻊﻔﺘﺭﺘ ﻥﻴﺤ

ﺭﺜﺅﺘﻭ ،لﺒﺴﻴﺩ 150 ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﺜﺎﻔﻨﻝﺍ ﺓﺭﺌﺎﻁﻝﺍ ﺕﻭﺼ ﻊﻤﻭ لﺒﺴﻴﺩ 110 ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﻴﺭﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﺍﺭﺩﻝﺍ ﻥﺴ ﻲﻋﺩﺘﺴﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻺﻝ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻜﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻝﻭﻴﺯﻴﻔﻝﺍ ﺏﻨﺍﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﺎﻀﻭﻀﻝﺍ . ﺀﺎﻀﻭﻀﻝﺎﺒ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ ﺕﺎﻌﻴﺭﺸﺘ : ﻱﺭﺍﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ - 2 - IV ﻥﻤ ﺔﻠﺌﺎﻫ ﺕﺎﻴﻤﻜﻝ لﻭﺭﺘﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓﺎﺼﻤ ﻭ ﺔﻗﺎﻁﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﻝﻭﺘ ﺕﺎﻁﺤﻤ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺂﺸﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺝﺎﺘﺤﺘ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺓﺭﻤ ﺩﺎﻌﺘ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺓﺭﺍﺭﺤ ﻊﻔﺘﺭﺘ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻋ ﻭ ،ﺩﻴﺭﺒﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻠﻤﻌﻝ ﺭﺎﻬﻨﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺭﺎﺤﺒﻝﺍ ﻩﺎﻴﻤ ﺡﻼﻤﺃﻭ ﺔﻠﻴﻘﺜ ﻥﺩﺎﻌﻤ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻴﻭﺘﺤﺘ ﺎﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻼﻀﻓ ،ﺝﺭﺎﺨﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﻴﺒﺎﻨﺃ ﻕﻴﺭﻁ ﻥﻋ ﺎﻫﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤ ﻰﻝﺇ

ﻭﻤﻨ ﻑﻌﻀﺘ ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺘﺎﺒﻨﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﻼﺨﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ لﻋﺎﻔﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﻻﺩﻌﻤ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺯﺘ ﺎﻤ ﺓﺩﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻴﺤﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﻭﻤ ﺏﺒﺴﻴ ﺍﺫﻫﻭ ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺏﺌﺍﺫﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﺠﺴﻜﻷﺍ ﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘﻭ ﺏﻝﺎﺤﻁﻝﺍ

ﻡﻝﺎﻌﻝﺍ ﺥﺎﻨﻤ ﺭﻴﻐﺘﻭ

: ﻲﻋﺎﻌﺸﻹﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ - 3 - IV لﺒﻗ ﺔﻤﻴﺩﻘﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻀﺤﻝﺍ ﺏﻭﻌﺸ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺩﻘﻓ ﺽﺭﻸﻝ ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﺓﺄﺸﻨﻝﺍ ﺫﻨﻤ ﺔﻌﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺩﺠﻭ

(1)

.

ﻰﻠﻋ 1896 ﻡﺎﻋ ﻲﻓ ﻻﺇ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺔﻔﺼﺒ ﺩﺩﺤﺘ ﻡﻝﻭ ،ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻬﺒ ﺔﻴﺍﺭﺩ ﻰﻠ ﻋ ( ﻡ . ﻕ ) ﺔﻨﺴ 2800

"لﺭﺎﻜﻴﺒ" ﻲﺴﻨﺭﻔﻝﺍ ﻲﺌﺎﻴﺯﻴﻔﻝﺍ ﺩﻴ

ﺔﻴﺭﺫﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﻴﺠﻔﺘﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﺭﺠﺇ ﺩﻨﻋ ﻲﻋﺎﻌﺸﻹﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻡﺠﻨﻴﻭ ،ﻱﺭﻴﻤﺩﺘ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﺕﺍﺫ ﺎﻬﻨﻜﻝ ﺔﻴﺭﻜﺴﻌﻝﺍ لﺼﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻱﻭﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﻗﻭﻝﺍ ﺝﺎﺘﻨﺇ ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ ﻭﺃ ،ﺔﻌﺸﻤ ﺔﺒﺭﺘﺃ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺔﺒﻠﺼﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ لﻭﺤﺘﺘ ﺙﻴﺤ ﻡﺎﺴﺠﺃ ﻲﻓ ﺯﻜﺭﺘﺘ ﻭ ﻉﺎﻌﺸﻹﺍ ﺎﻴﺎﻘﺒ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻤﺨﻀ لﺘﻜ ﻕﻠﻁﻨﺘ ﺫﺇ ،ﺔﻌﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺌﺎﻅﻨﻠﻝ ﻲﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﻻﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻭﻴﻝﺍ ﺔﻌﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﺩﺨﺘﺴﺘ .

(2)

.

(

)

ﻼﺜﻤ لﻴﺒﻭﻨﺭﺸﺘ ﺔﺜﺩﺎﺤﻜ ﺔﻴﻭﻭﻨﻝﺍ ﺙﺩﺍﻭﺤﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻗﻭ ﺀﺍﺭﺠ ﻭﺃ ،

(3)

ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻝﺍ

.107ص ، آذ ،رادرد -(1) .22 ص ،(2002 أ) 48 ا ب آ ،« ا ث ا» ،نا ر -(1) .447 ص ،(1986 ،فر ا ة : ر ا) ا و ا ا ث ا ا ،با ا ض -(2)

: ﻲﺌﺎﺒﺭﻬﻜﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ - 4 - IV ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺎﺒ ﺓﺭﻀﻤ ﻭ ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻠﻝ ﺔﺜﻭﻠﻤ ﺔﻴﺴﻴﻁﺎﻨﻐﻤﻭﺭﻬﻜﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﺠﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻲﺌﺎﺒﻭﻝﺍ ﺏﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﻴﺭﺎﻘﺘ ﺭﻴﺸﺘ ﺩﺩﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﺩﻨﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﻌﺸﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﺠﺴﻔﻨﺒﻝﺍ ﻕﻭﻓ ﺔﻌﺸﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻀﻔﺨﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﺩﺭﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺀﺩﺒ ﺔﻨﻭﻜﻤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺌﺯﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻴﺌﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍ ﻁﺒﺍﻭﺭﻝﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻼﺜﻤ ﺔﻴﻨﻴﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﻌﺸﻷﺍ ﺭﺜﺅﺘ ﻭ ،ﺯﺘﺭﻫ 10E15

(ﺕﺎﻨﻴﺠﻝﺍ) ﺕﺎﺜﺭﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻙﻜﻔﺘ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﺌﺎﻜﻠﻝ ﺔﻴﻭﻀﻌﻝﺍ ﺞﺴﻨﻝﺍ ﺎﻴﻼﺨﻝ

(1)

.

: ﺙﻭﻠﺘﻝﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻤﺠﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ : ﺙﻝﺎﺜﻝﺍ ﺏﻠﻁﻤﻝﺍ

ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻭﺍﺭﺤﺼ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﻨﻋ ﺔﻴﻋﺍﺭﺯ ﺔﻘﻁﻨﻤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﻑﻠﺘﺨﺘ

ﺩﺍﺭﻓﻷﺍ ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺜﺅﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺎﻬﻌﺒﺎﻁ ﺎﻬﻝ ﺕﺎﺌﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺌﻴﺒ لﻜ : ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﺃ ﻡﻫﺃ - I . ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﺃ ﻡﻫﺃ : ( 08 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

(1)

.

ﻪﻨﻋ ﺔﻤﺠﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻋﺎﻀﻤﻝﺍ

ﻪﻀﺍﺭﻋﺃ

 

ﻩﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺍ ﻕﺭﻁ

ﺽﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻨ

. ﻰﻠﻜﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺎﻴﺎﺤﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﺒﺎﺼﺇ . ﻱﻭﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﻻﺍ ﺔﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﻤﻫ . ﻱﻭﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﻲﺌﺎﻋﻭ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺍ ﻯﺭﺨﺃ ﺀﺎﻀﻋﺃ ﻲﻓ لﺴﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺍ . ﺏﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﻡﺴﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﺠﻝﺎﻌﻤ ﻡﺘﺘ ﻡﻝ ﺍﺫﺇ ﺓﺎﻓﻭﻝﺍ .ﺏﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﻭﺎﻔﻤﻠﻝﺍ ﺩﺩﻐﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﺩﻋ ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯ ﺀﺎﻀﻴﺒﻝﺍ ﺀﺍﺭﻤﺤﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﺭﻜﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻗ ﺭﺴﻋ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻬﺸﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻘﻓ

Baccille de ﺔﻴﻠﺴﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻭﺜﺭﺠﻝﺍ ﻪﺒﺒﺴﺘ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺀﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻘﻨﺘﻤﻝﺍ koch ﻱﺭﺎﺠﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﻋ ﻥﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺏﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ ﺯﺎﻬﺠﻝﺍ لﺴﻝﺍ ﺏﻴﺼﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﺘﻝﺍ ،ﻥﻁﺒﻝﺍ ،ﺎﻴﺎﺤﺴﻝﺍ ﻭ (ﺔﺌﺭﻝﺍ)ﻲﺴﻔﻨﺘﻝﺍ

لﺴﻝﺍ-

Tuberculose

 

.

ﻡﻀﻬﻝﺍ

ﺔﻴﺸﻏﻷﺍﻭ لﺼﺎﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻱﺭﻘﻔﻝﺍ ﺩﻭﻤﻌﻝﺍ .ﺔﻴﻠﺴﺎﻨﺘﻝﺍ

ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﻘﻓﻭ ،ﻥﺯﻭﻝﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﻘﻓ ﻲﻓ ﺩﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﻡﻝﻷﺍ ﻭ لﺎﻌﺴﻝﺍ ﺭﺩﺼﻝﺍ ( ﺔﺌﺭﻝﺍ لﺴ ) ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﻕﺎ ﺴﺒ ﺓﺭﺍﺭﺤ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﺍ

 

40 - 39 ﻡﺴﺠﻝﺍ

0

0

 

ﺩﻨﻋ ﻭﺒﺭﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻋﺎﻀﻤ ﺩﺍﺩﺯﺘ

. ﺱﻔﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻕﻴﻀﻭ ﺱﻁﻌﻝﺍ

ﻥﻤﻭ ﻭﺒﺭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻑﻨﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﺤ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﺩﻠﺠ ﺭﻭﺸﻗ ﻭ ،ﻊﻠﻁﻝﺍ ﺭﺎﺒﻏ)ﺎﻬﺘﺎﺒﺒﺴﻤ ﺕﺎﻴﺭﻁﻔﻝﺍ ،ﺎﻴﺭﻴﺘﻜﺒﻝﺍ ،ﺕﺎﻨﺍﻭﻴﺤﻝﺍ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ،ﺭﺎﺒﻐﻝﺍ ،ﺔﻴﻭﺠﻝﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺙﺩﺤﺘ ،(ﺔﻴﺠﺴﻔﻨﺒﻝﺍ ﻕﻭﻓ ﺔﻌﺸﻷﺍ ،ﺔﻴﺌﺍﻭﻬﻝﺍ ﺏﻌﺸﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ لﻜﺎﺸﻤ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤﻝﺍ لﺎﻔﻁﻸﻝ ﻲﻋﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ ﺯﺎﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺎﻔﻌﻀﻭ

ﻭ ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﺤﻝﺍ-

.

ﻥﻴﺨﺩﺘﻝﺍ

ﻑﻴﺯﻨ ﻭ ﺩﻴﺩﺸ ﺢﺸﺭ . ﻑﻨﻷﺍ ﺔﺠﺴﻨﺃﻭ ﻥﻴﺘﺯﻭﻠﻝﺍ ﻡﺨﻀﺘ ﻱﻭﻠﻌﻝﺍ ﻲﺴﻔﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﺯﺎﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﺃﺩﺒﺘﻓ ﻭﺒﺭﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﺯﺃ ﺎﻤﺃ ﺩﻨﻋ ﺓﺭﻜﺒﻤ ﻥﺴ ﻲﻓ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺭﺜﻜﺘ ﻭ لﺎﻔﻁﻷﺍ ﺀﺎﺘﺸﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺽﺍﺭﻋﻷﺍ

ﻭﺒﺭﻝﺍ

 

L`Allerge et

L`Ashme

ﻲﻓ ﺩﻠﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻁﺭﺴ ﺔﻝﺍﺯﺇ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ- ﻭﺃ ﺔﺤﺍﺭﺠﻝﺎﺒ ﻰﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻪﺘﻠﺤﺭﻤ ﺔﻌﺸﺃ ﻭﺃ ﻭﻴﺩﺍﺭﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻌﺸﺈﺒ ﻥﻋ ﺏﻁﻝﺍ ﺯﺠﻋ ﺍﺫﺇﻭ (X)ﺱﻜﺇ ﻰﻓﻭﺘﻴ ﻥﺎﻁﺭﺴﻝﺍ لﺎﺼﺌﺘﺴﺍ .ﺏﺎﺼﻤﻝﺍ

ﺩﻠﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻁﺭﺴ ﺏﻴﺼﻴ- ﺎﻤﺃ ﻡﺴﺠﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﺤﻨﺃ ﻑﻠﺘﺨﻤ ﺔﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻁﺭﺴﻝﺍ ﻪﻀﺍﺭﻋﺄﻓ ﺭﻤﺘﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﺌﺍﺩﻝﺍ لﺎﻌﺴﻝﺍ . ﺭﺩﺼﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻝﺃ .ﺭﺩﺼﻝﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﺝﻭﺭﺨ

ﻕﻭﻓ ﺔﻌﺸﻷﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻤﺎﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻝﺍ ﻪﺒﺒﺴ لﻭﺤﺘﺒ ﺔﻴﺌﻭﻀﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻝﺍﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺠﺴﻔﻨﺒﻝﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ﻲﻨﺎﻁﺭﺴ ﺞﻴﺴﻨ ﻰﻝﺇ ﻱﺩﻠﺠﻝﺍ ﺞﻴﺴﻨﻝﺍ ﺩﻴﺩﺸﻝﺍ ﺽﺭﻌﺘﻝﺍ ﻪﺒﺒﺴﻓ ﺔﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻁﺭﺴ ،ﺔﻌﺸﻤﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻐﻠﻝ ﻭ ﻡﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺓﺭﺠﻨﺤﻝﺍ ﺎﻀﻴﺃ ﺏﻴﺼﻴﻭ .ﻥﻭﻝﻭﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﻭﻌﻠﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻨﺎﺘﻤﻝﺍ

ﺩﻠﺠﻝﺍ ﻥﺎﻁﺭﺴ-

ﺔﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﻭ

. 155،162 ﺹ ، ﻩﺭﻜﺫ ﻕﺒﺴ ﻊﺠﺭﻤ، ﺭﺍﺩﺭﺩ ﻲﺤﺘﻓ : ﺭﺩﺼﻤﻝﺍ

.206 ص ،(1997، ا ا راد :ة ه ا ) ا ا و ا ، ها إ ا ء -(1)

ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻠﻝ ﺔﻤﺨﺎﺘﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﻜﺴﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻌﻤﺠﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ لﺜﻤ ﺭﺸﺘﻨﺘ :لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺭﻗ ﻥﺃ ﻲﻨﻌﻴ ﻻ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻭ ، لﻘﻨﻝﺍ لﺌﺎﺴﻭﻝ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﻜﺭﺤ ﺩﻬﺸﺘ ﻲﺘﻝﺍ ﻯﺭﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﻥﺩﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻭﺃ ،ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻝﺍ . ﺎﻬﺴﻔﻨ ﺓﺩﺸﻝﺎﺒ ﺡﺭﻁﺘ ﻻ ﻥﻜﻝ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻩﺫﻬﺒ ﺔﻴﻨﻌﻤ ﺕﺴﻴﻝ ﺓﺩﻴﻌﺒﻝﺍ ﻕﻁﺎﻨﻤﻝﺍ : ﺀﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﺃ ﻡﻫﺃ - II . ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺙﻭﻠﺘ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻤﺠﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺽﺍﺭﻤﻷﺍ ﻡﻫﺃ : ( 09 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻭﺩﺠﻝﺍ

ﻪﻨﻋ ﺔﻤﺠﺎﻨﻝﺍ ﺕﺎﻔﻋﺎﻀﻤﻝﺍ

ﻪﻀﺍﺭﻋﺃ

ﻩﺭﺎﺸﺘﻨﺍ ﻕﺭﻁ

ﺽﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻉﻭﻨ

. ﻱﻭﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﻻﺍ - ﻥﻴﻌﻝﺍ ﺔﻴﻨﺭﻗ ﻭ ﻡﻔﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﺸﻏ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻠﻜﻝﺍ ﺔﻀﻴﻭﺤﻭ ﻥﺫﻷﺍ ﻭ

ﺓﺩﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﺍ ﻭ لﺎﻬﺴﺇ . ﺎﻬﻀﺎﻔﺨﻨﺍ ﻭ ﺓﺭﺍﺭﺤﻝﺍ

ﺏﺒﺴﻴ ،ﻡﺎﻌﻁﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﻋ لﻘﺘﻨﺘ -ﻱﻭﻠﻘﻝﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺍﺭﻀﺃ ﻭ ﻲﺌﺎﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻲﻀﻤﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﻲﻨﻴﻝﻭﺭﺘﻜﻝﻻﺍ

ﺍﺭﻴﻝﻭﻜﻝﺍ

Cholera

.

ﺔﻔﻜﻨﻝﺍ

ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﻁﻐﻀ ﺽﺎﻔﺨﻨﺍ ﻕﻴﻀ ﻭ ﺔﺠﺴﻨﻷﺍ ﻑﺎﻔﺠﻭ . ﺱﻔﻨﺘﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ

.ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﺘﺨﺘ-

 

ﻲﻤﻀﻬﻝﺍ ﺯﺎﻬﺠﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻑﻴﺯﻨ ﻭ ﻊﻤﺴﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺀﺎﺸﺤﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍ لﺼﺎﻔﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺏﻠﻘﻝﺍ ﺔﻠﻀﻋ ﺓﺭﺍﺭﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻴﻝﻭﺒﻝﺍ ﻙﻝﺎﺴﻤﻝﺍ ﻭ . ﺔﻴﻠﻘﻌﻝﺍ ﻑﺌﺎﻅﻭﻝﺍ لﻼﺘﺨﺍ ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﻘﻓ

. ﺭﺍﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻉﺍﺩﺼ ( ﺕﺍﺯﺎﻏ ) ﻥﻁﺒﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﻻﺁ

ﺔﻴﻔﻴﺘﻝﺍ ﻰﻤﺤﻝﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺭﺜﺎﻜﺘﺘ ﻭ ﻡﺎﻌﻁﻝﺍﻭ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﻋ لﻘﺘﻨﺘ

ﺩﻴﺌﻭﻔﻴﺘﻝﺍ

Typhoid

 

.

لﺎﻬﺴﺇ

ﻲﻓ ﺭﺸﺘﻨﺘ ﻭ ﺩﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﻭ لﺎﺤﻁﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻡﺎﻅﻌﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻍﺎﻤﺩﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﺩﻝﺍ

ﺓﺭﺍﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﺍ

 

0

40 ﻰﺘﺤ ﺩﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﻭ لﺎﺤﻁﻝﺍ ﻡﺨﻀﺘ

 
 

ﻡﻀﻬﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﺴﻋ ﻭ ﻉﺍﺩﺼ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﺍ ﻡ 40 ﺓﺭﺍﺭﺤﻝﺍ ﻕﻴﺭﺤ ﻭ ﻑﻴﺯﻨ ﻭ لﺎﻬﺴﺇ لﻭﺒﺘﻝﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺜﺃ . ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﺭﻘﻓ

0

 

ﺎﻴﺴﺭﺎﻬﻠﺒﻝﺍ

ـــ

ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ لﻘﺘﻨﻴ ﻲﻠﻴﻔﻁ ﺽﺭﻤ ﺭﺸﺘﻨﻴ ﻡﻔﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺩﻠﺠﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﻋ ﺔﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ

ﻰﻝﺇ ﻡﺜ ﻥﻴﺘﺌﺭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺏﻠﻘﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﺩﻝﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻭ ﺀﺎﺸﺤﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻘﺘﺴﻴ ﻭ ﺩﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﻡﺤﺭﻝﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻨﺎﺘﻤﻝﺍ

Bilharzias

 

ﻥﻭﻠﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ لﻭﺒﻝﺍ ﻥﻭﻝ ﺭﻴﻐﺘ

ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍ-:ﻥﻴﻋﻭﻨ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺩﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﺏﻴﺼﻴ ﻪﻴﻓ ﺏﺒﺴﺘﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺩﺎﺤﻝﺍ ﺩﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﺩﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍ ﻭ Aﺱﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ ﻪﻴﻓ ﺏﺒﺴﺘﻴ ﻱﺫﻝﺍ ﺽﺭﻤﻝﺍ

ﺩﺒﻜﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍ

ـــ

ﻥﻭﻠﻝﺍ ﻰﻝﺇ ﺯﺍﺭﺒﻝﺍ ﻭ ﻡﺘﺎﻘﻝﺍ . ﺽﻴﺒﻷﺍ ﺓﺭﺍﺭﺤ ﺔﺠﺭﺩ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﺍ

Hepatite

 

.

ﻡﺴﺠﻝﺍ

ﻭ ﻩﺎﻴﻤﻝﺍ ﺭﺒﻋ لﻘﺘﻨﻴ Bﺱﻭﺭﻴﻔﻝﺍ .ﺔﺜﻭﻠﻤﻝﺍ ﺔﻤﻌﻁﻷﺍ

لﺎﺤﻁﻝﺍ ﻡﺨﻀﺘﻭ ﻡﻻﺁ

.ﻲﻌﻤﻝﺍ ﺏﺎﻬﺘﻝﺍﻭ

 

. 149 ، 145 ﺹ ،ﻩﺭﻜﺫ ﻕﺒﺴ ﻊﺠﺭﻤ ، ﺭﺍﺩﺭﺩ ﻲﺤﺘﻓ : ﺭﺩﺼﻤﻝﺍ