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# Investigation Probability

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The probability of a chance event can be calculated mathematically using the following
formula:

Probability = number of events of choice/number of possible events

What is the probability that you will draw a spade from a shuffled deck of cards? There
are 52 cards in the deck (52 possible events). Of these 13 cards are spades (13 events of
choice). Therefore, the probability of drawing a spade from this deck is 13/52 (or ¼ or
.25 or 25%). To determine the probability that you will draw the ace of diamonds, you
again have 52 possible events, but this time there is only one event of choice. The
probability is 1/52 or 2%.In this investigation, you will determine the probability for the
results of a coin toss.

Materials (per team of two)

2 pennies (one shiny, one dull) card board box

Procedure

1. Work in teams of two. One person will be student A and the other will be student
B.

2. Student A will prepare a score sheet with two columns-one labeled H (heads), the
other T (tails). Student B will toss a penny ten times. Toss it into the cardboard
box to prevent the coin from rolling away.

3. Student A will use a slash mark (/) to indicate the result of each toss. Tally the
tosses in the appropriate column on the score sheet. After 10 tosses, draw a line
across the two columns and pass the sheet to student B. Student A will then make
10 tosses, and student B will tally the results.

4. Continue reversing the rolls until the results of 100 (10 series of 10) have been
tallied.

5. Prepare a score sheet with four columns labeled H/H, Dull H/Shiny Tail, Dull T/
Shiny H, and T/T (H = heads; T = tails). Obtain two pennies-1 dull and 1 shiny.
Toss both pennies together 20 times, while your partner tallies each result in the
appropriate column of the score sheet.

6. Reverse roles once so that you have a total of 40 tosses.

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Discussion
1. How many heads are probable in a series of 10 tosses? How many did you
actually observe on the first 10 tosses?

2. Deviation is a measure of the difference between the expected and observed
results. It is not the difference itself. It is the ratio of the sum of the difference
itself. It is the sum of the differences between expected and observed results to the
total number of observations. Thus:

Deviation = (| difference between heads expected and heads observed | + | difference between tails expected and tails
observed |) / number of tosses

Calculate the deviation for each of the 10 sets of tosses.

3. Calculate the deviation for your team’s total (100 tosses).

4. Add the data of all teams in your class. Calculate the class deviation.

5. If your school has more than one biology class, combine the data of all classes.
Calculate the deviation of all classes.

6. How does increasing the number of tosses affect the average size of the deviation?
These results demonstrate an important principle of probability. State what that is.

7. On the white board, record the data for tossing two pennies together. Add each
column of the chart. In how many columns do data concerning heads of a dull
penny appear?

8. In what fraction of the total number of tosses did heads of dull pennies occur?

9. In how columns do data concerning heads of shiny pennies occur?

10. In what fraction of the total tosses did heads of shiny pennies occur?

11. In how many columns do heads of both dull and shiny pennies appear?

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Monohybrid Crosses and the Punnett Square
Name____________________________

Date_____________________________

Introduction: Scientists use a grid-like tool (Punnett Square) to make predictions about
various genetic problems. The Punnett Square shows only the probability of what might
occur and not the actual results. Probability is the chance of somthing occurring. If one
wants to flip a coin 100 times, since there are 2 sides to the coin, he would expect 50
heads and 50 tails. If he flips the coin 100 times, he may actually get 60 heads and 40
tails. Prediction is one thing, and actually getting the predicted results is another. The
Punnett square only shows the chances of what might occur each time the event is under
taken.

Objective: In this investigation you will use a Punnett square to predict the possible
genotypes and phenotypes and their ratios from a monohybrid cross.

Materials:

Small paper cups (one bag labeled male and the other female )

Procedure:

1. Each group of 4 students will pick up 2 paper cups filled with 15 green (G) beads and
15 yellow (g) beads. This represents 2 heterozygous parents Gg x Gg.

2. One student in the group will be in charge of the male bag, the second student will be
in charge of the female bag, and the third student will be the data keeper.

3. At the same time, each of the students controlling the bags of gametes, will reach into
their bag and pull out one of the beads. The only possibilities that can be made from this
selection are: GG, Gg, or gg. GG is homozygous green, Gg is heterozygous green, and
gg is homozygous yellow. The third student will mark the resulting combination in the
data sheet at the bottom of the page.

4. Return the beads back into the bag and conduct the same process 29 more times.

Data Table

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What is the dominant trait? ______________. Offspring's Offspring's Trial Genotype Phenotype 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 Summary: 1. 4 .

lllllllllMale _________Gg________ qqqqqqqqX rrrrrrrrFemale _______Gg________ 7. 8. ©2000 Troy High School Biology Corn Dihybrid Genetics Investigation* Name___________________ 5 . What is the genotype of the parents? __________________________________________________ 5. What is the phenotype of the parents? _________________________________________________ 6. What is the genotypic ratio? ____________________. 4. How do we know it is dominant? ____________________________________________________ 3. What is the phenotypic ratio? ____________________. Which one is the recessive trait? ________________.2. Fill in the Punnett square below using the parents given in the procedure.

Which are the dominant phenotypes? ____________ and ______________. The purple color is produced by a pigmented layer within the grains. After each row is completed. count and record in Table 1 the number of grains of each phenotype. An individual grain may be purple and starchy. R = gene for color purple r = gene for colorless (yellow) Su = gene for starchy su = gene for sweet ____/____ ____/____ x ____/____ ____/____ Parents ____/____ ____/____ x ____/____ ____/____ F1 cross F1 x F1 6 . purple and sweet. or yellow and sweet. Notice that some of the grains are purple and others are yellow. yellow and starchy. move the row marker pin to the next row until you return to the row marked by the colored pin. Put an uncolored row marker pin in the end of the next row and continue counting. If the layer is not pigmented (is colorless). One person should call out the phenotypes while the other records them in the table. Sweet corn grains can be recognized because they wrinkle upon drying while starchy grains remain smooth. fill in the following by placing the symbol for an allele in each blank. To better understand how these ears were produced. combine the totals for each phenotype counted by your team and record them under “phenotype class” in Table 2. Data Interpretation Examine the totals obtained by your team. Exchange your data with another group and record (ear 2). When finished. Then record the total number of grains counted. Obtain one ear of corn for each set of two members on your team. Recording Data Working in pairs. the yellow color of an inner tissue shows through. Put a colored marker pin in the end of one row of grains and count and record the phenotypes.In this exercise you will study dihybrid inheritance by analyzing phenotypes of an F2 generation of corn grains. Do not remove any grains from the ears. How do you know? The corn grains are the F2 generation resulting from a cross between a homozygous purple and starchy corn (R/R Su/Su) and a corn that is homozygous yellow and sweet (r/r su/su).

Table 1 7 .F2’s Thus we can see that the F1 gametes can combine in ______ ways to give rise to the F2. To do this. divide the “Total Corn Grains Counted” by the number of possible gamete combinations (16) in the F2 generation. 3. Multiply this number (the dividend) by. Do the numbers of phenotypes you observed seem to be close approximations of the “expected numbers”? _________ What factors could cause variation from the “expected numbers”? What would be the genotypes and phenotype ratios expected in the following cross? R/r Su/su x r/r su/su ? Show your work. and 1 to fill in the “expected numbers” of Table 2. 9. compare your “number of individuals” (actual counts) with the number that would be expected for your sample size. 3. and that the expected phenotypic ratio of the F2 is: (fill in the phenotypes) 9 ________________ : 3 ________________ : 3 _________________ : 1____________ Using this information. respectively.

“Corn Dihybrid Biokit” Investigation: What is Your Genetic Profile? 8 . Purple Purple Yellow Starchy Sweet Starchy Yellow Sweet Total Ear 1 Total Ear 2 Total Ears 1 & 2 Table 2 1 2 3 4 4 Classes Purple Yellow Phenotype Class Starchy Purple Sweet Starchy Yellow Sweet Total (1-4) Number of Individuals (actual) a1 a2 a3 a4 Expected Number e1 e2 e3 e4 *Source: Carolina Biological Supply Company.

Look at the pedigree below. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Trait | Phenotype | % of Class | Dominant | Genotype | | | | or Recessive | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mid-digital hair | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tongue rolling | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dimples | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cleft chin | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Attached earlobes | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Freckles | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Widow’s peak | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Five fingers | | | | | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4. Compare your data with that of your class mates. Explain why individual IV-8 and her parents provide the evidence that attached earlobes is a recessive trait. Calculate the percentage of the class that exhibits each trait. Five fingers Were you born with five fingers on each hand? Figure 1. h. Colored figures represent individuals that possess the trait. 5. Attached I Earlobes II III IV 8 10 .

Source (Holt Biology. Explain why individuals II-5. 6. Evaluating Methods Look at the pedigree for five fingers. Johnson. 2. Visualizing Life. and their children are the most important for analyzing whether this trait is dominant or recessive.Based on available information. Explain whether each trait is dominant or recessive.6. Analysis 1. George B. I Tongue Rolling II III I Five Fingers* II 5 6 III *In this case. II-6. Holt. Rinehart and Winston) 11 . 1994. the normal state of five fingers is not colored in. use appropriate symbols for each trait to record your possible genotypes in your table. Analyze the pedigrees for tongue rolling and five fingers. Analyzing data Does the information you collected and studied during this investigation indicate that dominant traits are most common? Explain. Each of the other traits listed in your table is dominant.1.

Each elephant in a generation is numbered.org) Objectives: Learn the meaning of all symbols and lines that are used in representing a pedigree.Id.000 years the elephant has been considered an important and venerated cultural. “When you have ivory poaching. Therefore. Over the past ten years nearly 200 elephants have died annually as a result of conflict with humans in Sri Lanka India. The gene Responsible for Tusks (E) is dominate over The gene for no tusk (e). (www. the gene that selects for whether an elephant has tusks or not will be removed from the population.com/sri_lanka/issues. Predict geneotypes for all individuals shown in two sample pedigrees. Thus each elephant can be identified by his/her generation numeral and number. The present population is less than 3.bentghic. Males are represented by square symbols while females are represented by round symbols (Figure 1) All darkened symbols on a pedigree are individuals who are homozygous recessive (ee) for the trait being studied. All living things. Experts believe that at the turn of the 19th century there were 20. or phenotype. Genotypes for individuals in a pedigree can usually be determined with knowledge of inheritance and probability. or arguably artificial selection. A pedigree is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance. Geneticists Recognize two general tusk characteristics in Asian elephants.000 elephants in Sri Lanka. In India man and elephant have co-existed in the island from prehistoric times. They have no tusk. They are the only two individuals who are homozygous recessive and show the recessive trait. each generation is represented by a Roman numeral.save-the-elephants. In a pedigree. About 40 to 50 percent of the animals are normally tuskless. #____ Name: ______________________________________ DG: 10/ DD: 10/ Turned in: ________ Lab # ____ Pedigree Study Grade: ___ / ____ = _____ % Introduction: Pedigrees are not reserved for show dogs and racing horses. including yourself. 12 . the trait being shown is elephant tusk. more than 90 percent of the population is not growing tusk. effect and solutions to environmental issues. The males have visible tusk and the Females do not have visible tusk. of a particular genetic trait from on e generation to the next in a family. Investigate real life cause. Procedure: The pedigree in Figure 1 shows the pattern Of inheritance in a family of a specific trait. and over the past 3. elephants I-1 and II-2 have (ee) genotypes.htm) In a woeful version of natural selection.500 elephants. but in Sri Lanka. (www. ivory poaching may be causing Asian elephants to lose the gene that allows them to develop tusks. In 1998 over 350 elephants were killed in Sri Lanka. have pedigrees.” said Paul Toyne. religious icon. a species conservation officer on the WWF.

” Because he has tusks. II-3 and II-4 can only be (Ee) because the father is “tuskless (ee)” and the mother has the genes for “tusk (Ee). half the children would probably have no tusk (ee) Figure 3. 1) Do the pedigree symbols for the children support this? _____ (yes or no) 2) What are the Genotypes for children II-3 in figure 1? ________________________ 3) What are the genotypes for children II-4 in figure 1? ________________________ Since they have tusk. his genotype is shown as (E). Even though the Asian female does not have tusk she carries the genes for tusk in her DNA.Ee. All undarkened symbols have at least one dominant gene (E). either genotype is possible for the father. elephant II-1 (Husband of oldest daughter) may be (EE) or (Ee). determine the genotypes of all individuals in family A (figure 4) and Family B (Figure 5). Part II Using the same genes as above for elephant tusk inheritance. then a Punnett square such as the one in Figure 2 results in all children having tusk. The genotype for person I-2 is either (EE) or (Ee). With only one child.ee Homozygous recessive“Tusker” Homozygous Dominant “no tusk” I-1 I-2 II-1 II-2 III-1 III-2 III-3 III-4 IV-1 IV-2 13 . Record the genotypes of each elephant in Data table 1 be sure to include genotype (letters) and phenotype (physical characteristics. All children would be (Ee) tusked if the father were (EE) (Figure 2) 4) Does the pedigree support this? _____ (Yes or No) If the father were (Ee). Punnett squares can be used to aid in determining the genotypes. tusk or no tusk). Therefore. IndividualGenotype Heterozygous Dominant Phenotype EE. If the mother (I-2) is EE. 5) Does the pedigree support this? ____ (yes or no) There are not enough children to make a definite conclusion.

The following area is to be used for Punnett squares. 14 .

Family B (Figure B) The area below is to be used for Punnett squares: IndividualGenotype Heterozygous Dominant Phenotype EE.ee Homozygous recessive“Tusker” Homozygous Dominant “no tusk” 29) I-1 30) I-2 31) II-1 32) II-2 33) II-3 34) II-4 35) III-1 36) III-2 37) III-3 38) III-4 39) III-5 40) III-6 41) III-7 42) III-8 43) III-9 44) III-10 45) III-11 46) III-12 47) IV-1 15 .Ee.

Use the area below for Punnett square work.Ee.ee Homozygous recessive“Tusker” Homozygous Dominant “no tusk” 52) I-1 53) I-2 54) II-1 55) II-2 56) III-1 57) III-2 58) III-3 59) III-4 60) IV-1 61) IV-2 16 .Analysis: Investigate the following recopied figure of Family A. 6) What are the three changes to this copy of Figure 4 Family A? ___________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Fill in the data table for each individual of this new family of Asian elephants Individual Genotype Heterozygous Dominant Phenotype EE. Answer the questions using your knowledge of genetics and facts from the lab to support your answers.

Application questions: 7) How many offspring does Indy have? _________________________________________________________ 17 .Part III The following is the family tree for the Rosamond Gifford zoo Asian elephant breeding program. Elephant Sex Parents Year Birth Living location Indy Male ? Wild caught Rosamond Gifford zoo Syracuse NY Targa Female ? Wild caught Rosamond Gifford zoo Romani Female ? Wild caught Rosamond Gifford zoo Mali Female Indy/Targa 1997 Rosamond Gifford zoo Stillborn Female Indy/Targa 1999 Died at birth Tundi Male Indy/Romani 1991 Wipshade zoo Europe Kirina Female Indy/Romani Rosamond Gifford zoo Preya Female Indy/Romani 2000 Died of Herpes/2003 Shanti Female ? ? Buffalo zoo Kumari Female Indy/Shanti 2000 Died of Herpes Kundulah Male Shanti/? 2002 Lived 65 – 80) Create a Pedigree chart for Indy’s family. Be sure to use the rules of a pedigree chart to indicate the following: 1) Sex of the individual 2) Generation of the individual 3) connect family relationships You do not have to do the Genotypes or Phenotypes of the Elephants in this family tree.

Explain two reasons you think it is important to be breeding elephants in captivity. In this program a Pedigree Chart of all the elephants in captivity is kept. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 11) Asian elephants in the wild are considered an endangered species. 12) Reason # 1 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 13) Reason # 2 __________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 14) The Rosamond Gifford zoo participates in a Species Survival program. what does this mean? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ The Rosamond Gifford zoo elephant family helps educate people about elephant endangerment everyday. __________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 18 .8) Who are the daughters of Romani? ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9) Would it be a good idea to mate Karina with Tundi? _______ 10) Explain why this would not be a good idea. Explain using facts and things you have learned from this lab how this could someday benefit the plight of the Asian elephants in Sri Lanka India. They also breed the elephants to increase the population that is in captivity around the world.

In other words. meaning that the expression of such a trait is limited to one of the two  sexes._____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ PURPOSE  To learn how variability in facial characteristics is achieved through a random assortment of  dominant and recessive alleles. The two parents will work together to  determine the facial characteristics of their offspring. the  genes for melanin will be silenced. Each parent contributes half of each child’s genetic make­up. you will draw a picture of what your child would look like in his or her teens. Several different patterns of inheritance are possible. Your  child’s picture should be sketched on an overhead transparency. such as height or skin color. For example. Other human traits. an individual may have two dominant genes for the production of melanin  (a pigment that gives skin color). At the end of lab. MATERIALS  two coins  transparency sheet  transparency marker 19 . which  means they mask those that are recessive. If the individual also has two recessive alleles for albinism. Some  traits are controlled by interaction between multiple genes. In some cases. such as beard  growth. Recessive alleles can be expressed only when  dominant alleles are not present. show continuous variation in the population. are gender specific. “Parents” will flip a coin to simulate the role of probability in the independent  assortment of chromosomes during gamete formation. each  parent contributes one allele for each gene locus. One such interaction is called  epistasis. Other traits. The activity below demonstrates how each of these modes of inheritance influence  phenotype. Epistasis occurs when genes at one location affect the expression of genes at another  location. resulting in an intermediate phenotype.  These traits are thought to be controlled by many genes and are called polygenic traits. Once the coin­flipping activity has been  completed. each set of  parents will present their child to the class and explain how the genotype of their child results in  the phenotype shown. Many alleles are dominant. incomplete dominance prevents the  expression of either allele. INTRODUCTION Human variation in appearance is due not only because of the large variety of traits that exist  in a population but also because of the random mixing of alleles that occurs during sexual  reproduction.

your child is a boy. If the father flips a head. the father will flip a coin to determine the sex of the  child.e. what you have learned  concerning human inheritance. Heads represents dominant alleles.Source: http://homepage.. determine the sex of the child. your child’s genotype for that trait  would be heterozygous (one dominant and one recessive allele). 2. All eggs have X  chromosomes. Which parent should flip the coin? In humans. you are both heterozygotes) for each of the facial features illustrated on the  following pages. the  fertilizing sperm (from the male) determines the sex of the child. 6. If an X­bearing sperm fertilizes the egg. First. 5. 4. Therefore. Draw your child on the transparency provided and be prepared to describe him/her to the  class. 8.html PROCEDURE 1. summarize below.com/massasoit. You and your partner should simultaneously flip coins for each facial feature. 7. your child is a girl. Example: If your partner flips heads and you flip tails. 3. but roughly half the sperm produced by the father will have an X  chromosome and half have a Y chromosome.bio/faculty/lab12a/lab12a. You will each act as a “parent” to this fictitious “child. both you and your partner will flip your  coins. in this simulation. If a Y­bearing sperm fertilizes the egg. To determine the genotype inherited by your child.mac. the  child will be male (XY). Pair up with a classmate.” Begin the  simulation with the assumption that each of you has one dominant and one recessive  allele (i. Give your child a name. 20 . Record the  genetic contribution of the parents and the offspring’s genotype and phenotype on the lab  report. if tails are flipped. tails represents recessive alleles. After you have completed steps 1 – 6. Record this information on your lab report. the child will be female  (XX).

Chin size 3. Cleft chin 21 . Chin shape 4. Face shape 2.Parents’ names: _____________________ and ________________________ Child’s sex: ________ Child’s name: _____________________ Allele  Allele  Child’s  Trait from  from  Child’s phenotype genotype Dad Mom 1.

Freckles on cheeks 29. Nose size 22. Eyebrow thickness 10. Eyebrow color 9. Eyebrow placement 11. Eye shape 15. Skin color 6. Eye slantedness 16. Eye distance 13. Nose shape 23.5. Nostril shape 24. Lips 19. Mouth size 18. Eyelashes 17. Dimples 21. Protruding lip 20. Hair type 7. Earlobe attachment 25. Hairy ears 28. Freckles on forehead 22 . Eye color 12. Widow’s peak 8. Darwin’s earpoint 26. Eye size 14. Ear pits 27.

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one stick. Filtering will remove cell debris. gene sequencing. several strands will clump together and be visible. and don’t worry about being perfect – close to 10 mL will do. and one funnel. squeezing out most of the air as you do so. Don’t count the soap bubbles as part of the buffer. 3. 95% ethanol. Although any one DNA strand is too thin to see with the naked eye. Strawberries are octoploid. a rack for tubes. Seriously though. and one new 15 mL tube per pair. Work in pairs. The soap will break up cell membranes. one 3mL pipette.Strawberry DNA Extraction Purpose: To experience the unbridled joy of actually seeing DNA. and one new 15 mL tube per pair. The DNA will stay mostly in solution in the extraction buffer. Put 10 mL of DNA extraction buffer into the appropriate tube at your table (it should be labeled “DNA Ex. funnel and 50 mL graduated cylinder Overview: A strawberry will be mashed to break up cells walls. Procedure: 1. 29 . Just throw the sepals away. Use the 10 mL line to tell when you have enough. including genetic engineering. Buffer”). Obtain one strawberry. extraction of DNA is required for study and manipulation of DNA. one standing 50 mL tube. cold Materials: Ziploc bag. one 3mL pipette. genetic testing. two cuttings of cheesecloth. Close the bag. so they are excellent sources of DNA. 50 mL dishwashing detergent (or shampoo). this one is reused each lab). Solutions: DNA extraction buffer: per L of water: 146 g NaCl. and the salt will help get much of the cell debris (including many of the proteins) to precipitate out of the solution. genome sequencing. There should also be a squeeze bottle of DNA extraction buffer at your table (shared by the whole table). one stick. Cold 95% ethanol will then be added over some of the filtered strawberry DNA extract. one Ziploc bag. Being careful not to break or open the back. You should have at your table another 15 mL tube (for DNA extraction buffer. Since DNA is mostly insoluble in ethanol it will precipitate. and many more applications. Take the green sepals off the top of the strawberry and put the strawberry in the Ziploc bag. two cuttings of cheesecloth. 4. thoroughly mash the strawberry for two minutes. 2. DNA fingerprinting (such as for crime investigation). You should have at your table another 15 mL tube (for DNA extraction buffer. Then DNA extraction buffer (essentially soapy saltwater) will be added.

Hold the 15 mL tube with the strawberry DNA extract at an angle and slowly add the 3 mL of ethanol down the side of the tube. Buffer” tube back in the rack for the next class. and how were those barriers disrupted? 30 . Put the funnel back in the 50 mL tube to help keep things clean. you will likely have 10 mL or more of filtered strawberry DNA extract in the 50 mL tube. and 3 mL pipette should be thrown away. Put the 15 mL “DNA Ex. 12. the other should carefully pour the mashed strawberry DNA extract onto the cheesecloth in the funnel. Open the ethanol and use the pipette to get 3 mL of ethanol. After 1-2 mins of precipitation you should have plenty of DNA. 13.5. Pour the 10 mL of DNA extraction buffer into the back. and place the cheesecloth in the funnel so that it makes two layers. Place the ethanol container where indicated by the TAs. 11. do not clean or rinse this tube. Place the funnel in the standing 50 mL tube. All you need is 2 mL. Tiny bubbles will appear as the DNA precipitates. and carefully pour 2 mL of the filtered strawberry DNA extract into the clean 15 mL tube (use the lines on the tube to measure). The stick. 7. Be careful not to disrupt the layer that forms between the strawberry DNA extract and the ethanol. 6. Follow up questions: 1. mixing it with the DNA extraction buffer. 9. Throw away the cheesecloth. but a bit more is fine. Cleanup: The 50 mL standing tube and funnel should be rinsed out and placed back at your table for the next lab. Put the stick into the ethanol layer and slowly and carefully rotate it to wind or “spool” the DNA onto the stick. What cell barriers had to be disrupted to get the DNA out. The 15 mL tube that was used for DNA precipitation should be rinsed and placed in the cleaning bin indicated by the TAs. By this time the TAs should have provided each group with a small bottle of cold 95% ethanol. 8. and mash the strawberry for 1 minute. Ziploc bag. 10. Then carefully remove the stick and look at the DNA. The DNA extract will drip through. reseal the bag. set aside the funnel. If you don’t have 3 mL try again – a bit less or more is fine. but try to be pretty close. Try to get close to 2 mL. After about 2 minutes the dripping should have slowed. Watch closely as the DNA precipitates and clumps together at the layer between the extract and the ethanol. but don’t worry about getting all of the way in – the strawberry material will take care of that for you when you pour it on the cheesecloth in the next step. While one person holds the tube. Push the cheesecloth in a bit with your fingers.

2. What caused the DNA to precipitate? 3.edu/academic/classes/biol/1021/lab12DNA. http://www. or others would extract DNA as part of their job (not just that it is a “neat thing to do”). What does the DNA look like to you? 4. Give at least one reason that scientists. doctors.auburn.htm 31 .