Mystical Concepts in Chassidism

An Introduction to Kabbalistic Concepts and Doctrines

JACOB IMMANUEL SCHOCHET
V~WPNS vmnt p n m

KEHOT PUBLICATION SOCIETY
BROOKLYN, N E W YORK

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1979 B J. IMMANUEL SCHOCHET Y

No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission from the copyright-holder, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. THIRD-REVISED-EDITION SECOND PRINTING 1988

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1979 b y

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Schochet, Jacob Immanuel. Mystical Concepts in Chassidism.
Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Hasidism. 2. Cabala. 3. Habad. I. Title. BM 198.S367 1986 296.8'33 86-2997 ISBN 0-8266-0412-9 Printed in the United States of America

Table of Contents

On the Propagation of Chsidism: Foreword to Third Edition ............................................................ 7 Foreword to First Edition .................................................................... 25 Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition .............................................. 27 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Introduction ..........................................................................................31 CHAPTER ANTHROPOMORPHISM AND METAPHORS ............ 35 I: 1 Anthropomorphism 35 / 2 Man-Metaphor 39 / . 3 Light-Metaphor 41 CHAPTER TZIMTZUM .................................................................... 47 11: CHAPTER SEFIROT ......................................................................59 111: 1. Meaning of Sefirot 59 / 2 . Order of the Sefirot 66 / 3. Keter 68 / 4 Chochmah-Binah-Da'at 71 / 5 . Chessed-Gevurah-Tiferet 80 / 6. Netzach-Hod-Yessod 87 7. Malchut 92 / 8 lggulim and Yosher 96 / 9 . The Sefirot as Compounds 101 CHAPTER IV: WORLDS .................................................................... 105 1 The Concept of 'Worlds' 105 / 2 The Division of the Worlds 108 CHAPTER OROT AND KELIM .................................................... V: 117 1. The Concepts of Orot and Kelim 117 / 2. Or PnimGOr Makif 122 CHAPTER PNIMIYUT AND CHITZONIYUT ............................127 VI: CHAPTER VII: SHEVIRAT HAKELIM ............................................ 129 CHAPTER VIII: PARTZUFIM ............................................................139 CHAPTER TOHU AND TIKUN ....................................................143 IX: CHAPTER KELIPOT; CHITZONIM; SITRA ACHRA ................ 147 X: CHAPTER BIRUR AND TIKUN .................................................... XI: 151

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Bibliography .......................................................................................... 161 Index ...................................................................................................... 164

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17731827). At the same time . It harbours a profound thought discussed in Chassidism and articulated a century earlier by R. Dov Ber to visit numerous towns and villages where he would collect funds to redeem coreligionists who had been incarcerated and for other charitable purposes. often referred to Kabbalistic concepts in his ethical discourses. When the rabbi was challenged that these are ideas foreign to his listeners. The famed Chassidic sage Rabbi Hillel of Poritz was delegated by R. Dov Ber of Lubavitch (the Mitteler Rebbe-55345588.Foreword to Third Edition On the Propagation of Chassidut On several occasions when discussing mystical concepts of the Kabbrljh and Chassidism with my father and teacher ir"il'77t. he would recall an interesting incident. His first master. he would reply: "The neshamah (soul) understands!" This reply was not a cavalier retort. as seen in the following episode. and often difficult to understand. Rabbi Joseph Leib Bloch-rabbi and rosh yeshivah of my father's native Telz.

cf.. the remaining three letters spell Nun. and this results in a strengthening of the asey tou (do good)' relating to the 248 com1. and he reviewed for them Chassidic discourses he had learned in Lubavitch.). Psalms XXXIV: 15: sur mera ue'osey tou (turn away from evil and . Moshe Cordovero. Or haTorah-Neui'irn.e.8 Foreword to Third Edition Rabbi Hillel was to encourage and strengthen the religious life of the communities he visited. R. Cf. the letter equivalent to the number 50 and alluding to the '50 Gates o Binah' (Rosh Hmhanah 21b. 1:p. See R. . Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. R. ~ When the neshamuh hears. there is a b w and stream in the illumination of the soul which vivifies the body. 1I:p. 2. R. Dov Ber whether to continue reviewing Chassidic discourses for those unable to understand them. The word Leuanon is divisible into two components. Likutei Leui Yitzchuk-Zohur. that the gimatriya-numerical equivalent-of the word baLeoanon is the same as that of Chochmah-Binah) 4. each forming a symbolic number: the first two letters (Lamed-Bet) form the number 32. Song IV: 15. vol. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. vol. Zohur I:4a and f 261b). the Chochmah (wisdom) and Binah (understanding) in the n e s h ~ m a h . The Rebbe answered in the affirmative and said: "The teachings of Chassidism are heard by the wshamah (soul). Scripture states 'And flowing streams from Leuanon (Lebanon)':' Leuanon stands for Lamed-Bet [and] Nun. 373. on Zohur III:16a (also noting. Pardes Rimonim XII: 18. 183. He asked R. The people he met on his travels ranged from the scholarly and perceptive to the quite simple. alluding to the '32 Wondrous Paths of Chochmah' (Sefer Yetzirah I: 1. Shneur Zalman of Liadi.2 i. incidentally. Cf. and this fact raised some doubts in Rabbi Hillel's mind. 3. Likutei Tmah IV:7ld and V:5d.

in Degel Machane Ephrayim. vol.6 even if they are difficult to understand and sometimes not comprehended. p. ch. 6. in the very perusal of these sacred texts. Or Ne'erau V:2.Cf. Chaim David . ch. ibid. Cf. vol. end of ch. 31. and also ibid. also the Baal Shem Tov's comment that the light of Torah (goodness) causes darkness (evil) to disappear. Kidurhin 30b. Menachem M. and of the sur mera (turn away from evil)' relating to the 365 prohibitions [of the Torah] The difficult and complex concepts and doctines of Jewish Mysticism are all-pervasive in Chassidism. but this fact must not deter either the teaching or the learning of it. R. 1I:p 473f. Tzauacrt Hariuash. Likutei Sichot. Nitzauim (see my The Great Maggid. though. 7. XXI (on Numbers XXIV:5). and notes ad loc. ch. this will then of itself effect the negative sur mera. ch.. XII). Note. Schneerson.Foreword to Third Edition 9 mandments [which the Torah enjoins man] to do. Hayom Yom. 1:p. See Likutei Torah V:48b-c. that Chassidism emphasizes that after an initial cognizance to avoid wrong-doing (see Tanya. Shmuel of Lubavitch (Mahurash) quoted in Sefer Hasichot 5700. edifying and invigorating effect. Menachem M. end of ch. 460f. Moshe Cordovero. See R. 5. R. Eliyahu Rabba. V:p. 124f. do good). Tikunei Zohur XXI:49a. 29 and 51.. and ch. p. 138.. 41. Cf. the comment by R. 31) man's essential and foremost concentration and involvement should be with the positive aspect of asey tou. XVIII (on Lamentations II:19).. IX. and R. an objectively purifying. as with Torah in general. VI (on Menachot V:8).. et passim. Schneerson of Lubavitch. vol. sect. just as the kindling of light dispels darkness. Eliyahu Zutta. There is a unique merit.

1164. also ibid. and R. Baal Shem Tov's comment quoted in Likutim Yekarim. implies of itself obligation of involvement. 3. Tel Aviv 5723. 108b. mysticism) .10 Foreword to Third Edition This objective and independent potency makes it possible for all to become involved with Pnimiyut haTorah (the "inner" aspects of the Torah). cit. XXVI. i&m. p. Avodat Hakodesh. Chaim Vital. Sha'ar Ruuch Hakodesh. Avoduh Zara 19a. and Tosaphot.v. Isaac Luria. ed. 111:llOa and 202a. Sha'ar haGilgulim XVI-XVII. sect. Hilchot Talmud Torah II:13. In the context of the Talmudic passage of the "Four who entered the Pardes (Garden. and infra.. demanding that each and everyone study Torah to the best of his abilities and the utmost of his capacities-on all four levels of the T ~ r a h Peshut ( simple meaning). Tikunim 107c. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. D e m h ( hermeneutics). ibid. R.. Schneerson of Lubavitch." The possibility of involvement with Pnimiyut haTorah. lgeret Hakodesh. Orchard) "-Chagigah 14b-the Zohar reads the word Pardes as an acronym for Peshat. therefore. Cf. 9. R. sect.. Moreh beEtzba II:44. 102b. and their relationship to Chassidism. See Shulchan Aruch of R. Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat h a C h s i d u t [presently available in English translation: O n the Essence of C h s i d u s ] ch. and Sod. and Sod ( esoterics. The significance thereof is far-reaching. For an example of the application of these four levels of interpretation. Remez (or Re'iyah). which are the four levels of meaning and interpretation of the Torah. notes 6 and 8). see R. Introduction. 8. Zohar I:185a and III:85b. and Mekor Chessed ad loc. ad loc. Derush. in view of the fact that the precept of Talmud Torah (Torah-study) is allcomprehensive. 1:4 and 11:10. Sefer Chassidim sect. 10. see Zohar Chadash. Keriah bechochmat haKabbalah. Hilchot Talmud Torah. Tanya. 9-17. s. s. Sha'ar haMitzvot. Remez (allu:~ sion). Menachern M.1° Azulay (Chidu). (supra. See Hilchot Talmud Torah. Chaim Vital.v. . note 29. 22b. and Zohar I:26b. Cf. and also II:2.

~ ' Baal Shem Tov recalls the a wondrous experience: "On Rosh Hashanah 5507 (1746) I performed the evocation of aliyat haneshamah (ascent of the soul to celestial spheres) . . . 115. . R. Methuselah. 12. Cf. . what I saw and learned when I ascended there. who revealed and disseminated Pnimiyut haTorah in the form and modes of Darkey haChmsidut (the ways and practices of Chassidism) and Torat haChmsidut ( the teachings of Chassidism ) . Moses and David. see . Israel Bml Shem Tov. I ascended level after level until I reached the palace of the Messiah. I saw wondrous things in a vision as I had not seen heretofore since the day I reached maturity. lent special impetus to the aforementioned. where the Messiah studies Torah with all the Tannaim (teachers of the Mishnah) and the Tzadikim (righteous people). Jacob Joseph of Polnoy (to whom it had been entrusted by the Baal Shem Tov for delivery to R. and also the Seven Shepherds12. . This letter was published first by R. Adam. Abraham Gershon of K ~ t o v . Abraham. In the famous epistle addressed to his brotherin-law. in Keter Shem TOUand other works. I asked the Messiah: 'When will the master come [to redeem Israel]? And he answered: "By this you shall know it: when your teachings will be- ll. ". Abraham Gershon) as an appendix to his Ben Porat Yosseph. Jacob. .Foreword t o Third Edition 11 The advent of R. in whole or in part. Subsequently it has been reprinted. The Great Maggid. It is impossible to relate and tell. p. Seth. even face to face.

15."16 The Baal Shem Tov's vision in essence reflects an ancient premise of the mystics. . 1II:p. 10. 11. and 'your springs will be dispersed chutzah (abroad. vol. Kelipot (shells) is the Kabbalistic term for the aspects of evil. and his Or haTorah-Neui'im.' . 13. [ Targum Onkebs renders the translation of beyad r a m h as] bereish gaby (openly). sect. 872f. 2a-b) . Cf. see Mystical Concepts in Chassidism. Exodus XIV:8). For a Chassidic interpretation o this encounter.Foreword to Third Edition come renowned and will be revealed throughout the world. Likutei Diburim. . . 572 and 6186f. as stated in the Zohar: Sukah 52b. Moshe Chaim Ephraim of Sudylkov. See Likutei Sichot. vol. Bereish is an acronym for R. see R. XVI-XVIII (esp. 14. f voi. externally)' . that is when [Israel] shall come out of exile. Keter Shem Tou. . Degel Machune Ephrayim. refers to this letter in his writings and adds: "This [reply of the Messiah] seems alluded in the verse 'And the children of Israel went out [of Egypt] beyad ramah (with uplifted hand. the Baal Shem Tov's grandson and disciple. the gloss by T z m h Tzedek in Likutei Torah III:33b. 476 ff."I4 R. 1:p. and the word gaky alludes to the time when his teachings shall be revealed and his springs will be dispersed. then the kelipot13 will perish and it will be a time of propitiousness and deliverance. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. ch. 1 (p. sect.j. . pp. Beshulach. Israel Baal Shem. and Shfr Hashirim Rabba VII1:end of 9.

they will leave the exile with it. See the sequel of our passage in the Zohar (and its exposition in Igeret Hakodesh.' (Leviticus XXV:lO)"ls The teachings of the Kabbalah originally were restricted to yechidei segulah. . i.. . 6d: 'One must not reveal the mys- ". a chosen few whose saintliness matched their scholarship and who had mastered the strict prerequisites1@to 16. and 1. cf. Tikunei Zohar VI:23b-24a. See also ibid. and in the merit thereof 'You shall proclaim liberty throughout the land. See Zohar Chadash. and Zohar Chadash. and Zohar Chadnsh. 3. at the end of days. 5 and 11-13. fit and pure. .. the Kabbalah. the Book of the Zohar (Book of Splendor) . also Zohar III:153a."17 so many people here below (on earth) shall be sustained (yitpamssun) by this work of [R. sect.16 the Sefer haZohar. XXVI). Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch. ch. Shimon bar Yochai] when it will be revealed in the last generation. . 18. unfit and impure. 19. Tikunim 106c-d. and R. XXI:53b (and the commentary Kisse Melech ad loc. and what is forbidden. in mercy. In Kabbalistic terminology.. explained at length in Zgeret Hakodesh. and the 'Tree of Life' symbolizes the esoteric aspects of the Torah. And because in the future Israel will taste from the Tree of Life.Foreword to Third Edition 13 '"And they that are wise shall shine as the splendor of the firmament' ( Daniel XI1 :3) with this work of [R. Appendix 1 1 17.e. the 'Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil' (Genesis II:9) symbolizes the exoteric Talmud and Halachah (which deal with the clarification of what is permitted. sect. Tikunim 96c. XXVI. in other words. cf. the clarification or 'knowledge' of 'good' and 'evil'). Zohar III:124b. Zohar III:153b). And . Bereishit. Shimon bar Yochai]. Kuntres Etz hachayim.

sect. I: ch. and note 20. . Only thereafter can the neshamah (soul) . and Tikunei Zohar. 33-34. Man must study the wisdom of the Kabbalah. Introduction to Etz Chayim.. R. . beginning of Introduction. the laws relevant to the daily life c/f the Jew. Genesis Rabba XLIV:I] and are essential. . Mishnah and Talmud is at best 'like a soul without a body. . Moshe Cordovero notes that he who wishes to pursue the esoteric teachings of the Torah must first possess some basic knowledge of nigbh (the exoteric Torah). See Zohar III:159a. and thus failing to see holes right under his feet: ultimately he will fall into a deep pit'. 77a). . This is effected by practising the mitzuot which serve this purpose [ c f . and R. only observing the things above him. Moses Nachmanides' Introduction to his Commentary on the Torah. "The whole science of the Kabbalah had been concealed from all the scholars except for a select few-and even that was in a mode of 'walking secretly' and not ~ R. See Pessachim 119a.' Cf.14 Foreword to Third Edition entering the orchard of mysticism.The soul of man is a lamp of the Eternal (Proverbs XX:27) . also The Great Maggid. also ibid. and Zohar III:105b and 244a (with Nitzutzei Orot and Nitzutzei Zohar. Kidushin 71a. whose studies endure and he is G-d-fearing and erudite in everything. Moreh Neuuchim. . Tehillim. ~ Shimon bar Yochai. To study the mysteries of the Torah before Scripture. Cf. p. 258 ( e d . infra. 114-116. 21. Hilchot Yessodei Hatorah IV: 13. 20. 31-32. and also ibid. otherwise he would be like one who 'gazes at the stars. as mentioned in the G e r n a r ~. but first his body must be purified. part I: ch.. See also R. pp. ad loc. Or Ne'erau.'. too. II:149a and III:79a.radiate in this body like a lamp placed in a glass reflector: shining and invigorating him to understand the mysteries of the Torah and revealing its depths . R. Kehot. lacking efficacy and accountability . Maimonides. Chairn Vital. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Chagigah l l b and 13a. Cf. . 6. stated in the sacred Zohar21 that permission to reveal was teries of the Torah except to a person that is wise and studied Scripture and Talmud.). Chagigah l l b and 13a. ch. Maimonides. publicly. Or Torah.

24. in his lgeret T e y m n (see also his Moreh Neuuchim 1I:end of ch. 36). R.e. for both the great and the small. 588f."22 T i concealment and hs restriction. . Shimon bar Yochai foresaw an ever-increasing revelation of mysticism in the period preceding the Messianic redemption to the point that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom. namely up until the end of the year 5250 (1490). I1:p. i. From then onwards it is called the 'last generation. lgeret Hakodesh. Cf.. quoting earlier sages. and Maimonides' reference to the restoration of prophecy prior to the Messianic redemption. to the period immediately preceding the Messianic era. was to last only to 'the end of days. Since the year 5300 it is a most meritorious precept to be occupied therewith in public. in his Introduction to Or haChumuh. Zohar 1:118a. that the King Messiah will come in the future.e. Cf. the Kabbalah) was but for a set period of time. As it is by virtue of this merit. 23."24 22. vol.. and not another."23 Indeed. sect.Foreword to Third Edition 15 given to him and his associates only. "The decree against open involvement with Chochmath haEmeth (the Wisdom of the Truth.' and the decree was nullified and it is permissible to occupy oneself with the Zohar. Likutei Sichot. XXVI. however. in this context R. Rashi's commentary on Song I:2.' i. it is improper to be slothful [with this study] . Abraham Azulay.

Immediately after him followed R. R. and of their disciples.. note 2 (Mevo She'arim. and preoccupation with. whose all-encompassing teachings soon were recognized universally as final and authoritative and had an impact on the totality of Jewish life. 158f. 335a). end of Introduction to Peloch haRimon. Moshe Cordovero and R. Sefer HagiG . Sefer haChizyonoth II:17. All these works. 178f. lgeret Hakodesh. special tracts propagating the principles and premises of the Kabbalah and introducing the novice to them. [See also Sefer Toldot haAri. See R. commentaries on the Zohar. p. Isaac Luria see R. sect. 100 note 1. Tel Aviv 5721. VI (ed. Chaim Vital. sect. Moses Zacuto's glosses on Etz Chayim and Meuo She'arim. and p. XXVI. See R. Menachem Azarya de Fano. the Ari ( "Lion"). For the basic difference between the systems of R.)] 28. It was the age of R. also ibid. ed. mystical expositions of the Bible and Rabbinic texts. mostly written by scholars whose authoritative 25. Chaim Vital. Jerusalem 1967. ~ ~ Ever since then there has been a continuous flow of mystic works appearing in print: the writings and teachings of the aforementioned R. the Kabbalah. Moshe Cordovero and R. Shomes Emunim I:17.26 It was an age that ushered in an altogether new era: R. and cf. Isaac Luria. Isaac Luria declared that as of then it is not only permissible but a duty to reveal Pnimiyut haTorah. the esoteric part of T ~ r a h . Joseph Ergas. Isaac Luria. whose expository works-of remarkably lucid style-have become primary sources. p. Moshe Cordovero. p.16 Foreword to Third Edition The century following the year 5250-referred to above-witnessed a phenomenal flourishing and revolutionary expansion in the study of. R.

)..Foreword to Third Edition 17 expertise in the Talmudic-Halachic branches of the Torah equalled their mastery of the Kabbalah. vol. 117-119. p. and Appendix 111. 206ff. p. in spite. and his letter published in Hatamim 1:p. Shimon bar Yochai to resolve all prob- ." Cf. Or Ne'erau (parts I-V). 19ff. it is necessary to reveal Chochmat haEmet (the mystical teachings of the Torah) in order that the Messiah will come. 13 and 21. 10.cf. an intensive study of Pnintiyut h ~ T r n a h ~ ~ very gulim. V1I:p. ) 27. p. IV (p. On the Essence o Chassidus. pp. vol. On the obligatory aspect in the study of Pnimyut haTorah see also Tanya. (also in Or haChassidut. See especially R. I. Shmuel of Lubavitch quoted in Sefer Hatoldot-MaHarash. Kuntres Limud h C h s i d u t . R. ch. Isaac de Lattes' Approbation to the first printing of the Zohar (prefacing most editions since). 25%.the need for. 169%. also Introduction to Sha'ar haHakdamot. Kuntres Znyanah she1 Torat haChassidut. and . which is the last era. etc. stressed the signilicance of. 32: "In this our present era. . ch.. Shomer Emunim. Zohur II:26). by stating: "If we were to apply the prerequisites as strictly as they appear to be. Joseph Ergas. and precisely because of the spiritual decline of our own times (see the incisive parable by R. Kuntres Acharon. 81. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. p. R. Abraham Amlay's Introduction to Or haChamah. ch. no one would be able to pursue this study unless he had an instructor as great as R. R. Kuntres Etz haChayim. as stated in Tikunei [Zohar] that by merit of the Zohar the King Messiah will be revealed. comment by R. Moshe Cordovero. 91f. 150f. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar huHakdamot. Note also R. quoted in The Great Moggid. Likutei f Sichot. R. and the analogy offered in Likutei Sichot. Chain Vital's resolution of the seeming contradiction between this claim and the restrictive prerequisites referred to above (notes 19-21). They state emphatically the admissibility and necessity thereof nowadays. R. They and many others went to great lengths to refute in detail the various objections raised to an extensive study of mysticism. Appendix (p. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. 156b). sect.

. and also Etz Chayim. 26 and 50. ch. 28.2@ However. because the subject matter is questionable . comparing them to silver and gold Tespectively. Pnimiyut haTorah). 21ff. passim. On the illuminating aspect of Pnimiyut haTorah in relation to the other parts of Torah see Or Ne'erau. Chassidut. Kuntres Etz haChayim. Introductions. and not. passkn. that is. and the anthology Or ha- C hassidut. this open dissemination of the Kabbalah. Kuntres Etz haChayim. . Sha'ar haHakdamot. ch. The study [of mysticism] is prohibited only to him who is unable to stand in the Palace of the King and may come to heresy. ) . and 111: ch. Kuntres Inyanuh she1 Torat haChassidut ( O n the Essence of Chassidus) . which began gradually in mediaeval times and expanded drastically from lems encountered. s. The exoteric and esoteric layers of the Torah are usually compared and referred to as the body and the soul of the Torah. Pe'ah 1:1 on Deuteronomy XXXII:47]. ed. p. Introduction (in comment on Proverbs XXV: 1 ) . Kuntres Torat Mhassidut. because he thinks himself very wise and without deficiency on his part". Maimonides' distinction between the nigleh (revealed..v. Tel Aviv. 31-34. Moreh Neuuchim. Cf. Kuntres Limud huchassidut. exoteric) and nistar (concealed. Maimonides. provided one has adopted the following approach: When seeing bewildering passages which may arouse doubts. Heaven forbid. 29. parts IV-V. 23b f . Introduction. Thus it seems to me that the mitzvah to pursue this wisdom remains in effect. Heaven forbid. one must think 'If this matter appears to be vain-it is on my account [see Yerushalmi. I: ch. See further the sources cited in the preceding note. see Zohar III:152a. Kol Ramah on Zohur III:14la (quoted in Nitzutzei Zohar. I don't understand it because of the deficiency of my intellect. Cf. Moreh Neuuchim. a d . 15.18 Foreword to Third Edition ou12%f the Torah which animates and illuminates the body of the exoteric tradition. esoteric) parts of the Torah. Hafotzat haMayanot. the frequent discussion of this theme in Likutei Sichot (see index. .

Two centuries passed since R. Likutei Sichot. A new era began with the rise of R. by each relative to his own level. and contained and alluded to. and beg. The Baal Shem Tov propagated and disseminated ideas and ideals of Pnimiyut haTorah in such ways and manners as could be absorbed by all. During his numerous travels he would address differing audiences with short and seemingly simple comments or parables relating to Torah and the Divine service. Israel Baal Shem Tov who revealed and propagated the teachings of Chassidism. too. however. His scholarly disciples thus. could and would probe these teachings and meditate on them to extricate their inexhaustible lessons relating to themselves at their own level of scholarship and understandingS3O 30. remained restricted basically to the scholarly world. See Degel Machane Ephrayim. His pithy words were easily understood by simple folks at whom they were often directed and set their souls on fire to worship the Omnipresent with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. sect. . 874 and 875. invariably were based on. Chassidism made it possible that not only the discerning scholar but every one may 'taste from the Tree of Life' and be inspired by it.Foreword to Third Edition 19 the sixteenth century onward. Vayeshev. In this new stage mysticism was popularized on a much wider scale. of section Tstzaceh (Likutim). 1II:pp. Isaac Luria before there was a further development bringing the Zohar's vision of the 'end of days' a major step closer to realization. profound premises and insights of the mystical depths of Torah. vol. His words.

but of an immanent and all-pervasive understanding and comprehension. of an extensive study of Pnimiyuth haTorah.a3 he follows clearly in the footsteps of the classic commentators preceding him: "'And became in the future Israel lemit'am (will taste) 31. Quoted by R. See The Great Maggid. 32. and comprehenrive deliberation on Pnimyut haTomh.20 Foreword to Third Edition This new approach. Schneur Zalman of Liadi interprets the Zohar's precondition to the Messiainic redemption. ch. to mean limud be'iyun gad01 dauka-an intensive study of. continued in one form or another through the second generation of Chassidism. Every attempt was made to realize fully the 'dissemination of the fountains of Chassidism chutxclh'-outside. When R. Hafotzat huMayanot. Dov Ber of Lubavitch in his Introduction to Biurei huZohar.u. C b s i d u t . too. led by R. Pnimiyut haTorah). VII.If ~at first this dissemination had been ~ indirectly. . Dov Ber of M e ~ h i r e c h . or in a transcendent mode of 'the neshmah hears and understands. 33. The Zohar's vision of the overall study of Pnimiyut haTorah is not one of merely a formal acceptance in principle or of a transcendental acquaintance. See Likutei Sichot. i.e. passim (s. as quoted above. was to change in the course of time.' this. even in such places and to such people which at first glance might seem far removed from any relationship with the subjectmatters of C h a ~ s i d i s m ..and ~~ those following thereafter.

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from the Tree of Life-': Note the expression kmit'am. It implies that the meanings of the Zohar's teachings ultimately will become manifest in a mode of tuu ta'am (goodness of taste; good discernment; Psalms CXIX:66); to the point that
every palate tasting it will desire it, as opposed to he who studies [the Zohar] superficially only. The latter will not sense its sweetness, while Scripture states 'Taste and see that the Eternal is good' ( Psalmr XXX1V:Q).

'"-they will leave the exile with [the Zohar]': This is meant to be when they will taste (i.e.,discern; comprehend)
the meanings of its delightful teachings, as in these our own times which are the 'end of days' and the era of the redemption, as we wrote in section Vayera (Zohar I: folio) 117, see there."a'

R. Sholom Buzaglo writes in his commentary on Tikunei Zohar:
"Note the expression 'when it will become manifest below.' This clearly indicates that . . . here below it will not be manifest until the 'last generation,' i.e., the 'end of days,' meaning quite specifically close to the era of the Messiah who will come on this account.35 "Verily, it is now hundreds of years already since the [Zohur] was revealed below, yet the descendant of David still has not come. But pay close attentioin to the text: it
34. R. Sholom Buzaglo, Hadrat Melech on Zohar 111:124b. 35. See also R. Sholom Buzaglo's introductions prefacing Tikunei
Zohar.

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Foreword to Third Edition

states ' y i t p m s s u n (they will be sustained; provided for) by this work.' The implication is that the profound teachings [of the Zohar] will be explicated-according to the premises ~ revealed by R. Isaac L ~ r i a .. . .~ This is what is meant by [the term] parnassah (sustenance; provision), i.e., that they will understand and benefit from its light which is 'sweet to the soul and health to the bones' ( Prooerbs XVI:24). He who studies [the Zohar and Pnimiyut haTorah] superficially (girsa be'alma) will reap a good reward for his effort and sanctifies his soul in purity, but the special remedy by virtue of which 'you shall proclaim liberty' is when yitparnessun (they will be sustained by) and study the meanings of the teachings [of the Z ~ h a r ] . " ~ ~ VII The progressive evolution in the manifestation and exposition of Pnimiyut haTorah reached a new milestone in our own age. For now, some two hundred years after the advent of the Baal Shem Tov and the Chassidic Movement, these teachings have been, and continue to be made available not only in systematized form and and in intelligible terminology and simplified exposition, but also translated into modern languages. This new development was ini36. Cf. R. Chaim Vital, Etz Chayim 1:s; Sha'ar haHakdamot, 11; Shomer Emunm I : 17. 37. Kisse Melech on the passage from Tikunei Zohar VI:23b quoted above.

Foreword to Third Edition

23

tiated by R. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn of L u b a ~ i t c h and inten,~~ sified in every conceivable way by HnR'137 his successor, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch N''D''1W. This latest expansion has in effect removed the last barriers to the fullest and widest possible dissemination of Pnimiyut huTorah-"the fountains of Chassidus which were unlocked by R. Israel Baal Shem Tov, who envisaged Chassidus as a stream of 'living waters,' growing deeper and wider, until it should reach every segment of the Jewish People and bring new inspiration and vitality into their daily lives."3v In our own days, thus, the path has been cleared and paved for the realization of R. Shimon bar Yochai's vision that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom,"-culminating in the era of "The earth shall be full of the knowledge of G-d as the waters cover the sea" (Isaiah XI :9) "And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour and every man his brother saying 'Know the Eternal,' for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of theml" (Jeremiah XXX1:33I4O
0

4

0

This book was written in the context and for the purpose of the aforesaid. Its justification is measured by the extent of achieving that end.
38. See Likutei Sichot, vol. 1II:pp. 874-6, and vol. X1II:p. 180; Kovetz Yud Shuat, pp. 69-71. 39. Foreword by Lubavitcher Rebbe to the English translation of Tanya. See also Likutei Sichot, vol. X1II:p. 177ff. (in conjunction with the publication of the bi-lingual edition of Tanya, London 1975). 40. See Zohar III:23a and Mairnonides, Hilchot Melachim XII:5.

The present edition differs from the previous one by minor revisions and additions in both the text and the notes. 28 Menuchem Au 5739 . IMMANUEL SCLIOCHET Toronto. there is hardly a more gratifying reward for the author.24 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM If the need for a new printing indicates some success. J. and supplementary references to works published since then.

An attempt has been made to offer simplified outlines and explanations to the English-reading novice in this field. The explanatory notes. as in other branches of knowledge. there are different schools of learning and interpretation. and to introduce the reader to. In Jewish Mysticism. and acquaint him with. It is an introduction sewing two purposes: to acquaint the reader with the general nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh. but the subject-matter is not as simple as may appear here. The paragraphs dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh appear also alongside the translation. though numerous references have been made to them in the footnotes of the translation. involving very delicate premises and principles of the teachings of the Kabbalah and Chassidism. . some basic concepts and doctrines which appear throughout that work. the fourth part of R. Schneur Zalman of Liadi's celebrated Likutei Amarim-Tanya.Foreword to First Edition This volume is a companion to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh. The Explanatory Notes deal with profoundly intricate subjects. appear here on their own. forming the bulk of this volume. This separate publication was necessitated by technical difficulties but also serves to emphasize the following point. by way of a brief and general Introduction.

the reader is reminded that ambition is not necessarily identical with achievement. in the school of R. we find. But it should be noted that the explanations offered in this volume" represent their author's understanding of the subjects.I. and there remains but to paraphrase the Psalmist with the apology and prayer: "Who can understand (and prevent) errors? Clear Thou me from hidden faultsl" (Psalms 19:13) Toronto. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. Isaac Luria which. The involved terminology and subtle phraseology in all the works mentioned often threaten to entrap anyone who cannot claim to belong to the exclusive circle of t"n 'y?l' (adepts in the esoteric science).S. . ' The same applies to the explanations given in the footnotes of the translation. Isaac Luria. since shortly after its inception (sixteenth century). For example. it is hoped that this Introduction will prove successful in its aims. Though he strove to grasp and offer the views and interpretations of R. 1 Nissan 5728 1 J. with abundant references to the original writings of the Zohar and of R. differing interpretations of even so basic a doctrine of that great master as tzimtzum. dominates the world of Jewish Mysticism. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. The obvious purpose is to present them in a way that will help clarify the contents of Zgeret Hakodesh.26 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM These schools differ not only one from another. Nonetheless. As the footnotes show. in +e very first generation after the passing of its founder. the basic sources of the Explanatory Notes are the writings of R. but sometimes subdivide into further branches within themselves.

the numerous references to Igeret Hakodesh. 11-17 in the first edition of this work) which. growing out of the original intent and purpose.with the numbers in the bi-lingual edition noted in parentheses. On the other hand. are retained. in any case. appear in the abbreviated Introductiurl prefacing the translation. For this reason I have omitted from the revised edition the technical parts dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh (pp. reference is made to both . . " Where the numbering of these footnotes differs between the original editions of the translation (New York 1968 and 1972) and the bi-lingual edition (London 1973). I have followed the suggestion to give it a separate title whilst retaining the original one as a sub-title. This has led to some major changes: ( i ) This volume was written and intended as an Introduction to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh. and to the footnotes of its translation.' (ii) The first three chapters have been entirely rewritten.Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition The first edition of this introductory tract has been out of print for a long time. But as it has come to be used for general reference. The need for a second edition is not only gratifying but also provides an auspicious opportunity to revise and to take into consideration comments and suggestions received since the first printing.

26 Nissan 5731 . to give due acknowledgment to my wife H"D"7nw for compiling the helpful indices of both this work and the translation of Zgeret Hakodesh. namely. Technical difficulties prevent me. from adding a few additional chapters on related concepts and doctrines. Toronto.28 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The other chapters were expanded. But this new edition does afford an opportunity to rectify an omission in the first one. at this time. and otherwise underwent only minor revisions.

MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM .

.

Founder and leader of a Kabbalistic school in Safed that soon became the dominant school in Jewish Mysticism. and many other works. 2. is authoritatively recorded in the multi-voluminous writings o ARl's principal disciple R. Chayim Vital f (1543-1620). 1534-1572. Mevoh She'arlm. and exerted a profound influence on the whole Jewish world. Leader of a prominent Kabbalistic school in Safed. Peri Etz Chayim. The intricate system of the Lurianic Kabbalah. They assume their accepted authoritative fonns only in the comprehensive expositions of R. author of ParAs Rimonim. Elimu Rabba:y. Or Ne'erav. REMAK is regarded as one o the most important and lucid expositors and systematists f of Jewish Mysticism. Shiur Komuh. such as Etz Chuyim. which forms the theoretical basis of Chassidic thought. Shu'ar hatlakdamot.~ explain these concepts and doctrines as they appear in the writ- 1. Known by the acrostic REMAK. etc. Moses Cordoverol and R. 1522-1570. But in these works they appear mostly seminal and rudimentary. Isaac L ~ r i a Thus any attempt to . .Introduction This book deals with fundamental concepts and doctrines which appear throughout the writings of Chassidism and are essential for a proper understanding of them. They are concepts and doctrines that have their origins in the basic works of the Kabbalah such as Sefer Yetzirah and the Zohar-writings. Likutei Torah. Known by the acrostic ARI.

It is to be remembered that the concepts and doctrines discussed deal with profoundly intricate subjects. Torah Or. and by. For this reason the reader will find many references to them throughout this book. and cross-references enlightening to the serious student seeking to delve further into the subject-matter. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. Those interested in pursuing the subjects further are referred to readily available works devoted to that 3. and amongst Chassidim as the Alter Rebbe (Elder Rabbi). author of Likutei Amarim (Tanya). Founder and leader of Chubad. nor claim to be. There are many philosophical questions and problems that are related to. Likutei Torah. 1745-1813. Verily. too. etc. complete in. Known as the Rau (Rabbij. these. But even the chapters following should be regarded as merely explanatory notes. ( A detailed biography in English is presently available. as an attempt at simplified outlines and explanations. are cited in the footnotes.3 can be done only in the context of the works of his predecessors. and nothing more. They are discussed here because the marginal notes accompanying the translation of Igeret Hakodesh (where these concepts and doctrines appear) could not do justice to them. such an objective would require a much larger volume if not several volumes. these various concepts and doctrines which are beyond the scope of this book to deal with. and can be raised about. published by Kehot: New York 1969.Chassidism.) .32 Introduction ings of R. an authoritative revision of Shulchun Aruch. themselves. Where other works prove helpful. often involving difficult and delicate premises and principles which touch upon many basic theological problems. These outlines and explanations neither are.

Renowned Talmudist and Kabbalist of the Lurianic school. It should be noted. 1685-1730. Joseph E r g a ~ . Author of Avodut Hakodesh. Avodat Hakodesh is an elaborate introduction to the Kabbalah. Shomer Emunim. such as the writings of R. . Shomer Emunim is written in the form of a dialogue between a mystic (adherent and defender of the Kabbalah) and his rationalist critic. Meir ibn Gabbai4 and R. dealing with its most important problems and containing profound critical discussions of various philosophical expositions. One of the first and foremost systematists of the Kabbalah. etc. Teshuvot Divrei Yosef.Author of Minchat Yosef. and ToEa'at Yabkov. that Ibn Gabbai's works are preLurianic (Auodut Hakohsh was completed in 1531. originally from Spain and later in Egypt. and is a relatively easy philosophical introduction to the main issues and principles of Jewish Mysticism. 5. Derech Emunah. ~ 4.Introduction 33 purpose. though. often cited in the footnotes. residing in Livorno and Pisa. and Derech Emunuh in 1539).

.

The forms of spatial-temporal concepts are imposed upon the mind of man who lives in a spatial-temporarl. 20:2."' For "Had they limited themselves to abstract terns and con1. Mechilta. and Tanchuma. as it is stated "The Torah speaks in the language of man. Berachot 31b. the Prophets. Sifm on Levit. It is for this very reason that the Torah. and our Sages use anthropomorphic language. is highly anthropomorphic. on Exodus 15:7 and 19:18.world. and thus in the expositions following.CHAPTER ONE Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 1. The reason is because these are the only type of words that man can use in any meaningful way. . The terms are borrowed from human concepts and the empirical world. Anthropomorphism The terminology of Kabbalah and Chassidism.

Kuzay IV:5. 131). and will raise his conception step by step until he will at last attain to as much knowledge of the truth as his intellect is capable of apprehending. and Comment. . 271 (1I:p. we would have understood neither the terms nor the concepts. no. Responsa no. Chouot Haleuouot." (Isaiah 40:18. and that the reality is too subtle. their materialistic meaning) from the kernel. 35f. Hikhot Yesodei Hatorah I:7-12. All and any anthropomorphic notions and concepts. Then we can proceed to an understanding that the presentation is only approximate and metaphorical. Maimonides. 25).e."" Thus it is to be kept in mind at all times that the terms and concepts need to be stripped of all and any temporal. spatial and coporeal connotations. as Scripture states explicitly: "To whom then will you liken G-d? Or what likeness will you compare to Him? . 9 2 ) . strictly speaking. Otzar Hageonim. Tanya 1I:lO. Judah Halevi. 33. . Sha'ar Hayichud: ch. 10. R. says the Holy One. too exalted and remote for us to comprehend its subtlety.. 357 (1:p. R.36 MYSTICAL CON(=EPTSIN CHASSIDISM cepts appropriate to G-d. Cf. Bachya ibn Pakuda. The words and ideas used have accordingly to be such as are adapted to the hearer's mental capacity so that the subject would first sink into his mind in the corporeal sense in which the concrete terms are understood. This cardinal premise was adopted by Maimonides as the 2. Berachot. are non-ascribable to the Divinity. To who will you liken Me that I should be equal. "The wise thinker will endeavor to strip the husk of the terms (i. . and 46. and Moreh Neuuchim I:28.

10.a At the same time.I. Commentary on Mishnah. The Rabbinic-Midrashic and mystical writings abound with references to the idea that the world below in general." parts I and 11.. hands. Moreh Nevuchim I:36 (and the references to Maimonides. 117a. Hilchot Teshuvah III:7. Aud de R. 31. 3 and 5. and 11: ch. 140a.' All the categories to be found in the world below and in man are homonymous representations of. 75bf. XI f (New York 1970). ibid. to ch. however. Di Yiddishe Heim. nos. "The Psychological System of R. Rabba I:4. by the mystics and by others. Intr. vol. 205b. and man in particular. ch. Zohar I:38a. 2. talking and so on. Cf. and so on. (Most of these sources are quoted in the discussion of the "correspondence-theory" in J.) . all these spatial-temporal activities and concepts do 3. supra. III:65b. it should also be noted that the anthropomorphic terminology used in Scripture. and allusions to. is not arbitrary just because it is under the protection of the above qualification. Nathan. 4. ibid. and on the supernal levels of the strictly spiritual realm there are no such things as eyes. To be sure. et passim. note 2). nor such activities and affections as hearing. Schochet. ears. Eccles.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 37 third in his compilation of the "Thirteen Fundamental Principles of Faith". Midrash Tanchuma. II:20a. Schneur ZaEman o Liadi. 48b. Rather. 1:ch. 3-4. See also Chouot Habuouot. Pekudei: 3. 10. these terms are carefully chosen and possess a profound meaning. certain supernal concepts and notions to which the9 correspond. However. Sanhedrin. walking. seeing. there is no likeness whatever between G-d and the creation. are created in the "image" of the "world above".

2. Isaiah Horowitz (ad loc. SoIomon ibn Aderet. R. link or relationship between the written letters or words on paper and the physio-mental entity of the person whose name has been recorded. for that reason come into being in correspondence to the original supernal. Isaiah Horowitz. and denoting. In addition. Even so. cit. indeed. R. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. ch. categories.in accordance with the aforesaid . Thus it is with the anthropomorphic and anthropopathic concepts and terms: There is no concrete or direct link or likeness between them and the meanings they seek to express. Joseph Ergas. Joseph Cikatilla aptly explains this correspondence-relationship by means of the following analogy. Shomer Emunim I:24f. calling to mind and denoting the full concrete entity of that person. 2b). notions and concepts that are of a strictly spiritual nature. 90). Moses Cordovero. Moses Cordovero's Shi'ur Komah is devoted to this topic. When writing the name of a person on a piece of paper. In a widely-quoted passage. but nonetheless. See also R. For a fuller discussion of the mystics' view of anthropomorphisms see R. specific categories.exactly the other . esp. part 111. Sha'ar I (ed. 65. 10d) makes the interesting point that strictly speaking it is not that "the Torah speaks in the language of man. esp. that writing is a symbol or sign relating to. R. Avodat Hakodesh. strictly and purely spiritual. Sha'arei Orah. there is surely no likeness. 268." but . Pardes Rimonim. Toldot Adam: Bayit Neeman.. and. (all of which quote R. p. Cf. non-spatial and non-temporal5 5. R. p. R. Shenei Luchot Habrit. XXII (Shu'ar Hakinuyim). they are corresponding signs and symbols relating to. Warsaw 1883. the whole of R. Meir ibn Cabbai. and ch. p. on Baua Batra 74b (Jerusalem 1966. Joseph Gikatilla).38 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM symbolise. ch. sect.

Berayta de R. The Man-M etaphor In discussing Divinity relative to the Universe. Peri Etz Chayim. In general these denote the aspects of the active. functions and manifestations. This should be remembered with particular regard to the so-called "erotic" concepts and symbolisms. and "conjunctio" and so on. Blessed is way around. . Sha'ar Hakorbanot.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 39 This. S. . the mode or form of emanation-reception and so forth (see lgeret Hakodesh. . . . no man knows where its place is . emanating (influencing) category and the passive. . . "There are four principles: masculine and feminine (1"lr). upper and lower. Etz Chayim 11:6). . 6. like the frequent occurrence of terms as "masculine" and "feminine". influencer or .U. . Chayim Vital. Yishmael. 363f. is unique in the body . . and in particular in terms of the various soul-powers. . ~ 2. the favourite metaphor of the mystics (as of many philosophers) is the analogy to man. Theological concepts and the G-d-world relationship. is pure . 6. . Judgment ( D i n ) and compassion (Rachamim). is the way the anthropomorphic terminology is to be u n d e r s t o ~ d . their faculties. then. note 9). vol. XV. are often explained in terms of the soul-body relationship. so the Holy One. sustains the whole body . p. ch. sect. The "proof-texts" for this usage are the verse "From my flesh I envisage G-d" (Job 19:26) and the Rabbinic analogy "Just as the soul permeates the whole body . . sees but is not seen . abides in the innermost precincts. . "The whole universe functions according to the principium of masculine and feminine" (R. 11. does not eat and does not drink . Likutei Sichot. receiving qualities and categories. . . because all terrestrial concepts are allusions to supernal ones! Cf.

this is but an anthropomorphic approximation which cannot be carried too far and needs to be qualified. cit. Shi'ur Komah. p. quoted at length by R. elaborate on the usage of these particular concepts. created in His world. XXV and XXIX..[Baua Batra 74b: "All that the Holy One. See Shomer Emunim II:9. as R. . of Sha'ar Hatefillah (ed. R. Tel Aviv 1966. 8df. cit. 18. ed. Tikuwi Zohar 13:28a. Tel Aviv 1963. see the commentaries ad loc. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass."' This.. Shenei Luchot Habrit. 5 (see notes ad loc.. Buber) 103:4.).. note 4. of sect.g. Hakdamah 1I:end of Derush 2 (ed. 91ff. Schneur Zalman explains at length why the mystics purposely chose such delicate and seemingly peculiar terminology. the masculine corresponds to compassion. Shomer Emunim I:26f. Actually." idem. XV. Peri Etz Chayim. . Jacob ibn Chabib in his Hakoteu on Ayin Yabkouf as well as in the philosophical literature [e.. He created male and female". ch. 6 and 17. 7. too. beg. see Likutei Torah V:9a. pp. It may be found in the Talmudic writings . Moreh Nevuchim. R. and ibid. 8. As a rule. I: ch.40 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM He. lower and recipient. and the feminine corresponds to judgment. that in some respects the analogy breaks down. The earlier mystics. 8 and 121. Midrash Tehilltm (ed. op. It must be remembered. and Biurei Hamhar. such terminology is not uniquely Kabbalistic. . 6aff.). . Noach: pp. 13a). p. Schneur Zalman points out. See references supra. see Pardess Rimonim XX1I:l. Berachot 10a. Igeret Hakodesh. in a sense."~ But even while an understanding of the soul is helpful in understanding matters relating to the Divinity. upper and emanator. and esp. and sect. and 111: ch. ad loc. blessed is He.. also called Mekabel recipient). and is completely inadequate: emanator (Mashpia') and influenced ( Mushpa'. beg. (p. too. follows on the above-mentioned principle of a "terrestrial-supernal c~rrespondence. Dov Ber of Lubavitch (New York 1955). 2a). Introduction. and 'Olat Tamid.

"The soul and the body are actually distinct. in their very sources. .."lo Thus while the body may be fully subordinate to the soul. Tanya. everything is absolutely nullified. Zbid. . See at length R. . nor by the word itself. R. Berachot . In truth. . Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch. too. however. II:6.ll 3. 7b-8b and 26a-b). Heaven forbid.g. In contrast. ch. Sefer Hachakirah 1:8 (New York 1955. affected by the accidents of the world and its changes.s " Also. "in relation to The Holy One. 42. and ch. 2. blessed is He. For the human soul . 10. so we find that the term "light" is favoured by the mystics to describe the various emanations and manifestations of the Divinity. for the source of the body and its essence does not come into being from the soul . e. Joseph Albo sees in it the following advantages that may analogously be related to E d : 9. they are nevertheless two distinct entities. This metaphor..12 This term is carefully chosen for a number of reasons. blessed is He. like the previous one. The Light-Metaphor Just as the soul provides a favourite metaphor. 3. Zbid. while the Holy One. 11. abounds in the Talmudic-Midrashic and mediaeval-philosophic writings. 12. who brings everything into existence ex nihilo. just as the light of the sun is nullified in the sun itself". . the analogy has no similarity whatever to the object of comparison.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 41 "This parallel is only to appease the ear. infra. one from the other. end of section 4. . is not. note 18. . . . is affected by the accidents of the body and its pain . I. see.ch. Cf. they do not effect any change in Him. pp.

(ii) Light is not a corporeal thing.. 31 (esp. par.. Rabba ch. 5. (vi) And even he who has seen luminous objects cannot endure to gaze upon an intense light. and so on. let there be Raz (Mystery. the radiation of the Shechinah). Sa'adiah Gaon. Eliezer. In general. 76. By possessing all these qualities. (iv) Light delights the soul. Concealment). emanation) rather than or. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. though. and Midrashim. 50b f . the philosophical works use mostly the term shefa' (effluence. 64a and so forth (the concept of Ziu Hashechinah. p.42 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM ( i ) The existence of light cannot be denied. 19 and 25. Haumunat Elokut: ch. on Numbers 6:25. light bears a greater sirnilarity to the things which are free from matter than anything else 17a. Kuzuy II:7-8 and III:17. (iii) Light causes the faculty of sight and the visible colours to pass from potentiality to actuality. see more on that in R. Moses Narboni. 6). also. ( v ) One who has never seen a luminous body in his life cannot conceive colours nor the agreeableness and delightfulness of light. Derech Mitzuotecha. Numbers Rabba 15:5. R. Emunot Vede'ot 1II:lO. and especially IV:3. 3. Commentary on Moreh Nevuchim I:35. ch. 1:3)-i. and if he insists upon gazing beyond his power of endurance his eyes become dim so that he cannot see thereafter even that which is normally visible. The mystics have a special affinity for the term Or because its numerical value (gimatriya) is equivalent to that of raz (mystery): " 'Let there be light' (Gen. . Lecit. 5 (New York 1956. See further R. ) . etc. Pirkei de R. Moreh Nevuchim I . and ibid.e. ch. ends of ch. Sifre.

and hence they are compared to light so as to make the matter intelligible. ( v ) Light per se never changes. Zohur I:140a and Zohur Chadash. zkkarim II:29. R. K u z q IV:3: "The noblest and finest of all material things." . see Tikunei Zohur 21:53b..15 ( b ) Light has numerous qualities characteristic of the Divine emanations. is not due to any change in the light per se but is due to external factors.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 43 to which such things may be compared. Cf. and cf. as. 14. 15. or of differently coloured lights. B e reishit:8d. The perception of more or less intense light. (ii) Light spreads itself instantaneously. This is a unique quality of light which is not shared with any other substance. for example : (i) Light is emitted from the luminary without ever becoming separated from it. 1701). Joseph Ergas lists the following advantages:" ( a ) Light is the most subtle and tenuous of all sense-perceptions. Moses Cordovero. Or Ne'erau (Fuerth. Shomer Emunim 11:11. the previous rays do not remain entities separate from the luminary but are withdrawn with it. 111: ch.. (iv) Light does not mix and mingle with another substance.. thus no longer emitting perceptible light.13 Likewise. (iii) Light irradiates all physical objects and is able to penetrate unhindered all transparent objects. R. 13. for Raz and Or are one thing". 4. Even when its source is concealed or removed.

18. ch. 17. 52. 4b). Schnew Zalman. 1:i:9 (p. R.16 But here again.44 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS EN CHASSIDISM (vi) Light is essential to life in general. and ibid. pp. Apart from the fact that this metaphor is qualified in any case (as we shall see). Moses Cordovero. Obviously this "descriptive analysis" of light is based on the general human perception-the sense-perception4 it. Vayakhel: 87a-b. Torah Or. It is not to be taken in its full. See also Emunot Vedebt I:3 and II:2 with regard to light being an accident (as opposed to substance) and having a limit and boundary. and Siddur 'im Perush Hamilot. cit. 11:10. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch shows how. Cf. ad bc.. Tanya I . evidently breaks down and is inadequate. this term is only an homonymous approximation.. and so on."" R. See also R. they are the empirical perceptions that make the use of this analogy so attractive and helpful in our context. too."'~ Indeed. For example. and l a c ff. (vii) Light is received and absorbed relative to the capacities of the recipient. . Joseph Albo already cautions that "No error should be made to the effect that intellectual light is something emanating from a corporeal object like sensible light. literal sense. in some respects. Elima Rabbaty. R. the ernittance of perceptible light from its source is automatic and intrinsically necessary: the luminary cannot 16. see there at length. Moses Cordovero is still more emphatic in warning that this metaphor must not be carried too far "For there is no image whatever that can be imagined that is not ~orporeal. used by way of metaphor and analogy. this analogy. R. Ikkarim. 48a ff. while an exact "scientific analysis" is not really relevant to our purposes.

Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 45 withhold the light. it cannot be mentioned too often or stressed too much that all terms and concepts related to the Divinity must be stripped of all and any temporal. Derech Mitzootecha. 19. then. Needless to say that this restrictive quality cannot be ascribed to the emanations of the Omnipotent. ch. ad loc. note 12). cit. (supra. as the mystics never tire to say. 3-4. spatial and corporeal connotations and must be understood in a strictly spiritual sense.ls In conclusion. . See also ShXur Komuh.

.

To speak of a casual evolutionary process of successive emanations merely begs the question and does not answer it. from pure Intelligence to matter. Creation is often explained in terms of a theory of emanationism: by means of a chain of successive emanations from "higher" to "lower" the finite evolved from the Infinite. from absolute Unity or Oneness to multifariousness? Moreover. how do we reconcile the Divine creation or bringing about of the universe and its multifarious parts with the eternal and inviolable absolute perfection of G-d. between the effect . qualitative as well as quantitative. For regardless of how long this chain of causal evolutions may be. the concepts and doctrines discussed here.CHAPTER TWO Tzimtzum One of the basic theological problems is concerned with the seeming enigma of reconciling G-d with the universe: How can there be a transition from the Infinite to the finite. and in the chapters following. of whom Scripture affirms "I the Eternal. and matter evolved from spirit. there always remains some relationship. all relate to these issues. I have not changed (Malachi 3:6)? In essence. But this suggestion as it stands is insufficient.

for that matter. the aspect of infinity is never really cast off: Had the world descended from the light of the Infinite according to a gradual descent from grade to grade by means of cause and effect. or the souls themselves. .so. (See there note 33 in my EngLsh translation on the concept of the "angelic matter". 1 Tanya I: ch.nor. .48 MYSTICAL ~ ~ V C E P T IN C H A S ~ I S M S and its cause. it is the power of the blessed En Sof (Infinite). for even myriads upon myriads of occulations and evolutions from grade to grade in a causal process will not avail the development and coming into being of physical matter . would it be in a gradual process of causal evolution. Thus. since the beginning of the chain of emanations is G-d.not even the matter of the firmament5 . this world would not. .out of an evohtion from spirit. nor even (that most subtle and diaphanous type of "matter") of the angel^."^ Again: T h e creation of the worlds is not by way of a development from cause to effect . Rather. XX. even numerous contractions will not avail to there being matter as dense as earth by way of an evolution from the spirituality of the abstract intelligences. 48. Just as in a material chain the links are interlocked. connected and interrelated .' In a gradual evolution and causal process "The effect is encompassed by the cause. Zgeret Hukodesh. Thus. . sect. 2. in such a case.retaining a basic relationship between the first link and the last one . have ever been created in its present form -in a finite and limited order . the Infinite. . even the (spiritual) Ohm Haba ( World-to-Come).) . in relation to which it is essentially non-existent . the supernal Garden of Eden. too.

5. This intricate theory is &st treated in detail by R. 4."^ Hence. kefitzah) which breaks the gradualism and establishes a radical distinction between cause and effect: a radical act of creation. until finite and physical substances become possible. 41d and 42b f. I:15a. a "leap" or "jump" (dilug. are to be found in the Zohar. in a number of stages and in a progressive development of degrees.).g.the Omnipotent. The word tzimtzum has two meanings: (1) contraction. For the doctrine of tzimtzum refers to a refraction and concealment of the radiating emanation from the Gdhead.u. See Torah Or. And this principle is at the root of the doctrines of tzimtzum and the Sefirot introduced by the Kabbalah (and elaborated upon in Chassidism) to solve the problem of creation. perhaps.. Likutei Torah V:40b f.. to create . . and this is not by way of a developmental order but by way of a lea^'. the second one does so. e. more than the first.~ Though both these meanings apply in our context.* Only after that has occurred can we speak of an evolutionary process culminating in finite and material entities. also ibid. condensation. Its roots. . Isaac L ~ r i a The basic works of his system all begin with an exposition . Aruch. ex nihilo. and (2) concealment. ad bc. though. s. . Vaetchanan:Sla. oc~ultation. OYr)Y (and the additional references in Aruch HashcJsm. necessitates there being in the process of emanation a "radical step". Likutei Torah IV:&.. Esther:SOa and 11f3c. and Zohar Chadash. See R. 6.~ 3. Nathan ben Yechiel. IV:20d. that something non-divine and finite should come about.

Etz Chayim.). 10.. to G-d qua First Cause of all beings-while. . Schneur Zalman partly deals with it in T ~ n y a . ch. Or Hatorah-Vayikra. Especially Torah Or. See also Likutei Torah I:7b. Especially ch. 8.. . E.lo Prior to creation there is but G-d alone. You have no known Name 7. Menachem Azaryah de Fano. XX (New York 1970. that the term En Sof does not apply to the very Essence and Being of G d as He is in Himself. there is no term applicable to the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself (according to the second opinion) . chapter 111. Pelach Harimon. and infra. Schneur Zalman quotes the works of R. appears also-with variants and additions-in R. In fact there is a dispute among the Kabbalists whether the term En Sof applies to (a) the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. Isaac Luria takes a mediating view. etc..l 11. or (b) to the Divine Will. 698fl. note 38. Shu'ar Hahakdamot. 6-7 and 9-10. nor to the Divine Will.e.R. 9. esp. Sholom Dov-Ber Schneersohn. ad Eoc.. but to a level of Divinity which exceedingly excels this latter plane. He that Is Without Limit (End). sect. in turn.g. a major exposition of tzimtzum. 21-22 and 48-49. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. ~ ~ more extensively in Sha'ar Hayichud Vehaemunah. Tanya. vol. pp. Likutei Torah II:5lb fi. 166 ff. p. Vayera: 13c 8. [The discourse in Likutei Torah 1I:Slb 8. G-d as He is in Himself js called En Sof: the Infinite. and R.50 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of t z i r n t ~ u m . part 11. Mevoh She'arim.. 3-4. no thought can grasp You a t all . see Pardess Rimonim 1II:l seq. See at length R.ll Of G-d as En Sof nothing can be postulated except that He is En Sof: "High above all heights and hidden beyond all concealments.9 and above all in Torah Or and Likutei Torah. R. Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666. i. and V:40b ff. where R.. 11. Menachem Azaryah de Fano for the choice in terminology of En Sof (That Is Without End) rather than the seemingly more compre- .

for You fill all Names and You are the perfection of them a11."12 In a mystical way, rather difficult to explain, there is a manifestation or Self-revelation of G-d qua En Sof even before the act of creation.l3 This manifestation is called Or En Sof (the Light of the En Sof), and we speak of this Light as equally omnipresent and infinite. This distinction between En Sof and Or En Sof is extremely important and must be kept in mind. For when speaking of tzimtzum and the Sefrot we relate these to the Or En Sof, the Light and Radiation, rather than to the Luminary and Radiator ( Ma-or ), the En Sof. hensive term En Lo Techihh (That Is Without Beginning). Cf. Yom Tou . . . 5666, p. 165. 12. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.:17a-b (cf. Tanya I, ch. 48 and 51; Zgeret Hakodesh sect. XI1 and XX). The term En Sof "indicates that there is no grasping Him, neither by apprehension nor by any thought whatever; He is abstracted and separate from all thoughts. He is prior to all those that were emanated, created, formed and fashioned, and no time of start and beginning applies to Him, for He is continually present and exists for everlasting without any beginning or end whatsoever"; Etz Chayim I: 1; see also R. Chayim Vital, Sha'ar Hahakdunwt, end of Hakdamah 111. En Sof therefore, is an indication of absolute perfection: "En Sof means perfection without any deficiency"; Likutei Torah IV:16a (quoting Aoodat Hakohsh I:8, who in turn is quoting R. Azriel of Ceronah, Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsum 3). 13. The difficulty in this concept is that revelation or manifestation generally presupposes another existent in, or to whom, this manifestation is directed, while the En Sof is the sole omnipresent existent. R. Schneur Zalman offers what he calls a "possible answer" by drawing an analogy to a person speaking to himself: speech is a medium of communicationthus self-revelation - to another outside the self. For man to communicate with himself he need not speak but thinks to himself, uses his faculty

52

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Now, "when it arose in the Divine Will"14 to bring about the world and the creatures, the first act in the creative process was to bring about space in which the Divine emanations and ultimately the evolving, finite world could have a place to exist. This "primordial space" was brought about by a contraction or "withdrawal" and concentration of Divinity into Itself: the omnipresent, infinite Light of the En Sof was "withdrawn" into Himself; that is, it was screened, dimmed, hidden and concealed, and where it was dimmed - where this occultation and concealment of the Light occurred - an "empty" place, a "void (makorn panuy; chalal) evolved into primordial space. This is the act of the first tzimtwm, the radical act of d3ug and kefitzah, as it were: an act of Divine Self-limitation, so to speak, as opposed to revelation. However, this does not mean that the chakl is literally empty and void of all Divine radiation, that the Divine Presence is literally of thought; in fact, thought is more comprehensive than speech, for some thoughts are difficult to articulate altogether, or would involve a lengthy process before they can be uttered and so on. Speech is merely a form of self-expression and self-revelation, and the lowest form of it at that. Nevertheless, one may still, at times, vest one's thoughts and intellections in distinct and limited letters and words to express them to oneself. In some metaphorical sense, analogous thereto, there is a mode of selfrevelation of the En Sof even prior to creation. See Likutet TOY& II:52d f.; cf. Torah Or, Vayakhel: 87a-b, and Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, pp. 48a ff. 164a ff. and 14. This phrase is not to be taken in a temporal sense implying a change in the C-dhead, a supposition incompatible with the very idea and concept of the G-dhead and the explicit statement of Scripture that "I, the Eternal, I have not changed" (Malachi3:6).Change depends on time; it is a relative, temporal-spatial concept. But time and space are

and totally withdrawn therefrom. Such interpretationl"ould suggest an illegitimate ascription of spatiality, and hence corporeality, to the Infinite, and violate the principle of omnipresence affirmed in the most literal sense by Scripture1" and traditional7 The chalol is metaphorically spoken of as a void in relation to that which is "beyond or "outside" the chalal: "outside" the chulal there is a full manifestation of the Or En Sof while inside the chulul the Light is concealed. The En Sof, the Luminary (Ma-or)

themselves creations. From our present, temporal-spatial perspective there is a "before" and "after", but not from the eternal, supra-temporal and supra-spatial perspective. See more on this concept of time (and its relation to creation) in Etz Chuyim I: 1; Sha'ar Hahakdamot, Hakd. 111; Shenei Luchot Habrit, Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (Glossary Note, p. 4b); Shomer Emunim 1 :14 f.; 1 Tanya II:7; Torah Or, Miketz: 37a; etc. Cf. Moreh Neouchim II:13 and 30 (and also ibid., I:52), and Responsa of R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Bitaon Chubad (Kfar Chabad 1971), no. 33:p. 51 f.; Likutei Sichot, vol. X, p. 176 f. [For a detailed comprehensive discussion of the problem of time in historio-philosophical context, see Sefer Hachakirah, part 1 1 (p. 1 28a seg.) and Addenda (p. 108a seq.) .] Cf. also Keter Shem Too, ed. Kehot, beg. of sect. 348; and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech, Or Torah, ed. Kehot, Addenda, sect. 23a and 52. 15. There have been some interpretations of this kind. Their inherent difficulties are dealt with critically in Shomer Emunim II:34ff., and Tanya II:7. 16. "The whole earth is full of His glory" (Isaiah 6:3); "Do I not fill the heavens and the earth, says the Eternal" (Jeremiah 23:24)-"1, indeed, i.e., His very Being and Essence, as it were, and not His glory only!" (Zgeret Hakodesh, sect. XX and XXV). Cf. Chouot Haleuouot I: 10. 17. "There is no place on earth void of the Divine Indwelling Presence (Shechinah)"; Mechilta de Rashby (ed. D. Hoffman, p. 2) and

Moreover. and ibid. 9 5 8 ) . and is the most stringent in the preservation of the . Jerusalem 1956. pp. Tzimtzum relates only to the Light of the En Sof. 45).~8 Despite all these qualifications and the metaphorical interpretation of the withdrawal of the Light. 56 (Jerusalem 1952. see also the other Midrashim on this verse. 18. even in the Light per se there is no real change whatever: it is neither reduced nor removed but merely concealed. without . The infinite radiation of the Divine Light having been dimmed and concealed. and the references cited there. To be sure. Even this concealment and occulation is strictly relative: relative to the void and its subsequent contents. will now no longer consume and nullify the contents of Midrash Hagadol-Shemot (ed. p. Schneur Zalman. p.strictly speaking affecting the Light itself in any way. this first act of tzimtzum is a radical "leap" (dilug)that creates the possibility for a gradual process and evolution of emanations to take place and to culminate in the creation of finite and corporeal entities. Kehot: New York 1974. ad Zoc.. pp. on Exodus 3:2. note 39.54 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM whence the Light issues. See also the references cited in Midrash Hagadol. Cf. no. Igarot Ba'al Hatanya. Moreover. Tikunez Zohar 5739113 ar~d 70:122b (cf. op. "There is no place devoid of Him".. I and XX). VIII. sect. 33-34. cit. lgeret Hakodesh. vol.. See my The Great Maggid. 70f. in relation to the void there is not an absolute and total withdrawal: some residue or vestige (reshimu) of the Light remains in the ~halal. 248-251. this outline o tzimtzum follows the interpretation of f R. cit. p. as it were. 119. ch. Itself is totally unaffected by tzimtzttm. and in Torah Shelemh. Shi'ur Komah. The principal purpose of tzimtzum is to create a chulal in which the Divine creatures would be able to exist and subsist as opposed to becoming dissolved in the Divine Omneity.

p. the liturgical phrase "You were prior to the creation of the world. no. for example. This thin ray or "line" (kau) irradiates the chulal and is the source of the subsequent emanations: it is both the creative and the vivifying force of the creation. You are after the creation of the world in the sense that G-d was. Beassarah Maamurot: ch. end of section 1. or altogether literal view of this doctrine (see supra. the Mahural of Prague (Derashot Maharal. et passim. Isaiah Horowitz (Shenei Luchot Habdt. This follows on the general "acosmic" view of R. and creation does not affect Him in any way implying whatever change.the chulal in the way. it is the immaunaffectedness of G d . there have been other interpretations of tzimtzum that take a more. that a spark is totally consumed and nullified in the flame itself. Menachem M. 1. sect. p. . or the way the light of a candle would be totally absorbed and nullified in the very intense light of the sun. quoted infra. Schneur Zalman and his predecessors that oh-d-uis G-d there is no change whatever. and R. Schneerson of Lubavitch. ch. 30a). 111. as already mentioned. and that even in the Or En Sof it is but relative to the creation rather than to the Divine Light per se. Bitaon Chabad (Kfar Chabad 1970). 31. For the four types of interpretations that have been suggested at various times. there is no other" in the sense that strictly speaking there is no other existent outside G d . ) . note 15). In the second phase of the creative process an overt ray or radiation of the Divine Light is made to beam into the primeval space of the c h k l . Targum Onkebs on Exodus 15:ll. in interpreting Deuteronomy 4:39 "the Eternal is G d . 43. 1I:p. is and remains the sole true reality. (See Tanya I: 20. Its key-concepts are that tzimtzum relates to the Or En Sof. Cf. . He constantly quotes.) But. Derushirn Naim: Shabbat Hagadol 5349. VI. (See Tanya II:6. lgeret Hakodesh.) And thus he follows his ancestor R. ed. throughout all his works. see Responsa of R. and not to the En Sof. . 34 f . Judah Loewe. Jerusalem 1968.

the particular aspects of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and are of many diverse kinds. ch. in a very general sense. thus. However. no change whatever in His blessed Self but 19. Tanya I . 20. material and pluralistic world. the kav itself also undergoes a series of numerous. though. there are three levels of powerful and comprehensive contractions and condensations which give rise to the lower three Worlds in which there is the appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity. see Tanya I:49. In general. tzimtzurn is "Something in the nature of an occultation and concealment of the flow of the light and life-force so that only an extremely minute portion of the light and lifeforce should irradite and flow forth to the lower beings in a manifest way.56 MYSTICAL (X)NCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM nence of G-d in creation while the concealed Light is the allencompassing transcendence of G-d taking in all creation. . That is. ize. and infra. to be vested in them and influence and animate them so that they may receive existence ex nihilo and be in a state of finitude and l i m i t a t i ~ n . More specifically. ch. Each of these contractions and concealments makes it possible for a suecessively lower stage or creation to take place.which was by way of dilug ("leap") . however. IV. Specifically speaking we still make some radical distinctions in the process of tzimtzum even after the dilug. " ~ ~ "There is.*9 To sumn. ultimately culminating in the lowest stage and creation represented by this finite.this development and evolution can be spoken of as gradual and causal. It is by way of this kau that the process of successive emanations and causal development takes place. Unlike the first tzimtzum . 48. successive contractions and concealments. as it were.

Yet in regard to the Holy One. . . . concealment and occulation that would conceal and hide before Him and "the darkness is even as the light" (Psalms 139:12) as it is written "Even the darkness does not obscure from You . . . see commentaries on this Midrmh (which. garments are entities separate and distinct from their bearer. . to obscure and conceal the light and life-force . . see also ibid.). there is no tzimtzum.. ." (ibid. but in our context they are not. were something apart from His blessed Self . Heaven forbid. Hence it seems to them as if the light and life-force of the Omnipresent. For the tzimtzumim and "garments" are not things distinct from His blessed Self. through a process of gradual descent from cause to effect and a downward gradation by means of numerous and various contractions (tzimtzumim) so that the created entities can receive their life and existence from it without losing their entity. so that it shall not manifest itself in a greater radiance than the lower worIds are capable of receiving. incidentally. but "like the snail whose garment is part of its very self'21 (Genesis Rabba 21:s). blessed is He . Tanya I. 22. 21. In general. ch. . II:6. ."22 21.only for the created entities which receive their life-force . These tzimtzumim are all in the nature of a "veiling of the Countenance" (Hester Panim). is much-quoted in mystical works). blessed is He. .

.

nothing can be postulated. and (4) the intermediary levels in the successive development of the creative process brought about by means of tzimtzumim.CHAPTER THREE Sefirot 1. are referred to as the Sejirot. Meaning of Sefirot Tzimtzum on its various levels brings about a series of numerous intermediary stages between the infinite Light of the En Sof and the finite universe. There are four principal aspects: ( 1) En Sof. . notes 11-12. See supra. as mentioned before. referred to as the Five Worlds or Realms.l Names or attributes apply only to mani1. chapter 11. (2)Or En Softhe Self-manifestation of G-d. making possible the creation of the finite and pluralistic world. (3) the finite world. except that He is En S0f. These intermediary stages are generally divided into five classes or grades. The varying radiations of the Divine Light in these Worlds. Of the En Sof. becoming ever more intensely screened and obscured from one level to the next.

blessed be He. and aid. note 179. Shomer Emunim II:54 8. Surely. . sapir (sapphire.". are designated and called by (their) terms relative only to the upper and lower beings alone". mispar (number) or sapar (to number). Bo:BOa. with respect to the En Sof. His WilI and His Wisdom. Yitro. in order for finite creations to 2. Parsless Rimonim 4:lO. . "All the attributes of the Holy One. See also the discussion of attributes in Torah Or.. f. . R. see Exodus 24:10. the Or En Sof with the The ultimately evolving world. or related to. is considered as an actual physical action . blessed be He. and to His c r e a t i ~ n . Sometimes I am called . Intr. The doctrine of the Sefirot is first mentioned in Sefer Yetzirah. In a sense. Cf Zohar 111: 2571. Truly so. Sefirot-plural form. 33b. The word Sefirah is variably interpreted as derived from. Torah Shebmuh. brilliance or luminary. and see also Kumy 112. sefer (book).60 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM festations. Numbers Rabba 14:12. the aspect of intellect and apprehension in relation to the Holy One. 151. because that would be like saying "of a lofty and profound wisdom that it cannot be touched with the hands because of the profundity of the concept. and cf. as it were. whoever would hear such a statement will laugh. Moses Hagoleh and R. Tanya II:9. Ezekiel 1:26).. . siper (to tell: relate).. and safra (scribe).These Divine manifestations or attributes are ~ dimmed radiations from the Light of the En Sof and they are called S e f i r ~ t . Tikunei Zohar. VIII. Shtur Komah. See Zohur II:136bf. ch. p. Sefirah-singular form.: 12b. 57-58.". Tanya 1I:lO. Moreh Nevuchim I:61. ~ Sefirot bridge. to those aspects of Divinity which are revealed in. V:7d. Exodus Rabba 3:6: "You wish to know My Name? I am called according to My workings. That is. commentaries of R. Zohur ChudaPh. separ (boundary). and is briefly referred to in the Midrash. because the sense of touch relates and applies only to a physical object that can be grasped with the hand. . and Likutei Torah I:&. Schneur Zalrnan goes even beyond Maimonides' definition of the attributes as negations (Moreh Nevuchim 158-80) : It is even inappropriate to say that "it is impossible to apprehend Gd". 3.. Cf. vol.

sect. Sht"ur Komah. the Light of the En Sof vested Itself in the S e j i r ~ t . ibid. The Divine Names are to be identified only with the Orot. see Elima Rabbaty. sect. 3d). As varying manifestations and principles the Sefrot are also referred to (in Zohar and other works) by other terms suited to the context (e.).lights. Shenei Luchot Habrit. ~ Only by Its prior investment in the Sefirot in all the intermediary stages brought about by tzinztzurn could I t be vested in a finite and physical world. E l i m Rabbaty VI:2 (p. 111. Israel Baal Shem Tov's caveat quoted in Keter Shem Too. 2. 3-12. see in detail Likutei Torah II:5lc. XX.g. 50d f. 26. The Sefirot and the Names are not fully identical in the plain sense. but relate to the various aspects of the Sefirot on different levels. faces.1-are usually identified with the ten Sejirot: "the Sejirot are the Names. Shomer Emunim II:67. ad loc. the aspect of the Light of the En Sof vested in the Kelim of the Sefirot. and Shi'ur Komah. levels. thus not with the Kelim or with the Sefrot as compounds of Orot and Kelim. However. For the Sefirot (as will be explained infra. 4. they are "seven that are ten" as some may appear in different forms. cit. These interpretations do not conflict with one another. See also R. there are two aspects to the Sefirot: Orot and Kelim. and so on). 34. Shenei Luchot Habrit. colours. see Zohur II:42b. pillars.come about. Sha'ar X X . Thus the Sefrot are to be conceived as "vessels" in which the Divine Light is vested and effects Its workings through them. Shomer Emunim II:64ff. See Igeret Hakodesh. Maimonides. ch. wreaths. 3-12. and III:288a. firmaments. and the Names are the Sefirot". garments. ch. Though there are basically only seven such Names. V) are "divisible" into two aspects: Orot (Lights) and Kelim (Vessels). See Igeret Hakodesh. Pardess Rimonim 8:2. ch. crowns. Auot de R.Addenda sect. The ten sacred Divine Names that one is prohibited to destroy or erase -[see Sheuuot 35a.. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p. Pardess Aimunim. Etz Chuyim 5:5. see Zohar 1II:lla f .. this identification must be qualified. and the notes ad loc. . cf. ch.) 5 . Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah VI: 1 f. and cf. Natan. kings.5 Moses Botaril on Sefer Yetzirah I:2.-The doctrine of the Sefirot is . ch. cf. (As mentioned in the preceding note.

there is a basic and intrinsic unity between the En Sof and the Sejirot. and 2: 6. For the Eternal is One. supernal thus essential to an understanding of the principle of creation. and there is no second to Him. extreme care must be taken to avoid any fatal misconception of dualism or a plurality in the G-dhead. XX. see the commentaries a. emits ten crowns. see. In numerous. As we speak of them in terms of numerous gradations.g.) 6. or that the transcendent G-dhead also be a "personal" G d . various phases in the manifestation of Divinity.like a flame bound up in the coal. Pardess Rimonim 1:8 f. There is no suggestion whatever that the Sefirot are to be taken as entities distinct and separate from the En Sof. and prior to One what can you ~ o u n t l " ~ This simile is re-stated in the Zohar with even greater emphasis: "The Holy One. Tzimtzum and the Sefirot explain how it is possible for finite and multifarious creations to come about from an Infinite.. Auodut Hakodesh I:8. R. ..e Their end is wedged in their beginning.l. See Zgeret Hakodesh. e. beginning of sect. Shomer Emunim I:41 f. Pardess Rimonirn 1:1. Sefer Yetzirah I:7.. taken from lob 26:7. ) 7. cf. and at times lengthy. denotes that they are not anything substantial and apprehensible. and 11: 13 ff. Perush Eser Sefirot. their beginning is wedged in their end .. This absolute and intrinsic unity has already been stressed in the ancient Sefer Yetxirah: "The ten Sefirot are without anything ( beli-mah). On the contrary.62 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The Sefirot are thus Divine emanations. especially the one attributed to Nachmanides. (The word beli-muh. Shomer Emunim 1:61. (See also further on. arguments the mystics prove from both traditional and philosophical points of view that the doctrine of Sefirot is essential to explain the possibility of the creation of the universe as well as the possibility of a subsequent Divine Providence. and notes 18-20 of this chapter. blessed is He. Responsa 3-5. Azriel of Geronah. Simple (as opposed to compound) One.

Sefirot

63

holy crowns. With these He crowns Himself and in these He vests Himself. He is they and they are He, just as the flame is bound up in the coal, and there is no division there."Vll differentiation is but from our perspective and relative to our knowledge, while above all is One; all is set in one balance, unvarying and eternal, as it is written "I, the Eternal, I have not changed." (Malachi 3:6).@ Maimonides' statement that with G-d His Essence, His Being and His Knowledge are absolutely one,1° a simple unity and not a compound one,ll applies equally to all the Divine attributes and to all the holy Names ascribed to Him.l"t is all an absolute, simple unity which is His very Essence and Being. However, as Mai-

8. Zohar III:70a; see also ibid., I:50b f . 9. Zohar II:176a; cf. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.: 17a. See also Avodat Hakodesh 1:ll-12; Pardess Rimonim 5:4; Shomer Emunim I:56 8. and 67, and ibid., II:11 and 57. The Sefirot are not some kind of actual intermediaries of intermediating powers. They are beli-mh, abstract concepts of Divine manifestations and nothing more. Hence the mystics emphasize and caution to bear this in mind, in particular at the time of prayer. Man addresses the very G-dhead and not any Sefirot or Attributes. Thus it is written "whensoever we call upon Him" (Deut. 4:7)-upon Him, i.e., to exclude His attributes! See R. Bachya ben R. Asher, Commentary on Deut. 4:7 and on Deut. 11:13; Pardess Rimonim 32:2 (where this exclusion is attributed to the Midrash Sifre). Cf. R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Teshuoot Haribash, responsum 157; and Likutei Torah II:51c and 111: 30d. See also R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Hayom Yom, p. 95 (quoted in Keter Shem Tou, Addenda, p. 22 note 24). 10. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1I:lO; Shemonuh Perakim, end of ch. VIII. 11. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah I:7; cf. Moreh Nevuchim I:57. 12. See Moreh Nevuchim I:57.

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monides stated,13 "This matter is beyond the power of speech to express and beyond the power of the ear to hear and the human heart to understand clearly."14 It is beyond apprehension to apprehend how He unites with them. That is why the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, which are the Sefirot, are referred to in the sacred Zoharl%s the "Mystery of the Faith-which is faith that transcends the intellect.la The Torah uses human phraseology only to enable the ear to hear what it can understand, and therefore permission was granted to the mystics to speak allegorically of Sefirot. It is, by way of illustration, like the unity of the light of the sun in its orb with the solar globe - (the solar globe being the luminary, while the radiation and beam that spreads forth and shines from it is called light). When the light is in its source, in the orb of the sun, it is united with it in absolute unity; for there is but one entity: the body of the luminary which emits light. All the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, His Will, and His Wisdom, are designated by these names only in relation to the creatures.li This concept of the Sefirot or attributes also explains the very reason for creation. For even while the Sefirot or attributes are in absolute unity with the G-dhead, they have actual application
13. Hilchot Yesodei Hatomh 11:10. 14. Tanya II:8. 15. See Zohar I:38a, 39a, 152b, 230b, 231a; ibid., II:253a, and 111:143a. 16. Tanya 11: end of ch. 9; see Likutei Torah III:68d. 17. Tanya II:10. Cf. ibid., ch. 3, and Igeret Hakodesh, sect. XX.

Sefirot

65

in relation to creation only. Thus to actualise, as it were, these Divine potencies, powers or attributes (e.g., wisdom, kindness, compassion, sovereignty and so on) G-d created the universe in which to manifest them (to have subjects upon whom to express or manifest His kindness and compassion, with whom to manifest His majesty, and so on).18 In a similar vein, creation also is a means through which G-d is able to manifest His power or potency in finite enicies no less than in the infinite - thereby preserving the principle of absolute omnipotence.lg This does not mean that creation implies a change in the G-dhead, that creation lends the G-dhead a perfection It did not possess before. For all the attributes are eternally of the very Essence and Being of G-d, absolutely one with Him; it is only that they are manifested through creation.20 For the En Sof, as stated earlier, is "absolute perfection without any deficiency", and " 'You were before the world was created, You are since the world was

S.V.

18. Z o h r 111:69b; ibid., 257b f .; Pardess Rimonim 2 :6; Shi'ur Komuh, Torah, sect. XIII: Introd. and ch. 3; Etz C h y i m 1:1, and Shdar Hakelalim, ch. 1; Shomer Emutrim II:12 ST. See, though, note 21 infra. 19. Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsa 3 and 7; Par&ss Rimonim 2:6. Cf. supra note 5 and the sources cited there, and Likutei Torah III:68d. 20. See Shomer Emunim 11:12 ff., where the author also deals with a number of problems related to this concept. See also R. Meir ibn Gabbai, Derech Emunuh (an exposition and elaboration of R. Azriel's P e m h Eser Sefirot, dealing with most aspects relating to the doctrine of the Sefirot), passim. 21. Tanya I: ch. 20; see supra, ch. 2, note 18. In effect, thus, we

Kingship). Power. . Hillel of Paritz. Grace. Sefer Yetzimh I:4. sect. I n some schemes Keter is omitted from the order of the ten S e f i ~ o t ~ ~ .. these schemes take Chochmah as the first of the ten and insert Da'at (Knowledge) as a Sefirah after Binah. note 3.f o r reasons to be explained further on. . p.l. . Binah ( Understanding). . see commentaries a. the Eternal."~] 2. see in detail R. . 23. Ceuurah ( Might. ten and not eleven". See note 38 infru. and as R. Hod ( Splendour.66 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM created'-exactly the same without any change. . Malchut ( Sovereignty. "Ten and not nine. Chochmah (Wisdom). Chesed ( Kindness. and the references cited supra. Netzach (Endurance. Addenda. Prevalence) . Majesty) . O r d e ~ the Sefirot of The Sefirot are ten spheres or c l a s s e s 2 ~ n following order: Keter the ( Crown) . The root for the source of the creation is the aspect of an essential and simple Will ( Ratzon) . Shir Hashirim.38b (also quoted in the Maggid's Or Torah. . Yesod ( Foundation) .. The total order of the Sefirot is generally divided into two must conclude that in final analysis the 'reasons' suggested for the Divine creation must ultimately break down. 22. as it is written 'For I. Pelach Harimon. Benevolence ) . transcending altogether reason and delight. Strictly speaking no reason whatsoever is required . Above there is absolute perfection and there is no deficiency whatsoever . Victory) .. Tiferet ( Beauty ) . I have not ~hanged'." etc. 37). Dov Ber of Mezhirech stated incisively: "The reasons offered by the rnekubbalim (mystics) for the [Divine] intent in the creation are unsatisfactory in terms of the true intent of creation .

36 f.~~ other such groupings and distinctions that abound in the mystical writings20 (and some of these we shall meet up with in the chapters following). ch. and the singular last one of M a l c h ~ t While there are a number of . and ch. 29.). See. 28. see infra. sections 4-7. at times referred to as the three Mochin (Brains). note 149." in the same sense. Sometimes also called the "three fathers. 3. In an extended sense. When beginning with Chochmah. VIII. 9 (p.~? Another distinction is made by calling the first three the "three Rishomt" (the three First Ones. The faculties of the intellect. 27. See infra. the triad of the first three Sejirot is also called Sechel ( I n t e l l e ~ t ) ~ ~ the other seven while Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes. Tanya I: ch.g.Sefirot 67 groups referred to as the "three mothers and the seven multiple^. the immot (mothers)25from and through which the other seven Sefirot issue forth. par. 3. See Tanya I: ch. all the Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes). Emotive Facultie~). 25."^^ That is. or at times the three Upper Ones). e. 26. this chapter. the first three are the principal Sefirot. The "seven Lower Ones" are subdivided into the two triads of Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet and Netzach-Hod-Yesod (all these six together are called the "six Ketzaootn-the "six Extremeties"). and the other seven are called the "seven Tachtonot" (seven Lower Ones). Pardess Rimonim I: 1-2 and VIII:25. .. though. 24. the above are the principal or most common ones. Derech Emunuh. Sefer Yetzirah I:10.

or the Most Ancient Being. and as such the "lowest level".68 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM 3. 36).-For another interpretation of the term Keter see Derech Emunah. note 38..3~ Keter is so sublime and concealed that nothing 30. or the Holy Ancient One). Zbid. Zohar 1:147a. 34.33The~e terms signify the total concealment of the rank of Keter due to its supreme ~ublimity. VIII). 31. XVII. or Atik Yominthe Ancient of Days. In the same sense it is also called Atik or Atika Kadisha (the Ancient One.. 13 and 22 (cf.e.~O is the first emanIt ation. Chagigah 14a). Keter Keter is the highest level or sphere of the Sefirot. to the very core and essence of this Sefirah. The origin of this term i Daniel 7:9. sect. Etz Chayim 25:5 and 42:l. XIII. 9 (p. Though At& is essentially a term applied to the En Sof (in the sense of being the First Cause. 32. Zohar III:256b. XX. Zgeret Hakodesh. because it is the most "ancient" or original emanation from the . see Zgeret Hakodesh.it is sometimes applied to the highest aspect of Keter. and it abounds in Sifra Detzeniyuta and the Zdrot. and XXIX. and see infra.. ~ ~ That is why Keter is called Temira dechol Temirin (the most hidden of all hidden) . The tenn itself denotes its significance: As a crown is on top of the head and encompasses it.). Zohar III:288a ff. i. so Keter is on top of all the Sefirot and encompasses them all. so Keter is essentially distinct from the other Sefir~t. e.32 and is referred to as Ayin (naught) . but distinct therefrom. ch. XVII and note 31 (37) a. see. see Pardess Rimonim 5:4 and Zgeret Hako&sl~. ch.1. sect.g. of the E m a n a t ~ r . also called Atika dechol Atikin-the Most Ancient of all Ancients. 33. particularly in the context of s the Partzufim (see infra. sect. The analogy is carried further: just as the crown is not a part of the head nor of the body. as it were.

Moses Cordovero (a.38 In fact.l.37 no letter can describe or represent Keter. par. 5). on the meaning of At&. and Or Ne'erau 6:1. 2. see Tanya III:4. though R. I t is too sublime to be included. Chaim David Azulay. 98c.. See Chugigah 13a. 36. V . 37. it is called the "intermediary" between En Sof. Vau-Tiferet.. and see also ibid. Chaim Vital. While all are agreed that Keter exceedingly excels the Sefiot (Chochmah to Malchut). 35. some say that Keter is identical with . This controversy evolves around the interpretation of Zohur I: beginning of 31b (see Derech Emet and other comment. Meuoh She'arim 111:1:1.. 2 5 6 and 42:l). 2:3 fl. applies to it Ben Sira's dictum:35 "Seek not the things that are beyond you and search not out things that are hidden from While the other Sefirot are sometimes represented by various letters of the alphabet. In fact this has long been a matter of dispute among the earliest Kabbalists. and R. In the system of R. 5 and 8. ibid. therefore. The Zohar. on Zohur I:31a. Igeret Hakodesh. Esther. That is why Keter is sometimes excluded from the scheme of the Sefirot. 38. or the unit of the six Midot from Chesed to Yesod. Nitzutzei Orot. Isaac Luria.Sefirot 69 can be said or postulated of it.. 258a. followed by Chassidism. R. a. Da'at is usually counted as one of the Sefirot while Keter is excluded (see Etz Chayim 23:1.. and ibid. (the latter) Hei-Malchut.c. The four letters of the Tetragrammaton represent the ten Sefirot: Yud-Chochmh. see also Zohar 111: end of 269a and 289b) where the peshat appears to support the opinion of R. sect.l. (the first) Hei-Binuh. I t is a category and class all in itself. Zohar III:17a.. Isaac Luria.. et passim.) interprets otherwise. See also Torah Or. and R. Keter is represented by the "thorn" of the Yud (thus not by any letter but a mere dot). Zohar II:42b and 158a. Moses Cordovero always counts Keter as part of the ten Sefirot and excludes Da'at as a separate Sefirah (see Pardess Rimonim 3:l ff. See Auodat Hakodesh I:3.

) The view of R. See lgeret Hakodesh. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. 11. ch.g. too. as i t were: it is the "lowest level" of the Light of the En Sof and from it. . XX. (See the discussion of these issues in Parcless Rimonim 3: 1ff. Sefer Haemunot IV: end of ch. or how can one relate the actual essence of the En Sof to Keter. bridging the gap. Meir ibn Gabbai. but when speaking of their general aspects (Chitzoniyut of the Sefirot) Keter is omitted and Da'at is inserted instead. and Etz Chayim 42: 1 . Avodat Hakodesh I:2-3). and also ibid. In the context of the aforesaid. 39.1. 166ff. and Likutei Torah II:46c and V:8a. sect. XX and XXIX. what appears to be a similar view is that expounded by R. e. Cf.l. however.c..~~ of Divine manifestations and as such is called Ratzon Ha'elyon the En Sof (rather with the Or En Sof) and therefore to be excluded from the scheme of Sefirot. Isaac Luria is a third opinion to the effect that Keter is somewhere in between Or En Sof and the Sefirot. and through it. is to be counted among them. and on the other.70 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM the En Sof and the Sefirot. cf. or to C d qua First Cause (see supra. . though with the mistaken reference to IV:l-and by R. and Likutei Torah III:49c.. Thus on the one hand it is an aspect of the Or En Sof and excluded. Others. hence. and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666.c. and bridging or linking them: the "lowest" level of the En Sof as well as the very root or source of the Sefirot following. II:53b. how can one speak of "higher" and "lower" in relation to the En Sof. 10-discussed in Pardess Rimonim 3:3. see Etz Chayim 23:5 and 8. Vayechi: 105a.. is an emanation and effect having a cause just like the other Sefirot and.. R. for a wider discussion of all this see Torah Or. pp. Isaac Luria adds that when speaking of the essential Sefirot-Keter is included. note 11). state that Keter. sect. This issue (and the related problems as. a. it is part of the ten Sefirot (see Etz Chayim a. note 76 infra. Likutei Torah V:8a f . Torah Or. and so on) relates to the disputed issue whether the term En Sof itself has reference to the actual Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. issue forth the successive Divine emanations (thus being the very root or soul of the S e f i r ~ t ) Keter represents the "lever" . XVII. part of both.

Sefirot 71 (the Supreme or Abysmal Will) of G-d: not a particular will focused on some specific goal but the original Divine Willingness (Ratzon) underlying the creative will. But the very purpose of achieving that goal transcends the rational faculty and underlies it. innermost desire or will. in abbreviation called ChuBaD.g. understanding and knowledge. Keter would be the Supreme Will underlying this blueprint. Thus when we speak. Torah is an expression of Reason or the Divine Wisdom (Chochmah). See lgeret Hakodesh. XXIX. et p s i . Igeret Hakodesh. note 22 (24)). which precedes all powers or attributes (i.42 Chochmah 40. I. sect. sect. Analogous to them are the three faculties in man's intellect of the same names.e. wisdom. Reason is focused towards achieving a certain goal. When reason achieves its goal it fulfils a higher aim: the realisation of some deepseated.g. Chochmah-Binah-Da'at These three Sefirot form a triad. This innermost desire or will is the Abyssmal or Supreme Will (see Igeret Hakodesh.. 42." as it were.e.1. i. it is the "Will of a U the "essence-will" or the "will to will..the S e f i ~ o t ) . Chochmah is the root of the succeeding attributes. Zohar 1:5a). ~ ~ 4.1. e. V and the asm references cited in note 76 (82) a. Zohar I:3b. That is why it is called Reishit (Beginning). See Igeret Hakodesh. Chochmah is called Reishit regard- .) "the Torah derives from Chochmuh but its source and root surpasses exceedingly the rank of Chochmah and is called the Supreme Will. Zohar 111:129a and 288b.. 41." That is. XXIX. of the Torah as the blueprint for the world (Gene& Rabba I: 1. sect. and notes 37-8 a. sect. This is the meaning of the frequent phrase (e. the very source of origin of the Torah..

and his Or Torah. See also R. The same applies to the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit (Reishit referring to Chochmuh.43 it is the initial Divine instrument of actual creation.. Proverbs 3: 19.the root of all four elements". 35. Chochmuh.in potency. The first sense is with.C h o c h W 6 may be translated in two interrelated ways.^' Everything derives from Chochmah. 82a. Arba Meot Shekel Kessef (ed. Tanya I. . 94a-b. Strictly speaking the term hyle relates to Keter. 176. Moreh Nevuchim II:30. note 43 supra). Chaim Vital. Psalms 10424. Chochmah is immanent in everything (albeit in ever-increasing concealment) and animates everything. p. 2 and II:9. -The term hyk is applied here to Chochmah in the extended sense of Chochmuh being the basic "substance" of creation that can be referred to as yesh (cf. Kehot. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Chochmah is called Yesh (a substance).44 Thus it is written:45 "You have made them all be-Chochmah". see Igeret Hakodesh. sect. The En Sof. See Nachmanides on Genesis I:l. 46. p. sect. both of which are significant in our context. i. is "vested in C h o c h n d . and thence begins creation. see Zohur I:31b. notes 22 and 76 (82) f . as said). though not in actu . Two (categories of) Reishit) . or by.72 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM represents the first creative activity of Gd. V . thus Chochmah is the instrument and hyle of rea at ion. Tel Aviv 1964). When Keter is included we speak of two spheres that are called Reishit: Keter and Chochmah (as alluded in the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit. sect. 44. Etz Chayim 42:l. See Tanya I: ch. as it is less of whether Keter is counted or not. Igeret Hakodesh. see Pardess Rimonim 5:4. note 20" (25). ch. 43. and "the Eternal has founded the earth be-Chochmah". B e . Thus in relation to Keter which is Ayin. for "Keter is like unto the prime matter that is called hyle which contains within it . Kedoshim. Maggid Deuarau Leyahkou. IV. 45. 47.e. through the mediation of Keter. see also R. and cf. ed.

53.1. Chochmah is represented by the first letter. See also Tikunei Zohar.54 Thus there is little that can be said of Chochmah.. which is the mystical principle of 'you have made them all in Chochmah' " Etz Chayim 25: 1. and Tanya I: ch. non-descriptive point. Tikunei Zohar. Zohar III:290a. Zgeret Hakodesh. too. for which reason C h o c h d .50 Chochmah is the seed of creation.Sefirot 73 written "Chochmah gives life to them that have it" (Ecclesiastes 7:12) The second sense is in Chochmah. 18. 51. see also ibid. Zohar Chadash. 50. sect. See note 37. 19. XI. 52.: 12a. the Yud51-a small. note 63. Zbid. 3.a. supra. XIV and XVII. Igeret Hakodesh. In itself Chochmah is a state of obscurity (mocha setima-the concealed brain). 49. and it is referred to as Edens2 of which it is saids3 "no eye has seen it". (note 48 supra). Tanya I: ch. II:9Oa. V . is referred 48. Zohar III:235b. 54.^^ Thus the word Chochmah is interpreted to mean n"D R"3. 55. This means that in Chochmah is founded the creation. See Bemchot 34b.. . sect. Chochmah is so concentrated and compact that it is not apprehensible in itself. Igeret Hakodesh.I"D n"3. V. sect. sect. . simple. the beginning and first revelation of creation. Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton which symbolise all the Sefirot. lgeret Hakodesh. See Tanya 1:ch. Intr. See infra. Intr. and notes 16 ff. "All the lower ones are rooted and compounded in Chochmah. and the possibilities of all further beings exist there in pot en ti^. However. The letters of the word na3R make up .: 4a and 69:112b. 34b-c and lOOa 8. 19. Cf. note 22. the "potentiality" of "what is". Tanya I: ch.

Cf. lgeret Hakodesh. the "inner thought". 59.1. Chochmuh is informed in Binah. essentially. Sifre on Deut."58 The standard definition of the faculty of Binah is "To understand or derive one matter out of another matter. the idea will be understood."59 Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton Binuh is represented by the Hei. the details of which are not yet differentiated and externalised. See supra. 3. the next Sefir~h. and "becomes known solely through Binah. note 37. Zohar Chadash 4a. The process of induction-deduction. This is the faculty and state of Binah ( understanding) Binoh is really the expansion and elucidation of Chochmah. I: ch. Chochmah is still called ayin. XV and note 70 (87) a. 56. in itself. 58. When cogitating on the idea. . The hidden intellect is apprehended by the intellectually cognising subject. though in relation to Keter it is yesh (note 43 supra).~" will be understood by drawing on the analogy to the faculties of the human intellect: Chochmuh corresponds to an intuitive flash of intellectual illumination: the original idea per se. Zohar 1:lSb. Tanya. The individuations concealed in the original flash are then externalised and become manifest in the mind. lgeret Hakodesh. 1:13. they are not yet processed but intensely concentrated in the intuitive flash. Tikunei Zohar 22:63b. 60. Chagigah 14a. cf. sect. V . Tanya I: ch. It is the seminal idea. sect. 3.60 Unlike the simple non-dimensional point of Yud.74 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM The potentia of Chochmah is brought out from total obscurity This and externalised in Binah. the That is. its details and implications will become revealed. 57.

I. Tanya III:4.Sefirot 75 Hei is a more concrete letter: it has dimensions of length and width signifying the dimensions of explanation. 29:30 ("the hidden things are unto the Eternal") is applied to the Sefirot Chochmah and Binah. strictly speaking. Addenda. 62. Zohur I:6a. 64. Igeret Hakodesh. 177). see Tikunei Zohur. Igeret Hakodesh. The concept is there and it is clear in the mind. The concept. sect. Hakd. N-Binah."~ On its own. See also Zohar I:lb. Tikuwi Zohar 42:81b. are on a plane of AYiN: A-Keter. a c t ~ a l i s e d .Moreover. also Shemom Perakim. sect. when in the mind. originates in the appetitive faculty of the soul. while externally it is inaudible and in~isible. See Moreh Nevuchim II:4 to the effect that wisdom or reason does not produce motion. and see my notes on the Maggid's Or Torah. understanding and manife~tation. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. XI. Zohur II:158a. Vayera (ed. but has not yet been.~' Therefore the Zohar refers to the Sefirot of Chochmah and Binah as "The dot (Chochmah) in the palace (Binah). sect. thus in the emotive dispositions (Midot) of man. Y-Chochmah. Cf. Cf. it is not fully realised. ch. Cf. 63. as essence of the Midot. it does not lead to any conclusion. wisdom and understanding. internally. Igeret Hakodesh. are a potential power that needs to be. Intr. V. 2. However. That is why Deut. and the ability to move to act upon this idea. Chochmh and Binah ~~ are two separate faculties: the intuitive flash of intellectual cog61. Kehot. V.: 17a. p. Thus all three. note 15. will not produce motion without the existence of a desire (emotive disposition) for the object of which an idea has been formed. Keter-Chochmah-Binah. that is the volitive power .""* symbolising the meaning of these categories and their relationship. Chochmah and Binah by themselves are abstract. to the effect that every action or acting upon. The intellect which forms and develops an idea. note 11. Hence it is Da'at. But it is only in the mind. notes 43 and 55 supra.

the union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . . Genesis 4:1." the Supernal Will that wishes and seeks . 66. Etz Chayim. Shenei Luchot Habrit. just as we are speaking of two states.66 Thus Da'at is the unifying principle that brings together and joins the faculties of Chochmah and Binah. for it transcends Chochmah and Binah. and the practical implementation of the informed concept .the union of Chuchmh with Binuh. Likutei Torah III:87c f . and become externalised and informed in..). 17.that is.(Binah).76 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM nition (Chochmah) may be there. Cf. 65. end of sect.O5 The etymological meaning of Da'at is attachment or union. 67.1. Daht on two planes: Da'at Elyon (Upper or Superior Da'at ) and Daht Tachton (Lower or Infgrior Da'at ) . or acting upon that which is proposed by Chochmah and Binah. See lgeret Hakodesh. it is a direct derivative or aspect of Keter. the power of understanding this flash. See the detailed discussion of Da'at in P a r h s Rimonim 3:8 and 9:5-6. and the references in note 79 (97) a. (besides the sources mentioned in the notes following. Tikunei Zohar 69:99a. and so is the power of inductiondeduction . especially note 72). Sha'ar 24 f . Derush Be'inyan Hada'at (pp. et passim. However. 25.. notes 70 and 73 infra. effects or "activities" at two different levels. Cf. XV.and hence is able to effect . ~ ~ moving to action. 5a fl). 273bff. Sha'ar Hahakdamot. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p. the "palace"? These two states . But how are they joined? How does the "dot" come to. Etz Chayirn 48:2.are effected by the faculty of Da'at. This unifying principle is called Da'at Elyon. See Zohar III:291a. 68. so we must speak of two categories of Da'at .

It must be channelled to the emotive attributes so that they will act upon it in terms of appropriate dispositions: to seek or pursue that which wisdom dictates should be sought. See Berachot 17a: "The goal of Chochmah is repentance and good deeds". 2 See note 64 supra.l. he has the knowledge of G-d's existence and believes in the Divine ability to help him. or soul and controlling guide. and devotion to. 69. and to avoid that which wisdom dictates should be avoided. Derech Mitzootecha. "Study is greater because it leads to action" (Kiddwhin 40b) -"for there is no action without Chochmah" (Zohar 1:266a). of the Midot.U. but he does not cany this knowledge and understanding to its logical conclusion to apply it consistently with its inherent implications. a thief may be found to pray for Divine assistance in the very midst of his nefarious activities (Berachot 63a. that is. . us. Thus this faculty of Da'at Tachton is the very root and essence. It is the full preoccupation in the apprehended and understood concept until an intense union is effected between the intellect and the emotions (Sechel and Midot) 71 and the idea is brought to its logical conclusion in practical especially the glossary notes a. this personal sensing (Hargashuh). Znyan Hada'at and Veaz Meuuar. The profound inner concentration on. S.But to bring about this union is itself but a means towards a further end:"O to implement or apply and bring to fruition the concept of Chochmah that has been informed in Binah. and note 73 infra. Cf. Haamanot Elokut: ch. For example. To possess wisdom or even understanding does not yet mean that it will actually be implemented and applied in practise. 71.. 70. is the faculty of Da'at Tachton. of Ayin Ya'akou).70 The principle of wisdom need not only be understood but also felt and sensed. the Chochmah informed in Binuh.

sect. . Ibid. Mishpatim:74cff.Zohar II:123a and III:289b f . for Chochmah and Binuh are concealed and become manifest only by means of Da'at. Chochnmh and Binah. Therefore Da'at is the all-inclusive essence of the Midot. This faculty of Da'd Tachton is below..78 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CI~ASSDDISM application. note 9... ~ ~ In the metaphorical terminology of the Kabbalah and Chassidism C h o c h m h is called Abba (Father) and Biracrh is called I m m (Mother). 8.. chs. of the emotive powers or attributes of the lower S e f i ~ o tFor~the Midot express and reveal . Likutei Torah 111:2d and 87cf. and of it is said "If there is no Binalt there can be no Da'at" j Auot 3 :17). Da'at is called Ben (Son).-Cf. and follows upon. 3 and 42.c.~ 72. Zgeret Hakodesh. See also Derech Mitzvotecha.l." Cf. ch. Pardess Rimonim 8 :17.'2 It is this faculty of Da'at that is usually referred to when the term Da'at appears ~ n q u a l i f i e d . 73. and infra. et pmsim. See Etz Chayim 22:l: "Chochmah and Binah (alone) are to no avail. Meuoh She'arim V:1:12 and 14 ("the principal f illumination and manifestation of the brains in man is by means o Da'at") . See references in note 74 supra. a. See note 65 supra. ix. expanded. alternatively. the seed of Abba is implanted in the womb of lmma and there the rudimentary plant of the seed is developed. Thus the Midot are called the children of Chochmah and Binah. Tiferet (or the first six Midot in unison) is called the "son" and Malchut is called the "daughter". 74.74Metaphorically speaking. 75. XV. and Tanya I . ~ " n Da'at the original idea and concept has matured into corresponding dispositions. Zohar III:290a ff. the offspring of this union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . or. externalised and informed. Torah Or. 76.

. See Tanya I: ch. qualitatiue. Hod. developing process in temporally distinct stages.these dispositions originating in Sechel in terms of Chesed. p. Yesod and Malch~t. see also ibid. N e t m h . from his will and It is in this context as "soul (essence) of the Midot" that Da'at is not counted as a separate Sefirah to replace Keter (see supra note 38). we did so by analogical reference to the soul-faculties of man: Keter (the allencompassing will) leading to Chochmnh (the intuitive or seminal intellectual flash) which is joined by Da'at Elyon to Bimh (the faculty of understanding and elucidation) thence to be realised in Da'at Tachton and to become enacted in the dispositions of the Midot. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn. 38. Obviously this cannot be said of the Divine process. XV. with man the execution of his will and wisdom is a category distinct. Tiferet. As R. See also R. Secondly. and lgeret Hakodesh. Isaiah Horowitz has stressed. sect. 77. a temporal sequence. All these "stages" are simultaneous to the extent that as soon as "it arises in G-d's Will" His Will is performed instantaneously and there is no "before" and "after" except in some extremely subtle. For as a mere soul without its own independent vessel or body it cannot be included as one of the ten principles of the Sefi7ot.~' One final comment in relation to the aforesaid. a gradual. dependent yet separate. In explaining these Sefirot and their interrelationship as we have done so far (and shall be doing in the chapters following). In man there is. Etz Chayim 23:s and 8. sense. therefore. with G-d there is no temporal sequence. 3. . Gvurah. 40:6. Sefer Hamaamrim 5700 (New York 1955). the analogy is inadequate and breaks down for two basic reasons : Firstly.

Zohar III:69b and 257b f . animating all creation. see Moreh Nevuchim III:53. 7Dn. G-d brought into being .80 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wisdom. XI. a. gratuitous and unlimited benev~lence.~~ this attribute that the Divine life-force. Pardess Rimonim 23:8. See Zohar I1:168b. Zgeret Hakodesh. infra. S. 82.84 78. sect. Cf.-Though . 81. s. cf. regardless of the merits of the r e ~ i p i e n t . V. 83." and it is from ."8l That is. and Pardess Rimonim 8:l. and notes 77-82 (83-88) a. section 1 and note 18 ad loc.ex nihilo . issues forth. The implication of Chesed (creation and its continuous sustenance) is a manifestation of the infinite benevolence (Chesed) that is of the essence of G-d. 79.0.~@ the very crystallisation of the disposiIt is tion to bestow good and kindness for the very sake of kindness. and Pardess Rimonim 11:3. is an act of Chesed.. V and X. XI11 and XV. and Igeret Hakodesh.7s Chesed means kindness in a sense of absolute. note 86). I. as it is intrinsic to the nature of the benevolent to be benevolent in actu. Cf. therefore. 80. sect. to bring about recipients for the Divine benevolence. See supra. sect. sect. sect.U. 84. ch.c. 2. See Tanya II:4. note 103. Etz Chayim 18:5 (see infra. et passim. Pardess Rimonim 2:6.the world and a 1 the creat u r e ~ Creation. while with G-d they are one absolute and inseparable unity. this chapter. Psalm 89:3. see Tanya II:4. supra. and Zgeret Hakodesh. Etz Chayim I:l. ~ ~ Chesed is the attribute or disposition that underlies the creation. and thus it is written "The world was built by Chesed.l. Shenei Luchot Habrit.1. Inyan Hada'at. cf. Cf. Igeret Hakodesh. see also Avodat Hakodesh I:3.

note 100.contracting. 87. Cf. i. limited. Gevurah. in fact it is relevant to all the Sefirot (as mentioned earlier. as Divine attributes. but sets to it a limitation and measure to the point of (actual) need-for the light to extend that far but no further". chapter V. For Chesed indicates an extension in all matters beyond the limit. the effulgence of the Divine Chesed is as boundless as its Source while the creatures to which it emanates are limited and finite. and not in boundless. ~ ~ demands that Din Chesed be distributed justly. assume actualised manifestation through the process and presence of creation. If exposed to it they would become nullified in it and cease to exist. It is the attribute of Din (Law and J ~ d g m e n t ) . Cevurah means Might or Power in a sense of severity. in proportion to the prospective recipient's merit. Meooh She'arim I:l:l. gratuitous fashion. restrained. concealed. 86. Chesed needs to be controlled. The finite creatures cannot possibly absorb and endure so abundant and powerful an effulgence as the Divine Chesed.-Etz Chayim 18:5: "All fixed measures and limitations are but from the side of Gevurah. and the references cited there in note 18) : all the Sefirot. and infra. note 6. con~~ cealing and limiting the Divine emanations. see supra end of section 1. and its full force screened. See infra.Sefirot 81 However. limit and restrain.86 Geourah implies t ~ i m t z u r n . withdrawing. note 89. See Pardess Rimonim 8:2. however.e.. does not allow the Supernal Light to extend. In themselves. and infra. Thus it is the principle that seeks to control. See Meooh Shehrim I: 1 : 1: "Every limitation of emanation is from . This is effected through Geourah. 85. Chesed this principle and implication is mostly related to Chesed and Malchut.

@" This is not to say. note 100. lgeret Hakodesh.82 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDDISM and Gevurah pose an antimony as principles diametrically opposed to one another. XII. Every tzi~ntzum [an aspect of] Din. an . in whole or in part. Yc. 88. though. Igeret Hakodesh. and XV. VIII. being one of the Divine attributes it must be seen as positive and contributory. XV. XV. for positive aspects of Geuurah. and cf. But as both Chesed and Gevurah are Divine attributes [Gevurah and Din] . however. 89. Just as Chesed by itself would make it impossible for creation to subsist so Gevural~ itself would preclude the existence by of creation. See Tanya II:6. chapter XI.verily. 93. Gevurah . See infra. infra.is. Cf. Noach: p. preceding note. XII. in effect. cf. note 9." for Geuurah seeks to prevent. the outflow of C h e ~ e d . sect. . the positive effects of Gevurah emerge only by prior stimulus or effort. 92. 91. . As a general rule.~Vor we have seeqB3tzimtzum makes it possible for G-d's creatures to exist and subsist. sect.~' Particularly in the context of the act of creation. However. also Igeret Hakodesh. chapter 11. sect. In fact. ~ ' Thus from the severity of Gevurah derive also the stern Divine Judgments. and Igeret Hakodesh. XIII. . See Etz Chayim 18:5 (supra. that Gevurah is a strictly negative concept. the Divine benevolence as channelled through Gevurah may have an exclusively distinct ad~antage. 90. See supra. On the contrary. See Torah Or. note 8 6 ) . as expression of the Divine Love and Benev~lence. this is not the case if Gevurah were to be singularly dominant. and cf. sect." See also is Tanya II:4 and 6. as expressed by tzimtzum .

95. See R.g4 They are able to "operate" successfully by a mediating faculty. XI1 and XV. is not an equal mixture but tends towards Chesed. p. That is why. and infra. 132. on Zohar I:168a. i. It blends them in such a way so that Chesed will still issue forth. Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar (New York 1971). and 9:3. .05 This quality accounts for this Sefirah being called Tiferet. therefore. Tiferet. that the creatures may continue to exist even while benefitting from Chesed.e. 96. For all the Midot are either an aspect of Chesed (of outpouring and effluence) or of Gevurah (of withdrawal and restraint) or an aspect of Tiferet (of harmonious blending of the 94. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. Pardess Rimonim 8:2. sect. XII. the Divine attribute of Tiferet.06 The relationship between these three Sefirot is clearly seen. Tiferet harmonises and blends the free outpouring from Chesed with the severe tzimtzum of Geuurah. Also. and the harmonious colourfulness of this attribute makes it beautiful ( Tiferet ) . beauty: it blends the differing colours of Chesed and Geuurah..in absolute unity with the Divine essence they are neither separate principles nor do they counter one another. Igeret Hakodesh. these three are the basic or essential Midot in relation to which the others are but derivatives as will be seen in the following section. together. though limited by Gevurah so as to make the Chesed endurable. note 103. See Tanya II:4-6. they form a triad referred to by the acrostic ChaGaT. Igeret Hakodesh. sect. Tikunei Zohar 70:133b.

VI and note 6 a. 101. vol. Zohar II:175b. and R. sect. 100. quite frequently Tiferet alone@? is spoken of as the principle of the Midot because it compounds within itself the basic dispositions of the Midot.. Vayera: p. Magnificence) because it expresses the infinite Greatness (Benwolence) of G-d. I. et passim. sect. Mostly in the context of the Partzufim. XI1 and XIII. Tikunei Zohar. the term Gedulah appears. Intr. strictly speaking.lol Rachamim. 98. there is a distinct difference between these two terms with Gedulah denoting a superior level of Divine Benevolence than Chesed. 111. Thus Chesed is called Gedulah (Greatness. XI1 and XV. note 95). is the harmonising princi97. Mercy). ch. . and also ibid. Likutei Torah-Torat Sh'muel (New York 1946). 51b..lo0 and Tiferet with Rachamim (Compassion. Likutei Torah IV:17c%. Or HatorahBereishit (New York 1966). and not Chesed. or "Rachamim within Rachamirn" ( Z o h 111:145b). Zohar Chodash. 31b. the Divine Compassion.9BCkuurO is synonymous with Din ( Judgment). just like Ra'at is the "soul" of the Midot (supra. note 61). see Zohar I:31a and passim. see R. Tanya II:4. 179 ff. Sh'muel Schneersohn. In this context. lgeret Hakodesh. see infra. cf. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. 99. Yitro. In the Scriptural reference to the Midot in I Chronicles 29:11. Zgeret Hakodesh. Obviously it is called Rachamim because of the predominance of Chesed (see supra. Chesed per se would thus be the very core of Rachamim. Moreover. chapter VIII. Zohar III:302a.: 17b. and sect.l. vol. For an extensive discussion of these two terms and their relationship. Sifre on Numbers 27:12 (sect. 134. Tikunei Zohnr 22:67b. in comment on Reut. 46 ff. 3:24). However.84 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS M CHASSIDLSM former two aspects).Q8 There are a number of terms that often appear as synonyms for these three Midot.. so Tiferet is the "body" of the Midot.

gratuitous and infinite benevolence without regard to the merits of the recipient. but they are so only when they stand on their own.ple that restrains excessive Chesed and mitigates severe Ceuurah.lo3 Similarly..lo2 and thus the Divine plan of creation is made possible and the "disposition of the benevolent to be benevolent" is actualised. Thus. because the motive is strictly . sect. XX and note 32 (35) a. see Moreh Nevuchirn III:13. nothing is truly fit to receive the Divine benevolence except that from the Divine perspective it is all one ("even the darkness does not darken from You and the night shines as the day-the darkness is even as the light". strictly speaking. and cf. VI.On the other hand. Zohar Chodarh. Yiho. on the other hand. 103. XV. ibid. Igeret Hakodesh. It need be understood that all the Midot. 31b. sect. For Tiferet recognises the validity of Gevurah-that strictly speaking the recipient is undeserving-but out of a sense of Rachamim (Compassion) permits a restrained flow of C k s e d . note 22 (26).e. Thus. But these aspects of truth are relatiue to these conffitcing perspectives: the perspective of Chesed on its own and the perspective of Geuurah on its own. 11. Igeret Hakodesh. The quality of C k s e d to dispense benevolence in unlimited fashion. Toldot. i. ibid. Psalms 139: 12). out of absolute. truth demands the withholding of the Divine Grace. and Zgeret Hakodesh. sect. and therefore "in the light of the King's Countenance there is life" (Proverbs 16:15). is absolute truth in the sense that it reconciles and harmonises Chesed and Geuurah. inasmuch as even "the heavens are not pure in His eyes" (Job 15:15) and "His angels He charges with deficiency" (ibid.. 4: 18. as Divine attributes. of law and justice. the quality of Geuurah to withhold and restrict the Divine effusion is again truthful for the very reason that truth and justice demand distribution in justness and equity. are E m d (truth).). there is frequent reference to various other factors 102. in proportion to the recipient's merits. is an aspect of truth. sect. See Etz Chuyim 35:3. For. that it is not contradicted or opposed by either Chesed or Geuurah or any other attribute. In this context Tiferet is also called Emet (Truth). from the aspect of Gewrah. 28c.l. Tiferet..

Zbid. sect. et passim. 434 f. 52.86 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN (SHASSIDISM which correspond to these Midot as well as to the other Sefirot. Igeret Hakodesh.Io4 Thus the seven Midot have corresponding entities in the seven dominating figures of Scripture that are referred to as the "fathers of the universe": Abraham. by his individual position. without any opposition: Emet Le-amito. 107. As the Sefirot are the Divine instruments through which everything comes into being. a . 105. a. See also Zohar I:74a and 146a. 11. Moses. XIII. Tiferet is a truth rccognised from every aspect. The most frequent reference. Likutei Leui Yitzchak. Supra. 376-7 (variant version). I .c. and. ..l. corresponds to one of the Midot.lo6 Isaac symbolises Gevurah as this attribute was most dominant in him.. 106. also Zohar II:276b. Joseph.. and the only one that concerns us in Igeret Hakodesh. VI. note 7 (Q). and note 27 (28) a. everything relates directly to one or more of the Sefirot in its own individual way. and ibid.c. 11. sect. Jamb. Zohar I:41a. Zohar Chadash. note 22 (26).lo8 one of compassion.1. and Igeret Hakodesh. sect. 108. sect. sect. Supra. note 105. disposition and mode of service and worship.l . note 105. even Gevurah will agree to this flow. see Igeret Hakodesh. Thus Abraham represents Chesed because his inclinations and activities expressed kindness and benevolence to the highest degree. p. (note 95 supra).2.and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanuh 5666. therefore. et pasJ. sect. 104. a.. absolute truth. vol. See Etx Chayim. and ibid. XIII.lo7 Jacob represents Tiferet because he compounded the Chesed of his grandfather and the Geuzlrah of his father. references cited in Igeret Hakodesh. Sefer Habahir 48 (131).loWach of these. Isaac. Maamarei Admur Hazaken-5565. Aaron and David. (note 103).im. p . III:302a. is made to the three Patriarchs as they correspond to the first three Midot.c. or by way of metaphor and analogy.

llS Tikunei Zohar 70:133b. as well as the characteristic of their relationship. Gevurah and Tiferet. a. and 30:74a. Hod and Yesod. on simple faith. These dispositions are no longer directly influenced or controlled by ChaBaD but are the simple. (the latter two 109. Once the attributes of ChaGaT are established by ChaBaD. vessels. Pardess Rimonim 7:2. sect. Their basic significance.l. Likutei Torah. Binah and Da'at. Zgeret Hakodesh. 113.1. 22:68b.c. for Chesed.. . form a triad known by the acrostic NeHY. I. XV and note 41 (48) a.'09 i. too." rather than on the stimulus of reason (Sechel) the way ChaGaT do. which act.l12 - Chesed-Gevurah-Tiferet are the very essence of the attributes they signify and are directly influenced and directed by Chochmah. lgeret Hakodesh. and Zgeret Hakodesh. 111. Hod of Gevurah and Yesod of Tiferet. See Tanya II:5. supra-rational dispositions which seek to carry the attributes of ChuGaT to their logical conclusion. XIX See Tikunei Zohar 19:45a. sect. See supra. Hod and Yesod are the receptacles for the three Patriarchs. 110. 112. Netxach-Hod-Yesod These three Sefirot. and cf. or channels through which the aforementioned "upper" Midot effect their purpose and factual application.6. sect. notes 105-108. these three "lower" Midot serve as tools.llo In other words. 8:17 and 24. These dispositions are Netzach.e. is that Netzach. See further.. Zohar III:236a. Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d.lll This does not mean that NeHY are identical with ChaGaT: Netzach is merely a branch and channel of Chesed. they form dispositions to actualise themselves. or "mechanically. works being the principal sources for the explanation following). as it were.

and so forth. Likewise with Yesod. Unlike the other Midot. Netzach does not possess the simple intensity of Chesed nor Hod that of Geuurah. nor Yesod with Tiferet. 115. for the above-mentioned reason it differs from Tiferet not only in intensity. 114 On the other hand. For since they evolve through the comprehensive attribute of Tiferet. Ibid.thus mitigating its aspect of the severity of G e ~ u r a h . Netzach is not even proportionally identical with Chesed. Netzach and Hod usually go paired together.as we have seen . "two thighs" (Zohur I:26b.g. though it mediates between Netzach and Hod as Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Geuurah. the "two hips" (Tikunei Zohar 13:29a).2 and 8:24. but more significantly because it tends towards Hod (the side of Gevurcfh) while Tiferet . "two kidneys" (Zohar III:296a) . nor Gevurah with Hod.tends towards Chesed. The Zohm refers to them as "two halves of one body. which includes within it both Chesed and Geuurah. 117. See Pardess Rimonim 7. E. . through Tiferet. and 11:276b. like unto twins."l16 And similarly the terms relating to these two attributes are usually such as are intimately related to one another. despite their identification as branches or derivatives of their predecessors. Tikunei Zohar. l ~ ~ Another substantive distinction is the following. and 114.88 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Also. so Netzach and Hod are the two brothers Moses and Aaron (Zohar I:256b. Just as ChaGaT are the three Patriarchs. Netzach is also able to receive and apply the positive aspects of Gevurah while Hod is able to receive the flow of Chesed . 116. I:4.l17 In this context.. Zohr III:236a..: 17a) . Intr.

I. directly concerned with the ultimate issuance of Chesed and Geuurah. when a father seeks to convey some intellectual information to his son. Vayera. Zgeret Hakodesh. cited supra. and ibid. and Likutei Torah III:9Oc-d.ll8 Hence they are seen to be outside the body itself.1. Netzach and Hod are called the "supports of the upper Sefirot" analogous to the loins. See Zgeret Hakodesh. I." That is.e.leading it to its destination in general and channeling Chesed and Cevurah in particular. the father and ref. note 105). as said. the facts as they are in themselves and in their totality) without bringing the reasoning down to the child's level. For example. sect. Zohar Chadosh. at the time of the actual emanations from the upper Midot it is necessary to deliberate how they are to issue forth in such a way that would be most just and beneficial. V and note 100 (109) a. he understands them fully.1.e. the Divine Names and other terms relating to these two attributes are usually a plural form of one concept.Sefirot 89 in light of the aforesaid. In the metaphor of the man-analogy. If the information is to be conveyed effectively. they are clear in his own mind. the latter will be unable to understand and absorb the information. sect. sect.. though they support the body . Netzach and Hod are the "kidneys that advise. The father has already contemplated the facts. Also. he cannot teach him the simple facts by themselves as they are in his own mind. i.ll9 Thus they are. .. 118. on the level of activity. thighs or legs in the body of man which support and uphold the whole body (including the head). 26d.. But when he now confronts his son with that information (i. outside the body of ChuBaD and ChuGaT. see Pardess Rimonim a.c. 119.

cited there. one requires not only an 120. unable to absorb (notion of Geuurah). to preserve the Divine Majesty and Splendour from being dissipated in the abundant Benevolence ( Chesed ) . are the functions of Netzach and Hod.' 2 2 Now. sect. to carry the above metaphor further: If the father's mind is not set on teaching his son. XV. These considerations. notes 64 ( 7 9 ) and 68 (83).I2" Net. See ibid. If the conveyance of the information is to be fully effective. note 41 (48) and the references cited there. While Hod is the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the concept o f majesty. Ibid. see Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d. 121. lgeret Hakodesh. and on the other to withhold that which the child is. then the son cannot be an efficacious recipient for the father's knowledge.e. There are two considerations: on the one hand to teach the child as much as possible ( notion of Chesed). 122.. as yet. and conquering all that would withhold or interfere (i. of prevailing and standing up against. thus much more intense and severe than Hod.I2*Hod seeks to restrain (Geuurah) the excess of absorbability.zaclz thus represents the attribute of Endurance. Geuurah would be the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the confrontation or presence of majesty. the deliberation of the father and the arrangement of the facts and reasoning in such a way that the child will be able to grasp them effectively. the aspects of Geuurah) with the flow of the Divine Benevolence (Chesed). ..!30 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM needs to consider the limited faculties of his son's mind and teach him accordingly.. and the ref.

of these active Sefirot which 123. he would surely grasp some points of information .l23 As Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Gevurah. He must unite himself with the son. He must want to teach him. and Etz Chayim 46:3. If the son were to hear his father pronouncing the facts to himself. supra. XV. . Zgeret Hakodesh. 124. Now this bond uniting Emanator and recipient is the attribute of Yesod. and of no lesser importance. as the third. Cf. and the greater and more intense is the efficacy of the father's efforts. the very degree of illuminating clarification depends on that bond.especially when he hears his father utte-ing them clearly and in detail. but also. In fact. notes 112 and 114.the more intense is the bond uniting the two. the harmonising principle. create a bond between them.stemming from the father's love for his child . sect. as it were (the deliberation of N e t m h and Hod). See Pardess Rimonim 8:24 and 9:4. with love and willingness. blends and compounds Netzach and Hodiz4 Moreover. It is not sufficient for the father to place himself momentarily on the son's level. But this type ~f newly acquired knowledge is by no means comparable to the more pmfound knowledge he would have acquired had the father taught him directly. an inner bond between the teacher and the student-recipient.Sefirot 01 illuminating clarification and presentation of the facts proportionate to the student's capacities. but he must create a channel of communication. The father's mind needs to be set on teaching his son. And the greater the father's desire and willingness to teach . so Yesod mediates.

Eliezer. XV.'" Thus Malchut. 129. See Tikunei Zohar 21:55b. l ~ ~ 7. a. 128.92 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM compound within them the preceding essential Sefirot. sect. 126.lZ6making it possible for the emanations of the Sefirot to issue forth effectively unto the creatures.. 331H 7DN. His appellation then was that of King". Malchut Malchut is unique among the Sefirot. and note 44 (47) a. ~does not exert any influence of its 125. symbol of the Sefirah Yesod) is the Foundation (Yesod) of the world". the principle of Yesod is expressed by the words Y7N11 C9DV3 73 9 3 which the Zohar (based on a Targum) interprets "for all (kol. See also Tossafot. "When by His Will was fashioned every thing. Adon Olam. X X . Hence the lowest level in spiritual categories is usually referred . 3 . Tanya II:7. sect. 6:145b. note 99).1.2. not so when there are no subjects. Kingship or Sovereignty is a state of being rather than an activity: when there are subjects subservient to the king one can speak of Kingship and Sovereignty. which alludes to the seven Midot (see supra. a. II:116a. note 44 (51). Berachot 40b. Zohar. Tikunei Zohr 21:55b. and fgeret Hakodesh.V. Thus Yesod is the Foundatioin of the ~ r e a t i 0 n . and cf. Proverbs 1025. ibid. Addenda. See also next note. et passim. cf. III:257a (and Nitzutzei Orot.) et passim.lZ5and Yesod serves as the all-inclusive principle joining heaven to earth. 127.1. S. Pirkei de R. "The Tzaddik (Righteous. Zohar III:271b.. Yesod is the blending channel of all the preceding Sefirot: all the Sefirot "pour" their light into Yesod. i. Zohar I:31a. ch. the last and '~ "lowest level" of the S e f i ~ o t . (note 126).c. In I Chronicles 29:11.e. Liturgy. See lgeret Hakodesh. the all-comprehensive Sefrah of Yesod) joins the heaven and the earth".

. e. but this has been severely criticised by the Kabbalists.. VIII.. XV.Sefirot own except that "which the other Sefirot pour into it. II:22a. III:290a fl. see also Tanya II:7. et passim.. Tikunei Zohar 19:40b. Makhut is called "a dim speculum because it has no (light) of its own. as it were. 130. 1la. and cf. sect.-Probably for this reason did R. as Malchut of Makhut) of that category. and Zohar Chadash. 8:5. 134. Nidah 31b. . Therefore to as the Makhut (or more emphatically yet. The potentia of the world '~~ ( t h e seed of Chochmuh) is externalised and individuated in the womb of Binuh but remains concealed like a foetus. Pardess Rimonim 11:2. iiild ibid. I t is the very instrument.131 Thus Malchut is referred to as the "Architect wherewith the whole creation was made"132 and "Nothing occurs among the lower beings unless it be through M a 1 ~ h u t . Zohar 1:249b.1. XX (and note 59 (62) a. sect. Malchut plays an important role. note 21 (24). and sect. II:145b." (like unto "the moon that has no light of its own save that which i s given unto it by the sun". through which the original creative plan is actualised. and 251b. Avodat Hakodesh I:7. 131. et passim. It is through Malchut that the latent and potential creation emerges into manifest reality and substantiaIity. See also ibid. 36:l."130 93 On the other hand. note 25 (26). sect. See further Zgeret Hakodesh. XXI. see. XX. Cf. Etz Chayim 6:5. 132. 133.) . Shabhat 156a). sect. Tikunei Zohar 44:82b. Igeret Hakodesh. Joseph Albo suggest (in the context of identifying the Intelligences with the Sefirot) that Makhut is identical with the sphere of the Active Intellect (see Zkkarim II:11). Igeret Hakodesh.g. l ~ ~ As Binuh is the Supernal Mother (Immu Ilaah) so Malchut is the Nether Mother (Imma T ~ t a u h ) . See Zohar I:50a. note 9.

1. -Tanya I: ch. of Tikunirn. Psalms 33:6. See Zohar 11:127a. that what is. lnw nt3. 1:lb).. 142. X X X . ibid. 137.94 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDZSM Binah is called the concealed world (Alma de-ztka~sya). the potentiality of what is. 52.'38 As Chuchmah is n"t) n"2. Tikunei Zohar 70: 121a. Addenda. Tikunei Zohar. and notes 46-50 (49-53) a. ibid. Yitro 34c. [Also Alma Tataah (Lower World). XX.: 17a. Zohar 1:l b and II:127a]. Zohar Chadash.'~~way By and means of the succeeding Sefirot (the Midot).. beg. Thus Malchut is called the "manifest world (Alma &-ZtgaEya) Malchut is the "Mouth of G d : 1 3 7the Word of the Eternal and the Breath of His Mouth by which the world came into actual. 3: 140a. V . f which is but the expression and manifestation or revelation o the speaker's inner thoughts and dispositions. sect. and sect. cf. 138. Cf. . X X . Tanya 11:11-12).142 The attribute of Malchut actually explains its own term.. see Zgeret Hakodesh. 136. 93a. Intr. manifest being. sect. 140.. 141.V. the Divine speech (the ten fiats of Genesis I by which the world was created and came into being. Also Alma llaah (the Upper World) . For 135. sect. sect.. as it were. and notes 50 (53) and 59 (62) a. Pardess Rimonim 23: 13.140 In Malchut the potentiality is finally actualised.1. Zohar 1:lb and 11: 127a. S. Binah-the "concealed world-is implanted in the womb of Malchut and thence egresses into manifest being.l. See Zohar II:127a (cf. Zohur Chadash.1. Zgeret Hakodesh. By analogy to human speech. and ibid. a. See supra.. 139. XXV. and notes 23-24 (25-26) a.139 so Malchut is called ?"n. note 50.141 Through Malchut everything comes into manifest being. Malchut is. and notes 43-45 (45-47) and 64 (67). Avot V: 1.

Tanya.'~~ 143.Id3When finite creatures come into being through the Sefirah of Malchut the Divine attribute of Kingship. 8: end of ch. XXV. Igeret Hakodesh. 24 and ch. animating and sustaining it. sect. 52. becomes meaningful and In Malchut. thus. sect. note 128. the world and creatures in a "revealed manner. and ibid. Binah and Malchut) so we speak of Shechitmh on two levels ("higher" and "lower". sect. See Tanya II:7. VIII. . Zgeret Hakodesh. is the origin of the revelation of the light of the En Sof which extends to. They make it possible to speak of a Divine Kingdom as "There cannot be a King without a nation" and people distinct from Himself over which to rule...l. 26. and supra. Cf. note 22 (23). 144. and illuminates. cf. VIII. From this source there extends to each individual entity the particular light and vitality suitable for it: informing..-Zmma and Shechinah thus are identical terms. lgeret Hakodesh. However. sect. and esp. any unqualified mention of Shechinah usually refers to the lower level of Malchut.notes 18 and 22 supra. XX and XXV. 145. That is why Malchut is identical with Shechinah. I: ch. and ibid. note 25 (26) a. Sovereignty. Just as we speak of Imma on two levels ("higher" and "lower". The world and the creatures provide prospective recipients for G-d's benevolence. Tanya II:7. the Divine Indwelling Presence or Immanen~e. Bimh and Malchut). For a further discussion of Malchut see Pardess Rimonim 7:3-4 and 8.it is through MaIchut that the disposition of the Benevolent to be benevolent can be actualised: a world and creatures come into being.

This first concentric sphere is as close to the all-encompassing Or En Sof as possible. in the chapter on Tzimtzum. "higher" and "lower". note 159. Hakd. thus establishing a concentric sphere within it. and so forth: the periphery of the chalal being the highest level. and the centre of the chalal being the lowest level. That is. and infra. See also Zgeret Hakodesh. l ~ ~ kav did not extend from the circumference to the central point in one immediate and complete manifestation. The "Body of the Sefirot" There are two basic schemes in the emanation of the Sejirot or Divine Lights after the concealment of t~irntzum. and also ibid. round about the inside of the chalal. IV and V. Pardess Rimonim 6:7. the "line" or ray of light that descended from the Or En Sof encompassing the chalal to the very core or midst of This the ~ h a l a 1 . that part of the chalal (the sphere) and its aspect of tzimtzum would have been nullified: the inner . The principal sources for this section are Etz Chayim 1:2-5.96 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM 8.l48 This concentric sphere of dimmed Or En Sof is called Keter. 148. sect. and (iii) the void (below said concentric sphere) of the remainder of the chalal.. At this stage we thus have (i) the all-encompassing sphere of the Or En Sof (manifest outside the chalal and concealed within the chalal). Sha'ar Hahakdamot. but not really attached to it except by means of the kau from which it evolved. 2:7. note 29 ( 3 2 ) . X X . the Divine Light was manifested in the sphere of the primordial space (chalal) by means of the kao. lggulim and Yosher. but gradually. Likutei Torah III:37c f . 146. (ii) the concentric sphere in the upper realm (right adjacent to. 147. immediately upon "entering" the chalal it revolved parallel to the perimeter of the chalal. and 2:1.'~" As mentioned above. For if the Luminary (Or En Sof) and the sphere inside the chalal would be truly attached to each other. This is how we obtain the relative terms of "above" and "below". but below or inside the perimeter) of the chalal.

It is by their individually determined measures that the Sefirot are distinguished and differentiated one from another (as we shall see infra. in an extended sense.) and III:9b f . For every Sefirah has a determined measure and dimension (in a qualitative sense). 150. Sefer Yetzirah I:4-5. See Zohar I: 19b f . they are fully distinct one from another. again only partly. In this initial scheme of Iggulim the Sefirot are like the skins of an onion . to repeat the same process: a new revolution around the c h h l to form another concentric sphere immediately below that of Keter. until the tenth concentric sphere was formed. This new sphere is Chochmh. gradually descending to the very centre of the chaIal.Thereupon the kao was extended somewhat further. in the very centre of the chulal.149 This is the scheme of Iggulim ( circles. expanding and revolving. In fact. Etz Chuyim 1:2. however. namely that of Malchut. with a successive dimming of the light so that each one is distinct from all others.150 The significant point of this scheme is that essentially all the Sefirot are related to one sphere would have been absorbed by the outer one to revert to the state of one simple light of the En Sof. and the Sefirot as a whole are also determined in number ("ten and not nine. (1. ten and not eleven"). Hakd. chapter V ) . garments).one within the other .1. Sha'ar Hahakdamot.or like a brain encompassed by many membranes one over the other. (and Nitzutzei Orot. circles within circles. And in this way the kau was extended ever further. see Zohur III:257b. Midot means fixed measures and dimensions (and. Thus each of these ten spheres follows out of and succeeds the preceding one. or concentric spheres). IV. Hence also the term Midot for the Sefirot. 149. .

subsequent scheme of emanating Sefirot is that of "Yosher-like unto the appearance of a man standing upright. See Pardess Rimonim 6:3. Etz Chayim 1:l.98 MYSTICAL CONCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM another only in terms of a successive process: the one emanating after the other but each one really a separate. Straightness) is derived from the verse "Gd made man yashar (upright)" (Eccles. 1:27)-Etz Chayim l:2-for the inherent faculties and powers of man's soul and their interactions are analogous (albeit in a strictly homonymous sense) to the Sefrot (see Igeret Hakodesh. sect. f . and Sha'ar Hahakdamot. see Etz Chayim 8:l. The second. Hakd. rather than to f that o Iggulim. In relation to this scheme of the Sefirot it is said "and G d created man in His image" (Gen. XV) ."15* that is.-In general.c."'" This analogy serves to point out the full inter-relationship between the Sefirot of Yoslaer (just as man's organs are interrelated to one another to form a single body). "Analogous to man who divides into organs all of whieh exist level upon level and perfect one another. Etz Chayim 1:2. even while underscoring and retaining the unique characteristics of each one. but they form an essentially unified body. self-contained sphere or point. yet all of them (together) form one body. The analogy is carried further to the point 151. IV. most references to the Sefirot in the Zohar relate to the scheme o Yosher.2. Thus in the scheme of Yoshr the Sefirot are not simple faculties or principles independent of each other. Zohar 1:134b. The term Yosher (Uprightness. 152. see Etz Chayim. 7:29). Shdar Hahakdamot. a.

supra.16' together supporting the whole body and leading it to its ~~ destination. the organ of speech by means of which the speaker's inner thoughts and emotive dispositions are expressed and revealed. and compounding. see supra. As Malchut is the manifesting aspect. Binah corresponds to the heart." referring to circumcision (the sign or seal of the covenant or bond between G d and Israel) . the seat of understanding. Binah and Da'at.e. Chochmah corresponds to the brain in general i.: 17a.. intervening and mediating between.. and Shahr Hahukdamot. "The sign of the Holy Covenant. 154. Also called the "kidneys that counsel". N e t m h is the right leg or thigh while Hod is the left leg or thigh. thus related to. Yesod is the organ of p r o ~ r e a t i o n lthrough which the emanations of the higher Sefirot issue forth to Malchut to bring about a manifest creation..See Etz Chayim. Chesed is the right arm while Gevurah is the left arm. masculine and feminine). are the three brains in man's head. the sides of Chesed and Gevurah. More specifically. Tikunei Zohar. Intr.l. a. Tiferet is the body.c. note 117. in an extended sense.of relating the particular Sefirot to particular limbs or organs in the Body or Form (Partzuf) of Man: 1 5 ~ Chochmah. with regards to the two aspects of Yesod relative to the two types of Partzufim (i. yet inde- 153.e. to the source of thought and intellect. in the explanatory notes for the individual Sejirot. and cf. Keter is the crown encompassing. it is said to correspond to the mouth.. 155. .

This is done by placing Chuchmah on the right side. Etz Chayim 1:2. 157." because there is an innate relationship between these three ( C b s e d is a branch of Chochmah and Netzach is a branch of Chesed). the "side of Chesed. Therefore in spite of the locations of the "physical counterparts" in the body of man. in line with but above Gevurah and Hod. Thus we have three new triads: (1)Chochmah-Chesed-Netzach.and (3) Keter-Tiferet-Yesod-Makhut in the middle. Shdar Hahakdarnot. lb6 As mentioned.100 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CELASSIDLSM pendent of. mediating or all-inclusive harmonising principles they are. left. Keter is frequently referred to as "skull". and in the Zdrot. the "side of Gewrah. it is often referred to as the skull encompassing (thus transcending) the brain. the body. in the context of the manmetaphor. See Zohar 111: 153b ( d passim). more specifically. the Sefirot of Yosher are often illustrated by way of three lines-right. and by placing Binah on the left side. and centre. the Supernal Da'at.on the right side. and Hod is a branch of Gevurah). in line with but above Chesed and Netzach. IV. a branch or 156. the scheme of Yosher underscores not only the functions of the Sefirot but also their inter-relationship as a unit or Body. symbolic of the central. ." because there is an innate relationship between these three (Gevurah is a branch of Binah. Hakd.-See Etz Chayim 32:l and 25:5 on the superiority of the "skull" [Keter] over the "brains" [Chochmah-Binah-Da'at]. ( 2 ) Binah-Gewrah-Hod on the left side. This faculty. In Sifra Detzeniyuta.lS7 It is also in this scheme of Yosher that we speak of the faculty of Da'at Elyon.

Da'at. S. . and Tohu and T i k ~ n .1.-Dabt Tachton. sect. can the Sefirot interrelate and interact when they appear to be separate. At the same time we have also seen the inter-relationship and interaction of the Sefirot in a developmental sequence from Keter to MaIchut. 38. 4. Infra. the unifying principle of Chochmah and Binah. every 158. chapters VII-IX." The mystics solve this problem by stating that. as specific principles and potencies. Menachem M. or some are spoken of as mediating principles. The Sefirot as Compounds So far we have discussed the Sejirot mainly in terms of particular attributes. in fact. would thus be placed in the middle line as the apex of the triangle Chochmah-Bin~h-Da'at. would require some "common denominator. the antinomy between Chesed and Geuurah. l ~ ~ 9.. they still are essentially unique powers which. in effect. See Sefer Hamaamarim 5700.derivative of Keter.V. Pmtzufim. obviously does not have a separate organ in this scheme.g. in order to interact. p. But this raises a question: How. 159. Schneerson a. see supra. and between Netzach and Hod)? For even when the Sefirot do not contradict each other. as essence of the Midot. and in some cases seemingly contradictory principles (e. and notes by R.~~~ The full significance of these two schemes of Zggulim and Yosher will emerge later on in the context of Shedrat Hakelim.

two-fold sigrdcance: ( a ) It indicates the integral bond between. the Sefirot (as opposed to regarding each Sefimh as Independent and non-related. Thus. in effect. so that every Sefirah can still be referred to by a specific name and differs radically from all other^. and 89d 8. and so forth.'^' This mutual inclusiveness has an important. and Tikunei Zohar 70:125b and 135a. the Sefirot. Chesed and Geuurah). Likutei Torah ZII:87a fl.-In referring to every Sefirah as a compound of "ten general levels". the S4rah of Chesed is divisible into Chochmh of Chesed. cf. 161. references cited infra. XI1 and XIII. B i d of Chesed. chapter IX. sect. as explained in the sources mentioned. for example. See Tikunei Zohar 47:84a. the word "general" is an intentional qualification.lBOThus the Sefirah of Chochmah divides into Chochmh of Chchmah. and so forth. See Tanya 1I:lO. as the attribute of Chesed 160. ( b ) It allows the necessary interaction of all Sefirot in everything even though their distinguishing aspects or determinative characteristics may appear to be opposed to each other (e. Binah of Binah in Binah. also Zohar II:l85b.. for.102 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Sefirah is a compound of ten general levels: every Sefirah contains within itself aspects of all the ten Sefirot. lgeret Hakodesh. and essential unity of. . these ten levels subdivide each into ten sub-levels.. The differentiation between the Sefirot is retained in full so that in every Sefirah its own aspect is predominant and determinative: Chochmah of Chochmah in Chochmah. and differentiation among.g.. and so on. thereby leading to a wrong conception of division in the Sefirotic scheme) even while retaining the specific identity of. and 69:lleb. Binuh of Chochmah and so on.

see also the glossary note in Zohar II:24a (and Nitzutzei Z o h r a. and Tohu and Tikun. also Maimonides. its full significance will emerge in the later chapters on Shevirat Hakelim.Sefirot 103 will express and manifest itself. 10 and 11. Moses Cordovero in Pardess Rimonim. 5.1. especially ch. esp. pp. Or Torah. 153b and 189a-b. by way of the aspect of Chesed included in every other Sefirah.. as with the latter. 11 ) . See also R. The issues mentioned here are dealt with in detail by R. ch. (quoted at length by Cordovero. ibid. and Sha'ar 8. 1. 2. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 8:2) which reflects strikingly the argument in Z o h II:23b f. including Geuurah. ibid. Hilchot Yesohi Hatorah 1V:l-2 (quoted by Cordovero. Sha'ar 5. it will involve all other Sefirot.).. Partzufim. 162. ch.lB2 This concept of the Sefirot as Compounds is intimately related to the concept of the scheme of Yosher and. Cf. .

.

. i.e. Essentially these Worlds are Divine "Garments" in which the Or En Sof conceals and clothes Itself. These numerous levels are divided into five comprehensive categories. each of which is a microcosm on its own..e. one lower than the other. from the creature's perspective (looking "from below upwards") but are non-real in essence. the process of a progressive dimming. Tanya I: ch. referred to as the Five Realms or Worlds. 43. i.CHAPTER FOUR Worlds 1. The Concept of " W w W Tzimtzum. relative 1. thereby animating and lendBut ing them e~istence.~ just as tzimtzum and the S 4 r o t are allegorical concepts that assume substantive reality only in relation to man and creation. brought about numerous levels. occultation and condensation of the light of the En Sof.. The numerous other levels are the myriads of gradations into which these five worlds subdivide.

notes 1817. chapter 11. because the "higher" worlds are those which receive a radiance infinitely greater than the "lower" ones. 40.106 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to G-d (looking "from above downward^"). XXV. and all creatures therein receive each according to its capacity and nature. Cf. supra. too.. and as He is to be found in the higher worlds so He is to be found in the very lowest. The lower worlds.4 The core and essence of the blessed En Sof is identical in the higher and lower worlds. and ch."No light or vitality whatever i s visibly revealed. and note 18 a.l.3 To be sure. sect. Yet 2. When we speak of different Worlds or Realms. Tanya I: ch." For the higher worlds receive in a more revealed form than do the lower ones. Zgeret Hakodesh. and secondly. any difference is due to the recipients. 5. such as stones or earth . but only corporeal and physical things that appear lifeles~. Ibid. "Even in completely inanimate matter.^ so it is with these Worlds. Cf. 4. do not receive the light in such a revealed form but only by means of numerous concealing "garments" which hide and screen the Divine Light so that ultimately . 1 . section 1. 111. ch. 1 3.on the lowest level."~ they. in the physical world . the light of the En Sof fills all worlds alike and there is no pIace void of Him. See supra. in that the "higher" ones receive this radiance without as many garments and screens as the lower ones. and that in two respects: firstly. even the spiritual ones. The difference between them is with regard to the stream of vitality from the En Sof in terms of "revelation out of concealment.

See also Tanya I: ch. corporeal shape or physical limitation. In that sense the Holy One. Zgeret Hakodesh. sect. each of the body's organs receives the power and vitality appropriate to itself according to its own capacity and character -the eye for seeing. Thus as the different bodily organs express and manifest different powers this is not due to a different soul.' This is analogous to the presence of the soul in the body.d (Isaiah 45:12). in the feet no less than in the brain. being inherent in them. 6. and Etz Chayim 50: passim. for example. The entire soul is a single and simple (as opposed to compound) spiritual entity.: 17a. the mouth for speaking and so on. . . the whole soul pervades the entire body equally. Tanya I: chs. blessed is He. there is a "soul" and spiritual life-force . without any dimensions of space or size. is the "Most Hidden of All Hidden"B and is called the "hidden G . 7. Rather. from head to foot. 38. but it is due to their own unique or water. based on Etz Chayim 39:3. Tanya II:l. which give life and existence to inanimate matter that it might arise out of the naught and nothingness that preceded the Six Days of Creation". But from the different kinds of potencies or powers and vitalities contained in the soul's intrinsic essence. and its core and essence is. Intr. . Tikunei Zohar. XXV. Thus one cannot say that it divides into a number of parts corresponding to the number of organs in the body. so that they will not revert to their state of naught and nothingness as they were prior to their creation.contain light and vitality from the En Sof which lends them existence ex nihib. the ear for hearing. 40 and 51. or part of the soul.

The term Ohmot (Worlds) thus denotes the concealment and dimming of the Divine Light. This anthropomorphic term means Prim- 8.. In fact this concept of relative concealments and occultations may be read in the very term of world in Hebrew.. The light does so in accordance with the presence or absence of obstructions. e. Exodus 3: 15. 3:11. ch. a. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1153. Chaim . and even into rooms within rooms.1° 2. as well as ibfd.8 A similar analogy is to the light of the sun which penetrates the rooms of a house. All powers of the soul are intrinsic to the whole soul and independent of the body. 10.1.. Cf. Ibid. but only in the condition or capacity of the place to be illuminated. and Rashi.1. a. Maimonides. see also Siddur im P e m h Hamilot. also Eccles. and Sefer Habahir 8 (10). and Rashi. p." in proximity to. 11. There is thus no change in the light itself. or distant from. and the comment in Pesachh 50b.108 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM composition and capacity. 164c-d.@ Thus when we speak of "higher" and "lower. See Tikunei Zohar 42:82a. 51. these terms do not refer to any spatial dimensions but to qualitative differences in degree and level. 48a ff. The Division of the Wor2ds The five comprehensive worlds are : ( 1) Adam Kadmn. (sources cited in preceding note).. The general sources for the following paragraphs are R. Ibid. as is evident from the fact that a blind. Etz Chayim 1:2. or otherwise defective. the En Sof and so on. DSy (to be concealed. and Midrash Rabba. see. pp. 9 . For the word D'1lY is etymologically related to. person is able to give birth to a physically normal child.g. hidden) . and itself spelled sometimes as.

Commntay on Exodus 34:6. Adam Kadmon is the most pristine emanation. and (5) Asiyah."12 This World is also called the Realm of Keter Elyon (the Supreme Keter). It is the first and highest stage after tzimtzum took place and yet so sublime that in a sense it may be spoken of as completely attached to. See also Shomer Ernunim I:62 f."14 ( 2 ) Atzilut. XXIX. Bachya ben R. 15. 98b. lgeret Hakodesh. note 34. Chamai Gaon in Pardess Rimonim 11:l and 3. Pardess Rimonim 5:4. supra. .ordial Man. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1. 13.the World of Action or Making. Etz Chayim 1:4. lucid Sefirot which are concealed and hidden. Etz Chayim 1:4. This World reVital. Asher. 14. and 70: 135b. the World of Emanation.. ( 4 ) Yetzirah-the World of Formation.15 Atzilut is the stage following Adam Kadmon. Esther. sect. the "lucid and luminous light" ( R Y n l Y D l RY T I N ) and frequently referred to as Tzachtzachot13-implying the "pure. (3) Berinh-the World of Creation. Kadmon denotes "being primary of all primaries. See the responsa by R. and 12:5. Zohar III:193b. Torah Or.. See Tikunei Zohar 69:115b. See Pardess Rimonim 11:2 ff. Cf. chapter 11. Shomer Emunim I:46 f .. supra. and cf. and 43: Intr. These latter three names are derived from the creative terms in Isaiah 43:7. Tikunei Zohar 19:42a. Hai Gaon and R. thus further removed from the En Sof. and 70: 120a.. Shu'arei Kedushah 1II:l f. the En Sof. See also R. chapter 11. and united with. cf. note 38. as in Numbers 11:17 and Ecclesiastes 2:10. The term is derived from the root YYN. 12.

Although the particular aspects and rungs of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and generally are of many diverse kinds. see Etz Chayim 1:4. Zgeret Hakodesh. Adam Kadmon) is G-dliness itelf. though. See Etz Chuyim 42:4 (ibid. sect.1° But AtxiEdit is still in such close proximity to the En Sof that it... or from Adam Kadmon. In that sense Adam Kadmon is the "soul" o Atzilut. 13 f. infra. or Prussa ( curtain. ibid. chapter VII. 18. Supra. Igeret Hakodesh.110 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSLDISM ceives its vivification (the Divine Emanation and Life-force) uia. note 2. In an exf tended sense. also. and Iess intense. three levels of powerful and comprehensive contraction and condensation. for the emanation of Adam Kadmon extends f from the highest level to the very central point of the chalal (the world of Asiyah). and Zgeret Hakodesh. 17. it is also the "soul" or spiritual substratum and life-force o all worlds. than that of Atzilut. and draws its vivification through Atzilut. and draws its vivification 16. in effect. X X . however. the full intensity and effect of tzimtzum is first noticeable in this Realm. cf. covering) separating between Atziht and Beriah (and between the subsequent worlds) . ch. See Tanya I : chs." being. 20. chapter VIII. of sect. which give rise to the three lower Worlds. there are. thus in smaller measure and less intense than Adam Kcrdmon. DiVinity. In fact. is "One with It. 19. . sect. note 20. 39 and 49.la Thus we speak of a Massach. XX. In that sense Atzilut is the "soul" of Beriah. Yetzirah is still further removed.18 thus in smaIler measure. beg.20 This denotes the immense separation and distinction between these levels. 44: 1. albeit in ever-increasing concealment. The World of Atzilut (and a fortiori. XX. too.l7 B* e is further removed. note 17. infra. of Klalut ABYA-I).

As Keter is elevated above all Sefirot. 23. Every Realm always being the "soul" of the succeeding one. However. and so on until Adyah of Asiyah. Atzilut of Beriah. the Worlds also divide into the general classes o the Sefirot as f represented by the concept of the Worlds: thus we speak of Atzilut of Atzilut. and Asiyah is the furthest removed having its vivification from Yetzirah.through Beriah. just as the Sefirot are compounds dividing into themsel. Binah of Atzilut and so specific Sefirot predominate in each of the Worlds. the Worlds correspond to the Sefirot themselves. and Asyah to the latter Hei. Sha'arei Kedushah 111: 1-2. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1. Beriah of Bedah. generally. See supra. Adam Kadmon. the third is about half pure and half impure. Thus even this &st grade can be subdivided 21. Yetzirah to the Vau. There always are some drosses that cannot be removed. Asiyah of Atzilut. chapter 111. Chochmah of Atzilut. so Adam Kadmon is elevated above all worlds. 24. the second one is less pure than the first. Moreover. R. 22. and the fourth contains more base metals than silver. free of base metals. .23 In fact.21 Like the ten S e f i r ~ these Five Worlds correspond to the t~~ letters of the Tetragrammaton: Atzilut corresponds to the Yud. note 37. That is why. Beriah of Atzilut. only four Worlds are spoken of and referred to. Moses Cordovero explains this division by means of an analogy to a silversmith who grades his silver according to the purity of the metal: The first grade is the most pure silver. even the first grade silver cannot be wholly and totally pure.ves. for its state of immense sublimity. Though all ten Sefirot emanate and "function" in every World in particular (Keter of Atzilut. cannot be represented by any specific letter but by the "thorn" of the Yud. Be* to the first Hei. Yetzirah of Atzilut.

(Pardess Rimonim 24:10) 25. note 51 (53). Cf. the World of Adam Kadmon is referred to as the Atzmut (the Essence.25 In terms of the "Man-Image" of the Sefirot (the Partzuf of Adurn Kadmm. the original emanation of the Divine Light). and Asiyah to Malchut. also Tanya I: chs. it is the realm of Keter.' indeed. into more and less 'wholly pure. V. and asiyah (an enactment ) : A reshinacah is non-substantial. because these are respectively the predominant Sefirot in these particular Realms. See supra. Etz Chayim 3:3. Beriah corresponds to Bimh. chdziuah ( a carving). into the four general categories of silver as such. Yetzirah to the Midot (Chesed-GeuurahTiferet-Hod-Yesod). often compared to four modes of perception referred to as reshimah ( a mark).112 MYSTICAL OONCEPTS IN CHASSlDlSM Thus Adan Kadmon corresponds to Keter. 39 and 52. 26. Atzilut as the Body containing this soul. it is a mere sign marked down. note 23. Ye. . The same would apply also to the other three grades. and is. or soul). sect. with each sub-division differing from the others in the degree of purity. Atzilut corresponds to Chochmah. chakikah (an engraving). it is the Realm of Chochmah. because Chochmah is the predominant Sefirah in Atzilut. Igeret Hakodesh. therefore. and Beriah. barely denoting a distinction between non-marked and marked. because Keter is the predominant Sefirah in Adam Kadmon.tzirah and Asyah as the outer Garments in which this Body is The difference hetween these worlds is one of degree in concealment of the Atzmut.

Shomer Emunim I:51. XX.thus. Beriah is the stage of a more perceptible and finite being than Atzilut. Comparable to that is Yetzirah. thus denoting the close proximity -to the point of unity -of theSej4rot to their Source. ex nihib. completely in the realm of distinct substantiality and corporeality. He suggests that the term Atzilut is also related to the preposition SYH (near-by). . Zohar Chadrrsh. with the connotation of the coming into being of something new. 28. E d . Yetzirah he relates rm to the verse "1YT-and the Eternal. between absolute naught and reality (or. formed man of the dust of the ground. on the other hand. note 21 (23). A chatziuah is more perceptible yet. correspondingly. (Genesis 2:17) Yetzimh then is related to the "dust 27. rather. Betiah he relates to the verse "But if the Eternal H339 ? I N 9 1 3 (creates a creation)" (Numbers 16:30). Atzilut is the first egression towards substantiality: between absolute naught and infinity and the category of substantiality and finitude. the beginning of reality).28 Therefore Beriah is radically different and removed f o Atdlut. sect. A chakikah. and Zgeret Hakodesh. just as an object hewn and carved is sensed in much greater degree than some engraving. though still very subtle. Moses Cordovero reads these differences between the Worlds in their very names.Cf. is already sensed and perceived in greater measure than the reshimah. Its type of reality is so close to naught that there is practically no difference between them. and corresponding to it is the World which is called by this na~ne-Asiyah. Bereishit 17b. note 24 supra. Full perception. is the finished product of an asiyah. Parhss Rimonirn 16:9. See commentary of Nachmanides on Numbers 16:30.~~ R. Precisely so.

and in Asiyah. as well as in Beriah. section 3) serves as intermediary between a higher stage and the subsequent lower one.32 Therefore. the highest level of Beri~h. As the Sefirot are in Atzilut they are still in explicit unity Makhut of Atzilut (as is the with their Emanat~r.114 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM of the ground. XX.1. Pardqss Rimonirn 16:1. 32. In that capacity Malchut of Atzilut assumes a characteristic of Keter which (as stated earlier in chapter 111. the lowest level of Atzilut. See supra. they are in Beriuh in a state of great concealment and condensation.~OThrough "function" of Makhut) the Sefirot of Atzilut (latently immanent in Makhut of Atzilut) are projected further to manifest themselves in Beriah. Asiyah is self-explicit as the most material and perceptible of these terms. See supra. re-emerges as Keter of Beriah. as has been said. in Yetzirah. Malchut of Atzilut thus serves as the mediary between Atzilut and Beriah. sect. and this is also suggested by its appearance as the third and last term in the above-mentioned verse of Isaiah 43:7. note 20. Therefore Malchut of Atzilut. much less spiritual. For the "downward transition" from Atzilut to Beriah involves "passage" through the immense tzimtzum of the prassa that separates these worlds.and notes 27* (30) and 43 (46) a. 31. in Beriah. . See lgeret Hakodesh. note 17. level than Beriah. in general and in particular. the World of 29." a lower. 30.~l While the Sefirot of Beriah are the actual Sefirot of AtziEzrt. All the Sefirot manifest themselves in Atzilut.29 Now. all the Sefirot emanate throughout all the Worlds.

supra. and sublime angels. in the lowest level of A ~ i y a h . it culminates in the physical creatures and entities of our physical world.Creation. . XX.they appear distinct and separate from Divinity. physical world with finite. sect. chapter 111.86 33. and cf. On the one hand it allows for the possibility of a finite. On the other hand it implies the Divine Immanence or Indwelling Presence (Shechinah) even in the finite and physical. ~ ~ The implications of this creative process are two-fold. Igeret Hakodesh. and Zgeret Hakodesh. This allows for the appearance of creatures less sublime and more numerous than those of Beriah. Tanya I: ch.because of the immense tzimtzum involved . VI and XXV.94 For the En Sof alone is able to create and sustain all beings ex nihib. Through Malchut of Betiah the Sefirot (all latently present in Malchut) are projected further downwards to manifest themselves in Yetzirah. 35. there is the first appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity. note 9. 38. and 51 (quoted at the beginning of this chapter). As this process continues. the Sefirot are not to be regarded as "creative agents" separate and distinct from Divinity. physical creatures to the point that . 39. emerging there in still greater concealment and condensation. The same process repeats itself in the next stage of the creative development. though still strictly spiritual: the souls of the righteous ( Tzadikim). See Shdarei Kedushah III:2. 40. albeit so strongly obscured and condensed that it is not manifest per se. For it is no less than the actual light of the En Sof that issues forth from Malchut of Atzilut. See Tanya I: chs. 34. sect.

.

The subject of Orot and Kelim is another controversial topic much discussed since the times of the early mystics.1. 40:8. the En Sof. Derush Keitzad Na'asim Hakelim . an interpretation generally following the views of R. The numerous grades of condensation presented five comprehensive classes of obscured and concealed Sefirot. strictly speakI. Sha'ar Hahakdamot. Thus. see Zohar II:42b f . Sha'ar IV. Etz Chayim 1:3. called the Five Worlds. But by definition these Orot. Isaac Luria. the actual emanations. Pardess Rimonim. are absolutely bound up with their Source.. and 47:l.CHAPTER FIVE Orot and Kelim 1. in addition to the sources cited in the subsequent notes. and commentaries a. . the subject is discussed as it appears In in Chassidism. For further perusal of this involved theme. sometimes Atzmut . united with their Emanator. Moses Cordovero and R. Now the actual emanations from the En Sof are called Orot (Lights. the paragraphs following. see Pardess Rimonim 4:l-4.Essence). The Concepts of OROT KELIM' AND It has already been explained how the emanations from the En Sof are condensed and obscured by means of tzimtzum.

Cf. no name. . by way of analogy (pp. distinction between them is made possible by the Kelim (Vessels) : Tzimtzum screened the light of the En Sof to such an extent that it produced ten different classes of concealment through each of which the Or En Sof manifests itself in a different way.). as different kinds of emanations or different kinds of Sejirot. note 1. A distinction between Orot ( a scheme of Sefirot that differ from one another) can be made only after tzimtzum takes place relative to tzimtzum. . R. we cannot really refer to Orot (Lights in the plural). letter or point. Vessels. 2.). but only to Or En Sof. thus there does not apply to it any name or term. . 3. This conception is at the core of the controversy mentioned supra. These general types of concealment are called Kelim. They are the Vessels which contain the Lights.). Meuoh Shebrim 1:l: l (see aIso the sequel a. 376 ff. Only then. 19c). Maggid Devarao Leya'akov. of the ten Sefirot. 27 ff. applies to it .2 For all practical purposes the Orot themselves remain unchanged from their origin and Divine S o ~ r c eA~ . "Prior to tzimtzum all the light was equal in absolute unity and likeness . nor any image or form whatever.118 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM ing. just as. Sha'ar Haykhud (Kuntres Hahitbonenut). Pardess Rimonin 6:6. of ranks and levels. sect. depending on the variations in the degrees of manifestation of the Or En Sof. sect. also Keter Shem See Tov. But as everything was a simple light. we can speak of Orot. Dov Ber of Lubavitch.". . . 50b ff. 390. term. ch. the Light of the En Sof (singular). to recognize a distinction between one Sefimh and another.and Derushei ABYA:l (pp.E. of different attributes. For a name indicates something specific and limited. 93 (p.

Tanya II:4. .Orot and Kelim 119 and metaphor. Thus the Lights and the Kelim together make up the Sefirot. See also Shu'ar H a h a k h t . within them the Atzmut (the Divine Essence. 1:4). and they originate in the reshimu (the faint residue) of the original light that had remained in the chaM after the initial tzimtzum.. 5 . and ibfd. And this is the principal meaning of the term Kelim. just like a vessel restricts the waters so that they will not flow out. the Light) vests Itself". note 87).so Kelim becomes synonymous with Geuurah and Din: "The attribute of Din always restricts Chesed so that it will not exceed.1. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. among the Orot". in the verse "and G-d saw the light that it was good. Tzimtzum. to fashion the aspect of the Kelim. Derush 11-Be'olam Hanekudirn (p. In interpretation of the Creation-account. Gevurah. 59). this separation refers to the formation of the Kelim which "set and fashion a separation. . IV. . Just as trimtzum is synonymous with Gevurah and Din (supra. See Tanya II:4. note 1. Din and Kelim.6 It is in this context of Orot and Kelim that R. tzimtzum may be taken as synonymous with Kelim. 'The purpose of trimtzum is . Hakd. and measure. thus have for their purpose to limit and restrain the Divine effulgence from excessive radiation. and He separated" (Gen.6 In fact.c. For by means of the condensation and dimming of the light it is possible for the Kelim to come into being and to be manifest". Hadrat MeZech on Zohar I:15a. ch. Etz Chayfm 4:3. bodies contain souls. Etz Chayim 1:3.-The Kelim are themselves mixtures of the lowest levels of lights "brought about by a condensation (hithbut) of the light" (Etz Chuyim 47: 11. limitation.' The purpose of tzimtzum is for the production of Kelim. Mevoh She'arim VI:2:1. 111. 6. Moses Cordovero introduces a famous simile to explain the differentiation 4. and just as there are various grades of tzimtzum so there are various types of ZbZim. supra. a. Shalom Buzaglo. see at length R.

8 Similarly. Shdar Habechinah. and acts through.: The Divine Light (the Orot) that is contained in. Habahir 49 (137). Cf. and Zgeret Hakodesh. The Kelim are the Divine tools that bear different colours corresponding to their individual character or activity (white for Chesed. and Zohar I:18b. So. Introduction l a (text. and XIX:39b. the Essence (the Orot) is analogous to a ray of light radiating through several crystals and thus assuming different colours. Tikunim 117c). The soul acts through the limbs and organs of the body and manifests itself differently through various activities. these waters . On the concept of various rolours symbolizing and representing the different Sefirot see Zohar III:248b.though in themselves colourless . 1. Pardess Rimonim. (This simile appears already in Chovot Haleuouot. Tikunei Zohar. and as. it is the same soul acting throughout the body. Pardess Rimonim 4:4. See also Zohar Chadash 34a-b.) . Light in itself is simple and colourless but can be divided and coloured. it is with the Sefrot. Sha'ar X. and 7. and the gloss which appears also in Zohar Chadash. Sefe~. XII. 8.will appear coloured according to the hue of the vessels which contain them. the Kelim is the "colourless" essence like the colourless w a ~ e r that appears coloured only when. A third simile is that of the soul in the body of man. Yet the soul is simple and unitary. through the intervening crystals.120 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wrought by the Kelim: When pouring water into a number of differently coloured glasses. too. sect. intensified or dimmed and so forth. ch. vested in the Kelim. red for Gevurah and so on).

. less so than in Adam Kadmon but still totally spiritual. 99c fl. the Orot ) themselves! These Kelim differ not only from one plane to another (relative to the Sefirot). May'an 1II:VI: ch. in thinking that in Adam Kadmon there are Kelim in the literal sense. On the level of Adam Kadmon the Kelim (like the state of tzimtzum in that Realm) are extremely subtle and diaphanous. supra.l. Pardcss Rimonim a. 9.Orot and Kelim 121 all differences in manifestations (seeing. . 12.where these similes are cited in the context of distinguishing between the Worlds). Cf." 11. Beware and do not err in this matter!" Etz Chayim 1:4. .^ At the same time it must be kept in mind that when speaking of changes in the manifestations. Zbid. When we refer [there] to Kelim it is only relative to the Light and Atzmut in them.. Etz Chyim 6:3: "The Kelim are to garb the light for the sake of the recipients. the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut and so on.12 On the level of Atzilut the Kelim are still very subtle. or of limitations or fixed measures with regard to the Kelim of the Sefirot. "Do not err. Cf. chapter IV (notes 8 and 9 . 10. section 1. successively the Kelim become ever more obstructive until the Orot are practically hidden completely in Asiyah. Heaven forbid . speaking and so on) are due to the differences in the organ^. see also E l i m Rabbaty. And so. a fortiori. Heaven forbid. supra. cf. . this relates only to the measure and limitation in the activity geared towards the recipients in a set and limited fashion.1° and not to the Kelim (and.). 55 (pp. hearing. But the Kelim themselves are a very pure light. to the very extremity of purity and tenuity. hardly distinguishable from the Orot. but more so from one World to another: there are the Orot and Kelim of Adam Kadmon. chapter 111.

or Transcending . The basic difference between these two aspects is as follows:14 Just as the soul of man is vested in all the limbs of the body. 13.radiating and illuminating within the Kelim analogous to the soul vested and radiating within the body of man. unqualified. usually referred to in singular form as Or Pnimi and Or Makif. note 1.13 2.. for the Atzrnut to be ve5. Generally speaking. however. concealment and condensation effected by the numerous.ed in the Kelim it must be condensed and its intensity must be diminished Only a minute "part" of the light is thus condensed and confined within the Kelim. successive grades of Kelim.Or Makif nm The Atzmut (Orot) as vested in the Kelim is also referred to as Orot Pnimiyim (Inner . i. See Etz Chayim 2:3.or Immanent .Lights) . two aspects: Orot Pnimiyirn (Inner Lights) and Orot Makifim (Encompassing . 14. It is the Or Pnimi. so the 070t Pnimiyim are vested within the Kelim of the Sefirot. Or P i i . of more or less intense radiations from the Sefi+ot (as the Worlds proceed from. irradiates and vitalizes them from within.e. There are.Lights). mostly refers to this "inner soul"-aspect. this difference is not due to any change in the original Orot but because of the increasing intensity. See sources mentioned supra. . and succeed each other).122 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Thus when we speak of the different classes of Sefirot. the term Orot. However.

its original intensity is concealed.encompassing them from without. of the ultimate life-force. We can compare this to the concept of tzimtzum discussed in Chapter Two: The light manifest within the chalal is contracted. The light per se. and note 11 (12) ad loc. however. Zgeret Hakodesh. a "part".Filling or Pervading all Worlds). The Or Pnimi compares to the light within. cannot be absorbed by the body or Kelim. It is only a ray. in its full intensity. in a state of occultation (tzimtzum) commensurate to the body's capacity. while the Or Makif is analogous to the Transcendence of G-d (Soueu Kol Almin Encompassing or Encircling all Worlds). and the Or Makif compares to the light beyond or outside the chalal. . of the Divine Light sustaining all being. This is the Or Makif which irradiates the Kelim in a transcending. It would be impossible for the finite body to contain and absorb the original light. Thus there remains a more intense aspect of the Divine Light which cannot be vested in the Kelim and remains beyond them . See Tanya. chapter 48.16 15. Outside the chalal the light is in its pristine manifestation. albeit pervasive.Orot and Kelim 123 To take the analogy further: The soul of man is neither a selfsufficient nor original power of life. form. 111. sect.27) must be a strongly concealed and contracted illumination. The Or Pnimi is analogous to the Immanence of E d ( Memale Kol Almin . Thus the "Light of the Eternal which is the soul of man" (Prouerbs 20.

124 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM But just as in the case of Menude Kol Almin and Soueu Kol Almin. or body). below-above. its influence is nonetheless pervasive and active there in a hidden manner. just sufficient to animate them in a limited state. Cf. end of section 1 and note 10 ad loc. supra. being clothed within the worlds (or Kelim. the Or Pnimi compares to the various soul-powers which manifest themselves in specific limbs and organs according to their innate capacities. from head to foot. being diffused throughout all the organs. which is not apprehended by the worlds. Though the soul pervades the whole body. and the examples given there to illustrate and elucidate these concepts. chapter 48. These concepts relate strictly to the degree of revealed influence or emanation: The influence which is in a state of revelation or manifestation in the worlds (or Kelim. chapter IV. 'filling7-'encompassing'). or body). Thus even while the Or Makif is altogether concealed within the worlds or Kelim. but remains in occultation and concealment relative to the worlds (Kelim or body). or body) is referred to in terms of investiture. is not described as being "invested but as "encircling and encompassing" ( Makif. .lo The Or Makif (or Or Sovev) is the principal light from which only an extremely minute and contracted reflection clothes and reveals itself in the worlds (or Kelim. it manifests its vitality and powers in each limb or organ according to its composition and character: the brain for 16. The influence which is not manifest. See Tanya. we must beware of any spatial connotations in the literal sense ( inside-outside. In the analogy from the soul. Sovev ) .

the essence-will which both pervades and transcends (see supra. chapter 51. and S.0701. S . analogous to the concept of ratzon . 169 f . The Or Makif is analoguos to the essence of the soul. the mouth for speaking. though it remains concealed and the individual capacities are not manifested by it in the limbs and organs. without distinction between various parts. p. p. the eye for seeing..V. This is the aspect of Or Pnimi which manifests itself in different ways and gradations. Achdut Hashem. Thus the Or Makif constitutes the principal light and radiates in both pervasive and transcendent form without being manifest. In this context the Or Makif is the aspect of Keter. remaining equally concealed throughout. See Derech Mitzootecha. Binyan Mikdash. section 3). chapter 111. the ear for hearing. .17 17. 120 f. the feet for walking and so on. and Kelim 125 reasoning. . It extends vitality and illumination equally throughout the body. Tanya. cf. V .

.

It refers to the innermost point.. Pnimiyut means Inwardness. and Back. XIX. the essence or essential-being of the subject to which it is applied. sect. See lgeret Hakodesh. sect.l Opposed to Pnimyut is Chitzoniyut. respectively. Achorayim). Ibid. IV..l. and synonymous with the concept of Chit~oniyut. Panim is an expression of Pnimiyut. IV and XU(. Ibid. Outwardness. Chitzoniyut is the furthest point from the Pnimiyut. of the subject to which it is applied. sect. XXIIa (see notes . The terms themselves suggest their meanings. 2. It is the most external. Externality. the core. 3. the lowest level. X I X .~ 1. Face. and Achor (pl.).* Synonymous terms are Panim. Achor is both literally and conceptually the antonym of Panim. VII (see note 27 a.CHAPTER SIX Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut are terms which occur frequently in Kabbalistic and Chassidic literature.

the Divine Light. Abraham ibn Daud..l. V. sect. S h e m nah Perakim. See Maimonides. cited in Kessef Mishneh a." this refers then to the lowest level of the Kelim of the Sefirah "Makhut of Aztilut. and cf. Igeret Hakodesh.l. 4. ch.e. For example. refers to the very lowest and most external rank and level of that Sefirah. the critique by R.). The Achorayim. . we refer to the very essence of that Sefirah. and HiZchot Yesodei Hatorah I:10 (cf. when we come across a term4 such as the "aspect of the Chitzoniyut of the Kelim of Makhut of Atzilut. i.. E.g.). elaborated in Moreh Nevuchim I:21 and 37. VII. Tanya I:22.128 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM When we speak of the Pnimiyut of a Sefirah." 29(31) and 36(38) a. or Chitzoniyut of a Sefirah.

Shi'ur Komah. though see especially Etz Chuyim. 53c 8.CHAPTER SEVEN Shevirat Hakelim Sheoird Hakelim. AspakZuya Hameirah on Zohr 111: 135a %.. 81-109). 135a-b. ~ Shevirat Hakelim (the Breaking of the Vessels) is the keyconcept in the explanation of the basic problem of multifariousness 1. Likutei Torah. Va'eira. Shdar Hahakdamot. Schneur Zalrnan this concept is explained in Torah Or.' Their source is in the Zoharic books Sifra Detzeniyuta. and in the teachings of R. and Yitro.). In the writings of R. [For R. ibid. II:37c ff. Cf.. ch. and the adjunct concepts to be explained in the chapters following. 56d f. 142a-b.. Derush B e ' o h Hanekudim (pp. 6 fl. Hanekudim (Sha'ar 8 f. Tzvi Hirsh Horowitz. (p. Zohar II:176b. 2.) Meuoh She'arim II:2: 1-11. and Zdra Z ~ t t a . Eyn Habedo1ach:I:ch. III:128a. The concept of Sheuirat Hakelim appears throughout the various works of the Lurianic system.. 60. 110d. Elima Rabbaty. are central doctrines in the Kabbalah in general. Hechul . Idra Rabba. and III:82c. ibid. 27c f. Moses Cordovero's interpretation on these passages see Pardess Rimonim 5:4. Isaac Luria in particular.] . Vayesheu. also R.

It contained within it the successive radiations of Chochmah to Makhut."~ The original emission of the Sefirot was that of the scheme of Zggulim.^ and the mystical account of the eight kings who "reigned in the land of Edom. see also I Chronicles 1:43 ff. From the most sublime aspect of Keter issued forth the Sefirah of Chochmah. 4. and from Binah issued forth the Midot in unison. Now each Keli is commensurate with its respective Sejrah. compounded of ten gradations. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot. before there reigned any king over the children of I~rael. . As the Sejirot axe on successively lower levels. At first there issued forth a highly concentrated. Thus the Vessel of Chochmah is smaller than the Vessel of Keter. It is based on the Midrashic account of the building and destruction of the primordial world^. and 9:2. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot. from which the ten Sejrot proceeded in gradual order. and so forth. Genesis Rabba 3:7. it must be remembered that the first issue is that of a Keli (Vessel) into which an Or (Light) can then emanate and be contained. seminal point of light.. and from the latter issued forth Malchut. When we speak of successive issuances. Binah to Makhut.130 MYSTICAL CONCEF'TS IN CHASSIDXSM and the origin of evil. From Chochmah emanated the Sefirah Binah. The most sublime aspect of the original point became Keter. When the light of the En Sof radiated to the Vessel of Keter (including the lights destined for the suc- 3. Genesis 36:31 f. the Vessel of Binah is smaller than the Vessel of Chochmah. their Kelim are also successively smaller.

as with the other Sefirot. i. See supra. Chesed. The total light was then projected to the Vessel of the next Sefirah. section 2. being both "large" and "strong" enough. or Transcending Light.cessive Sejirot). Likewise. The Vessel of Yesod was able to contain this light and project it further. This was so because not only the light meant for Da'at.. to which was projected at first only the light destined for the remaining stage. but also the lights meant for the lower Sefirot were projected into that Vessel. broke for the same reason. But as the Divine Light proceeded further. and it. thus all the Vessels broke. The only change occurred on the level of Yesod. when the total light emanated from the upper Sefirot to 5. the Vessel of Chochmuh was able to absorb practically all of it. including the lights destined for the lower Sefirot. Malchut. the relatively minor excess of light encompassed this Vessel by way of an Or Makif ( Encompassing. from Binuh to Da'at. for this term. This process continued and repeated itself with the next Sefirot. too. The unequal proportion of extremely intense Orot and extremely subtle Kelim precipitated this eventful occurrence. chapter V. which were more than it could endure. The Kelirn of Chochmh and Binah could contain these lights because of their close proximity to Keter. when the light from Keter flowed to Chochmh. though this emanation was already much less intense. the point of Keter was able to contain and endure it.e. But then. ) The same occurred with the flow from Chochmah to Binah. . the Vessel of Da'at could not contain the light and was shattered by the intensity of the radiation.

ch. however. On all the aforementioned see sources mentioned supra. only the higher and more subtle aspects broke. note 1. I. .. Sha'ar Hakelalim. However. infra. while the lower ones remained relatively intact. independent points (the scheme of I g g ~ l i r n ) . see Genesis Rabba 38:6. when the total light of the Midot was projected to Malchut. bond or unity. Ephraim's unity saved him despite his sinfulness. See supra. 8. is the fact that these Sefirot were ~ separate. Therefore. by then the light of Malchut. 111. the principal "flaw" which precipitated the "breaking of the vessels" and the dissolution of the original scheme of the Sejirot.its Vessel also broke. I. In opposition to this pluralism "it is written: "Ephraim is united in idolatry. 7.e. they were rather like individuals. ch. That is why their Kelirn were unable to endure the Orot and they "died. was already absorbed in the Vessel of Malchut. I X .8 for unity effects preservation and maintenance. p. A common saying has it that when 6. and Etz Chayim.These Sefirot of Iggulim were a Reshut Harabim ( a domain of pluralism) because there was no unison. section 8. and cf. Id f. thereby strengthening the lower and less subtle aspects of that Vessel. At its root.132 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Yesod . let him alone" (Hosea 4:17). Hence in Malchut the breakage was only partial6 The above account of the disproportion between the Orot and Kelim is a "descriptive account" of the "mechanical event" of Sheoirat Hakelim. ch. Limudei Atzilut (Lemberg 1850). each going his own way without any love or affection between them.

while the body.1. The soul per se." f 12. These Kings who died allude to the Vessels which broke.l0 Now. . for they were not separate points but inter-re1ated. in Genesis.c. (supra note 2). is not affected by death. but if you take just three together they will endure and will not break. Analogous to this is that which occurred to the Kings: the "soul" [the Orot of the Sefirot] ascended to be re-absorbed in its source.."@For this very reason the first three Sefirot were preserved. Because the breakage was complete in the first seven. In the first account of the Kings. while the remains 9. Of these Kings it is stated that they reigned and then died. in the second account. therefore. it is stated of all eight Kings that they died. in Chronicles.12 Death means the separation of soul from body: the soul ascends to return to its source. whereas for the body it is a lowering and degradation to be reduced from its erstwhile level of being part of man to the present level of a lifeless corpse. the sources speak mostly o the "seven Kings of Edom. only seven broke completely. is returned to earth. Etz Chclyim 11:s. However. the eight Kings who reigned in the Land of Edom are the Eight Sefirot issuing from B i d : Da'at to Malchut. Ibid. they will break. it is only of the first seven Kings that Scripture states that they died. they are the primordial worlds which were destroyed.ll that is.you take ten reeds separately. made of the dust of the earth. 11.. Zohar a. but not of the eighth. 10. this refers to the breaking of the Vessels.see also ibid. but not the eighth. 9:2 and 19:l.. and III:87a 8. and see Likutei Torah II:37c g.

this refers to the unformed Sefirot of the Zggulirn. For in the case of the "Kings" there was not a real and final death. within the "dead or broken vessels). to Beriah and so on.). they are regarded as having died.134 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of the "body". Hence. from a sublime level to lower levels. a real and final separation in totality of the Orot from the Kelim. i. . as the parts fell to the realm of Atzilut. Etz Chayim 11:4. . as they were not yet ordered and inter-related. Likutei Tomh III:82c." "And the spirit of G-d n 3 R l D (hovered) . Cf. Vayeshev. the word n B R l D divides into two parts: n'b and R"DY ("died. Therefore. 27d. Torah Or. and 18:l. these 288 sparks were subdivided 13. Genesis Rabba 96:3. Etz ChayZm 18:l.. However.e. Zohar 111:13%. we speak of 288 general sparks (Nitzotzin). the fragmented Kelim of the Sefirot.15but as they fell further. the residue of the Divine Light attached to them was also "fragmented. l4 As the parts of the vessels were projected downwards they broke further into an ever increasing number of fragments. the analogy does not hold true altogether. . 14." as it were." and the number 288). Death is used here in the figurative sense of applying to any degradation:13 as the broken Kelim fell. but separate principles." (ibid. This is adduced in Genesis 1:2: "And the earth was tohu and vohu (unformed and unordered)". thereby causing the "death of the Kings. A residue of the Orot remained attached to the fragments. fell to their "grave". referring to the death o the Kings and the division of the residue of the Divine Light f into 288 sparks (the sparks encumbered in the midst of the word n n . 15.

they became not only more numerous but also less tenuous. they have some unassimilable parts which. illustrates this process with an analogy to food:17 Man may select the best of foods in which. Sefer Hagilgulim (Vilna 1886). there is no waste or useless matter whatever. the great expositor of the Kabbalah. chemically speaking. the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Yetzirah.into an ever greater number of smaller sparks.16 R. the broken Vessels. Chaim Vital. when he consumes this food and it is digested and assimilated in his body. Meuoh She'arim II:3:8. not so much because the original fragments became cruder themselves. Precisely so. The most subtle aspects of the broken K l m are totally absorbed and assirniei lated in Atzilut. Pardess Rimonim 25:1. as they are projected down the various levels and assimilated among them. each one attached to a fragment. and the lowest grades are in Asiyah. they are the substance of evil. the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Beriah. Moses Cordovero. but because the more subtle aspects were gradually assimilated and absorbed among the successive grades and levels. as these fragments fell continuously deeper. metaphorically speaking. Even so. metaphorically speaking. The lowest grades which could not be assimilated in the realm of holiness become the realm of impurity. though essentially pure mixtures of light. it is totally and absolutely pure. ch. 17. Also. even the purest food will show some refuse that is expelled from the body for being unassimilable. 1. are called their 16. R. .

sect. The "waste" of Isaac's Gevurah extended to Esau. and note 14(17) a. ibid. end of chapter IX. The unassimilable waste of Beriah was projected to Yetzirah. they form the four elements.. is essentially a place to which Gevurah and Din are bound to and derive from (see sources cited supra. as such. and sect. Hence. Gewrah. also infra. material and cruder the elements become until they assume the characteristics of matter as we know it. 19. Cf. note 57 (63) ). They become more distinct entities and are. supra. 111. see Igeret Hakodesh. 11. That is. just sufficient to sustain their existence. note 13 (16). and Edom in its source is the aspect of the original Kelim (cf. the substance of evil is always referred to as the "waste" and "refuse" of the aspects of Geuurala (see Zohar I:74b. XXV. Hence. . where some of it was assimilable 18. those aspects that could be assimilated in that World became the creatures of Beriah. because the fragments are deprived of the Orot and retain but a spark of holiness.. ' Now. and the lower they fall the more tangible. note 12). note 30 (33) 1. just as the waste of Abraham's Chesed extended to Ishmael.) so Esau is the aspect of impure Gevurah (cf.'* As they fell to Beriah. The substance of evil thus consists of the waste and remains of the Kings of Edom. that tzimtzum. son of Isaac. the root-elements of all creations.1. The unassimilable waste of Yetzirah was projected to Asiyah. Edom is the realm of Esau. The attribute of Isaac is that of Gevumh (see supra. sect. note 107). just as Ishmael is the aspect of impure Chesed (see Igeret Hakodesh. Din. On the higher levels they are the tenuous root-elements of the elements [which are practically spiritual. X X . Edom. ibid. This waste and refuse is the essence of evil and impurity. where some of it was assimilable and became the creatures of Yetziwh.136 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM waste and refuse. they lead ever more "independent" existences. thus. and K l m may be taken as synei onymous). chapter V. 148a). the fragments are the origin and substance of matter. ch.

Yetzirah and Asiyah are called the Realm of Pimd (Division). 22. 19:3. Rachamim and so on. Cf. See supra. chapter XI. XX. ch. section 7. and for the existence of evil. And this.. and notes 143-144 a. Vayeshev. . indeed. 27d. the lower Worlds of Beriuh. Sha'ar Hakelalim. chapter 111. Etz Chayim 43: Introduction. Igeret Hakodesh. 21. however. and III:159a f. and ibid. is the very intent and purpose of Shevirat Hakelim: it brought about the subjects over which the King can rule in a meaningful way. and note 3 a. Note.. infm. while the unassimilable waste of Asiyah remained on the lower levels of this Realm as the elements of evil. See Torah Or. thus acting as their "animating principles" or "souls". even on the lowest. while Atzilut is called the Realm of Yichud (Unity) because the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut are fully absorbed in Divinity and not separated from It.20 The fragments thus are responsible for the multifariousness in G-d's creation. Din. 2.Sheuirat Hakelim 137 and became the creatures of Asiyah.22 20. Because of the multiplicity in them. there remain sparks of holiness attached to the fragments which sustain their existence. See infra. see Zohar II:234a f. chapters X and XI. see Etz Chuyim.21 and provides then1 with a choice between good and evil so that the King may manifest His attributes of Chesed.1. beginning of sect. Cf.l.. that on all levels.

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Mevoh She'arim II:3:4. 2. . XIX. The Sefirot. 179b. The Kelim of the Midot were for their own Orot only. In the new order the Sefirot had to be repaired in such a way that a breakage would not ensue. sect. This chapter is based essentially on Etz Chayim 11:7. Hakd.CHAPTER EIGHT Partzufim The original scheme of the Sefirot was unable to exist. Stddur h Perush Hamilot. Likutei Tomh II:37d. Igeret Hakodesh. therefore. 1-11. p. were re-established in a new order in which the Kelim would be able to absorb and contain the Orot and the emanations could proceed in a gradual manner. as seen in the preceding chapter. ch. The reason for the breakage was that the original Sefirot were independent principles and had not been brought into harmony with each other. Shahr Hahakdamot. and therefore could not absorb any additional light meant for others. and Shu'ar Hakelalim. thus allowing the 1. and V:19d. Cf.

and note 86(95) a. Macroprosopus).. Binah of Arich Anpin. as it were.140 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDISM Divine emanations to proceed in such a way as would make it possible for a world to come into being. supra. chapter 111. is the substratum of everything. The principle of Chochrnah is converted to the Partzuf of Abba (Father). section 8) in which every Sefirah functions. also called the Yosher of Adam Kadmon (i. Configurations).. and the principle of Binah is converted to the Partzuf of Immu (Mother. the basic Sefirot-scheme of Yosher as it is in the Realm of Adam Kadmon). sect. or Extended Face. See lgeret Hakodesh. the other two Sefirot that remained intact were also transmuted.e. by harmonising the Sefirot. and able to absorb the Orot.1. This Partzuf is called Arich Anpin (the long. from Keter of Adam Kadmon to Malchut of Asiyah (though in an ever more concealed mode). This is effected by extending.2 Subsequently. X X . note 16. Arich Anpin. each compounding all ten Sefirot. causing them to function within one another. but it is converted into a configuration analogous to the Man-Image (referred to above. . Both Abba and Imma are complete Partzufirn. or Supernal Mother). Visages. Thus it extends from the highest to the lowest level. and so forth. chapter IV. In this new order the Sefirot appear as Partzufirn (Forms. In this Configuration we speak of Keter of Arich Anpin. 2. cf. Chochmuh of Arich Anpin. according to the scheme of Yosher. Keter is no longer a simple point in which the other Sefirot are included as latent points. Thus the Kelim would be larger and stronger. though Keter is the dominant aspect. the Sefirot.

whose Kelim had been shattered completely.Thus we speak of Keter of Abba. Chochmah of Abba. Thus they are. again compounding all ten aspects of the Sefirot. known as Nukuah (the Female). as the Partzuf of Bat (the Daughter). This is the concept of the 3. and it is called Nukvah in terms of the Z'egr Anpin: the Midot are the masculine aspect of the Z'eyr Anpin. and III:4a. known as Z'eyr Anpin (the Small. Binah of Abba. and so forth. and so on. on its own. These two Partzujim are related by Keter (the faculty of Da'at Elyon) : their Configurations issue both from Arich Anpin and. Chochmah of lmma. 4. are parallel to each other (as Chochmah and Binah are in the scheme of Yosher. but because its Vessel did not break altogether it is a Partzuf.. . as the Partzuf of Ben (the Son). issue forth from lmma as a unit. See Zohar I:30b f. Hence Malchut yearns to be reunited with Z'eyr Anpin. or simply Malchut. Chesed to Yesod. or Lesser Countenance.4 To effect this union is the task of man. to become one with it. so to speak. as it were. Malchut is essentially related to the Midot. Microprosopus). a dual Configuration and are referred to as the "firm friends who never ~eparate". again compounding the ten aspects of the Sefirot. one on the right and the other on the left). Through Z'eyr Anpin issues forth Malchut.~ The six Midot. Zohar III:4a. by means of his worship and service to G-d. or unit. Nevertheless the relationship remains. and Keter of lmma.

142 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM "Unification (Yichud) of the Holy One. but from [above] His paths divide. There is no division in Him. 111. various aspects under which G-d manifests Himself. note 34).e. 7. In that day shall the Eternal be One and His Name One. . ch. 85. sect. the essence of Arich Anpin.o. chapter XI. All is. 19.~ re-establish total unity in the u n i ~ e r s e . do not imply any pluralism in the G-dhead. sect. Tanya 1:ch." (Zechariah 14:Q). See Keter Shem Tou. Zgeret Hakodesh. Said Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai: "Whatever I said of the Holy Ancient-One. 111. Atika Kadirha (see supra. He is unchanging. blessed be He and blessed be His Name foreverla~ting. s. 6. sect. i. 8. Intr. 9. See Zohar III:83a. and the concept of the Partzufim. blessed is He. is all One. Manifestations of the G-dhead. . and all shall be. . R. Shalom Buzaglo. and His She~hinah". Of this final goal it is said: "And the Eternal shall be King over all the earth. Zohar III:14la f .."~ "The sum of all this is: the Ancient of the Ancient and the Z'eyr Anpin are absolutely One. all was. He will not change. and from [below] judgment is found. W .: 3a. ~ to At this point we must remind ourselves once more that all these terms."O 5. Kissei Melech on Tikunei Zohar. The Partzufim are Faces.7 and whatever I said of the Z'eyr Anpin. Should you ask. what then is the difference between the one and the other? It is all One. Cf. It is from our perspective that they differ one from another. See infra. Keter Shem Tov. Zohur III:290a f. everything is absolutely One. 41. and He has not changed .

' Tikun (Correction. and Genesis 1:3 ("Let there be light. Tohu refers to the state of the original Sefirot. The term Tohu is taken from Genesis 1:2. These two orders are called the worlds of Tohu and Tikun. chapter VII. Isaac Luria reads Genesis 1:2 as referring to the World of Tohu.each on its own.~ Thus among the Sefirot of Tohu there is no interrelationship. as unformed and unordered points.rtz~fim. and there was light") as referring to the World of Tikun.CHAPTER NINE Tohu and Tikun We now have two schemes of Sefirot: the original scheme of Zggulim which precipitated Sheoirat Hakelirn. 2. note 15. . In this context R. Reformation) refers to the state of the Sefirot rearranged. Etz Chayim 8: 1. Restitution. see supra. and the subsequent scheme of Yosher in which the Sefirot were rearranged and the fragments had been assimilated as much as possible. without relating 1. The Midot of Tohu are one below the other without any mutual inclusion whatever . mended and reformed as Pa.

and behold it was very g o o d (Genesis 1:31) and G-d said "These please Me". for being the original emission c. Genesis Rabha 3:7. and precipitate Sllcvirat Hakelim. Hence man is able to control or mitigate his soul-powers of Chesed and Geuurah (e. Tikun has an advantage and superiority over Tohu: the perfection of the mutual inclusiveness and unity of Tikun is the condition drawing forth a manifest indwelling of the Or En Sof that is not to be found in Tohu. chapter 111.. and Geuurah is simple and absolute Gevurah.. and these are in the full inter-relationship of the Sefirot as compounds. compound one another. See Likutci Torah II:37c ff. on the other hand. . The Midot of Tikun permit the mitigating influence of Sechel and. and 9:2. on the other hand. The Sefirot of Tikun. chapter VII (notes 7-10). love and anger. note 151). In this context man is said to be rooted in the realm of Tikun as his soul compounds all ten aspects of the Sefirot (see supra. thus.144 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to its opposite.* 3. therefore. Da'at ) ." The realm of Toltu refers to the primordial worlds that were destroyed. of which G-d said "These do not please Me. 4 . Animals. they oppose one another. unable to control or mitigate them.f Sefirot. Though Tohu. is said to be rooted higher than Tikun. That is why the Midot assert themselves as Midot per se. Likutei Torah II:37e fl. Chesed is simple and absolute Chesed. and III:87a 8. as simple and absolute Midot. are rooted in Tohu: they express their natural emotive powers in a simple and extreme manner. and so on).-This is not to be understood in a sense of there being some accidental flaw in the original World of T o ~ u . without permitting the guidance of Sechel ( Chochmah." The realm of Tikun refers to the new worlds of which it is said: "And G-d saw everything that H e had made..g. they are fully separated and nonrelated. Binah. supra. are able to interrelate. and.

makes it possible for G-d to manifest His attributes of Chesed. And why does Scripture teach this? Could it not have been created by a single saying? But this was in order to exact penalty from the wicked . . . chapter V.Tohu and Tikun 145 I n the same context. ~ as this world could not subsist. the Creator mitigated the severity of Din by blending it with the attributes of Chesed and Rachamim. supra. Cf. Tiferet. 73a fl. 228 f. and to give good reward to the righteous") to the effect that the 'Ten Sayings' in the opening statement allude to the ten separate Sefirot of Tohu. Cf. 27a. and the discourse on this Mishnah in Sha'ar Hahakdamot (p. bringing into being the world of Tikun. note 3. the term Tikun has another. Mevoh She'arim I1:3:8. the flaw and defect of Tohu were intentionally and purposely formed to allow for the possibility of the effects of Shevimt Hakelim. 6. note 18. and chapter VII. Toldot. Genesis Rabba 12:15.). see also R. Tolzu is the original world created by the and attribute of Din ( G e u ~ r a h ) .1. Zohar 111: 38a. in chapter XI on Birur and Tikun. and so forth (the principles of reward and punishment spoken of in the Mishnah). On the contrary. Cf. which will b e explained further on. Gevurah. in turn. Zohar Chadash. See Zohar I:180b and 280b. a n active sense. infra. providing man with an opportunity to choose between good and evil which. Avot a. 5. Chairn Vital. The actual order of creations through the stages of Tohu and Tikun allows for the possibility of evil. See Etz Chayim l l : 6 . Isaac Luria interprets the Mishnah of Aoot V:l ("By ten sayings the world was created. and the 'single saying' in the question refers to the unified compound of the Sefirot of Tikun. Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby Ve-Razal. . Thus R. chapter XI.).O Beside this descriptive connotation. (I1:pp.

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Each of these subsists by virtue of a spark of holiness attached to them.CHAPTER TEN Kel ipot. Chitzonim means the ''external ones.. note 20. the "waste" of holiness that constitutes evil. This holy spark.e. the side distinguished from and opposed to holiness and purity.. See supra. consists of the unassimilable parts of the broken Vessels. Kelipot means shells." i. The substance of evil.' is encumbered and enclosed by the shells just as the edible fruit is encumbered and 1. the most exterior forces." i. or barks. thus their waste and refuse. their vital force without which they would cease to exist.e. Chitzonim. chapter VII. Sitra Achra The terms in this chapter-heading are synonymous. They are the names for evil and impurity. chapter XI. as already mentioned earlier. Sitra Achra means the "other side. or the Kelipot. and infra. . the outer shells that contain the edible fruit but are themselves inedible.

Hilchot Melachim VII1:ll. 3. between absolute good and absolute evil. and "a Brightness (Nogah) round about it" denotes the fourth Kelipah. one over the other. It is an intermediary between holy and profane. Zohar III:227a. Their nurture and vitality from holiness comes to them through the medium of Kelipat Nogak3 The four Kelipot. Igeret Hakodesh. 4. Cf. 37. The significance of these two classes will be understood by the following: The Torah. and not altogether evil. they are not in direct contact with the spark but cover the Kelipat Nogah. 6 f.. Kelipat Nogah (the Nogalz being a radiation from holiness). There are four basic Kelipot. Cf. divided into two classes:' the three altogether impure and evil Kelipot. Mishnat R. 6 . idem. Maimonides. Eliezer. therefore. ch. sect. On all this see Etz Chayim 49:2 8. chs. the revealed Word of G-d." "great cloud. Kelipat Nogah is the "skin" immediately covering the spark of holiness. is the criterion of absolute good and absolute evi1. Hence we arrive at the analogous term of Kelipot. and the term Nogall.Shemonah Perakim. and Kelipat Nogah.." and "a fire taking hold of itself.. 4 and 6. On its own. 5 ." these denote the three totally impure Kelipot. are adduced in Ezekiel I: 14:4 "Stormy wind. Thus it is in direct contact with holiness. The other three Kelipot are further removed. it is unable to make itself felt and to dominate over the shell. Tanya I: ch. XXV and XXVI.148 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM enclosed by its shell. See Zohar II:203a-b.j Whatever man is enjoined to do 2. . Tanya I: ch.

and be absorbed in. because whereas the food is essentially fit and permitted for consumption (thus not forbidden).. All matters pertaining to the realm of what is essentially permissible (according to the Torah) . 5. Asher on Leviticus ' 9:2. simple eating and drinking) is intentionally performed for a higher purpose. the eating and drinking were for purely sensual pleasure. When the permitted action (as. utterances. Chitzonim. Tzavaat Harioash.essentially flow and derive from Kelipat Nogah. sect. alternatively.~' If. 94-95 (and my notes ad loc. on the other hand. or.Kelipot. the realm of holiness. . for example. Bachya ben R. and be absorbed in. the three evil Kelipot. for the sake of Heaven (i. Hilchot De'ot ch. sect. whatever man is prohibited from doing is absolute evil. and on Keter Shem Tov. between pure holiness and absolute impurity. temporarily. then the vitality of this action (and the permitted objects it involves) is distilled and absorbed in the realm of holine~s.in distinction from what is commanded. actions. to have the strength and energy to serve G-d). thoughts. Kelipat Nogah. This means that all derivations of Kelipat Nogah can fall to. 3-4. and to the exclusion of what is prohibited . commentaries by Nachmanides and R. has some relationship to both. Sitm Achra 149 is absolute good.e. Cf. 2 8 2 ) . without any more sublime intention. its vitality can 5' See Maimonides. and so on) flow and derive from the three altogether impure Kelipot. Therefore all matters pertaining to the prohibitions of the Torah (the forbidden objects. ch. they can be elevated to. being an intermediary category. and Shemonah Perakim. then this vitality is degraded and temporarily absorbed in the three unclean Kelipot.

" "bound.1 s MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM revert and ascend to holiness along with the consumer when he returns (Teshuuah) to the service of C-da8 The etymology of the Hebrew terms for permitted and forbidden. . until the day when death (another synonym for evil) will be devoured forever. with great love and fervour. and Igeret Hakodesh. 6. and from a soul passionately desiring to cleave to the blessed G d and thirsting for G-d like a parched desert soil." "free". 8. 8 ." For the forbidden matter is bound and held captive in the power of the Chitzonim. Though even then a trace of the evil remains in the body.e." i. XXVI. Assur literally rneans "chained. Muttar and Aswr respectively.s The meaning and intent of the Kelipot will be discussed in the next chapter. as it is written (Zechariah 13:2):"And I will cause the unclean spirit to pass from the earth". 7. Muttar literally means "released. a Teshuuah coming from the depths of the heart. that is.. sect. elucidates this point.. necessitating the purgatory of the grave. The Chitzonim prevent it from ever ascending and becoming absorbed in holiness. 8. see also ibid. Tanya I: ch. the permitted matter is not tied and bound by the power of the Chitzonim so that it would be prevented from returning and ascending to holiness. 7. or until the sinner who intentionally partook of the forbidden repents to such an extent that his premeditated sins become transmuted into veritable meritsY7 which is achieved through "repentance (Teshuuah) out of love. ch. Rosh Hashanah 29a. Tanya I: ch.

Cf. note 2. gave to Israel the Torah . . "Clearly the purpose of the evolution of the worlds and their gradual descent is not for the sake of the higher worlds . blessed be He.the making of this world an abode for Divinitya2 1. infra. Intr. 2. apd Nasso: 18). And for this purpose the Holy One. in comment on the Midrashic statement that the purpose of the creation is the Divine wish to have an abode in the nether realms just as in the supernal ones (Tanchuma. For such was Hs blessed i Will that He delights in the sitra achra being subdued and in darkness being turned to light so that the Divine Light of the blessed En Sof shall shine forth in the place of darkness and sitra achra. throughout the world . 36. sect. 'The purpose of all the contractions (tzimtzumim) is the creation of . . See Tikunei Zohar. but the ultimate purpose [of creation] is the lowest world. . .CHAPTER ELEVEN Birur and Tikun Man created last but first in intent.' has his abode in this physical world which is also the abode of the Kelipot.". VII. Tanya I: ch. . Bechukotai: 3. note 14.: 6a. and Zgeret Hakodesh. . For it is man's task and mission to subdue the Kelipot and prevail over them by means of Torah and the M i t z w t in order to realise the Divine Will .

4. to bring about the preeminence o light supplanting darkness . ch. VII. Maimonides. all your heart" means with both your inclinations.. This significant occurrence was not a catastrophic accident due to some flaw in the cosmogonic process. . And only where man uses this free choice to perform his tasks and duties can he be rewarded accordingly. . chapter IX. 2. 3. with all your heart" (Deuteronomy 6:s). Berachot IX:5. 37:2. . for this is the purpose for the descent of the world . For only where there is an alternative between good and evil can man have freedom of choice. and this is the essence of man's devotion in his Divine service: to elicit the Light of the blessed En Sof down below". the evil inclination as well as the good inclination. 49. and see Emunot Vede'ot IV: Introd. and receive his requirements from a perspective of law. supra. righteousness. 35-37] at length. Zgeret Hakodesh.3 Evil therefore serves a Divine purpose. and equity. your G d . the evil inclination in man is an instrument for the love of G-d. Mishnah. note 4. sect. On the contrary. In fact. ibid. . 1. . it was a lawful and purposive development in order to bring about evil. and state that there can be no greater service done to G-d than to bring the evil inclination into subjection by the power of love for G-d. and Sha'ar Hakelalim.* The Kabbalah and Chassidism are very emphatic on this. Etz Chayim 11:6. and ch. ch. ch. Introduction to Commentary on the Mishnah. as has been f explained earlier [Tanya I. Pardess Rimonim 253. Cf. 39: 1. Accordingly it is written: "And you shall love the "with Eternal.152 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM It has already been explained that the Kelipot are derived from the "Breaking of the Vessels". cf. For when man thus subdues evil the material human body and the subjugation of the sitra achra.

blessed is He. 91. 171 and Addenda sect.' Cf. so that man may be rewarded with benefits. can an evil servant come and counteract the will of his master and tempt man to walk in an evil way. rejected her allurements and thrust her from himself. above and below. Obediently the woman used every blandishment to seduce the prince. repulsing him from the good way and causing him to disobey the will of the Lord?' To solve this apparent paradox the Zohar states that in fact the intended purpose of evil is merely to execute the Will of G-d. and illustrates this by the famous "parable of the harlot": A king instructed and cautioned his son to lead an exemplary moral life and not to fall prey to temptation. how. At this the royal father 4. and Or Torah. 203. sect. the Baal Shem Tov and the Maggid's comments on Avot IV:1. in fidelity to his father's instructions. but he. blessed is He. that men should worship Him and walk in the way of truth. Now who has seen a servant working against his master and laying plans to counteract everything that is of his master's will? It is the will of the Holy One. p. As this is the will of the Holy One. secretly. the king brought before him a beautiful and clever woman and commanded her to seduce his son in order to test his obedience and devotion to his father. is for the purpose of manifesting His glory and for His service. continually. blessed is He." "All that the Holy One.Birur and Tikun 153 and harnesses its power. in Keter Shem Tou. has made. Then. . then. he becomes a true lover of G-d. because he has learnt how to make the very evil inclination serve G-d.

as the sitra achra is subdued below. firstly. and no good except when it proceeds from evil. See the commentaries on this passage. 36) . . thus causing a sublime unification (Yichud) and an immense manifestation which then radiates downwards. See also the discussion of "evil" in Tzavaat Hariuash. blessed is He. To be sure. albeit in limited measure. just sufficient for their intended purpose. note 9. see Etz Chayim 31:2. 130 (and my notes ad loc. Chaim Vital. 5. and Likutei Torah III:37c 8. That is. they do not s d c e with the seduction of man but seek "to conquer and prevail with full force.. Evil. cf. she caused the son to receive all that good and led to that intense love of the king for his Thus it is man's purpose to subdue the Sitra Achra and to harness its power for good.154 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM rejoiced exceedingly. and end of ch. there is no worship of G-d except when it issues forth from darkness. and secondly. Cf. Tanya I: ch. the Holy One. see R. and idem. Sha'ar Hapessukirn on Proverbs 9 :17 (p. Etz Chayim 48:2. 24. lends additional vitality and strength to the Kelipot. Zohar II:163a. also ibid." thus necessitating a severe battle against them. she fulfilled the king's command. 26 and 253). But as man. is exalted above6 and is aggrandized in His glory. 29.. 9. In our sense it can be quite real. sect. for. as well as on Keter Shem Tov. 6. ch. . who caused all that glory to the prince? None other but the temptress! And the Zohar concludes: "Surely she is to be praised on all counts. sect. thus. through his sinful actions.. the Kelipot exist only by virtue of the Divine Will and receive their vitality from the sources of holiness (the "sparks of holiness"). infra. foraWhen that Sitra is subdued. Now. and he bestowed upon his son the greatest gifts and highest honours. In fact. its source in the supernal Gevurot is subdued above. Shabr Hamitzuot on Exodus 22:6 (p. is not a mere negation.. 267).

and sources cited there. 87b and 128b. chapter VII. 247a f. The KeEipot deriving from the original Kelim which.1° The Kelipot thus serve a distinct purpose. and that is the perfect wor~hip. 9a f . see supra. See Derech Emunah. originate in the supernal Gevurah. also note 8." Cf. 8. When this spark is extricated from the Kelipot and restored to the realm of Holiness to be absorbed there. XV. he causes a reciprocal effect that the Divine attribute of Gevumh will subdue and prevail over the Supernal Judgments (Hmntakat Hadinim: the "mitigation of the Judgments") and the Divine Chesed and Rachamim will manifest themselves below unhindered. See further Siddur im Perush Hamibt. Zohur Chadash. in turn. Zohar II:184a.Birur and Tikun 155 The perfection of all things is attained when the intermingled good and evil become totally good. for there is no good except if it issues out of evil. Selichot). There is a spark (Nitzotz) of Divinity attached to them which allows them to subsist as a servant to serve the Master's purpose.. sect."~ As man arouses his own attribute of geuurah8 to subdue the waste of the Supernal Cevurah below9 and to prevail over it.. supra. note 18. And this is the task of man: to extricate that spark 7. Tanya I: ch. that precisely this "sweetening of the judgments. see supra. ) . section 2 (p. chapter I. 10. that repel the decrees [judgments]' (Liturgy. Tik. 9. This is essentially also the concept of "the righteous turn the attrib- . 27. Cf. p. the Kelipot are deprived of their vitality and cease to exist. 94b: "From the side of Geuurah they are called 'The valiant ones (Giborim) that stand in the breach. elicits the most abundant good. and Igeret Hakodesh." the mitigation of Gevurah. The faculty in man's soul which corresponds to the Sefilah Gevurah. See also ibid.. By that good His glory rises.

Igeret Hakodesh. and this is the concept of Tikun. IV and note 34(46) a. 9. 6. also Zohar II:63a. 31:17. 39:l. ch. see Etz Chayim. That is. This is called Birur. lgeret Hakodesh. the potentially holy objects (Kelipat Nogah) are sublimated and absorbed in the realm of holiness by the properly performed actions and by safeguarding them from the Chitzonim. while the wicked turn the attribute of Rachamim into the attribute of Gevurah and Din". Cf. For as Kelipat Nogah ute of Din and Gevurah into the attribute of Rachamim. also Igeret Hakodesh. end of sect.e. See Zohar III:137b. sect. in their Divinely intended context. mentioned in Deut. sect. S.1. XI1 and XIII. this concept of Birur is the theme of l"t) nH7yil (the "elevation of Mayin Nukvin (feminine waters)"). Panim). as in Numbers 6:25. and the sources cited there. Most intimately related to.156 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of holiness. and the proper cosmic order is restored. the "fruit" is extracted. i. sect.ll Bimr means Extrication. and supra. and practically identical with. . Disencumbrance. he extricates the spark of Divinity (Birur) and restores it to its source. The implication is that there is no change in G-d but only in. Tanya I : chs. while the limitations of Gevurah and the severity of Din emerge as the concealment implied by Gevurah is increased and strengthened by sin (the notion of Hesster Panim. See Etz Chayim 39:l. as opposed to Heorat Panim. and supra. XXVII and XXVIII. by withstanding the temptations of evil. 11. Genesis Rabba 33:3. 10 and 53. cf. end of ch. the Shining Illumination or Manifestation of the Divine Countenance.V. actively or passively. Pardess Rimonim 25:3. thus causing the Restitution and Reintegration (Tikun) of the whole Being. Igeret Hakodesh. When man relates consciously to the derivatives of the Kelipot. and relative to. Chesed is free to emanate as the concealment and restraint of Gevurah and Din are removed. The "shell" is broken. the Concealment or "Hiding" of the Divine Countenance.. 11. man.

15. 2:17 (pp. ibid. quoted supra. the spark of Holiness. 7. Cf. also ibid. See Tanya I: chs. also lgeret Hakodesh. For Adam. Chayim 39:l. the impure Kelipot (who receive their vitality through the medium of Kelipat Nogah) are deprived of their vitality and are annihilated. 37. Sinful acts retain and sustain the Sitra Achra. and cf. every improper act (sin) causes just the opposite. 17. . 1II:B. note 10 supra. and causing the spark of holiness to be further and increasingly imprisoned and encumbered among the Kelipot.6r. XXIII and XXXI.lE Every one has his share of sparks that he has to extricate and disencumber. or until the day when G-d will cause the spirit of impurity to pass from the earth. 16. Zohar III:74a ff. Igeret Hakodesh. 4a. 13.) for a detailed discussion of the sin of Adam and its implication. and III:79a. Bereishit. strengthened and increased the power of evil.lO The many sparks that fell because of his cata- 12.12 On the other hand.. on Gen. See Shahr Hapessukim.13 Kelipat Nogah is absorbed among the impure Kelipot. by his sin. end of ch. XXV. Tanya I : ch. sect. II:189a. 37.. and XXVI. is exiled among the Kelipot to remain there bound up and without escape until the sinner repents intensely. See Etz Chayim 47:6. Tanya I: ch. and 45. This is known as the concept of the Shechinah-inexile: l 4 the Shechinah.. See Zohar II:184a.Tohu and Tikun 157 is fully absorbed in the realm of holiness. IV. C f . Etz. sect. 14. thus strengthening them and increasing their power. the Divine Indwelling Presence. cf. X.

See Sha'ar Hamitzuot.). 20. p. and Torah Or. Ekev. also M ~ o h She'azim II:3:8. Ki Tissa: 12.1. 9b f . Zbid. l l l b fl.~~ when all the sparks shall have been released. 49. Isaac Luria. 21. Cf." See also ibid. Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby on Zohar II:254b (p. XI1 and XXVI.'@ This is the cause and purpose of the Galut (Exile. ) . then the Shechinah is altogether freed from Its exile and Israel is redeemed: the Messianic Era is ushered in. 27d. thereby prolonging the process of Birur. 26:l.Relative rectifications in the course of time were reversed and vacated by subsequent national sins of Israel (as in the Desert after the Exodus. XXVI. Sha'ar Hapessukim and Likutei Torah of R. The souls of all the descendants of Adam are "sparks" of the original soul of Adam.158 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASS~ISM strophic a d x 7 remain for his descendantsla to extricate. sect. Re'ey (pp. for a detailed discussion of the concept of G l u t and its various forms. Cf. et passim. 19. and D i a s p ~ r a ) And . le5b f. also Tanya I : ch. sect. . 39: 1. and lgeret Hakohsh. and in the periods of the First and Second Temples). see Exodus Rabba 40:2 f. (sect. and see also Etz Chayim 36:2.21 17. VII. sources cited in the preceding notes of this chapter (especially note 14). sect. 18.c. Tzavaat Harivash. See Etz Chuyim 3:3. 111. 26: 1.. See Zgeret Hakoaksh. See Zgeret Hakodesh. . and Tanchuma. sect. 109 and my notes ad loc. et passim. as interpreted in Sha'ar Hapessukim a. Vayeshev. and in R. 19:3. see the sources cited in notes 16-20. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar H a h a k h o t and Etz Chayim... Etz Chayim 50:3: "When man is born his soul needs to extricate those sparks that are of his share which had fallen unto Kelipat Nogah because of the sin of Adam.).

Bibliography and Index .

Midrashim..The Bibliography is limited to post-Talmudic texts. and their standard-commentaries. are not included. etc. . f The texts listed follow in alphabetical order o their titles. Bible. Talmud.

Vilna n. R. R. R. R. Joseph Albo. R. Jerusalem 1967 Derech Mitzvotechu. New York 1955 Avodat Hakodesh. Jerusalem 1968 Derech Emunuh. ed. New York 1954 Biurei Hazohur. R. R. Brooklyn 1965' Igeret Hakodesh. Chaim Vital. R. Saadiah Gaon. Menachem M . Judah Loewe of Prague. Solomon ibn Ade~et. Kohut. Diessen 1946 Degel Machuneh Ephrayim. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Meir ibn Gabbai. Brooklyn 1961 Hilchot Talmud Torah. Brooklyn 1956 Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat Hachassidut. R. Moses Cordovero. R. R. Brooklyn 1956 . Israel Baal Shem Tov]. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Moshe Chaim Ephrayim of Sudylkov. Brooklyn 1974 Kuntres Etz Hachuyim. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Josefow 1885 Etz Chuyim. Jerusalem 1963 Derashot Maharal. Chaim Vital. R. Dov Ber of Lubavitch. Menachem M . Moses Maimonides. Nathan ben Yechiel. R. Jerusalem 1966 Emunot Vede'ot. see Tanya lgeret Teyman. Jerusalem 1966 Chovot Hakvovot. Jerusalem 1954 Ben Porat Yoseph. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Keter Shem Too. Chaim David Azulay. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Bachya ibn Pakuda. Brooklyn 1945 Avodat Hakodesh. Brooklyn 1955 Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. R. ed. Jerusalem 1960 Ikkatim. R.d. R. Tel Aviv 1964 Aruch. R.Bibliography Arba Meot Shekel Kessej. R. Meir ibn Gabbai. R. Jacob Joseph of Polnoy. Joseph I. Tcl Aviv 1960 Hayom Y o n . Brooklyn 1953 Elina Rabbaty. R. R. R. Schneerson of Lubavitch. [R. Brooklyn 1971 Kuntres Limud Hachussidut.

Lemberg 1850 Maggid Devarav Leya'akou.162 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Kuntres Torat Hachussidut. Brooklyn 1945 Kuzay. Brooklyn 1957 Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar. Haifa 1928 Pardess Rimonim. R. Jerusalem 1962 Pen' Etz Chayim. Chaim Vital. Tel Aviv 1959 Likutei Amurim. Vilna 1883 and ed. R. Tel Aviv 1964 Or Hachamah. Tel Aviv 1963 Likutei Torah-Torat Shmuel. Tel Aviv 1961 Mishneh Torah.1. R. Brooklyn 1966 Or Hatorah-Neviim Uketuvim:I. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. Joseph I. Moses Cordovero. Shmuel Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Chaim Vital. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Chaim Vital. ed. Joseph I . Brooklyn 1969 Or Hatorah-Vayikra:II. Fuerth 1701 Or Torah. Moses Maimonides. Brooklyn 1965 Likutei Torah-Arizal. R. R. 1962-1978 Likutei Torah. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Azriel of Geronah. Przemysl 1896 Or Hatorah-Bereishit:& R. Vienna 1828 and Jerusalem 1960 Olat Tamid. R. [R. R. Chaim Vital. R. Judah Hachassid. R. Brooklyn 1946 Likutim Yekarim. R. R. R. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. R. see Tanya Likutei Diburim. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. R. R. Menachem M. R. Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Hachizyonot. Brooklyn 1974 Mevoh She'arim. R. Moses Maimonides. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1970-1971 Likutei Sichot. Moses Maimonides New York 1956 Moreh Neuuchim. R. Menachem Azaryah d e Fano. R. R. Jerusalem 1954 . Abraham Azulay. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Jerusalem 1957 [Sefer Habahir. R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech e. Moses Cordovero. Chaim Vital. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. R. R. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Brooklyn. Chaim Vital. Jerusalem (Margolius) 19511 Sefer Hachakirah. Jerusalem 1962 Pelach Harimon. Brooklyn 1974 Otzar Hageonfm-Chagigah. R. Brooklyn 1969 Or Ne'erav. Jerusalem 1963-1969 Sefer Chassidim. Tel Aviv 1966 and [Jerusalem] 1970 Perush Eser Sefirot. to A. R. Jerusalem 1967 Perush Hamishnah.a. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Judah Halevi. Jerusalem 1974 Limudei Atzilut. attr. R.

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Sefer Ha'emunot, R. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov, Jerusalem 1969 Sefer Hagilgdim, R. Chaim Vital, Vilna 1886 Sefer Hamaamarim 5700, R.Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Ha-sichot 5700, R. Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1956 Sefer Hatoldot-Maharash, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1947 Sha'ar Hagilgulim, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Shahr Hahakdamot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Shahs Hamitzvot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hapessukim, R.Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hayichud [Ner Mitzvah Vetorah Or], R. Dov Ber of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1974 Shabr Maamarei Rashby Verazal, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Sha'ar Ruach Hakodesh, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Sha'arei Kedushah, R. Chaim Vital, Horodna 1794 Sha'arei Orah, R. Joseph Gikatilla, Jerusalem 1960 Shenei Luchot Haberit, R. Isaiah Horowitz, Jerusalem 1963 Shemomah Perakim, see Perush Hamishnah Shi'ur Komah, R. Moses Cordovero, Jerusalem 1966 Shomer Emunim, R. Joseph Ergas, Jerusalem 1965 Shdchan Aruch-Arizal, Jerusalem 1961 Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 Tanya, R. Shneur Zahnan of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 [English translation, London 19731 Teshuvot Haribash, R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Jerusalem 1968 'Teshuvot Ubiurkn' (Responsa by R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch) , Bitaon Chabad, Kfar Chabad 1970-1971 Torah Or, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1954 Tzauaat Harivash, [R. Israel Baal Shem Tov and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech], ed. J. I. Schochet, Brooklyn 1975 Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666, R. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of I ubavitch, Brooklyn 1971

Index

Aaron, 86, 88 Abba, 78, 140 Binuh of -, 141 Chochmah of -, 141 Keter of -, 141 Abraham, 11, 86, 136 Abraham ibn Daud, R. (Rabad), 128 Abraham Gershon of Kotov, R., 1 1 Achor, 127 Achorayim, 127-128 Adam, 11, 157, 158 Adam Kadmon, 108-112, 121, 140 Kelim of -, 121 Keter of -, 140 Orot of -, 121 Yosher of -, 140 Albo, R. Joseph, 41, 44, 93 Aliyat Haneshamah, 11 Alma deItgalya, 94 Alma deltkassya, 94 Alma Ilaah, 94 Alma Tataah, 94 Anthropomorphism, 35-39 Arich Anpin, 140, 141, 142 Binah of -, 140 Chochmuh of -, 140 Keter of -, 140 Asey too, 8f. Asiyah, World of, 109-115, 121, 135, 136, 137

Asiyah of -, 111 Makhut of -, 140 Asiyah, 112f. Assur, 150 Atik, 68,69 - &chl Atikin, 68 - Yomin, 68 Atika Kadisha, 68, 142 Atzdut, World of, 109-115, 121, 134, 135, 137 Asiyah of -, 111 Atzilut of -, 111 Beriah of -, 111 Binuh of -, 111 Chochmah of -, 111 Kelim of -, 121, 137 Keter of -, 111 Malchut of -, 114, 115, 128 Orot of -, 121, 137 Yetzirah of -, 111 Atzmut, 112, 117, 119, 121, 122 Ayin, 68, 72, 73 AYiN, 75 Azriel of Geronah, R., 51, 62, 65 Azulay, R. Abraham, 15, 17 AzuIay, R. Chaim David (Chida), 9, 69 Baal Shem Tov, see Israel Baal Shem Tov, R. Bachya ben Asher, R., 63, 109, 149 Bachya ibn Pakuda, R., 36

Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet, 67,80. Bat, 141 See Chugat Bechochmuh, see Chochmuh Chitzonim, 147-150, 156 Beli-mah, 62,63 Chitzoniyut, 70,127-128 Ben, 78,141 Chochmah, 8,66,67,69,71-79, Ben Sira, 69 87,93,94,97,99, 100, 101, Bereish galey, 12 112,130,140,141.See Chabad Bereishit, 72 Bechochmah, 72 see also Reishit Binah of -, 102 Beriah, World of -, 109-115, 134, Chochmuh of -, 102 135,136,137 Kelim of -, 130f. Atzilut of -, 111 '32Wondrous Paths of -,' 8 Beriah of -, 111 Chochmuh-Binuh-Da'at, 71, 100, Keter of -, 114 101,144.See also Chabad Malchut of -, 115 Chochmuh-Chesed-Netzach, 100 Binah, 8,66,69,71,74-79, 87, 92ff., 100,101,112,130, 99, Chochmat Haemet, 15%. 131,133,140,141.See Chabad Chutzah, 12,20 Binuh of -, 102 Colours, 120 Kelim of -, 130f. Cordovero, R. Moses, 8,9,14, 16, '50Gates of -,' 8 17,31,38,43,44,69, 111, 103, Binah-Geuurah-Hod, 100 113,117,119,129,135 Birur, 145,151,156 Creation, 47f.,52,54ff., 5w., Bloch, R.Joseph Leib, 7 64ff., 93,115,151f. 72, Botarel, R. Moses, 61 Da'at, 66,69-70, 75, 71, 76-79, 84, Brains, see Mochin 87,99,131. See Chubad Buzaglo, R. Sholom, 21,119,142 - Elyon, 76,79,100, 141 Chabad, 71, 89. 87, - Tachton, 76,77,78,79, 101 See Chochmuh-Binah-Da'at. Kelim of -, 131 Chagat, 83,87,88,89 David, 11,86 Chakikah, 112f. Death, 133f., 150 Chalal, 52-55, 96f., 119,123 D e m h , 10 110, De Fano, R. Menachem Azaryah, Chamai Gaon, R., 109 16,50 Chassidut, 7%. De Lattes, R. Isaac, 1 7 Chatziuah, 112f. Chesed, 66,79,80-86, 87ff., 99ff., Dilug, 49,52,54, 56 119,120,131, 136,137, 144, Din, 39,81,82,84,119,136,137,

145,155,156
Binah of -, 102 Chochmuh of -, 102

145,156
Dov Ber of Lubavitch, R., 7,8,

20,40,118

67 Intellect.. 135f. 91. 140. 99. 136 Israel Baal Shem Tov. 117.65. Attributes of -. 85. 136. 69. 63 Ishmael. 80f. 79. 130. 66. 136 Isaac ben Sheshet. 99. 8. Active. 133. 55. 154 Giborim. Joseph. 50-55.. 111 Heorat Panim. 62fl. 7 3 Edom. 74-75 First -. 100. 130. 61. 48. 72 Imma. 85. 66. 47.. 79 Horowitz. 81-86. 83. 40 . 82.. 132. 86 Jacob ibn Chabib. 142 Word of -. 11. loot. 42 G-d. 85 . 158 Geduhh.. 86 En Lo Techilah. 84 Geuurah. 136 Evil. R. 7 . Unity of -. 156 Hamtakat Hadinim. 82 Names of -. 123f. See Or En Sof E~hraim. 38. 132 k Joseph. 130.. 133. 93 . 149. See Midot Benevolence of -. 20.166 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 141 . See Nehy Horowitz. Isaiah (Shelah). 100 Hai Gaon. R. 129 Hyle.Tatwh. 95.Ilaah. See Chesed Immanence of -. 78. 95. 69. 12. 94 See also En Sof Gulgalta. 75... 153 Jacob. R. 141 of Keter of -. 153 Eden. 105-110. 93 Isaac. 79. 51 En Sof. 141 Immot. 68. ('Maggid'). 95. 144f. 59ff. 97. 23. 155 Gikatilla. 157 Freedom of Choice. R. 119 Hod. 136 Emet. 88. 14.. 92. 155f. 17.. 87f. 148. 71. 86. R. 10.LeAmito. as. 66 Hit'abut. 56.38. (Ribarh). 22. 77 Harmony. 156 Hillel Halevi of Paritz. R. R. 59-62. 109 HaUat Mayin Nukuin. 150. Judgments of -. 156 Hester Panim. 139 Hei.. 48. 137. 60f. 38 Gimatriya... Omnipresence of -. 115. 43 Esau. 137 Transcendence of -. 19. 95. See Chagat Geuurot. 111 Latter -. 55f. 53.. 838. 145. 53 Sovereignty of -. 155 Hargasha. 87-92. l o l f . 101. 95. 103. 152-155. 8. 145. 123f. Tzvi Hirsh. . 70. 33. 93 Chochm~h -. 11. 152 Galut. 9. R. 134. R. 119f. 57. 16. 66. 115. 136 Kings of -.

152 Makif.. R. R. 49. 12 Multifariousness. 151 Mocha Setitnu. 68-71. 74. 117. 60 Mitzvot. 112. 86 Judah Halevi. Moses. 19f. 14. 53 Mashpb.Jacob Joseph of Polnoy. 158 Maggid.. 130. see Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 65. See Koach-Muh Maimonides. 50.97. 70 Mekabel. . 61. 36. 129. R. Isaac (An'ml). 110 Matter. 66. 145. 158 Methuselah. 15. 16. R. 157 158 Keter. 101. 69. 22. 73 Mochin. 40 Masscrch. 77ff. 11. 9295. 66. (Maharal).Elyon. 18. 14. 128. 96-97 Kefitzah. 130-131 Keter-Chochmah-Binoh. R. 64 Nachmanides. 48. 139. Messianic Age. 81. 8. 93 Ma'or. 15. 155. 125. 134 Messiah. 50. 137 Mushpa. 8 Light. R. 75 Keter-Tqeret-Yesod-Makhut. 40 Muttar. 97.11 Joseph. R.. see H&at Mayin Nukoin Meir ibn Gabbai. 141 Malchut of -. 144 Mispar. 23. 60. 114. 109 Kelim of -. Mah. 33. 143. Moses. 41-45. 11 Midot. 103. 52 Keli.. 79. 55 Kabbalah. 73. 141. 11. (Tzemach Tzedek). 156. 55-56. 114. 148. 129. 49. 84 Merachefet... 93 Kadmon. 149. 51. 117-125. 92. 52 Malchut. 111. 109 Kav. 99ff. llff. 130f. 7f7. 132. 31. 92 Leuanon. 9. 83f. 38. 149 Narboni. 128. 96. 69. 155 Kelipah. 44. 38 Judah Loewe of Prague. Kelipot. 156. 42. 60 Moshe Chaim Ephrairn of Sudylkov. 150 Mystery of the Faith. 86. Kabbalists. 123f. 70. 72. 140. 97.. 99. 47. 88 Moses Hagoleh. 112. 42 . 67 Koach-Mah. R. 10. 139. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch.. Moses.. 129137.157 Kelipat Nogah. 143. 72.. 41. 61. 94. 76.69. 17. 62.99. 12. 67. R. 136 Mayin Nukvin. R.. 62. 79. 100 Moses. 100 Ketmvot. 147-150. Kelim. 67. 37. 141.. 131. 124 Makom Panuy. 151152. See Or Luria. 63f. 19. 154.67. 140f.78. 69. 148-149. 108. R. 75. 40 Memale kol Almin. 94. 113.94 Kol. R. 132. 112. 50.

in Rachamim. R. 12. 44. 23. R. 122 Panim. 134-137. 17. 122-125. 87-92. 153-154 Pardes. 131ff. 60 Schneersohn. 8. 51-55.Pnimi. R. 60 Sapir. 61. 55. 68. R. 8. 117-125. 59-62. 51.Tzach Umetzuchtulch.Ha'elyon. 79 Schneersohn. 60 .. 112f. 105-110. 114 Rachamim. 17. 48 Olamot. 20. 105f. 100. 18 Nitzotz. See Will . t . Levi Yitzchak. 72 Relativity. 142. 87. 60 Sefirah. 155. 15. 137 Pnimiyut.80. 158 Nogah. Nitzotzin. 147. 96. 86. 50. 125. 88 Peshat. 71. 139. Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch (Reshab). 119 Reshut HarabZm. lOf. 109 Or En Sof. 49 Nehy. 157. (Aruch). 127 Parable of the harlot. 56f. 16ff. 40. 127-128 Pnimiyut Hatorah. 67 Saadiah Caon. 84. 145. 148. See Kelipat Nogah Nukuah. 101 Schneur Zalman of Liadi. 60 Sapar. 20. 83 Schneerson. 124f. 155. R. R. 70. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. 110. 53. see Zachar Neshamah..Makifin. 156 .. 55. 124 . 13. Partzufim. 66. 87 Nekeuah. 8 Olam. Reshimu. 9. 144 Sefer. 156 Remez. See Nehy Nigleh. 108 . 154.Pnimiyim.43 Reishit. 130. 141 Nun. R. 121f. 122-125 . 79. 108. 132 Rishonot. 8. 152 Orot. 131 . Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch ~ " ~ ~ S t 9. 101. 99. 77. 42. R. 122 . 143 Patriarchs. See Worlds Or. Dov Yehudah. 66. 23.. 99.168 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Nathan ben Yechiel. 108.. 79. 55. 42. 118. 10. 7 . See Soul Netzach.. 39. 50 Schneerson. Prassa.Makif. 32. 87. 129 Schochet.Soveu. 101 Netzach-Hod-Yesod.. 137. 67.r 10. 63. 87. 84. 103. R. Shmuel of Lubavitch (Maharash). 10 Reshimah. 70 Raz. 115. 42 Safra. 10 Pirud. 84 Rashi. 10 Partzuf. 17. 43. 140 . 136. 18 Nistar. 7 Sechel. 54. 112. 108 Ratzon. 67. 139-142.. 63ff. 97.. 71. 84 Schneersohn. Realm of. 54.Habah. See Light .

81. 61. 87.151 13. 122-125 Worlds. R. 74. 1 . 60 Torah. Yetzirah. 1 1 Shevirat Hakelim. (Rashba). Realm of.. 151. 1 1 1 Tiferet. 151 Seth. 134 Separ. 72. 103. 31. 14. 158 Skull. 10. 51. 144 Ziu Hashechinah. R. 99. 154. Seven. 16 Z'eyr Anpin. 140. 143. 142 Vav. 83-86. 9. Yud. Moses. 87. 69. 143-145 1 1 114. 149. 114. . 103. 157f. Shimon bar Yochai. 72. 78. 69. R. 66. 66. 143 Sefirot of -. 109. 145. 121. 92 Tzadikim. 1. 136. 70f. 82. Unification). 79 Sefirot. 157. Midot of -. 157 Shefa. 103. 141. Sparks. 144. 110. 143 Tetragrammaton. 105-115. 16. Temira dechol Temirin. Solomon ben Isaac. 95. 52-53. 129Tzimtzum. 130-133. 152.. 79f. 142. 59. see Nitzotz 132 Sur mera [ve'asey tow]. 83. Vital. 145 Tikun. see Gulgdta Will. 101. 52. Sitra Achara. 105. 62. Tachtonot. 17. 69.Tohu. 109-115. 141. 155 115. 137 Yosher. 147-150. Yetzirah Soul. 144f. 135. 70 Tzadik. Primordial. 143. 74 Yesod. Atzilut. 119. 59. 130. 156. 151. 13 . 118. 107-108. 109 Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. 91-92. 15. 105. 23. 141. 1 1 1 Zachur-Nekeuah. see RQshi Solomon ibn Aderet. 154. 1 1 Teshuuah. 13-15 Time. 120. R. (Rashby). 145 134. 96-101. 156 Zacuto. 17. 49. 96. R. 139. 22. 42 Sefirot of -. 59-103. 10 See Ratzon. 67 136.in Exile. Chairn. 68 154 Tannaim. 157 145. 123. 143-145. 115. 69. 150 Yichud. See Asiyah. 39. 144 Sovev. 123f. 101. Supreme. 117. 117. Yesh. R. 124 Soueu kol Almin.. 108. 39 88. 137 Talmud Torah. 158 Tree of Knowledge. 8f. Worlds. 99. 79. 73. 10 Yichud (Unity. 121. 122. 38 Beriah. 69. 56. 76. 109. 142. World of. 117-122. Sod. 140. 148. 137. 42 Tzachtzachot. 51. 135. 1 1 Shechinah. 151. 47-57. 74. 73. 103. 10. 131. 13 Tree of Life. 1 1 1 Sin. 79. 91. 143 Tohu and Vohu. 71. 101. 14. Zohur. 115 1 Shepherds. 39-41. 142 Midot of -.

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