ISO SAF120108M4-Rev2

Berkeley, California, USA
Version 12
December 2010


SAFE


DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS
REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE
Reinforced Concrete
Design Manual









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TM
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DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER
ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY
OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.
THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY
A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.


i
Contents
1 Introduction 1-1
2 Design for ACI 318-08
2.1 Notations 2-1
2.2 Design Load Combinations 2-4
2.3 Limits on Material Strength 2-5
2.4 Strength Reduction Factors 2-5
2.5 Beam Design 2-5
2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2-6
2.5.2 Design Beam Shear
Reinforcement 2-14
2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion
Reinforcement 2-16
2.6 Slab Design 2-21
2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2-21
2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2-23
2.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 2-29
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

ii
3 Design for AS 3600-01
3.1 Notations 3-1
3.2 Design Load Combinations 3-4
3.3 Limits on Material Strength 3-4
3.4 Strength Reduction Factors 3-5
3.5 Beam Design 3-5
3.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6
3.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-13
3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16
3.6 Slab Design 3-21
3.6.1 Design for Flexure 3-21
3.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 3-22
3.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 3-24
4 Design for BS 8110-97
4.1 Notations 4-1
4.2 Design Load Combinations 4-4
4.3 Limits on Material Strength 4-5
4.4 Partial Safety Factors 4-5
4.5 Beam Design 4-6
4.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6
4.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14
4.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16
4.6 Slab Design 4-20
4.6.1 Design for Flexure 4-20
4.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 4-21
4.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 4-24
5 Design for CSA A23.3-04
5.1 Notations 5-1
Contents
iii
5.2 Design Load Combinations 5-4
5.3 Limits on Material Strength 5-5
5.4 Strength Reduction Factors 5-5
5.5 Beam Design 5-6
5.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6
5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14
5.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-21
5.6 Slab Design 5-25
5.6.1 Design for Flexure 5-25
5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5-27
5.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 5-32
6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004
6.1 Notations 6-2
6.2 Design Load Combinations 6-4
6.3 Limits on Material Strength 6-7
6.4 Partial Safety Factors 6-7
6.5 Beam Design 6-8
6.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8
6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16
6.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19
6.6 Slab Design 6-24
6.6.1 Design for Flexure 6-24
6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6-26
6.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 6.28
6.7 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6-30
7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04
7.1 Notations 7-1
7.2 Design Load Combinations 7-3
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

iv
7.3 Limits on Material Strength 7-4
7.4 Partial Safety Factors 7-4
7.5 Beam Design 7-5
7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5
7.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-14
7.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-16
7.6 Slab Design 7-19
7.6.1 Design for Flexure 7-20
7.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 7-21
7.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 7-24
8 Design for IS 456-2000
8.1 Notations 8-1
8.2 Design Load Combinations 8-4
8.3 Partial Safety Factors 8-5
8.4 Beam Design 8-5
8.4.1 Effects of Torsion 8-5
8.4.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8-8
8.4.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 8-15
8.5 Slab Design 8-19
8.5.1 Design for Flexure 8-19
8.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 8-20
8.5.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 8-25
9 Design for NZS 3101-06
9.1 Notations 9-1
9.2 Design Load Combinations 9-4
9.3 Limits on Material Strength 9-5
9.4 Strength Reduction Factors 9-5
9.5 Beam Design 9-6
9.5.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6
Contents
v
9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13
9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-17
9.6 Slab Design 9-21
9.6.1 Design for Flexure 9-21
9.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 9-23
9.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 9-28
10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99
10.1 Notations 10-1
10.2 Design Load Combinations 10-4
10.3 Limits on Material Strength 10-4
10.4 Partial Safety Factors 10-5
10.5 Beam Design 10-5
10.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10-6
10.5.2 Design Beam Shear
Reinforcement 10-14
10.5.3 Design Beam Torsion
Reinforcement 10-17
10.6 Slab Design 10-20
10.6.1 Design for Flexure 10-20
10.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 10-22
10.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 10-25
11 Design for AS 3600-09
11.1 Notations 11-1
11.2 Design Load Combinations 11-4
11.3 Limits on Material Strength 11-5
11.4 Strength Reduction Factors 11-5
11.5 Beam Design 11-6
11.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 11-6
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

vi
11.5.2 Design Beam Shear
Reinforcement 11-14
11.5.3 Design Beam Torsion
Reinforcement 11-17
11.6 Slab Design 11-21
11.6.1 Design for Flexure 11-22
11.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 11-23
11.6.3 Design Punching Shear
Reinforcement 11-25

References

1 - 1
Chapter 1
Introduction
SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. Specifically, it integrates
slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforce-
ment; it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated
loads; and it designs beam flexural, shear, and torsion reinforcement. The de-
sign procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in
the Key Features and Terminology manual. The actual design algorithms vary
based on the specific design code chosen by the user. This manual describes
the algorithms used for the various codes.
It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex sub-
ject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. SAFE is a tool to
help the user in this process. Only the aspects of design documented in this
manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. The user must check the
results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE.


Notations 2 - 1
Chapter 2
Design for ACI 318-08
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008]
is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. For
referencing to the pertinent sections or equations of the ACI code in this chap-
ter, a prefix “ACI” followed by the section or equation number is used herein.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on inch-pound-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descrip-
tions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless
otherwise noted.
2.1 Notations
Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code

A
cp

Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section, sq-in
A
g
Gross area of concrete, sq-in
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 2 Notations
Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-in
A
o
Area enclosed by the shear flow path, sq-in
A
oh
Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse
torsional reinforcement, sq-in
A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, sq-in
A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, sq-in
A
t
/s Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for
torsion, sq-in/in
A
v
Area of shear reinforcement, sq-in
A
v
/s Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-in/in
a Depth of compression block, in
a
max
Maximum allowed depth of compression block, in
b Width of section, in
b
f
Effective width of flange (flanged section), in
b
o
Perimeter of the punching shear critical section, in
b
w
Width of web (flanged section), in
b
1
Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of
bending, in
b
2
Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the
direction of bending, in
c Depth to neutral axis, in
d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in
d' Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, in
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi
f '
c
Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
f '
s
Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Notations 2 - 3
Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code

f
y
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi
f
yt
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi
h Overall depth of a section, in
h
f
Height of the flange, in
M
u
Factored moment at a section, lb-in
N
u
Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with V
u
or
T
u
, lb
P
u
Factored axial load at a section, lb
p
cp
Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, in
p
h
Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional
reinforcement, in
s Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam, in
T
cr
Critical torsion capacity, lb-in
T
u
Factored torsional moment at a section, lb-in
V
c
Shear force resisted by concrete, lb
V
max
Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, lb
V
s
Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement, lb
V
u
Factored shear force at a section, lb
o
s

Punching shear scale factor based on column location
|
c

Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching
shear critical section
|
1

Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block
c
c

Strain in the concrete
c
c max

Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme
concrete fiber, (0.003 in/in)
c
s

Strain in the reinforcement
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code

c
s,min

Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal
strength for tension controlled behavior (0.005 in/in)
|
Strength reduction factor
¸
f

Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure
¸
v

Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear
ì
Shear strength reduction factor for light-weight concrete
u
Angle of compression diagonals, degrees
2.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. For ACI 318-08, if a structure is
subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live (PL), snow (S), wind (W), and
earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are re-
versible, the following load combinations may need to be considered
(ACI 9.2.1):
1.4D (ACI 9-1)
1.2D + 1.6L (ACI 9-2)
1.2D + 1.6 (0.75 PL) (ACI 13.7.6.3, 9-2)
0.9D ± 1.6W
1.2D + 1.0L ± 1.6W
(ACI 9-6)
(ACI 9-4)
0.9D ± 1.0E
1.2D + 1.0L ± 1.0E
(ACI 9-7)
(ACI 9-5)
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S
1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6S
1.2D + 1.6S ± 0.8W
1.2D + 1.0L + 0.5S ± 1.6W
1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S ± 1.0E
(ACI 9-2)
(ACI 9-3)
(ACI 9-3)
(ACI 9-4)
(ACI 9-5)

Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Limits on Material Strength 2 - 5
These are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI
318-08 code is used. The user should use other appropriate load combinations
if roof live load is treated separately, or if other types of loads are present.
2.3 Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, , '
c
f should not be less than 2,500 psi (ACI
5.1.1). If the input '
c
f is less than 2,500 psi, SAFE continues to design the
members based on the input '
c
f and does not warn the user about the violation
of the code. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is
satisfied.
2.4 Strength Reduction Factors
The strength reduction factors, |, are applied to the specified strength to obtain
the design strength provided by a member. The | factors for flexure, shear, and
torsion are as follows:
| = 0.90 for flexure (tension controlled) (ACI 9.3.2.1)
| = 0.75 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.3.2.3)
These values can be overwritten; however, caution is advised.
2.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
this section. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station
along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 6 Beam Design
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
2.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored mo-
ments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases, with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top re-
inforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases, the beam may
be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
2.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of
the concrete. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength, f
y
, is limited to 80
ksi (ACI 9.4), even if the material property is defined using a higher value.
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Beam Design 2 - 7
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block, as
shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.2). Furthermore, it is assumed that the net tensile
strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0.005 (tension controlled)
(ACI 10.3.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit
of 0.003. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this de-
sign condition, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming
that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and
additional tension reinforcement.
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams), is summarized in the text that follows. For reinforced con-
crete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed
( ) c g
f A 0.1 ' (ACI 10.3.5), axial force is ignored; hence, all beams are designed
for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Axial compression greater
than
( ) c g
f A 0.1 ' and axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear
design.
2.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M
u
(i.e., designing top
or bottom reinforcement), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see
Figure 2-1), where,
b f
M
d d a
c
u
| ' 85 . 0
2
2
÷ ÷ = (ACI 10.2)
and the value of | is taken as that for a tension-controlled section, which by de-
fault is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations.
The maximum depth of the compression zone, c
max
, is calculated based on the
limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than c
smin
, which
is equal to 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.4):
max
max
max min
c
c s
c d
c
c c
=
+
(ACI 10.2.2)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 8 Beam Design
(I) BEAM
SECTION
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
1
a c | =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
(I) BEAM
SECTION
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
1
a c | =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'

Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design
where,
c
cmax
= 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3)
c
smin
= 0.005 (ACI 10.3.4)
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by:
a
max
=|
1
c
max
(ACI 10.2.7.1)
where |
1
is calculated as:
c
f
1
4000
0.85 0.05 ,
1000
|
' ÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
0.65 s |
1
s 0.85 (ACI 10.2.7.3)
 If a s a
max
(ACI 10.3.4), the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Beam Design 2 - 9
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
2
a
d f
M
A
y
u
s
|

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M
u
is positive, or at the top
if M
u
is negative.
 If a > a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.5.1) and is cal-
culated as follows:
− The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by:
max
' 85 . 0 ba f C
c
= (ACI 10.2.7.1)
and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforce-
ment is:
max
2
uc
a
M C d |
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
(ACI 9.3.2.1)
− Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforce-
ment and tension reinforcement is:
M
us
= M
u
− M
uc

− The required compression reinforcement is given by:
( )( )
'
' 0.85 ' '
us
s
s c
M
A
f f d d |
=
÷ ÷
, where
y c s s
f
c
d c
E f s
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
max
max
max
'
' c (ACI 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4)
− The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the
concrete is:
1
max
2
uc
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
=
(
÷
(
¸ ¸

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 10 Beam Design
and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement
is given by:
( )
2
'
us
s
y
M
A
f d d |
=
÷

Therefore, the total tension reinforcement is A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and the total
compression reinforcement is A'
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A'
s
is
to be placed at the top if M
u
is positive, and vice versa if M
u
is negative.
2.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
In designing a flanged beam, a simplified stress block, as shown in Figure 2-2,
is assumed if the flange is under compression, i.e., if the moment is positive. If
the moment is negative, the flange comes under tension, and the flange is ig-
nored. In that case, a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1
is assumed on the compression side.
(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
w
T s
T
s
c
c
0.85 f '
f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
f
h
c
(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
w
T s
T
s
c
c
0.85 f '
f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
f
h
c

Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design

Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Beam Design 2 - 11
2.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
u
(i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
2.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
If M
u
> 0, the depth of the compression block is given by:
f c
u
b f
M
d d a
| ' 85 . 0
2
2
÷ ÷ = (ACI 10.2)
where, the value of | is taken as that for a tension-controlled section, which by
default is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations.
The maximum depth of the compression zone, c
max
, is calculated based on the
limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than c
smin
, which
is equal to 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.4):
d c
s c
c
min max
max
max
c c
c
+
= (ACI 10.2.2)
where,
c
cmax
= 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3)
c
smin
= 0.005 (ACI 10.3.4)
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by:
max 1 max
c a | = (ACI 10.2.7.1)
where |
1
is calculated as:
c
f
1
' 4000
0.85 0.05 ,
1000
|
÷ | |
= ÷
|
\ .
0.65 s |
1
s 0.85 (ACI 10.2.7.3)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 12 Beam Design
 If a s h
f
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in this case, the width of
the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required if a > a
max
.
 If a > h
f
, the calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balanc-
ing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 2-2. C
f
is
given by:
( ) ( )
max
, min ' 85 . 0 a h b b f C
f w f c f
÷ = (ACI 10.2.7.1)
Therefore,
y
f
s
f
C
A =
1
and the portion of M
u
that is resisted by the flange is
given by:

( )
max
min ,
2
f
uf f
h a
M C d |
| |
| = ÷
|
\ .
(ACI 9.3.2.1)
Again, the value for | is 0.90 by default. Therefore, the balance of the mo-
ment, M
u
, to be carried by the web is:
M
uw
= M
u
− M
uf

The web is a rectangular section with dimensions b
w
and d, for which the de-
sign depth of the compression block is recalculated as:

w c
uw
b f
M
d d a
| ' 85 . 0
2
2
1
÷ ÷ = (ACI 10.2)
 If a
1
s a
max
(ACI 10.3.4), the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
2
1
2
a
d f
M
A
y
uw
s
|
, and
A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Beam Design 2 - 13
 If a
1
> a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.5.1) and is cal-
culated as follows:
− The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by:
max
0.85 '
w c w
C f b a = (ACI 10.2.7.1)
Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforce-
ment is:
|
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
max
2
uc w
a
M C d
and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is:
M
us
= M
uw
− M
uc

Therefore, the compression reinforcement is computed as:
( )( )
us
s
s c
M
A
f f d d
,
0.85 |
' =
' ' ' ÷ ÷
where
s s c y
c d
f E f
c
max
max
max
c
' ( ÷
' = s
(
¸ ¸
(ACI 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4)
The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete
is:
2
max
2
uc
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
=
(
÷
(
¸ ¸

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement
is:
( ) | '
3
d d f
M
A
y
us
s
÷
=
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 14 Beam Design
The total tension reinforcement is A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
+ A
s3
, and the total com-
pression reinforcement is A'
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A'
s
is to
be placed at the top.
2.5.1.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is
given by the minimum of the two following limits:
|
|
.
|

\
|
= d b
f
d b
f
f
A
w
y
w
y
c
s
200
,
' 3
max
min ,
(ACI 10.5.1)
A
s
>
3
4
A
s(required)
(ACI 10.5.3)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:
Rectangular beam
Flanged beam
Rectangular beam
Flanged beam
s
w
s
w
0.4bd
A
0.4b d
0.4bd
A
0.4b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
'
s
´
¹

2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
 Determine the factored shear force, V
u
.
 Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Beam Design 2 - 15
2.5.2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load
combination factors.
2.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, V
c
, is calculated as:
d b f V
w c c
' 2ì = (ACI 11.2.1.2, 11.2.1.2, 11.2.2.3)
A limit is imposed on the value of
c
f ' as '
c
f s 100 (ACI 11.1.2)
The value of ì should be specified in the material property definition.
2.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of:
( ) max c c w
V V 8 f ' b d = + (ACI 11.4.7.9)
Given V
u
, V
c
, and V
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
where, |, the strength reduction factor, is 0.75 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The flexural rein-
forcement strength, f
yt
, is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.5.2) even if the material
property is defined with a higher value.
 If
u c
V V 0.5 , | s

s
A
v
= 0 (ACI 11.5.6.1)
 If
c u
V V V
max
0.5 , | | < s
( )
d f
V V
s
A
yt
c u v
|
| ÷
= (ACI 11.4.7.1, 11.4.7.2)
 If V
u
> |V
max
, a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.4.7.9)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 16 Beam Design
If V
u
exceeds the maximum permitted value of |V
max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size (ACI 11.4.7.9).
Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required,
the equation given in ACI 11.5.6.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.
See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.
If the beam depth h is
10" h s for rectangular,
min 24", max 2.5 ,
2
f
b
h h
¦
| |
s
´
|
\ .
¹
for T-beam,
the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.4.6.3 is not enforced (ACI
11.4.6.1).
|
|
.
|

\
|
>
yt
w
w
yt
c v
f
b
b
f
f
s
A 50
,
' 75 . 0
max
ì
(ACI 11.4.6.3)
The maximum of all of the calculated A
v
/s values obtained from each load
combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated
independently of the program by the user.
2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in de-
signing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to
the beam torsion:
 Determine the factored torsion, T
u
.
 Determine special section properties.
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Beam Design 2 - 17
 Determine critical torsion capacity.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
2.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination fac-
tors (ACI 11.6.2).
In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a
member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
design T
u
is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code
(ACI 11.6.2.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the
internal forces and reduce T
u
. If redistribution is desired, the user should release
the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.
2.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as A
cp
, A
oh
, A
o
, p
cp
, and p
h
, are
calculated. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2.1).
A
cp
= Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
A
oh
= Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse
torsional reinforcement
A
o
= Gross area enclosed by shear flow path
p
cp
= Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
p
h
= Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional
reinforcement
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
oh
, A
o
,
and p
h
, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost
closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.75 inches. This is equiva-
lent to a 1.5 inch clear cover and a #4 stirrup. For torsion design of flanged
beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange
area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion rein-
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 18 Beam Design
forcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during T
cr
calculation.
With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are
given as:
A
cp
= bh (ACI 11.5.1, 2.1)
A
oh
= (b ÷ 2c)(h ÷ 2c) (ACI 11.5.3.1, 2.1, R11.5.3.6(b))
A
o
= 0.85 A
oh
(ACI 11.5.3.6, 2.1)
p
cp
= 2b + 2h (ACI 11.5.1, 2.1)
p
h
= 2(b ÷ 2c) + 2(h ÷ 2c) (ACI 11.5.3.1, 2.1)
where, the section dimensions b, h, and c are shown in Figure 2-3. Similarly,
the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as:
A
cp
= b
w
h + (b
f
– b
w
)h
f
(ACI 11.5.1, 2.1)
A
oh
= (b
w
– 2c)(h – 2c) (ACI 11.5.3.1, 2.1, R11.5.3.6(b))
A
o
= 0.85 A
oh
(ACI 11.5.3.6, 2.1)
p
cp
= 2b
f
+ 2h (ACI11.5.1, 2.1)
p
h
= 2(h – 2c) + 2(b
w
– 2c) (ACI 11.5.3.1, 2.1)
where the section dimensions b
f
, b
w
, h, h
f
, and c for a flanged beam are shown
in Figure 2-3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is lim-
ited to the smaller of 4h
f
or (h – h
f
) (ACI 13.2.4).
2.5.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity
The critical torsion capacity, T
cr
, for which the torsion in the section can be
ignored is calculated as:

2
' 1
4 '
cp
u
cr c
cp g c
A
N
T f
p A f

ì
| |
= +
|
|
\ .
(ACI 11.5.1(c))
where A
cp
and p
cp
are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as de-
scribed in the previous section, N
u
is the factored axial force (compression posi-
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Beam Design 2 - 19
tive), | is the strength reduction factor for torsion, which is equal to 0.75 by de-
fault (ACI 9.3.2.3), and f '
c
is the specified concrete compressive strength.
2.5.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsion T
u
is less than the threshold limit, T
cr
, torsion can be
safely ignored (ACI 11.6.1). In that case, the program reports that no torsion
reinforcement is required. However, if T
u
exceeds the threshold limit, T
cr
, it is
assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups, longitudi-
nal bars, and compression diagonals (ACI R11.6.3.6). Note that the longitudi-
nal reinforcement strength, f
y
, is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.4) and the transverse
reinforcement strength, f
yt
, is limited to 60 ksi, even if the material property is
defined with a higher value.
If T
u
> T
cr
, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
t
/s, is calculated
as:
yt o
u t
f A
T
s
A
2
tan
|
u
= (ACI 11.5.3.6)
and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as:
u | tan 2
y o
h u
l
f A
p T
A = (ACI 11.5.3.7, 11.5.3.6)
where, the minimum value of A
t
/s is taken as:
w
yt
t
b
f s
A 25
= (ACI 11.5.5.3)
and the minimum value of A
l
is taken as:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
'
=
y
yt
h
t
y
cp c
l
f
f
p
s
A
f
A f
A
ì 5
(ACI 11.5.5.3)
In the preceding expressions, u is taken as 45 degrees. The code allows any
value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.5.3.6).
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 20 Beam Design
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
f
h
f
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
f
h
f
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b

Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
An upper limit of the combination of V
u
and T
u
that can be carried by the sec-
tion is also checked using the equation:
|
|
.
|

\
|
' + s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
w
c
oh
h u
w
u
f
d b
V
A
p T
d b
V
8
7 . 1
2
2
2
| (ACI 11.5.3.1)
For rectangular sections, b
w
is replaced with b. If the combination of V
u
and T
u

exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete sec-
tion should be increased in size.
When torsional reinforcement is required (T
u
> T
cr
), the area of transverse
closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following
limit.
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦ '
> |
.
|

\
|
+
y
w
w
yt
c t v
f
b
b
f
f
s
A
s
A 50
, 75 . 0 max 2 ì (ACI 11.5.5.2)
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Slab Design 2 - 21
If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated A
v
/s and A
t
/s, A
v
/s
is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, A
v
/s does not need to satisfy
the ACI Section 11.4.6.3 independently.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
l
and A
t
/s values obtained from each
load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or
longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must
be investigated independently of the program by the user.
2.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis, and a flexural de-
sign is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08)
for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. To learn more
about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key
Features and Terminology manual.
2.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the de-
sign of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal dis-
placement vectors. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with
the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load
combination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 22 Slab Design
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps, described in the text that follows, are repeated for every load
combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of
the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding controlling load
combination, is obtained and reported.
2.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
2.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when
drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted ac-
cordingly.
2.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7.12.2):
A
s,min
= 0.0020 bh for f
y
= 40 ksi or 50 ksi (ACI 7.12.2.1(a))
A
s,min
= 0.0018 bh for f
y
= 60 ksi (ACI 7.12.2.1(b))
A
s,min
= bh
f
y
60000 0018 . 0 ×
for f
y
> 60 ksi (ACI 7.12.2.1(c))
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Slab Design 2 - 23
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.
2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.
2.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d / 2 from
the face of the support (ACI 11.11.1.2). For rectangular columns and concen-
trated loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides paral-
lel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.11.1.3). Figure 2-4
shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various col-
umn shapes. The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching
perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Edge Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Edge Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2

Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 24 Slab Design
2.6.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment
The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be ¸
f
M
u

and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is
taken to be ¸
v
M
u
.
( )
2 1
3 2 1
1
b b
f
+
= ¸ (ACI 13.5.3.2)
¸
v
= 1 − ¸
f
(ACI 13.5.3.1)
For flat plates, ¸
v
is determined from the following equations taken from ACI
421.2R-07 Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates
[ACI 2007].
For interior columns,
( )
1
1
1 2 3
vx
y x
l l
¸ = ÷
+
(ACI 421.2 C-11)
( )
1
1
1 2 3
vy
x y
l l
¸ = ÷
+
(ACI 421.2 C-12)
For edge columns,
¸
vx
= same as for interior columns (ACI 421.2 C-13)
( ) 2 . 0 3 2 1
1
1
÷ +
÷ =
y x
vy
l l
¸ (ACI 421.2 C-14)
¸
vy
= 0 when
x y
l l 0.2 s
For corner columns,
¸
vx
= 0.4 (ACI 421.2 C-15)
¸
vy
= same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2 C-16)
where b
1
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the
span and b
2
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction per-
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Slab Design 2 - 25
pendicular to the span. The values l
x
and l
y
are the projections of the shear-
critical section onto its principal axes, x and y, respectively.
2.6.2.3 Determine Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the fol-
lowing three limits:
c
c
s
c c
o
c
f
d
v f
b
f
4
2
min 2
4
| ì
|
o
| ì
| ì
¦
| |
' +
¦ |
\ .
¦
¦
| | ¦
' = +
´
|
\ .
¦
¦
'
¦
¦
¹
(ACI 11.11.2.1)
where, |
c
is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the criti-
cal section, b
o
is the perimeter of the critical section, and o
s
is a scale factor
based on the location of the critical section.
s
40 for interior columns,
30 for edge columns, and
20 for corner columns.
o
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
(ACI 11.11.2.1)
A limit is imposed on the value of
c
f ' as:
c
f ' s 100 (ACI 11.1.2)
2.6.2.4 Computation of Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the two axes, the shear stress is computed assuming
linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 26 Slab Design
2
2 3 1 33 4 3 23 4 3
2
0
22 33 23
3
3 3 1 22 4 3 23 4 3
2
22 33 23
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
¸
¸
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
V
U U U
U
V
U U
M V y y I y y I x x V
v
b d I I I
M V x x I x x I y y
I I I
Eq. 1
22 22
1
,
=
=
¿
n
sides
I I where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section
for punching shear Eq. 2
33 33
1
,
=
=
¿
n
sides
I I where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section
for punching shear Eq. 3
23 23
1
,
=
=
¿
n
sides
I I where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section
for punching shear Eq. 4
The equations for
22 33 23
, , and I I I are different depending on whether the
side of the critical section for punching shear being considered is parallel to
the 2-axis or parallel to the 3-axis. Refer to Figure 2-5.
2
22 2 3
( ) , = ÷ I Ld y y for the side of the critical section parallel
to the 2-axis Eq. 5a
3 3
2
22 2 3
( ) ,
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld y y for the side of the critical section
parallel to the 3-axis Eq. 5b
3 3
2
33 2 3
( ) ,
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld x x for the side of the critical section
parallel to the 2-axis Eq. 6a
2
33 2 3
( ) , = ÷ I Ld x x for the side of the critical section parallel
to the 3-axis Eq. 6b
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Slab Design 2 - 27

Figure 2-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections
23 2 3 2 3
( )( ), = ÷ ÷ I Ld x x y y for side of critical section parallel
to 2-axis or 3-axis Eq. 7
where,
b
0
= Perimeter of the critical section for punching shear
d = Effective depth at the critical section for punching shear based on the
average of d for 2 direction and d for 3 direction
I
22
= Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an
axis that is parallel to the local 2-axis
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear
shown by heavy line
2
3
Side of critical section
being considered
shown solid
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Work This Sketch With Equations 5b, 6b and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear shown
by heavy line. Side of
critical section being
considered shown solid
2
3
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis
Work This Sketch With Equations 5a, 6a and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 28 Slab Design
I
33
= Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an
axis that is parallel to the local 3-axis
I
23
= Product of the inertia of the critical section for punching shear with re-
spect to the 2 and 3 planes
L = Length of the side of the critical section for punching shear currently
being considered
M
U2
= Moment about the line parallel to the 2-axis at the center of the column
(positive in accordance with the right-hand rule)
M
U3
= Moment about the line parallel to the 3-axis at the center of the column
(positive in accordance with the right-hand rule)
v
U
= Punching shear stress
V
U
= Shear at the center of the column (positive upward)
x
1
, y
1
= Coordinates of the column centroid
x
2
, y
2
= Coordinates of the center of one side of the critical section for punch-
ing shear
x
3
, y
3
= Coordinates of the centroid of the critical section for punching shear
x
4
, y
4
= Coordinates of the location where stress is being calculated
¸
V2
= Percent of M
U2
resisted by shear
¸
V3
= Percent of M
U3
resisted by shear
2.6.2.5 Determine Capacity Ratio
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the two axes, the shear stress is computed assuming
linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. The ratio of the
maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re-
ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio exceeds 1.0,
punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Slab Design 2 - 29
2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches, and not
less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.11.3). If the
slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching shear reinforce-
ment is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
described in the subsections that follow.
2.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is limited to:
c c
f v ' 2ì | s for shear links (ACI 11.11.3.1)
c c
f v ' 3ì | s for shear studs (ACI 11.11.5.1)
2.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of:
V
max
= 6 '
c
f b
o
d for shear links (ACI 11.11.3.2)
V
max
= 8 '
c
f b
o
d for shear studs (ACI 11.11.5.1)
Given V
u
, V
c
, and V
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows,
where, |, the strength reduction factor, is 0.75 (ACI 9.3.2.3).
( )
u c
v
ys
V V
A
s f d
|
|
÷
= (ACI 11.4.7.1, 11.4.7.2)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
2 - 30 Slab Design
2 '
>
c o v
y
f b A
s f
for shear studs (ACI 11.11.5.1)
 If V
u
> |V
max
, a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.11.3.2)
 If V
u
exceeds the maximum permitted value of |V
max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
2.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 2-6 shows a typical arrangement of
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 2-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d / 2(ACI R11.3.3, 11.11.5.2. The spacing between adjacent
shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not
exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.11.3.3).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
Chapter 2 - Design for ACI 318-08
Slab Design 2 - 31
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
2.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7.7 plus half of the
diameter of the flexural reinforcement.
Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available
in 3/8-, 1/2-, 5/8-, and 3/4-inch diameters.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not
exceed 2d, and in the case of studs in a radial pattern, the angle between adja-
cent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s,
between the peripheral lines are specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (ACI 11.11.5.2)
0 75 for 6
0 50 for 6
u c
u c
. d v f
s
. d v f


¦
' s
¦
s
´
' >
¦
¹
(ACI 11.11.5.2)
g s 2d (ACI 11.11.5.3)
The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, between for the links are specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (ACI 11.11.3)
0 50 s s . d (ACI 11.11.3)


Notations 3 - 1
Chapter 3
Design for AS 3600-01
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS
2001] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1.
For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter, a prefix
“AS” followed by the section number is used.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
3.1 Notations
Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code

A
g
Gross area of concrete, mm
2

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm
2

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 2 Notations
Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code

A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A
sc
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2

A
st
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A
s(required)
Area of required tension reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
Area of shear reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv,min
Minimum area of shear reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
/s Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm
2
/mm
A
sw
/s Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed
ties, mm
2
/mm
A
t
Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at
the corners of a section, mm
2

a Depth of compression block, mm
a
b
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm
a
max
Maximum allowed depth of compression block, mm
b Width of member, mm
b
ef
Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm
b
w
Width of web (flanged section), mm
c Depth to neutral axis, mm
d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm
d' Concrete cover to compression reinforcement, mm
d
o
Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the
outermost tension reinforcement, mm
d
om
Mean value of d
o
, averaged around the critical shear perimeter, mm
D Overall depth of a section, mm
D
s
Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, MPa
f '
c
Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
f '
cf
Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete, MPa
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Notations 3 - 3
Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code

f
cv
Concrete shear strength, MPa
f
sy
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa
f
sy,f
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
f '
s
Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa
J
t
Torsional modulus, mm
3

k
u
Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face, to
the effective depth, d
M
ud
Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force, N-mm
M* Factored moment at section, N-mm
N* Factored axial load at section, N
s Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam, mm
T
uc
Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement, N-
mm
T
u.max
Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section, N-mm
T
us
Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement, N-mm
T* Factored torsional moment at a section, N-mm
u
t
Perimeter of the polygon defined by A
t
, mm
V* Factored shear force at a section, N
V
u.max
Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N
V
u.min
Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement, N
V
uc
Shear force resisted by concrete, N
V
us
Shear force resisted by reinforcement, N
γ
1
Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
|
h

Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punch-
ing critical section
c
c

Strain in concrete
c
c, max

Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete
fiber, (0.003 mm/mm)
c
s

Strain in reinforcement
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code

|
Strength reduction factor
u
t

Angle of compression strut for torsion, degrees
u
v

Angle of compression strut for shear, degrees
3.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. For AS 3600-01, if a structure is
subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live (PL), snow (S), wind (W), and
earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are re-
versible, the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3.3.1):
1.35D (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(a))
1.2D + 1.5L (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 1.5(0.75 PL) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 0.4L + 1.0S (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(g))
0.9D ± 1.0W
1.2D ± 1.0W
1.2D + 0.4L ± 1.0W
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(e))
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(d))
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(d))
1.0D ± 1.0E
1.0D + 0.4L ± 1.0E
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(f))
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(f))
Note that the 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid
for live load representing storage areas. These are also the default design load
combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used. If roof live
load is treated separately or other types of loads are present, other appropriate
load combinations should be used.
3.3 Limits on Material Strength
The upper and lower limits of f '
c
are 65 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively, for all
framing types (AS 6.1.1.1(b)).
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Strength Reduction Factors 3 - 5
' 65MPa s
c
f (AS 6.1.1.1)
' 20MPa
c
f > (AS 6.1.1.1)
The upper limit of f
sy
is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.2.1, Table 6.2.1).
The code allows use of f '
c
and f
sy
beyond the given limits, provided special care
is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1.1, 6.2.1, 19.2.1.1).
SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design
of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths
are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as be-
ing greater than the limits. The user is responsible for ensuring that the mini-
mum strength is satisfied.
3.4 Strength Reduction Factors
The strength reduction factor, |, is defined as given in AS 2.3(c), Table 2.3:
| = 0.80 for flexure (tension controlled) (AS 2.3(c))
| = 0.70 for shear and torsion (AS 2.3(c))
These values can be overwritten; however, caution is advised.
3.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the text that follows. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each
station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 6 Beam Design
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
3.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
3.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored
moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top re-
inforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases the beam may
be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
3.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression re-
inforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of the
concrete. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength, f
y
, is limited to 500MPa
(AS 6.2.1), even if the material property is defined using a higher value.
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Beam Design 3 - 7
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block, as
shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.1.2.2).
The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the
flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1.2.2).
 The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.003.
 A uniform compressive stress of 0.85f '
c
acts on an area bounded by:
– The edges of the cross-sections.
– A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading
concerned, and located at a distance ¸k
u
d from the extreme compression
fiber.
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by
d k a
u
¸ =
max
where, (AS 8.1.3)
( ) | | 28 ' 007 . 0 85 . 0 ÷ ÷ =
c
f ¸
0.65 0.85 s¸ s (AS 8.1.2.2)
k
u
= 0.4
The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. It is assumed
that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (A
sc
f
sy
> 0.15N
*
) (AS
10.7.1a); hence, all beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and
torsion only.
3.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M
*
(i.e., designing top
or bottom reinforcement), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see
Figure 3-1), where,
b f
M
d d a
c
| ' 85 . 0
2
*
2
÷ ÷ = (AS 8.1.2.2)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 8 Beam Design
(I) BEAM
SECTION
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
u
a k d ¸ =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
cs
A
(I) BEAM
SECTION
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
u
a k d ¸ =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
cs
A

Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design
where, the value of | is taken as that for a tension controlled section (k
u
≤ 0.4),
which by default is 0.80 (AS 2.3) in the preceding and following equations.
 If a s a
max
, the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
2
*
a
d f
M
A
sy
st
|

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M
*
is positive, or at the top
if M
*
is negative.
 If a > a
max
, i.e., k
u
> 0.4, compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.3)
and is calculated as follows:
The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by:
max
' 85 . 0 ba f C
c
= (AS 8.1.2.2)
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Beam Design 3 - 9
and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement
is:
| |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
max
a
d C M
uc

Therefore, the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement
and tension reinforcement is:
uc us
M M M ÷ =
*

The required compression reinforcement is given by:
( )( ) ' 0.85 '
us
sc
s c
M
A
f f d d |
=
' ÷ ÷
, where
0.003
s s sy
c d
f E f
c
' ÷ (
' = s
(
¸ ¸
(AS 8.1.2.1, 6.2.2)
The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the con-
crete is:
|
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
2
max
1
a
d f
M
A
sy
uc
s

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is
given by:
( )
2
us
s
sy
M
A
f d d |
=
' ÷

Therefore, the total tension reinforcement is A
st
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and the total com-
pression reinforcement is A
sc
. A
st
is to be placed at the bottom and A
sc
is to be
placed at the top if M
*
is positive, and vice versa if M
*
is negative.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 10 Beam Design
3.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
In designing a flanged beam, a simplified stress block, as shown in Figure 3-2,
is assumed if the flange is under compression, i.e., if the moment is positive. If
the moment is negative, the flange comes under tension, and the flange is ig-
nored. In that case, a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1
is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.1.3).

(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
sc
A
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
w
T s
T
s
c
c
0.85 f '
f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
s
D
c
u
a k d ¸ =
(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
sc
A
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.003 c =
c
0.85 f '
w
T s
T
s
c
c
0.85 f '
f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
s
D
c
u
a k d ¸ =

Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design

3.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
*
(i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above, i.e., no
flanged beam data is used.
3.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
If M
*
> 0, the depth of the compression block is given by:
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Beam Design 3 - 11
f c
b f
M
d d a
| ' 85 . 0
2
*
2
÷ ÷ =
where, the value of | is taken as that for k
u
≤ 0.4, which is 0.80 by default (AS
2.3) in the preceding and the following equations.
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by:
d k a
u
¸ =
max
where, k
u
= 0.4 (AS 8.1.3)
 If a s D
s
, the subsequent calculations for A
st
are exactly the same as previ-
ously defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in that case, the
width of the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required
when a > a
max
.
 If a > D
s
, the calculation for A
st
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balanc-
ing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 3-2. C
f
is
given by:
( ) ( )
max
, min ' 85 . 0 a D b b f C
s w ef c f
× ÷ = (AS 8.1.2.2)
Therefore,
1
=
f
s
sy
C
A
f
and the portion of M
*
that is resisted by the flange is
given by:
( )
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
, min
max
a D
d C M
s
f uf
|
Therefore, the balance of the moment, M
*
to be carried by the web is:
*
uw uf
M M M = ÷
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b
w
and d, for which the design
depth of the compression block is recalculated as:
2
1
2
0.85 |
= ÷ ÷
'
uw
c w
M
a d d
f b

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 12 Beam Design
 If a
1
s a
max
, the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
2
1
2
|
=
| |
÷
|
\ .
uw
s
sy
M
A
a
f d
, and
2 1 s s st
A A A + =
This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.
 If a
1
> a
max
, compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as fol-
lows:
The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by:
max
' 85 . 0 a b f C
w c w
= (AS 8.1.2.2)
Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforce-
ment is:
| |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
max
a
d C M
w uc

and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is:
uc uw us
M M M ÷ =
Therefore, the compression reinforcement is computed as:
( )( )
,
0.85
us
sc
s c
M
A
f f d d |
=
' ' ' ÷ ÷
where
max
max
0.003
s s sy
c d
f E f
c
' ( ÷
' = s
(
¸ ¸
(AS 8.1.2.1, 6.2.2)
The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is:
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Beam Design 3 - 13
2
max
2
|
=
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
uc
s
sy
M
A
a
f d

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement
is:
( )
3
|
=
' ÷
us
s
sy
M
A
f d d

The total tensile reinforcement is A
st
= A
s1
+ A
s2
+ A
s3
, and the total compres-
sion reinforcement is A
sc
. A
st
is to be placed at the bottom and A
sc
is to be
placed at the top.
3.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is
given by the following limit:
2
.min
0.22 ,
cf
st
sy
f
D
A bd
d f
'
| |
=
|
\ .
where (AS 8.1.4.1)
c cf
f f ' 6 . 0 ' = (AS 6.1.1.2)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
st
w
sc
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
s
´
¹

3.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 14 Beam Design
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
 Determine the factored shear force, V
*
.
 Determine the shear force, V
uc
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
3.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load
combination factors.
3.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, V
uc
, is calculated as:
3 1
3 2 1
'
(
¸
(

¸

=
o w
c st
o w uc
d b
f A
d b V | | | (AS 8.2.7.1)
where,
1 . 1
1000
6 . 1 1 . 1
1
> |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
o
d
| (AS 8.2.7.1)
β
2
= 1, or (AS 8.2.7.1)
= 0
5 . 3
1
*
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
g
A
N
for members subject to significant axial tension, or
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
g
A
N
14
1
*
for members subject to significant axial compression.
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Beam Design 3 - 15
β
3
= 1
3.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to:
o v uc u
d b V V 6 . 0
min .
+ = (AS 8.2.9)
o c u
bd f V ' 2 . 0
max .
= (AS 8.2.6)
Given V
*
, V
uc
, and V
u.max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as fol-
lows, where, |, the strength reduction factor, is 0.6 by default (AS 2.3).
 If
*
/ 2,
uc
V V | s
0
sv
A
,
s
= if D ≤ 750 mm; otherwise A
sv.min
shall be provided. (AS 8.2.5).
 If
( )
*
.min
/ 2 ,
uc u
V V V | | < s
0,
sv
A
s
= if D < b
w
/2 or 250 mm, whichever is greater (AS 8.2.5(c)(i));
otherwise A
sv.min
shall be provided.
 If
*
.min .max
,
u u
V V V | | < s
( )
*
.
,
cot
uc
sv
sy f o v
V V
A
s f d
|
u
÷
= (AS 8.2.10)
and greater than A
sv.min,
defined as:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f sy
w sv
f
b
s
A
.
min .
35 . 0 (AS 8.2.8)
u
v
= the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the lon-
gitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when
V
*
=|V
u.min
to 45 degrees when V
*
=| V
u,max
.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 16 Beam Design
 If
*
max
, V V | > a failure condition is declared. (AS 8.2.6)
 If V
*
exceeds its maximum permitted value |V
max
, the concrete section size
should be increased (AS 8.2.6).
Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required,
the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for
combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b).
The maximum of all of the calculated A
sv
/s values obtained from each load
combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in de-
signing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to
the beam torsion:
 Determine the factored torsion, T
*
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion capacity.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination fac-
tors.
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Beam Design 3 - 17
In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a
member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
design T
*
is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2).
However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces
and reduce T
*
. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional
degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.
3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as A
t
, J
t
, and u
t
are calcu-
lated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3).
A
t
= Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at
the corners of the cross-section
u
t
= Perimeter of the polygon defined by A
t

J
t
= Torsional modulus
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
sw
/s and
A
l
, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost
closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent
to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of
flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the
flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion
reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during T
uc
calcu-
lation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam sec-
tion are given as:
A
t
=
( )( ) 2 2 , b c h c ÷ ÷ (AS 8.3.5)
u
t
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 , b c h c ÷ + ÷ (AS 8.3.6)
J
t
= 0.4x
2
y (AS 8.3.3)
where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly,
the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as:
A
t
=
( )( ) 2 2 ,
w
b c h c ÷ ÷ (AS 8.3.5)
u
t
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 ,
c w c
h b ÷ + ÷ (AS 8.3.6)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 18 Beam Design
J
t
=
0.4Ex
2
y (AS 8.3.3)
where the section dimensions b
w
, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in
Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a
component rectangle, respectively.
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
s
D
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
s
D
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, T
uc
, is cal-
culated as:
0.3 '
uc t
T = J f
c
(AS 8.3.5)
where J
t
is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in de-
tail in the previous section.
Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:
uc
T T | 25 . 0
*
s (AS 8.3.4(a)(i))
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Beam Design 3 - 19
5 . 0
* *
s +
uc uc
V
V
T
T
| |
(AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))
1
* *
s +
uc uc
V
V
T
T
| |
and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) (AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))
If the factored torsion T
*
alone or in combination with V
*
does not satisfy any
of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is
needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups
and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3).
 If T
*
> T
cr
, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
sw
/s, is calcu-
lated as:
t f sy
t sw
A f
T
s
A
.
*
2
tan
|
u
= (AS 8.3.5(b))
where, the minimum value of A
sw
/s is taken as follows:
f sy
w sw
f
b
s
A
.
min .
35 . 0
= (AS 8.2.8)
The value θ
t
is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and
the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees
when T
*
= |T
uc
to 45 degrees when T
*
= |T
u,max
.
The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion
by adding additional shear stirrups.
0 . 1
* *
s +
us us
V
V
T
T
| |
(AS 8.3.4(b))
where,
t t
sw
f sy us
A
s
A
f T u cot 2
.
|
.
|

\
|
= (AS 8.3.5(b))
( )
v o f sy sv us
s d f A V u cot /
.
= (AS 8.2.10(a))
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 20 Beam Design
The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:
sy
t t
sw
f sy
l
f
u
s
A
f
A
u
2
.
cot 5 . 0 |
.
|

\
|
= (AS 8.3.6(a))
An upper limit of the combination of V
*
and T
*
that can be carried by the sec-
tion is also checked using the equation:
0 . 1
max .
*
max .
*
s +
u u
V
V
T
T
| |
(AS 8.3.3)
where,
o w c u
d b f V ' 2 . 0
max .
= (AS 8.2.6)
t c u
J f T ' 2 . 0
max .
= (AS 8.3.5(a))
For rectangular sections, b
w
is replaced with b. If the combination of V
*
and T
*

exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete sec-
tion should be increased in size.
When torsional reinforcement is required (T
*
> T
cr
), the area of transverse
closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
f sy
sw sv
f
b
s
A
s
A
.
35 . 0
2 > |
.
|

\
|
+ (AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)
If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated A
sv
/s and A
sw
/s,
A
sv
/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, A
sv
/s does not need to
satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.
The maximum of all the calculated A
l
and A
sw
/s values obtained from each load
combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements
and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be
investigated independently of the program by the user.
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Slab Design 3 - 21
3.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-
sign is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 3600-
2001) for reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To learn
more about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the
Key Features and Terminology manual.
3.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal
displacement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with
the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load
combination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps, which are described in the following subsections, are repeated
for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination numbers, is obtained and reported.
3.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 22 Slab Design
3.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when
drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted ac-
cordingly.
3.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.1.1):
A
s
> 0.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.1.1(a))
A
s
> 0.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings
(AS 9.1.1(b))
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.
3.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.
3.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d
om
/2 from
the face of the support (AS 9.2.1.1). For rectangular columns and concentrated
loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to
the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2.1.3). Figure 3-4 shows the
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Slab Design 3 - 23
auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.
The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching perimeter
may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Edge Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Edge Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2

Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
3.6.2.2 Determine Concrete Capacity
The shear capacity,
cv
f , is calculated based on the minimum of the two expres-
sions from AS 3600-01 equation 11-35, as shown, with the d
om
and u terms re-
moved to convert force to stress.
2
0 17 1
min
0 34
c
h
cv
c
. f
f
. f
|
¦
| |
' +
¦ |
= \ .
´
¦
'
¹
(AS 9.2.3(a))
where, |
h
is the ratio of the longest dimension to the shortest dimension of the
critical section.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 24 Slab Design
3.6.2.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
The maximum design shear stress is computed along the major and minor axis
of column separately using the following equation:
*
max *
m m
1.0
8
(
= +
(
¸ ¸
v
o o
uM V
v
ud V ad
(AS 9.2.4(a))
3.6.2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
3.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS
3600-2001. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or
shear links.
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm, and not
less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.7.4.1). If the
slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching shear reinforce-
ment is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
carried out as described in the subsections that follow.
3.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.
Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01
Slab Design 3 - 25
3.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of:
V
max
= 3 V
u,min
= 3*V
u
(AS 92.2.4(a), (d))
where V
u
is computed from AS 9.2.3 or 9.2.4. Given V*, V
u
, and V
u,max
, the re-
quired shear reinforcement is calculated as follows, where, | is the strength re-
duction factor.
( )
*
m
,
u
sv
sy o
V V
A
s f d
| ÷
= (AS 8.2.10)
Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that:
m
1
'
16
>
s c o
V f ud (NZS 12.7.4.3)
 If V
*
> |V
max
, a failure condition is declared. (NZS 12.7.3.4)
 If V
*
exceeds the maximum permitted value of |V
max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
3.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.7.4.4).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

3 - 26 Slab Design
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
3.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.11 plus half of the
diameter of the flexural reinforcement.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern, the angle between adjacent
stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, be-
tween the peripheral lines are specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (NZS 12.7.4.4)
s s 0.5d (NZS 12.7.4.4)
g s 2d (NZS 12.7.4.4)

Notations 4 - 1
Chapter 4
Design for BS 8110-97
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997]
is selected. For light-weight concrete and torsion, reference is made to BS
8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in
Table 4-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code BS
8110-1997 in this chapter, a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is
used.
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
4.1 Notations
Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code

A
g
Gross area of cross-section, mm
2

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 2 Notations
Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm
2

A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm
2

A
sv,t
Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm
2

A
sv
/ s
v
Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm
2
/mm
a Depth of compression block, mm
b Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone,
mm
b
f
Width or effective width of flange, mm
b
w
Average web width of a flanged beam, mm
C Torsional constant, mm
4

d Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
d' Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
f Punching shear factor considering column location
f
cu
Characteristic cube strength at 28 days, MPa
f '
s
Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa
f
y
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa
f
yv
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
h Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Notations 4 - 3
Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code

h
f
Flange thickness, mm
h
min
Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm
h
max
Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm
K
Normalized design moment,
2
u
cu
M
bd f

K'
Maximum
2
u
cu
M
bd f
for a singly reinforced concrete section, taken
as 0.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to
10%.
k
1
Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression
k
2

Concrete shear strength factor, | |
3
1
25
cu
f
k
3
Shear strength reduction factor for light-weight concrete
M Design moment at a section, N-mm
M
single
Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm
s
v
Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm
T Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm
u Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm
V Design shear force at ultimate design load, N
v Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching criti-
cal section, MPa
v
c
Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa
v
max
Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code

v
t
Torsional shear stress, MPa
x Neutral axis depth, mm
x
bal
Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm
z Lever arm, mm
| Torsional stiffness constant
|
b
Moment redistribution factor in a member
¸
f
Partial safety factor for load
¸
m
Partial safety factor for material strength
c
c
Maximum concrete strain, 0.0035
c
s
Strain in tension reinforcement
c
'
s
Strain in compression reinforcement
4.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are
obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors
of safety, ¸
f
(BS 2.4.1.3). For BS 8110-1997, if a structure is subjected to dead
(D), live (L), pattern live (PL), snow (S), and wind (W) loads, and considering
that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to
be considered (BS 2.4.3).
1.4D
1.4D + 1.6L
(BS 2.4.3)
1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL)
(BS 2.4.3)
1.0D ± 1.4W
1.4D ± 1.4W
1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W
(BS 2.4.3)
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Limits on Material Strength 4 - 5
1.4D + 1.6L + 1.6S
1.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2W
1.2D + 1.2L + 1.2S ± 1.2W
(BS 2.4.3)
These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS
8110-1997 code is used. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of
loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note
that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and
should be reviewed before using for design.
4.3 Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, f
cu
, should not be less than 25 MPa (BS
3.1.7.2). SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of
beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths
are used for design even if they are outside of the limits. It is the user's respon-
sibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.
4.4 Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing
the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, ¸
m
. The val-
ues of ¸
m
used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from BS
Table 2.2 (BS 2.4.4.1):
Values of ¸
m
for the Ultimate Limit State
Reinforcement 1.15
Concrete in flexure and axial load 1.50
Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.25
These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in
the code. Note that for reinforcement, the default factor of 1.15 is for Grade
500 reinforcement. If other grades are used, this value should be overwritten as
necessary. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design
equations where necessary, typically affecting the material strength portions of
the equations.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 6 Beam Design
4.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at
each station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
4.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
4.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored mo-
ments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases, with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top re-
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Beam Design 4 - 7
inforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases, the beam is
always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
4.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of
the concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown
in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.4.4.4). Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribu-
tion in the member does not exceed 10% (i.e., |
b
> 0.9; BS 3.4.4.4). The code
also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth, x/d s 0.5, to safeguard against
non-ductile failures (BS 3.4.4.4). In addition, the area of compression rein-
forcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the
maximum permitted value.
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow. It is assumed
that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.1f
cu
A
g
) (BS 3.4.4.1);
hence, all beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion
only.
4.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
For rectangular beams, the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced
beam, M
single
, is first calculated for a section. The reinforcement is determined
based on M being greater than, less than, or equal to M
single
. See Figure 4-1.
 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly
reinforced.
M
single
= K'f
cu
bd
2
, where (BS 3.4.4.4)
K' = 0.156
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 8 Beam Design
(I) BEAM
SECTION
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
c = 0.0035 ¸ 0 67
cu m
. f
= 0 9 a . x
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
'
s
f
(I) BEAM
SECTION
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
c = 0.0035 ¸ 0 67
cu m
. f
= 0 9 a . x
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
'
s
f

Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design
 If M s M
single
, the area of tension reinforcement, A
s
, is given by:
0 87
s
y
M
A ,
. f z
= , where (BS 3.4.4.4)
d
K
d z 95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = (BS 3.4.4.4)
2
bd f
M
K
cu
= (BS 3.4.4.4)
This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive, or at the top
if M is negative.
 If M > M
single
, compression reinforcement is required and calculated as fol-
lows:
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Beam Design 4 - 9
( )
single
'
'
0.67
'
s
cu
s
c
M M
A
f
f d d
¸
÷
=
| |
÷ ÷
|
\ .
(BS 3.4.4.4)
where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and

y s
f f 87 . 0 ' = if
'
1
1
2 800
y
f
d
d
(
s ÷
(
¸ ¸
(BS 3.4.4.1, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
d
d
E f
c s s
'
2
1 ' c if
'
1
1
2 800
(
> ÷
(
¸ ¸
y
f
d
d
(BS 3.4.4.1, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the con-
crete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as:
( )
single single
'
,
0.87
0.87
s
y
y
M M M
A
f z
f d d
÷
= +
÷
where (BS 3.4.4.4)
d
K
d z 777 . 0
9 . 0
'
25 . 0 5 . 0 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = (BS 3.4.4.4)
4.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
4.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M (i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
4.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by consider-
ing alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed
to be located in the flange. Based on this assumption, the program calculates
the exact depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond
the flange thickness, the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width b
f
.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 10 Beam Design
If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth, the contribution of the web
to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure 4-2.
x
b
f
d
A
s
(i) BEAM
SECTION
(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM
e
s
h
f
C
f
T
f
C
w
T
w
bw
A
s
'
C
s
T
s
d' f
s
'
e = 0.0035 0.67 f /
cu m
g 0.67 f /
cu m
g

Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section
Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange, the normalized moment is given
by:
K =
2
d b f
M
f cu
(BS 3.4.4.4)
Then the moment arm is computed as:
z = d
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0
K
s 0.95d (BS 3.4.4.4)
the depth of the neutral axis is computed as:
x =
45 . 0
1
(d − z) (BS 3.4.4.4)
and the depth of the compression block is given by:
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Beam Design 4 - 11
a = 0.9x (BS 3.4.4.4)
 If a s h
f
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in that case, the width of
the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.
 If a > h
f
, when M ≤ |
f
f
cu
bd
2
and h
f
≤ 0.45d, then
( )
( )
0 1 0 45
0 87 0 5
cu f
s
y f
M . f bd . d h
A ,
. f d . h
+ ÷
=
÷
where (BS 3.4.4.5)
b
b
d
h
b
b
d
h
w
f
w
f
f
15 . 0
2
1 1 45 . 0 +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ = | (BS 3.4.4.5)
Otherwise the calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balanc-
ing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 4-2.
In that case, the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by:
( ) ( )
0.45 0.5
f cu f w f f
M f b b h d h = ÷ ÷ (BS 3.4.4.5)
The moment taken by the web is computed as:
f w
M M M ÷ =
and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by:
K
w
=
2
w
cu w
M
f b d
(BS 3.4.4.4)
 If K
w
s 0.156 (BS 3.4.4.4), the beam is designed as a singly reinforced con-
crete beam. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to
balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the
web.
( )
0 87 0 87 0 5
f
w
s
y y f
M
M
A ,
. f z . f d . h
= +
÷
where
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 12 Beam Design
d
K
d z
w
95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
 If K
w
> K' (BS 3.4.4.4), compression reinforcement is required and is calcu-
lated as follows:
The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by:
2
' d b f K M
w cu uw
= (BS 3.4.4.4)
The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude
M
w
− M
uw
. The compression reinforcement is computed as:
( )
0 67
w uw
s
cu
s
c
M M
A
. f
f d d'
¸
÷
' =
| |
' ÷ ÷
|
\ .
(BS 3.4.4.4)
where, d

is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and
0 87
s y
f ' . f = if
1
1
2 800
(
'
s ÷
(
¸ ¸
y
f
d
d
(BS 3.4.4.1, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
2
1
s s c
d
f ' E
d
c
'
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
if
1
1
2 800
(
'
> ÷
(
¸ ¸
y
f
d
d
(BS 3.4.4.1, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 87 0 777 0 87 0 87 0 5
f
uw w uw
s
f y y f
M
M M M
A
. f . d . f d d . f d . h
÷
= + +
' ÷ ÷

4.5.1.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is
given by the following table, which is taken from BS Table 3.25 (BS 3.12.5.3)
with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Beam Design 4 - 13
Minimum percentage
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
f
y
= 250 MPa f
y
= 500 MPa
Rectangular ÷ 100
bh
A
s

0.24 0.13
f
w
b
b
< 0.4 100
h b
A
w
s

0.32 0.18
T- or L-Beam
with web in
tension
f
w
b
b
> 0.4 100
h b
A
w
s

0.24 0.13
T-Beam with
web in
compression
÷
100
h b
A
w
s

0.48 0.26
L-Beam with
web in
compression
÷
100
h b
A
w
s

0.36 0.20
The minimum flexural compression reinforcement, if it is required, provided in
a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table, which is taken
from BS Table 3.25 (BS 3.12.5.3).
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
Minimum
percentage
Rectangular ÷
100
bh
A
s
'

0.20
Web in tension
100
f f
s
h b
A
'

0.40
T- or L-Beam
Web in compression
100
h b
A
w
s
'

0.20
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows
(BS 3.12.6.1):
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 14 Beam Design
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
s
w
s
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
' s
´
¹

4.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
 Determine the shear stress, v.
 Determine the shear stress, v
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
4.5.2.1 Determine Shear Stress
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load
combination factors. The shear stress is then calculated as:
d b
V
v
w
= (BS 3.4.5.2)
The maximum allowable shear stress, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
= min(0.8
cu
f , 5 MPa) (BS 3.4.5.2)
For light-weight concrete, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
= min(0.63
cu
f , 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.4)
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Beam Design 4 - 15
4.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear stress carried by the concrete, v
c
, is calculated as:
c c
c
c
c c
v A
N
v
M A
NVh
v v + s + = 1 6 . 0 ' (BS 3.4.5.12)
1 1
3 4
1 2 3
0.79 100 400
s
c
m
k k k A
v
bd d ¸
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
k
1
is the enhancement factor for support compression,
and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.8)
k
2
=
1
3
25
cu
f
,
| |
|
\ .
1 s k
2
s
3
1
25
40
|
.
|

\
|
(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
¸
m
= 1.25 (BS 2.4.4.1)
However, the following limits also apply:
0.15 s
bd
A
s
100
s 3 (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
4
1
400
|
.
|

\
|
d
> 0.67 (unreinforced) or > 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
f
cu
s 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) (BS 3.4.5.4)
1 s
M
Vh
(BS 3.4.5.12)
A
s
is the area of tension reinforcement.
4.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given v, v
c
, and v
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(BS Table 3.8, BS 3.4.5.3):
 If v s (v’
c
+ 0.4),
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 16 Beam Design
yv
w
v
sv
f
b
s
A
87 . 0
4 . 0
= (BS 3.4.5.3, Table 3.7)
 If (v'
c
+ 0.4) < v s v
max
,
( )
yv
w c
v
sv
f
b v v
s
A
87 . 0
' ÷
= (BS 3.4.5.3, Table 3.7)
 If v > v
max
, a failure condition is declared. (BS 3.4.5.2)
In the preceding expressions, a limit is imposed on f
yv
as:
f
yv
s 500 MPa. (BS 3.4.5.1)
The maximum of all of the calculated A
sv
/s
v
values, obtained from each load
combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
4.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in de-
signing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to
the beam torsion:
 Determine the torsional shear stress, v
t
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion stress.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
Note that this section refers to BS 8110-2:1985 instead of BS 8110-1997 code.
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Beam Design 4 - 17
4.5.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination fac-
tors.
In typical framed construction, specific consideration of torsion is not usually
required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforce-
ment. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam, further consid-
eration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.4.5.13).
The torsional shear stress, v
t
, for a rectangular section is computed as:
( )
2
min max min
2
3
t
T
v
h h h /
=
÷
(BS 8110-2:85 2.4.4.1)
For flanged sections, the section is considered as a series of rectangular seg-
ments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular compo-
nent using the preceding equation, but considering a torsional moment attrib-
uted to that segment, calculated as:
( )
3
min max
seg
3
min max
h h
T T
h h
| |
|
=
|
\ .
¿
(BS 8110-2:85 2.4.4.2)
h
max
= Larger dimension of a rectangular section
h
min
= Smaller dimension of a rectangular section
If the computed torsional shear stress, v
t
, exceeds the following limit for sec-
tions with the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link less than 550
mm, a failure condition is generated:

2 1
min 0 8 5N/mm
550
t cu
y
v ( . f , ) s × (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.5)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 18 Beam Design
4.5.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress
The critical torsion stress, v
t,min
, for which the torsion in the section can be ig-
nored is calculated as:
( )
2
min
min 0 067 0 4N/mm
t , cu
v . f , . = (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.6)
where f
cu
is the specified concrete compressive strength.
For light-weight concrete, v
t,min
is defined as:
( )
2
min
min 0 067 0 4N/mm
t , cu
v . f , . = × 0.8 (BS 8110-2:85 5.5)
4.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsional shear stress, v
t
is less than the threshold limit, v
t,min
, tor-
sion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.6). In that case, the program re-
ports that no torsion reinforcement is required. However, if v
t
exceeds the
threshold limit, v
t,min
, it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by
closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.6).
If v
t
> v
t,min
the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
sv,t
/s
v
, is calculated
as:
( )
yv v
t sv
f y x
T
s
A
87 . 0 8 . 0
1 1
,
= (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.7)
and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as:
( )
y v
yv t sv
l
f s
y x f A
A
1 1 ,
+
= (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.7)
In the preceding expressions, x
1
is the smaller center-to-center dimension of the
closed link, and y
1
is the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link.
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Beam Design 4 - 19
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f

Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
An upper limit of the combination of v and v
t
that can be carried by the section
is also checked using the equation:
( )
2
min 0 8 5N/mm
t cu
v v . f , + s (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.5)
For light-weight concrete, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
= min(0.63
cu
f , 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.4)
If the combination of shear stress, v, and torsional shear stress, v
t
, exceeds this
limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be
increased in size.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
l
and A
sv,t
/s
v
values obtained from each
load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or
longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be in-
vestigated independently of the program by the user.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 20 Slab Design
4.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-
sign is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97)
for reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To learn more
about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key
Features and Terminology manual.
4.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal dis-
placement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the
applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load
combination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated
for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.
4.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Slab Design 4 - 21
4.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when
drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted ac-
cordingly.
4.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.12.5.3, BS Table 3.25) with interpo-
lation for reinforcement of intermediate strength:
0 0024 if 250MPa
0 0013 f 500MPa
y
s
y
. bh f
A
. bh i f
= ¦
¦
>
´
=
¦
¹
(BS 3.12.5.3)
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area
(BS 3.12.6.1).
4.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.
4.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.7.6.4) and at a
critical section at a distance of 1.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.7.7.6).
For rectangular columns and concentrated loads, the critical area is taken as a
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 22 Slab Design
rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point
loads (BS 3.7.7.1). Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered
by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i.e., interior,
edge, corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punch-
ing Check Overwrites.
1.5d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
1.5d 1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
1.5d 1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d

Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
4.6.2.2 Determine Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.7.7.4, 3.7.7.6):
4
1
3
1
2 1
400 100 79 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d bd
A k k
v
s
m
c
¸
(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
k
1
is the enhancement factor for support compression,
and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.8)
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Slab Design 4 - 23
k
2
=
1
3
25
cu
f
,
| |
|
\ .
1 ≤ k
2

3
1
25
40
|
.
|

\
|
(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
¸
m
= 1.25 (BS 3.4.5.2)
However, the following limitations also apply:
0.15 s
bd
A
s
100
s 3 (BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)
4
1
400
|
.
|

\
|
d
> 0.67 (unreinforced) or > 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.4.5.4)
v s min(0.8
cu
f , 5MPa) (BS 3.7.6.4)
For light-weight concrete, v
max
is defined as:
v s min(0.63
cu
f , 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.4)
f
cu
s 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (BS 3.4.5.4)
A
s
= area of tension reinforcement, which is taken as zero in the current
implementation.
4.6.2.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the bending axis, the nominal design shear stress, v
max
,
is calculated as:
| |
= + |
|
\ .
1.5
,
M
x
V V f
eff x
Vy
(BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
| |
|
= +
|
\ .
1.5
,
M
y
V V f
eff y
Vx
(BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 24 Slab Design
,
max
,
max
eff x
eff y
V
u d
v
V
u d
¦
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¦
¹
(BS 3.7.7.3)
where,
u is the perimeter of the critical section
x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the
axis of bending
M
x
and M
y
are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the
column at the connection
V is the total punching shear force
f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is
taken as:
1.00 for interior columns
1.25 for edge columns
1.25 for corner columns
f
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
(BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
4.6.2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
4.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS
3.7.7.5). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching
shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased
by the user.
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Slab Design 4 - 25
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.
4.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.
4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear stress is limited to a maximum of:
v
max
= 2v
c
(BS 3.7.7.5)
Given v, v
c
, and v
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(BS 3.7.7.5).
 If v s 1.6v
c
,
s
A
v
=
( ) 0.4
0.87 0.87
>
c
yv yv
v - v ud
ud
f f
, (BS 3.7.7.5)
 If 1.6v
c
s v < 2.0v
c
,
s
A
v
=
( ) 5 0.7
0.4
0.87 0.87
>
c
yv yv
v - v ud
ud
f f
, (BS 3.7.7.5)
 If v > v
max
, a failure condition is declared. (BS 3.7.7.5)
If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of v
max
, the concrete section should
be increased in size.
4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
4 - 26 Slab Design
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.

I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2
d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2
d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and
critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diame-
ter of the flexural reinforcement.
Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
Slab Design 4 - 27
Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available
in 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, and 20-millimeter diameters.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 1.5d. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are
specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (BS 3.7.7.6)
s s 0.75d (BS 3.7.7.6)
g s 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6)

Notations 5 - 1
Chapter 5
Design for CSA A23.3-04
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04]
is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For
referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a pre-
fix “CSA” followed by the section number is used.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
5.1 Notations
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

A
c
Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sq-
mm
A
ct
Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 2 Notations
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm
A
o
Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm
A
oh
Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse tor-
sional reinforcement, sq-mm
A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm
A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm
A
s(required)
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm
A
t
/ s Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sq-
mm/mm
A
v
Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm
A
v
/ s Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm
a Depth of compression block, mm
a
b
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm
b Width of member, mm
b
f
Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm
b
w
Width of web (flanged section), mm
b
0
Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm
b
1
Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending,
mm
b
2
Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direc-
tion of bending, mm
c Depth to neutral axis, mm
c
b
Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm
d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm
d
v
Effective shear depth, mm
d' Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement,
mm
h
s
Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Notations 5 - 3
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f '
c
Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
f '
s
Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi
f
y
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa
f
yt
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
h Overall depth of a section, mm
I
g
Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,
neglecting reinforcement.
M
f
Factored moment at section, N-mm
N
f
Factored axial force at section, N
p
c
Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm
p
h
Perimeter of area A
oh
, mm
s Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam,
mm
s
z
Crack spacing parameter
T
f
Factored torsion at section, N-mm
V
c
Shear resisted by concrete, N
V
r,max
Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N
V
f
Factored shear force at a section, N
V
s
Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N
o
1

Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified
concrete strength
|
Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete
|
1

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
|
c

Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punch-
ing critical section
c
c

Strain in concrete
c
s

Strain in reinforcing steel
c
x

Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section
|
c

Strength reduction factor for concrete
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

|
s

Strength reduction factor for steel
|
m

Strength reduction factor for member
¸
f

Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure
¸
v

Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of
shear
u
Angle of diagonal compressive stresses, degrees
ì
Shear strength factor
5.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. For CSA A23.3-04, if a structure
is subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live (PL), snow (S), wind (W), and
earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are re-
versible, the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA
8.3.2, Table C.1)
1.4D (CSA 8.3.2, Table C.1 Case 1)
1.25D + 1.5L
1.25D + 1.5L + 0.5S
1.25D + 1.5L ± 0.4W
0.9D + 1.5L
0.9D + 1.5L + 0.5S
0.9D + 1.5L ± 0.4W
(CSA 8.3.2, Table C.1 Case 2)
1.25D + 1.5(0.75 PL) (CSA 13.8.4.3)
1.25D + 1.5S
1.25D + 1.5S + 0.5L
1.25D + 1.5S ± 0.4W
0.9D + 1.5S
0.9D + 1.5S + 0.5L
0.9D + 1.5S ± 0.4W
(CSA 8.3.2, Table C.1 Case 3)
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Limits on Material Strength 5 - 5
1.25D ± 1.4W
1.25D + 0.5L ± 1.4W
1.25D + 0.5S ± 1.4W
0.9D ± 1.4W
0.9D + 0.5L ± 1.4W
0.9D + 0.5S ± 1.4W
(CSA 8.3.2, Table C.1 Case 4)
1.0D ± 1.0E
1.0D + 0.5L ± 1.0E
1.0D + 0.25S ± 1.0E
1.0D + 0.5L + 0.25S ± 1.0E

(CSA 8.3.2, Table C.1 Case 5)
These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the
CSA A23.3-04 code is used. If roof live load is treated separately or other types
of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used.
5.3 Limits on Material Strength
The upper and lower limits of f '
c
are 80 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively, for all
framing types (CSA 8.6.1.1).
20 MPa ≤ f '
c
≤ 80 MPa (CSA 8.6.1.1)
The upper limit of f
y
is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.5.1).
f
y
≤ 500 MPa (CSA 8.5.1)
SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design
of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths
are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as be-
ing greater than the limits. The user is responsible for ensuring that the mini-
mum strength is satisfied.
5.4 Strength Reduction Factors
The strength reduction factors, |, are material dependent and defined as:
|
c
= 0.65 for concrete (CSA 8.4.2)
|
s
= 0.85 for reinforcement (CSA 8.4.3a)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 6 Beam Design
These values can be overwritten; however, caution is advised.
5.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at
each station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
5.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
5.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored mo-
ments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corre-
sponding load factors.
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 7
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Positive beam
moments produce bottom reinforcement. In such cases the beam may be de-
signed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Negative beam moments produce top
reinforcement. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular or in-
verted flanged beam.
5.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression re-
inforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of the
concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown
in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.1.7). Furthermore, it is assumed that the compression
carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the
balanced condition (CSA 10.1.4). When the applied moment exceeds the mo-
ment capacity at the balanced condition, the area of compression reinforcement
is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compres-
sion and additional tension reinforcement.
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams), is summarized in the text that follows. For reinforced con-
crete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed (0.1
f '
c
A
g
), axial force is ignored; hence, all beams are designed for major direction
flexure, shear, and torsion only. Axial compression greater than 0.1 f '
c
A
g
and
axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear design.
5.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M
f
(i.e., designing top
or bottom reinforcement), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see
Figure 5-1), where,
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 8 Beam Design
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.0035 c =
1 c c
f o | '
1
a c | =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
cs
A
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.0035 c =
1 c c
f o | '
1
a c | =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
cs
A

Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design
b f
M
d d a
c c
f
| o '
2
1
2
÷ ÷ = (CSA 10.1)
where the value of |
c
is 0.65 (CSA 8.4.2) in the preceding and the following
equations. The parameters o
1
, |
1
, and c
b
are calculated as:
o
1
= 0.85 – 0.0015f '
c
> 0.67, (CSA 10.1.7)
|
1
= 0.97 – 0.0025f '
c
> 0.67, (CSA 10.1.7)
c
b
=
y
f + 700
700
d (CSA 10.5.2)
The balanced depth of the compression block is given by:
a
b
= |
1
c
b
(CSA 10.1.7)
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 9
 If a s a
b
(CSA 10.5.2), the area of tension reinforcement is given by:
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
2
a
d f
M
A
y s
f
s
|

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M
f
is positive, or at the top
if M
f
is negative.
 If a > a
b
(CSA 10.5.2), compression reinforcement is required and is calcu-
lated as follows:
The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by:
b c c
ba f C '
1
o | = (CSA 10.1.7)
and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension rein-
forcement is:
M
fc
= C |
.
|

\
|
÷
2
b
a
d
Therefore, the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement
and tension reinforcement is:
M
fs
= M
f
− M
fc

The required compression reinforcement is given by:
( )( )
1
,
fs
s
s s c c
M
A
f f d d | | o
' =
' ' ' ÷ ÷
where
s
f '
= 0.0035 E
s
(
¸
(

¸
÷
c
d c '
s f
y
(CSA 10.1.2, 10.1.3)
The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the con-
crete is:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 10 Beam Design
s
b
y
fc
s
a
d f
M
A
| |
.
|

\
|
÷
=
2
1

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is
given by:
( )
2
fs
s
y s
M
A
f d d |
=
' ÷

Therefore, the total tension reinforcement, A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and the total com-
pression reinforcement is A'
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A'
s
is to be
placed at the top if M
f
is positive, and vice versa if M
f
is negative.
5.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
5.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
f
(i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
5.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
 If M
f
> 0, the depth of the compression block is given by:
2
1
2
f
c c f
M
a d d
f b o |
= ÷ ÷
'
(CSA 10.1)
where, the value of |
c
is 0.65 (CSA 8.4.2) in the preceding and the following
equations. The parameters o
1
, |
1
, and c
b
are calculated as:
o
1
= 0.85 – 0.0015 f '
c
> 0.67, (CSA 10.1.7)
|
1
= 0.97 – 0.0025 f '
c
> 0.67, (CSA 10.1.7)
c
b
=
y
f + 700
700
d (CSA 10.5.2)
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 11
(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.0035 c =
1 c c
f o | '
w
T s
T
s
c f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
s
h
c
1 c c
f o | '
(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.0035 c =
1 c c
f o | '
w
T s
T
s
c f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
s
h
c
1 c c
f o | '

Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section
The balanced depth of the compression block is given by:
a
b
= |
1
c
b
(CSA 10.1.4,10.1.7)
 If a s h
s
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in this case the width of
the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required when a > a
b
.
 If a > h
s
, calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing the
compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balancing
the compressive force from the web, C
w
as shown in Figure 5-2. C
f
is given
by:
( ) ( )
1
min ,
f c f w s b
C f b b h a o ' = ÷ (CSA 10.1.7)
Therefore,
s y
c f
s
f
C
A
|
|
=
1
and the portion of M
f
that is resisted by the flange is
given by:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 12 Beam Design
( )
c
b s
f ff
a h
d C M | |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
, min

Therefore, the balance of the moment, M
f
to be carried by the web is:
M
fw
= M
f
− M
ff

The web is a rectangular section with dimensions b
w
and d, for which the de-
sign depth of the compression block is recalculated as:
w c c
fw
b f
M
d d a
| o '
2
1
2
1
÷ ÷ = (CSA 10.1)
 If a
1
s a
b
(CSA 10.5.2), the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
2
1
2
fw
s
s y
M
A ,
a
f d |
=
| |
÷
|
\ .
and
A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.
 If a
1
> a
b
(CSA 10.5.2), compression reinforcement is required and is calcu-
lated as follows:
The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by:
b w c c
a b f C '
1
o | = (CSA 10.1.7)
Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforce-
ment is:
M
fc
= C |
.
|

\
|
÷
2
b
a
d
and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is:
M
fs
= M
fw
÷ M
fc

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 13
Therefore, the compression reinforcement is computed as:
( )( )
'
1
,
' '
fs
s
s c c c
M
A
f f d d | | o
' =
÷ ÷
where
s
f ' = c
c
E
s
c d
c
' ÷ (
(
¸ ¸
s f
y
(CSA 10.1.2, 10.1.3)
The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is:
s
b
y
fc
s
a
d f
M
A
| |
.
|

\
|
÷
=
2
2

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement
is:
( )
3
fs
s
y s
M
A
f d d |
=
' ÷

The total tension reinforcement is A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
+ A
s3
, and the total compres-
sion reinforcement is A'
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A'
s
is to be
placed at the top.
5.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is
given by the minimum of the following two limits:
A
s
>
0.2
c
y
f
f
'
b
w
h (CSA 10.5.1.2)
A
s
>
3
4
A
s(required)
(CSA 10.5.1.3)
In addition, the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged
beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is
given by the limit:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 14 Beam Design
A
s
> 0.004 (b − b
w
) h
s
(CSA 10.5.3.1)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
s
w
s
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
' s
´
¹

5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular loading combination, at a particular station due to
the beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
 Determine the factored shear force, V
f
.
 Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated
with these steps.
5.5.2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load
combination factors.
5.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, V
c
, is calculated as:

c c c w v
V f b d | ì| ' = (CSA 11.3.4)
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 15
'
c
f s 8 MPa (CSA 11.3.4)
|
c
is the resistance factor for concrete. By default it is taken as 0.65 (CSA
8.4.2).
ì is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA
2.2). For normal density concrete, its value is 1 (CSA 8.6.5), which is taken
by the program as the default value. For concrete using lower density ag-
gregate, the user can change the value of ì in the material property data.
The recommended value for ì is as follows (CSA 8.6.5):
ì =
1.00, for normal density concrete,
0.85, for semi-low-density concrete
in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand,
0.75, for semi-low-density concrete
in which none of the fine aggregate is natural
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
¹
sand.
(CSA 8.6.5)
| is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete
(CSA 2.2). Its value is normally between 0.1 and 0.4. It is determined
according to CSA 11.3.6, and described further in the following sections.
w
b is the effective web width. For rectangular beams, it is the width of the
beam. For flanged beams, it is the width of the web of the beam.
v
d is the effective shear depth. It is taken as the greater of 0.9d or 0.72h(CSA
2.3), where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the cen-
troid of the tension reinforcement, and h is the overall depth of the cross-
section in the direction of the shear force (CSA 2.3).
The value of | is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.3.6.2) or it is
determined using the simplified method (CSA 11.3.6.3), if applicable. When
the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply, the gen-
eral method is used (CSA 11.3.6.4).
If the overall beam depth, h, is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged
beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350
mm, | is taken as 0.21 (CSA 11.3.6.2).
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 16 Beam Design
When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing f
y
does not ex-
ceed 400 MPa, the specified concrete strength f '
c
does not exceed 60 MPa, and
the tensile force is negligible, | is determined in accordance with the simplified
method, as follows (CSA 11.3.6.3):
 When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement, |
is taken as 0.18 (CSA 11.6.3.3a).
| = 0.18 (CSA 11.3.6.3(a))
 When the section contains no transverse reinforcement, | is determined
based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate, a
g
.
For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm, | is taken as:
230
1000
| =
+
v
d
(CSA 11.3.6.3(b))
where d
v
is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters.
For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm, | is taken as:
230
1000
| =
+
ze
s
(CSA 11.3.6.3 c)
where,
z
g
z
ze
s
a
s
s 85 . 0
15
35
>
+
= (CSA 11.3.6.3.c)
In the preceding expression, the crack spacing parameter, s
ze
, shall be taken as
the minimum of d
v
and the maximum distance between layers of distributed
longitudinal reinforcement. However, s
ze
is conservatively taken as equal to d
v
.
In summary, for simplified cases, | can be expressed as follows:
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 17
0.18, if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided,
230
, if no transverse reinforcement is provided, and 20mm,
1000
230
, if no transverse reinforcement is provided, and 20mm.
1000
g
v
g
ze
a
d
a
S
|
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
= >
´
+
¦
¦
< ¦
+
¹
¦

 When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing f
y
is greater
than 400 MPa, the specified concrete strength f '
c
is greater than 60 MPa, or
tension is not negligible, | is determined in accordance with the general
method as follows (CSA 11.3.6.1, 11.3.6.4):
( ) ( )
0.40 1300
1 1500 1000
|
c
= -
+ +
x ze
S
(CSA 11.3.6.4)
In the preceding expression, the equivalent crack spacing parameter, s
ze
is taken
equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA
11.3.6.4). Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.
300 if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided,
35
0.85 otherwise.
15
ze
z z
g
S
S S
a
¦
¦
=
´
>
¦
+
¹

(CSA 11.3.6.3, 11.3.6.4)
The value of a
g
in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate
size for f '
c
of 60 MPa, is taken as zero for f '
c
of 70 MPa, and linearly interpo-
lated between these values (CSA 11.3.6.4).
The longitudinal strain, c
x
at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from
the following equation:
( )
s s
f f v f
x
A E
N V d M
2
5 . 0 + +
= c (CSA 11.3.6.4)
In evaluating c
x
the following conditions apply:
 c
x
is positive for tensile action.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 18 Beam Design
 V
f
and M
f
are taken as positive quantities. (CSA 11.3.6.4(a))
 M
f
is taken as a minimum of V
f
d
v
. (CSA 11.3.6.4(a))
 N
f
is taken as positive for tension. (CSA 2.3)
A
s
is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. It is
taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combi-
nations. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this
quantity. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA
11.3.6.3(b)).
If the value of c
x
is negative, it is recalculated with the following equation, in
which A
ct
is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam, taken
as half of the total area.
( )
ct c s s
f f v f
x
A E A E
N V d M
+
+ +
=
2
5 . 0
c (CSA 11.3.6.4(c))
200, 000
s
E = MPa (CSA 8.5.4.1)
'
4500
c c
E f = MPa (CSA 8.6.2.3)
If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section, the
value of c
x
is doubled (CSA 11.3.6.4(e)).
For sections closer than d
v
from the face of the support, c
x
is calculated based
on M
f
and V
f
at a section at a distance d
v
from the face of the support (CSA
11.3.6.4(d)). This condition currently is not checked by SAFE.
An upper limit on c
x
is imposed as:
003 . 0 s
x
c (CSA 11.3.6.4(f))
In both the simplified and general methods, the shear strength of the section
due to concrete, v
c
depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement
is provided. To check this condition, the program performs the design in two
passes. In the first pass, it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is
needed. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required, the
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 19
program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear rein-
forcement is provided.
5.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to
,max r
V where:
d b f V
w c c r
' 25 . 0
max ,
| = (CSA 11.3.3)
Given V
f
, V
c
, and V
r,max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as fol-
lows:
 If , s
f c
V V
0 =
v
A
s
(CSA 11.3.5.1)
 If
,max
, < s
c f r
V V V
( )
tan
f c
v
s yt v
V V
A
s f d
u
|
÷
= (CSA 11.3.3, 11.3.5.1)
 If
,max
, >
f r
V V a failure condition is declared. (CSA 11.3.3)
A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions
(CSA 11.2.8.1):
(a) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force V
f
exceeds
V
c

(b) in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm
(c) in regions of beams where the factored torsion T
f
exceeds 0.25T
cr
.
Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.2.8.1, or by
calculation, the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken
as:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 20 Beam Design
w
yt
c
v
b
f
f
s
A
'
06 . 0 > (CSA 11.2.8.2)
In the preceding equations, the term u is used, where u is the angle of inclina-
tion of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis
of the member (CSA 2.3). The u value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.
It is determined according to CSA 11.3.6.
Similar to the | factor, which was described previously, the value of u is pref-
erably taken as the special value (CSA 11.3.6.2), or it is determined using the
simplified method (CSA 11.3.6.3), whenever applicable. The program uses the
general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied
(CSA 11.3.6.4).
 If the overall beam depth, h, is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the
flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the
web or 350 mm, u is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.3.6.2).
 If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing f
y
does not ex-
ceed 400 MPa, or the specified concrete strength f'
c
does not exceed 60 MPa,
u is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.3.6.3).
o
35 u = for 0 s
f
P or 400 s
y
f MPa or f '
c
≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3.6.3)
 If the axial force is tensile, the specified yield strength of the longitudinal re-
inforcing f
y
> 400 MPa, and the specified concrete strength f '
c
> 60 MPa, u is
determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.3.6.4),
29 7000 u c = +
x
for 0, <
f
P >
y
f 400 MPa, f '
c
≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3.6.4)
where c
x
is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the
factored load. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
v
/s values obtained from each load
combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 21
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
5.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in de-
signing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to
the beam torsion:
 Determine the factored torsion, T
f
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion capacity.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
5.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination fac-
tors.
In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a
member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
design T
f
is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA
11.2.9.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the inter-
nal forces and reduce T
f
. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the
torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.
5.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as A
c
, A
oh
, A
o
, p
c
, and p
h
, are
calculated. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2.3).
A
c
= Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 22 Beam Design
A
oh
= Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse
torsional reinforcement
A
o
= Gross area enclosed by shear flow path
p
c
= Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
p
h
= Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional
reinforcement
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
oh
, A
o
,
and p
h
, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost
closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters. This is
equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm stirrup. For torsion design of
flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the
flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion
reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during T
cr
calcula-
tion. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam sec-
tion are given as follows:
A
c
= bh (CSA 11.2.9.1)
A
oh
= (b ÷ 2c)(h ÷ 2c) (CSA 11.3.10.3)
A
o
= 0.85 A
oh
(CSA 11.3.10.3)
p
c
= 2b + 2h (CSA 11.2.9.1)
p
h
= 2(b ÷ 2c) + 2(h ÷ 2c) (CSA 11.3.10.4)
where, the section dimensions b, h, and c are shown in Figure 5-3. Similarly,
the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows:
A
c
= b
w
h + (b
f
– b
w
)h
s
(CSA 11.2.9.1)
A
oh
= (b
w
– 2c)(h – 2c) (CSA 11.3.10.3)
A
o
= 0.85 A
oh
(CSA 11.3.10.3)
p
c
= 2b
f
+ 2h (CSA 11.2.9.1)
p
h
= 2(h – 2c) + 2(b
w
– 2c) (CSA 11.3.10.4)
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Beam Design 5 - 23
where the section dimensions b
f
, b
w
, h, h
f
, and c for a flanged beam are shown
in Figure 5-3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is lim-
ited to the smaller of 6h
s
or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10.3.4).
5.5.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity
The critical torsion capacity, T
cr
, for which the torsion in the section can be ig-
nored, is calculated as:
4
' 38 . 0
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
c
c c
cr
p
A
f
T
ì|
(CSA 11.2.9.1)
where A
cp
and p
c
are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as de-
scribed in the previous section, ì is a factor to account for low-density con-
crete, |
c
is the strength reduction factor for concrete, which is equal to 0.65,
and f '
c
is the specified concrete compressive strength.
5.5.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsion T
f
is less than the threshold limit, T
cr
, torsion can be
safely ignored (CSA 11.2.9.1). In that case, the program reports that no torsion
reinforcement is required. However, if T
f
exceeds the threshold limit, T
cr
, it is
assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longi-
tudinal bars (CSA 11.3).
 If T
f
> T
cr
, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
t
/s, is calculated
as:
tan
2
f
t
s o yt
T
A
s A f
u
|
= (CSA 11.3.10.3)
and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as:
( )
y s
o
f h
s f f
v
f
l
f
A
T p
V V N
d
M
A
|
u cot
2
45 . 0
5 . 0 5 . 0
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ + +
=
(CSA 11.3.10.6, 11.3.9)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 24 Beam Design
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
s
h
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
s
h
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b

Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
In the preceding expressions, u is computed as previously described for
shear, except that if the general method is being used, the value c
x
, calculated
as specified in CSA 11.3.6.4, is replaced by:
( )
2
2
0.9
0.5
2
2
f h f
f f
v o
x
s s
M p T
V N
d A
E A
c
| |
+ + +
|
\ .
= (CSA 11.3.10.5)
An upper limit of the combination of V
u
and T
u
that can be carried by the sec-
tion also is checked using the equation:
c c
oh
h f
v w
f
f
A
p T
d b
V
' 25 . 0
7 . 1
2
2
2
| s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
(CSA 11.3.10.4(b))
For rectangular sections, b
w
is replaced with b. If the combination of V
f
and T
f

exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete
section should be increased in size.
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Slab Design 5 - 25
When torsional reinforcement is required (T
f
> T
cr
), the area of transverse
closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following
limit.
yt
w
c
t v
f
b
f
s
A
s
A
' 06 . 0 2 > |
.
|

\
|
+ (CSA 11.2.8.2)
If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated A
v
/s and A
t
/s, A
v
/s
is increased to satisfy this condition.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
l
and A
t
/s values obtained from each
load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or
longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be in-
vestigated independently of the program by the user.
5.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-
sign is performed based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23.3-
04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. To learn
more about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the
Key Features and Terminology manual.
5.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal dis-
placement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the
applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 26 Slab Design
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
these element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load
combination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated
for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.
5.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
5.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur, the slab
width is adjusted accordingly.
5.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.10.1):
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Slab Design 5 - 27
A
s
> 0.002 bh (CSA 7.8.1)
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.
5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.
5.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the
face of the support (CSA 13.3.3.1 and CSA 13.3.3.2). For rectangular columns
and concentrated loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the
sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.3.3.3).
Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the
various column shapes. The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and
the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Over-
writes.
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2

Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 28 Slab Design
5.6.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment
The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be ¸
f
M
u

and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is
taken to be ¸
v
M
u
, where
¸
f
=
( )
1 2
1
,
1 2 3 b b +
and (CSA 13.10.2)
¸
v
= 1−
( )
1 2
1
,
1 2 3 b b +
(CSA 13.3.5.3)
where b
1
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the
span, and b
2
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction per-
pendicular to the span.
5.6.2.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the
following three limits:
0
2
1 0 19
min 0 19
0 38
c c
c
s
v c c
c c
. f
d
v . f
b
. f
| ì
|
o
| ì
| ì
¦
| |
' +
¦ |
\ .
¦
¦
| | ¦
' = +
´
|
\ .
¦
¦
'
¦
¦
¹
(CSA 13.3.4.1)
where, |
c
is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the criti-
cal section, b
0
is the perimeter of the critical section, and o
s
is a scale factor
based on the location of the critical section.
o
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
4, for interior columns
3, for edge colums, and
2, for corner columns.
s
(CSA 13.3.4.1(b))
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Slab Design 5 - 29
The value of
c
f ' is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear
capacity (CSA 13.3.4.2).
If the effective depth, d, exceeds 300 mm, the value of v
c
is reduced by a factor
equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.3.4.3).
5.6.2.4 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the two axes, the shear stress is computed assuming
linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.
2
2 3 1 33 4 3 23 4 3
2
0
22 33 23
3
3 3 1 22 4 3 23 4 3
2
22 33 23
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
¸
¸
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
V
f f f
f
V
f f
V M V y y I y y I x x
v
b d I I I
M V x x I x x I y y
I I I
Eq. 1
22 22
1
,
=
=
¿
n
sides
I I where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 2
33 33
1
,
=
=
¿
n
sides
I I where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 3
23 23
1
,
=
=
¿
n
sides
I I where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 4
The equations for
22 33
, , I I and
23
I are different depending on whether
the side of the critical section for punching shear being considered is par-
allel to the 2-axis or parallel to the 3-axis. Refer to Figures 5-5.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 30 Slab Design

Figure 5-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections
2
22 2 3
( ) , = ÷ I Ld y y for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis Eq. 5a
3 3
2
22 2 3
( ) ,
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld y y for side of critical section
parallel to 3-axis Eq. 5b
3 3
2
33 2 3
( ) ,
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld x x for side of critical section
parallel to 2-axis Eq. 6a
2
33 2 3
( ) , = ÷ I Ld x x for side of critical section parallel to 3-axis Eq. 6b
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear
shown by heavy line
2
3
Side of critical section
being considered
shown solid
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Work This Sketch With Equations 5b, 6b and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear shown
by heavy line. Side of
critical section being
considered shown solid
2
3
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis
Work This Sketch With Equations 5a, 6a and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Slab Design 5 - 31
23 2 3 2 3
( )( ), = ÷ ÷ I Ld x x y y for side of critical section parallel
to 2-axis or 3-axis Eq. 7
where,
b
0
= Perimeter of the critical section for punching shear
d = Effective depth at the critical section for punching shear based on the
average of d for 2 direction and d for 3 direction
I
22
= Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an
axis that is parallel to the local 2-axis
I
33
= Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an
axis that is parallel to the local 3-axis
I
23
= Product of inertia of the critical section for punching shear with respect
to the 2 and 3 planes
L = Length of the side of the critical section for punching shear currently
being considered
M
f2
= Moment about the line parallel to the 2-axis at the center of the column
(positive in accordance with the right-hand rule)
M
f3
= Moment about the line parallel to the 3-axis at the center of the column
(positive in accordance with the right-hand rule)
V
f
= Punching shear stress
V
f
= Shear at the center of the column (positive upward)
x
1
, y
1
= Coordinates of the column centroid
x
2
, y
2
= Coordinates of the center of one side of the critical section for punch-
ing shear
x
3
, y
3
= Coordinates of the centroid of the critical section for punching shear
x
4
, y
4
= Coordinates of the location where stress is being calculated
¸
V2
= Percent of M
f2
resisted by shear
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 32 Slab Design
¸
V3
= Percent of M
f3
resisted by shear
5.6.2.5 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
5.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA
13.2.1). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching
shear reinforcement is not designed, and the slab thickness should be increased
by the user.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
performed as explained in the subsections that follow.
5.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is taken as:
c c c
f v ' 28 . 0 ì| = for shear studs (CSA 13.3.8.3)
0.19 '
c c c
v f ì| = for shear stirrups (CSA 13.3.9.3)
5.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of
,max
,
r
v where
,max
0.75 '
r c c
v f ì| = for shear studs (CSA 13.3.8.2)
Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04
Slab Design 5 - 33
,max
0.55 '
r c c
v f ì| = for shear stirrups (CSA 13.3.9.2)
Given v
f
, v
c
, and v
f,,max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows,
where, |
s
, is the strength reduction factor.
 If v
f
> v
r,max
,
( )
f c
v
o
s yv
v v
A
b
s f |
÷
= (CSA 13.3.8.5, 13.3.9.4)
 If v
f
> v
r,max
, a failure condition is declared.

(CSA 13.3.8.2)
 If v
f
exceeds the maximum permitted value of v
rmax
, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
5.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 5-6 shows a typical arrangement of
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 5-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
5 - 34 Slab Design
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed
0.4d for shear studs (CSA 13.3.8.6)
0.25d for shear stirrups (CSA 13.3.8.6)
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
5.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.9 plus half of the di-
ameter of the flexural reinforcement.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4d. The limits of
s
o
and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as:
0.4
o
s d s (CSA 13.3.8.6)
0.75 0.56 '
0.50 0.56 '
f c c
f c c
d v f
s
d v f
ì|
ì|
¦
s
¦
s
´
>
¦
¹
(CSA 13.3.8.6)
For shear stirrups,
s 0.25
o
s d (CSA 13.3.9.5)
s 0.25 s d (CSA 13.3.9.5)
The minimum depth for reinforcement should be limited to 300 mm (CSA
13.3.9.1).


Notations 6 - 1
Chapter 6
Design for Eurocode 2-2004
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design
procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code Eurocode 2-2004 [EN
1992-1-1:2004] is selected. For the load combinations, reference is also made
to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990], which is identified with the prefix “EC0.” Various
notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. For referencing to the per-
tinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter, a prefix “EC2” followed by the
section number is used. It also should be noted that this section describes the
implementation of the CEN Default version of Eurocode 2-2004, without a
country specific National Annex. Where Nationally Determined Parameters
[NDPs] are to be considered, this is highlighted in the respective section by the
notation [NDP].
The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. However, the pro-
gram provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy require-
ments for the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and
descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 2 Notations
6.1 Notations
Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004

A
c
Area of concrete section, mm
2

A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2

A
sl
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm
2

A
sw
Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm
2

A
sw
/s
v
Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm
2
/mm
A
t
/s Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion,
mm
2
/mm
a Depth of compression block, mm
b Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone,
mm
b
f
Width or effective width of flange, mm
b
w
Average web width of a flanged beam, mm
d Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
d' Effective depth of compression reinforcement, mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement
f
cd

Design concrete strength = α
cc
f
ck
/ ¸
c
, MPa
f
ck
Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days,
MPa
f
ctm
Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength, MPa
f
cwd
Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = α
cc

cwk
c
f
γ
, MPa
f
cwk
Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design,
MPa
f'
s
Compressive stress in compression reinforcement, MPa
f
yd

Design yield strength of reinforcement = f
yk

s
, MPa
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Notations 6 - 3
Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004

f
yk
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
f
ywd

Design strength of shear reinforcement = f
ywk

s
, MPa
f
ywk
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
h Overall depth of section, mm
h
f
Flange thickness, mm
M
Ed
Design moment at a section, N-mm
m
Normalized design moment, M/bd
2
qf
cd

m
lim
Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced
beam
s
v
Spacing of the shear reinforcement, mm
T
Ed
Torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm
T
Rdc
Torsional cracking moment, N-mm
T
Rd,max
Design torsional resistance moment, N-mm
u Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm
V
Rdc
Design shear resistance from concrete alone, N
V
Rd,max
Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section, N
V
Ed
Shear force at ultimate design load, N
x Depth of neutral axis, mm
x
lim
Limiting depth of neutral axis, mm
z Lever arm, mm
o
cc

Coefficient accounting for long-term effects on the concrete com-
pressive strength
o
cw

Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression
chord
o
Redistribution factor
c
c

Concrete strain
c
s

Strain in tension reinforcement
c

s

Strain in compression steel
¸
c

Partial safety factor for concrete strength
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004

¸
s

Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength
ì
Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone
v
Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crush-
ing
q
Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress
block
µ
l
Tension reinforcement ratio
o
cp

Axial stress in the concrete, MPa
u
Angle of the concrete compression strut
e
Normalized tension reinforcement ratio
e'
Normalized compression reinforcement ratio
e
lim

Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio
6.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be checked. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load
combinations to be defined based on EC0 Equation 6.10 or the less favorable
of EC0 Equations 6.10a and 6.10b [NDP].
¿ ¿
> >
+ + +
1 1
, , 0 , 1 , 1 , , ,
j i
i k i i Q k Q P j k j G
Q Q P G ¢ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ (EC0 Eq. 6.10)
¿ ¿
> >
+ + +
1 1
, , 0 , 1 , 1 , 0 1 , , ,
j i
i k i i Q k Q P j k j G
Q Q P G ¢ ¸ ¢ ¸ ¸ ¸ (EC0 Eq. 6.10a)
¿ ¿
> >
+ + +
1 1
, , 0 , 1 , 1 , , ,
j i
i k i i Q k Q P j k j G j
Q Q P G ¢ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ç (EC0 Eq. 6.10b)
Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated
based on EC0 Equation 6.12b.

¿ ¿
> >
+ + +
1 1
, , 2 ,
j i
i k i Ed j k
Q A P G ¢ (EC0 Eq. 6.12b)
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Design Load Combinations 6 - 5
For this code, if a structure is subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live (PL),
snow (S), wind (W), and earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and
earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations need to be
considered if equation 6.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations
(EC0 6.4.3):
¸
Gj,sup
D (EC0 Eq. 6.10)
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
L
(EC0 Eq. 6.10)
¸
Gj,sup
D + (0.75)¸
Q,1
PL
(EC0 Eq. 6.10)
¸
Gj,inf
D ± ¸
Q,1
W
¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
W
(EC0 Eq. 6.10)
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
L ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
L + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S
¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L
¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
S ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
S + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L
(EC0 Eq. 6.10)
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
L + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W
¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
S ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L
(EC0 Eq. 6.10)
D ± 1.0E
D ± 1.0E + ¢
2,i
L
D ± 1.0E + ¢
2,i
L + ¢
2,i
S
(EC0 Eq. 6.12b)
If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0
Equations 6.10a and 6.10b, the following load combinations from both equa-
tions are considered in the program.
¸
Gj,sup
D
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D
(EC0 Eq. 6.10a)
(EC0 Eq. 6.10b)
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
L
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
L
(EC0 Eq. 6.10a)
(EC0 Eq. 6.10b)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 6 Design Load Combinations
¸
Gj,sup
D + (0.75)¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
PL
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D + (0.75)¸
Q,1
PL
(EC0 Eq. 6.10a)
(EC0 Eq. 6.10b)
¸
Gj,inf
D ± ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
W
¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
W
¸
Gj,inf
D ± ¸
Q,1
W
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
W
(EC0 Eq. 6.10a)
(EC0 Eq. 6.10a)
(EC0 Eq. 6.10b)
(EC0 Eq. 6.10b)
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
L ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
L + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S
¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L
¸
Gj,sup
D ± ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
S + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L
¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
¢
0,1
S ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W
(EC0 Eq. 6.10a)
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
L ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
L + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
S ± ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
W
ç ¸
Gj,sup
D + ¸
Q,1
S + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L
¸
Gj,inf
D ± ¸
Q,1
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
L
¸
Gj,inf
D ± ¸
Q,1
W + ¸
Q,i
¢
0,i
S
(EC0 Eq. 6.10b)
D ± 1.0E
D ± 1.0E + ¢
2,i
L
D ± 1.0E + ¢
2,i
L + ¢
2,i
S
(EC0 Eq. 6.12b)
For both sets of load combinations, the variable values for the CEN Default
version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows [NDP].
¸
Gj,sup
= 1.35 (EC0 Table A1.2(B))
¸
Gj,inf
= 1.00 (EC0 Table A1.2(B))
¸
Q,1
= 1.5 (EC0 Table A1.2(B))
¸
Q,i
= 1.5 (EC0 Table A1.2(B))
¢
0,i
= 0.7 (live load, assumed not to be storage) (EC0 Table A1.1)
¢
0,i
= 0.6 (wind load) (EC0 Table A1.1)
¢
0,i
= 0.5 (snow load, assumed H ≤ 1,000 m) (EC0 Table A1.1)
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Limits on Material Strength 6 - 7
ç = 0.85 (EC0 Table A1.2(B))
¢
2,i
= 0.3 (live, assumed office/residential space) (EC0 Table A1.1)
¢
2,i
= 0 (snow, assumed H ≤ 1,000 m) (EC0 Table A1.1)
These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the
Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. If roof live load is treated separately or other
types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used.
6.3 Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, f
ck
, should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2
3.1.2(2)). The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength, f
yk
,
should be 400 and 600 MPa, respectively (EC2 3.2.2(3)).
SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design
of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths
are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as be-
ing greater than the limits. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the mini-
mum strength is satisfied.
6.4 Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the charac-
teristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors, ¸
s
and ¸
c
as shown
here [NDP].
/
cd cc ck c
f f = o ¸ (EC2 3.1.6(1))
/
yd yk s
f f = ¸ (EC2 3.2.7(2))
/
ywd ywk s
f f = ¸ (EC2 3.2.7(2))
α
cc
is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive
strength. α
cc
is taken as 1.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2
3.1.6(1)).
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 8 Beam Design
The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete
and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2.4.2.4(1), Table
2.1N):
Partial safety factor for reinforcement, ¸
s
= 1.15
Partial safety factor for concrete, ¸
c
= 1.5
These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of
safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2.4.2.4). For
accidental and earthquake situations, the recommended values are less than the
tabulated values. The user should consider those separately.
These values can be overwritten; however, caution is advised.
6.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at
each station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
6.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 9
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
6.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored
moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top re-
inforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases, the beam may
be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
6.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression re-
inforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of the
concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown
in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3.1.7(3)). The area of the stress block and the depth of the
compressive block is taken as:
ab f F
cd c
q = (EC2 3.1.7(3), Fig 3.5)
a = ì x (EC2 3.1.7(3), Fig 3.5)
where x is the depth of the neutral axis. The factor ì defining the effective
height of the compression zone and the factor q defining the effective strength
are given as:
8 . 0 = ì for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.1.7(3))
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 10 Beam Design
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
400
50
8 . 0
ck
f
ì for 50 < f
ck
≤ 90 MPa (EC2 3.1.7(3))
0 . 1 = q for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.1.7(3))
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ =
200
50
0 . 1
ck
f
q for 50 < f
ck
≤ 90 MPa (EC2 3.1.7(3))
Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not
exceed the code-specified limiting value. The code also places a limitation on
the neutral axis depth, to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.5(4)).
When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly
reinforced beam, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming
that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.
The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit
state to the effective depth, ( )
lim
, x d is expressed as a function of the ratio of
the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution, o, as follows:
2
1
lim
k
k
d
x ÷
=
|
.
|

\
| o
for f
ck
s 50 MPa (EC2 5.5(4))
4
3
lim
k
k
d
x ÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
o
for f
ck
> 50 MPa (EC2 5.5(4))
For reinforcement with f
yk
s 500 MPa, the following values are used:
k
1
= 0.44 [NDP] (EC 5.5(4))
k
2
= k
4
= 1.25(0.6 + 0.0014/ε
cu2
) [NDP] (EC 5.5(4))
k
3
= 0.54 [NDP] (EC 5.5(4))
o is assumed to be 1
where the ultimate strain, c
cu2
[NDP], is determined from EC2 Table 3.1 as:
c
cu2
= 0.0035 for f
ck
< 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.1)
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 11
c
cu2
= 2.6 + 35 ( )
4
90 100
ck
f ( ÷
¸ ¸
for f
ck
> 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.1)
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams), is summarized in the subsections that follow.
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
cu3
c
cd
f q
a x ì =
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
c
f '
h
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
cu3
c
cd
f q
a x ì =
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
c
f '
h

Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design
6.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
For rectangular beams, the normalized moment, m, and the normalized section
capacity as a singly reinforce beam, m
lim
, are obtained first. The reinforcement
area is determined based on whether m is greater than, less than, or equal to
m
lim
.
 The normalized design moment, m, is calculated as:
cd
f bd
M
m
q
2
=
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 12 Beam Design
 The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam, m
lim
,
is calculated as:
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
lim lim
lim
2
1
d
x
d
x
m
ì
ì
 If m s m
lim
, a singly reinforced beam is designed. The normalized reinforce-
ment ratio is calculated as:
m 2 1 1 ÷ ÷ = e
The area of tension reinforcement, A
s
, is then given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
yd
cd
s
f
bd f
A
q
e
This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M
Ed
is positive, or at the
top if M
Ed
is negative.
 If m > m
lim
, both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as fol-
lows:
The normalized steel ratios e', e
lim
, and e are calculated as:
lim
lim
lim
2 1 1 m
d
x
÷ ÷ =
|
.
|

\
|
= ì e
lim
'
1
m m
d d
e
÷
=
' ÷

'
lim
e e e + =
where, d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face.
The area of compression and tension reinforcement, A'
s
and A
s
, are given by:
cd
s
s cd
f bd
A
f f
q
e
q
(
' ' =
(
' ÷
¸ ¸

Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 13
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
yd
cd
s
f
bd f
A
q
e
where, f '
s
is the stress in the compression reinforcement, and is given by:
c
' (
' = ÷ s
(
¸ ¸
3
lim
1
s s cu yd
d
f E f
x
(EC2 6.1, 3.2.7(4), Fig 3.8)
6.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
6.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
Ed
(i.e., designing top rein-
forcement), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
6.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by consider-
ing alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially, the neutral axis is as-
sumed to be located within the flange. Based on this assumption, the program
calculates the depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend be-
yond the flange thickness, the section is designed as a rectangular beam of
width b
f
. If the stress block extends beyond the flange, additional calculation is
required. See Figure 6-2.
 The normalized design moment, m, is calculated as:
cd
f bd
M
m
q
2
= (EC2 6.1, 3.1.7(3))
 The limiting values are calculated as:
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
lim lim
lim
2
1
d
x
d
x
m
ì
ì (EC2 5.5(4), 3.1.7(3))
lim
lim
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
x
ì e
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 14 Beam Design
a
max
= e
lim
d
 The values e and a are calculated as:
e = 1 1 2m ÷ ÷
a = ed
x
d
A
s
(i) BEAM
SECTION
(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM
e
s
h
f
C
f
T
f
C
w
T
w
b
w
b
f
A
s
'
C
s
T
s
d' f
s
'
e
cu3
h f
cd
a = x l
h f
cd

Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design
 If a s h
f
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in that case, the width of
the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required when m >
m
lim
.
 If a > h
f
, the calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, and the second part is for balancing
the compressive force from the web, as shown in Figure 6-2. The reinforce-
ment area required for balancing the flange compression, A
s2
is given as:
( )
2
f w f cd
s
yd
b b h f
A
f
q ÷
=
and the corresponding resistive moment is given by
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 15
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
2 2
f
yd s
h
d f A M
The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the
web, considering a rectangular section of width b
w
to resist the moment,
M
1
= M − M
2
, is determined as follows:
cd w
f d b
M
m
q
2
1
1
=
 If m
1
s m
lim
,
1 1
2 1 1 m ÷ ÷ = e
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
yd
w cd
s
f
d b f
A
q
e
1 1

 If m
1
> m
lim
,
e' =
1 lim
1
m m
d d
÷
' ÷

lim
lim
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
x
ì e
1 lim
e e e' = +
'
'
cd
s
s cd
f bd
A
f f
q
e
q
(
' =
(
÷
¸ ¸

(
(
¸
(

¸

=
yd
w cd
s
f
d b f
A
q
e
1 1

where, f '
s
is given by:
c
' (
' = ÷ s
(
¸ ¸
3
lim
1
s s cu yd
d
f E f
x
(EC2 6.1, 3.2.7(4), Fig 3.8)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 16 Beam Design
The total tension reinforcement is A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and the total compression rein-
forcement is A'
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A'
s
is to be placed at the
top.
6.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement, A
s,min
[NDP], required in a beam
section is given by the maximum of the following two limits:
bd
f
f
A
yk
ctm
s
26 . 0
min ,
= (EC2 9.2.1.1(1))
bd A
s
0013 . 0
min ,
= (EC2 9.2.1.1(1))
where f
ctm
is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is com-
puted as:
( ) 3 2
30 . 0
ck ctm
f f = for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.12, Table 3.1)
( ) 2.12 1 10
ctm cm
f ln f = + for f
ck
> 50 MPa (EC2 3.12, Table 3.1)
8 MPa
cm ck
f f = + (EC2 3.12, Table 3.1)
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking
should be investigated independently by the user.
An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement,
A
s,max
[NDP], has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area
(EC 9.2.1.1(3)).
6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved (EC2 6.2):
 Determine the factored shear force, V
Ed
.
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 17
 Determine the shear force, V
Rd,c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
6.5.2.1 Determine Factored Shear Force
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load
combination factors.
6.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, V
Rd,c
, is calculated as:
( )
1 3
, , 1 1
100
Rd c Rd c ck cp w
V C k f k b d µ o
(
= +
¸ ¸
(EC2 6.2.2(1))
with a minimum of:
( )
, min 1 Rd c cp w
V v k b d o = + (EC2 6.2.2(1))
where
f
ck
is in MPa
200
1 2.0 k
d
= + s with d in mm (EC2 6.2.2(1))
µ
1
= tension reinforcement ratio =
d b
A
w
s1
s 0.02 (EC2 6.2.2(1))
A
s1
= area of tension reinforcement (EC2 6.2.2(1))
/ 0.2
cp Ed c cd
N A f o = < MPa (EC2 6.2.2(1))
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 18 Beam Design
The value of C
Rd,c
, v
min
and k
1
for use in a country may be found in its National
Annex. The program default values for C
Rd,c
[NDP], v
min
[NDP], and k
1
[NDP]
are given as follows (EC2 6.2.2(1)):
C
Rd,c
= 0.18/γ
c
(EC2 6.2.2(1))

v
min
= 0.035 k
3/2
f
ck
1/2


(EC2 6.2.2(1))
k
1
= 0.15.

(EC2 6.2.2(1))
For light-weight concrete:
C
Rd,c
= 0.18/ γ
c
(EC2 11.6.1(1))

v
min
= 0.03 k
3/2
f
ck
1/2


(EC2 11.6.1(1))
k
1
= 0.15.

(EC2 11.6.1(1))
6.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of:
1
,max
,
cot tan
cw w cd
Rd
b z f
V
o v
u u
=
+
where (EC2 6.2.3(3))
α
cw
[NDP] is conservatively taken as 1. (EC2 6.2.3(3))
The strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear, v
1
[NDP], is
defined as:
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
250
1 6 . 0
1
ck
f
v (EC2 6.2.2(6))
z = 0.9d (EC2 6.2.3(1))
θ is optimized by the program and is set to 45° for combinations includ-
ing seismic loading (EC2 6.2.3(2)).
Given V
Ed
, V
Rdc
, and V
Rd,max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as
follows:
 If V
Ed
s V
Rdc
,
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 19
v
sw
s
A
=
s
A
sw min ,

 If V
R,dc
< V
Ed
s V
Rd,max

s
A
zf
V
s
A
sw
ywd
Ed sw
min ,
cot
> =
u
(EC2 6.2.3(3))
 If V
Ed
> V
Rd,max
, a failure condition is declared. (EC2 6.2.3(3))
The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as:
w
yk
ck sw
b
f
f
s
A 08 . 0
min ,
= (EC2 9.2.2(5))
The maximum of all of the calculated A
sw
/s
v
values obtained from each load
combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
6.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in
designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due
to the beam torsion:
 Determine the factored torsion, T
Ed
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion capacity.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 20 Beam Design
6.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination
factors.
In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a
member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
design T
Ed
is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2
6.3.1(2)). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal
forces and reduce T
Ed
. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the
torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.
6.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as A
k
, t
ef
, u, u
k
, and z
i
are cal-
culated. These properties are described as follows (EC2 6.3.2).
A = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section
A
k
= Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls, where the
centerline is located a distance of t
ef
/2 from the outer surface
t
ef
= Effective wall thickness, A/u. It is taken as at least twice the dis-
tance between the edge and center of the longitudinal rebar.
u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section
u
k
= Perimeter of the area A
k

z
i
= Side length of wall i, defined as the distance between the intersec-
tion points of the wall centerlines
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
k
and u
k
,
it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed
stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-
mm clear cover and a 12-mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sec-
tions, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inef-
ficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement
calculation. However, the flange is considered during calculation of torsion
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 21
section properties. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangu-
lar beam section are given as:
A = bh (EC2 6.3.2(1))
A
k
= (b ÷ t
ef
)(h ÷ t
ef
) (EC2 6.3.2(1))
u = 2b + 2h

(EC2 6.3.2(1))
u
k
= 2(b ÷ t
ef
) + 2(h ÷ t
ef
) (EC2 6.3.2(3))
t
ef
= A/u > 2 × cover to center (EC2 6.3.2(1))
where, the section dimensions b, h, and c are shown in Figure 6-3. Similarly,
the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as:
A = b
w
h (EC2 6.3.2(1))
A
k
= (b
w
– t
ef
)(h – t
ef
) (EC2 6.3.2(1))
u = 2b
w
+ 2h

(EC2 6.3.2(1))
u
k
= 2(h – t
ef
) + 2(b
w
– t
ef
) (EC2 6.3.2(3))
where the section dimensions b
f
, b
w
, h, h
f
, and c for a flanged beam are shown
in Figure 6-3.
6.5.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity
The torsion in the section can be ignored, with only minimum shear reinforce-
ment (EC2 9.2.1.1) required, if the following condition is satisfied:
0 . 1
, ,
s +
c Rd
Ed
c Rd
Ed
V
V
T
T
(EC2 6.3.2(5))
where V
Rd,c
is as defined in the previous section and T
Rd,c
is the torsional crack-
ing moment, calculated as:
k ef ctd c Rd
A t f T 2
,
= (EC2 6.3.2(1), 6.3.2(5))
where t
ef
, and f
ctd
, the design tensile strength, are defined as:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 22 Beam Design
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
f
h
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
f
h
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b

Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
t
ef
= A u (EC2 6.3.2(1))

0 05 ctd ct ctk . c
f f o ¸ =
(EC2 Eq. 3.16)
where A is the gross cross-section area, u is the outer circumference of the
cross-section, o
ct
[NDP] is a coefficient, taken as 1.0, taking account of long
term effects on the tensile strength, and f
ctk0.05
is defined as:
f
ctk0.05
= 0.7f
ctm
(EC2 Table 3.1)
6.5.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied, torsion can be safely
ignored (EC2 6.3.2(5)), with only minimum shear reinforcement required. In
that case, the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. How-
ever, if the equation is not satisfied, it is assumed that the torsional resistance is
provided by closed stirrups, longitudinal bars, and compression diagonals.
If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required, the shear due
to this torsion, V
t
, is first calculated, followed by the required stirrup area, as:
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Beam Design 6 - 23
u cot
ywd
t t
zf
V
s
A
= (EC2 6.2.3(3))
( )
2
Ed con
t ef
k
T T
V h t
A
÷
= ÷ (EC2 6.3.2(1))
The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as:
,
,
1
Ed
con Rd c
Rd c
V
T T
V
| |
= ÷
|
|
\ .
(EC2 6.3.2(5))
yd
k
k
Ed
sl
f
u
A
T
A u cot
2
= (EC2 6.3.2(3))
where u is the angle of the compression struts, as previously defined for beam
shear. In the preceding expressions, u is taken as 45 degrees. The code allows
any value between 21.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.2.3(2)), while the program as-
sumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.
When torsional reinforcement is required, an upper limit on the combination of
V
Ed
and T
Ed
that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of
the concrete struts also is checked using:
0 . 1
max , max ,
s +
Rd
Ed
Rd
Ed
V
V
T
T
(EC2 6.3.2(4))
where T
Rd,max
, the design torsional resistance moment is defined as:
u u vo cos sin 2
max , ef k cd cw Rd
t A f T = (EC2 6.3.2(4))
If this equation is not satisfied, a failure message is declared. In that case, the
concrete section should be increased in size.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
sl
and A
t
/s values obtained from each
load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 24 Slab Design
longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be in-
vestigated independently of the program by the user.
6.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves
defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations
of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The
moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural
design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode
2-2004) for reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To
learn more about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips"
in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
6.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal
displacement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with
the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load
combination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps, described in the subsections that follow, are repeated for
every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Slab Design 6 - 25
6.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
6.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur, the slab
width is adjusted accordingly.
6.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.3.1.1) [NDP]:
bd
f
f
A
yk
ctm
s
26 . 0
min ,
= (EC2 9.2.1.1(1))
bd A
s
0013 . 0
min ,
= (EC2 9.2.1.1(1))
where f
ctm
is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is com-
puted as:
( ) 3 2
30 . 0
ck ctm
f f = for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.1)
( ) 2.12 1 10
ctm cm
f ln f = + for f
ck
> 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.1)
8 MPa
cm ck
f f = + (EC2 Table 3.1)
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking
should be investigated independently by the user.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 26 Slab Design
An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement
has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC
9.2.1.1(3)).
6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.
6.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.4.1(4)) and at
a critical section at a distance of 2.0d from the face of the support (EC2
6.4.2(1)). The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that
its length is minimized. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters consid-
ered by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i.e., inte-
rior, edge, corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the
Punching Check Overwrites.
2d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
2d 2d
2d 2d
2d
2d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
2d 2d
2d 2d
2d

Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Slab Design 6 - 27
6.6.2.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as:
( )
1 3
, , 1 1
100
Rd c Rd c ck cp
V C k f k µ o
(
= +
¸ ¸
(EC2 6.4.4(1))
with a minimum of:
( )
cp c Rd
k v V o
1 min ,
+ = (EC2 6.4.4(1))
where f
ck
is in MPa and
200
1 2.0 k
d
= + s with d in mm (EC2 6.4.4(1))
µ
1
=
y x 1 1
µ µ s 0.02 (EC2 6.4.4(1))
where µ
1x
and µ
1y
are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respec-
tively, conservatively taken as zeros, and
σ
cp
= (σ
cx
+ σ
cy
)/2 (EC2 6.4.4(1))
where σ
cx
and σ
cy
are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x
and y directions respectively, conservatively taken as zeros.
c c Rd
C ¸ 18 . 0
,
= [NDP] (EC2 6.4.4(1))

2 1 2 3
min
035 . 0
ck
f k = v [NDP] (EC2 6.4.4(1))
k
1
= 0.15 [NDP]. (EC2 6.4.4(1))
6.6.2.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear, the nominal design shear stress, v
Ed
, is calculated as:
,2 1 ,3 1
1,2 1,3
1 ,
(
= + +
(
(
¸ ¸
Ed Ed
Ed
Ed
Ed Ed
M u M u
V
v k k
ud V W V W
where (EC2 6.4.4(2))
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 28 Slab Design
k is the function of the aspect ratio of the loaded area in Table 6.1 of
EN 1992-1-1
u
1
is the effective perimeter of the critical section
d is the mean effective depth of the slab
M
Ed
is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the
connection along bending axis 2 and 3
V
Ed
is the total punching shear force
W
1
accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter
along bending axis 2 and 3.
6.6.2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
performed as described in the subsections that follow.
6.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Slab Design 6 - 29
6.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear is limited to a maximum of

V
Rd,max
calculated in the same manner as
explained previously for beams.
Given v
Ed
, v
Rd,c
, and v
Rd,max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as fol-
lows (EC2 6.4.5).
 If v
R,dc
< v
Ed
s v
Rd,max

( )
( )
,
1
,
0.75
1.5
Ed Rd c
sw r
ywd ef
v v
A u d s
f
÷
= (EC2 6.4.5)
 If v
Ed
> v
Rd,max,
a failure condition is declared. (EC2 6.2.3(3))
 If v
Ed
exceeds the maximum permitted value of V
Rd,max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
6.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and
critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 30 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs)
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed 2d. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.4.3(1)).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
6.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.4.1 plus half of the di-
ameter of the flexural reinforcement.
Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available
in 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, and 20-millimeter diameters.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 1.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters. The limits of s
o

and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as:
0.3d ≤ s
o
s 2d (EC2 9.4.3(1))
s s 0.75d (EC2 9.4.3(1))
g s 1.5d (first perimeter) (EC2 9.4.3(1))
g s 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9.4.3(1))
6.7 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs)
The Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) version of Eurocode 2-2004
specifies a set of clauses in the design code, for which Nationally Determined
Parameters [NDPs] are permitted to be adjusted by each member country
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6 - 31
within their National Annex. Variations in these parameters between countries
are considered in the program by choosing the desired country from the Op-
tions menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command. This appen-
dix lists the NDPs as adopted in the program for the CEN Default version of
the design code. Additional tables are provided that list the NDPs that differ
from the CEN Default values for each country supported in the program.
Table 6-2 CEN Default NDPs
NDP Clause Value
¸
c
2.4.2.4(1) 1.5
¸
s
2.4.2.4(1) 1.15
o
cc
3.1.6(1) 1.0
o
ct
3.1.6(2) 1.0
max f
yk
3.2.2(3) 600MPa
Load Combinations 5.1.3(1) Combinations from Eq. 6.10
u
0
5.2(5) 0.005
k
1
5.5(4) 0.44
k
2
5.5(4) 1.25(0.6 + 0.0014/c
cu2
)
k
3
5.5(4) 0.54
k
4
5.5(4) 1.25(0.6 + 0.0014/c
cu2
)
ì
lim
5.8.3.1(1) 20 / A B C n · · ·
C
Rd,c
6.2.2(1) 0.18/¸
c

v
min
6.2.2(1) 0.035k
3/2
f
ck
1/2

k
1
6.2.2(1) 0.15
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 32 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs)
Table 6-2 CEN Default NDPs
NDP Clause Value
u 6.2.3(2) 45 degrees
v
1
6.2.3(3)
0.6 1
250
ck
f (
÷
(
¸ ¸

o
cw
6.2.3(3) 1.0
Beam A
s,min
9.2.1.1(1)
0.26 0.0013
ctm
t t
yk
f
b d b d
f
>
Beam A
s,max
9.2.1.1(3) 0.04A
c

Beam µ
w,min
9.2.2(5) ( )
0.08 /
ck yk
f f
o
lcc
11.3.5(1) 0.85
o
lct
11.3.5(2) 0.85
C
lRd,c
11.6.1(1) 0.15/¸
c

v
l,min
11.6.1(1) 0.30k
3/2
f
lck
1/2

k
1
11.6.1(1) 0.15
v
1
11.6.2(1) 0.5q
1
(1 – f
lck
/250)

Table 6-3 Denmark NDPs
NDP Clause Value
¸
c
2.4.2.4(1) 1.45
¸
s
2.4.2.4(1) 1.20
Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6 - 33
Table 6-3 Denmark NDPs
NDP Clause Value
Max f
yk
3.2.2(3) 650MPa
Load Combinations 5.1.3(1) Combinations from Eq. 6.10a/b
ì
lim
5.8.3.1(1)
20
c cd
Ed
A f
N
·
Beam µ
w,min
9.2.2(5) ( )
0.063 /
ck yk
f f
o
lcc
11.3.5(1) 1.0
o
lct
11.3.5(2) 1.0
v
l,min
11.6.1(1) 0.03k
2/3
f
lck
1/2


Table 6-4 Finland NDPs
NDP Clause Value
o
cc
3.1.6(1) 0.85
Max f
yk
3.2.2(3) 700MPa
Load Combinations 5.1.3(1) Combinations from Eq. 6.10a/b
k
2
5.5(4) 1.10
Beam A
s,max
9.2.1.1(3) Unlimited

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
6 - 34 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs)
Table 6-5 Norway NDPs
NDP Clause Value
o
cc
3.1.6(1) 0.85
o
ct
3.1.6(2) 0.85
ì
lim
5.8.3.1(1) 13(2 ÷ r
m
)A
f

k
1
6.2.2(1)
0.15 for compression
0.3 for tension
v
min
6.2.2(1) 0.035k
2/3
f
ck
1/2

Beam µ
w,min
9.2.2(5) ( )
0 1
ck yk
. f / f
v
l,min
11.6.1(1) 0.03k
2/3
f
lck
1/2

k
1
11.6.1(1)
0.15 for compression
0.3 for tension
v
1
11.6.2(1) 0.5(1 – f
lck
/250)

Table 6-6 Singapore NDPs
NDP Clause Value
o
cc
3.1.6(1) 0.85
k
1
5.5(4) 0.4
k
2
5.5(4) 0.6 + 0.0014/c
cu2

k
3
5.5(4) 0.54
k
4
5.5(4) 0.6 + 0.0014/c
cu2

v
lim
5.8.3.1(1) 0.30k
3/2
f
lck
1/2

Chapter 6 - Design for Eurocode 2-2004
Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6 - 35
Table 6-7 Slovenia NDPs
NDP Clause Value
Same As CEN Default

Table 6-8 Sweden NDPs
NDP Clause Value
Beam A
s,max
9.2.1.1(3) Unlimited
o
lcc
11.3.5(1) 1.0
o
lct
11.3.5(2) 1.0

Table 6-9 United Kingdom NDPs
NDP Clause Value
¢
0,i
(wind load) EC0 Combos 0.5
o
cc
3.1.6(1) 0.85
k
1
5.5(4) 0.4
k
2
5.5(4) 0.6 + 0.0014/c
cu2

k
3
5.5(4) 0.4
k
4
5.5(4) 0.6 + 0.0014/c
cu2

v
l,min
11.6.1(1) 0.30k
3/2
f
lck
1/2




Notations 7- 1
Chapter 7
Design for Hong Kong CP-04
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP
04], which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected.
The various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referenc-
ing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix
“CP” followed by the section number is used.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
7.1 Notations
Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

A
g
Gross area of cross-section, mm
2

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm
2

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 2 Notations
Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code
A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm
2

A
sv,t
Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm
2

A
sv
/s
v

Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm
2
/mm
a Depth of compression block, mm
b Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone,
mm
b
f
Width or effective width of flange, mm
b
w
Average web width of a flanged beam, mm
C Torsional constant, mm
4

d Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
d' Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, N/mm
2

E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 N/mm
2

f Punching shear factor considering column location
f
cu
Characteristic cube strength, N/mm
2

f '
s
Stress in the compression reinforcement, N/mm
2

f
y
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, N/mm
2

f
yv
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, N/mm
2

h Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm
h
f
Flange thickness, mm
h
min
Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm
h
max
Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm
K
Normalized design moment,
2
u
cu
M
bd f

K'
Maximum
2
u
cu
M
bd f
for a singly reinforced concrete section
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Design Load Combinations 7 - 3
Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code
k
1
Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression
k
2

Concrete shear strength factor, | |
3
1
25
cu
f
M Design moment at a section, N-mm
M
single
Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm
s
v
Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm
T Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm
u Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm
V Design shear force at ultimate design load, N
v Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical
section, N/mm
2

v
c
Design concrete shear stress capacity, N/mm
2

v
max
Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, N/mm
2

v
t
Torsional shear stress, N/mm
2

x Neutral axis depth, mm
x
bal
Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm
z Lever arm, mm
|
Torsional stiffness constant
|
b

Moment redistribution factor in a member
¸
f

Partial safety factor for load
¸
m

Partial safety factor for material strength
c
c

Maximum concrete strain
c
s

Strain in tension reinforcement
c'
s

Strain in compression reinforcement
7.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are
obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 4 Limits on Material Strength
of safety, γ
f
(CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead (D), live
(L), pattern live (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are
reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP
2.3.2.1, Table 2.1).
1.4D
1.4D + 1.6L
(CP 2.3.2)
1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) (CP 2.3.2)
1.0D ± 1.4W
1.4D ± 1.4W
1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W
(CP 2.3.2)
These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP-
04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are
present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the
automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be
reviewed before using for design.
7.3 Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, f
cu
, should not be less than 20 N/mm
2
(CP
3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of
beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths
are used for design even if they are outside of the limits. It is the user's respon-
sible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.
7.4 Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing
the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, ¸
m
. The val-
ues of ¸
m
used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP
Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Beam Design 7 - 5
Values of ¸
m
for the Ultimate Limit State
Reinforcement 1.15
Concrete in flexure and axial load 1.50
Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.25
These factors are incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code,
but can be overwritten.
7.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each
station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the
major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps
are involved:
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 6 Beam Design
7.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored
moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases, with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top re-
inforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases, the beam is
always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
7.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of
the concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown
in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.1.2.4(a)), where c
c,max
is defined as:
( )
2
max 1
2
2
0 0035 if 60N/mm
0 0035 0 00006 60 if 60N/mm
cu
c,
cu cu
. f
. . f f
c
¦
s
¦
=
´
÷ ÷ > ¦
¹

Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not
exceed 10% (i.e., |
b
> 0.9; CP 6.1.2.4(b)). The code also places a limitation on
the neutral axis depth,
2
2
2
0.5 for 45 N/mm
0.4 for 45 70 N/mm
0.33 for 70 100N/mm
cu
cu
cu
f
x
f
d
f
¦
s
¦
¦
s < s
´
¦
< s
¦
¹
(CP 6.1.2.4(b))
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Beam Design 7 - 7
to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.1.2.4(b)). In addition, the area
of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth
remains at the maximum permitted value.
The depth of the compression block is given by:
2
2
2
0.9 for 45 N/mm
0.8 for 45 < 70 N/mm
0.72 for 70 < 100 N/mm
a
¦
s
¦
¦
= s
´
¦
s
¦
¹
cu
cu
cu
x f
x f
x f
(CP 6.1.2.4(a), Fig 6.1)
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams), is summarized in the text that follows. For reinforced con-
crete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not ex-
ceed (0.1f
cu
A
g
) (CP 6.1.2.4(a)), axial force is ignored; hence, all beams are de-
signed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Axial compression
greater than 0.1f
cu
A
g
and axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear
design.
7.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
For rectangular beams, the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced
beam, M
single
, is obtained first for a section. The reinforcing is determined based
on whether M is greater than, less than, or equal to M
single
. See Figure 7-1
Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly re-
inforced.
M
single
= K'f
cu
bd
2
, where (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
2
2
2
0.156 for 45N/mm
' 0.120 for 45 70N/mm
0.094 for 70 100N/mm
¦
s
¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
< s
¦
¹
cu
cu
cu
f
K f
f

 If M s M
single
, the area of tension reinforcement, A
s
, is obtained from:
,
0.87
s
y
M
A
f z
= where (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 8 Beam Design
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
c
c
¸ 0 67
cu m
. f
a
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
'
s
f
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
c
c
¸ 0 67
cu m
. f
a
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
'
s
f

Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design

d
K
d z 95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
2
bd f
M
K
cu
= (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive, or at the top
if M is negative.
 If M > M
single
, compression reinforcement is required and calculated as fol-
lows:
( )
sin
0.67
gle
s
cu
s
c
M M
A
f
f d d
¸
÷
' =
| |
' ' ÷ ÷
|
\ .
(CP 6.1.2.4(c))
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Beam Design 7 - 9
where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and
1 0.87 ,
s s c y
d
f E f
x
c
'
| |
' = ÷ s
|
\ .
(CP 6.1.2.4(c), 3.2.6, Fig. 3.9)
2
2
2
, for 45N/mm
0.45
, for 45 70 N/mm
0.40
, for 70 100 N/mm
0.36
cu
cu
cu
d z
f
d z
x f
d z
f
÷ ¦
s
¦
¦
÷ ¦
= < s
´
¦
¦ ÷
< s
¦
¹
(CP 6.1.2.4(a), Fig 6.1)
'
0.5 0.25
0.9
K
z d
¦
¹
¦ ¦
= + ÷
´ `
¦
¦ )
¹
≤ 0.95d (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the con-
crete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as:
( )
single single
0.87 0.87
s
y y
M M M
A
f z f d d
÷
= +
' ÷
(CP 6.1.2.4(c))
7.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
7.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M (i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
7.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by consider-
ing alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially, the neutral axis is as-
sumed to be located in the flange. On the basis of this assumption, the program
calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend
beyond the flange thickness, the section is designed as a rectangular beam of
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 10 Beam Design
width b
f
. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth, the contribution of
the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure 7-
2.
Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange, the normalized moment is given
by:

2
.
cu f
M
K
f b d
= (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
Then the moment arm is computed as:
z = d 0.5 0.25
0.9
K
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
+ ÷
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
s 0.95d, (CP 6.1.2.4(c))
the depth of the neutral axis is computed as:
2
2
2
, for 45N/mm
0.45
, for 45 70N/mm
0.40
, for 70 100N/mm
0.36
cu
cu
cu
d z
f
d z
x f
d z
f
÷ ¦
s
¦
¦
÷ ¦
= < s
´
¦
¦ ÷
< s
¦
¹
(CP 6.1.2.4(c), Fig 6.1)
and the depth of the compression block is given by:
2
2
2
0.9 for 45 N/mm
0.8 for 45 < 70 N/mm
0.72 for 70 < 100 N/mm
a
¦
s
¦
¦
= s
´
¦
s
¦
¹
cu
cu
cu
x f
x f
x f
(CP 6.1.2.4(a), Fig 6.1)
 If a s h
f
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in that case, the width of
the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.
 If a > h
f
, the calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balanc-
ing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 7-2.
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Beam Design 7 - 11

x
b
f
d
A
s
(i) BEAM
SECTION
(ii) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(iii) STRESS
DIAGRAM
e
s
h
f
C
f
T
f
C
w
T
w
bw
A
s
'
C
s
T
s
d' f
s
'
e
c
0.67 f /
cu m
g 0.67 f /
cu m
g

Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section
In that case, the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by:
( ) ( )
0.67
0.5
f cu f w f f
c
M f b b h d h
¸
= ÷ ÷
The moment taken by the web is computed as:
f w
M M M ÷ =
and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by:
K
w
=
2
w
cu w
M
f b d

 If K
w
s K' (CP 6.1.2.4(c)), the beam is designed as a singly reinforced con-
crete beam. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to
balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the
web.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 12 Beam Design
( )
,
0.87 0.87 0.5
f
w
s
y y f
M
M
A
f z f d h
= +
÷
where
d
K
d z
w
95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
 If K
w
> K', compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as fol-
lows:
The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by:
2
uw cu w
M Kf b d =
The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude
M
w
− M
uw
. The compression reinforcement is computed as:
( )
0.67
w uw
s
cu
s
c
M M
A
f
f d d
¸
÷
' =
| |
' ' ÷ ÷
|
\ .

where, d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and
1 0.87
s s c y
d
f E f
x
c
| |
= ÷ s
|
\ .
(CP 6.1.2.4(c), 3.2.6, Fig 3.9)
The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as:
1
0.87 0.5 '
f
uw w uw
s
y f
M
M M M
A
f d h z d d
(
÷
= + +
(
÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸

0.5 0.25 0.95
0.9
K
z d d
| |
'
= + ÷ s
|
|
\ .

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Beam Design 7 - 13
7.5.1.2.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is
given by the following table, which is taken from CP Table 9.1(CP 9.2.1.1)
with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength:
Minimum percentage
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
f
y
= 250 MPa f
y
= 460 MPa
Rectangular ÷ 100
bh
A
s
0.24 0.13
f
w
b
b
< 0.4 100
h b
A
w
s

0.32 0.18
T or L-Beam
with web in
tension
f
w
b
b
> 0.4 100
h b
A
w
s

0.24 0.13
T-Beam with
web in com-
pression
÷
100
h b
A
w
s

0.48 0.26
L-Beam with
web in com-
pression
÷
100
h b
A
w
s

0.36 0.20
The minimum flexural compression reinforcement, if it is required, provided in
a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table, which is taken
from CP Table 9.1 (CP 9.2.1.1).
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
Minimum
percentage
Rectangular ÷
100
s
A
bh
'

0.20
Web in tension
100
s
f f
A
b h
'

0.40
T or L-Beam
Web in compression
100
s
w
A
b h
'

0.20
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension
reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as
follows (CP 9.2.1.3):
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 14 Beam Design
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
s
w
s
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
' s
´
¹
(CP 9.2.1.3)
7.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved (CP 6.1.2.5):
 Determine the shear stress, v.
 Determine the shear stress, v
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
7.5.2.1 Determine Shear Stress
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load
combination factors. The shear stress is then calculated as:
bd
V
v = (CP 6.1.2.5(a))
The maximum allowable shear stress, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
= min(0.8
cu
f , 7 MPa) (CP 6.1.2.5(a))
7.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear stress carried by the concrete, v
c
, is calculated as:
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Beam Design 7 - 15
c c
c
c
c c
v A
N
v
M A
NVh
v v + s + = 1 6 . 0 ' (CP 6.1.2.5(k))
4
1
3
1
2 1
400 100 79 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d bd
A k k
v
s
m
c
¸
(CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
1
k is the enhancement factor for support compression,
and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.1.2.5(g))
k
2
=
1
3
25
cu
f
,
| |
|
\ .
1 ≤ k
2

3
1
25
80
|
.
|

\
|
(CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
1.25
m
¸ = (CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
However, the following limitations also apply:
100
0.15 3,
s
A
bd
s s (CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
| |
>
|
\ .
1
4
0 67 Members without shear reinforcement 400
1 00 Members with shear reinforcement
. ,
. , d

(CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
1 s
M
Vh
(CP 6.1.2.5(k))
7.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given v, v
c
, and v
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(CP Table 6.2, CP 6.1.2.5(b)):
 Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum
shear reinforcement, v
r
, as:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 16 Beam Design
( )
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
N
mm
N
mm
N
mm
0.4 if 40
0.4 if 40 80
40
80
0.4 if 80
40
¦
s
¦
¦
¦
| |
= < s
| ´
\ .
¦
¦
>
¦
¹
cu
cu
r cu
cu
f
f
v f
f
(CP 6.1.2.5(b), Table 6.2)
 If v ≤ v’
c
+ v
r
, minimum reinforcement is required:
,
0.87
s r
v yv
A v b
s f
= (CP 6.1.2.5(b))
 If v > v’
c
+ v
r
,
( )
0 87
c
sv
v yv
v v' b
A
s . f
÷
= (CP 6.1.2.5(b))
 If v > v
max
, a failure condition is declared. (CP 6.1.2.5(b))
The maximum of all the calculated A
sv
/s
v
values obtained from each load com-
bination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load
combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
7.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in
designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due
to the beam torsion:
 Determine the torsional shear stress, v
t
.
 Determine special section properties.
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Beam Design 7 - 17
 Determine critical torsion stress.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
7.5.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination fac-
tors.
In typical framed construction, specific consideration of torsion is not usually
required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforce-
ment. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam, further consid-
eration should be given, as follows (CP 6.3.1).
The torsional shear stress, v
t
, for a rectangular section is computed as:
( ) 3 /
2
min max
2
min
h h h
T
v
t
÷
= (CP 6.3.3(a))
For flanged sections, the section is considered as a series of rectangular
segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular com-
ponent using the preceding equation, but considering a torsional moment
attributed to that segment, calculated as:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
¿ max
3
min
max
3
min
h h
h h
T T
seg
(CP 6.3.3(b))
h
max
= Larger dimension of a rectangular section
h
min
= Smaller dimension of a rectangular section
If the computed torsional shear stress, v
t
, exceeds the following limit for sec-
tions with the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link less than 550
mm, a failure condition is generated:

2 1
min(0.8 , 7N/mm )
550
s ×
t cu
y
v f (CP 6.3.4, Table 6.17)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 18 Beam Design
7.5.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress
The critical torsion stress, v
t,min
, for which the torsion in the section can be
ignored is calculated as:
( )
2
,min
min 0.067 , 0.6 N/mm
t cu
v f = (CP 6.3.4, Table 6.17)
where f
cu
is the specified concrete compressive strength.
7.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsional shear stress, v
t
is less than the threshold limit, v
t,min
, tor-
sion can be safely ignored (CP 6.3.5). In that case, the program reports that no
torsion reinforcement is required. However, if v
t
exceeds the threshold limit,
v
t,min
, it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups
and longitudinal bars (CP 6.3.5).
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f

Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
 If v
t
> v
t,min
, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
sv,t
/s
v
, is calcu-
lated as:
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Slab Design 7 - 19
( )
yv v
t sv
f y x
T
s
A
87 . 0 8 . 0
1 1
,
= (CP 6.3.6)
and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as:
( )
y v
yv t sv
l
f s
y x f A
A
1 1 ,
+
= (CP 6.3.6)
In the preceding expressions, x
1
is the smaller center-to-center dimension of
the closed link, and y
1
is the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed
link.
An upper limit of the combination of v and v
t
that can be carried by the sec-
tion also is checked using the equation:
( )
2
min 0.8 , 7 N/mm
t cu
v v f + s (CP 6.3.4)
If the combination of v and v
t
exceeds this limit, a failure message is de-
clared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
l
and A
sv,t
/s
v
values obtained from each
load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or
longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be in-
vestigated independently of the program by the user.
7.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves
defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations
of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The
moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis, and a flexural
design is performed based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for
reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To learn more about
the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Fea-
tures and Terminology manual.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 20 Slab Design
7.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal
displacement vectors. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with
the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is completed at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load com-
bination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated
for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.
7.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
7.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Slab Design 7 - 21
design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur, the slab
width is adjusted accordingly.
7.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a
slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.3.1.1), with interpolation for rein-
forcement of intermediate strength:
0 0024 if 250 MPa
0 0013 if 460 MPa
y
s
y
. bh f
A
. bh f
s ¦
¦
>
´
>
¦
¹
(CP 9.3.1.1(a))
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area
(CP 9.2.1.3).
7.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.
7.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.5d from
the face of the support (CP 6.1.5.7(d)). For rectangular columns and concen-
trated loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides paral-
lel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.1.5.7). Figure 7-4 shows
the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column
shapes. The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching pe-
rimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 22 Slab Design
1.5d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
1.5d 1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
1.5d 1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d

Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
7.6.2.2 Determine Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.1.5.7(d), Table
6.3):
4
1
3
1
2 1
400 100 79 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d bd
A k k
v
s
m
c
¸
(CP 6.1.2.5(d), Table 6.3)
1
k is the enhancement factor for support compression,
and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.1.2.5(g), 6.1.5.7(d))
k
2
=
3
1
25
|
.
|

\
|
cu
f
1 ≤ k
2

3
1
25
80
|
.
|

\
|
(CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
1.25
m
¸ = (CP 2.4.3.2, Table 2.2)
However, the following limitations also apply:
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Slab Design 7 - 23
100
0.15 3,
s
A
bd
s s (CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
¦ | |
>
´
|
\ . ¹
1
4
0 67 Members without shear reinforcement 400
1 00 Members with shear reinforcement
. ,
. , d

(CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)
A
s
= area of tension reinforcement, which is taken as zero in the current
implementation.
v s min(0.8
cu
f , 7 MPa) (CP 6.1.5.7(b))
f
cu
s 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP Table 6.3)
7.6.2.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the bending axis, the nominal design shear stress, v
max
,
is calculated as:
,
1.5
eff x
M
x
V V f
Vy
| |
= + |
|
\ .
(CP 6.1.5.6(b), 6.1.5.6(c))
.
1.5
eff y
M
y
V V f
Vx
| |
|
= +
|
\ .
(CP 6.1.5.6(b), 6.1.5.6(c))
,
max
,
max
eff x
eff y
V
u d
v
V
u d
¦
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¦
¹
(CP 6.1.5.7)
where,
u is the perimeter of the critical section,
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 24 Slab Design
x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the
axis of bending,
M
x
and M
y
are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the col-
umn at the connection,
V is the total punching shear force, and
f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is
taken as
1 00 for interior columns
1 25 for edge columns
1 25 for corner columns
.
f .
.
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
(CP 6.1.5.6(b), 6.1.5.6(c))
7.6.2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
7.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP
6.1.5.7(e)). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punch-
ing shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be in-
creased by the user.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
carried out as described in the subsections that follow.
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Slab Design 7 - 25
7.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.
7.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear stress is limited to a maximum of:
v
max
= 2v
c
(CP 6.1.5.7(e))
Given v, v
c
, and v
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(CP 6.1.5.7(e)).
 If v s 1.6v
c
,
s
A
v
=
( )
0.87 0.87
÷
>
c
r
yv yv
v v ud
v ud
f f
, (CP 6.1.5.7(e))
 If 1.6v
c
s v < 2.0v
c
,
s
A
v
=
( ) 5 0.7
,
0.87 0.87
c
yv yv
v v ud
ud
f f
÷
>
r
v
(CP 6.1.5.7(e))
0.4
0.4
40
¦
¦
´
| |
¦ |
\ . ¹
r
cu
v =
f
2/3
N/mm
2
(CP 6.1.5.7, Table 6.2)
 If v > 2.0v
c
, a failure condition is declared. (CP 6.1.5.7(e))
If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of v
max
, the concrete section should
be increased in size.
7.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
7 - 26 Slab Design
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.1.5.7(f)).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.

I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
7.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.2.4 plus half of the
diameter of the flexural reinforcement.
Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available
in 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, and 20-millimeter diameters.
Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04
Slab Design 7 - 27
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 1.5d. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are
specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (CP 6.1.5.7(f))
s s 0.75d (CP 6.1.5.7(f))
g s 1.5d (CP 6.1.5.7(f))
Stirrups are only permitted when slab thickness is greater than 200 mm (CP
6.1.5.7(e)).


Notations 8 - 1
Chapter 8
Design for IS 456-2000
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is
selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. For ref-
erencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter, a prefix
“IS” followed by the section number is used.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
8.1 Notations
Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code

A
c
Area of concrete, mm
2

A
cv
Area of section for shear resistance, mm
2

A
g
Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member, mm
2

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 2 Notations
Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code
A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm
2

A
sv
/s
v

Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm
2
/mm
a Depth to the center of the compression block, mm
a
1
Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending,
mm
a
2
Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direc-
tion of bending, mm
b Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone,
mm
b
f
Width or effective width of flange, mm
b
w
Average web width of a flanged beam, mm
d Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
d' Effective depth of compression reinforcement, mm
D Overall depth of a beam or slab, mm
D
f
Flange thickness in a flanged beam, mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
f
cd

Design concrete strength = f
ck
/ ¸
c
, MPa
f
ck
Characteristic compressive strength of concrete, MPa
f
sc
Compressive stress in beam compression steel, MPa
f
yd

Design yield strength of reinforcement = f
y


/ ¸
s
, MPa
f
y
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa
f
ys
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
k Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam
M
single
Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced sec-
tion, N-mm
M
u
Ultimate factored design moment at a section, N-mm
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Notations 8- 3
Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code
M
t
Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section,
N-mm
M
e1
Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion ef-
fects (M
e1
= M
u
+M
t
) at a section, N-mm
M
e2
Residual factored moment when M
t
> M
u
at a section applied in
the opposite sense of M
e1
at a section, N-mm
m
Normalized design moment, M/bd
2
of
ck

s
v
Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam,
mm
T
u
Factored torsional moment at a section, N-mm
V
u
Factored shear force at a section, N
V
e
Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects, N
v
c
Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode, N
x
u
Depth of neutral axis, mm
x
u,max
Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis, mm
z Lever arm, mm
o
Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading, as well
as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity
moment at a section
|
Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete
stress block
|
c

Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching
critical section
¸
c

Partial safety factor for concrete strength
¸
f

Partial safety factor for load, and fraction of unbalanced moment
transferred by flexure
¸
m

Partial safety factor for material strength
¸
s

Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength
o
Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression
c
c,max

Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0.0035)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code
c
s

Strain in tension steel
c
s
'
Strain in compression steel
t
v

Average design shear stress resisted by concrete, MPa
t
c

Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete, MPa
t
c,max

Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section,
MPa
t
cd

Design shear stress resisted by concrete, MPa

8.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. For IS 456-2000, if a structure is
subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live (PL), snow (S), wind (W), and
earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are re-
versible, the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.4,
Table 18):
1.5D (IS 36.4.1)
1.5D + 1.5L
1.5D + 1.5S
(IS 36.4.1)
1.5D + 1.5(0.75 PL) (IS 31.5.2.3)
1.5D ± 1.5W
0.9D ± 1.5W
1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W
1.5D + 1.5L ± 1.0W
(IS 36.4.1)
1.5D ± 1.5E
0.9D ± 1.5E
1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2E
1.5D + 1.5L ± 1.0E
(IS 36.4.1)
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Partial Safety Factors 8- 5
1.5D + 1.5L + 1.5S
1.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2W
1.2D + 1.2L + 1.2S ± 1.2W
1.2D + 1.2S ± 1.2E
1.2D + 1.2L + 1.2S ± 1.2E
(IS 36.4.1)
These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS
456-2000 code is used. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of
loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used.
8.3 Partial Safety Factors
The design strength for concrete and reinforcement is obtained by dividing the
characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, ¸
m
. The values
of ¸
m
used in the program are as follows:
Partial safety factor for reinforcement, ¸
s
= 1.15 (IS 36.4.2.1)
Partial safety factor for concrete, ¸
c
= 1.5 (IS 36.4.2.1)
These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in
the code. These values can be overwritten; however, caution is advised.
8.4 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of steel for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear
forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the
subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each
station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
8.4.1 Effects of Torsion
IS 456, 14.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium,
beams must be designed for torsion. However, torsion can be ignored for inde-
terminate structures where torsion develops primarily because of compatibility
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 6 Beam Design
of deformations. However, the program does not automatically redistribute the
internal forces and reduce torsion. If redistribution is desired, the user should
release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.
Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider tor-
sion in the Design Preferences.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Determine design bending moments and shears
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
8.4.1.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears
IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear
stresses produced by torsion separately. Rather, torsion and bending shear are
combined as an equivalent shear V
e
, and bending moment and torsion are com-
bined as an equivalent bending moment M
e
. The beam is checked for adequacy
and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. If the shear stress
caused by equivalent shear is less than the concrete shear capacity, torsion is
ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. If
the shear stress caused by equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear ca-
pacity, additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed, as
detailed in the subsections that follow.
8.4.1.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored mo-
ments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top re-
inforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases, the beam may
be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Beam Design 8- 7
8.4.1.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored mo-
ments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are
obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load
cases with the corresponding load factors.
The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the
text that follows. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and
maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combi-
nations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam mo-
ments. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged
beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In
such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged
beam.
The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation:
M
e1
= M
u
+M
t
, where (IS 41.4.2)
|
.
|

\
| +
=
7 . 1
1 b D
T M
u t
(IS 41.4.2)
and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam, respectively.
If M
t
exceeds M
u
, additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment
M
e2
applied in the opposite sense of M
u
. Effectively, this will result in additional
longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam because the
moment sign is reversed. The additional moment M
e2
is computed as:
M
e2
= M
t
÷ M
u
(IS 41.4.2.1)
8.4.1.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the factored shear forces for
each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the
corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load
combination factors.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 8 Beam Design
8.4.1.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included
In the design of beam shear reinforcement, the factored shear forces for each
load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the cor-
responding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load
combination factors.
The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text
that follows. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.
When a torsional moment is to be included, the equivalent shear V
e
is calcu-
lated from the following equation:
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
b
T
V V
u
u e
6 . 1 (IS 41.3.1)
where b is the width of the beam web.
8.4.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam.
8.4.2.1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of
the concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown
in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.1). The area of the stress block, c, and the depth of the cen-
ter of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber, a, are taken
as
c = o f
ck
x
u
(IS 38.1)
a = | x
u
(IS 38.1)
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Beam Design 8- 9
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.0035 c =
¸ 0 67
cu m
. f
0 42
u
. x
cs
T s
T
s
c
u
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
'
s
f
C
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
0.0035 c =
¸ 0 67
cu m
. f
0 42
u
. x
cs
T s
T
s
c
u
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
'
s
f
C

Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design
where x
u
is the depth of the neutral axis, and o and | are taken as:
o = 0.36 (IS 38.1)
| = 0.42 (IS 38.1)
where o is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the
partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.36 for the as-
sumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.1). The | factor considers the depth to the
center of the compressive force.
Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not
exceed the code-specified limiting value. The code also places a limitation on
the neutral axis depth, as shown in the following table, to safeguard against
non-ductile failures (IS 38.1). SAFE uses interpolation between these three
values.
f
y
(MPa) x
u,max
/d
250 0.53
415 0.48
500 0.46
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 10 Beam Design
When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a sin-
gly reinforced beam, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated as-
suming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.
The maximum fiber compression is taken as:
c
c,max
= 0.0035 (IS 38.1)
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams), is summarized in the subsections that follow. It is assumed
that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected; hence all beams are de-
signed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only.
8.4.2.2 Design of Rectangular Beams
For rectangular beams, the limiting depth of the neutral axis, x
u,max
, and the mo-
ment capacity as a singly reinforced beam, M
single
, are obtained first. The rein-
forcement area is determined based on whether M
u
is greater than, less than, or
equal to M
single
.
 Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.
max
0 53 if 250 MPa
250
0 53 0 05 if 250 415 MPa
165
415
0 48 0 02 if 415 500 MPa
85
0 46 if 500 MPa
y
y
y
u,
y
y
y
. f
f
. . f
x
f d
. . f
. f
s ¦
¦
÷
¦
÷ < s
¦
=
´
÷
¦
÷ < s
¦
¦
>
¹
(IS 38.1)
 Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a
singly reinforced beam.
,max ,max 2
single
1
u u
ck
x x
M bd f
d d
o |
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
(IS G-1.1)
 Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as:
1 1 4
2
u
m x
d
|
|
÷ ÷
=
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Beam Design 8- 11
where the normalized design moment, m, is given by
ck
u
f bd
M
m
o
2
=

÷ If M
u
s M
single
the area of tension reinforcement, A
s
, is obtained from
( )
,
/
u
s
y s
M
A
f z ¸
= where (IS G-1.1)
1 .
u
x
z d
d
|
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
¹ )
(IS 38.1)
This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M
u
is positive, or at the
top if M
u
is negative.
÷ If M
u
> M
single
, the area of compression reinforcement, A'
s
, is given by:
( )
single
0.67
'
u
s
ck
sc
m
M M
A
f
f d d
¸
÷
' =
| |
÷ ÷
|
\ .
(IS G-1.2)
where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and
s
y
u
s c sc
f
x
d
E f
¸
c s
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
max ,
max ,
'
1
(IS G-1.2)
The required tension reinforcement is calculated as:
( ) ( ) ( )
single single
,
'
u
s
y s y s
M M M
A
f z f d d ¸ ¸
÷
= +
÷
where (IS G-1.2)
,max
1
u
x
z d
d
|
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
¹ )
(IS 38.1)
A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A'
s
is to be placed at the top if M
u
is posi-
tive, and vice versa if M
u
is negative.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 12 Beam Design
8.4.2.3 Design of Flanged Beams
8.4.2.3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
u
(i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
8.4.2.3.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by consider-
ing alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed
to be located within the flange. On the basis of this assumption, the program
calculates the depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend be-
yond the flange thickness, the section is designed as a rectangular beam of
width b
f.
. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth, the contribution
of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure
8-2.

Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section
Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange, the depth of the neutral axis is cal-
culated as:
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Beam Design 8- 13
|
|
2
4 1 1 m
d
x
u
÷ ÷
=

where the normalized design moment, m, is given by
ck f
u
f d b
M
m
o
2
=

 If
f
u
D
x
,
d d
| |
| |
s
|
|
\ .
\ .
the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent
calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectan-
gular beam design (IS G-2.1). However, in this case, the width of the beam is
taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required when M
u
> M
single
.
 If
f
u
D
x
,
d d
| |
| |
>
|
|
\ .
\ .

the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation
for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing the compressive force
from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balancing the compressive
force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 8-2.
÷ Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
2
45 . 0
f
f w f ck f
d b b f M
¸
¸ (IS G-2.2)
where ¸
f
is taken as:
if 0 2
0 15 0 65 if 0 2
f f
f
u f f
D D . d
. x . D D . d
¸
s ¦
¦
=
´
+ >
¦
¹
(IS G-2.2)
÷ Calculate the moment taken by the web as
M
w
= M
u
− M
f
.
÷ Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension
reinforcement as:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 14 Beam Design
M
w,single
= of
ck
b
w
d
2

(
¸
(

¸

÷
d
x
d
x
u u max , max ,
1 | where (IS G-1.1)
max
0 53 if 250 MPa
250
0 53 0 05 if 250 415 MPa
165
415
0 48 0 02 if 415 500 MPa
85
0 46 if 500 MPa
y
y
y
u,
y
y
y
. f
f
. . f
x
f d
. . f
. f
s ¦
¦
÷
¦
÷ < s
¦
=
´
÷
¦
÷ < s
¦
¦
>
¹
(IS 38.1)
 If M
w
s M
w,single
, the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.
The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to bal-
ance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.
( )( ) ( )
0 5
f
w
s
y s f y s
M
M
A ,
f d . y f z ¸ ¸
= +
÷
where
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ =
d
x
d z
u
| 1

|
|
2
4 1 1 m
d
x
u
÷ ÷
=

2
w
w ck
M
m
b d f o
=
 If M
w
> M
w,single
, the area of compression reinforcement, A'
s
, is given by:
( )
,single
0.67
'
w w
s
ck
s
m
M M
A
f
f d d
¸
÷
' =
| |
' ÷ ÷
|
\ .

where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Beam Design 8- 15
,max
,max
'
1
y
sc c s
u s
f
d
f E
x
c
¸
(
= ÷ s
(
¸ ¸
(IS G-1.2)
The required tension reinforcement is calculated as:
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
single single
0.5
f w, w w,
s
y s f y s y s
M M M M
A
f d f z f d d ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷
= + +
' ÷ ÷
where
,max
1
u
x
z d
d
|
¦ ¹
= ÷
´ `
¹ )

8.4.2.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is
given as (IS 26.5.1.1):
bd
f
A
y
s
85 . 0
> (IS 26.5.1.1)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment (IS 26.5.1.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.5.1.2) is imposed
upon request as follows:
0 04 Rectangular beam
(IS 26.5.1.1)
0 04 Flanged beam
0 04 Rectangular beam
(IS 26.5.1.2)
0 04 Flanged beam
s
w
s
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
' s
´
¹

8.4.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station, the fol-
lowing steps are involved (IS 40.1):
 Determine the design shear stress
 Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 16 Beam Design
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance
8.4.3.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded
Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.
 For prismatic sections
t
v
=
bd
V
u
(IS 40.1)
 For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth)
t
v
=
u
u
M
V tan
d
,
bd
| ±
where (IS 40.1.1)
β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam
M
u
is the moment at the section, and the negative sign is considered when
the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as
the depth, d, and the positive sign is considered when the numerical
value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth in-
creases.
t
v
s t
c,max
(IS 40.2.3, Table 20)
The maximum nominal shear stress, t
c,max
is given in IS Table 20 as follows:
Maximum Shear Stress, t
c,max
(MPa)
(IS 40.2.3, IS Table 20)
Concrete Grade M15 M20 M25 M30 M35 M40
t
c,max
(MPa)
2.5 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.7 4.0
The maximum nominal shear stress, t
c,max
, is computed using linear interpola-
tion for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.
Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete, as:
t
cd
= koìt
c
, (IS 40.2)
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Beam Design 8- 17
where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section, taken as 1.0 for
beams, and is computed as follows for other slabs:
k = 1 (IS 40.2.1.1)
o is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as:
1 3 1 5 if 0 Under Compression
1 if 0 Under Tension
u
u
g ck
u
P
. P ,
A f
P ,
o
¦
+ s >
¦
=
´
¦
s
¹
(IS 40.2.2)
o is always taken as 1
ì is the factor for light-weight concrete, and
t
c
is the basic design shear strength for concrete, which is given by:
1 1
3 4
100
0 64
25
s ck
c
A f
.
bd
t
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
(IS 40.2.1)
The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19. It should be noted that the
value of ¸
c
has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS
36.4.2.1). The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the
design shear strength as is the case in the Table.
0.15 s
bd
A
s
100
s 3 (IS 40.2.1, Table 19)
f
ck
s 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (IS 40.2.1, Table 19)
Determine required shear reinforcement:
 If t
v
s t
cd
+ 0.4,
0.4
0.87
sv
v y
A b
s f
= (IS 40.3, 26.5.1.6)
 If t
cd
+ 0.4 < t
v
s t
c,max
,
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 18 Beam Design
( )
0.87
v cd
sv
v y
b
A
s f
t t ÷
=
(IS 40.4(a))

0.4
0.87
sv
v y
A b
s f
>
(IS 40.4(a))

 If t
v
> t
c,max
, a failure condition is declared. (IS 40.2.3)
In calculating the shear reinforcement, a limit is imposed on the f
y
as:
f
y
s 415 MPa (IS 40.4)
8.4.3.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included
Determine the design nominal shear stress as:
t
ve
=
bd
V
e
(IS 40.1)
t
ve
s t
c,max
(IS 40.2.3)
The maximum nominal shear stress, t
c,max
is determined as defined in the last
section.
Determine required shear reinforcement:
 If t
ve
s t
cd
,
0.4
0.87
sv
v y
A b
s f
= (IS 41.3, 26.5.1.6)
 If t
ve
≥t
cd
, provide 2-legged closed stirrups, taken as the maximum of:
) 87 . 0 ( 5 . 2 ) 87 . 0 (
1 1 1 y
u
y
u
v
sv
f d
V
f d b
T
s
A
+ = and (IS 41.4.3)
y
c ve
v
sv
f
b
s
A
87 . 0
) ( t t ÷
= (IS 41.4.3)
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Slab Design 8- 19
The maximum of all of the calculated A
sv
/s
v
values, obtained from each load
combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
8.5 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-
sign is completed based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for rein-
forced concrete as described in the following sections. To learn more about the
design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features
and Terminology manual.
8.5.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the de-
sign of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal dis-
placement vectors. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with
the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load com-
bination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps, described in the subsections that follow, are repeated for
every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 20 Slab Design
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.
8.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
8.5.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur, the slab
width is adjusted accordingly.
8.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.5.2):
0 0015 if 415 MPa
0 0012 if 415 MPa
y
s
y
. bD f
A
. bD f
< ¦
¦
s
´
>
¦
¹
(IS 26.5.2.1)
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area
(IS 26.5.1.1).
8.5.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Slab Design 8- 21
8.5.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from
the face of the support (IS 31.6.1). For rectangular columns and concentrated
loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to
the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.6.1). Figure 8-4 shows the
auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.
The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner), and the punching perimeter
may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2

Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
8.5.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment
The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be oM
u

and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is
taken to be (1 − o) M
u
(IS 31.6.2.2), where:
( )
1 2
1
1 2 3 a a
o =
+
(IS 31.3.3)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 22 Slab Design
and a
1
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span
and a
2
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicu-
lar to the span.
8.5.2.3 Determine Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as:
v
c
= k
s
t
c
(IS 31.6.3.1)
k
s
= 0.5 + |
c
s 1.0 (IS 31.6.3.1)
t
c
= 0.25
ck
f (IS 31.6.3.1)
|
c
= ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support
section.
8.5.2.4 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the two axes, the shear stress is computed assuming
linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.
2
2 3 1 33 4 3 23 4 3
2
0 22 33 23
3
3 3 1 22 4 3 23 4 3
2
22 33 23
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
¸
¸
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
V
U U U
U
V
U U
M V y y I y y I x x V
v
b d I I I
M V x x I x x I y y
I I I
Eq. 1
22 22
1 =
=
¿
n
sides
I I , where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 2
33 33
1 =
=
¿
n
sides
I I , where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 3
23 23
1 =
=
¿
n
sides
I I , where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 4
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Slab Design 8- 23

Figure 8-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections
The equations for
22 33 23
, and I I I are different depending on whether the
side of the critical section for punching shear being considered is parallel to
the 2-axis or parallel to the 3-axis. Refer to Figures 8-5.
2
22 2 3
( ) = ÷ I Ld y y , for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis Eq. 5a
3 3
2
22 2 3
( )
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld y y , for side of critical section
parallel to 3-axis Eq. 5b
3 3
2
33 2 3
( )
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld x x , for side of critical section
parallel to 2-axis Eq. 6a
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear
shown by heavy line
2
3
Side of critical section
being considered
shown solid
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Work This Sketch With Equations 5b, 6b and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear shown
by heavy line. Side of
critical section being
considered shown solid
2
3
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis
Work This Sketch With Equations 5a, 6a and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 24 Slab Design
2
33 2 3
( ) = ÷ I Ld x x , for side of critical section parallel to 3-axis Eq. 6b
23 2 3 2 3
( )( ) = ÷ ÷ I Ld x x y y , for side of critical section
parallel to 2-axis or 3-axis Eq. 7
where,
b
0
= Perimeter of critical section for punching shear
d = Effective depth at critical section for punching shear based on the aver-
age of d for the 2 direction and d for the 3 direction
I
22
= Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis
that is parallel to the local 2-axis
I
33
= Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis
that is parallel to the local 3-axis
I
23
= Product of inertia of critical section for punching shear with respect to
the 2 and 3 planes
L = Length of side of critical section for punching shear currently being
considered
M
U2
= Moment about line parallel to 2-axis at center of column (positive in
accordance with the right-hand rule)
M
U3
= Moment about line parallel to 3-axis at center of column (positive in
accordance with the right-hand rule)
v
U
= Punching shear stress
V
U
= Shear at center of column (positive upward)
x
1
, y
1
= Coordinates of column centroid
x
2
, y
2
= Coordinates of center of one side of critical section for punching shear
x
3
, y
3
= Coordinates of centroid of critical section for punching shear
x
4
, y
4
= Coordinates of location where you are calculating stress
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Slab Design 8- 25
¸
V2
= Percent of M
U2
resisted by shear
¸
V3
= Percent of M
U3
resisted by shear
8.5.2.5 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
8.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
completed as described in the subsections that follow.
8.5.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined, but limited to:
c c
v t 5 . 1 s (IS 31.6.3.2)
8.5.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of:
V
max
= 0.5
c
t b
o
d (IS 31.6.3.2)
Given V
u
, V
c
, and V
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(IS 31.6.3.2).
( ) 0.5
0.87
u c
v
y
V V S
A
f d
÷
= (IS 31.6.3.2, 40.4(a))
 If V
u
> V
max
, a failure condition is declared. (IS 31.6.3.2)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
8 - 26 Slab Design
 If V
u
exceeds the maximum permitted value of V
max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
8.5.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 8-6 shows a typical arrangement of
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 8-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face.
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
Slab Design 8- 27
8.5.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26.4 plus half of the diame-
ter of the flexural reinforcement.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 2d. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are
specified as:
s
o
s 0. 5d
s s 0.5d
g s 2d

Notations 9 - 1
Chapter 9
Design for NZS 3101-06
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS
06] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1.
For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chap-
ter, a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
9.1 Notations
Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code

A
co
Area enclosed by perimeter of the section, sq-mm
A
cv
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sq-mm
A
g
Gross area of concrete, sq-mm
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 2 Notations
Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm
A
o
Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm
A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm
A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm
A
s(required)
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm
A
t
/s
Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion, sq-
mm/mm
A
v
Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm
A
v
/s
Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm
a Depth of compression block, mm
a
b
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm
a
max
Maximum allowed depth of compression block, mm
b Width of member, mm
b
f
Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm
b
w
Width of web (flanged section), mm
b
0
Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm
b
1
Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending,
mm
b
2
Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direc-
tion of bending, mm
c Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis, mm
c
b
Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at bal-
anced condition, mm
d Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforce-
ment, mm
d' Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression rein-
forcement, mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
f '
c
Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Notations 9 - 3
Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code

f '
s
Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi
f
y
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa
f
yt
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
h Overall depth of sections, mm
h
f
Thickness of slab or flange, mm
k
a
Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear
strength
k
d
Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear
strength
M
*
Factored design moment at a section, N-mm
p
c
Outside perimeter of concrete section, mm
p
o
Perimeter of area A
o
, mm
s Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length, mm
T
*
Factored design torsion at a section, N-mm
t
c
Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross
section, mm
t
o
Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area
enclosed by the shear flow path, mm
V
c
Shear force resisted by concrete, N
V
*
Factored shear force at a section, N
v
*
Average design shear stress at a section, MPa
v
c
Design shear stress resisted by concrete, MPa
v
max
Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section, MPa
v
tn
Shear stress due to torsion, MPa
o
s

Punching shear factor accounting for column location
o
1

Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and
equivalent stress block
|
1

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
|
c

Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punch-
ing critical section
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code

c
c

Strain in concrete
c
c,max

Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme
concrete fiber, (0.003 in/in)
c
s

Strain in reinforcement
|
b

Strength reduction factor for bending
|
s

Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion
¸
f

Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure
¸
v

Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of
shear
9.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. For NZS 3101-06, if a structure is
subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live (PL), snow (S), wind (W), and
earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are re-
versible, the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS
1170.0, 4.2.2):
1.35D (AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(a))
1.2D + 1.5L (AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 1.5(0.75 PL) (AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 0.4L + 1.0S (AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(g))
1.2D ± 1.0W
0.9D ± 1.0W
1.2D + 0.4L ± 1.0W
(AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(d))
(AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(e))
(AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(d))
1.0D ± 1.0E
1.0D + 0.4L ± 1.0E
(AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(f))
(AS/NZS 1170.0, 4.2.2(f))
Note that the 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid
for live load representing storage areas. These are also the default design load
combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used. If roof live
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Limits on Material Strength 9 - 5
load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present, other appropri-
ate load combinations should be used.
9.3 Limits on Material Strength
The upper and lower limits of f '
c
shall be as follows:
25 ' 100MPa s s
c
f (NZS 5.2.1)
The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement, f
y
, should
be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.3.3). The lower charac-
teristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement, f
yt
, should not be
greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.3.3).
The code allows use of f '
c
and f
y
beyond the given limits, provided special
study is conducted (NZS 5.2.1).
SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design
of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths
are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as be-
ing greater than the limits. The user is responsible for ensuring that the mini-
mum strength is satisfied.
9.4 Strength Reduction Factors
The strength reduction factors, |, are applied to the specified strength to obtain
the design strength provided by a member. The | factors for flexure, shear, and
torsion are as follows:
|
b
= 0.85 for flexure (NZS 2.3.2.2)
|
s
= 0.75 for shear and torsion (NZS 2.3.2.2)
These values can be overwritten; however, caution is advised.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 6 Beam Design
9.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at
each station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
9.5.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
9.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored
moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases, with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Beam Design 9 - 7
reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases the beam may
be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
9.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of
the concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown
in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.4.2.7). Furthermore, it is assumed that the compression
carried by the concrete is 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced
condition (NZS 9.3.8.1). When the applied moment exceeds the moment ca-
pacity at the balanced condition, the area of compression reinforcement is cal-
culated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression re-
inforcement and additional tension reinforcement.
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
0 003 . c =
1 c
f o '
1
a c | =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
0 003 . c =
1 c
f o '
1
a c | =
cs
T s
T
s
c
c
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'

Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 8 Beam Design
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams), is summarized in the text that follows. For reinforced con-
crete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed (0.1
f '
c
A
g
), axial force is ignored; hence, all beams are designed for major direction
flexure, shear, and torsion only. Axial compression greater than 0.1 f '
c
A
g
and
axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear design.
9.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
In designing for a factored negative or positive M
*
(i.e., designing top or bot-
tom reinforcement), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Fig-
ure 9-1), where,
*
2
1
2
c b
M
a d d
f b o |
= ÷ ÷
'
(NZS 7.4.2)
where the default value of |
b
is 0.85 (NZS 2.3.2.2) in the preceding and follow-
ing equations. The factor o
1
is calculated as follows (NZS 7.4.2.7):
o ' = s
1
0.85 for 55MPa
c
f
1 1
0.85 0.004( 55) for 55MPa, 0.75 0.85
c c
f f o o ' ' = ÷ ÷ > s s
The value |
1
and c
b
are calculated as follows:
1
0.85 for 30,
c
f | ' = s (NZS 7.4.2.7)
1 1
0.85 0.008( 30), 0.65 0.85
c
f | | ' = ÷ ÷ s s (NZS 7.4.2.7)
c
b
c y s
c d
f E
c
c
=
+
(NZS 7.4.2.8)
The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack, a
max
, is
given by:
a
max
= 0.75|
1
c
b
(NZS 7.4.2.7, 9.3.8.1)
 If a s a
max
(NZS 9.3.8.1), the area of tension reinforcement is give by:
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Beam Design 9 - 9
*
2
s
b y
M
A
a
f d |
=
| |
÷
|
\ .

The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M
*
is positive, or at the top
if M
*
is negative.
 If a > a
max
(NZS 9.3.8.1), compression reinforcement is required (NZS
7.4.2.9) and is calculated as follows:
The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by:
C = o
1 c
f ' ba
max
(NZS 7.4.2.7)
and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement
is:
M
*
c
= C |
.
|

\
|
÷
2
max
a
d |
b

Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement
and tension reinforcement is:
M
*
s
= M
*
− M
*
c

The required compression reinforcement is given by:
( )( )
1
*
s
s
s c b
M
A
f f d d' o |
' =
' ' ÷ ÷
, where
s c,max s y
c d'
f E f
c
c
÷ (
' = s
(
¸ ¸
(NZS 7.4.2.2, 7.4.2.4)
The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the con-
crete is:
A
s1
=
b y
c
a
d f
M
| |
.
|

\
|
÷
2
*
max

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 10 Beam Design
and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is
given by:
A
s2
=
( )
b y
s
d d f
M
| '
*
÷

Therefore, the total tension reinforcement, A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and the total compres-
sion reinforcement is A'
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and A'
s
is to be placed
at the top if M
*
is positive, and vice versa if M
*
is negative.
9.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
9.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
*
(i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
9.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
If M
*
> 0, the depth of the compression block is given by:
a = d •
f b c
b f
M
d
| o
'
1
*
2
2
÷ (NZS 7.4.2)
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by:
a
max
= 0.75|
1
c
b
(NZS 7.4.2.7, 9.3.8.1)
 If a s h
f
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in this case the width of
the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required when a > a
max
.
 If a > h
f
, calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing the
compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balancing
the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 9-2.
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Beam Design 9 - 11
(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.003 c =
1 c
f o '
w
T s
T
s
c f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
f
h
c
1 c
f o '
(I) BEAM
SECTION
s
A
(II) STRAIN
DIAGRAM
(III) STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
0.003 c =
1 c
f o '
w
T s
T
s
c f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
f
h
c
1 c
f o '

Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section
C
f
is given by:
( ) 1 f c f w f
C f b b h o ' = ÷ (NZS 7.4.2.7)
Therefore, A
s1
=
y
f
f
C
and the portion of M
*
that is resisted by the flange is
given by:
b
s
f f
d
d C M | |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
*

Therefore, the balance of the moment, M
*
, to be carried by the web is:
M
*
w
= M
*
− M
*
f

The web is a rectangular section with dimensions b
w
and d, for which the
depth of the compression block is recalculated as:
2
1
1
2
*
w
c b w
M
a d d
f b o |
= ÷ ÷
'
(NZS 7.4.2 )
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 12 Beam Design
 If a
1
s a
max
(NZS 9.3.8.1), the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
A
s2
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
2
1
*
a
d f
M
y b
w
|
, and
A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.
 If a
1
> a
max
(NZS 9.3.8.1), compression reinforcement is required and is cal-
culated as follows:
The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by:
1 max w c w
C f b a o ' = (NZS 7.4.2.7)
and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is:
max
2
*
c w b
a
M C d |
| |
= ÷
|
\ .

The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is:
M
*
s
= M
*
w
− M
*
c

Therefore, the compression reinforcement is computed as:
( )( )
1
*
s
s
s c b
M
A
f f d d' o |
' =
' ' ÷ ÷
, where
max s c, s y
c d'
f E f
c
c
÷ (
' = s
(
¸ ¸
(NZS 7.4.2.2, 7.4.2.4)
The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is:
A
s2
=
max
2
*
c
y b
M
a
f d |
| |
÷
|
\ .

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Beam Design 9 - 13
and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement
is:
A
s3
=
( )
b y
s
d d f
M
| '
*
÷

Total tension reinforcement is A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
+ A
s3
, and the total compression re-
inforcement is A'
s
. A
s
is to be placed at the bottom, and A'
s
is to be placed at the
top.
9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is
given by the maximum of the two limits:
4
c
s w
y
f
A b d
f
'
> (NZS 9.3.8.2.1)
1.4 >
w
s
y
b d
A
f
(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
s
w
s
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
' s
´
¹

9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
 Determine the factored shear force, V
*
.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 14 Beam Design
 Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load com-
bination factors.
9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, V
c
, is calculated as:
V
c
= v
c
A
cv
(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
The allowable shear stress capacity is given by:
v
c
= k
d
k
a
k
n
v
b
(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
The basic shear strength for a rectangular section is computed as,
v
b
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
d b
A
w
s
10 07 . 0 ì '
c
f , where (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
c
f ' s 50 MPa, and (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
0.08ì '
c
f s v
b
s 0.2ì '
c
f (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
where
1 0 normal concrete
0 85 sandlight-weight concrete
0 75 all light-weight concrete
. ,
. ,
. ,
ì
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
(NZS 9.3.9.3.5)
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Beam Design 9 - 15
The factor k
a
allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear
strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, k
a

shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10
mm or less, the value of k
a
shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation is used between
these limits. The program default for k
a
is 1.0.
0 85 10mm
10
0 85 0 15 20mm
20
1 00 20mm
g
g
a g
g
. , a
a
k . . , a
. , a
s ¦
¦
÷ | |
¦
= + <
´ |
\ . ¦
¦
>
¹
(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
The factor k
d
allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall
be calculated from the following conditions:
 For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nomi-
nal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, k
d
= 1.0
 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm,
k
d
= 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
 For members with an effective depth greater than 400,
( )
0.25
400/
d
k d = where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)
The factor k
n
allows for the influence of axial loading (NZS 10.3.10.3.1).
¦
¦
¦
¦
| |
¦
= + |
´
|
¦ \ .
¦
| |
¦
+ |
¦
|
\ .
¹
*
*
*
1 N = 0
1 3 N > 0
1 12 N < 0
*
n
'
g c
*
'
g c
,
N
k ,
A f
N
,
A f
(NZS 10.3.10.3.1)
9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 16 Beam Design
v
*
=
d b
V
w
*
(NZS 7.5.1)
The average shear stress is limited to a maximum of,
v
max
= min{ } 0.2 , 8 MPa '
c
f (NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)
The shear reinforcement is computed as follows:
 If v
*
s |
s
( ) 2
c
v or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5b
w
),
s
A
v
= 0 (NZS 9.3.9.4.13)
 If |
s
( ) 2
c
v < v
*
s |
s
v
c
,
s
A
v
=
1
16
'
w
c
yt
b
f
f
(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15)
 If |
s
v
c
< v
*
s |
s
v
max
, (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)
( )
d f
v v
s
A
yt s
c s v
|
| ÷
=
*

 If v
*
> v
max
, a failure condition is declared. (NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)
If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 300 mm and 0.5b
w
, no shear
reinforcement is required (NZS 9.3.9.4.13).
The maximum of all of the calculated A
v
/s values, obtained from each load
combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Beam Design 9 - 17
9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in
designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due
to the beam torsion:
 Determine the factored torsion, T
*
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion capacity.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider tor-
sion in the Design Preferences.
9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination
factors.
In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a
member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
design T
*
is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3).
However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces
and reduce T
*
. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional
degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.
9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as A
co
, A
o
, p
c
, p
o
, t
c
, and t
o
are
calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1).
A
co
= Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
A
o
= Gross area enclosed by shear flow path
p
c
= Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 18 Beam Design
p
o
= Perimeter of area A
o

t
c
= Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross
section
t
o
= Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area
enclosed by the shear flow path
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
o
, p
o
,
and t
o
, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost
closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent
to a 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged
beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange
area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion rein-
forcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during T
cr
calculation.
With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are
given as:
A
co
= bh (NZS 7.1)
A
o
= (b ÷ 2c)(h ÷ 2c) (NZS 7.1)
p
c
= 2b + 2h (NZS 7.1)
p
o
= 2(b ÷ 2c) + 2(h ÷ 2c) (NZS 7.1)
t
c
= 0.75 A
o
/p
o
(NZS 7.1)
t
o
= 0.75 A
co
/p
c
(NZS 7.1)
where, the section dimensions b, h, and c are shown in Figure 9-3. Similarly,
the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as:
A
co
= b
w
h + (b
f
– b
w
)h
f
(NZS 7.1)
A
o
= (b
w
– 2c)(h – 2c) (NZS 7.1)
p
c
= 2b
f
+ 2h (NZS 7.1)
p
o
= 2(h – 2c) + 2(b
w
– 2c) (NZS 7.1)
t
c
= 0.75 A
o
/p
o
(NZS 7.1)
t
o
= 0.75 A
co
/p
c
(NZS 7.1)
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Beam Design 9 - 19
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2
÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2
÷
c h 2
÷
f
h
f
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2
÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2
÷
c h 2
÷
f
h
f
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b

Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
where the section dimensions b
f
, b
w
, h, h
f
, and c for a flanged beam are shown
in Figure 9-3. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is lim-
ited to the smaller of 3h
f
(NZS 7.6.1.7).
9.5.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity
The critical torsion capacity, T
cr
, for which the torsion in the section can be
ignored is calculated as:
c c co cr
f t A T ' 1 . 0 | = (NZS 7.6.1.2)
where A
co
and t
c
are as described in the previous section, and f '
c
is the specified
concrete compressive strength. The stress caused by torsion should also be lim-
ited in order to ignore torsion, defined as:
c
o o
f
t A
T
' 08 . 0
2
*
s
|
(NZS 7.6.1.3)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 20 Beam Design
9.5.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsion, T
*
, is less than the threshold limit, T
cr
, and meets the tor-
sion stress limit, torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.6.1). In that case, the
program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. However, if T
*
ex-
ceeds the threshold limit, it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided
by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.6.4.1).
 If T
*
> T
cr
and/or the torsion stress limit is not met, the required closed stirrup
area per unit spacing, A
t
/s, is calculated as:
yt
o tn t
f
t v
s
A
= (NZS 7.6.4.2)
and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as:
y
o o tn
l
f
p t v
A = (NZS 7.6.4.3)
where the torsional shear stress v
tn
is defined as:
o o
tn
t A
T
v
2
*
|
= (NZS 7.6.1.6)
The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that
the following is satisfied, where A
t
/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear
and A
l
can include flexure reinforcement, provided it is fully developed.
o y
c o
o
l t
A f
t A
sp
A A 5 . 1
= (NZS 7.6.2)
An upper limit of the combination of V
*
and T
*
that can be carried by the sec-
tion is also checked using the equation:
min(0 2 8 MPa)
n tn c
v v . f ' , + < (NZS 7.6.1.8, 7.5.2)
For rectangular sections, b
w
is replaced with b. If the combination of V
*
and T
*

exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete sec-
tion should be increased in size.
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Slab Design 9 - 21
The maximum of all of the calculated A
l
and A
t
/s values obtained from each
load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or
longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be in-
vestigated independently of the program by the user.
9.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-
sign is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06)
for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. To learn more
about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key
Features and Terminology manual.
9.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal dis-
placement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the
applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load com-
bination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps, described in the subsections that follow, are repeated for
every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 22 Slab Design
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination, is obtained and reported.
9.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then
added to get the strip moments.
9.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur, the slab
width is adjusted accordingly.
9.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12.5.6.2, 8.8, 2.4.4 ):
0 7
500 MPa
0 0014 500 MPa
y
y
s
y
.
bh f
f
A
. bh f
¦
<
¦
>
´
¦
>
¹
(NZS 12.5.6.2, 8.8.1)
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.
The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider
crack control. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be
investigated independently of the program by the user.
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Slab Design 9 - 23
9.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following.
9.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from
the face of the support (NZS 12.7.1(b)). For rectangular columns and concen-
trated loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides paral-
lel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.7.1(b)). Figure 9-4
shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various col-
umn shapes. The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching
perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2

Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
9.6.2.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment
The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be ¸
f
M
*

and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is
taken to be ¸
v
M
*
, where
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 24 Slab Design
¸
f
=
( )
2 1
3 2 1
1
b b +
(NZS 12.7.7.2 )
¸
v
= 1 −
( )
2 1
3 2 1
1
b b +
(NZS 12.7.7.1)
where b
1
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the
span and b
2
is the width of the critical section measured in the direction per-
pendicular to the span.
9.6.2.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the
following three limits:
|
o
¦
| |
' +
¦ |
\ .
¦
¦
| | ¦
' = +
´
|
\ .
¦
¦
' ¦
¦
¹
0
1 2
1
6
1
min 1
6
1
3
c
c
s
c c
c
f
d
v f
b
f
(NZS 12.7.3.2)
where, |
c
is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical
section (NZS 12.1, 12.7.3.2(a)), b
0
is the perimeter of the critical section, and o
s

is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.
o
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
20 for interior columns,
15 for edge columns,
10 for corner columns.
s
(NZS 12.7.3.2(b))
A limit is imposed on the value of
c
f ' as follows:
ì '
c
f s 100 (NZS 9.3.9.3.5(6))
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Slab Design 9 - 25
9.6.2.4 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the two axes, the shear stress is computed assuming
linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.
*
* * *
2
2 3 1 33 4 3 23 4 3
2
0
22 33 23
* *
3
3 3 1 22 4 3 23 4 3
2
22 33 23
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
[ ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
¸
¸
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
V
V
M V y y I y y I x x V
v
b d I I I
M V x x I x x I y y
I I I
Eq. 1
22 22
1 =
=
¿
n
sides
I I , where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 2
33 33
1 =
=
¿
n
sides
I I , where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 3
23 23
1 =
=
¿
n
sides
I I , where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical
section for punching shear Eq. 4
The equations for
22 33, 23
, and I I I are different depending on whether the side
of the critical section for punching shear being considered is parallel to the 2-
axis or parallel to the 3-axis. Refer to Figures 9-5.
2
22 2 3
( ) = ÷ I Ld y y , for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis Eq. 5a
3 3
2
22 2 3
( )
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld y y , for the side of the critical section
parallel to the 3-axis Eq. 5b

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 26 Slab Design

Figure 9-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections
3 3
2
33 2 3
( )
12 12
= + + ÷
Ld dL
I Ld x y , for the side of the critical section
parallel to the 2-axis Eq. 6
2
33 2 3
( ) = ÷ I Ld x x , for the side of the critical section
parallel to the 3-axis Eq. 6b
23 2 3 2 3
( )( ) = ÷ ÷ I Ld x x y y , for the side of the critical section
parallel to the 2-axis or 3-axis Eq. 7
where,
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear
shown by heavy line
2
3
Side of critical section
being considered
shown solid
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Work This Sketch With Equations 5b, 6b and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
y
2
- y
3
L
Critical section for
punching shear shown
by heavy line. Side of
critical section being
considered shown solid
2
3
Center of side of critical
section being considered.
Coordinates are (x
2
,y
2
).
Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis
Work This Sketch With Equations 5a, 6a and 7
Centroid of entire
critical section for
punching shear.
Coordinates are (x
3
,y
3
).
x
2
- x
3
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Slab Design 9 - 27
b
0
= Perimeter of critical section for punching shear
d = Effective depth at critical section for punching shear based on average
of d for 2 direction and d for 3 direction
I
22
= Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis
that is parallel to the local 2-axis
I
33
= Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis
that is parallel to the local 3-axis
I
23
= Product of inertia of critical section for punching shear with respect to
the 2 and 3 planes
L = Length of the side of the critical section for punching shear currently
being considered
*
2
M = Moment about line parallel to 2-axis at center of column (positive per
right-hand rule)
*
3
M = Moment about line parallel to 3-axis at center of column (positive per
right-hand rule)
V
*
= Punching shear stress
V
*
= Shear at center of column (positive upward)
x
1
, y
1
= Coordinates of column centroid
x
2
, y
2
= Coordinates of center of one side of critical section for punching shear
x
3
, y
3
= Coordinates of centroid of critical section for punching shear
x
4
, y
4
= Coordinates of location where you are calculating stress
¸
V2
= Percent of M
U2
resisted by shear
¸
V3
= Percent of M
U3
resisted by shear
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 28 Slab Design
9.6.2.5 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
9.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm, and not
less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.7.4.1). If the
slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching shear reinforce-
ment is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
performed as described in the subsections that follow.
9.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is determined as:
c c
f v '
6
1
= (NZS 12.7.3.5)
9.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of:
v
max
= 0.5
c
f ' (NZS 12.7.3.4)
Given v
*
, v
c
, and v
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows,
where, |, is the strength reduction factor.
Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06
Slab Design 9 - 29
( )
n c
v
yv
v v
A
s f d |
÷
= (NZS 12.7.4.2(a))
Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that:
d b f V
o c s
'
16
1
> (NZS 12.7.4.3)
 If v
n
> |v
max
, a failure condition is declared. (NZS 12.7.3.4)
 If v
n
exceeds the maximum permitted value of |v
max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
9.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 9-6 shows a typical arrangement of
shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 9-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
9 - 30 Slab Design
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.7.4.4).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
9.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.11 plus half of the
diameter of the flexural reinforcement.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern, the angle between adjacent
stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, be-
tween the peripheral lines are specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (NZS 12.7.4.4)
s s 0.5d (NZS 12.7.4.4)
g s 2d (NZS 12.7.4.4)


Notations 10 - 1
Chapter 10
Design for Singapore CP 65-99
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design
procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard, Structural Use of
Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99], is selected. The program also includes the
recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to
Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. Various notations used in this chapter are
listed in Table 10-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore
code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program
provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements
for the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and
descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
10.1 Notations
Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code

A
g
Gross area of cross-section, mm
2

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 2 Notations
Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm
2

A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A'
s
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm
2

A
sv,t
Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm
2

A
sv
/s
v

Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member,
mm
2
/mm
a Depth of compression block, mm
b Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone,
mm
b
f
Width or effective width of flange, mm
b
w
Average web width of a flanged beam, mm
C Torsional constant, mm
4

d Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm
d' Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa
f Punching shear factor considering column location
f
cu
Characteristic cube strength, MPa
f '
s

Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa
f
y
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa
f
yv
Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa (< 460 MPa)
h Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm
h
f
Flange thickness, mm
h
min
Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm
h
max
Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm
K
Normalized design moment, M
u
/bd
2
f
cu

Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Notations 10 - 3
Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code

K'
Maximum
2
u
cu
M
bd f
for a singly reinforced concrete section
k
1
Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression
k
2

Concrete shear strength factor,
| |
1
3
30
cu
f
M Design moment at a section, N-mm
M
single
Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm
s
v
Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm
T Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm
u Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm
V Design shear force at ultimate design load, N
v Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical
section, MPa
v
c
Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa
v
max
Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa
v
t
Torsional shear stress, MPa
x Neutral axis depth, mm
x
bal
Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm
z Lever arm, mm
|
Torsional stiffness constant
|
b

Moment redistribution factor in a member
¸
f

Partial safety factor for load
¸
m

Partial safety factor for material strength
c
c

Maximum concrete strain
c
s

Strain in tension reinforcement
c'
s

Strain in compression reinforcement

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 4 Design Load Combinations
10.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are
obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors
of safety, γ
f
(CP 2.4.1.3). If a structures is subjected to dead (D), live (L), pat-
tern live (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are re-
versible, the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP
2.4.3).
1.4D
1.4D + 1.6L
(CP 2.4.3)
1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) (CP 2.4.3)
1.0D ± 1.4W
1.4D ± 1.4W
1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W
(CP 2.4.3)
These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP
65-99 code is used. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads
are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the
automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be
reviewed before using for design.
10.3 Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, f
cu
, should not be less than 30 MPa (CP
3.1.7.2).
The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams
and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used
for design even if they are outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to
use the proper strength values while defining the materials.
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Partial Safety Factors 10 - 5
10.4 Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing
the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, ¸
m
. The
values of ¸
m
used in the program are listed in the table that follows and are
taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.4.1):
Values of ¸
m
for the Ultimate Limit State
Reinforcement 1.15
Concrete in flexure and axial load 1.50
Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.25
These factors are incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code,
but can be overwritten.
10.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments,
shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the subsections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at
each station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 6 Beam Design
10.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
 Determine factored moments
 Determine required flexural reinforcement
10.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored
moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corre-
sponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top re-
inforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases, the beam is
always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
10.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of
the concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown
in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.4.4.4), where c
c
is defined as:
( )
0 0035 if 60MPa
60
0 0035 if 60MPa
50000
cu
c
cu
cu
. f
f
. f
c
s ¦
¦
=
´ ÷
÷ >
¦
¹
(CP 2.5.3, BC 2.2)
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Beam Design 10 - 7
Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not
exceed 10% (i.e., |
b
> 0.9; CP 3.4.4.4). The code also places a limitation on the
neutral axis depth,
2
2
2
0.5 for 60N/mm
0.4 for 60 75N/mm
0.33 for 75 105N/mm
cu
cu
cu
f
x
f
d
f
¦
s
¦
¦
s < s
´
¦
< s
¦
¹
(CP 3.4.4.4, BC 2.2)
to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.4.4.4). In addition, the area of
compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth
remains at the maximum permitted value.
The depth of the compression block is given by:
cu
cu
cu
x f
x f
x f
¦
s
¦
¦
= s
´
¦
s
¦
¹
2
2
2
0.9 for 60 N/mm
0.8 for 60 < 75 N/mm
0.72 for 75 < 105 N/mm
a (CP 3.4.4.4, BC 2.2)
The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams), is summarized in the text that follows. For reinforced con-
crete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not ex-
ceed (0.1f
cu
A
g
) (CP 3.4.4.1), axial force is ignored; hence, all beams are de-
signed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Axial compression
greater than 0.1f
cu
A
g g
and axial tensions are always included in flexural and
shear design.
10.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
For rectangular beams, the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced
beam, M
single
, is first calculated for a section. The reinforcement is determined
based on whether M is greater than, less than, or equal to M
single
. See Figure
10-1.
Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly re-
inforced.
M
single
= K'f
cu
bd
2
, where (CP 3.4.4.4)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 8 Beam Design
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
c
c
0 67
cu m
. f ¸
a
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
s
f '
BEAM
SECTION
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
c
c
0 67
cu m
. f ¸
a
cs
T s
T
s
c
x
s
C
d'
d
b
s
A
s
A'
s
f '

Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design

2
2
2
0.156 for 60 N/mm
' 0.120 for 60 75N/mm
0.094 for 75 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.
¦
s
¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
< s
¦
¹
cu
cu
cu
f
K f
f

 If M s M
single
, the area of tension reinforcement, A
s
, is given by:
z f
M
A
y
s
87 . 0
= , where (CP 3.4.4.4)
d
K
d z 95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = (CP 3.4.4.4)
2
bd f
M
K
cu
= (CP 3.4.4.4)
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Beam Design 10 - 9
This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive, or at the top
if M is negative.
 If M > M
single
, compression reinforcement is required and calculated as fol-
lows:
( )
single
0 67
s
cu
s
m
M M
A'
. f
f ' d d
¸
÷
=
| |
' ÷ ÷
|
\ .
(CP 3.4.4.4)
where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and
s
f ' = 0.87 f
y
if
1
1
2 800
(
'
s ÷
(
¸ ¸
y
f
d
d
(CP 3.4.4.1, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
c s s
E f c = '
2
1
'
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
d
d

if
1
1
2 800
(
'
> ÷
(
¸ ¸
y
f
d
d
(CP 3.4.4.4, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the
concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as:
( )
single single
0 87 0 87
s
y y
M M M
A
. f z . f d d
÷
= +
' ÷
, where (CP 3.4.4.4)
d
K
d z 95 . 0
9 . 0
'
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = (CP 3.4.4.4)
10.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
10.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M (i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as de-
scribed previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 10 Beam Design
10.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by consider-
ing alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed
to be located in the flange. On the basis of this assumption, the program calcu-
lates the exact depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend be-
yond the flange thickness, the section is designed as a rectangular beam of
width b
f
. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width, the contribution
of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure
10-2.
BEAM
SECTION
s
A
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
c
c
w
T s
T
s
c
0 67
cu m
. f ¸
f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
f
h
x
0 67
cu m
. f ¸
BEAM
SECTION
s
A
STRAIN
DIAGRAM
STRESS
DIAGRAM
s
A'
w
b
f
b
d
d'
s
f '
c
c
w
T s
T
s
c
0 67
cu m
. f ¸
f
T
f
C
w
C
s
C
f
h
x
0 67
cu m
. f ¸

Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section
Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange, the normalized moment is given
by:
K =
2
d b f
M
f cu
(CP 3.4.4.4)
Then the moment arm is computed as:
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Beam Design 10 - 11
z = d
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0
K
s 0.95d (CP 3.4.4.4)
the depth of neutral axis is computed as:
2
2
2
, for 60N/mm
0.45
, for 60 75N/mm
0.40
, for 75 105N/mm
0.36
cu
cu
cu
d z
f
d z
x f
d z
f
÷ ¦
s
¦
¦
÷ ¦
= < s
´
¦
¦ ÷
< s
¦
¹
(CP 3.4.4.4, BC 2.2, Fig 2.3)
and the depth of the compression block is given by:
cu
cu
cu
x f
x f
x f
¦
s
¦
¦
= s
´
¦
s
¦
¹
2
2
2
0.9 for 60 N/mm
0.8 for 60 < 75 N/mm
0.72 for 75 < 105 N/mm
a (CP 3.4.4.4, BC 2.2, Fig 2.3)
 If a s h
f
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in this case the width of
the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.
 If a > h
f
,
If M ≤ |
f
f
cu
bd
2
and h
f
≤ 0.45d then,
( )
( )
f y
f cu
s
h d f
h d bd f M
A
5 . 0 87 . 0
45 . 0 1 . 0
÷
÷ +
= , where (BS 3.4.4.5)
b
b
d
h
b
b
d
h
w
f
w
f
f
15 . 0
2
1 1 45 . 0 +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ = | (BS 3.4.4.5)
Otherwise the calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balanc-
ing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 10-2.
In that case, the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 12 Beam Design
( ) ( )
0.45 0.5
f cu f w f f
M f b b h d h = ÷ ÷ (CP 3.4.4.5)
The moment taken by the web is computed as:
f w
M M M ÷ =
and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by:
K
w
=
2
w
cu w
M
f b d
(CP 3.4.4.4)
 If K
w
s 0.156 (CP 3.4.4.4), the beam is designed as a singly reinforced con-
crete beam. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts, one to
balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the
web.
( ) z f
M
h d f
M
A
y
w
f y
f
s
87 . 0 5 . 0 87 . 0
+
÷
= , where
d
K
d z
w
95 . 0
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
 If K
w
> K' (CP 3.4.4.4), compression reinforcement is required and is calcu-
lated as follows:
The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by:
M
uw
= K' f
cu
b
w
d
2
(CP 3.4.4.4)
The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude
M
w
− M
uw
. The compression reinforcement is computed as:
( )
0 67
w uw
s
cu
s
m
M M
A
. f
f d d'
¸
÷
' =
| |
' ÷ ÷
|
\ .

where, d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete
compression face, and
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Beam Design 10 - 13
y s
f f 87 . 0 ' = if
1
1
2 800
(
'
s ÷
(
¸ ¸
y
f
d
d
(CP 3.4.4.4, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
d
d
E f
c s s
' 2
1 ' c

if
1
1
2 800
(
'
> ÷
(
¸ ¸
y
f
d
d
(CP 3.4.4.4, 2.5.3, Fig 2.2)
The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as:
1
0.87 0.5 '
f
uw w uw
s
y f
M
M M M
A
f d h z d d
(
÷
= + +
(
÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸

0.5 0.25 0.95
0.9
K
z d d
| |
'
= + ÷ s
|
|
\ .

10.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is giv-
en by the following table, which is taken from CP Table 3.27 (CP 3.12.5.3)
with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.
Minimum percentage
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
f
y
= 250 MPa f
y
= 460 MPa
Rectangular ÷ 100
bh
A
s
0.24 0.13
f
w
b
b
< 0.4 100
h b
A
w
s

0.32 0.18
T- or L-Beam
with web in
tension
f
w
b
b
> 0.4 100
h b
A
w
s

0.24 0.13
T-Beam with
web in
compression
÷
100
h b
A
w
s

0.48 0.26
L-Beam with
web in
compression
÷
100
h b
A
w
s

0.36 0.20
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 14 Beam Design
The minimum flexural compression reinforcement, if it is required, provided in
a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table, which is taken
from CP Table 3.27 (CP 3.12.5.3).
Section Situation
Definition of
percentage
Minimum
percentage
Rectangular ÷
100
s
A
bh
'

0.20
Web in tension
100
s
f f
A
b h
'

0.40
T- or L-Beam
Web in compression
100
s
w
A
b h
'

0.20
For f
cu
> 40 MPa, the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.27 shall be
multiplied by a factor of
2/ 3
40
cu
f | |
|
\ .
(CP 3.12.5.3, BC 2.2).
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension
reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP
3.12.6.1).
10.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved (CP 3.4.5):
 Determine the shear stress, v.
 Determine the shear stress, v
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Beam Design 10 - 15
10.5.2.1 Determine Shear Stress
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load
combination factors. The shear stress is then calculated as:
d b
V
v
w
= (CP 3.4.5.2)
The maximum allowable shear stress, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
= min (0.8
cu
f , 7 MPa). (CP 3.4.5.2)
For light-weight concrete, v
max
is defined as:
v
max
= min(0.63
cu
f , 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4)
10.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear stress carried by the concrete, v
c
, is calculated as:
c c
c
c
c c
v A
N
v
M A
NVh
v v + s + = 1 6 . 0 ' (CP 3.4.5.12)
4
1
3
1
2 1
400 100 84 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d bd
A k k
v
s
m
c
¸
(CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
k
1
is the enhancement factor for support compression,
and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4.5.8)
k
2
=
1
3
30
cu
f | |
|
\ .
, 1 ≤ k
2

1
3
80
30
| |
|
\ .
(CP 3.4.5.4)
¸
m
= 1.25 (CP 2.4.4.1)
However, the following limitations also apply:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 16 Beam Design
0.15 s
bd
A
s
100
s 3 (CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
4
1
400
|
.
|

\
|
d
> 0.67 (unreinforced) or > 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
f
cu
s 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
1 s
M
Vh
(CP 3.4.5.12)
A
s
is the area of tension reinforcement
10.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given v, v’
c
, and v
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(CP Table 3.8, CP 3.4.5.3):
 Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum
shear reinforcement, v
r
, as:
-
2
3
2
2
0.4 if 40N/mm

0.4 if 40 80N/mm
40
¦
s
¦
=
´
| |
< s
¦ |
\ .
¹
cu
r
cu
cu
f
v
f
f
(CP 3.4.5.3, Table 3.8)
2
80N/mm s
cu
f (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.5.3, Table 3.8)
 If v ≤ v'
c
+ v
r
,
,
0.87
s r
v yv
A v b
s f
= (CP 3.4.5.3, Table 3.8)
 If v > v'
c
+ v
r
,
( ) '
0.87
c
sv
v yv
v v b
A
s f
÷
= (CP 3.4.5.3, Table 3.8)
 If v > v
max
, a failure condition is declared. (CP 3.4.5.2)
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Beam Design 10 - 17
In the preceding expressions, a limit is imposed on the f
yv
as
f
yv
s 460 MPa (CP 3.4.5.1)
The maximum of all of the calculated A
sv
/s
v
values, obtained from each load
combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
10.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in de-
signing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to
the beam torsion:
 Determine the torsional shear stress, v
t
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion stress.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.
10.5.3.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination fac-
tors.
In typical framed construction, specific consideration of torsion is not usually
required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforce-
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 18 Beam Design
ment. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam, further consid-
eration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3.4.5.15).
The torsional shear stress, v
t
, for a rectangular section is computed as:
( ) 3 /
2
min max
2
min
h h h
T
v
t
÷
= (CP Part 2 2.4.4.1)
For flanged sections, the section is considered as a series of rectangular seg-
ments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular compo-
nent using the preceding equation, but considering a torsional moment attrib-
uted to that segment, calculated as:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
¿ max
3
min
max
3
min
h h
h h
T T
seg
(CP Part 2 2.4.4.2)
h
max
= Larger dimension of a rectangular section
h
min
= Smaller dimension of a rectangular section
If the computed torsional shear stress, v
t
, does not satisfy the following limit
for sections with a larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link less than
550 mm, a failure condition is generated:

( )
2 1
min 0.8 , 7N/mm
550
t cu
y
v f s × (CP Part 2 2.4.5)
10.5.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress
The critical torsion stress, v
t,min
, for which the torsion in the section can be
ignored is calculated as:
( )
2
,min
min 0.067 , 0.6N/mm
t cu
v f = (CP Part 2 2.4.6)
where f
cu
is the specified concrete compressive strength.
For light-weight concrete, v
t,min
is defined as:
( )
2
,min
min 0.067 , 0.6N/mm
t cu
v f = × 0.8 (CP Part 2 5.5)
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Beam Design 10 - 19
10.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsional shear stress, v
t
, is less than the threshold limit, v
t,min
, tor-
sion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2.4.6). In that case, the program reports
that no torsion reinforcement is required. However, if v
t
exceeds the threshold
limit, v
t,min
, it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stir-
rups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.4.6).
 If v
t
> v
t,min
, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
sv,t
/s
v
, is calcu-
lated as:

( )
yv v
t sv
f y x
T
s
A
87 . 0 8 . 0
1 1
,
= (CP Part 2 2.4.7)
and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as:
( )
y v
yv t sv
l
f s
y x f A
A
1 1 ,
+
= (CP Part 2 2.4.7)
In the preceding expressions, x
1
is the smaller center-to-center dimension of the
closed link and y
1
is the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link.
An upper limit of the combination of v and v
t
that can be carried by the section
also is checked using the equation:
( )
2
min 0.8 , 7N/mm
t cu
v v f + s (CP Part 2 2.4.5)
If the combination of v and v
t
exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared.
In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
l
and A
sv,t
/s
v
values obtained from each
load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or
longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be in-
vestigated independently of the program by the user.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 20 Slab Design
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f

Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
10.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The
moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural
design is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99)
for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. To learn more
about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key
Features and Terminology manual.
10.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal
displacement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with
the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Slab Design 10 - 21
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load com-
bination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps described in the subsections that follow are repeated for every
load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bot-
tom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding control-
ling load combination, is obtained and reported.
10.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then add-
ed to get the strip moments.
10.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. Where openings occur, the slab
width is adjusted accordingly.
10.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.12.5.3, CP Table 3.25) with interpo-
lation for reinforcement of intermediate strength:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 22 Slab Design
0 0024 if 250 MPa
0 0013 if 460 MPa
y
s
y
. bh f
A
. bh f
= ¦
¦
>
´
=
¦
¹
(CP 3.12.5.3)
For f
cu
> 40 N/mm
2
, the preceding minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied
by (f
cu
/40)
2/3
.
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area
(CP 3.12.6.1).
10.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.
10.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.5d from
the face of the support (CP 3.7.7.4, 3.7.7.6). For rectangular columns and con-
centrated loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides
parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7.7.1). Figure 10-4
shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various col-
umn shapes. The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching
perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
10.6.2.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity
The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.7.7.4, 3.7.7.6):
4
1
3
1
2 1
400 100 84 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d bd
A k k
v
s
m
c
¸
(CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
k
1
is the enhancement factor for support compression,
and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4.5.8)

Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Slab Design 10 - 23
1.5d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
1.5d 1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
Interior Column
Circular Column T-Shape Column
Edge Column Corner Column
L-Shape Column
1.5d 1.5d
1.5d
1.5d
1.5d

Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters

k
2
=
1
3
30
cu
f | |
|
\ .
1 ≤ k
2

3
1
30
80
|
.
|

\
|
(CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
¸
m
= 1.25 (CP 3.4.5.2)
However, the following limitations also apply:
0.15 s
bd
A
s
100
s 3 (CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
4
1
400
|
.
|

\
|
d
> 0.67 (unreinforced) or > 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
For light-weight concrete, v
max
is defined as:
v s min(0.63 ,
cu
f 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4)
v s min (0.8 ,
cu
f 7 MPa) (CP 3.4.5.2, Table 3.9)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 24 Slab Design
f
cu
s 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.5.4, Table 3.9)
A
s
= area of tension reinforcement, which is taken as zero in the current
implementation.
10.6.2.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by ec-
centricity of shear about the two axes, the nominal design shear stress, v, is cal-
culated as:
,
1.5
x
eff x
y
M
V V f
V
| |
= +
|
|
\ .
(CP 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
,
1.5
y
eff y
x
M
V V f
V
| |
= +
|
\ .
(CP 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
,
max
,
max
eff x
eff y
V
u d
v
V
u d
¦
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¦
¹
(CP 3.7.7.3)
where,
u is the perimeter of the critical section,
x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the
axis of bending
M
x
and M
y
are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the col-
umn at the connection
V is the total punching shear force
f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is
taken as:
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Slab Design 10 - 25
1 00 for interior columns,
1 25 for edge columns, and
1 25 for corner columns.
.
f .
.
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
(CP 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)
10.6.2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
10.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP
3.7.7.5). If the slab thickness does not meet this requirement, the punching
shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased
by the user.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
completed as described in the following subsections.
10.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.
10.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear stress is limited to a maximum of:
v
max
= 2v
c
(CP 3.7.7.5)
Given v, v
c
, and v
max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows
(CP 3.7.7.5).
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
10 - 26 Slab Design
 If v s 1.6v
c
,
s
A
v
=
( ) 0.4
0.87 0.87
÷
>
c
yv yv
v v ud
ud
f f
, (CP 3.7.7.5)
 If 1.6v
c
s v < 2.0v
c
,
s
A
v
=
( ) 5 0.7
0.4
0.87 0.87
÷
>
c
yv yv
v v ud
ud
f f
, (CP 3.7.7.5)
 If v > v
max
, a failure condition is declared. (CP 3.7.7.5)
If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of v
max
, the concrete section should
be increased in size.
10.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement
of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
Chapter 10 - Design for Singapore CP 65-99
Slab Design 10 - 27
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.7.7.6).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
10.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3.3 plus half of the diame-
ter of the flexural reinforcement.
Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available
in 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, and 20-millimeter diameters.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 1.5d. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are
specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (CP 3.7.7.6)
s s 0.75d (CP 3.7.7.6)
g s 1.5d (CP 3.7.7.6)

Notations 11 - 1
Chapter 11
Design for AS 3600-09
This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design pro-
cedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2009 [AS
2009] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 11-
1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter, a
prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used.
The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program pro-
vides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for
the design of most building type structures.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and de-
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second
units unless otherwise noted.
11.1 Notations
Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code

A
g
Gross area of concrete, mm
2

A
l
Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm
2

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 2 Notations
Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code

A
sc
Area of compression reinforcement, mm
2

A
st
Area of tension reinforcement, mm
2

A
st(required)
Area of required tension reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
Area of shear reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv,min
Minimum area of shear reinforcement, mm
2

A
sv
/s Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm
2
/mm
A
sw
/s Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed
ties, mm
2
/mm
A
t
Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at
the corners of a section, mm
2

a Depth of compression block, mm
a
b
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm
a
max
Maximum allowed depth of compression block, mm
b Width of member, mm
b
ef
Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm
b
w
Width of web (flanged section), mm
c Depth to neutral axis, mm
d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm
d' Concrete cover to compression reinforcement, mm
d
o
Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the
outermost tension reinforcement, mm
d
om
Mean value of d
o
, averaged around the critical shear perimeter, mm
D Overall depth of a section, mm
D
s
Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, MPa
f '
c
Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa
f '
cf
Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete, MPa
f
cv
Concrete shear strength, MPa
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Notations 11 - 3
Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code

f
sy
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa
f
sy,f
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa
f '
s
Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa
J
t
Torsional modulus, mm
3

k
u

Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face, to
the effective depth, d
M
ud
Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force, N-mm
M* Factored moment at section, N-mm
N* Factored axial load at section, N
s Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam, mm
T
uc
Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement, N-
mm
T
u.max
Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section, N-mm
T
us
Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement, N-mm
T* Factored torsional moment at a section, N-mm
u
t
Perimeter of the polygon defined by A
t
, mm
V* Factored shear force at a section, N
V
u.max
Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N
V
u.min
Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement, N
V
uc
Shear force resisted by concrete, N
V
us
Shear force resisted by reinforcement, N
γ
1
Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
|
h
Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punch-
ing critical section
c
c
Strain in concrete
c
c, max
Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete
fiber, (0.003 mm/mm)
c
s

Strain in reinforcement
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 4 Design Load Combinations
Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code

|
Strength reduction factor
u
t

Angle of compression strut for torsion, degrees
u
v

Angle of compression strut for shear, degrees
11.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases
for which the structure needs to be designed. For AS 3600-09, if a structure is
subjected to dead (D), live (L), pattern live (PL), snow (S), wind (W), and
earthquake (E) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are re-
versible, the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 2.4.2):
1.35D (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(a))
1.2D + 1.5L (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 1.5(0.75 PL) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(b))
1.2D + 0.4L + 1.0S (AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(g))
0.9D ± 1.0W
1.2D ± 1.0W
1.2D + 0.4L ± 1.0W
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(e))
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(d))
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(d))
1.0D ± 1.0E
1.0D + 0.4L ± 1.0E
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(f))
(AS/NZS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(f))
Note that the 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid
for live load representing storage areas. These are also the default design load
combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2009 code is used. If roof live
load is treated separately or other types of loads are present, other appropriate
load combinations should be used.
11.3 Limits on Material Strength
The upper and lower limits of f '
c
are 100 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively, for
all framing types (AS 3.1.1.1(b)).
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Strength Reduction Factors 11 - 5
' 100MPa
c
f s (AS 3.1.1.1)
' 20MPa
c
f > (AS 3.1.1.1)
The upper limit of f
sy
is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 3.2.1, Table 3.2.1).
The code allows use of f '
c
and f
sy
beyond the given limits, provided special care
is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 3.1.1, 3.2.1, 17.2.1.1).
SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design
of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths
are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as be-
ing greater than the limits. The user is responsible for ensuring that the mini-
mum strength is satisfied.
11.4 Strength Reduction Factors
The strength reduction factor, |, is defined as given in AS 2.2.2(ii), Table
2.2.2:
For members with Class N reinforcement only
| = 0.80 for flexure (tension controlled) (Table 2.2.2(b))
| = 0.60 for flexure (compression controlled) (Table 2.2.2(b))
For members with Class L reinforcement
| = 0.64 for flexure (tension controlled) (Table 2.2.2(b))
| = 0.60 for flexure (compression controlled) (Table 2.2.2(b))
| = 0.70 for shear and torsion (Table 2.2.2(b))
These values can be overwritten; however, caution is advised.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 6 Beam Design
11.5 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas
of reinforcement for flexure, axial, shear, and torsion based on the beam mo-
ments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria de-
scribed in the text that follows. The reinforcement requirements are calculated
at each station along the length of the beam.
Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects
resulting from any minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be
investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement for bending and axial loading
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
11.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station
along the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment
of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved:
 Determine factored moments and factored axial forces
 Determine required flexural reinforcement for bending and axial forces
11.5.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored
moments and axial forces for each load combination at a particular beam sta-
tion are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load
cases with the corresponding load factors.
The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Calculation of
bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases the
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Beam Design 11 - 7
beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top
reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases the beam
may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.
11.5.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression re-
inforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of the
concrete. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength, f
y
, is limited to 500MPa
(AS 3.2.1), even if the material property is defined using a higher value.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block, as
shown in Figure 11-1 (AS 8.1.2).
The following assumptions apply to the stress block used to compute the flex-
ural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1.2).
 The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.003 (AS
8.1.3(a)).
 A uniform compressive stress of α
2
f '
c
acts on an area (AS 8.1.3(b)) bounded
by:
– The edges of the cross-sections.
– A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading
concerned, and located at a distance ¸k
u
d from the extreme compression
fiber.
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by
max u
a k d ¸ = where, (AS 8.1.3(b))
2
1.0 0.003 '
c
f o = ÷ where,
2
0.67 0.85 so s (AS 8.1.3(1))
1.0 0.003 '
c
f ¸ = ÷ where, 0.67 0.85 s¸ s (AS 8.1.3(2))
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 8 Beam Design
k
u
= 0.36 (AS 8.1.5)
The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections
(L- and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. It is assumed
that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (A
sc
f
sy
> 0.15N
*
) (AS
10.7.1a); hence, all beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and
torsion only.
11.5.1.2.1 Design of Rectangular Beams
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M
*
(i.e., designing top
or bottom reinforcement), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see
Figure 11-1), where,
*
2
2
2
'
c
M
a d d
f b o ¢
= ÷ ÷ (AS 8.1.3)

Figure 11-1 Rectangular Beam Design
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Beam Design 11 - 9
where, the value of | is taken as that for a tension controlled section (k
u
≤ 0.36),
which by default is 0.80 (AS 2.2.2) in the preceding and following equations.
The selection of Reinforcement Class can be made using the Design Prefer-
ences.
 If a s a
max
, the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
*
2
st
sy
M
A
a
f d ¢
=
| |
÷
|
\ .

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M
*
is positive, or at the top
if M
*
is negative.
 If a > a
max
, i.e., k
u
> 0.36, compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.5)
and is calculated as follows:
The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by:
2 max
'
c
C f ba o = (AS 8.1.3)
and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement
is:
| |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
max
a
d C M
uc

Therefore, the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement
and tension reinforcement is:
uc us
M M M ÷ =
*

The required compression reinforcement is given by:
( )( )
2
' '
us
sc
s c
M
A
f f d d o |
=
' ÷ ÷
, where
0.003
s s sy
c d
f E f
c
' ÷ (
' = s
(
¸ ¸
(AS 8.1.2.1, 3.2.2)
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 10 Beam Design
The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the
concrete is:
|
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
2
max
1
a
d f
M
A
sy
uc
s

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is
given by:
( )
2
us
s
sy
M
A
f d d |
=
' ÷

Therefore, the total tension reinforcement is A
st
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and the total com-
pression reinforcement is A
sc
. A
st
is to be placed at the bottom and A
sc
is to be
placed at the top if M
*
is positive, and vice versa if M
*
is negative.
11.5.1.2.2 Design of Flanged Beams
In designing a flanged beam, a simplified stress block, as shown in Figure 11-
2, is assumed if the flange is under compression, i.e., if the moment is positive.
If the moment is negative, the flange comes under tension, and the flange is ig-
nored. In that case, a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 11-
1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.1.5).

Figure 11-2 T-Beam Design
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Beam Design 11 - 11
11.5.1.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
*
(i.e., designing top reinforce-
ment), the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above, i.e., no
flanged beam data is used.
11.5.1.2.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
If M
*
> 0, the depth of the compression block is given by:
*
2
2
2
'
c f
M
a d d
f b o ¢
= ÷ ÷
where, the value of | is taken as that for k
u
≤ 0.36, which is 0.80 by default (AS
2.2.2) in the preceding and the following equations.
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by:
d k a
u
¸ =
max
where, k
u
= 0.36 (AS 8.1.5)
 If a s D
s
, the subsequent calculations for A
st
are exactly the same as previ-
ously defined for the rectangular beam design. However, in that case, the
width of the beam is taken as b
f
. Compression reinforcement is required
when a > a
max
.
 If a > D
s
, the calculation for A
st
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for balanc-
ing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 11-2. C
f
is
given by:
( ) ( )
2 max
' min ,
f c ef w s
C f b b D a o = ÷ × (AS 8.1.3(b))
Therefore,
1
=
f
s
sy
C
A
f
and the portion of M
*
that is resisted by the flange is
given by:
( )
max
min ,
2
s
uf f
D a
M C d ¢
| |
= ÷
|
|
\ .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 12 Beam Design
Therefore, the balance of the moment M
*
to be carried by the web is:
*
uw uf
M M M = ÷
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b
w
and d, for which the design
depth of the compression block is recalculated as:
2
1
2
2
uw
c w
M
a d d
f b o |
= ÷ ÷
'

 If a
1
s a
max
, the area of tension reinforcement is then given by:
2
1
2
|
=
| |
÷
|
\ .
uw
s
sy
M
A
a
f d
, and
2 1 s s st
A A A + =
This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.
 If a
1
> a
max
, compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as fol-
lows:
The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by:
2 max
'
w c w
C f b a o = (AS 8.1.3)
Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforce-
ment is:
| |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
max
a
d C M
w uc

and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is:
uc uw us
M M M ÷ =
Therefore, the compression reinforcement is computed as:
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Beam Design 11 - 13
( )( )
2
,
us
sc
s c
M
A
f f d d o |
=
' ' ' ÷ ÷
where
max
max
0.003
s s sy
c d
f E f
c
' ( ÷
' = s
(
¸ ¸
(AS 8.1.2.1, 3.2.2)
The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is:
2
max
2
|
=
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
uc
s
sy
M
A
a
f d

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement
is:
( )
3
|
=
' ÷
us
s
sy
M
A
f d d

The total tensile reinforcement is A
st
= A
s1
+ A
s2
+ A
s3
, and the total compres-
sion reinforcement is A
sc
. A
st
is to be placed at the bottom and A
sc
is to be
placed at the top.
11.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is giv-
en by the following limit (AS 8.1.6.1):
2
,
.min
,
ct f
st b
sy
f
D
A bd
d f
o
'
| |
=
|
\ .
where (AS 8.1.6.1(2))
20,
b
o = for Rectangular Section (AS8.1.6.1(2))
for L- and T-Sections with the web in tension:
1/ 4
0.20 1 0.4 0.18 0.20 ,
f f
s
b
w w
b b
D
b D b
o
| | | |
| |
= + ÷ ÷ >
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .
(AS8.1.6.1(2))
for L- and T-Sections with the flange in tension:
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 14 Beam Design
2/3
0.20 1 0.25 0.08 0.20 ,
f f
s
b
w w
b b
D
b D b
o
| | | |
| |
= + ÷ ÷ >
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .
(AS8.1.6.1(2))
,
' 0.6 '
ct f c
f f = (AS 3.1.1.3(b))
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
0 04 Rectangular beam
0 04 Flanged beam
st
w
sc
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
s
´
¹

11.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station
along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par-
ticular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the
beam major shear, the following steps are involved:
 Determine the factored shear force, V
*
.
 Determine the shear force, V
uc
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
these steps.
11.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load
combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre-
sponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load
combination factors.
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Beam Design 11 - 15
11.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, V
uc
, is calculated as:
1 3
1 2 3
'
st
uc w o cv
w o
A
V b d f
b d
| | |
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(AS 8.2.7.1)
where,
( )
1/3
' ' 4MPa
cv c
f f = s (AS 8.2.7.1)
1 . 1
1000
6 . 1 1 . 1
1
> |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
o
d
| (AS 8.2.7.1)
β
2
= 1, or (AS 8.2.7.1)
= 0
5 . 3
1
*
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
g
A
N
for members subject to significant axial tension, or
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
g
A
N
14
1
*
for members subject to significant axial compression.
β
3
= 1
11.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to:
o v uc u
d b V V 6 . 0
min .
+ = (AS 8.2.9)
o c u
bd f V ' 2 . 0
max .
= (AS 8.2.6)
Given V
*
, V
uc
, and V
u.max
, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as fol-
lows, where, |, the strength reduction factor, is 0.75 by default (AS 2.2.2).
 If
*
/ 2,
uc
V V | s
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 16 Beam Design
0
sv
A
,
s
= if D ≤ 750 mm; otherwise A
sv.min
shall be provided. (AS 8.2.5).
 If
( )
*
.min
/ 2 ,
uc u
V V V | | < s
0,
sv
A
s
= if D < b
w
/2 or 250 mm, whichever is greater (AS 8.2.5(c)(i));
otherwise A
sv.min
shall be provided.
 If
*
.min .max
,
u u
V V V | | < s
( )
*
.
,
cot
uc
sv
sy f o v
V V
A
s f d
|
u
÷
= (AS 8.2.10)
and greater than A
sv.min,
defined as:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f sy
w sv
f
b
s
A
.
min .
35 . 0 (AS 8.2.8)
u
v
= the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the lon-
gitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees
when V
*
=|V
u.min
to 45 degrees when V
*
=| V
u,max
.
 If
*
max
, V V | > a failure condition is declared. (AS 8.2.6)
 If V
*
exceeds its maximum permitted value |V
max
, the concrete section size
should be increased (AS 8.2.6).
Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required,
the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for
combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b).
The maximum of all of the calculated A
sv
/s values obtained from each load
combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated
load combination.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require-
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Beam Design 11 - 17
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated in-
dependently of the program by the user.
11.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each
station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in de-
signing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to
the beam torsion:
 Determine the factored torsion, T
*
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion capacity.
 Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
11.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combi-
nation at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding
torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination fac-
tors.
In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a
member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
design T
*
is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2).
However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces
and reduce T
*
. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional
degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.
11.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as A
t
, J
t
, and u
t
are calcu-
lated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3).
A
t
= Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at
the corners of the cross-section
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 18 Beam Design
u
t
= Perimeter of the polygon defined by A
t

J
t
= Torsional modulus
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
sw
/s and
A
l
, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost
closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent
to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of
flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the
flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion
reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during T
uc
calcu-
lation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam sec-
tion are given as:
A
t
=
( )( ) 2 2 , b c h c ÷ ÷ (AS 8.3.5)
u
t
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 , b c h c ÷ + ÷ (AS 8.3.6)
J
t
= 0.33x
2
y (AS 8.3.3)
where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are shown in Figure 11-3. Similarly,
the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as:
A
t
=
( )( ) 2 2 ,
w
b c h c ÷ ÷ (AS 8.3.5)
u
t
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 ,
c w c
h b ÷ + ÷ (AS 8.3.6)
J
t
=
0.33Ex
2
y (AS 8.3.3)
where the section dimensions b
w
, h, and c for a flanged beam are shown in Fig-
ure 11-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a
component rectangle, respectively.
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Beam Design 11 - 19
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
s
D
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b
c b 2
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2
÷
w
b
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
c h 2
÷
s
D
ef
b
h h
b
c
c
c c
c
c
b 2c ÷
w
b 2c ÷
w
b

Figure 11-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
11.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, T
uc
, is cal-
culated as:
0.3 '
uc t
T = J f
c
(AS 8.3.5)
where J
t
is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in de-
tail in the previous section.
Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any one of the following is satis-
fied:
uc
T T | 25 . 0
*
s (AS 8.3.4(a)(i))
5 . 0
* *
s +
uc uc
V
V
T
T
| |
(AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))
1
* *
s +
uc uc
V
V
T
T
| |
and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) (AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 20 Beam Design
If the factored torsion T
*
alone or in combination with V
*
does not satisfy any
of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is
needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups
and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3).
 If T
*
> T
cr
, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
sw
/s, is calcu-
lated as:
t f sy
t sw
A f
T
s
A
.
*
2
tan
|
u
= (AS 8.3.5(b))
where, the minimum value of A
sw
/s is taken as follows:
f sy
w sw
f
b
s
A
.
min .
35 . 0
= (AS 8.2.8)
The value θ
t
is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and
the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees
when T
*
= |T
uc
to 45 degrees when T
*
= |T
u,max
.
The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion
by adding additional shear stirrups.
0 . 1
* *
s +
us us
V
V
T
T
| |
(AS 8.3.4(b))
where,
t t
sw
f sy us
A
s
A
f T u cot 2
.
|
.
|

\
|
= (AS 8.3.5(b))
( )
v o f sy sv us
s d f A V u cot /
.
= (AS 8.2.10(a))
The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:
2
.
0.5 cot
sw
sy f t t
l
sy
A
f u
s
A
f
u
| |
|
\ .
= (AS 8.3.6(a))
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Slab Design 11 - 21
An upper limit of the combination of V
*
and T
*
that can be carried by the sec-
tion is also checked using the equation:
0 . 1
max .
*
max .
*
s +
u u
V
V
T
T
| |
(AS 8.3.3)
where,
o w c u
d b f V ' 2 . 0
max .
= (AS 8.2.6)
t c u
J f T ' 2 . 0
max .
= (AS 8.3.3)
For rectangular sections, b
w
is replaced with b. If the combination of V
*
and T
*

exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete sec-
tion should be increased in size.
When torsional reinforcement is required (T
*
> T
cr
), the area of transverse
closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
f sy
sw sv
f
b
s
A
s
A
.
35 . 0
2 > |
.
|

\
|
+ (AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)
If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated A
sv
/s and A
sw
/s,
A
sv
/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, A
sv
/s does not need to
satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.
The maximum of all the calculated A
l
and A
sw
/s values obtained from each load
combination is reported along with the controlling combination.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements
and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be
investigated independently of the program by the user.
11.6 Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves de-
fining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 22 Slab Design
the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The mo-
ments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural de-
sign is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 3600-
2001) for reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To learn
more about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the
Key Features and Terminology manual.
11.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the
design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained
by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal
displacement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with
the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.
The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at spe-
cific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the
element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of
those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load
combination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments and axial forces for each slab strip.
 Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.
These two steps, which are described in the following subsections, are repeated
for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top
and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding
controlling load combination numbers, is obtained and reported.
11.6.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip
For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the pro-
gram calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then add-
ed to get the strip moments.
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Slab Design 11 - 23
11.6.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip
The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending
moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described ear-
lier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given de-
sign section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across
the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs
the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using
its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tribu-
tary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the
design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when
drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted ac-
cordingly.
11.6.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a
slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.1.1):
2 '
,
,
0.24
ct f
s
sy f
f
h
A bh
d f
| |
=
|
\ .
for flat slabs (AS 9.1.1(a))
2 '
,
,
0.19
ct f
s
sy f
f
h
A bh
d f
| |
=
|
\ .

for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings. (AS 9.1.1(b))
In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression
reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.
11.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled
“Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.
Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 24 Slab Design
11.6.2.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear
The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d
om
/2 from
the face of the support (AS 9.2.1.1). For rectangular columns and concentrated
loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to
the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2.1.3). Figure 11-4 shows the
auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.
The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching perimeter
may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Edge Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
Interior Column
Circular Column
d 2
d 2
d 2
T-Shape Column
Edge Column Edge Column
L-Shape Column
d 2
d 2

Figure 11-4 Punching Shear Perimeters
11.6.2.2 Determine Concrete Capacity
The shear capacity,
cv
f , is calculated based on the minimum of the two expres-
sions from AS 9.2.3, as shown, with the d
om
and u terms removed to convert
force to stress.
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Slab Design 11 - 25
2
0 17 1
min
0 34
c
h
cv
c
. f
f
. f
|
¦
| |
' +
¦ |
= \ .
´
¦
'
¹
(AS 9.2.3(a))
where, |
h
is the ratio of the longest dimension to the shortest dimension of the
critical section.
11.6.2.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress
The maximum design shear stress is computed along the major and minor axis
of column separately using the following equation:
*
max *
m m
1.0
8
(
= +
(
¸ ¸
v
o o
uM V
v
ud V ad
(AS 9.2.4(a))
11.6.2.4 Determine Capacity Ratio
The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress
capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio
exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the fol-
lowing section.
11.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS
3600-2009. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or
shear links.
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided
that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm, and not
less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.7.4.1). If the
slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching shear reinforce-
ment is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.
The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used
when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for
Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 26 Slab Design
lier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is
carried out as described in the subsections that follow.
11.6.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear
reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.
11.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear force is limited to a maximum of:
V
max
= 3 V
u,min
= 3*V
u
(AS 9.2.4(a), (d))
where V
u
is computed from AS 9.2.3 or 9.2.4. Given V*, V
u
, and V
u,max
, the re-
quired shear reinforcement is calculated as follows, where, | is the strength re-
duction factor.
( )
*
m
,
u
sv
sy o
V V
A
s f d
| ÷
= (AS 8.2.10)
Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that:
m
1
'
16
>
s c o
V f ud (NZS 12.7.4.3)
 If V
*
> |V
max
, a failure condition is declared. (NZS 12.7.3.4)
 If V
*
exceeds the maximum permitted value of |V
max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size.
11.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be
arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant dis-
tances from the sides of the column. Figure 11-5 shows a typical arrangement
of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner
column.
Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09
Slab Design 11 - 27
The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement
shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the
first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a
direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.7.4.4).
Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where
there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of
lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior col-
umns respectively.
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x
I
y
Typical Studrail
(only first and last
studs shown)
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column
Critical section
centroid
Free
edge
Free
edge
Critical
section
centroid
Free edge
Outermost
peripheral line
of studs
I
y
I
y
y
x
d 2 d 2
d 2
x
I
x
I
x
g
y
g
x
g
0
s
0
s 0
s
x
I
y
x x

Figure 11-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs
and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone
11.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is
close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should
not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3.11 plus one-half of the
diameter of the flexural reinforcement.
When specifying shear studs, the distance, s
o
, between the column face and the
first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing
between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not ex-
ceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern, the angle between adjacent
SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11 - 28 Slab Design
stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. The limits of s
o
and the spacing, s, be-
tween the peripheral lines are specified as:
s
o
s 0.5d (NZS 12.7.4.4)
s s 0.5d (NZS 12.7.4.4)
g s 2d (NZS 12.7.4.4)

R - 1
References
ACI, 2007. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat
Plates (ACI 421.2R-07), American Concrete Institute, 38800
Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
ACI, 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI
318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete
Institute, P.O. Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
AS, 2001. Australian Standard
TM
for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001)
incorporating Amendment No.1 and Amendment No. 2, Stan-
dards Australia International Ltd, GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW
2001, Australia.
AS, 2009. Australian Standard
®
for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2009),
Standards Australia International Ltd, GPO Box 476, Sydney,
NSW 2001, Australia.
BC, 2008. BC 2:2008, Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Sin-
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tion Authority, Singapore.


SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
R - 2
BSI, 1997. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 1, 2, and 3,
Structural Use of Concrete, Part 1, Code of Practice for Design
and Construction, British Standards Institution, London, UK,
2005.
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1, 2, and 3, Structural Use of Concrete, Part 2, Code of Practice
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UK, 2005.
CP, 1999. CP 65:Part 1:1999, Code of Practice for Structural Use of
Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum
No. 1, September 2000, Singapore Productivity and Standards
Board, Singapore.
EN 1992-1-1, 2004. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures, Part 1-1,
General Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Committee for
Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.
EN 1990:2002. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amend-
ment A1:2005), European Committee for Standardization, Brus-
sels, Belgium.
CSA, 2004. A23.3-04, Design of Concrete Structures, Canadian Stan-
dards Association, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada.
HK CP, 2004. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004,
Buildings Department, 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre, 750 Nathan
Road, Mongkok, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
IS, 2000. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete, Third Edi-
tion, Twentieth Reprint, March 2000, Bureau of Indian Stan-
dards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi
110002, India.
NZS, 2006. Concrete Structures Standard, Part 1 – Design of Concrete
Structures, Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Welling-
ton, New Zealand.

Copyright
Copyright  Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2010 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com
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Contents

1 2

Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-29

2.6

i

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-4 3-5

Beam Design 3-5 3.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-13 3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.6.1 Design for Flexure 3.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-22 3-24

3.6

4

Design for BS 8110-97
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5

Beam Design 4-6 4.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.6.1 Design for Flexure 4.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24

4.6

5

Design for CSA A23.3-04
5.1 Notations 5-1

ii

Contents

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors

5-4 5-5 5-5

Beam Design 5-6 5.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-21 Slab Design 5.6.1 Design for Flexure 5.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-27 5-32

5.6

6

Design for Eurocode 2-2004
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-2 6-4 6-7 6-7

Beam Design 6-8 6.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.6.1 Design for Flexure 6.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 6.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-24 6-24 6-26 6.28

6.6

6.7

Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6-30

7

Design for Hong Kong CP-04
7.1 7.2 Notations Design Load Combinations 7-1 7-3

iii

5.4 9.4.2 9.6.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-19 7-20 7-21 7-24 7.5.1 Design for Flexure 8.5.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.1 9.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.1 Design for Flexure 7.4 7.5.3 9.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.5.6.3 7.5.5.3 8.2 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-14 7.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.1 Effects of Torsion 8.5 Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 7-4 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.4.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-16 Slab Design 7.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 iv .1 8.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-25 8.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.4.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-17 9.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-21 9-21 9-23 9-28 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 9.1 Design for Flexure 9.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6.Contents 9.3 Limits on Material Strength 11.4 Strength Reduction Factors 11.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.5.1 Design for Flexure 10.1 Notations 11.5.3 Limits on Material Strength 10.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.1 Notations 10.5 Beam Design 10.6.5 Beam Design 11.5.6 Slab Design 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-14 10-17 10-20 10-20 10-22 10-25 11 Design for AS 3600-09 11.2 Design Load Combinations 11.6.6.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.5.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 11-1 11-4 11-5 11-5 11-6 11-6 v .6 Slab Design 9.2 Design Load Combinations 10.

3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 11.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 11.6.6.1 Design for Flexure 11.2 Check for Punching Shear 11.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 11-14 11-17 11-21 11-22 11-23 11-25 References vi .5.6 Slab Design 11.5.

The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. 1-1 . and it designs beam flexural. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. and torsion reinforcement. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. Specifically. Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. shear.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks.

Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections or equations of the ACI code in this chapter. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. sq-in Gross area of concrete. 2. sq-in Notations 2-1 . a prefix “ACI” followed by the section or equation number is used herein. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on inch-pound-second units. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section.

sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. in Width of web (flanged section). in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. psi 2-2 Notations . sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. in Width of section. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. in Effective width of flange (flanged section). sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.

in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. in Height of the flange. lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. (0. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section. psi Overall depth of a section. lb Factored axial load at a section.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. in Critical torsion capacity. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement s c 1 c c max s Notations 2-3 .Chapter 2 . lb Factored shear force at a section. in Factored moment at a section. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement.

3.2D + 1.0L  1. 9-2) (ACI 9-6) (ACI 9-4) (ACI 9-7) (ACI 9-5) (ACI 9-2) (ACI 9-3) (ACI 9-3) (ACI 9-4) (ACI 9-5) 2-4 Design Load Combinations .5S 1.0E 1.6W 1.6S  0.min  f v   Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2D + 1.5S  1. degrees 2.75 PL) 0.4D 1. pattern live (PL).0L + 1.8W 1.6L 1.2D + 1.1): 1. snow (S).0E (ACI 9-1) (ACI 9-2) (ACI 13.2D + 1.0L + 0.6W 1.0L + 0. live (L). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.9D  1. and earthquake (E) loads. For ACI 318-08.2D + 1.2D + 1.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.0L  1.2S  1.6.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for light-weight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.6L + 0.2D + 1.2D + 1. wind (W).0E 1.6W 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code s.7.2D + 1.9D  1.6 (0.6S 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. if a structure is subjected to dead (D).

1) (ACI 9. or if other types of loads are present. shear forces. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1). are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.1. and torsion based on the beam moments.Design for ACI 318-08 These are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 318-08 code is used. shear. The  factors for flexure.2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. 2. The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. If the input f c is less than 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors. shear. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.500 psi (ACI 5. (ACI 9.3. caution is advised.3) 2. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. . The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Limits on Material Strength 2-5 .90 for flexure (tension controlled)  = 0. and torsion only.3. should not be less than 2.2.500 psi. shear. 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. f c.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. SAFE continues to design the members based on the input f c and does not warn the user about the violation of the code.Chapter 2 . and torsion are as follows:  = 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. torsion. however. and other criteria described in this section.

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the following steps are involved:  Determine factored moments  Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. for a particular station.1.4). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. 2. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement 2. In such cases. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5. or the strength of the concrete.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases. 2-6 Beam Design . The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. with the corresponding load factors. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. fy .5. the width.5.

Mu (i. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2) Beam Design 2-7 . the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1).3.1 f  Ag  and axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear c design. Axial compression greater than  0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.5. a  d  d2  2 Mu 0.4): cmax   cmax d  cmax   smin (ACI 10. cmax.2.e. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. Furthermore.3. and torsion only.1.1) in the preceding and the following equations.003. For reinforced concrete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed  0.2.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.2) and the value of  is taken as that for a tension-controlled section. The maximum depth of the compression zone. is summarized in the text that follows. axial force is ignored. hence. shear.85 f 'c  b (ACI 10.and T-beams)..90 (ACI 9. designing top or bottom reinforcement). as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. 2. where.3. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than smin. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.2).5).3. which is equal to 0.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.2.1 f c Ag  (ACI 10. which by default is 0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.Chapter 2 . The design procedure used by SAFE.

is given by: amax =1cmax (ACI 10.2.7.3)  If a  amax (ACI 10. cmax = 0.7. amax.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design .4).  1000  0.2.005 (ACI 10.003 b A s Cs c 0.85 f  c d a   1c d s As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.3) (ACI 10.85 (ACI 10.65  1  0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design   0.85  0.003 smin = 0.3.3.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.1) where 1 is calculated as: 1  0.05   f   4000  c .

Chapter 2 . 10.2.1) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C  0.  If a > amax.3.85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10. or at the top if Mu is negative. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.Design for ACI 318-08 As  Mu a   fyd   2  This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive. where   f 's  0.3. 10.7.2.2.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a   M uc   C  d  max  2   (ACI 9.2.3.5.1) − Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A 's  M us .4) c  d' f ' s  Es  c max  max   fy  cmax  − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1  M uc  f y d    amax  2   Beam Design 2-9 .85 f 'c  d  d ' (ACI 10.2.2.

bf hf d c d   0. i.e.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2  M us  f y  d  d ' Therefore.5. the flange comes under tension.2. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.10 Beam Design . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive. if the moment is positive. If the moment is negative. a simplified stress block.1.. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. In that case. and the flange is ignored.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.85 f  c A s f s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION s (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . 2. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.85 f  c 0. as shown in Figure 2-2. and vice versa if Mu is negative.003 0. is assumed if the flange is under compression.

2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.4): cmax  where.05   f 'c  4000  .2) cmax = 0..7.85 f 'c  b f (ACI 10.85  0. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than smin.003 smin = 0.2.1.2. which by default is 0.2.65  1  0.5.3.  c max d  c max   s min (ACI 10.2.2.2.e.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.005 (ACI 10.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1) in the preceding and the following equations.Design for ACI 318-08 2. is given by: amax  1cmax where 1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.5.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. Mu (i. 2. The maximum depth of the compression zone. no flanged beam data is used.2) where.3) Beam Design 2 .85 (ACI 10. designing top reinforcement).2.  1000  0..e.11 .1.2. the depth of the compression block is given by: a  d  d2  2 Mu 0. which is equal to 0.Chapter 2 .3.1) 1  0. i.7. the value of  is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.90 (ACI 9. amax.2.3) (ACI 10. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. cmax.

amax    M uf   C f  d    2   (ACI 9.2)  If a1  amax (ACI 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  If a  hf. in this case. and a1    fyd   2  As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.3. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.  If a > hf. Cw. 2 .1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is  min  h f . However.4). the value for  is 0. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2  M uw .90 by default.3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2.1) Again.85 f 'c  bw (ACI 10. As1  given by: (ACI 10.2.7. Cf.85 f 'c b f  bw min h f . as shown in Figure 2-2. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1  d  d 2  2 M uw 0. amax  Therefore. Cf is given by: C f  0. Mu . the calculation for As has two parts. the balance of the moment. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Therefore. the width of the beam is taken as bf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.12 Beam Design .

2.13 .7. where  f s  0.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.2.Chapter 2 .Design for ACI 318-08  If a1 > amax.5. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.85 f c  d  d    (ACI 10. the compression reinforcement is computed as:  As  Mus . 10.2. 10.2.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a  Muc  Cw  d  max 2     and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.4)  c  d  f   Es  c max  max s   fy  cmax  The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2  Muc a   f y  d  max   2   and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3  M us f y d  d '  Beam Design 2 .2.1) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw  0.3.

that can be resisted by the concrete. Vu. Vc. for a particular load combination.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2.min  max  fy  fy   As  (ACI 10.5.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits:  3 f 'c  200 bw d .04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: 0.5.4bd As   0.3) An upper limit of 0. 2.14 Beam Design . bw d  As .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.5. 2 .4bw d 0.4bd As   0.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10.  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2.  Determine the shear force. the following steps are involved:  Determine the factored shear force.

1) Av Vu   Vc   s  f yt d  If Vu > Vmax. 11. 11.75 (ACI 9. fyt. is 0. with the corresponding load combination factors.1. the strength reduction factor.1.5.3).2.Chapter 2 .2.5.3) f 'c as f 'c  100 (ACI 11.9) Beam Design 2 .9) Given Vu.1. and Vmax.2.2.  If Vu  0.5Vc  Vu  Vmax .4.1. Av =0 s  If 0.2) The value of  should be specified in the material property definition. (ACI 11. a failure condition is declared.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2.2) (ACI 11.15 .7.7.Design for ACI 318-08 2.5.4.6. 2.2. .7.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2.3.4. Vc.5Vc . 11.7.5.2.5. (ACI 11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where. 2. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax  Vc  8 f 'c bw d   (ACI 11.4. is calculated as: Vc  2 f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.2. Vc. The flexural reinforcement strength.

Tu.6.3 does not need to be satisfied independently.6.5h f .  s f yt  50bw   f yt   (ACI 11. the concrete section should be increased in size (ACI 11.75 f 'c Av  max bw . 2. Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. max  2.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.6.5. 2   the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11.4.  for T-beam.  Determine special section properties.4.  b  h  min 24".4. the equation given in ACI 11. 2 .6.4.7. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5.16 Beam Design . If the beam depth h is h  10" for rectangular. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.9).  0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1). The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the factored torsion.

Chapter 2 .6. Aoh. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.75 inches. However. pcp.1).3. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. special section properties.2). such as Aoh.17 . the flange is ignored for torsion reinBeam Design 2 . 2.  Determine the torsion reinforcement required. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.5 inch clear cover and a #4 stirrup. This is equivalent to a 1. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. Ao. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. Ao. and ph. Acp = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Aoh = Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Ao = Gross area enclosed by shear flow path pcp = Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section ph = Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.5. and ph. 2. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. such as Acp.6. If redistribution is desired. With this assumption. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.5.2).2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.2.Design for ACI 318-08  Determine critical torsion capacity.3. are calculated.

Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13.3.1) (ACI 11.5.3.85 Aoh pcp = 2b + 2h ph = 2(b  2c) + 2(h  2c) (ACI 11. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp = bh Aoh = (b  2c)(h  2c) Ao = 0.1) (ACI 11. 2. 2.3. 2.6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.5. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3.1) (ACI11.1) where the section dimensions bf.3. 2.3.5.1.1) (ACI 11. h.1) (ACI 11.5. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.1.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.3. 2.1.5. 2. 2.1. R11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design forcement calculation. bw.1.6(b)) (ACI 11. However.1.5.6(b)) (ACI 11. 2. Tcr.6. Similarly.1. hf.2.1.5.1) (ACI 11.5. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2  Acp  Nu Tcr   f 'c   1  pcp  4 Ag  f 'c   (ACI 11.3. 2.5.1.5. 2. h.1) where.18 Beam Design .5. With this assumption. 2.85 Aoh pcp = 2bf + 2h ph = 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.4). the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp = bwh + (bf – bw)hf Aoh = (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) Ao = 0.5.3. the section dimensions b.1(c)) where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.3.1. R11.5.5. Nu is the factored axial force (compression posi- 2 .

However.Design for ACI 318-08 tive).5. fy.6.3) In the preceding expressions.6).5.3. which is equal to 0. Tcr. fyt.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit. longitudinal bars. is calculated as: At Tu tan   s  2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.1).5. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25  bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength. 11.6) Al  Tu p h  2 Ao f y tan  (ACI 11. In that case.3.3) Al  5 f c Acp fy  A   f yt     t  ph   s   fy    (ACI 11.5.Chapter 2 .5.5.3. If Tu > Tcr. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3.2.3). the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. and compression diagonals (ACI R11.7.5.  is taken as 45 degrees.6).3.5. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11.5. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. Beam Design 2 . 2.75 by default (ACI 9. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.3.19 .6) where. At /s. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. is limited to 60 ksi. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.  is the strength reduction factor for torsion.3. even if the material property is defined with a higher value.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.6. Tcr.

a failure message is declared. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.   2 t   max 0.2) 2 .5.20 Beam Design .5.  f c 50bw  A     Av bw . When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).5.75  fy  s  f yt   s   (ACI 11.3.1) For rectangular sections.7 A 2    w   oh 2      2  Vc    8 f c  b d   w  (ACI 11. the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b  2c 2c c h fs d bf c h  2c h h h h  2c c b c bw  2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:  Vu   Tu p h   b d    1. In that case. bw is replaced with b.

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Slab Design 2 .Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.6. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.4. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. 2. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. 2. In that case.3 independently.21 . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations. To learn more about the design strips. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.Chapter 2 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. are repeated for every load combination. given the bending moment.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). These two steps. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.min = 0.1(b)) (ACI 7. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.12. Where openings occur.1(c)) 0.2): As.6. 2.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. for each load combination.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. at a given design section in a design strip.min = 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 2.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As. This is the method used when drop panels are included. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.22 Slab Design .2.1(a)) (ACI 7.2. is obtained and reported.1. described in the text that follows.12.12. 2. In some cases.min = (ACI 7.2.1. In that case.0018  60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.12.

Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.2).11. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The column location (i. edge.2. 2.. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.23 . Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.11. interior.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition.6.Chapter 2 .e. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 2.6.1.3).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d / 2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.

1) For flat plates.2 C-14)  vy  1  1  2 3 l x l y  0.4 vy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.5. vx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.  vx  1   vy  1  1 1   2 3 l y l x 1 1   2 3 lx l y (ACI 421.2 C-12) For edge columns.2 1 vy = 0 when l x ly  0.3.24 Slab Design . v is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be  f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be  v Mu.6.2R-07 Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates [ACI 2007].2 C-15) (ACI 421. vx = 0. For interior columns.2 C-16) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction per- 2 . f  1 1  2 3 b1 b2 (ACI 13.3.2) v = 1 − f (ACI 13.2 C-11) (ACI 421.2 For corner columns.5.2 C-13) (ACI 421.2.

1) where.25 . for edge columns.4 Computation of Maximum Shear Stress Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.1. bo is the perimeter of the critical section.2. 2. c is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. (ACI 11.11. respectively.11.6.2.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits:   4   f c   2  c        d  vc  min   2  s   f  c bo     c  4 f    (ACI 11.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.Design for ACI 318-08 pendicular to the span. x and y.Chapter 2 . and s is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.6. 40   s  30 20  for interior columns. and for corner columns.2) f 'c  100 2.2.2. Slab Design 2 .

5a I 22  Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 . 2 I 33  sides  1  n I 33 . where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vU  VU  V 2[ M U 2  VU ( y3  y1 )] [ I 33 ( y4  y3 )  I 23 ( x4  x3 )]   b0d I 22 I 33  I 232  V3 [ M U 3  VU ( x3  x1 )] [ I 22 ( x4  x3 )  I 23 ( y4  y3 )] I 22 I 33  I 232 Eq. 6b . for the side of the critical section 12 12 parallel to the 2-axis Eq. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq. for the side of the critical section parallel to the 3-axis 2 . I 22  Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 . for the side of the critical section parallel to the 2-axis Eq. 3 I 23  sides  1  I 23 . Refer to Figure 2-5. 1 I 22  sides  1  n n I 22 .26 Slab Design Eq. for the side of the critical section 12 12 parallel to the 3-axis Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( x2  x3 ) 2 . 4 The equations for I 22 . 6a I 33  Ld ( x2  x3 ) 2 . I 33 . 5b I 33  Eq. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq. and I 23 are different depending on whether the side of the critical section for punching shear being considered is parallel to the 2-axis or parallel to the 3-axis.

Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis Work This Sketch With Equations 5a.y3 Center of side of critical section being considered.y2).y2). 6a and 7 Figure 2-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections I 23  Ld ( x2  x3 )( y2  y3 ).y3). Side of critical section being considered shown solid Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear. for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis or 3-axis Eq.y3 Work This Sketch With Equations 5b.x 3 3 2 y2 . 7 where. 6b and 7 2 Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line. 3 Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear. Coordinates are (x 2.x 3 Side of critical section being considered shown solid Center of side of critical section being considered.Design for ACI 318-08 Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line x2 . L y2 . b0 d = Perimeter of the critical section for punching shear = Effective depth at the critical section for punching shear based on the average of d for 2 direction and d for 3 direction = Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 2-axis I22 Slab Design 2 .y3). Coordinates are (x 3. Coordinates are (x 3.27 .Chapter 2 . L x2 . Coordinates are (x 2.

y3 = Coordinates of the centroid of the critical section for punching shear x4. y1 = Coordinates of the column centroid x2. y4 = Coordinates of the location where stress is being calculated V2 V3 = Percent of MU2 resisted by shear = Percent of MU3 resisted by shear 2. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 2 . punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.2.28 Slab Design .6. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design I33 I23 L = Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 3-axis = Product of the inertia of the critical section for punching shear with respect to the 2 and 3 planes = Length of the side of the critical section for punching shear currently being considered MU2 = Moment about the line parallel to the 2-axis at the center of the column (positive in accordance with the right-hand rule) MU3 = Moment about the line parallel to the 3-axis at the center of the column (positive in accordance with the right-hand rule) vU VU = Punching shear stress = Shear at the center of the column (positive upward) x1.0.5 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. If this ratio exceeds 1. y2 = Coordinates of the center of one side of the critical section for punching shear x3.

29 .5. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.4.6.1) (ACI 11.Chapter 2 .3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (ACI 11. Av Vu  Vc    f ys d s (ACI 11. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.11.7.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc   2 f 'c for shear links vc   3 f ' c for shear studs 2.1) Given Vu. The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow.7.3. .2) (ACI 11.1.5.6. where.3). and Vmax. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.75 (ACI 9. 2. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.11. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3). Vc.2) Slab Design 2 .2.3.4.6. the strength reduction factor.1) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 Vmax = 8 f  bod for shear links c f  bod for shear studs c (ACI 11.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. is 0. 11.11.11.Design for ACI 318-08 2.11. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.

5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av 2 f  bo c  for shear studs s fy  If Vu > Vmax. Figure 2-6 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3). 2. edge..11. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.11.30 Slab Design .11.e. the concrete section should be increased in size.3. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. 11.3.2)  If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.6. Therefore. (ACI 11. i.3.3.11. and corner column.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. a failure condition is declared.1) (ACI 11. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d / 2(ACI R11. the minimum number of 2 .3.2.5.

11.50d Slab Design 2 . and interior columns respectively.75d for s 0. and 8. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. 1/2-.5d. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. the distance.6.5. so.31 .Design for ACI 318-08 lines of shear reinforcement is 4.11.5d (ACI 11.11. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-.5.5d (ACI 11. between for the links are specified as: so  0.2) (ACI 11.3. s. 6. and 3/4-inch diameters. The limits of so and the spacing.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.50d for  g  2d vu  6 f  c vu  6 f  c (ACI 11. edge.5. When specifying shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.11.3) The limits of so and the spacing. Height.Chapter 2 . The spacing between adjacent shear studs. g. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0. 2. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. 5/8-.11. s. for corner.3) s  0.2)  0.3) (ACI 11.

a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. mm Notations 3-1 . The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 3. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1.

mm Depth of compression block. mm Width of web (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. mm Width of member. averaged around the critical shear perimeter.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm Mean value of do. mm Overall depth of a section. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section).min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete.

max s Notations 3-3 . N Shear force resisted by reinforcement.max Vu. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. MPa Torsional modulus.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement h c c.min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. (0. N-mm Factored moment at section. N-mm Factored axial load at section. to the effective depth. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam.Chapter 3 . d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by concrete. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. mm Factored shear force at a section. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement.max Tus T* ut V* Vu. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.

2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170. if a structure is subjected to dead (D).1): 1.2.35D 1.0-02.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used.2.2.1.2.5L 1.0-02.2. 4.0-02. wind (W).2D  1.2D + 0.0-02.0W 1.0S 0.4L  1.4L  1.0W 1.2. 4.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.3. 4.0-02. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. degrees 3.0-02.2.2D + 1.75 PL) 1.1(b)). 3. live (L).3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1. 4.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. 4. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .5(0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0E (AS/NZS 1170. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0-02.0-02. for all framing types (AS 6. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. respectively. snow (S).0E 1.2(f)) Note that the 0.0W 1.2D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code  t v Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0D + 0.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.4L + 1. For AS 3600-01.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0. 4. pattern live (PL).0-02. 4. 4.0D  1. and earthquake (E) loads.9D  1.

70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.1.1). and torsion based on the beam moments. Table 6. 6.Design for AS 3600-01 f 'c  65 MPa f 'c  20 MPa (AS 6. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. torsion. is defined as given in AS 2. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Strength Reduction Factors 3-5 .1. (AS 2.3(c)) (AS 2.2.1.1.1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. shear.2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.1).1. and torsion only. 19. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1) (AS 6. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1. Table 2. .1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6.1. 3. caution is advised.3(c)) 3.Chapter 3 .2.80 for flexure (tension controlled)  = 0. and other criteria described in the text that follows. shear. shear forces.2.1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. however.3:  = 0. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. load combination factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.3(c).

or the strength of the concrete. 3-6 Beam Design .2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the following steps are involved:  Determine factored moments  Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. for a particular station. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement 3. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1). Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. the width.1. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. fy . The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.5. 3.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1.2.

and located at a distance kud from the extreme compression fiber..7. amax.65    0.  A uniform compressive stress of 0.4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.1.2) Beam Design 3-7 .2) 3.1a). (AS 8.003. hence. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. (AS 8. and torsion only.  The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8.15N ) (AS 10.1. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.2. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).2).85 f 'c b (AS 8. M (i.e.Design for AS 3600-01 The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.2).85  0.007 f 'c 28 0.Chapter 3 . shear.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. where.1.2.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.1.1.5.3)   0. is given by amax  k u d where. * ad d  2 2M* 0. designing top or bottom reinforcement).1.85 ku = 0.2.

80 (AS 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design   0. which by default is 0. the value of  is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.4).  If a  amax.  If a > amax.2.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C  0.003 b Cs c 0. i.e.2) 3-8 Beam Design .85 f 'c bamax (AS 8. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.85 f  c Acs d a   ku d d s As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design where. ku > 0.1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast  M* a  f sy  d   2  * This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.3) in the preceding and following equations..4. or at the top * if M is negative.

1.003Es  s   fsy  c  The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1  M uc a   f sy d  max  2   and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2  Mus fsy  d  d    Therefore. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. and vice versa if M is negative. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.2.Chapter 3 .2)  c  d  f   0. Beam Design 3-9 . Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us  M *  M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc  Mus .Design for AS 3600-01 and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a  M uc  C  d  max 2     Therefore. where  f 's  0.1. 6.85 f 'c  d  d  (AS 8.2.

is assumed if the flange is under compression. In that case.e. i..2.2. * 3. If the moment is negative.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.10 Beam Design .2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.e.1. a simplified stress block.2. the depth of the compression block is given by: * 3 . and the flange is ignored.e..003 bf Ds 0..5.85 f  c d Asc c d f s Cs a   ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION s (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3.   0. if the moment is positive.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.1. M (i. designing top reinforcement).5.85 f  c 0. no flanged beam data is used.5.2. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. the flange comes under tension.1. i.1. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8. as shown in Figure 3-2.3).

The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax. Cf.80 by default (AS 2. the width of the beam is taken as bf.1.3)  If a  Ds. amax. Cw. is given by: a max  k u d where.Chapter 3 .Design for AS 3600-01 a  d  d2  2M * 0. in that case.85 f   bw c Beam Design 3 . Cf is given by: C f  0.2. ku = 0.1.3) in the preceding and the following equations. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. amax    M uf  C f  d   2   Therefore. amax  Therefore. which is 0. the value of  is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. As1  given by: (AS 8.85 f 'c b f where.85 f 'c bef  bw  min Ds .  If a > Ds.4. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw  M *  Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. the calculation for Ast has two parts. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4 (AS 8. as shown in Figure 3-2. the balance of the moment.11 .2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min Ds . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1  d  d 2  2 M uw 0. However.

12 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  If a1  amax. 6.1. where   0.2. and a1    f sy  d   2  Ast  As1  As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc  Mus .2)  c  d  f   0.2.  If a1 > amax.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a   M uc  C w  d  max  2   and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us  M uw  M uc Therefore.85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8.1. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2  M uw .003Es  max s   fsy  cmax  The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: 3 . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w  0.85 f   d  d    fs c (AS 8.1.2.

Chapter 3 .1) f 'cf  0.5. 3.1.04bd Ast   0.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 3.Design for AS 3600-01 As 2  M uc a   f sy  d  max   2   and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3  M us f sy  d  d    The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.5.4. where  d  fsy 2 (AS 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2) An upper limit of 0. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: Ast .1.13 .1.min  D f cf  0.04bd Asc   0.6 f 'c (AS 6. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: 0.04bw d 0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a par- Beam Design 3 .1.22   bd .

or     for members subject to significant axial compression. Vuc. 3.5.7. 3.2. with the corresponding load combination factors. is calculated as: A f'  Vuc  1  2  3bw d o  st c   bw d o  where. 13 (AS 8.1)  N* = 1   3.1) (AS 8.5 A g  = 1     0 for members subject to significant axial tension. that can be resisted by the concrete. or   do    1.7.2.5.11.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. V .2.  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.6  β2 = 1.14 Beam Design .    N*  14 A g  3 .2.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ticular beam.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.1) 1  1. Vuc.1 1000  (AS 8. the following steps are involved:  Determine the factored shear force. for a particular load combination. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. *  Determine the shear force. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . . defined as:   (AS 8.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.min shall be provided.2.6 by default (AS 2. which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =Vu.min to 45 degrees when V = Vu.min shall be provided.Design for AS 3600-01 β3 = 1 3. otherwise Asv.  If Vu.9) (AS 8. Beam Design 3 .8) v = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member.min .35 w  s f sy. min  b   0. is 0. if D ≤ 750 mm. f do cot  v and greater than Asv.  If V *  Vuc / 2.6) Given V .2.max .5(c)(i)). (AS 8. whichever is greater (AS 8.2.5).2.  s fsy.max.min. s  If Vuc / 2   V *  Vu. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. where.Chapter 3 . max  0.3). V *  Vuc Asv .max. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. f      (AS 8. s otherwise Asv. Asv  0.min  V *  Vu. and Vu.15 .2.6bv d o Vu .5. Vuc. Asv  0 .2.10) Asv. the strength reduction factor.2. min  Vuc  0.

T .16 Beam Design . 3 . the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.2. 3.3. * (AS 8. 3.4(b).2.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.5. the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.  Determine the torsion reinforcement required. The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5.3. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6). The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the factored torsion.  Determine critical torsion capacity. *  Determine special section properties. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  If V *  Vmax .6)  If V exceeds its maximum permitted value Vmax. a failure condition is declared. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

3) ut = 2  b  2 c   2  h  2 c  . the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At =  b  2c  h  2c  . With this assumption. If redistribution is desired.2). the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.6) (AS 8.3. such as Asw /s and Al.3. h and.5. Beam Design 3 . This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup.3.5) (AS 8. the flange is considered during Tuc calculation.3.5) (AS 8. At = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section ut = Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Jt = Torsional modulus In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. With this assumption. (AS 8. special section properties such as At. However. the section dimensions b. Jt = 0. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T .6) ut = 2  h  2c   2  bw  2c  . the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At =  bw  2c  h  2c  . For torsion design of flanged beam sections.4x2y where. Similarly.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. Jt. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. These properties are described in the following (AS 8. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.Design for AS 3600-01 In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.Chapter 3 .17 . and ut are calculated. (AS 8. However.3). c are as shown in Figure 3-3.3.3.3. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. 3. the * design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.

3.4x2y (AS 8. and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3.5) where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section.3) where the section dimensions bw.3. is calculated as: Tuc = 0.3 J t f c (AS 8. h. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle.3. respectively.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Jt = 0. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied: T *  0.25Tuc (AS 8.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement.18 Beam Design .4(a)(i)) 3 . Tuc.5.3. c c b  2c 2c c bef Ds d c h  2c h h h h  2c c b c bw  2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 3.

b/2) Tuc Vuc * * (AS 8.max.5(b)) Asw. (AS 8.8) The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member. min 0. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups. f d o / s cot  v Beam Design 3 .4(a)(iii)) If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description.2.35bw  s f sy.3. f At where.Design for AS 3600-01 T* V*   0. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.  If T > Tcr. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8. f  sw 2 At cot  t  s  (AS 8.19 .5 Tuc Vuc T* V*   1 and D ≤ max(250mm.3. Asw /s.4(b)) A  Tus  f sy .3.5(b)) (AS 8.0 Tus Vus where.Chapter 3 . T* V*   1.2.4(a)(ii)) (AS 8.3. the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows: (AS 8. torsion reinforcement is needed. f (AS 8.3. which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = Tuc to 45 degrees when T = Tu.10(a)) Vus  Asv f sy.3). is calculated as: * Asw T * tan  t  s  2 f sy.

3. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr). 8. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. (AS 8.2. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.2. In that case.2 f 'c bw d o Tu .3.2 f 'c J t (AS 8.0 Tu . f  sw ut cot 2  t  s  Al  f sy * * (AS 8.6) (AS 8. The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.20 Beam Design .35b  Asv  2 sw    s  f sy.3.2.7. max  0. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. f  s (AS 8. max Vu . * A  0. a failure message is declared. the concrete section should be increased in size. Asv /s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as: A  0. max where.8 independently.6(a)) An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: T* V*   1.5(a)) * * For rectangular sections. max  0. Asv /s is increased to satisfy this condition.8) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv /s and Asw /s. bw is replaced with b. 3 .5 f sy. In that case.3) Vu .

which are described in the following subsections. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. as described in the following sections. 3. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.Design for AS 3600-01 3. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.21 . along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 3. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Chapter 3 . The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. is obtained and reported. These two steps. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. for each load combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete. are repeated for every load combination. To learn more about the design strips. Slab Design 3 .6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.

0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).2. Figure 3-4 shows the 3 .1. 3.0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.22 Slab Design .1.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.1. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. 3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.6. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. In that case.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.6.1(a)) As  0. 3. given the bending moment. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.6.1).2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.3). This is the method used when drop panels are included.2.1(b)) In addition. Where openings occur.1): As  0.2. In some cases. at a given design section in a design strip.

.  2   f c 0. fcv . edge. interior.34 f  (AS 9.2.2.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. as shown. is calculated based on the minimum of the two expressions from AS 3600-01 equation 11-35. h is the ratio of the longest dimension to the shortest dimension of the critical section.17  1  h  fcv  min     c 0.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The shear capacity. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 3.Chapter 3 .23 .e.3(a)) where. with the dom and u terms removed to convert force to stress. The column location (i.Design for AS 3600-01 auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Slab Design 3 .

The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. 3.2. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.2.0  *  8V ad om   (AS 9. If this ratio exceeds 1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.4(a)) 3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.4. 3 .6. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.3.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.7.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress The maximum design shear stress is computed along the major and minor axis of column separately using the following equation: vmax  V* ud om  uM v  1. 3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.24 Slab Design . and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.6.4 Determine Capacity Ratio The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.1).0.

3. s fsy dom   (AS 8.. *  If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.min = 3*Vu (AS 92. Vu.4. V *  Vu Asv  .7. and Vu.Chapter 3 . edge. Therefore.6. Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.3. a failure condition is declared. and interior columns respectively. Slab Design 3 .7.4(a).4. 3.25 . lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. where.4). and corner column.2. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.4)  If V > Vmax. and 8.4.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.3. Given V*.3 or 9. the concrete section should be increased in size.e.6.max. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.3) (NZS 12.2.7.2. for corner.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs  * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. (d)) where Vu is computed from AS 9. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. i. 6. edge.2.Design for AS 3600-01 3.  is the strength reduction factor.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 3.5d.4.4) (NZS 12.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. When specifying shear studs. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. so. Height.7. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. g.3.4. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0.7. The limits of so and the spacing.4.5d g  2d (NZS 12. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.26 Slab Design .4) (NZS 12.7. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.6.5d s  0. the distance.4) 3 . The spacing between adjacent shear studs. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.

a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. 4.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code BS 8110-1997 in this chapter. For light-weight concrete and torsion. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985].

mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. mm Average web width of a flanged beam.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 4-2 Notations . mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. assumed as 200.

 fcu 25 1 3 Shear strength reduction factor for light-weight concrete Design moment at a section. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. MPa vc vmax Notations 4-3 . N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. k1 k2 k3 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. Mu bd 2 f cu K' Maximum Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load.Chapter 4 . N-mm Perimeter of the punching critical section.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K Flange thickness. mm Normalized design moment.

4.3) (BS 2.4D  1.4.3) (BS 2.1. 0.4W 1. and wind (W) loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code vt x xbal z Torsional shear stress. pattern live (PL).4D + 1. snow (S).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.6L 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.3).2L  1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2. mm Lever arm. live (L). if a structure is subjected to dead (D).6(0. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain.75PL) 1.2W (BS 2. 1.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .4D + 1.2D + 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible. f (BS 2.0D  1.4D 1.0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement  b f m c s 's 4.4. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. For BS 8110-1997.4.4.4W 1. MPa Neutral axis depth.3).

4D + 1. If other grades are used.Design for BS 8110-97 1. fcu.4.2D + 1.15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement.1. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.2). The values of m used in the program are listed in the following table.50 1.4.2S  1. this value should be overwritten as necessary. other appropriate load combinations should be used. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations.Chapter 4 .2D + 1.15 1. m. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 . should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. as taken from BS Table 2.4.6L + 1. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary.2L + 1. Note that for reinforcement.2S  1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.2W (BS 2.7.6S 1. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.2W 1. including pattern live load.2 (BS 2. Note that the automatic combination. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they are outside of the limits.1): Values of m for the Ultimate Limit State Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. 4. 4.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. the default factor of 1.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.

1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. shear. Calculation of top re4-6 Beam Design . the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases.5. the following steps are involved:  Determine factored moments  Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. with the corresponding load factors. and torsion only.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. shear forces. for a particular station. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion based on the beam moments. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. torsion. shear. load combination factors.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement 4.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.

The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.4).4.4.5. shear.Chapter 4 .4.4) Beam Design 4-7 .4). b  0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.1. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4.2. less than. or equal to Msingle. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. and torsion only. or the strength of the concrete.9. The design procedure used by SAFE.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.Design for BS 8110-97 inforcement is based on negative beam moments.4. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.4). 4. x/d  0.1.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.5.e.4. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than. hence. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.4. In addition. the width. In such cases.4. is first calculated for a section.. Furthermore. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. where K' = 0. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. BS 3.  Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.156 2 (BS 3.1). Msingle = K'fcu bd . See Figure 4-1. Msingle.4.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. 4.

95d z  d  0.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design   0. .4)  K    0. is given by: As  M .  If M > Msingle.5  0.4.9    (BS 3.87 f y z (BS 3.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION s (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design  If M  Msingle.4) K M f cu bd 2 (BS 3. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design . where 0. the area of tension reinforcement.25   0. or at the top if M is negative.0035 b A s f s x Cs 0.67 fcu  m d a  0. As.4.4.4.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.

9    4.2) f ' s  E s  c 1   if d 2  800  d     The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As  Msingle 0.4) In designing for a factored negative moment. i.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.5  0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4)  K'    0.5. 2.25   0.4.2.4.4.4.Chapter 4 .1.3. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. Fig 2. Based on this assumption.87 f y z  M  Msingle 0.4..1.3. designing top reinforcement).e.2.e.67 fcu  d  d'  f 's  c      (BS 3.87 f y d  d '   .5. Fig 2. M (i. no flanged beam data is used..4.2.4.5.2)  2d '  d '  1 1  f y  (BS 3.4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's  M  Msingle  0. Beam Design 4-9 .87 f y if d d  fy  1 1   2  800  (BS 3. 2. and ' f ' s  0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3. where (BS 3.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.777d z  d  0.5.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.1.2. 4.1.5.2.

67 fcu/gm 0.4.95d 0. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.10 Beam Design .0035 0.45 (BS 3.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.4.4.9  (BS 3. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d 0.4.25    K    0.4.4. e = 0. See Figure 4-2.5  0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.

1 fcu bd  0.4.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. then 2 As  M  0. as shown in Figure 4-2.Chapter 4 . the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f  0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.4. where 0. Cf.4.4)  If a  hf.4.87 f y  d  0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. in that case.9x (BS 3. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.5) Mw  M M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4.45d.  If a > hf.5h f  Mf  Mw .4).4.15 b  d  b   (BS 3. Cw. the width of the beam is taken as bf.45 h f  bw  h f  bw 1  1   2d   0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. where (BS 3.87 f y z Beam Design 4 .11 .87 f y  d  0.4.45d  h f  0.4.5h f  . In that case. However. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.156 (BS 3. when M ≤ f fcubd and hf ≤ 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4.4)  If Kw  0.4.5)  f  0. As  0.5h f  The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3.4.45 fcu  b f  bw  h f  d  0.4.

2.3.5.4.3. 4 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  K  z  d  0. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4.95d  0.87 f f  0.12.5h f  Mf  Muw M w  Muw  0.4) where.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. which is taken from BS Table 3. and fy  1 f ' s  0.4.4.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.1.87 f y  d  d   4.777d  0.5.2.2) (BS 3. Fig 2.4.4). The compression reinforcement is computed as:  As  M w  Muw  0.4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw  K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.12 Beam Design .87 f y if d   1   d 2  800  f  2d   d   1 1  y  f ' s  Es  c 1   if d 2  800  d     (BS 3.67 fcu   d  d'   fs  c    ’ (BS 3.5.5.4.87 f y  d  0.9     If Kw > K' (BS 3.4.4.25  w   0.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.4.5  0.2) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As  0. Fig 2.1.25 (BS 3.1. 2.

which is taken from BS Table 3.13 Section Rectangular Situation  Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0.12.4 bf bw  0.32 0.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.5.24 0.26  100 As bw h 0.or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.13 .or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.20 An upper limit of 0.6. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.4 bf  100 0.36 0.18 100 0. Section Rectangular Situation  Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0. if it is required.3).12.1): Beam Design 4 .40 100 0.25 (BS 3.24 0.48 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.Chapter 4 .20 As' bh Web in tension T.

5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5.04bw d 0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04bd A   s 0. vc.2) vmax = min(0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.14 Beam Design .1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. the following steps are involved:  Determine the shear stress.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. v. vmax is defined as: (BS 3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. that can be resisted by the concrete.5.4) 4 .4.63 fcu .4. The shear stress is then calculated as: v V bw d (BS 3.  Determine the shear stress.5. 5 MPa) For light-weight concrete.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.8 fcu .04bd As   0. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. 4.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 0.  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. for a particular load combination.

4).4.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.2.4.4.4.4.8)  400     d   0. Table 3.12) 0. Table 3.5. the following limits also apply: 0.4.5.4.4.4. Table 3.1) m = 1.5.79k1k2 k3  100 As  3  400  vc   bd   d  m     (BS 3.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.15 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3. 1  k2     25  1 3 (BS 3. vc.4. BS 3. Table 3.8) (BS 3.67 (unreinforced) or  1 (reinforced)(BS 3.15  100 As 3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.8. Beam Design 4 .5.12) fcu  40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh 1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement. is calculated as: v ' c  v c  0.4.25 However.5.Design for BS 8110-97 4.6 NVh N  vc 1  Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3. and vmax.3):  If v  (v’c + 0.8) f  k2 =  cu   25  1 3  40  .5.Chapter 4 .5.2. vc.4.5.4.8) (BS 2. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.4.5.5.4.4) (BS 3. 4.

4.87 f yv  If (v c + 0.5.5.5.3.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv 0.4bw  sv 0. a failure condition is declared. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Table 3. Note that this section refers to BS 8110-2:1985 instead of BS 8110-1997 code. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the torsional shear stress.  Determine critical torsion stress.7) (BS 3.  Determine the torsion reinforcement required.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values. obtained from each load combination.4) < v  vmax. (BS 3. 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. (BS 3. Table 3. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. vt.3.  Determine special section properties.87 f yv  If v > vmax. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv  500 MPa.5.16 Beam Design . (BS 3. 4 .2) In the preceding expressions.5.4.7) Asv v  v'c bw  sv 0.

4.5N/mm 2 )  y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.3.13).1) For flanged sections. further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.5.Design for BS 8110-97 4.5. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement.2) = Larger dimension of a rectangular section = Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.4. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt  2 hmin 2T  hmax  hmin / 3 (BS 8110-2:85 2. vt.5) Beam Design 4 .17 .4. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In typical framed construction.8 fcu . vt. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.Chapter 4 . a failure condition is generated: vt  min(0. calculated as:  Tseg  T    hmax hmin 3 hmin hmax 3 min hmax h      (BS 8110-2:85 2. The torsional shear stress.4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.4.

18 Beam Design . if vt exceeds the threshold limit. For light-weight concrete.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.min  min 0.5.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al  Asv .4. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.0. vt. is calculated as: Asv .3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.5) 4.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.min  min 0.6). In that case. vt. vt.6). and y1 is the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link. x1 is the smaller center-to-center dimension of the closed link.4N/mm 2  0.7) In the preceding expressions. vt. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.4N/mm 2   (BS 8110-2:85 2.8   (BS 8110-2:85 5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.3.4.0. If vt > vt. However. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .min.min.min.3. vt is less than the threshold limit.067 fcu . Asv.4.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.t /sv.4.t sv  T 0. 4 .min is defined as: vt .8 x1 y1 0.5.87 f yv  (BS 8110-2:85 2.067 fcu .4.t f yv  x1  y1  sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.

and torsional shear stress. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 5N/mm 2   (BS 8110-2:85 2.Chapter 4 . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv. v.5) For light-weight concrete.4) If the combination of shear stress.19 .Design for BS 8110-97 c c b  2c c ds bf c h  2c h h h  2c c b bw  2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v  vt  min 0. vt. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. In that case. the concrete section should be increased in size.4. exceeds this limit.8 fcu .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. a failure message is declared. Beam Design 4 . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.63 fcu .

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. as described in the following sections. 4. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at specific locations along the length of the strip.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. 4 . These locations correspond to the element boundaries. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.1. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. for each load combination. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.20 Slab Design .6. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 4. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. To learn more about the design strips. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. is obtained and reported.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

4.6.1.2

Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip

The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given design section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted accordingly.

4.6.1.3

Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.12.5.3, BS Table 3.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 0.0024bh if  As    0.0013bh if  f y  250MPa f y  500MPa (BS 3.12.5.3)

In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.12.6.1).

4.6.2

Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.

4.6.2.1

Critical Section for Punching Shear

The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3.7.6.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.7.7.6). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads, the critical area is taken as a

Slab Design

4 - 21

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.7.7.1). Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
1.5d

1.5d

1.5d

Interior Column
1.5d

Edge Column

Corner Column

1.5d

1.5d

Circular Column

T-Shape Column

L-Shape Column

Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters

4.6.2.2

Determine Concrete Capacity

The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.7.7.4, 3.7.7.6):

0.79k1k 2  100 As  3  400  vc       m  bd   d 

1

1

4

(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)

k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression, and is conservatively taken as 1

(BS 3.4.5.8)

4 - 22

Slab Design

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97
1

 40  f  k2 =  cu  , 1 ≤ k2 ≤    25   25 
m = 1.25

3

1

3

(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8) (BS 3.4.5.2)

However, the following limitations also apply: 0.15 

100 As 3 bd
1 4

(BS 3.4.5.4, Table 3.8)

 400     d 

 0.67 (unreinforced) or  1 (reinforced)

(BS 3.4.5.4) (BS 3.7.6.4)

v  min(0.8 fcu , 5MPa) For light-weight concrete, vmax is defined as: v  min(0.63 fcu , 4 MPa) fcu  40 MPa (for calculation purpose only)

(BS 8110-2:1985 5.4) (BS 3.4.5.4)

As = area of tension reinforcement, which is taken as zero in the current implementation.

4.6.2.3

Determine Maximum Shear Stress

Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the bending axis, the nominal design shear stress, vmax, is calculated as: 1.5 M  x V V f  eff , x  Vy 
1.5 M  y V V f  eff , y  Vx 

   
   

(BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)

(BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)

Slab Design

4 - 23

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

vmax

Veff , x   ud  max  Veff , y  ud 

(BS 3.7.7.3)

where, u is the perimeter of the critical section x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as:

1.00  f  1.25 1.25 

for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.7.6.2, 3.7.6.3)

4.6.2.4

Determine Capacity Ratio

The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.

4.6.3

Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.7.7.5). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.

4 - 24

Slab Design

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.

4.6.3.1

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.

4.6.3.2

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5).
 If v  1.6vc ,

Av  v - vc  ud 0.4ud =  , 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv s
 If 1.6vc  v < 2.0vc ,

(BS 3.7.7.5)

Av 5  0.7v - vc  ud 0.4ud =  , 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv s
 If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

4.6.3.3

Determine Reinforcement Arrangement

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2
gx x

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2

Free edge

Iy
gx

gy
s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

Critical section centroid
y Ix

Free edge

y
Ix

x
Critical section centroid

Free edge
Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

4.6.3.4

Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.

4 - 26

Slab Design

so.7.6) (BS 3. 14-.7.5d (BS 3.6) (BS 3.5d. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0. 12-.Chapter 4 . When specifying shear studs. The limits of so and the spacing. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.7. g.7. and 20-millimeter diameters.75d g  1. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.Design for BS 8110-97 Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5d s  0.7.5d. 16-.6) Slab Design 4 .7.27 . s. the distance. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

For simplicity.1 Notations Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter.3-04 Code Ac Act Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section. sq-mm Notations 5-1 . The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side. a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. 5.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.3-04 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.

mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Width of member. mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement.3-04 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Effective shear depth. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.000 MPa 5-2 Notations . sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. assumed as 200. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions.

MPa Overall depth of a section. N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section. Factored moment at section. N-mm Factored axial force at section. mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section. N Shear force at a section resisted by steel. mm Perimeter of area Aoh.3-04 Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.3-04 Code f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr.max Vf Vs Specified compressive strength of concrete. neglecting reinforcement. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. N-mm Shear resisted by concrete. mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete 1  1 c c s x c Notations 5-3 .Chapter 5 . N Factored shear force at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.Design for CSA A23. mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.

5S 0. snow (S).3.3) (CSA 8. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. and earthquake (E) loads.2. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.5L 0.3. Table C.3-04 Code s m f v   Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.5S  0.5S + 0.3.25D + 1.5L 1.25D + 1.3-04.5S 1. Table C.5L 1.3.2.5S 1.4W 1.9D + 1.5L + 0.4D 1.5L  0.9D + 1. pattern live (PL).5S 0.2.9D + 1. degrees Shear strength factor 5.25D + 1.9D + 1. wind (W).4. if a structure is subjected to dead (D).1 Case 2) (CSA 13.8.25D + 1.5L 0.1) 1. live (L).4W (CSA 8.4W 0.75 PL) 1.2.25D + 1. Table C.5(0.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .4W 0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.9D + 1.5S + 0. Table C.9D + 1.5L + 0.5L  0.25D + 1.5S  0. For CSA A23.25D + 1.

2.9D + 0.2. are material dependent and defined as: c = 0.4W 0.25S  1.1.9D  1.0E 1.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f 'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa. .4.4W 0.2) (CSA 8. 5. Table C. for all framing types (CSA 8.65 for concrete s = 0.5L  1.Chapter 5 . The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.4W 1.5L  1. fy ≤ 500 MPa (CSA 8.9D + 0.25D + 0. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.3-04 1.25D  1. respectively.0D + 0.3. other appropriate load combinations should be used.85 for reinforcement (CSA 8.5S  1.1).5.3-04 code is used.3.0D  1.4W 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .5L + 0.25S  1.4. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.6.4W 0.5.5S  1.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.1).0E (CSA 8. 20 MPa ≤ f 'c ≤ 80 MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8. Table C.4W 1.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.1) (CSA 8.6.0E 1.1.Design for CSA A23.0D + 0.5L  1.25D + 0.0E 1.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.0D + 0. 5.1) SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.

SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. caution is advised. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. torsion. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. for a particular station. shear.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement 5. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear forces. and torsion only.5.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These values can be overwritten.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. however. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. load combination factors. the following steps are involved:  Determine factored moments  Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. 5. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. 5-6 Beam Design . shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. and torsion based on the beam moments.

1.and T-beams). 5. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1).Chapter 5 . The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Axial compression greater than 0.4). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10.e. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. shear. and torsion only.3-04 The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. is summarized in the text that follows. designing top or bottom reinforcement). it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.2.1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the width.1. Mf (i. The design procedure used by SAFE.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. axial force is ignored.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. 5.7).5. For reinforced concrete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed (0. Positive beam moments produce bottom reinforcement. In such cases. hence. Beam Design 5-7 .1 f' c Ag and axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear design.Design for CSA A23.1 f' c Ag). In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.5. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. Furthermore.. where. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. or the strength of the concrete.

7) (CSA 10.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design   0.7) (CSA 10.67.85 – 0. cb = (CSA 10. 1.97 – 0.1.2) in the preceding and the following equations. 1 = 0.67. The parameters 1.1.5.7) 5-8 Beam Design .1) where the value of c is 0.2) 700 d 700  f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = 1cb (CSA 10.0015 f c  0.1.65 (CSA 8.0035 b Cs c  1 f  c c Acs d a   1c d s As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design a  d  d2  2M f  1 f 'c c b (CSA 10.0025 f c  0. and cb are calculated as: 1 = 0.

7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C  d    ab   2  Therefore.3-04  If a  ab (CSA 10. where f  = 0.2). 10.2).5. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A  s s f s  c1 f c  d  d  M fs .2.1.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: Beam Design 5-9 .1. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C  c1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.1.  If a > ab (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is given by: As  Mf s f y  d     a 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive. or at the top if Mf is negative.Chapter 5 .0035 Es  c  d '   fy s  c    (CSA 10.Design for CSA A23.5.

i.4.10 Beam Design .1.0025 f' c  0.2. the depth of the compression block is given by: a  d  d2  2M f 1 f  c b f c (CSA 10. The parameters 1. 1 = 0.5.7) (CSA 10.65 (CSA 8. cb = (CSA 10.67.67.2. designing top reinforcement). the value of c is 0. As = As1 + As2.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. and cb are calculated as: 1 = 0.5.2.1) where.2) 700 d 700  f y 5 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment  If Mf > 0.1. Mf (i.e.97 – 0.0015 f' c  0.7) (CSA 10.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As1  M fc a   f y  d  b  s 2  and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2  M fs f y  d  d  s Therefore.. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. 5.1. and vice versa if Mf is negative. the total tension reinforcement. 1.2) in the preceding and the following equations. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive.1.85 – 0.5. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1. no flanged beam data is used.2. 5.e.5..2 5.

calculation for As has two parts. However. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.7) Therefore. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. Cf is given by: C f  1 f   b f  bw  min  hs .7)  If a  hs. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.  If a > hs.11 . Cw as shown in Figure 5-2.1. ab  c (CSA 10.10.0035 bf hs  1 f  c c  1 f c c A s c d d f s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION s (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = 1cb (CSA 10.1. Compression reinforcement is required when a > ab.4.Design for CSA A23. As1  given by: C f c f y s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is Beam Design 5 . the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Cf.3-04   0.Chapter 5 .1.

and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. ab    M ff  C f  d  c 2   Therefore. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2  M fw a   s f y  d  1  2  .1)  If a1  ab (CSA 10.2).5.7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C  d    ab   2 and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw  Mfc 5 .12 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design min hs .  If a1 > ab (CSA 10. Mf to be carried by the web is: Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.2).5.1. the balance of the moment. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1  d  d 2  2 M fw 1 f 'c c bw (CSA 10. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C  c1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10.

2) As  4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.3) In addition.3-04 Therefore. where  c  d  f  = cEs  s   fy  c  (CSA 10.1. 10.5.5.Design for CSA A23.1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.1.13 .1.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2  M fc a   f y  d  b  s 2  and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3  f y  d  d   s M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the following two limits: As  0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.1.Chapter 5 . the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: Beam Design 5 .5. 5. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A  s s f 'c  c1 f 'c   d  d '  M fs .2.2 f  c bw h fy (CSA 10.

2.04bw d 0.14 Beam Design .004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As  0.3.1) An upper limit of 0.04bd As   0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: 0.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. Vc. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. that can be resisted by the concrete. 5. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. for a particular loading combination.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2. 5.04bd A   s 0.5.3.  Determine the shear force. is calculated as: Vc  c  f  bw dv c (CSA 11.5. the following steps are involved:  Determine the factored shear force.4) 5 .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. Vc.5. Vf.

the user can change the value of  in the material property data. Its value is normally between 0. if applicable. it is the width of the web of the beam. and h is the overall depth of the crosssection in the direction of the shear force (CSA 2.  is taken as 0.5): 1. its value is 1 (CSA 8.3.15 .3.1 and 0.6.72h(CSA 2.2).  is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.5)  is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2.5). the general method is used (CSA 11.6. By default it is taken as 0. The value of  is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.6. which is taken by the program as the default value.75.   0.6.3).4.6. For normal density concrete.3-04 f   8 MPa c (CSA 11.85. d v is the effective shear depth.6. For concrete using lower density aggregate.4.2).Chapter 5 .4). When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply. bw is the effective web width.2).00.3.6.3.6. Beam Design 5 . The recommended value for  is as follows (CSA 8.4) c is the resistance factor for concrete.3.Design for CSA A23.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. If the overall beam depth. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.  0. h. and described further in the following sections. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. For rectangular beams. It is determined according to CSA 11.9d or 0. It is taken as the greater of 0.3). it is the width of the beam.    for normal density concrete.2). for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand. (CSA 8.3). For flanged beams.3.21 (CSA 11.65 (CSA 8.

3.3):  When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement.  is taken as 0. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. s ze  35s z  0.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters.6.18 (CSA 11.3.  is taken as:  230 1000  s ze (CSA 11.6.  is taken as:  230 1000  d v (CSA 11.6. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm.6.  is determined in accordance with the simplified method. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv.3.  is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate. sze. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. the crack spacing parameter.6. as follows (CSA 11.3.  = 0.6.18 (CSA 11.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. In summary. ag. for simplified cases.3. and the tensile force is negligible.16 Beam Design . shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.  can be expressed as follows: 5 .3.3 c) where.3a).c) In the preceding expression. However.85s z 15  a g (CSA 11.3(a))  When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.

3.3.4). if no transverse reinforcement is provided.6. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.5 N f 2E s As  (CSA 11.6.4):  0.6. the equivalent crack spacing parameter. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11. the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.  0. The longitudinal strain. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa. Beam Design 5 .17 .  1000  Sze   When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa.4) In the preceding expression.4) In evaluating x the following conditions apply:  x is positive for tensile action.6.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa.3. 11.40 1300  1  1500 x  1000  S ze  (CSA 11. 15  a z g  (CSA 11.Design for CSA A23.6.  230    .3.1.3-04   if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.18. x at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: x  M f d v  V f  0.3. 1000  dv   230 .3.  is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11. Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.6. 11.6. and linearly interpolated between these values (CSA 11.4).6. or tension is not negligible. and ag  20mm.3. and ag  20mm.3.Chapter 5 . 300  Sze   35 S  0.3.85Sz otherwise.

3.4(c)) (CSA 8.6. x is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.3(b)).3.  Mf is taken as a minimum of Vf dv. (CSA 11.3.18 Beam Design . the value of x is doubled (CSA 11. taken as half of the total area. it is recalculated with the following equation.6. in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam. x  M f d v  V f  0. the shear strength of the section due to concrete.4(a)) (CSA 11. the 5 . it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.4(e)).5.4(a)) (CSA 2.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.4. If the value of x is negative.1) (CSA 8.5 N f 2E s As  Ec Act  (CSA 11. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11.003 (CSA 11.6. 000 MPa Ec  4500 f c' MPa If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section.3.6.4(d)).2.6. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support. the program performs the design in two passes. An upper limit on x is imposed as:  x  0.3) Es  200.3.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.  Nf is taken as positive for tension.3. To check this condition.6. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity. In the first pass.6.6. This condition currently is not checked by SAFE.

Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.3) Given Vf. or by calculation. Av V f  Vc  tan  s s f yt dv  If V f  Vr .8. Av 0 s (CSA 11.2.1)  If Vc  V f  Vr .3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: Beam Design 5 .max.max  0.max . and Vr. a failure condition is declared.5.2.max where: Vr .8. 11.2.3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to Vr .3.3.5.25Tcr.3.19 . Vc. 5.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0.Design for CSA A23.1) (CSA 11.Chapter 5 .max . (CSA 11. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows:  If V f  Vc .3-04 program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided.3.25c f 'c bw d (CSA 11.5.1.

3.2).6. where  is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2.3).06 bw s f yt (CSA 11. Any minimum stirrup require- 5 .   29  7000 x for Pf  0.6.4).6.4). or the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. the term  is used.3. h.3).3. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa. It is determined according to CSA 11. or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. The  value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.3. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.6. the value of  is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3)  If the axial force is tensile. Similar to the  factor. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa.6.3.3).3.  is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11.  If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.2).  If the overall beam depth.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f 'c Av  0. which was described previously. f y  400 MPa.   35o for Pf  0 or f y  400 MPa or f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.2) In the preceding equations.3.6.  is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.2. whenever applicable.8.6.20 Beam Design . The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections.6.3. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3.6. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.4) where x is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load.  is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.

3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3.5. Aoh. and ph. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. with the corresponding load combination factors. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11.  Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Ao. such as Ac.3-04 ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 5. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. pc.  Determine special section properties. 5. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.Design for CSA A23.Chapter 5 .2.5. are calculated. Ac = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Beam Design 5 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. However. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the factored torsion.9.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.2). special section properties.3).  Determine critical torsion capacity.3. If redistribution is desired.5.21 . 5.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Tf.

1) (CSA 11. With this assumption.1) (CSA 11.10.3.3.1) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Ac = bh Aoh = (b  2c)(h  2c) Ao = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Aoh = Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Ao pc ph = Gross area enclosed by shear flow path = Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section = Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.1) (CSA 11.9. However. With this assumption.3. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.2.3. Ao.9.3) (CSA 11.2. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.10.22 Beam Design .2. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac = bwh + (bf – bw)hs Aoh = (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) Ao = 0.4) 5 .2. and ph.3) (CSA 11.3) (CSA 11.85 Aoh pc ph = 2b + 2h = 2(b  2c) + 2(h  2c) (CSA 11.4) where.3.85 Aoh pc ph = 2bf + 2h = 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm stirrup.10.10. h.10. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.9.9.3. and c are shown in Figure 5-3. the section dimensions b. such as Aoh. Similarly.10.

3.9. Tcr. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3. In that case.2. Tcr.65.1).9.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.38c Tcr  4  A2  f 'c  c  p   c (CSA 11. hf.Chapter 5 .3.10. h.3.5. 11.23 .1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.5Vs  2  0.9) Beam Design 5 . is calculated as: At T f tan   s s 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11.6. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10. At /s.2. bw. is calculated as: 0.3) Mf Al  dv  0. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. 5. c is the strength reduction factor for concrete. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.5.5 N f  V f  0. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11.3-04 where the section dimensions bf.3.  If Tf > Tcr.4). if Tf exceeds the threshold limit. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored.Design for CSA A23.10. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11. However.3). which is equal to 0. Tcr.45 phT f   2A o    cot    2 s f y (CSA 11. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.  is a factor to account for low-density concrete.3. 5.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.3.

In that case. the value x.10.25c f 'c  oh    2 2 (CSA 11.4.  is computed as previously described for shear.7 A 2   0. the concrete section should be increased in size. is replaced by:  0.5 N f dv  2 Ao  x  2  Es As  Mf 2 2 (CSA 11.10. a failure message is declared. bw is replaced with b. except that if the general method is being used. calculated as specified in CSA 11.3.9 phT f   Vf     0.24 Beam Design .3. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation:  Vf  b d  w v   T f ph      1.3.6.4(b)) For rectangular sections.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b  2c 2c c bef hss d c h  2c h h h h  2c c b c bw  2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design In the preceding expressions. 5 .

To learn more about the design strips. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.3-04 When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).2.6. Slab Design 5 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 5. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Av s is increased to satisfy this condition.304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.8. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is performed based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.25 .Design for CSA A23.06 f 'c w s  f yt  s (CSA 11. 5.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av s and At s.Chapter 5 . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. A  b  Av   2 t   0.

3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. at a given design section in a design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1): 5 .26 Slab Design .1.1. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. 5.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is obtained and reported. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. In that case. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. given the bending moment.10.6. In some cases. 5. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. Where openings occur. 5. for each load combination. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

3-04 As  0. 5.27 .3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. 5.Chapter 5 .6.3).2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d2 from the face of the support (CSA 13. The column location (i.3.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.2).e. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 5 . edge. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.8. interior.1) In addition..6.1 and CSA 13. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.3.002 bh (CSA 7.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.3.3.3.Design for CSA A23.

1(b)) 5 . for edge colums. where f = 1 1   2 3  b1 b2 .3.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits:   2  c c  1   0.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. c is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section.6. for corner columns. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. and s is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be v Mu.19  s   f  c b0     c c 0.38 f    (CSA 13.3.2) v = 1− 1 1   2 3  b1 b2 . 5. (CSA 13.10.1) where. for interior columns   s  3.6.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span.  (CSA 13.2.28 Slab Design .2.5. and 2. and (CSA 13.4.3.19 f  c       d  vv  min c  0. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section. 4.

4 Determine Maximum Shear Stress Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq. vf  Vf b0d   V2 [ M f 2  V f ( y3  y1 )] [ I 33 ( y4  y3 )  I 23 ( x4  x3 )] I 22 I 33  I 232  Eq.3).2. 1  V3 [ M f 3  V f ( x3  x1 )] [ I 22 ( x4  x3 )  I 23 ( y4  y3 )] I 22 I 33  I 232 I 22  sides  1  n n I 22 .6.4. 3 I 23  sides  1  I 23 . If the effective depth.3.29 .2). 4 The equations for I 22 .Chapter 5 .4. and I 23 are different depending on whether the side of the critical section for punching shear being considered is parallel to the 2-axis or parallel to the 3-axis. I 33 . Refer to Figures 5-5. 2 I 33  sides  1  n I 33 .3-04 The value of f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq. d.Design for CSA A23. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13. Slab Design 5 . exceeds 300 mm.3. 5.

Coordinates are (x 2. for side of critical section 12 12 parallel to 3-axis Eq. 5b I 33  Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( x2  x3 ) 2 . L y2 . 5a Eq. 3 Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear.y3). Coordinates are (x 3. for side of critical section 12 12 parallel to 2-axis Eq. L x2 .x 3 3 2 y2 .30 Slab Design . for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis I 22  Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 .x 3 Side of critical section being considered shown solid Center of side of critical section being considered. for side of critical section parallel to 3-axis 5 .y3).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line x2 .y2). 6b I 33  Ld ( x2  x3 ) 2 .y3 Work This Sketch With Equations 5b.y3 Center of side of critical section being considered. 6a Eq. Coordinates are (x 2. 6a and 7 Figure 5-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections I 22  Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 . Coordinates are (x 3. Side of critical section being considered shown solid Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear. Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis Work This Sketch With Equations 5a.y2). 6b and 7 2 Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line.

Design for CSA A23. 7 I22 I33 I23 L Mf2 Mf3 Vf Vf x1. y4 = Coordinates of the location where stress is being calculated V2 = Percent of Mf2 resisted by shear Slab Design 5 . b0 d = Perimeter of the critical section for punching shear = Effective depth at the critical section for punching shear based on the average of d for 2 direction and d for 3 direction = Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 2-axis = Moment of inertia of the critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 3-axis = Product of inertia of the critical section for punching shear with respect to the 2 and 3 planes = Length of the side of the critical section for punching shear currently being considered = Moment about the line parallel to the 2-axis at the center of the column (positive in accordance with the right-hand rule) = Moment about the line parallel to the 3-axis at the center of the column (positive in accordance with the right-hand rule) = Punching shear stress = Shear at the center of the column (positive upward) Eq. y2 = Coordinates of the center of one side of the critical section for punching shear x3. y3 = Coordinates of the centroid of the critical section for punching shear x4. y1 = Coordinates of the column centroid x2.31 .3-04 I 23  Ld ( x2  x3 )( y2  y3 ).Chapter 5 . for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis or 3-axis where.

3.0. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6.5 Determine Capacity Ratio The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3.1).2.3.6. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. The design of punching shear reinforcement is performed as explained in the subsections that follow.max . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.8. and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 5.2. where vr .2) 5 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design V3 = Percent of Mf3 resisted by shear 5.3.28c vc  0.9.8.max  0. If this ratio exceeds 1.32 Slab Design . The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc  0. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.3) Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of vr .6.75c f 'c for shear studs (CSA 13.2 f 'c for shear studs f 'c for shear stirrups (CSA 13.19c 5. 5.3) (CSA 13.

lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. where.55c f 'c for shear stirrups (CSA 13.2)  If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vrmax. is the strength reduction factor.3. i. edge.2) Given vf. the concrete section should be increased in size.8.max. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 5 .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Av  v f  vc   b s f yv o s  If vf > vr. and vf..4) (CSA 13.3.8.9.6. s.max  0. 13.e..Design for CSA A23.9.max.5. a failure condition is declared. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.max. vc.Chapter 5 .33 .3-04 vr . Figure 5-6 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 5.3.3. and corner column. (CSA 13.  If vf > vr.3.

3.6.3.8. s.3.4d for shear studs 0.25d for shear stirrups (CSA 13.3. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.3. 5 .56c f 'c v f  0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0. so. and 8.4 d 0.6) Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5) (CSA 13.3.4d. and interior columns respectively.1).9.50 d  For shear stirrups.34 Slab Design .25d v f  0.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.6) (CSA 13. 6.6) (CSA 13. edge. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0.3. Therefore. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.3.6) (CSA 13. so  0. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.8. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.75d  s  0.8.5) The minimum depth for reinforcement should be limited to 300 mm (CSA 13. the distance. When specifying shear studs. Height. The limits of so and the spacing.56c f 'c (CSA 13. 5.8. for corner.9.9.25d s  0.

For simplicity. For the load combinations. However. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. which is identified with the prefix “EC0. reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990]. Notations 6-1 . the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. without a country specific National Annex. this is highlighted in the respective section by the notation [NDP]. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used. It also should be noted that this section describes the implementation of the CEN Default version of Eurocode 2-2004. Where Nationally Determined Parameters [NDPs] are to be considered.

mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / c . MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /s. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of concrete section. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. MPa fcwk f's fyd Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm 2 2 2 2 2 Area of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.

N Depth of neutral axis. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. N-mm Torsional cracking moment.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 fyk fywd fywk h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. mm Flange thickness. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis. M/bd fcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. mm Coefficient accounting for long-term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength cc cw  c s ’s c Notations 6-3 .max VEd x xlim z Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of section. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.Chapter 6 . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. N-mm Normalized design moment.max u VRdc VRd. mm Design moment at a section. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Lever arm. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /s.

i 0.10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Equation 6.i i 1 (EC0 Eq.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 s    l cp   ' lim Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete.1    Q . 6.10)  j 1 G.i Qk . j   P P   Q . j   P P   Q . MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6.i 0.1 0. j   P P   Q .i i 1 (EC0 Eq. j Gk .12b) 6-4 Design Load Combinations .1    Q . j Gk .12b.10a)   j 1 j G.10a and 6.1Qk . 6.1Qk .1Qk . j  P  AEd   2.i 0.10 or the less favorable of EC0 Equations 6.i Qk . 6.i i 1 (EC0 Eq. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Equation 6.  j 1 G.10b [NDP]. j Gk .i i 1 (EC0 Eq.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.1    Q . 6. G j 1 k.i Qk .i Qk .

i S  Q.sup D Gj.10) (EC0 Eq.1 S + Q. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6.i L D  1.i W Gj.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.i 0.i L Gj.i W + Q.1 W + Q. Gj.inf D  Q.1 L  Q.sup D  Q. 6.i 0.i L + Q.1 W Gj.i 0.10b.10) (EC0 Eq.i 0. pattern live (PL).i L + 2.10a) (EC0 Eq.supD + (0.sup D + Q.sup D + Q.i 0. 6.sup D  Q.Chapter 6 . 6.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6.i 0.10b) (EC0 Eq.sup D + Q.i 0.0E + 2.i 0.i L D  1.1 W + Q. wind (W).10b) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .i L Gj.10a and 6.0E + 2.10a) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq. and earthquake (E) loads.1 S  Q.1 S  Q.1 L + Q.1 W + Q.i 0.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 For this code.i 0.1 0. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.1 L + Q.supD + Q.sup D + Q.10) (EC0 Eq. 6. snow (S).i W Gj.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Equations 6.1 L  Gj.4.3): Gj. live (L).sup D + Q. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1 L (EC0 Eq.1 L Gj.sup D + Q.sup D Gj.sup D  Q.1 PL  Gj. 6.1 W Gj.75)Q. 6.0E D  1.i S Gj. 6.i 0.sup D  Q. 6. 6.i S (EC0 Eq.i 0.i S Gj.i S Gj.supD + Q.supD + Q.sup D Gj. if a structure is subjected to dead (D).i W Gj. 6.10) (EC0 Eq.

6.i L Gj.inf D  Q.i = 1.0E + 2.supD + (0.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i 0.sup D + Q.i S D  1.sup D + Q. 6.sup D  Q. assumed not to be storage) = 0.i 0.1 W + Q.1 L + Q.i 0. 6.i W  Gj.1 W  Gj.sup D + Q.i S Gj.sup D + Q.10a) (EC0 Eq.i L Gj.i W  Gj.i 0. 6.inf D  Q.1 W + Q.i L Gj.1) (EC0 Table A1.i 0. 6.6 (wind load) = 0.i 0.0E D  1.sup D + Q.1 W Gj.75)Q. 6.35 Gj.i L D  1.i S Gj.10a) (EC0 Eq.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 L + Q.1 W Gj.supD + (0.1 0.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 Q.i W  Gj.1 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Gj.75)Q.10a) (EC0 Eq.00 Q.1 W + Q.i S (EC0 Eq. Gj.i 0. 6.1) 6-6 Design Load Combinations . assumed H ≤ 1.i S  Gj.1 0.sup D + Q.1 PL  Gj.i 0.1 0. 6.5 = 0.i 0.inf D  Q.5 = 1.sup D + Q.i W Gj. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows [NDP].1 W + Q.i 0.i 0.sup = 1.1) (EC0 Table A1.10b) (EC0 Eq.i 0.1 S  Q.1 0.10a) (EC0 Eq.i 0.inf D  Q.1 S + Q.i L + 2.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.7 (live load.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i L Gj.0E + 2.1 0.1 L  Q.inf = 1.10b) (EC0 Eq.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 S  Q.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 L  Q.1 0.i 0.sup D  Q.sup D  Q.1 W Gj.sup D + Q.1 0.sup D  Q.i 0.1 PL Gj.5 (snow load.1 0. 6.000 m) (EC0 Table A1.1 S + Q.

Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3. 6. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied.1) (EC0 Table A1.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1. fck. respectively (EC2 3.7(2)) f yd  f yk /  s f ywd  f ywk /  s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.85 = 0.7(2)) (EC2 3.2.3 (live.2(3)). other appropriate load combinations should be used.1.2.Chapter 6 .1.6(1)). assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow. fyk.i = 0. αcc is taken as 1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.i 2.2(2)).3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.1. f cd   cc f ck /  c (EC2 3. assumed H ≤ 1. s and c as shown here [NDP].6(1)) (EC2 3.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004  2. should be 400 and 600 MPa. 6. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.000 m) (EC0 Table A1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.

For accidental and earthquake situations.4). the recommended values are less than the tabulated values. torsion.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. 6. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement 6.2. and torsion only. caution is advised. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. and torsion based on the beam moments.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.4. The user should consider those separately. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. s = 1.5. shear forces. shear. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . These values can be overwritten.4(1). Table 2. c = 1. load combination factors. however. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. for a particular station.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.

7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 . Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block is taken as: Fc  f cd ab a=x (EC2 3. Fig 3.5) (EC2 3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.Design for Eurocode 2-2004  Determine factored moments  Determine required flexural reinforcement 6.1.1. 6. In such cases.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. the width.5. Fig 3.7(3)). The factor  defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor  defining the effective strength are given as:   0.1. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. or the strength of the concrete.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.7(3).7(3). In such cases.1.Chapter 6 .8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3.

to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.25(0.7(3))   1.1 as: cu2 = 0.1.54 [NDP] (EC 5.5(4)). it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. the following values are used: k1 = 0. as follows:   k1 x for fck  50 MPa    k2  d  lim   k3 x for fck > 50 MPa    k4  d  lim (EC2 5.10 Beam Design . The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth. is determined from EC2 Table 3.0    f ck  50    200  for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa Furthermore.5(4))  is assumed to be 1 where the ultimate strain.6 + 0. is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution.  x d lim .44 [NDP] k2 = k4 = 1. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.7(3)) (EC2 3. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.8  f ck  50    400  for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design   0.0   1.0014/εcu2) [NDP] k3 = 0.0035 for fck < 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.1.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk  500 MPa. cu2 [NDP].1) 6 .1.7(3)) (EC2 3. When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.5(4)) (EC2 5. .5(4)) (EC 5.5(4)) (EC 5.

Design for Eurocode 2-2004 cu2 = 2. mlim.5.6 + 35  90  fck  100  for fck  50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.1.  The normalized design moment. is summarized in the subsections that follow.11 . m.  cu3 b f c  fcd As d Cs x a  x d h As BEAM SECTION s STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. less than. or equal to mlim.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.and T-beams).Chapter 6 . are obtained first. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. m. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than.1)   4 The design procedure used by SAFE. is calculated as: m M bd 2f cd Beam Design 6 . and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam. the normalized moment.2.

mlim. a singly reinforced beam is designed.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. lim.  If m > mlim. are given by:   fcd bd  A     s  s  f    fcd  6 . A's and As.12 Beam Design . The area of compression and tension reinforcement. and  are calculated as: lim     '  m  mlim 1  d d x  1  1  2mlim  d  lim   lim   ' where. As. is then given by:  f bd  As    cd   f   yd  This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. or at the top if MEd is negative. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios '. is calculated as: x  x  mlim     1      d  lim  2  d  lim   If m  mlim. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as:   1  1  2m The area of tension reinforcement. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.

5. Initially. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement.2.2.2. no flanged beam data is used. See Figure 6-2.2. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.5. is calculated as: m M bd 2f cd (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f bd  As    cd   f yd    where.5(4). 3. designing top reinforcement).2.1. 3. MEd (i. i.Chapter 6 . additional calculation is required.  The normalized design moment.5.1. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.8) 6.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.7(4). Based on this assumption. 6.e.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1.2.7(3)) lim     x  d  lim Beam Design 6 . the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.1.1..13 . m.7(3))  The limiting values are calculated as: x  x  mlim     1      d  lim  2  d  lim  (EC2 5.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. 3. and is given by:  d  f   Es  cu 3 1  s   f yd  x lim  (EC2 6.e. Fig 3.. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. If the stress block extends beyond the flange.1.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design amax = limd  The values  and a are calculated as:  = 1  1  2m a = d bf hf ecu3 h fcd h fcd d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design  If a  hf. in that case. as shown in Figure 6-2. As2 is given as: As 2   b f  bw  h f  fcd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by 6 .14 Beam Design . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. However.  If a > hf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. the width of the beam is taken as bf. the calculation for As has two parts. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

8) Beam Design 6 . 3. 1  1  1  2m1 f b d  As1  1  cd w   f yd     If m1 > mlim. Fig 3.15 .1. ' = m1  mlim 1  d d lim     x  d  lim 1  lim      fcd bd  A   '  s   f 's   fcd  f b d  As1  1  cd w   f yd    where.2. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment.7(4). is determined as follows: m1  M1 bw d 2f cd  If m1  mlim.Chapter 6 . f' s is given by:  d  f   Es  cu 3 1  s   f yd  x lim  (EC2 6. M1 = M − M2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 hf  M 2  As 2 f yd  d   2      The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web.

and the total compression reinforcement is A's. 6 .26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm  0.1) fctm  2.12.1.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.max [NDP].min  0.1) (EC2 3.1.30 f ck 2 3 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.2):  Determine the factored shear force. 6. 6. for a particular load combination.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.1(1)) As .min [NDP].5. Table 3. As. Table 3. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement.min  0.16 Beam Design . VEd.12.1(3)). As.1.2.0013bd (EC2 9.2.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1) (EC2 3. Table 3. required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement.12. has been imposed to be 0.12ln 1  fcm 10  for fck > 50 MPa fcm  fck  8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.2. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.1.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2(1)) 1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1  0.2.c   vmin  k1 cp  bw d (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.c k 100 1 fck   k1 cp  bw d   (EC2 6.17 . that can be resisted by the concrete.  Determine the shear reinforcement required. VRd.2.2(1)) (EC2 6.c.Chapter 6 . 6.2 f cd MPa Beam Design 6 .2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.02 bw d (EC2 6. VRd. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. is calculated as: 13 VRd .2. 6.c.2(1)) cp  N Ed / Ac  0.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004  Determine the shear force.c  C Rd .2.2.2.2(1)) where fck is in MPa k  1 200  2.2.2.5.5.

5.3(3)) (EC2 6.c [NDP]. and k1 [NDP] are given as follows (EC2 6.2.1(1)) = 0.max. where cot   tan  The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .2.2(1)): CRd.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement  cw bw z 1 fcd .c= 0.2(1)) (EC2 6.03 k fck k1 3/2 1/2 (EC2 11.2(1)) = 0. VRdc.max  (EC2 6. and VRd.2.2.15.2. vmin and k1 for use in a country may be found in its National Annex.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The value of CRd.2.18 Beam Design .2.15.2. vmin [NDP].61  z = 0. is defined as:  1  0.1(1)) (EC2 11.3(1)) θ is optimized by the program and is set to 45 for combinations including seismic loading (EC2 6.6.2.3(3)) αcw [NDP] is conservatively taken as 1. 6 .2(6)) (EC2 6.9d   f ck   250  (EC2 6.1(1)) (EC2 11.18/ γc vmin = 0.6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows:  If VEd  VRdc.6. 6. For light-weight concrete: CRd.2.c.18γc vmin = 0. The strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear.3(2)). The program default values for CRd.c= 0. v1 [NDP]. Given VEd.2(1)) (EC2 6.035 k fck k1 3/2 1/2 (EC2 6.

(EC2 6. 6.min = sv s  If VR.min s zf ywd cot  s  If VEd > VRd.dc < VEd  VRd.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.max.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9. a failure condition is declared.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.min s  0.19 .2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Asw Asw.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.  Determine critical torsion capacity. Beam Design 6 .2.  Determine the torsion reinforcement required.  Determine special section properties.3(3)) The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: Asw. TEd.3(3)) (EC2 6.Chapter 6 . The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the factored torsion.max A Asw VEd   sw.2.

If redistribution is desired. Au. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.20 Beam Design . tef.1(2)). such as Ak and uk. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. With this assumption. However. u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section uk = Perimeter of the area Ak zi = Side length of wall i. These properties are described as follows (EC2 6. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. such as Ak. special section properties. A = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section Ak = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. u.3. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.3.3.2).3.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. However.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. It is taken as at least twice the distance between the edge and center of the longitudinal rebar. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. 6. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion 6 . and zi are calculated. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. This is equivalent to 38mm clear cover and a 12-mm stirrup.5. uk.5. where the centerline is located a distance of tef 2 from the outer surface tef = Effective wall thickness. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.

1.Chapter 6 .3.2(1)) (EC2 6. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3. if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V  Ed  1.2(1)) (EC2 6.c  f ctd t ef 2 Ak (EC2 6.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A = bwh Ak = (bw – tef)(h – tef) u (EC2 6.c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. hf.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored. 6. the design tensile strength.3. h.3. bw.2.c VRd .3.2(1)) (EC2 6. and fctd.2(5)) where VRd.2(1).2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) = 2b + 2 h uk = 2(b  tef) + 2(h  tef) tef = A/u  2  cover to center where. With this assumption.0 TRd .3. h.2(5)) where tef.3. with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) = 2bw + 2h uk = 2(h – tef) + 2(bw – tef) where the section dimensions bf.1) required.3.21 .3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 section properties. and c are shown in Figure 6-3.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(3)) (EC2 6.3. Similarly. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A = bh Ak = (b  tef)(h  tef) u (EC2 6.3.c is the torsional cracking moment.5. the section dimensions b. 6. calculated as: TRd .c (EC2 6.3. are defined as: Beam Design 6 .3.

as: 6 . If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required. if the equation is not satisfied. is first calculated. longitudinal bars.22 Beam Design .05  c (EC2 6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.7fctm (EC2 Table 3. the shear due to this torsion.2(1)) (EC2 Eq.16) where A is the gross cross-section area. with only minimum shear reinforcement required.5. and fctk0.05 = 0.2(5)).3. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6. ct [NDP] is a coefficient.1) 6.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied. u is the outer circumference of the cross-section. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.3.05 is defined as: fctk0. 3.0. However. taken as 1. In that case.3. and compression diagonals. Vt. taking account of long term effects on the tensile strength. followed by the required stirrup area.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b  2c 2c c h fs d bef c h  2c h h h h  2c c b c bw  2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design tef = A u fctd   ct fctk 0.

3(3)) Vt   h  tef T Ed  Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6.max (EC2 6.3.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.3. a failure message is declared.0 VRd .  is taken as 45 degrees. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. as previously defined for beam shear.2(3)) where  is the angle of the compression struts.2(5)) TEd u cot  k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6.2(1)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as:  V Tcon  1  Ed  V Rd .2(4)) If this equation is not satisfied.Chapter 6 .max.max  2 cw f cd Ak t ef sin  cos (EC2 6.3.c   (EC2 6.3.2(4)) where TRd. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd . while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.c  Asl    TRd .3(2)). an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd . the concrete section should be increased in size. Any minimum stirrup requirements or Beam Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 At Vt  s zf ywd cot  (EC2 6. In that case.3.max  VEd  1. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. When torsional reinforcement is required. In the preceding expressions. The code allows any value between 21.23 .2.2.

To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. are repeated for every load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. described in the subsections that follow.24 Slab Design . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. is obtained and reported. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. 6. 6.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. These two steps.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 6 . as described in the following sections. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.

at a given design section in a design strip.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.1) (EC2 Table 3. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1) [NDP]: As .26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1(1)) As . The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1.1.25 . there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.2.6.1.12ln 1  fcm 10  for fck > 50 MPa fcm  fck  8 MPa (EC2 Table 3.1.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. Slab Design 6 . In that case.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.min  0.1. Where openings occur.6.Chapter 6 . In some cases.0013bd (EC2 9. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.6.1) fctm  2. given the bending moment. 6. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user. for each load combination.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1.3.2. 6.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm  0.30 f ck 2 3 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.min  0.

2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 6.2(1)). 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6 .1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.. interior.6.2. 6. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. edge.4. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.26 Slab Design .1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1(3)).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.e. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized.2.6. The column location (i.4.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6.

2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .4.4(1)) 1x 1y  0.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.4.Chapter 6 .3 1  . is calculated as: vEd  VEd ud  M Ed .4.4(1))  min  0.4.6.02 where 1x and 1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively.4(1)) (EC2 6.c k 100 1 fck   k1 cp    (EC2 6.6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.27 . and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4(1)) (EC2 6. C Rd . 6. where 1  k VEdW1. vEd.4.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6. the nominal design shear stress.18  c [NDP] (EC2 6.4.4. conservatively taken as zeros.4(1)) (EC2 6.4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .4.4(2)) Slab Design 6 .4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively.2.15 [NDP].4.c  0.3     (EC2 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 [NDP] k1 = 0.2u1 M u   k Ed .2.c  C Rd .c  vmin  k1 cp  where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.2 VEdW1. conservatively taken as zeros.4(1)) k  1 1 = 200  2.

If this ratio exceeds 1. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 6.6.2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm. 6 .4 Determine Capacity Ratio The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design k u1 d is the function of the aspect ratio of the loaded area in Table 6.28 Slab Design . 6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. The design of punching shear reinforcement is performed as described in the subsections that follow.6. 6.0.1 of EN 1992-1-1 is the effective perimeter of the critical section is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection along bending axis 2 and 3 VEd is the total punching shear force W1 accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter along bending axis 2 and 3.3. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.

2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.75vRd . edge.3(3))  If vEd > vRd. vRd.. and vRd.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.29 .6. a failure condition is declared.4.5). Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.c. Given vEd.max.4. 6. i.max.max Asw  v Ed  0.  If vR.5) (EC2 6.3. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.dc < vEd  vRd.Chapter 6 .6.ef  u1d  sr (EC2 6.c  1.  If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of VRd.3.5 f ywd .max.e.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 6 . and corner column.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6. the concrete section should be increased in size.

6. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. for corner.4.4.3. and interior columns respectively. When specifying shear studs.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters.4. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.30 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) .5d (first perimeter) g  2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Therefore.75d g  1.3(1)) (EC2 9. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. 6. so. and 8. s. 12-. 16-.3(1)). for which Nationally Determined Parameters [NDPs] are permitted to be adjusted by each member country 6 .3d. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. Height.3(1)) 6. the distance.3(1)) (EC2 9. g. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.4.4. 6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4.7 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) The Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) version of Eurocode 2-2004 specifies a set of clauses in the design code.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.3d ≤ so  2d s  0. 14-.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. The limits of so and the spacing. and 20-millimeter diameters. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. edge.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.3(1)) (EC2 9.

Table 6-2 CEN Default NDPs NDP c s cc ct max fyk Load Combinations Clause 2.2(5) 5.0 600MPa Combinations from Eq.10 0.005 0.6(1) 3.5(4) 5.6 + 0.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 within their National Annex.2.8.2.3. This appendix lists the NDPs as adopted in the program for the CEN Default version of the design code.4.0014/cu2) 0.2(1) 6.5(4) 5.18/c 0.2.1.15 1.035k3/2fck1/2 0.4(1) 2.3(1) 5.2.4.25(0.0 1.4(1) 3.25(0.1.1.31 .5(4) 5.15 0 k1 k2 k3 k4 lim CRd. 6.Chapter 6 .5 1.2(1) 6.1(1) 6. Variations in these parameters between countries are considered in the program by choosing the desired country from the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command.6 + 0.2.54 1.44 1.c vmin k1 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6 . Additional tables are provided that list the NDPs that differ from the CEN Default values for each country supported in the program.2(3) 5.6(2) 3.2(1) Value 1.0014/cu2) 20  A  B  C / n 0.5(4) 5.

2.4(1) 2.2.3.6.4.1(1) 0.3(3) Beam As.min 9.6.85 0.15/c 0.2.c vl.2.3(3) f   0.2(5) 11.2.5(2) 11.4.min 9.2.20 6 .1(1) 11.2.1.max Beam w.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-2 CEN Default NDPs NDP  1 cw Clause 6.5(1) 11.0 6.6.08 f ck / f yk  lcc lct ClRd.45 1.15 0.1(1) 11.1(1) 11.3(2) Value 45 degrees 6.85 0.04Ac Beam As.32 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) .6 1  ck  250   1.26 f ctm bt d  0.1.6.4(1) Value 1.3.0013bt d f yk 0.min k1 0.30k3/2flck1/2 0.51(1 – flck/250) 1 Table 6-3 Denmark NDPs NDP c s Clause 2.1(3) 9.2(1)  0.

1.5(2) 11.0 0.Chapter 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-3 Denmark NDPs NDP Max fyk Load Combinations Clause 3.3(1) 5.5(4) 9.2(3) 5.1(3) Value 0.6.6(1) 3.3.2(5) 11.85 700MPa Combinations from Eq.10a/b lim 5.2.1.2.8.3.5(1) 11.10 Unlimited Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6 .03k2/3flck1/2 Table 6-4 Finland NDPs NDP cc Max fyk Load Combinations k2 Beam As.3(1) Value 650MPa Combinations from Eq.1(1) 20  Ac f cd N Ed f ck / f yk Beam w.2.10a/b 1.max Clause 3.min 1.3.0 1.2(3) 5.1.33 .min 9. 6. 6.063  lcc lct vl.1(1)  0.1.2.

0014/cu2 3/2 1/2 0.1(1) 11.8.1.3 for tension 0.035k2/3fck1/2  0.2(1) 9.2(5) 11.85 0.85 0.min vl. 1 f  / f ck yk 0.15 for compression 0.6(1) 3.3 for tension 0.85 13(2  rm)Af 0.6 + 0.1.2.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-5 Norway NDPs NDP cc ct lim k1 vmin Beam w.5(4) 5.1(1) 6.03k2/3flck1/2 0.1.4 0.6(1) 5.2.0014/cu2 0.1(1) Value 0.6(2) 5.6.5(4) 5.8.6.min k1 Clause 3.15 for compression 0.2(1) Value 0.3.54 0.2.34 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) .5(4) 5.30k flck 6 .2(1) 6.1(1) 11.6 + 0.5(4) 5.5(1 – flck/250) 1 Table 6-6 Singapore NDPs NDP cc k1 k2 k3 k4 vlim Clause 3.6.

1(3) 11.max Clause 9.5(4) 11.85 0.1.2.6.5(4) 5.6 + 0.5(1) 11.3.4 0.5 0.3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-7 Slovenia NDPs NDP Same As CEN Default Clause Value Table 6-8 Sweden NDPs NDP Beam As.6(1) 5.0 1.5(4) 5.i (wind load) cc k1 k2 k3 k4 vl.35 .5(2) Value Unlimited 1.4 0.1(1) Value 0.5(4) 5.1.0 lcc lct Table 6-9 United Kingdom NDPs NDP 0.6 + 0.30k3/2flck1/2 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 6 .0014/cu2 0.0014/cu2 0.min Clause EC0 Combos 3.Chapter 6 .

7. For simplicity. is selected. The various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.1 Notations Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code Ag Al Gross area of cross-section.1 . mm Notations 7. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04].

t Asv sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K Area of tension reinforcement. mm Mu bd 2 f cu K' Maximum Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu 7-2 Notations . N/mm Flange thickness. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.000 N/mm Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. mm Torsional constant. assumed as 200.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code As A's Asv Asv. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Normalized design moment. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. N/mm 2 2 Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. N/mm Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. N/mm 2 2 Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. N/mm 2 2 Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm /mm Depth of compression block.

N/mm  b f m c s 's 7. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors Design Load Combinations 7-3 . N/mm Torsional shear stress.  fcu 25 Design moment at a section. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 2 2 2 1 3 Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical 2 section. N/mm Neutral axis depth.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. mm Lever arm. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.Chapter 7 . N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. N/mm Design concrete shear stress capacity.

3. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.2W (CP 2. Table 2. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present. (CP 2. For CP-04.3. should not be less than 20 N/mm (CP 3. 1.2) (CP 2.75PL) 1.1. 2 7. if a structure is subjected to dead (D). including pattern live load.6L 1.2L  1. live (L).4D 1.1.0D  1.4D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered.2): 7-4 Limits on Material Strength .2 (CP 2.6(0.3). is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.1). pattern live (PL).1. The values of m used in the program are listed in the following table.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.4D  1. other appropriate load combinations should be used. as taken from CP Table 2.3.2.3.4D + 1. and considering that wind forces are reversible. and wind (W) loads.3.4.2) (CP 2. m.3). fcu.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design of safety. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. Note that the automatic combination.2D + 1. γf (CP 2.2) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. The input material strengths are used for design even if they are outside of the limits.4W 1. 7.3.4W 1.

shear forces. and torsion only.5.50 1.25 These factors are incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.15 1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:    Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 7.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Values of m for the Ultimate Limit State Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1. for a particular station. but can be overwritten. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. torsion. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. load combination factors. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. 7. shear. the following steps are involved:   Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement Beam Design 7-5 .Chapter 7 . and other criteria described in the sections that follow. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.

the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.33 for  fcu  45 N/mm 2 45  fcu  70 N/mm 2 70  fcu  100N/mm 2 (CP 6.5 for x    0.5. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.2. b  0. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.max 0. or the strength of the concrete. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.1.00006  fcu  60  2 if fcu  60N/mm  Furthermore.e..4 for d  0.4(a)). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.2. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4(b)).1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. 7.5. with the corresponding load factors. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.9.0035  0.1. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. In such cases.1. In such cases.1. the width.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .0035 if fcu  60N/mm 2   1 2 0. where c. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. CP 6. 0. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.max is defined as:  c .

hence.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .1. is obtained from: As  M . For reinforced concrete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed (0. the area of tension reinforcement. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. The depth of the compression block is given by: 0. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.9x for   a  0. shear.and T-beams).4(a)). In addition.1.1fcuAg) (CP 6. 7.156 for f cu  45 N/mm 2   K '  0.2. Axial compression greater than 0.4(a).1fcuAg and axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear design. As. where 0. is obtained first for a section.1.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. less than.1.1) The design procedure used by SAFE.120 for 45  f cu  70 N/mm 2  2 0.4(b)). is summarized in the text that follows.8x for  0. where 0.2.1.1. Msingle = K'fcu bd . Fig 6. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. or equal to Msingle.2. and torsion only.094 for 70  f cu  100 N/mm   2 (CP 6. axial force is ignored.87 f y z (CP 6.Chapter 7 .2.4(c)) If M  Msingle. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.2.72x for  f cu  45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu  70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu  100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.2.5. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. Msingle.

25   0.5  0.1.67 fcu  m d a d Ts As BEAM SECTION s STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design  K    0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c b A s f s x Cs 0.  If M > Msingle.1.95d z  d  0. or at the top if M is negative.2. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A  s M  Msin gle  0.67 fcu   d  d s  f  c    (CP 6.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.1.4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design .2.9    K M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.4(c)) (CP 6.2.

3. the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.4(c)) 7.1)   K'  z  d 0.2.1.9) d  z  0.2.87 f y z  0.1.5.2.6.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.87 f y .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. for  d  z . On the basis of this assumption. for x  0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.25   ≤ 0. s x  (CP 6. M (i.5.95d 0.e. Fig 6. Initially.45 .4(c).4(a).4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As  Msingle 0.1.2.87 f y  d  d   M  Msingle (CP 6. i.Chapter 7 . 7.. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of Beam Design 7-9 . and  d  f   Es  c  1    0.5.9     (CP 6.40 d  z  0.2. Fig.e. 3.1.1. designing top reinforcement).1. for  fcu  45N/mm 2 45  fcu  70 N/mm 2 70  fcu  100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.36 .5  0.2.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.2.1.2 Design of Flanged Beams 7.2. no flanged beam data is used.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d  is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face..

10 Beam Design . Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 0. as shown in Figure 7-2. the width of the beam is taken as bf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.2. Cf. 7 . Fig 6.1.2. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.72x for  f cu  45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu  70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu  100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4(c)) (CP 6. Cw. for  0.4(a).95d. the calculation for As has two parts.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as:  K    z = d 0.40 d  z  0.5  0. However.  If a > hf . the normalized moment is given by: K M .2. fcu b f d 2 (CP 6.45 . in that case.2.1.9     the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: d  z  0.4(c). Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. for  d  z x .1.36 . for  fcu  45N/mm 2 45  fcu  70 N/mm 2 70  fcu  100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. 0. See Figure 72.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design width bf.1)  If a  hf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.9x for   a  0.8x for  0. Fig 6.25    0.1.

67 fcu/gm 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section In that case.Chapter 7 . the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.67 c f cu  b f  bw  h f  d  0. Beam Design 7 .11 .5h f  The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw  M M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2  If Kw  K (CP 6.1.4(c)). one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.2. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Mf  0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 bf hf ec 0.

2. where 0.9    7 .95d  0.87 f y  x (CP 6.2.25  w   0.12 Beam Design .5  0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As  1 0.9     If Kw > K.95d  0.87 f y  Mf M M  M uw   uw  w   z d d '   d  0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A  s M w  Muw  0.5h f  Mf  Mw .67 fcu   d  d s  f  c    where.4(c).87 f y z  K  z  d  0.1.6.5  0.87 f y  d  0.25    0. d  is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. Fig 3. 3.5h f    K  z  d  0. and  d f s  Es c 1    0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As  0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw  Kf cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.

Section Rectangular Situation  Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.2.40 0.48 0.2.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.1.2.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.1.1 (CP 9.36 0.1.26  100 0.20 0.Chapter 7 .5.4 bf  As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation  T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.24 0.2. which is taken from CP Table 9. if it is required.1).32 0.3): Beam Design 7 .1(CP 9.13 . which is taken from CP Table 9.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.2.1.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.13 100 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.4 bf bw  0.20 A s bh A s 100 bf hf 100 100 A s bw h An upper limit of 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.

5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress. with the corresponding load combination factors. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 0.2. v.14 Beam Design . 7. for a particular load combination. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5. vc.8 fcu .5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5(a)) 7.2. is calculated as: 7 .2. that can be resisted by the concrete. vc. The shear stress is then calculated as: v V bd (CP 6. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9.04bw d 0. Determine the shear stress. the following steps are involved (CP 6.5.2.1.1.04bd A   s 0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. 7 MPa) (CP 6.3) 7.2.2.1.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04bd As   0.5):    Determine the shear stress.1.

Chapter 7 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.2. vr. CP 6. the following limitations also apply: 0.3) Vh 1 M 7.1.5(k)) 0.15   400   d    100 As  3.1. Members without shear reinforcement 1.5(c). as: Beam Design 7 . and vmax. Table 6.3) (CP 6. Table 6.2.3)  0.1.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.1.2.5(c). Table 6.5(g)) 3 f  k2 =  cu   25  1 3 .2.1.2.1.79k1k 2  100 As  3  400  vc       m  bd   d  (CP 6.3)  m  1. vc. Table 6.5.5(c).1.  80  1 ≤ k2 ≤    25  1 (CP 6.2. Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 6.00 .2.5(c).25 However.2. bd 1 4 (CP 6.5(b)):  Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.67.5(k)) Given v.2.2. Table 6.6 NVh N  vc 1  Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (CP 6.15 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 v'c  vc  0.1.1.5(c).2.

minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b .  sv 0. Determine special section properties. a failure condition is declared.2. 7 .4 2    f cu  3 vr  0. vt.4  if 40  f cu  80 N mm2 40     2 3  80 if f cu  80 N mm2 0. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:   Determine the torsional shear stress.5(b)) If v > v’c + vr .1. Asv  v  v' c  b  sv 0.5(b).2.87 f yv  (CP 6.2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.87 f yv (CP 6.2)    If v ≤ v’c + vr.5(b)) (CP 6.5(b))  If v > vmax.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5.16 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  if f cu  40 N mm2 0.2.1. 7.4 40  (CP 6.1. The maximum of all the calculated Asv sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.1. Table 6.

17 .3(a)) For flanged sections.3(b)) hmax hmin = Larger dimension of a rectangular section = Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. In typical framed construction.1). a failure condition is generated: vt  min(0.5. with the corresponding load combination factors. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.3. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. The torsional shear stress. as follows (CP 6.3.7 N/mm 2 )  y1 550 (CP 6. vt. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. calculated as: 3  hmin hmax Tseg  T    h3 h min max        (CP 6. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt  h 2 min 2T hmax  hmin / 3 (CP 6.17) Beam Design 7 .3. vt.3.4.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. further consideration should be given.Chapter 7 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04   Determine critical torsion stress. 7. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. Table 6.3.8 f cu .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5.3. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. is calculated as: 7 . Asv.min.5). vt. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt . torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. In that case.3.6 N/mm 2   (CP 6.min.min.min  min 0. However.t sv.min.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.5). vt is less than the threshold limit. vt.4. if vt exceeds the threshold limit. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. Table 6.5. c c b  2c c ds bf c h  2c h h h  2c c b bw  2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design  If vt > vt. vt.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.3.3.0.067 fcu .18 Beam Design . 7.3.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.

Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.8 fcu .t f yv  x1  y1  sv f y (CP 6.3. x1 is the smaller center-to-center dimension of the closed link. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al  Asv .87 f yv  (CP 6. To learn more about the design strips. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.3. and y1 is the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link.Chapter 7 . the concrete section should be increased in size.4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. In that case.7 N/mm 2   (CP 6.8 x1 y1 0. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v  vt  min 0. 7. and a flexural design is performed based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.3. Slab Design 7 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Asv . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.t sv  T 0.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.6) In the preceding expressions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. a failure message is declared.19 . as described in the following sections.

The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is completed at specific locations along the length of the strip. In some cases.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.6. is obtained and reported.6. given the bending moment.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:   Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.20 Slab Design . 7. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of the element boundaries.1. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 7.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. at a given design section in a design strip. In that case. for each load combination. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the 7 . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.

1)..3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.21 . Slab Design 7 . Where openings occur.7).2.1.1.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 design strip at the considered design section.1.1.5d from the face of the support (CP 6.0013bh  if if f y  250 MPa f y  460 MPa (CP 9. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.6.1(a)) In addition.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1. 7. interior.2.3.3). Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1.6. 7. with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 0. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. edge. 7. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.Chapter 7 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9.6.e. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6.5. The column location (i. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7(d)).0024bh  As   0.5.

2.5d Interior Column 1.7(d)) (CP 6.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7.1. Table 6.5(c).1.5d 1. Table 2.5d 1.22 Slab Design .5.25 However.5(d).3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.1.2.2.3): 0.2. Table 6.4.1.5(g).7(d).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.79k1k 2  100 As  3  400  vc       m  bd   d  1 1 4 (CP 6. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.5d 1.2) 1 f  k2 =  cu   25  3  80  1 ≤ k2 ≤    25  1 3  m  1. 6.3) (CP 2.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.3. the following limitations also apply: 7 . Table 6.1.2.6.2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.5.

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

0.15 
 400   d   

100 As  3, bd
1 4

(CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)

 0.67, Members without shear reinforcement   1.00 , Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.1.2.5(c), Table 6.3)

As = area of tension reinforcement, which is taken as zero in the current implementation. v  min(0.8

fcu , 7 MPa)

(CP 6.1.5.7(b)) (CP Table 6.3)

fcu  80 MPa (for calculation purpose only)

7.6.2.3

Determine Maximum Shear Stress

Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the bending axis, the nominal design shear stress, vmax, is calculated as: 1.5M  x Veff , x  V  f   Vy  1.5M  y Veff . y  V  f   Vx          (CP 6.1.5.6(b), 6.1.5.6(c))

(CP 6.1.5.6(b), 6.1.5.6(c))

vmax

Veff , x   ud  max  Veff , y  ud 

(CP 6.1.5.7)

where, u is the perimeter of the critical section,

Slab Design

7 - 23

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending, Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection, V f is the total punching shear force, and is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as

1.00  f  1.25 1.25 

for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6.1.5.6(b), 6.1.5.6(c))

7.6.2.4

Determine Capacity Ratio

The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.

7.6.3

Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6.1.5.7(e)). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.

7 - 24

Slab Design

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

7.6.3.1

Determine Concrete Shear Capacity

The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.

7.6.3.2

Determine Required Shear Reinforcement

The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.1.5.7(e))

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6.1.5.7(e)).

If v  1.6vc ,

v ud Av  v  vc  ud  r = , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv

(CP 6.1.5.7(e))

If 1.6vc  v < 2.0vc ,

Av 5  0.7v  vc  ud v ud  r , = 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv s
0.4  vr =   f cu 2/3 N/mm2 0.4     40 
 If v > 2.0vc, a failure condition is declared.

(CP 6.1.5.7(e))

(CP 6.1.5.7, Table 6.2)

(CP 6.1.5.7(e))

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

7.6.3.3

Determine Reinforcement Arrangement

Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of

Slab Design

7 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d 2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6.1.5.7(f)). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2
gx x s0

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2

Free edge

Iy
gx

gy s0 d 2

s0

Iy

Iy

x

Critical section centroid
y Ix

Free edge

y
Ix

x
Critical section centroid

Free edge
Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

7.6.3.4

Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing

The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4.2.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, and 20-millimeter diameters.

7 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0.5d s  0.75d g  1.5d (CP 6.1.5.7(f)) (CP 6.1.5.7(f)) (CP 6.1.5.7(f))

Stirrups are only permitted when slab thickness is greater than 200 mm (CP 6.1.5.7(e)).

Slab Design

7 - 27

Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter, a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

8.1

Notations
Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code

Ac Acv Ag

Area of concrete, mm

2 2 2

Area of section for shear resistance, mm

Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member, mm

Notations

8-1

mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. N-mm 8-2 Notations . mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. assumed as 200. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / c. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / s. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.

N-mm Factored shear force at a section. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Depth of neutral axis. Mbd  fck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.max Notations 8. mm Lever arm. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section.Chapter 8 .Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis. N-mm Normalized design moment.3 .max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section. N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode.0035)   c c f m s  c. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects.

5E 1. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.5D 1.0W 1.5S 1. snow (S). if a structure is subjected to dead (D).5L 1.max cd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .2E 1.4.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code s s' v c c.2.1) (IS 31.2D + 1.5W 1. and earthquake (E) loads.9D  1.1) (IS 36.4. pattern live (PL). MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete. wind (W).75 PL) 1.5D  1.1) (IS 36.4. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.5L  1.2L  1.2W 1.5D  1.5.3) (IS 36.5D + 1.5W 0.2D + 1.0E (IS 36.5(0. live (L). MPa 8. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5L  1.5D + 1.5E 0. Table 18): 1.2L  1. For IS 456-2000.5D + 1.5D + 1.9D  1.4.5D + 1.

m.1) (IS 36.2S  1.2L + 1.2W 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used. and torsion only.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium.Chapter 8 . shear. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. However. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. 8.4.4.2D + 1. 14. however.4. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.2S  1.5D + 1.15 Partial safety factor for concrete.2.2W 1. The values of m used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement.2D + 1. 8. shear. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily because of compatibility Partial Safety Factors 8. and torsion based on the beam moments. These values can be overwritten.2.4. caution is advised. torsion.2S  1.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.2S  1.5L + 1.2E (IS 36. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5S 1.5 (IS 36.2E 1.2L + 1. c = 1. 8.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 code is used.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. shear forces. beams must be designed for torsion.5 . The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. s = 1.2D + 1.Design for IS 456-2000 1.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement is obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. load combination factors.2D + 1.

Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.4. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. If redistribution is desired. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. as detailed in the subsections that follow. If the shear stress caused by equivalent shear is less than the concrete shear capacity. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . Rather. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. In such cases. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately.1. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:  Determine design bending moments and shears  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design of deformations. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. 8.4. 8-6 Beam Design . In such cases. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. If the shear stress caused by equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. However.

Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000

8.4.1.3

Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included

In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams, the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt, where (IS 41.4.2) (IS 41.4.2)

1 D b  M t  Tu    1.7 

and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam, respectively. If Mt exceeds Mu, additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. Effectively, this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam because the moment sign is reversed. The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt Mu (IS 41.4.2.1)

8.4.1.4

Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.

Beam Design

8- 7

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

8.4.1.5

Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included

In the design of beam shear reinforcement, the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station. When a torsional moment is to be included, the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation:

T  Ve  Vu  1.6 u  b
where b is the width of the beam web.

(IS 41.3.1)

8.4.2

Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.

8.4.2.1

Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the strength of the concrete. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38.1). The area of the stress block, c, and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber, a, are taken as c =  fck xu a =  xu (IS 38.1) (IS 38.1)

8-8

Beam Design

Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000
  0.0035
b f s

0.67 fcu  m

A s

d

Cs
C

0.42 xu

xu

d

Ts
As
BEAM SECTION

s
STRAIN DIAGRAM

Tcs
STRESS DIAGRAM

Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design

where xu is the depth of the neutral axis, and  and  are taken as:

 = 0.36  = 0.42

(IS 38.1) (IS 38.1)

where  is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.1). The  factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force. Furthermore, it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth, as shown in the following table, to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.1). SAFE uses interpolation between these three values. fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu,max /d 0.53 0.48 0.46 Beam Design 8- 9

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. The maximum fiber compression is taken as:

c,max = 0.0035

(IS 38.1)

The design procedure used by SAFE, for both rectangular and flanged sections (L- and T-beams), is summarized in the subsections that follow. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected; hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only.

8.4.2.2

Design of Rectangular Beams

For rectangular beams, the limiting depth of the neutral axis, xu,max, and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam, Msingle, are obtained first. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than, less than, or equal to Msingle.  Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis.

xu ,max d

0.53  0.53  0.05 f y  250  165  f y  415 0.48  0.02  85  0.46

if

f y  250 MPa

if 250  f y  415 MPa (IS 38.1) if 415  f y  500 MPa if f y  500 MPa

 Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam.

Msingle  

xu,max d

xu,max  1   d 

 2  bd fck 

(IS G-1.1)

 Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as:
xu 1  1  4  m  d 2

8 - 10

Beam Design

Chapter 8 - Design for IS 456-2000

where the normalized design moment, m, is given by

m

Mu bd 2f ck

 If Mu  Msingle the area of tension reinforcement, As, is obtained from

As 

Mu , where  fy /  s  z

(IS G-1.1)

x   z  d 1   u  . d 

(IS 38.1)

This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive, or at the top if Mu is negative.  If Mu > Msingle, the area of compression reinforcement, A's, is given by:
A  s Mu  Msingle  0.67 fck   d  d '  fsc  m    (IS G-1.2)

where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face, and

 d'  fy f sc   c ,max E s 1    xu ,max   s  
The required tension reinforcement is calculated as:
As 

(IS G-1.2)

 fy

M single

s z

 fy

M u  M single

 s   d  d '

, where

(IS G-1.2)

x   z  d 1   u,max  d  

(IS 38.1)

As is to be placed at the bottom and As is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive, and vice versa if Mu is negative.

Beam Design

8- 11

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

8.4.2.3 8.4.2.3.1

Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment

In designing for a factored negative moment, Mu (i.e., designing top reinforcement), the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously, i.e., no flanged beam data is used.

8.4.2.3.2

Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment

With the flange in compression, the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange. On the basis of this assumption, the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness, the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth, the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. See Figure 8-2.

Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section

Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange, the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as:

8 - 12

Beam Design

2 d Df  0. as shown in Figure 8-2. in this case.45 f ck b f  bw  f  d   2  where f is taken as:     (IS G-2. the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent  d   d  calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2. Cw. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.  x   Df   If  u     . the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation  d   d  for As has two parts. the width of the beam is taken as bf.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1  1  4  m  d 2 where the normalized design moment. Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle.1).65D f if D f  0.13 . Cf.  Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8.2 d  (IS G-2.2) f  if D f  0. is given by m Mu b f d 2 f ck  x   Df   If  u     . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.  Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: f  M f  0. However. m.2)  Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf.15 xu  0.Chapter 8 .

max   where 1   d  d  if if if if f y  250 MPa 250  f y  415 MPa (IS G-1. and 8 .max  x u.1) xu .5 y f  Mf   fy Mw s  z . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.05 f y  250  165  f y  415 0.53  0.single. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.single. As   fy  s  d  0.max d 0. where x   z  d 1   u  d  xu 1  1  4  m  d 2 m Mw bw d 2 fck  If Mw > Mw. is given by: A  s M w  M w.48  0.14 Beam Design .single  0.02  85  0.single = fckbwd 2 x u.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. A's. the area of compression reinforcement.67 fck   d  d ' s  f  m    where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1) 415  f y  500 MPa f y  500 MPa  If Mw  Mw.46 (IS 38.53  0.

2) is imposed upon request as follows: 0.1):  Determine the design shear stress  Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.Design for IS 456-2000  d '  fy fsc   c.04bd A   s 0.5.Chapter 8 .1.2) 8.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.4.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1.4. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.1. the following steps are involved (IS 40.1) (IS 26.max   s (IS G-1.max Es 1    xu.04bd As   0.5.5.5.15 .1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.04bw d 0.5.2.5.max  d   8.single  s   d  d  where x   z  d 1   u.85 bd fy (IS 26.1): As  0.single s z   fy M w  M w.1.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As   fy  s  d  0.5 f  Mf   fy M w. at a particular station.1) An upper limit of 0.1. for a particular load combination.

IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.max.max (IS 40.3.max (MPa) (IS 40.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.5 M35 3. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases. c. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth.  For prismatic sections v = Vu bd (IS 40. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. as: cd = kc. (IS 40.3. v  c.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.1 M30 3.7 M40 4. c.3.2.0 c. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20. d.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress.4.8 M25 3.2.1)  For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) v = Vu  Mu tan  d .1.16 Beam Design .5 M20 2. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress. where bd (IS 40.2) 8 . c.

6) Beam Design 8.1.3.0 for beams.1.max. taken as 1.Chapter 8 .2. Table 19) fck  40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement:  If v  cd + 0. 26.2.1).1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.2) c is the basic design shear strength for concrete.2.5. and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1  is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu   1. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is the case in the Table.1.17 .15  100 As 3 bd (IS 40. and if Pu  0 .87 f y  If cd + 0.2. 5 1  3 Ag fck   1   is always taken as 1  is the factor for light-weight concrete. Under Compression if Pu  0 . which is given by:  100 As   c  0. 0.4 b  sv 0. Table 19) (IS 40. Asv 0. It should be noted that the value of c has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36.1.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.1) (IS 40.64    bd  1 3  fck     25  1 4 (IS 40.4 < v  c.4.2. (IS 40. Under Tension (IS 40.2.4.

87 f y  If v > c.max is determined as defined in the last section.6)  If ve ≥cd.3.87 f y Asv 0.3) ve  c.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: ve = Ve bd (IS 40.2.5d1 (0.1) (IS 40.3.4.87 f y (IS 41.4(a)) (IS 40.4b  sv 0.1.4) 8.4(a)) (IS 40.87 f y ) Asv ( ve   c )b  sv 0. Determine required shear reinforcement:  If ve  cd.max.4.18 Beam Design .3) (IS 41. c.4 b  sv 0.max The maximum nominal shear stress. provide 2-legged closed stirrups.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv  v   cd  b  sv 0.87 f y ) 2. a failure condition is declared.3) 8 . 26. (IS 40.4.2.87 f y (IS 41. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy  415 MPa (IS 40.5. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and   sv b1d1 (0. Asv 0.

which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is completed based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These two steps. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.5. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip.Design for IS 456-2000 The maximum of all of the calculated Asv sv values. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. To learn more about the design strips.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.Chapter 8 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. obtained from each load combination.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of the element boundaries. are repeated for every load combination. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.19 . is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top Slab Design 8. 8. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. described in the subsections that follow. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at specific locations along the length of the strip. 8.

1. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26.5.2): 0. given the bending moment. In some cases.5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26.2. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. In that case. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and bottom of the slab within each design strip.5. at a given design section in a design strip. is obtained and reported.0015bD  As   0. 8.5. 8. 8 .1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.5.1. Where openings occur. 8. 8.0012bD  if if f y  415 MPa f y  415 MPa (IS 26. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.5.20 Slab Design .1. for each load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.5.1).1) In addition. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.

3) Slab Design 8.Chapter 8 .. interior.5.Design for IS 456-2000 8.2. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2. and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.1). d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 8.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − ) Mu (IS 31.2. Figure 8-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.5. corner). the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.21 . where:  1 1   2 3  a1 a2 (IS 31.6. edge. The column location (i.1).1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d 2 from the face of the support (IS 31.2).6.3.6.e.

6. 3 I 23  sides  1  I 23 .25 f ck c = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. 1 I 22  sides  1  n n I 22 . vU  VU  V 2[ M U 2  VU ( y3  y1 )] [ I 33 ( y4  y3 )  I 23 ( x4  x3 )]   b0 d I 22 I 33  I 232  V3 [ M U 3  VU ( x3  x1 )] [ I 22 ( x4  x3 )  I 23 ( y4  y3 )] I 22 I 33  I 232 Eq.3.1) (IS 31.5 + c  1.2.5. 4 8 .4 Determine Maximum Shear Stress Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.1) c = 0. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.5. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq.3.22 Slab Design .6. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq.1) (IS 31. 2 I 33  sides  1  n I 33 .2. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq.6.0 (IS 31. 8. 8.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: vc = ks c ks = 0.

3 Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear.y3). Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis Work This Sketch With Equations 5a. I 33 and I 23 are different depending on whether the side of the critical section for punching shear being considered is parallel to the 2-axis or parallel to the 3-axis. L x2 . Side of critical section being considered shown solid Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear.Chapter 8 . 5a Eq.y3). Refer to Figures 8-5.y2). Coordinates are (x 2.x 3 3 2 y2 . for side of critical section 12 12 parallel to 2-axis I 33  Eq. for side of critical section 12 12 parallel to 3-axis I 22  Eq.Design for IS 456-2000 Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line x2 . I 22  Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 . L y2 . 6b and 7 2 Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line. 6a and 7 Figure 8-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections The equations for I 22 .x 3 Side of critical section being considered shown solid Center of side of critical section being considered.y2). 6a Slab Design 8. Coordinates are (x 2.y3 Center of side of critical section being considered.y3 Work This Sketch With Equations 5b. Coordinates are (x 3. for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 . 5b Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( x2  x3 ) 2 .23 . Coordinates are (x 3.

y3 = Coordinates of centroid of critical section for punching shear x4. 7 = Effective depth at critical section for punching shear based on the average of d for the 2 direction and d for the 3 direction = Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 2-axis = Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 3-axis = Product of inertia of critical section for punching shear with respect to the 2 and 3 planes = Length of side of critical section for punching shear currently being considered = Moment about line parallel to 2-axis at center of column (positive in accordance with the right-hand rule) = Moment about line parallel to 3-axis at center of column (positive in accordance with the right-hand rule) = Punching shear stress = Shear at center of column (positive upward) I22 I33 I23 L MU2 MU3 vU VU x1.24 Slab Design . 6b Eq. b0 d = Perimeter of critical section for punching shear Eq. for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis or 3-axis where. y2 = Coordinates of center of one side of critical section for punching shear x3. for side of critical section parallel to 3-axis I 23  Ld ( x2  x3 )( y2  y3 ) .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design I 33  Ld ( x2  x3 ) 2 . y4 = Coordinates of location where you are calculating stress 8 . y1 = Coordinates of column centroid x2.

The design of punching shear reinforcement is completed as described in the subsections that follow. and Vmax. (IS 31. but limited to: vc  1.6. a failure condition is declared.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.87 f y d (IS 31.5.5 c 8.2.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (IS 31.3.3.2) Slab Design 8. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3.2) Given Vu. 8.2.6.6.25 .6.3.3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Design for IS 456-2000 V2 V3 = Percent of MU2 resisted by shear = Percent of MU3 resisted by shear 8.0. If this ratio exceeds 1.4(a))  If Vu > Vmax.5. 40.5.5  c bod (IS 31.5 Determine Capacity Ratio The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. Av  Vu  0. 8.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.5.5Vc  S 0.2) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 0.3. Vc.Chapter 8 .6.2).

The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d2. and 8. and interior columns respectively.. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. Figure 8-6 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 6.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.e. for corner. edge. and corner column.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax. i. the concrete section should be increased in size. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 8. edge. 8 . Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.26 Slab Design .3. Therefore.

When specifying shear studs.Design for IS 456-2000 8. g. 5d s  0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. s.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. so.3.5d g  2d Slab Design 8.5d.Chapter 8 .4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the distance. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Height.5.27 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26. The limits of so and the spacing. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.

Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. sq-mm Gross area of concrete. sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Ag Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. 9.

sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Al Ao As A's As(required) At s Av Av s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es f' c Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section). sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. assumed as 200. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Width of member. MPa 9-2 Notations . mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending.000 MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block.

mm Perimeter of area Ao. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Factored shear force at a section. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section. N Average design shear stress at a section.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. mm Thickness of slab or flange. mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. mm Factored design torsion at a section. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Overall depth of sections. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section vc vmax vtn s 1 1 c Notations 9-3 . psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.

0. live (L).4L  1.2D  1.4L + 1. (0. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170. 4.0S 1. 4.2D + 1.35D 1.0.0E 1.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used. snow (S).75 PL) 1. 4.2. 4. 4.2.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0. 4.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.max s b s f v Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber. and earthquake (E) loads.0. 4. pattern live (PL).2. 4.0.0.0W 1.2): 1. if a structure is subjected to dead (D).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code c c.9D  1. wind (W).0E (AS/NZS 1170.0D + 0.4L  1.0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2D + 1.0D  1. 4.0.2(f)) Note that the 0.2. For NZS 3101-06.2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5L 1. If roof live 9-4 Design Load Combinations .2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 0.0.2.0W 0.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2. 4.0.2.5(0.2D + 0.0W 1.

SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3.2. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5.85 for flexure s = 0. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits.3.3).2) (NZS 2.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. caution is advised. fy. . however.2. should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5. 9.3. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25  f 'c  100 MPa (NZS 5.Chapter 9 .4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. (NZS 2.2.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 . are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.Design for NZS 3101-06 load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present. shear. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. The  factors for flexure.3). and torsion are as follows: b = 0. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.3.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.1). The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. 9. fyt.

The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. torsion. for a particular station. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. shear. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement 9. with the corresponding load factors. and torsion only. the following steps are involved:  Determine factored moments  Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. load combination factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Calculation of top 9-6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. shear. In such cases. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear forces. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.

Furthermore.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.003 b Cs c 1 f  c A s d a  1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM s Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design Beam Design 9-7 . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.2.5.1). or the strength of the concrete.   0.1. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.3. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.Design for NZS 3101-06 reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.8.4. the width. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.7). 9.Chapter 9 .

008( f   30).2. c (NZS 7. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. is given by: amax = 0.1). 9.1)  If a  amax (NZS 9.8. hence. shear. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. designing top or bottom reinforcement).4.65  1  0. and torsion only. axial force is ignored.2) in the preceding and following equations.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive M (i.4.004( f   55) for f   55MPa.4.2.2.7) (NZS 7.4.2) where the default value of b is 0.5.. 0.3.751cb (NZS 7.2.75  1  0.1. where. c c The value 1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.4.1 f' c Ag and axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear design.8) 1  0. For reinforced concrete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed (0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design procedure used by SAFE.8.85 for f   30. is summarized in the text that follows.7): 1  0.2. The factor 1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7. the area of tension reinforcement is give by: 9-8 Beam Design .and T-beams).7) (NZS 7. * a  d  d2  2 M* 1 f  c b b (NZS 7.85 1  0.85  0.85  0.e.85 c cb  c  c  f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.2.85 (NZS 2. Axial compression greater than 0. 9.85 for f   55MPa c 1  0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1).4.2.7.3. amax.3.1 f' c Ag).

7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = Cd  *   a max   b 2  Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A  s M* s .4.4.  If a > amax (NZS 9.2.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 1 f  bamax c (NZS 7.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 As  M* a  b f y  d   2  * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.8. 7.2.2.1).3. where   1 f   d  d' b fs c  c  d'  f    c.2.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a   f y  d  max  b 2   Beam Design 9-9 . compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.max Es  s   fy  c  (NZS 7.4. or at the top * if M is negative.4.2.

7. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. and vice versa if M is negative.  If a > hf.2. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y d  d ' b Therefore.5. M (i.. Cw. However. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.1.1. As = As1 + As2. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.2. no flanged beam data is used. the total tension reinforcement.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9. designing top reinforcement).4. 9..5.751cb (NZS 7. 9.e.3.8. is given by: amax = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. i.1)  If a  hf. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.e. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d  2 2M* 1 f c'b b f (NZS 7.5.10 Beam Design .1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. amax. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.2.2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. calculation for As has two parts. as shown in Figure 9-2.2. Cf. * 9.2.4. 9 .

M . the balance of the moment.4.Chapter 9 .003 1 f  c 1 f  c bf hf d c d A s f s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION s (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f  1 f   b f  bw  h f c Therefore.Design for NZS 3101-06   0.4.2 ) Beam Design 9 .11 . for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1  d  d 2  2 M* w 1 f  b bw c (NZS 7. to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.2.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d   M *  C f  d  s b f 2  Therefore.

8.12 Beam Design . and a1   b f y  d   2  As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.4.8.4. 7.4.2.3.3.max Es  s   fy  c  The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = * Mc a  f y  d  max 2    b  9 . the compression reinforcement is computed as: A  s M* s .1).4)  c  d'  f    c.1).2.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw  1 f  bw amax c (NZS 7.  If a1 > amax (NZS 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  If a1  amax (NZS 9. where f   1 f   d  d'  b  s c (NZS 7.2.7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a  * M c  Cw  d  max 2    b  The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .

and A's is to be placed at the top. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.3. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. for a particular load combination.1) As  1.8.13 . As is to be placed at the bottom. the following steps are involved:  Determine the factored shear force.Chapter 9 .04bw d 0.2.2.8. * Beam Design 9 .04bd A   s 0.4 bw d fy (NZS 9. V .Design for NZS 3101-06 and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: M s* As3 = f y d  d ' b Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 9.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits: As  f c bw d 4 fy (NZS 9.5.1.04bd As   0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. 9.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: 0.3.5.1) An upper limit of 0.

3.75.3. Vc.  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.4) The basic shear strength for a rectangular section is computed as.0 .14 Beam Design . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.9. 0.    0.3.5.2  f  c c where (NZS 9.3. that can be resisted by the concrete.3.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.3.3.9.4) c = kd ka kn b (NZS 9. is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.9.4) (NZS 9.  A  b = 0. where c bw d   f   50 MPa.3.9.2.  normal concrete sand light-weight concrete all light-weight concrete (NZS 9.07  10 s   f  .5) 9 .85.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  Determine the shear force.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.3.08  f   b  0.4) (NZS 9. and c 0. 9. 9.3. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.3.2.4) 1.5.9.3. Vc.9.

  1.25 where d is in mm (NZS 9.3. ka shall be taken as 1.3.9.5.3. The program default for ka is 1. Interpolation is used between these limits.10.1). ag  10 mm 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength.2. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less.4)  For members with an effective depth greater than 400.3.Chapter 9 .0.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as: Beam Design 9 . For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more. kd   400 / d  0.15.3.9.0.   ag  10   ka  0.3.00 . ag  20 mm  20   1.0 (NZS 9.1) 9.4. N < 0  g c    (NZS 10.15 .3. the value of ka shall be taken as 0.10. kd = 1.4) The factor kn allows for the influence of axial loading (NZS 10.3.9.85.0  For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm.9.3. N > 0  Ag fc'      *   N  * 1  12  A f '  .3.4) The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions:  For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9. N* = 0   N*   * kn  1  3  . ag  20 mm  (NZS 9.85  0. kd = 1.85.3.15   .

5.9. Av v *   s vc  s  s f yt d *   (NZS 7.3.3.3.3.5bw). 9 .5bw.3. 9.4. obtained from each load combination.9.2)  If sc <   smax. 9.5.3. * (NZS 9.3)  If  > max.9.4.9. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The maximum of all of the calculated Av s values.5.3) Av =0 s  If s v c 2  <   sc.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design * V  = bw d * (NZS 7.4. vmax = min 0.15) (NZS 9. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 300 mm and 0.9.2.13).3. 9.5. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.16 Beam Design .2.13) Av 1 = s 16 * f c bw f yt (NZS 7. * (NZS 7. 0. 8 MPa c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows:  If   s v c 2  or h ≤ max(300 mm.4.10. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.1) The average shear stress is limited to a maximum of. no shear reinforcement is required (NZS 9.3.9. a failure condition is declared.2 f  .

5. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.  Determine critical torsion capacity. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7. *  Determine special section properties.3). tc. T . the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T .Design for NZS 3101-06 9. 9. such as Aco. If redistribution is desired. and to are calculated. 9. Aco = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Ao pc = Gross area enclosed by shear flow path = Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Beam Design 9 .5. Ao. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.Chapter 9 . the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. the * design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.1.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. However. po. special section properties.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.5.1).3.6. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the factored torsion.3. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. pc.  Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.17 .

For torsion design of flanged beam sections.1) (NZS 7. such as Ao.75 Ao po = 0.75 Ao po = 0. This is equivalent to a 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm stirrup.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. With this assumption.75 Aco pc (NZS 7.18 Beam Design .1) 9 .1) (NZS 7. h. With this assumption.1) (NZS 7. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco = bh Ao = (b  2c)(h  2c) pc po tc to = 2b + 2h = 2(b  2c) + 2(h  2c) = 0. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. po.75 Aco pc (NZS 7. Similarly. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = bwh + (bf – bw)hf Ao = (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) pc po tc to = 2bf + 2h = 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) = 0.1) (NZS 7. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. However.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design po tc to = Perimeter of area Ao = Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section = Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.1) (NZS 7. and to.1) (NZS 7. and c are shown in Figure 9-3. the section dimensions b.1) (NZS 7.1) where.

7).6. bw. defined as: T*  0.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.19 .3) Beam Design 9 .3. Tcr. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7. The stress caused by torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.1. and f c is the specified concrete compressive strength. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr   0.6.5.Design for NZS 3101-06 c b  2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h  2c h h h h  2c c b bw  2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design where the section dimensions bf.1.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.Chapter 9 . hf. 9. h.6.08 f 'c  2 Ao t o (NZS 7. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3.1.

2 f 'c . torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7. 9 .6. 7. and meets the torsion stress limit.2) Al  vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement * If the factored torsion. In that case.2) An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn  vtn  min(0. a failure message is declared.4.8. Tcr.6.8 MPa) (NZS 7. is calculated as: * At vtn t o  s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7. At s.6. However.6.1). If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit.5.6. if T exceeds the threshold limit.6. provided it is fully developed.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn  T*  2 Ao t o (NZS 7.5 Ao t c  spo f y Ao * * (NZS 7. the concrete section should be increased in size.1. where At s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement. At Al 1. bw is replaced with b. is less than the threshold limit.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.1.3. In that case. T .20 Beam Design .6.2) * * For rectangular sections. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.4.1).  If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.5.6) The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.4.

the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 9. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Design for NZS 3101-06 The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of the element boundaries. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Chapter 9 .1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.21 . described in the subsections that follow. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. are repeated for every load combination. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. These two steps. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top Slab Design 9 . The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at specific locations along the length of the strip. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. 9. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

1.6.4. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.2. 8. In some cases. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 8.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.2. 9. at a given design section in a design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6.1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.5. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).22 Slab Design .3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12. 9.1.8. is obtained and reported.5. given the bending moment. 2. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control.4 ):  0 . Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6.8. 9 . 9. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7 bh  As   f y 0.0014bh  f y  500 MPa f y  500 MPa (NZS 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1) In addition.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. Where openings occur. In that case.6. for each load combination.

For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. 9. The column location (i. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.Chapter 9 .2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment * The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be f M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be v M . where Slab Design 9 .23 .2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.7. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.e.6.1(b)).6.2.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.7.1(b))..1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d 2 from the face of the support (NZS 12. interior. Only the code-specific items are described in the following.2. edge.

f  as follows: c (NZS 9. for corner columns. for edge columns.3.1.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: 1  2  c  1   f  c  6  1   d   vc  min   1  s  f  c b0  6  1 f  c 3  (NZS 12.7.7. and s is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.2(b)) A limit is imposed on the value of  f   100 c 9 .2) where.2(a)). 9. 12.3.7.5(6)) (NZS 12.3.3.7.2 ) v = 1 − (NZS 12.7. 20   s  15 10  for interior columns.24 Slab Design .2.7.7.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f = 1  2 3 b1 b2 1  2 3 b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.6.9. c is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.

25 .4 Determine Maximum Shear Stress Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. I 22  Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 .6. for the side of the critical section 12 12 parallel to the 3-axis Eq. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq. for side of critical section parallel to 2-axis I 22  Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( y2  y3 ) 2 . I 33. 2 I 33  sides 1  n I 33 . * V *  V 2[ M 2  V * ( y3  y1 )] [ I 33 ( y4  y3 )  I 23 ( x4  x3 )] v    b0d I 22 I 33  I 232 *  V3 * [ M 3  V * ( x3  x1 )] [ I 22 ( x4  x3 )  I 23 ( y4  y3 )] I 22 I 33  I 232 Eq. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.Chapter 9 . 1 I 22  sides 1  n n I 22 . 4 The equations for I 22 . and I 23 are different depending on whether the side of the critical section for punching shear being considered is parallel to the 2axis or parallel to the 3-axis. where "sides" refers to the sides of the critical section for punching shear Eq.2. 5b Slab Design 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 9. 5a Eq. Refer to Figures 9-5. 3 I 23  sides 1  I 23 .

Coordinates are (x 2. for the side of the critical section parallel to the 2-axis or 3-axis where. 6 I 33  Ld ( x2  x3 ) 2 . 6a and 7 Figure 9-5 Shear Stress Calculations at Critical Sections I 33  Ld 3 dL3   Ld ( x2  y3 ) 2 .y3 Center of side of critical section being considered.26 Slab Design . for the side of the critical section 12 12 parallel to the 2-axis Eq. L x2 .y3 Work This Sketch With Equations 5b. 3 Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear. Eq.y3). L y2 . for the side of the critical section parallel to the 3-axis Eq.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line x2 . Coordinates are (x 2.x 3 3 2 y2 .y3). Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 2-Axis Work This Sketch With Equations 5a. Side of critical section being considered shown solid Centroid of entire critical section for punching shear.y2).x 3 Side of critical section being considered shown solid Center of side of critical section being considered. 6b I 23  Ld ( x2  x3 )( y2  y3 ) .y2). Coordinates are (x 3. 6b and 7 2 Plan View For Side of Critical Section Parallel to 3-Axis Critical section for punching shear shown by heavy line. Coordinates are (x 3. 7 9 .

Design for NZS 3101-06 b0 d = Perimeter of critical section for punching shear = Effective depth at critical section for punching shear based on average of d for 2 direction and d for 3 direction = Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 2-axis = Moment of inertia of critical section for punching shear about an axis that is parallel to the local 3-axis = Product of inertia of critical section for punching shear with respect to the 2 and 3 planes = Length of the side of the critical section for punching shear currently being considered I22 I33 I23 L * M 2 = Moment about line parallel to 2-axis at center of column (positive per right-hand rule) * M 3 = Moment about line parallel to 3-axis at center of column (positive per right-hand rule) V V * = Punching shear stress = Shear at center of column (positive upward) * x1. y1 = Coordinates of column centroid x2. y2 = Coordinates of center of one side of critical section for punching shear x3.27 . y3 = Coordinates of centroid of critical section for punching shear x4.Chapter 9 . y4 = Coordinates of location where you are calculating stress V2 V3 = Percent of MU2 resisted by shear = Percent of MU3 resisted by shear Slab Design 9 .

2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. .2. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section. 9.7.3. If this ratio exceeds 1.6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc  1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.3.1).5 f  c * (NZS 12.5) 9.7. where.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. 9. 9 . and vmax. The design of punching shear reinforcement is performed as described in the subsections that follow. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.4. is the strength reduction factor.6.4) Given v .3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.28 Slab Design . vc.7.5 Determine Capacity Ratio The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.6.0.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.

3.3) (NZS 12.7.29 . The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the Slab Design 9 . 9. the concrete section should be increased in size. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7.  If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.e.Design for NZS 3101-06 Av  vn  vc   s  f yv d (NZS 12.4. a failure condition is declared. Figure 9-6 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.6.3.Chapter 9 .2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs  1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-6 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d 2.7. and corner column.4)  If vn > vmax. edge.4. i..

4. g.4) 9 . The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.5d s  0.7. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees. and 8.4) (NZS 12.7.4. 6. and interior columns respectively.7.6. so. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4. for corner.4) (NZS 12. 9.30 Slab Design . s. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. When specifying shear studs. Therefore. The limits of so and the spacing. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.4).7.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.3. the distance.5d g  2d (NZS 12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. Height.5d. edge.

10. The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. mm 2 Notations 10 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.1 .Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used. The design is based on user-specified load combinations.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99]. is selected. For simplicity.

Mu bd fcu 2 10 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending.t Asv sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.2 Notations . mm Flange thickness. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. assumed as 200. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. mm Torsional constant. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Normalized design moment.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength.

mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. mm Lever arm.3 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Maximum Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. N-mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3  b f m c s 's Notations 10 . MPa Neutral axis depth. MPa Torsional shear stress.Chapter 10 .  f cu 30 Design moment at a section.

including pattern live load.3).2). and considering that wind forces are reversible.4.75PL) 1.1. 10 .3) (CP 2.4D 1. The input material strengths are used for design even if they are outside of the limits. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2. 10.4 Design Load Combinations .6 (0.0D  1.2L  1.2D + 1.3) (CP 2. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2W (CP 2. Note that the automatic combination. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4.4W 1.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.4D + 1.4. and wind (W) loads.4.7.4D  1. γf (CP 2.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety. 1.6L 1. If a structures is subjected to dead (D). It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.4W 1.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4D + 1. live (L).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1.3). pattern live (PL). fcu.

Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:  Design flexural reinforcement  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . torsion.15 1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. m. and torsion only.4. shear forces. but can be overwritten. and torsion based on the beam moments.50 1.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. 10. The values of m used in the program are listed in the table that follows and are taken from CP Table 2. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.2 (CP 2.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.1): Values of m for the Ultimate Limit State Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.25 These factors are incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. shear. shear.Chapter 10 . and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. load combination factors. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.4.5 .

5.4.4. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.3.0035  c    fcu  60  0.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. the width. the following steps are involved:  Determine factored moments  Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. BC 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. for a particular station. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.0035  50000  if fcu  60MPa if fcu  60MPa (CP 2.4).5. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or the strength of the concrete. In such cases. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.5. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2) 10 . The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.6 Beam Design . In such cases.5. where c is defined as: 0. 10.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.

is summarized in the text that follows.and T-beams). The depth of the compression block is given by: 0.4.Chapter 10 .4) Beam Design 10 .4).7 .9. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.8x for  0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . hence. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. BC 2.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.1.9x for   a  0. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.e. Msingle.4 for d  0. CP 3. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.2.33 for  fcu  60 N/mm 2 60  fcu  75N/mm 2 75  fcu  105N/mm 2 (CP 3. 0.4.4.4. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.4.72x for  f cu  60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu  75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu  105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. less than. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4.4.4.2) The design procedure used by SAFE.4.4.5 for x    0.1).5. where 2 (CP 3. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L..1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.4). For reinforced concrete design where design ultimate axial compression load does not exceed (0.1fcuAg) (CP 3. Axial compression greater than 0. In addition. axial force is ignored. BC 2.4.1fcuAg g and axial tensions are always included in flexural and shear design. or equal to Msingle. shear. and torsion only. is first calculated for a section. See Figure 10-1.4.4. 10.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.4. b  0.

4.4.87 f y z (CP 3.4) K M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.4.67 fcu  m d x a d As BEAM SECTION s STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design  0.25   0. where 0.4) 10 .156 for f cu  60 N/mm 2   K '   0.4.   If M  Msingle.4)  K    0. is given by: As  M .5  0.094 for 75  f cu  105N/mm and no moment redistribution.120 for 60  f cu  75N/mm 2  2  0.8 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c b A s fs Cs 0.9    (CP 3.4.4. the area of tension reinforcement.95d z  d  0. As.

3.1.. i.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10. Fig 2.4.4.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.e. Beam Design 10 .4.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.e.2) d 2   800  d    The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As  Msingle 0.4.9 . M (i.2.5.2.  If M > Msingle. or at the top if M is negative.. no flanged beam data is used. designing top reinforcement).5.9    10.4.87 fy s if d  d  fy  1 1   (CP 3.67 fcu   d  d  f 's  m    (CP 3. Fig 2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. and f  = 0.3.4)  K'    0.25   0.4.1.2.4.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4. 2.Chapter 10 .5.95d z  d  0.4. 2.2) 2  800  f  1 f ' s  E s  c 1  2d   if d   1  y  (CP 3.87 f y z  0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.4. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s  M  Msingle  0.87 f y  d  d   M  Msingle . where (CP 3.1.5  0.4.5.

the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.1. c 0.5. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.67 fcu  m bf hf d x d f s A s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION s STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.2.10 Beam Design .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. See Figure 10-2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 . On the basis of this assumption.4. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3.67 fcu  m 0.

8x for  0. Cf.36 .45d then. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.2.9x for   a  0.25    K    0.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: d  z  0.9  (CP 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d 0.4.95d 0.5)  f  0. BC 2.45 h f  bw  h f  bw 1  1    2d   0.5h f  .4.4.  If a > hf.4. where (BS 3.3)  If a  hf. In that case. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.45 . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 0.15 b d  b   (BS 3.4.40 d  z  0. for  0. Cw.72x for  f cu  60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu  75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu  105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. for  d  z x . Fig 2.4.4.4. BC 2. However.4.45d  h f  0.5  0.1 f cu bd 0.Chapter 10 . Fig 2. as shown in Figure 10-2.4.4. If M ≤ f fcubd and hf ≤ 0. for  fcu  60 N/mm 2 60  fcu  75N/mm 2 75  fcu  105N/mm 2 (CP 3.11 . 2 As  M  0.4.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .87 f y d  0.2.

67 fcu   d  d'  s  f  m    where.4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.4)  If Kw  0.4.4).4. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.5h f  The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.5  0.4.5h f  Mf  Mw . The compression reinforcement is computed as: A  s M w  Muw  0.4.9     If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.12 Beam Design . compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3.87 f y d  0. where 0. As  0.95d  0.4).25  w   0.156 (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f  0.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.87 f y z  K  z  d  0. and 10 .4.5) Mw  M M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.4.45 fcu  b f  bw  h f  d  0.4.4.

4.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength. Fig 2.4 bf bw  0.4.32 0.5. 2.27 (CP 3.36 0.87 f y if d  d  fy  1 1   (CP 3.1.3.2) 2  800  fy  1  2d '  f ' s  E s  c 1  if d   1   (CP 3.20 Beam Design 10 .13 Section Rectangular Situation  T.24 fy = 460 MPa 0. 2.9    10.5.13 .4.87 f y  Mf M M  M uw   uw  w   z d d '   d  0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.5.or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.24 0.5  0.5h f    K  z  d  0.4.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.4. Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.3.48 0.12.Chapter 10 . which is taken from CP Table 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 f ' s  0. Fig 2.25    0.95d  0.4.13 100 0.5.26 100 0.4 bf   A 100 s bh As 100 bw h 100 0.2) d 2 d  800     The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As  1 0.

 Determine the shear stress.2). BC 2.6. if it is required.1). the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3.5):  Determine the shear stress. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.40 0.27 (CP 3.5.  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.14 Beam Design .20 0.5. An upper limit of 0. 10.3.5.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3.4. 10 . v.or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.12.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.12. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table. for a particular load combination.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of  cu    40   2/3 (CP 3. which is taken from CP Table 3.12. that can be resisted by the concrete. vc. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Section Rectangular Situation  Web in tension T.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the following steps are involved (CP 3.20 A s bh A s 100 bf hf 100 100 A s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.3). In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.

84k1k 2  100 As  3  400  vc       m  bd   d  (CP 3. is calculated as: v'c  vc  0.5.25 1  80     30  1 3 However.4.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. 1 ≤ k2 ≤  30  m = 1.2.5.8 fcu .1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.8) (CP 3.1)  f 3 k2 =  cu  .5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.5. 7 MPa).Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10.4.12) 0.4.4. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.4.6 NVh N  vc 1  Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (CP 3. Table 3.2.4) (CP 2. The shear stress is then calculated as: v V bw d (CP 3.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.15 .2) The maximum allowable shear stress.4. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.4.4) 10.63 fcu . the following limitations also apply: Beam Design 10 .5.Chapter 10 .4.5. vc.5.4. (CP 3.5.2) For light-weight concrete. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.

9) (CP 3. Table 3. (CP 3. Table 3.3.15  100 As 3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.5.5.5.3.8) f cu  80N/mm 2 (for calculation purpose only)  If v ≤ vc + vr.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 0.5.5.4.9)  400     d   0.4  cu     40    if f cu  40N/mm 2 if 40  f cu  80N/mm 2 (CP 3.12) fcu  80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Vh 1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10.  sv 0.9) (CP 3. Table 3. a failure condition is declared. Table 3.4.8) Asv  v  v 'c  b  sv 0.67 (unreinforced) or  1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4. (CP 3. CP 3.4  2 vr   3 f 0.2) 10 .3.4.5.4.2. v’c.5.3):  Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.4.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.87 f yv  If v > vc + vr.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3. as:  0. vr.4. Table 3.8) As vr b .4. and vmax.3.4.4.5.4.5. Table 3.16 Beam Design .4.8) (CP 3.5.5. (CP 3.8.87 f yv  If v > vmax. Table 3.

The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the torsional shear stress.5. a limit is imposed on the fyv as fyv  460 MPa (CP 3. vt. obtained from each load combination.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.  Determine critical torsion stress.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv sv values.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.  Determine the torsion reinforcement required.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 In the preceding expressions. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforce- Beam Design 10 . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 10. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2.4.17 .5.Chapter 10 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. In typical framed construction.  Determine special section properties. 10. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5.3.

067 fcu .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ment.min is defined as: vt . a failure condition is generated: vt  min 0.4.1) For flanged sections.0.5) 10.4. The torsional shear stress.min  min 0.4.2) = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. vt.5) 10 .15). vt .8   (CP Part 2 5. does not satisfy the following limit for sections with a larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. vt . the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.4. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam.6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.4.18 Beam Design . For light-weight concrete.6N/mm 2  0.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.8 fcu .5.067 fcu .min  min 0. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .6N/mm 2   (CP Part 2 2. vt.0. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.4. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt  h 2 min 2T hmax  hmin / 3 (CP Part 2 2.7N/mm 2    y1 550 (CP Part 2 2. calculated as: Tseg hmax hmin 3  hmin hmax  T   h3 h min max        (CP Part 2 2.5.3.4.min.

87 f yv  (CP Part 2 2. a failure message is declared. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. the concrete section should be increased in size.8 x1 y1 0. x1 is the smaller center-to-center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center-to-center dimension of the closed link.min.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.6). An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v  vt  min 0.4. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3.t sv.4.7N/mm 2   (CP Part 2 2. vt. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4. vt.Chapter 10 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.5.6).min. Beam Design 10 .7) In the preceding expressions. However. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al  Asv .  If vt > vt.t sv  T 0.4. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2. is calculated as: Asv .19 .4. is less than the threshold limit.t f yv  x1  y1  sv f y (CP Part 2 2.t sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. In that case. In that case. vt.8 fcu . Asv. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.min.

The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.20 Slab Design . which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is completed based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. 10. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b  2c c ds bf c h  2c h h h  2c c b bw  2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. To learn more about the design strips.6. 10 .

The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.3.Chapter 10 . Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of the element boundaries.21 . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1. Where openings occur.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. These two steps described in the subsections that follow are repeated for every load combination.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is performed at specific locations along the length of the strip. 10.5.6. is obtained and reported.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. at a given design section in a design strip.6. In some cases. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:  Determine factored moments for each slab strip.1. In that case. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 10.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Slab Design 10 .12. 10.1. for each load combination. given the bending moment. CP Table 3.

6.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.0024bh  As   0.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .0013bh  2 if f y  250 MPa if f y  460 MPa (CP 3.2.5d from the face of the support (CP 3.4.7.5. interior. 3.7. 10. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3. edge.. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.12.7. the preceding minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied 2/3 by (fcu/40) .2.4.22 Slab Design . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 10.4.4. In addition.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.7.5.7.84k1k 2  100 As  3  400  vc       m  bd   d  1 1 4 (CP 3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 0.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3.1).6.6).e. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1). the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.7.7. Table 3. 10.8) 10 .04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.7.6. The column location (i. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.7.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. 3.7.6): 0.4.12.5.6.

5.4.5d 1. Table 3.4.5d Interior Column 1.5. the following limitations also apply: 0.9) For light-weight concrete.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 1  f  k2 =  cu  1 ≤ k2 ≤  30  m = 1.9) Slab Design 10 .4.5.2) However.4. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.63 fcu .2. vmax is defined as: v  min(0.4.5.5d 1.9) (CP 3. Table 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1.23 . Table 3.9)  400     d   0.4.4) v  min (0.25 3  80     30  1 3 (CP 3.4. Table 3.8 fcu .Chapter 10 .5. 7 MPa) (CP 3.5d 1.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.15  100 As 3 bd 1 4 (CP 3.67 (unreinforced) or  1 (reinforced)(CP 3.4.

5 M y   Veff . u is the perimeter of the critical section.2.6.7.7.3 Determine Maximum Shear Stress Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.7. y  ud  (CP 3. the nominal design shear stress.6.7.4. x and y are the lengths of the sides of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V f is the total punching shear force is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: 10 .5.3) where. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.7.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fcu  80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.5 M x Veff . x   ud  max  Veff . 10. y  V  f   Vx   (CP 3.7.6.6. v.2.24 Slab Design . 3.9) As = area of tension reinforcement.4.3) 1. Table 3. is calculated as:  1.3) vmax Veff . 3. x  V  f   Vy      (CP 3.2.

2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 3. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3. and for corner columns.7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.25 .7.7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is completed as described in the following subsections.6.25 1. If this ratio exceeds 1. vc.6.0. 10.6.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1. 10. (CP 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.00  f  1.25  for interior columns.4 Determine Capacity Ratio The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5). If the slab thickness does not meet this requirement.2.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.6.6.7. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.7.5).7. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 10. 3. and vmax.3.7.2. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.Chapter 10 .3.7.6.5) Given v. for edge columns.3) 10. Slab Design 10 .

 s 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 10. a failure condition is declared.e. (CP 3.4ud Av 5  0. the concrete section should be increased in size.7. (CP 3.7.3.  s 0. 0. i.7.87 f yv  If v > vmax.7.87 f yv 0.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.5) 0. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 10 ..26 Slab Design .7.6. and corner column.5) (CP 3.6vc .4ud Av  v  vc  ud = .6vc  v < 2.87 f yv 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  If v  1. edge.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.7v  vc  ud = .7. Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.87 f yv  If 1.0vc .

14-. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.75d g  1. so.7.7.5d (CP 3.3. and interior columns respectively.7. Height. 12-.6) (CP 3. edge. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.Chapter 10 .5d. 6.6). The limits of so and the spacing. the distance. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 10.7. g.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.27 . between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7. for corner.5d.7. s.7.5d s  0.7. Therefore. When specifying shear studs. and 20-millimeter diameters. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3. and 8.6) (CP 3. 16-.6) Slab Design 10 .3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.

The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 11 Design for AS 3600-09 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2009 [AS 2009] is selected. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. For simplicity.1 Notations Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 111.1 . The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. 11. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. mm Notations 11 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code Asc Ast Ast(required) Asv Asv. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement.2 Notations . mm Depth of compression block. mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). mm Width of web (flanged section). mm Width of member. mm Mean value of do. mm 2 2 2 Area of required tension reinforcement. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Overall depth of a section. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf fcv Area of compression reinforcement. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). MPa Concrete shear strength. MPa 2 11 . mm Depth to neutral axis. mm Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties.

3 .max Tus T* ut V* Vu. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. MPa Torsional modulus. (0. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement h c c.min Vuc Vus γ1 Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement. to the effective depth. mm Factored shear force at a section. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement.max Vu. mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face.Chapter 11 . N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement.Design for AS 3600-09 Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code fsy fsy. N-mm Factored moment at section.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu. max s Notations 11 . N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. N-mm Factored axial load at section. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. N Shear force resisted by concrete.

2D + 1.75 PL) 1.4L  1.0-02.2D + 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. 11.2. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 2.1(b)).2. For AS 3600-09.2. 4.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 100 MPa and 20 MPa. if a structure is subjected to dead (D).0-02. 4. 4.2): 1.35D 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. 4.1. 4.4.2D  1. 4. 4.4 Design Load Combinations .0W 1.2. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2009 code is used.0W 1.0-02.9D  1. for all framing types (AS 3.5(0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1.2.0E 1.0-02.2D + 1. 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 11-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2009 Code  t v Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. live (L). degrees 11.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. 11 .4L + 1.5L 1.2.2.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.1. and earthquake (E) loads.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02. snow (S).0-02.0-02.0D  1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. respectively.0D + 0.4L  1.2D + 0.0-02.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170. pattern live (PL).0E (AS/NZS 1170.0-02. wind (W).2.0S 0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(f)) Note that the 0.2.

4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor.1.1.2. Table 2.2.2: For members with Class N reinforcement only  = 0.60 for flexure (compression controlled)  = 0. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.2.2(b)) (Table 2.2(b)) (Table 2.2. however.2.2.2.1.1. caution is advised.60 for flexure (compression controlled) For members with Class L reinforcement (Table 2.80 for flexure (tension controlled)  = 0.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.Chapter 11 . 17. .2.2(b)) (Table 2.2.2(b)) Strength Reduction Factors 11 .1.2(ii).1. 11.1).2.2. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 3.1.1).5 .1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 3. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.64 for flexure (tension controlled)  = 0. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits. Table 3.2(b))  = 0.1. 3.1) (AS 3.1.Design for AS 3600-09 f 'c  100 MPa f 'c  20 MPa (AS 3. (Table 2. is defined as given in AS 2.

In such cases the 11 . torsion.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. load combination factors. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. and other criteria described in the text that follows. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5. the following steps are involved:  Determine factored moments and factored axial forces  Determine required flexural reinforcement for bending and axial forces 11. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. shear.6 Beam Design . Effects resulting from any minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. axial. the factored moments and axial forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. and torsion only. for a particular station. and torsion based on the beam moments. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1. shear forces.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 11.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:  Design flexural reinforcement for bending and axial loading  Design shear reinforcement  Design torsion reinforcement 11. shear.

The following assumptions apply to the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.003 f 'c where. is given by amax   ku d where.1.67   2  0.5.Design for AS 3600-09 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.  The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.  A uniform compressive stress of α2 f' c acts on an area (AS 8.003 f 'c where. amax. and located at a distance kud from the extreme compression fiber.3(b)) (AS 8. is limited to 500MPa (AS 3.1.3(1)) (AS 8. 0.003 (AS 8. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.3(2))  2  1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. (AS 8.0  0. the width.1. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.85   1.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.Chapter 11 . – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. 11.67    0.2). even if the material property is defined using a higher value. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.0  0. as shown in Figure 11-1 (AS 8.3(b)) bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections.1.7 .1.2.1. or the strength of the concrete.85 Beam Design 11 . The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.1).2).3(a)). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. 0. fy .

3) Figure 11-1 Rectangular Beam Design 11 . where. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 11-1). * ad d  2 2 M*  2 f 'c  b (AS 8. designing top or bottom reinforcement).. 11. M (i.8 Beam Design .5.5) The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.1. all beams are designed for major direction flexure. and torsion only.36 (AS 8. hence.2.1.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.1a). shear.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0.1.7.e.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ku = 0.15N ) (AS 10.

1..2)  c  d  f   0.2. where  f 's   2 f 'c  d  d   (AS 8.5) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C   2 f 'c bamax (AS 8.9 .1. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us  M *  M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc  M us . the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast  M* a   fsy  d   2  * This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.Design for AS 3600-09 where.80 (AS 2. or at the top * if M is negative.1.36. the value of  is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.003Es  s   fsy  c  Beam Design 11 .3) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a  M uc  C  d  max 2     Therefore. ku > 0.2) in the preceding and following equations.  If a > amax.1.2. 3. which by default is 0.  If a  amax.2.e.36). The selection of Reinforcement Class can be made using the Design Preferences. i.Chapter 11 .

If the moment is negative. In that case.. and vice versa if M is negative. Figure 11-2 T-Beam Design 11 . i. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. as shown in Figure 112. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2.1. the flange comes under tension. and the flange is ignored.2. if the moment is positive.5.10 Beam Design .1. is assumed if the flange is under compression.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1  M uc a   f sy d  max  2   and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2  Mus fsy  d  d    Therefore. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 111 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.5). a simplified stress block. 11.e.

Design for AS 3600-09 11. Cw.5)  If a  Ds. the width of the beam is taken as bf.2. amax.5.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. no flanged beam data is used.3(b)) * Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is  min  Ds .2.11 .. ku = 0. amax  Therefore. which is 0.80 by default (AS 2.36.2.36 (AS 8. the calculation for Ast has two parts. designing top reinforcement). The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.e. in that case. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a  d  d2  2M *  2 f 'c  b f where.2. the value of  is taken as that for ku ≤ 0. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.2) in the preceding and the following equations. However. M (i.1.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0. i. * 11..Chapter 11 . The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.  If a > Ds.2. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. as shown in Figure 11-2. is given by: amax  ku d where. amax   Muf   C f  d     2   Beam Design 11 . Cf. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.5. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. As1  given by: (AS 8.1. Cf is given by: C f   2 f 'c  bef  bw   min  Ds .1.e.1.

and a1    f sy  d   2  Ast  As1  As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2  M uw .  If a1 > amax.3) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a   M uc  C w  d  max  2   and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us  M uw  M uc Therefore. the balance of the moment M to be carried by the web is: Muw  M *  Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw   2 f 'c bw amax (AS 8. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1  d  d 2  2 M uw  2 f   bw c  If a1  amax.1. the compression reinforcement is computed as: 11 .12 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design * Therefore.

2.1.1): 2  D  f  .4 s  0.and T-Sections with the flange in tension: 1/ 4 .Chapter 11 .2. 11.1.1(2)) Beam Design 11 .min   b   bd . where    2 f   d  d   fs c (AS 8.1(2)) (AS8.1. for Rectangular Section for L.1. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. (AS8. where d  f sy  (AS 8.6.1.6. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit (AS 8.and T-Sections with the web in tension:  bf   bf  D   b  0.6.2)  c  d  f   0.18   0.5.Design for AS 3600-09 Asc  M us .003Es  max s   fsy  cmax  The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2  M uc a   f sy  d  max   2   and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3  M us f sy  d  d    The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.20    1  0.20   D   bw   bw  for L.13 .1.1.6.f ct Ast . 3.1(2))  b  20.

11. (AS8.1(2)) f 'ct . for a particular load combination. that can be resisted by the concrete.04bw d 0.14 Beam Design .  Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design  bf   bf  D   b  0. f  0.1. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.25 s  0. V .20    1  0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 11.5.1. with the corresponding load combination factors.04bd Ast   0.08   0.5.3(b)) An upper limit of 0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1.04bd Asc   0. 11 . Vuc.6 f 'c (AS 3. *  Determine the shear force.20   D   bw   bw  2/3 .2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.6.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: 0.2. the following steps are involved:  Determine the factored shear force.

2.2).75 by default (AS 2.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . where.Chapter 11 .11.7. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. Beam Design 11 .2. is calculated as:  A  Vuc  1 2 3bw d o f 'cv  st   bw d o  where.2.5 A g   N*  14 A g     0 for members subject to significant axial tension.7.6) Given V .2.1 1000  = 1   N*  3. Vuc.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.5.  If V *  Vuc / 2.max. or do    1.1) (AS 8.1) (AS 8.2. .   = 1  β3 = 1 11.7. is 0.5.6  β2 = 1. and Vu. the strength reduction factor.1) f 'cv   f 'c    1/3  4MPa (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-09 11. Vuc.6bv d o Vu .15 .2. min  Vuc  0.9) (AS 8. max  0.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete. 13 (AS 8. or     for members subject to significant axial compression.2.2.1) 1  1.7.

35 w  s f sy. V *  Vuc Asv .  If Vu.  s fsy. a failure condition is declared. which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when V =Vu.min shall be provided. the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored.16 Beam Design . the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.6)  If V exceeds its maximum permitted value Vmax. The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. if D ≤ 750 mm. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm. min  b   0.3.2. whichever is greater (AS 8.4(b). s  If Vuc / 2   V *  Vu. defined as:   (AS 8.5(c)(i)). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required. otherwise Asv.max .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv  0 .min to 45 degrees when V = Vu.2.2.min.8) v = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8. Asv  0. (AS 8.min .2.6). s otherwise Asv.min  V *  Vu.max.10) Asv. f      (AS 8. * (AS 8.min shall be provided.5). Any minimum stirrup require- 11 . f do cot  v and greater than Asv.2.  If V *  Vmax .

5.2). 11. 11. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. However. T .3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. the * design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.  Determine critical torsion capacity.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. If redistribution is desired. *  Determine special section properties.3).5. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . Jt. At = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Beam Design 11 .Design for AS 3600-09 ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. special section properties such as At.3.5.3. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.Chapter 11 .  Determine the torsion reinforcement required.3. and ut are calculated. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion:  Determine the factored torsion. 11.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.17 .

such as Asw /s and Al. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 11-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle.18 Beam Design . Jt = 0.3. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At =  b  2c  h  2c  .6) (AS 8.3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However.3.5) (AS 8.3.33x2y where.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ut = Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Jt = Torsional modulus In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.33x2y where the section dimensions bw. the flange is considered during Tuc calculation.6) (AS 8. 11 .5) (AS 8. h. h and.3. With this assumption. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. (AS 8.3. Jt = 0. respectively.3) ut = 2  b  2 c   2  h  2 c  . (AS 8. the section dimensions b. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At =  bw  2c  h  2c  . For torsion design of flanged beam sections.3) ut = 2  h  2c   2  bw  2c  . it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. With this assumption. c are shown in Figure 11-3. Similarly.

Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any one of the following is satisfied: T *  0.3. Tuc.3 J t f c (AS 8.3.3.Chapter 11 .3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.Design for AS 3600-09 c c b  2c 2c c bef Ds d c h  2c h h h h  2c c b c bw  2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 11-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 11.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement. is calculated as: Tuc = 0.19 .5 Tuc Vuc T* V*   1 and D ≤ max(250mm. b/2) Tuc Vuc (AS 8.25Tuc T* V*   0.5) where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section.4(a)(iii)) Beam Design 11 .4(a)(ii)) (AS 8.5.3.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design
* *

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3).
 If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:
*

Asw T * tan  t  s  2 f sy. f At
where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw  s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = Tuc to 45 degrees when T = Tu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V*   1.0 Tus Vus
where,

(AS 8.3.4(b))

A  Tus  f sy. f  sw 2 At cot  t  s  Vus  Asv f sy. f d o / s cot  v
The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

A  0.5 fsy. f  sw  ut cot 2  t  s  Al  fsy

(AS 8.3.6(a))

11 - 20 Beam Design

Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

*

*

T* V*   1.0 Tu . max Vu . max
where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max  0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max  0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.3)
* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
*

A  0.35b  Asv  2 sw    s  f sy. f  s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv /s and Asw /s, Asv /s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv /s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently. The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

11.6

Slab Design
Similar to conventional design, the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The locations of

Slab Design 11 - 21

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete, as described in the following sections. To learn more about the design strips, refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.

11.6.1 Design for Flexure
SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments, which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads, irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following:
 Determine factored moments and axial forces for each slab strip.  Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.

These two steps, which are described in the following subsections, are repeated for every load combination. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip, along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers, is obtained and reported.

11.6.1.1

Determine Factored Moments for the Strip

For each element within the design strip, for each load combination, the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.

11 - 22 Slab Design

Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09

11.6.1.2

Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip

The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip, given the bending moment, is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). In some cases, at a given design section in a design strip, there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. In that case, the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. This is the method used when drop panels are included. Where openings occur, the slab width is adjusted accordingly.

11.6.1.3

Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement

The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9.1.1):
2 '  h  f ct , f As  0.24   bh for flat slabs  d  f sy , f 2 '  h  f ct , f As  0.19   bh  d  f sy , f

(AS 9.1.1(a))

for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings.

(AS 9.1.1(b))

In addition, an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.

11.6.2 Check for Punching Shear
The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.

Slab Design 11 - 23

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

11.6.2.1

Critical Section for Punching Shear

The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.2.1.1). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads, the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.2.1.3). Figure 11-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i.e., interior, edge, corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.
d 2

d 2

d 2

Interior Column
d 2

Edge Column

Edge Column

d 2

d 2

Circular Column

T-Shape Column

L-Shape Column

Figure 11-4 Punching Shear Perimeters

11.6.2.2

Determine Concrete Capacity

The shear capacity, fcv , is calculated based on the minimum of the two expressions from AS 9.2.3, as shown, with the dom and u terms removed to convert force to stress.

11 - 24 Slab Design

Chapter 11 - Design for AS 3600-09

 2   f c 0.17  1  h  fcv  min     c 0.34 f 

(AS 9.2.3(a))

where, h is the ratio of the longest dimension to the shortest dimension of the critical section.

11.6.2.3

Determine Maximum Shear Stress

The maximum design shear stress is computed along the major and minor axis of column separately using the following equation:

vmax 

V* ud om

 uM v  1.0  *  8V ad om  

(AS 9.2.4(a))

11.6.2.4

Determine Capacity Ratio

The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. If this ratio exceeds 1.0, punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.

11.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement
The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2009. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted, provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm, and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.7.4.1). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements, the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the ear-

Slab Design 11 - 25

i.26 Slab Design .e. (d)) where Vu is computed from AS 9.6.7.3) (NZS 12. *  If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.7.6. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.  is the strength reduction factor.2.3. 11.. Vu.3.4. 11.2. a failure condition is declared.3.3. where.2. 11 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design lier sections remain unchanged.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs  * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12.min = 3*Vu (AS 9.6.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4. Given V*.4)  If V > Vmax.3 or 9. edge.4(a). the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. s fsy dom   (AS 8. and Vu.2. Figure 11-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. 11.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. the concrete section should be increased in size. V *  Vu Asv  .max. and corner column.

3.5d. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. and interior columns respectively. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7. the distance.11 plus one-half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. edge. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. 6. the angle between adjacent Slab Design 11 . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 11-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 11. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.Design for AS 3600-09 The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.4. for corner. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. so. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. g. and 8.6.27 . The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12. When specifying shear studs.4). Height. Therefore.Chapter 11 .

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4.4) (NZS 12. The limits of so and the spacing.7.4) (NZS 12.5d g  2d (NZS 12.4.28 Slab Design .4) 11 .7.5d s  0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so  0. s.7.4.

Farmington Hills. 38800 Country Club Drive. Michigan. February 2008. 2008. AS. NSW 2001.O. Michigan. AS. 2001. Box 9094.References ACI. 2009. BC 2:2008. Australia.1 and Amendment No. BC. Standards Australia International Ltd. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. 2007. American Concrete Institute. ® TM R-1 . Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No.2R-07). Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. GPO Box 5420. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2009). American Concrete Institute. Australia. Sydney. Building and Construction Authority. ACI. Standards Australia International Ltd. NSW 2001. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). Farmington Hills. Singapore. Sydney. 2008. GPO Box 476. P. 2.

Rexdale. 2. 2. Part 2. European Committee for Standardization. Concrete Structures Standard. Ontario. March 2000. Mongkok. Belgium. Manak Bhavan. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. 1985. Brussels. Buildings Department. Canadian Standards Association. CP. Hong Kong. London. British Standards Institution. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. 2006. and 3. Singapore. A23. India. EN 1990:2002. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. CSA. HK CP. NZS. Brussels. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Canada. Twentieth Reprint. Structural Use of Concrete. Structural Use of Concrete. 2000. London. BSI. 1999. and 3. 2004. Private Bag 2439. 2004. 2005. Design of Concrete Structures.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Bureau of Indian Standards. UK. European Committee for Standardization. Part 1-1. September 2000. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. New Delhi 110002. Wellington. 1. Belgium. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. 1. Part 1. UK. 2005. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. 1. IS. British Standards Institution. New Zealand. Third Edition. EN 1992-1-1. Standards New Zealand. 750 Nathan Road. Kowloon. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. 1997. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures.3-04. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. incorporating Amendments Nos. R-2 . 2004. CP 65:Part 1:1999.