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Name: ________________________________

ENERGY Cheatsheet

Symbol Type of Energy When is this energy present? Equation Notes

1.6 1.4 1.2 1

1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Fs (N)

Fs (N)

r Sp

ing

= :k

0.

69

c N/

10

12

14

16

18

20

10

12

14

16

18

20

!x (cm)

1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

!x (cm)

Fs (N)

k= g 1: prin

Sp

rin

: g2

k=

69 .0 0

m /c N

N/c .034 0

10

12

14

16

18

20

!x (cm)

INSTRUCTIONS: Use pie charts to analyze the energy changes in each situation given. Designate your choice of system by explicitly listing the objects included. Divide the pies in a qualitatively accurate fashion, and label them with the energy storage mechanism involved. 1. ! A ball is held above the ground, and then is dropped so it falls straight down. (Restrict your analysis to the ball moving in the air, BEFORE it hits the ground.)

2.

A wind-up toy is wound up, then "walks" across a table and comes to a stop.

3.

An object rests on a coiled spring, and is then launched upwards. List the objects in your system Draw a pie chart for each position

4.

A piece of clay is dropped to the oor. List the objects in your system Draw a pie chart for each position

5.

A truck is driven at constant speed down the street. List the objects in your system Draw a pie chart for each position

6. A car on a frictionless roller coaster track, launched by a huge spring, makes it to the top of the loop.

Initial Final K v=0 v Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

7.

Initial Final K v=0 v Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

8.

Same as problem 8, but with friction between the cart and the track.

Initial Final K v=0 v Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

9.

Same as problem 8, but we take our nal snapshot earlier this time (the cart is only half-way up the loop).

Initial Final K v=0 v Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

Initial Final

v=0 v

Initial K Ug Us

Final Us Etherm

Initial Final K v Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

v=0

12. A load of bricks, resting on a compressed spring, is launched into the air.

Initial v Final K Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

v=0

y=0

13. Same as problem 14, but with the spring outside of the system.

Initial v Final K Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

v=0

y=0

14. Superman, stopping a speeding locomotive, is pushed backwards a few meters in the process.

Initial Final K v v=0 Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

15. A moving block hits a spring, traveling at 5 m/s at the time of contact. At the instant the block is motionless, by how much is the spring compressed? Assume none of the initial energy ends up stored as thermal energy.

Initial m=8.0 kg v=5.0 m/s Final k=50 N/m v=0 K Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

16. Determine nal velocity of the cart, assuming that 10% of the initial energy ends up stored as thermal energy due to the friction between the cart and the road.

Initial v=0 5m m=20 kg v=? Final K Initial Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm

17. Suppose in the spring lab, one group found that Fspring = (1000 N/m)(x). Construct a graphical representation of force-vs-displacement. (Hint: make the maximum displacement 0.25 m.) Graphically determine the amount of energy stored while stretching the spring from x = 0 cm to x = 10 cm.

Graphically determine the amount of energy stored while stretching the spring from x = 15 cm to x = 25 cm.

!

18. The graph below was made from data collected during an investigation of the relationship between the amount two different springs stretched when different forces were applied.

F N 40 35

30

25

For each spring, nd the amount of force required to stretch the spring 3.0 m.

20

15

Spring A

10

Spring B

Determine the amount that Spring A needs to be stretched in order to store 24 joules of energy.

x m

19. A brick falls (starting with a speed of 2 m/s straight down) from a height of 10 meters. How much work does the Earth do on the brick while it falls?

20. The same brick is tossed (with the same initial speed of 2 m/s) at an angle of 34 from a height of 10 m. How much work does the Earth do on the brick from the instant it leaves the hand until the instant it is about to touch the ground?

21. A block, sliding across a table, runs into a spring (that is secured at the other end to the wall). The block compresses the spring (ks = 15 N/m) by 25 cm. How much work does the spring do on the block?

10

22. A 500-kg pig is standing at the top of a muddy hill on a rainy day. The hill is 100.0 m long with a vertical drop of 30.0 m. The pig slips and begins to slide down the hill. What is the pigs speed at the bottom of the hill?

23. A 60 kg student jumps from the 10 meter platform at UDs swimming complex into the pool below. Once youve analyzed that situation, see what would be different if the student massed 75 kg instead of 60 kg.

11

Initial

Final

y=0

25. A 24 kg child descends a 5.0 m high slide and reaches the ground with a speed of 2.8 m/s.

12

26. A 0.500 kg block attached to a spring with length 0.60 m and spring constant 40 N/m is at rest with the back of the block at point A on a very low-friction, horizontal table. You pull the block to the right along the surface with a constant horizontal force of 20 N. When the back of the block reaches point B, you let go of the block.

27. The Great Pufni is an 80-kg circus performer who is shot from a cannon (actually a spring gun). You dont nd many men of his caliber, so you help him design a new gun. This new gun has a very large spring with a very small mass and a spring constant of 1100 N/m that he will compress with a force of 5500 N. The inside of the gun barrel is coated with Teon, so the average friction force will be only 40 N during the 5.0 m he moves in the barrel. At what speed will he emerge from the end of the barrel, 3.5 m above his initial rest position (3.5 m would be his vertical displacement as he travels along the barrel)?

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Worksheet 5: Power

Some space for notes about power:

28. A 60 kg box is lifted by a rope a distance of 10 meters straight up at constant speed. How much power is required to complete this task in 5 seconds?

29. Hulky and Bulky are two workers being considered for a job at the UPS loading dock. Hulky boasts that he can lift a 100 kg box 2 meters vertically, in 3 seconds. Bulky counters with his claim of lifting a 200 kg box 5 meters vertically, in 20 seconds. To which worker would you give a greater power rating?

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30. A 1994 Ford Mustang is driving down a road with a constant speed of 30 m/s. The engine must exert a 5000 N force to maintain this speed. a. How powerful is the engine (answer in Watts)?

b. How does the Mustang's power rating compare to the 220 hp Dodge Stealth engine (1 hp = 746 W)?

31. The trains on the Viper are raised from 10 m above ground at the loading platform to a height of 60 m at the top of the rst hill in 45 s. Assume that the train (including passengers) has a mass of 2500 kg. Ignoring frictional losses, what power motor would be required to accomplish this task?

32. Your electric utility company sends you a monthly bill informing you of the number of kilowatt-hours you have used that month. a. Is the utility charging you for energy or power? Explain.

b. How many joules of energy does your 1600W blow drier require if you dry your hair in 5 min?

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