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ARROWs for Change bulletin Vol. 17 No. 1 (Repoliticising Financing: Repoliticising Political Support for Women's Health and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights)

ARROWs for Change bulletin Vol. 17 No. 1 (Repoliticising Financing: Repoliticising Political Support for Women's Health and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights)

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Published by Malyn Ando
Guest edited by Shobha Raghuram, this latest issue of our flagship publication showcases articles exploring issues related to funding for women’s health, particularly for SRHR. Contributors include Saira Shameem, Ireen Dubel, Carolina Ruiz, Marina Durano and Margaret Chung for Spotlight articles; and Rosalia Sciortino for the Fact File. There are also Monitoring pieces from Raz Mohammad Dalili, Bushra Khaliq and Romelyn Imperio. The panel of reviewers for this issue include Adrienne Germain, Jacqueline Pitanguy, Khawar Mumtaz, Manisha Desai, Naeemah Khan, Noelene Nabulivou, Rokeya Kabir and Vanessa Griffen.

Published by the Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) and funded by Sida, this publication can be accessed at www.arrow.org.my/publications/AFC/v17n1.pdf

ARROWs for Change is a flagship, peer-reviewed bulletin that aims to contribute Asian-Pacific, global South, rights-based and gender perspectives to global discourses on emerging and persistent issues related to health, sexuality and rights. The thematic bulletin also explores the inter-linkages between SRHR issues and other development issues. Begun in 1995, the bulletin is currently produced twice yearly in English, and translated to strategic languages several times a year. It has a circulation of about 8,000 in 120 countries globally.

To get back issues of AFC, visit www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Subscription to AFC: e-copies is free, as is subscription to print copies for those based in Asia, Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe. A minimal fee for those based in North America and Western Europe is applicable. Get the form at www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Should you need print copies for distribution during meeting or for training purposes, let us know. ARROW also translates AFC into selected strategic Asia-Pacific languages. Contact us to discuss possible partnerships. Your thoughts and constructive comments are also welcome. Please email the Managing Editor, Malyn Ando, at malyn@arrow.org.my and afc@arrow.org.my
Guest edited by Shobha Raghuram, this latest issue of our flagship publication showcases articles exploring issues related to funding for women’s health, particularly for SRHR. Contributors include Saira Shameem, Ireen Dubel, Carolina Ruiz, Marina Durano and Margaret Chung for Spotlight articles; and Rosalia Sciortino for the Fact File. There are also Monitoring pieces from Raz Mohammad Dalili, Bushra Khaliq and Romelyn Imperio. The panel of reviewers for this issue include Adrienne Germain, Jacqueline Pitanguy, Khawar Mumtaz, Manisha Desai, Naeemah Khan, Noelene Nabulivou, Rokeya Kabir and Vanessa Griffen.

Published by the Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) and funded by Sida, this publication can be accessed at www.arrow.org.my/publications/AFC/v17n1.pdf

ARROWs for Change is a flagship, peer-reviewed bulletin that aims to contribute Asian-Pacific, global South, rights-based and gender perspectives to global discourses on emerging and persistent issues related to health, sexuality and rights. The thematic bulletin also explores the inter-linkages between SRHR issues and other development issues. Begun in 1995, the bulletin is currently produced twice yearly in English, and translated to strategic languages several times a year. It has a circulation of about 8,000 in 120 countries globally.

To get back issues of AFC, visit www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Subscription to AFC: e-copies is free, as is subscription to print copies for those based in Asia, Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe. A minimal fee for those based in North America and Western Europe is applicable. Get the form at www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Should you need print copies for distribution during meeting or for training purposes, let us know. ARROW also translates AFC into selected strategic Asia-Pacific languages. Contact us to discuss possible partnerships. Your thoughts and constructive comments are also welcome. Please email the Managing Editor, Malyn Ando, at malyn@arrow.org.my and afc@arrow.org.my

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Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) Vol. 17 No. 1 2011 www.arrow.org.

my n ISSN 1394-4444

Published by the Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW), www.arrow.org.my

Repoliticising Financing:
Declining development aid: The road to self-reliance? Development aid, with its rapidly changing trends and cut–backs, has been a matter of extreme concern for hundreds of civil society organisations (CSO) involved in bringing social justice to vulnerable populations. The pursuit of the right to development and the role of people’s organisations in achieving this, including for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), deserve consistent financing and long-term support from national governments and the international development community. However, the withdrawal from aid commitments by financial supporters of public causes, as well as growing privatisation of health care, have forced us to rethink what needs to be done. Revitalising the citizenship of women: Obligations and entitlements. To revitalise the search for equality, we need to change the way we have worked over the last several years. The dependency trap needs to be set right, not with more dependency but with more self-reliance. This ARROWs for Change bulletin issue on funding for women’s health, particularly SRHR, suggests that funding is a collective task and that fund-raising and fund-provisioning flow from citizenship2 obligations.It is a moral call for donors and donees alike. Donor support trends today often reduces the constituency in the field to a recipient rather than a partner with its own agency. Asia-Pacific region and development: The challenge for funders. Sixty percent of the world’s population live in this region of paradoxes, of high progress in certain areas and regressions in others. Two of the world’s most populous countries—China and India—have posted high economic growth rates. Yet, the region hosts two-thirds of the world’s poor—18.8 billion people live on less than US$2 a day, while 947 million live on less than US$1.25 a day.3 Forty-eight countries, in all their diversity of

Re-energising Political Support for Women’s Health and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights1
human development ranking and skewed Gender-related Development Index (GDI) indicators, offer a major challenge to governments, international donors and civil society activists. Moreover, the nature of uneven development and the neglect of women’s health in the region are stark. The highest mortality rates per 100,000 live births are in Afghanistan (1,700 per 100,000 in 1990 to 1,900 in 2000), Nepal (740) and Timor-Leste (660).4 To arrive at the levels of care provisioning already attained by women in the Northern countries, funds need to be doubled. Despite these, Asia receives the lowest per capita assistance of all regions—US$12 compared with US$45 for Africa.3 From South to South, the BRICS: New development funds for the LDCs? When some 9,000 government members and activists met from 9-13 May 2011 in Turkey, Istanbul at the fourth UN Conference on the Least Development Countries (LDCs), the much-needed financing for 48 LDCs (14 of which are from Asia-Pacific) was one of the items on the agenda. Since 1970, only three countries worldwide have managed to go above the US$745 annual income for LDC countries. This is a matter of global concern. Official development assistance (ODA, or aid) fell from US$122.4 billion in 2008 to US$120 billion in 2009 due to the recession. While this has gone up again to US$128.7 billion in 2010, OECD preliminary findings suggest slower aid growth in the future.5 Moreover, the 2010 ODA figures represent only 0.32% of the gross national income (GNI), a long way from the target of 0.7% of GNI agreed by governments at the UN in 1970,6 or even the revised target of 0.51% of GNI set by Development Assistance Committee (DAC) member countries in 2005.7 The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that US$68-70 billion yearly is needed to achieve the pledge at the International Conference on Population and Development
ARROW Photobank

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Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

(ICPD) for universal access to reproductive health.8,9 Of this amount, 1/3 (about US$21.7 billion) should come from donor funding, yet in 2008, donor funding was only US$10.4 billion.8,9 At the 4th UN LDC meeting, Northern developed countries failed to deliver on their pledges and did not make new commitments to support the LDCs.10 However, the meeting was crucial for determining new modalities of achieving Southdeveloped self-reliance. It can be seen as a way forward of making a unified demand to Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRICS), as well as countries like South Korea, to enter into long-term development assistance arrangements with less developed countries, given their own development experiences of the last half century. They can bring changes which can result in a South-owned development enterprise, reflecting also the best practices of Northern donors. At the same time though, the demand from civil society that Northern donors meet their commitments still needs to be sustained. What is to be done? Issues for self-reflexive stocktaking. Ways forward must include: • Undertaking a critical review of affected women’s citizenship status, including on SRHR, drawn up with community members. Such an undertaking should consider factors like age, caste, disability, ethnicity, gender identity, geographical location, marital status, race, sexual orientation and socio-economic status. • Stocktaking of the extent of engagement of the organisation in basic health care services, as well as drawing up an analysis for the organisation’s positioning on SRHR issues. • Conducting a thorough assessment of the organisation’s accountability status, whether private donors and CSOs. Part of this is making available to communities accurate information, online availability of data regarding funds utilisation of serving organisation, and developing tracking and reporting systems for fund flows at the local, national and international levels. As well, government and industry memorandum of understanding with bilateral agencies need CSO representation prior to agreements. • Stating the community’s political stand on sovereignty and how they wish to engage internationally to enhance cooperation, producing for all partners a quality of respectful and just engagement. This will help develop ‘internationalism’ without ‘sacrificing the local for the global.’ • An internal analysis on how networks can thrive in the international arena with an equally strong base at the local level. • Drawing up of strategies for financial mobilisation at the levels of government funding, international/external funding, membership support, alliances with like-minded industries and their contributions. • Assessment of the role of donors and what kind of support resulted in major victories for the civil sector. Drawing up an inventory of good donor practices and good recipient practices, which can lead to sealing consortium pacts with convergent visions and action plans. • Redesigning phase-out plans with out-going funders. Private foundations, as well as several European donors, have been able to retain their space for committed support to SHRH issues, but have been increasingly focused in selected countries in the region. Contracts must include phase-out strategies which in the short-

term and the long-term assist the recipient to sustain its activities. • Engaging global health initiatives strategically. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria does not have SRHR at its core funding policy; however, if country contexts are strongly framed with a clear SHRH focus, there is a greater possibility of the Fund’s direction being determined from ‘below.’ • Ensuring that public sector expenditures address public health care, including for SRHR. Asian governments have steadily decreased expenditures on public health care.11 Funding gaps have been estimated at 25% and above. • Drawing up an inventory of like-minded agencies across the world, national agencies and local organisations. The future will require greater convergence and consortium-style operations where South agencies and like-minded international NGOs can work together internationally. The engagement of donors that are accountable and supporter of women’s rights and SRHR issues are necessary. The government and the private sector can renew their pledges to civil society by serving as core fund-providers for people’s associations. The Asia-Pacific region has strong civil society initiatives reflecting in their demands the deeper needs that are often neglected in patriarchal settings and in broader governance debates. Many organisations and networks have called for renewal of commitments of donors for strengthening movements. Holding on to the vision of a comprehensive SRHR does not exclude a country-by-country contextualisation, and influencing local government support for the same. All social movements must insist on gender equality measures and budgets from elected governments. Alliance building with like-minded agencies, individuals, donors and committed government members can strengthen the political voice of people, and build a critical mass base. Financial support for such work is ultimately what may be termed as ‘People’s Funds,’ where the political vision guides the campaign for funds. Endnotes
1 A detailed concept paper for this bulletin prepared by the Guest Editor is available upon request with her and ARROW. A shorter version of this editorial has been included in the Civil Society Forum (CSF) Bulletin No. 5 as part of ARROW’s interventions at the 4th UN LDC Conference. This is available at www.arrow.org.my and www.ldcwatch.org. 2 While the term ‘citizenship’ refers to access of the citizens of a country to rights and entitlements constitutionally, it is also a sign of an active democracy when these rights are attainable. However, the term citizenship needs to be universal in its values and not bound by borders. Citizenship is inclusive and includes both tangible and intangible rights. 3 UNESCAP ADB and UNDP 2010. Paths to 2015: MDG Priorities in Asia and the Pacific, Asia-Pacific MDG Report , . 2010/11. UN. http://content.undp.org/go/cms-service/stream/asset/?asset_id=2784969 4 “MDGs in Asia Pacific.” Available at www.mdgasiapacific.org/node/12 5 www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3746,en_2649_34447_47515235_1_1_1_1,00.html 6 International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade, UN General Assembly Resolution 2626 (XXV), October 24, 1970, para. 43. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/348/91/IMG/ NR034891.pdf?OpenElement 7 www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3746,en_2649_34447_47515235_1_1_1_1,00.html 8 UNFPA. 2009. Revised Cost Estimates for the Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: A Methodological Report. USA: UNFPA. Cited in Dennis, S. 2011. More Funding Needed for International Reproductive Health. USA: Population Action International. 9 Of this, around US$30 billion is needed each year for sexual and reproductive health, which includes $6.7 billion for family planning and US$23 billion for maternal and newborn health. HIV and AIDS prevention and treatment, basic research, data collection and policy analysis make up the remaining costs. Dennis, S. 2011. More Funding Needed for International Reproductive Health. Washington, DC, USA: Population Action International. 10 CSF Bulletin No. 5, 13 May 2011, Istanbul , Turkey. www.ldcwatch.org 11 WHO 2005 National Health Accounts, cited in Thanenthiran, S. & Racherla, S.J. 2009. Reclaiming and Redefining Rights: ICPD+15: Status of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Asia. Malaysia: Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW). www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/researchamonitorin.html


By Shobha Raghuram, Guest Editor, Independent Researcher, India. Email: shobha.raghuram@gmail.com


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Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

Funding gaps across the region have an adverse impact on the ability of civil society to push the agenda and monitor governments, as well as on the achievement of women’s health outcomes and rights, including sexual and reproductive rights.

A Tough Terrain:
Civil society funding is fraught with challenges that are not always directly linked with the integrity and quality of deliverables. The direction of funding flows is susceptible to various factors, including the efforts to coordinate and direct international aid through the Paris Declaration for Aid Effectiveness, and the impact of the economic crisis on donor organisation’s funding levels. These myriad factors also include the emergence of all-pervading issues, such as climate change and the mass democratic uprisings in the Middle East and Northern Africa, as well as the election of conservative governments to power within countries that have historically invested in the long-term development of the human rights and women’s rights movements. There have also been changes driven by evolving understanding of what delivers ‘results’—from the promotion of the logical framework in the early 1960s by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)1 to the results-based management advocated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the 1990s—leading to civil society organisations having to learn and adapt to the use of these tools in describing the change they wish to create, or risk the loss of funding. These adaptations are forced to occur within a context of chronic underfunding, where both national and regional women’s and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) organisations have struggled to earn enough staffing and overhead costs for the continued implementation of the work that they do. While some projects adequately compensate for the staffing costs, resources for investment in institutional strengthening are not normally part of the accepted costs that can be charged to projects. The rule of thumb on acceptable levels of overhead costs per dollar of project funding has been a 30-70 ratio of overheads to programme costs for regional

organisations, and a 40-60 ratio for national level work.2 This means that for every US$100,000 worth of project funding raised,3 only US$30,000 can go to overhead costs. Of this US$30,000, approximately US$20,0004 goes to the direct salary costs of implementing staff, leaving US$10,000 for contribution to the manager’s salary, the executive director, the finance staff, the administrative staff, and, if the organisation is fortunate to have an information and communications or monitoring and evaluation teams, to these staff as well. Yet all above staff are crucial to the proper implementation of the project. Moreover, the above does not yet take into account the costs of rental and administration; nor does it include Board meetings and annual financial audits. Though seldom funded, both are essential for sound governance and financial health and are required to be in place by funders. There is a need and the willingness to comply with continuous improvements in management and reporting mechanisms to various donor organisations. However, there is an assumption that adequate capacity exists and has been suitably invested in, thereby enabling civil society organisations to continue to compete for funding. These presumed capacities include systems in place for monitoring and evaluation, information management, financial management, governance and accountability, human resource management and retention of skills. As a result, even when women’s and SRHR organisations in the Asia-Pacific are able to win a call for proposals, they are often unable to use any significant component of these funds to invest in long-term sustainability and organisational strengthening, leading to a depletion of their relative internal strength over time. Where they do exist, these organisational strengths emerge often as a result of voluntary contributions of various levels of unpaid members. Many, if not all women’s rights activists, have been just that—activists first and paid employees only

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Spot ligh t

Funding for Women’s and SRHR NGOs in the Asia-Pacific

Photo by Eduardo Lima de Oliveira

Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

rarely. Unlike the labour movement, the women’s and SRHR movements have not sufficiently evolved self-sustaining modalities. They have little option other than to continue participating in the project cycle—a system that fosters dependency and has no plan for genuine sustainability other than a) convincing the government to upscale successful strategies; b) achieve alternative funding; or c) ultimately resolve the problem within the project period. Savings for sustainability, when they can occur, are often viewed by donors unfavourably, and the idea of developing an endowment fund, if you are from the global South, has in the experience of the Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW), been met with skepticism. In the Asia and Pacific region, many regional and national organisations working on women’s rights or SRHR are currently experiencing funding crunches,5 despite the critical need for investments. In fact, 1 out of 220 Asian women and one out of 110 Pacific women continue to risk death during childbirth and pregnancy-related causes, while an estimated 2.8 million women in the region suffer from morbidity due to the same causes.6 Access to emergency obstetric care, post-natal care and the continuum of quality maternal health services are inadequate in many communities, particularly those that experience multiple levels of marginalisation.6 Unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal deaths in Asia, with as many as 24,000 women dying per year because of unsafe abortions in south-central Asia alone.6 In addition to these factors, access to contraceptives and other reproductive health supplies, and the provision of services around informed choice, remain a challenge in many Asia-Pacific countries, even those considered to be in improved circumstances, due to the rising challenge of religious fundamentalism and cultural barriers.6 Unfortunately, despite this situation, changing donor priorities mean that a growing number of countries in the region have been or will no longer be eligible to apply for funding, even among donors that are very progressive on SRHR issues. From the experiences of ARROW’s national-level partners, for example, Ford Foundation and Packard Foundation are now only focusing their grantmaking to Indonesia and South Asia, while McArthur Foundation is able to only focus on the state of Bihar in India, and in Pakistan. The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), on the other hand, will reduce the number of countries it is currently working in, down to 12 priority countries, while phasing out of Bhutan, India and Pakistan over the next two years (2011-2012). This picture is incomplete, but presents a big indication of funding gaps for national work related to SRHR in the region. This will have an impact on the ability of civil society to push the agenda and monitor governments, as well as on the achievement of health outcomes and rights. Despite these challenges, some organisations have persevered, sometimes directly as a result of good donor partners that respect their development partners on the ground, and are willing and able to take their lead. For example, Ford Foundation had left endowment funds for long-term partners before closing its doors in the Philippines. Recently, there have been efforts to change ways of accounting, such that staffing costs are reported

as part of ‘programme costs’ rather than as overheads. This would also include absorbing coordinating costs within a budget that describes its investments under broad components, such as ‘mobilisation’ or ‘capacity building.’ In effect, this means that project funding contribute to core costs, in acknowledgement that such core costs are critical to enabling the project to run. However, some donors that have not yet adopted this new mechanism of accounting for costs may view this method of financial reporting as unacceptable. In some cases, good work is only able to continue in situations where there are other mechanisms in place, such as within the context of a wider people’s movement, grassroots organisations or community-based mobilisation. In the end, voluntarism has been one of the few responses that women’s rights organisations has had, as a real option to reliance on donor funding and especially in situations where the national context does not enable local fundraising activities for the issues championed. For regional organisations that are removed from local contexts and support systems, the options for sustainability are even more limited. Perhaps, instead of project funding and general or core funding, another way forward could be the development of organisational endowments. Such endowments would confer long-term independence and sustainability, after having passed due diligence reviews and mechanisms for ethical management of these funds should the organisation eventually close its doors. What women’s rights and SRHR organisations in this region need is a critical process of engagement and clarity on how to shift the focus of donor agencies from one of fostering permanent project dependence, towards financial sustainability. We need to look into potential alternatives to the project funding cycle in order to achieve sustainable national and international fundraising, and to see this as a possibility for organisations in the Asia and Pacific region. We need to measure the gap between where we are and where we want to be as a movement, and trace the pathway for organisations in the South towards self-sustainability. We need to get donor organisations to see the question on sustainability as something that they need to answer as well, and not to locate the responsibility for this entirely on the shoulders of Southern organisations. Ultimately, this conversation must be about funding causes and movements until the desired outcomes for gender equality and SRHR are fully met. Endnotes
1 Since then, it has been applied and modified by many bilateral donors, including Australia, Canada, the European Union, Germany and the United Kingdom. See Odame, H.H. 2001. “Engendering the logical framework.” ISNAR. 2 3 4 5 6 http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/evaluation/methodology/examples/lib_too_dpm_two_en.pdf. The logframe was originally developed by the United States Department of Defense and adopted by the USAID in the 1960s.

Spot ligh t

Centre for Women (ARROW) 2001-2006.”

Ramachandran, V. and Murthy, R.K. 2006. “External Evaluation Report of the Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Assuming a 12-month project implementation period.

between five regional organisations located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The figures are obtained from this report.

Wong, P. 2011. External Salary Review. Commissioned by ARROW’s board, the salary review compared salary scales Based on correspondences and conversations by the author, ARROW staff and Board to some organisations in the region.

Thanenthiran, S. & Racherla, S,J. 2009. Reclaiming & Redefining Rights - ICPD+15: Status of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Asia. Malaysia: ARROW.

By Saira Shameem, Executive Director, Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW). Email: sham@arrow.org.my, arrow@arrow.org.my


Vol. 17 No. 1 2011

Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

Equal Rights for Women:
What can women in developing countries expect from the forthcoming policy and budget cuts of development cooperation in the Netherlands? Past ambitions to promote equal rights and opportunities for women and girls seem to be falling off the agenda. This is happening despite the commitment to the Millennium Development Goals as a normative framework. Notions of self-interest, the importance of security and stability, access to global public goods, a shift from social to economic development and the emphasis on effectiveness (i.e., providing visible and measurable results), are some of the key ingredients of the new policy.1 The new Dutch government is following the recommendations of its advisory body, the Scientific Council for Government Policy. These recommendations were published in the report Less Pretension, More Ambition.2 The original version in Dutch was remarkably silent about the position of women and their contribution to development. The English version contains a brief paragraph on gender, likely as a response to the criticism raised. The response has little scientific depth. It speaks about the ambivalent relationship between gender equality and economic growth. Ironically, it states that economic growth can benefit from gender inequality. Reference is made to the benefits for exportoriented industries in Korea and Taiwan of low wages and indecent working conditions for women. Does the advisory council want to suggest that this is acceptable given the profit for companies and economic growth of a country? So what can be expected for equal rights and opportunities for women and girls from the new priorities of Dutch development cooperation? And what are the consequences for the Asia and Pacific region?

Where Are the Ambitions in the Dutch Development Policy?
Geographically, only three Asian countries—Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia—continue to qualify for the status of partner countries receiving Dutch bilateral development cooperation. For Afghanistan, the motivation is based on the importance of regional stability and security, and the importance of the thematic priorities of security and food security. Bangladesh is considered as an emerging market economy and of relevance for the Dutch thematic priorities of water, food security and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Finally, Indonesia is of relevance for all four Dutch thematic priorities and offers possibilities for the Dutch private sector. It also enjoys a special relationship given the colonial history. Whereas few Asian countries qualify for the status of recipients of bilateral development cooperation, it should be noted that there are no plans to close down any of the Dutch embassies on the Asian continent, even in a context of budget cuts and the reduction of the number of Dutch missions. Economic, rather than developmental interests, seem to be the ground for having a Dutch in-country presence. However, Dutch development assistance that is provided to multilateral organisations and Dutch civil society organisations is not bound by the same geographic choices. Thematically, it is positive that SRHR remains a priority in the new policy. The Dutch government is willing to provide support to sensitive issues, such as access to contraceptives and sexuality education for young people, access to safe abortion and the rights of sexual minorities, sex workers and drug-users. However, that seems to be all, as the intention to have a broader gender focus remains invisible. Thanks to an intensive lobby by Dutch women’s rights organisations and activists in 2010, in support of a global lobby for resources for
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Photo by Maria Melinda Ando

What can women in developing countries—such as these young women from Lombok, Indonesia—expect from the new Dutch development policy?

Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

the agenda of women’s rights and gender justice, the modest budget line for gender equality will be spared from budget cuts, at least in the year 2011. This is important as it might result in a continuation of the Dutch MDG 3 Fund. This fund is a unique initiative providing critical and strategic funding for civil society organisations in the global South in support of the objectives of MDG 3: gender equality and women’s empowerment. However, it is an extremely modest amount compared to the overall development budget.3 In addition, there is no transparency about the resource allocation and intended contributions by other policy areas to equal rights and opportunities for women. Three disturbing issues are emerging in the official development discourse about gender equality and women’s empowerment, in the Netherlands and elsewhere.4 First of all, scholarly insights and knowledge in the field of gender, women and development are ignored, and insufficient use is made of the gender expertise of academics, activists and civil society organisations. Second, there seems to be only room for extreme positions in the discourse. Women are portrayed as the ultimate victims of violence and poverty that require protection and rescue by international aid agencies. Alternatively, women are portrayed as the ultimate solution, as the engines of development. Investing in women is ‘smart economics,’ efficient and effective because women are trustworthy savers, repay loans in time and invest their income in the well-being and future of their children. Additionally, women are crucial for conflict resolution, promotion of peace and security, and sustainable use of the environment, according to the other extreme position. Both arguments do not do justice to the reality. Moreover, women are not morally superior beings; like men, women also wish to spend their income on their own consumption and well-being. Equal rights and opportunities for women and girls is an issue of protecting the most marginalised, and a question of efficiency, and a question of rights and justice. A third disturbing issue concerns the unrealistic expectations of development cooperation. The demand is for visible, measurable results and preferably in as short as possible time frame. This is totally contrary to the nature of systemic changes required for the realisation of women’s rights. These changes do not occur within the timeframe of one policy cycle or the rule of one Cabinet, and take at least two or three

A third disturbing issue concerns the unrealistic expectations of development cooperation. The demand is for visible, measurable results and preferably in as short as possible time frame. This is totally contrary to the nature of systemic changes required for the realisation of women’s rights. These changes do not occur within the timeframe of one policy cycle or the rule of one Cabinet, and take at least two or three generations to materialise.

S e c t i o n S pe a d eg h t e S h e r e h ot li r go

generations to materialise. My grandmothers did not have the right to vote until many years after they had reached the age of adulthood. One of them lost her job as a teacher because she got married. My mother graduated from university with a PhD. She became a full-time mother and housewife and undertook a lot of unpaid voluntary work and care for the ill. My generation fought and continues to fight for safe and affordable abortion, equal division of work and care responsibilities, affordable childcare and equal pay. So do newer generations of young women, who additionally have put sexuality, sexual rights and violence against women much more centrally on the public agenda. In short: we fight for the acknowledgement that all human rights are women’s rights and all women’s rights are also human rights, for all women and girls around the world. There is work to be done by those that champion women’s rights, to argue the case for policies and resources in support of qualitative, longer-term and deeper change that is required for the agenda of equal rights and opportunities. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) provides the conceptual and operational framework for women’s human rights advocacy. Civil society organisations play a key role in holding governments accountable and in promoting citizen engagement with the agenda of women’s human rights. Endnotes
1 cooperation by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 26 November 2010 states The letter sent to the Dutch parliament concerning development that the focus of Dutch development cooperation should be on issues where the

Netherlands can make a difference and that serve national interests at the same time. The self-interest is evident from both the choice of thematic priorities and the choice for particular actors and channels. Two of the four policy priorities include the productive sectors of food security and water, areas in which the Netherlands excels economically. The priority of security and the rule of law in fragile states is considered to contribute to combat terrorism and international crime, to reduce the number of refugees and undocumented migration and will serve economic interests as well. For the fourth priority, SRHR, the self-interest is less evident, though it does relate to the field of life sciences in which the Netherlands excels economically. through up-scaling and expansion of public-private partnerships. Additionally, the choice for fewer countries that quality for the status of partner countries as recipients of Dutch bilateral development cooperation is also motivated by (partial) 2 3 4 However, for the realisation of all four policy priorities, the government will invest in collaboration with the private sector,

WRR. 2010. Less Pretension, More Ambition: Development Policy in Times of Globalisation. Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. www.wrr.nl/english/content.jsp?objectid=5516 for development cooperation in 2011 of € 4.6 billion. The budget line for gender equality amounts to € 42 million in 2011, which is less than 1% (0.9%) of the overall budget

self-interest, given either the scope for Dutch influence or the possibility to serve Dutch self-interests and thematic priorities.

“What is happening to Donor Support for Women’s Rights?” by Rosalind Eyben and others, www.contestations.net

For a wider discussion on trends in OECD countries, see the Contestations/Dialogues on Women’s Empowerment Issue 4:

By Ireen Dubel, Programme Manager, Gender, Women & Development at Hivos (Humanist Institute for Co-operation with Developing Countries). Email: idubel@hivos.nl


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Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

Fundraising in the Era of the Corporate Bailouts:
Restoring Rights, Engaging States and Reframing Aid for SRHR1
Is there any money? We are discussing this question in the context of a global economic crisis. Forecasts of slow growth will be reflected in declines in the government budgets of both donor and recipient countries. What does this mean for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR)? How does the aid effectiveness agenda fit in? Not only do we have to consider the current context of the economic crisis, we also need to keep in mind the different sources of health care financing.2 In the Asia-Pacific region, most people rely on out-of-pocket expenses. Least important would be social security and private insurance. In only a few countries, such as Fiji, Malaysia, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Tonga, would government revenues be an important source. In this situation, it is often asked whether official development assistance (ODA) could make up for the shortfall, especially in poorer countries. Can we rely on ODA? Initial calculations showed a decline in SRHR-related ODA for Asia-Pacific between 2008 and 2009, but revised disbursement figures revealed that SRHR-related ODA for Asia-Pacific overall continued to rise from 2002 and 2009 (see Table 1). However, it is apparent that beginning from 2004, majority of this ODA goes to control of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV and AIDS.3 Funding for STI/ HIV control rose from 24% of SRHR-related ODA in 2002 to 55% in 2009. On the other hand, ODA for reproductive health (RH) care4 went down from 43% in 2002 to 32% in 2009, while ODA for family planning5 went down from 19% in 2002 to 9% in 2009. A closer look would also reveal that even smaller amounts are disbursed for SRHR-related ODA that states gender equality as its only policy objective,6 indicating that gender-specific issues might not get as much attention. Moreover, it should be noted that SRHR-related ODA for the Asia and Pacific region only comprise 1.1% of total ODA in 2009, and disbursements of SRHR-related aid are not adequate to meet commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), amongst others. Can aid effectiveness help? The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness was not meant to increase the volume of aid. Instead, it aims to make the most of available ODA by streamlining its management and improving systems. Women’s groups have issued critiques on the aid effectiveness agenda.7 Nevertheless, some benefits may be derived from aid effectiveness, if we examine how the principles are applied within a budget cycle. If the objective is to increase and secure funding to SRHR, following the entirety of the budget cycle at the national level may be the best course of action. For example, ownership by recipient countries, one of the Paris Declaration principles, would be most relevant at the first step when resource projections are being made and priorities are being identified. If the interest was a health The resources devoted to the global financial bailout are sufficient to end world poverty for half a century. – Duncan Green, Oxfam-UK, with figures from the World Bank sector-wide approach, then priority setting would be at a later stage in discussions with the relevant line agencies, more likely the health ministry. At any point along this cycle, funding could diminish or even disappear. It is thus necessary to ensure that advocacy happens throughout the cycle. Policy and programmatic silos. The 2000 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and its separation of goals related to children’s health (4), maternal health (5) and HIV and AIDS (6) have contributed to the fragmentation of health programmes and services, most especially when its implementation is taken outside of the ICPD Programme of Action and human rights obligations. There was a small consolation when the additional target of MDG5b covering universal access to reproductive health was added. Even so, the MDGs have “created silos of intervention in development strategies and plans,” resulting in the lack of attention to morbidities and injuries women face in the course of their sexually active and reproductive years, a return of the old family planning and population control discourse, and the neglect of young people’s SRHR.8 Moreover, it is likely that recent funding initiatives to reduce maternal mortality, in addition to global health initiatives (GHIs) such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Turberculosis and Malaria and the GAVI Alliance, rates could worsen the situation. Evaluations of the impact of GHIs show that they are damaging health systems by reinforcing and strengthening vertical programmes. They are also causing health inequities, as gaps
Table 1. SRHR-Related ODA in Asia-Pacific


Source: OECD DAC Creditor Reporting System, extracted 30 May 2011

In constant 2009 US$ million dollars








2002 0.4 77.1 101.1 229.2 126.7

2003 107.5 121.6 200.0 222.3

2004 0.5 152.4 27.2 213.9 318.4

2005 3.8 65.7 96.0 242.4 429.3

2006 0.9 82.5 65.8 217.5 511.5

2007 0.8 75.9 95.5 211.9 666.8

2008 0.8 74.5 79.9 377.1 629.4

2009 1.5 59.5 139.8 461.8 796.5

Personnel devt. for population & RH Pop. policy & admin mgt. Family planning RH care STI control, including HIV & AIDS

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Fig. 1. The Budget Cycle
10. Preparation of audited accounts 11. Approval of audited accounts by Parliament

Annual review of SWAPs

9. State accounts prepared by Finance

1. Resource projections prepared by finance and approved by Cabinet


8. Budget executed by line agencies 7. Budget appropriations approved by Parliament 6. Budget approved by Cabinet and submitted to Parliament

2. Budget guidelines and expenditure limits circulated by Finance 3. Line agency expenditure proposals submitted to Finance 4. Finance appraises proposals and negotiates with line agencies

S e c t i o n S pe a d eg h t e S h e r e h ot li r go

Govt. Donor Meeting

IMF Negotiations

5. State budget prepared by Finance

Donor Budget Meetings for SWAP

Public Expenditure Review Inputs

Adapted from Foster, M. & Fozzard, A. 2000. “Aid and public expenditure: A guide.” London: Overseas Development Institute.

widen in met needs for those health problems addressed by GHIs (such as HIV and AIDS) and other health problems that are not, including many sexual and reproductive health concerns.9 As the Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN)8 has critiqued: “[L]acking the holistic analytic of the ICPD and the BPFA and often decontextualised from past global consensus, as well as key conventions on human rights, gender equality, peace and development, tracking ‘progress’ through the MDG process is dangerously resembling a demographic numbers game. In other words, ‘silo-isation’ undercuts both the scope and substance of rights, gender equality and development agenda.” The question arises then whether the principles of aid effectiveness could address this problem of fragmentation. It is likely not. It can only be a partial answer, and only in the sense that the coordination and harmonisation directly confronts fragmentation in policies and programmes, especially as these affect SRHR. Delinking macroeconomics. Macroeconomic policies present themselves as additional challenges. The discourse on official development assistance is often de-linked from macroeconomic policy discussions. Most importantly, the discussion on budget deficits and on macroeconomic stability does not get enough attention in the aid effectiveness agenda. The US, the UK and European governments are major donors in SRHR in Asia-Pacific.10 Since aid allocations depend on budgetary positions, knowing more about budget deficits of these donor countries might provide a glimpse into future funding for SRHR. Budget deficits of developed countries turned for the worse between 2008 and 2009.11 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts worsening for 2010 and an improvement in 2011. Generally, the IMF recommends a benchmark deficit of about 3% of the gross domestic product (GDP). The Maastrict Treaty of the members of the Euro zone also requires that budget deficits remain within 3% of the GDP. However, not only have deficits worsened in developed countries but they are larger than recommended. Even most of the Asia-Pacific countries are doing better, with

budget deficits of around 5% of their GDP.12 Even if aid is forthcoming, these external financial flows might not immediately translate into spending. In countries where macroeconomic stability depends on the ability of central monetary authorities to defend the exchange rate and fill in balance of payments deficits, ODA can be used up to shore up international reserves.13 The Asian Development Bank’s Asian Development Outlook 200914 reports that a defensive position is being taken by monetary authorities in Asian countries, whereby governments are ensuring that there is at least three month’s worth of imports or even more. This is likely to continue given the uncertainty with the global economic crisis. Conclusion. As evidenced by the size of fiscal stimulus packages15 used to respond to the impact of the economic crisis, there is money. The use of this money, however, is constrained by macroeconomic stability considerations. Where there might be aid available, these are funneled into preferred policy areas and programmes, as in reducing maternal mortality rates, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, that do not necessarily include comprehensive SRHR. Aid effectiveness, despite the various critiques, could pose a solution, but this is dependent on how the principles are applied as SRHR advocates work in the budget cycle. The best approach in securing financing for SRHR lies in the ability of advocates in strengthening their scope of influence throughout the budget cycle. Endnotes
1 Revised and updated version of a paper presented at the 10th Asia Pacific Alliance on SRHR (APA) Conference entitled “Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for the MDGs,” 6-7 October 2010, Penang, Malaysia. www. asiapacificalliance.org/images/stories/10th_APA_conference_2010/2_speaker_10th_APA_Conference_Durano_and_Ruiz_ final.pdf Refer to slide 3 of the APA presentation. Cited from World Health Organisation (WHO). 2007. World Health Statistics 2007. Switzerland: WHO. All activities related to sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS control, e.g. information, education and communication; testing; prevention; treatment, care. Coverage of each line item are from CRS Purpose Codes (www.oecd.org/ dataoecd/13/27/46804196.xls). Reproductive health care includes promotion of reproductive health; prenatal and postnatal care including delivery; prevention and treatment of infertility; prevention and management of consequences of abortion; and safe motherhood activities. Family planning services including counselling; information, education and communication (IEC) activities; delivery of contraceptives; capacity building and training. Gender equality as a policy objective is defined in “Reporting on the Policy Objectives of Aid.” www.oecd.org/ dataoecd/14/58/31738731.pdf For the table, see slide 5 of the APA presentation. Women’s groups have issued critiques on the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. For some discussions on this, refer to: a) AWID’s Understanding the Aid Effectiveness Agenda Primers, http://awid.org/Library/Aid-Effectiveness; b) Gigi Francisco’s CSO intervention at the Third High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness 2008, http://www.choike.org/nuevo_eng/informes/7017. html; c) Isis International Manila’s article, “Aid Modalities Still Fail to Address Gender Inequality and Women’s Rights,” www. isiswomen.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=766&Itemid=204. Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN). 2010. MDG 5/Maternal Mortality: In need of rescuing from the depths of a silo: Statement by DAWN, 22 September 2010. www.dawnnet.org/advocacy-un-ny.php?id=115 Ravindran, T.K.S. 2011. “Macroeconomic influences on health.” In Reproductive Health Matters and ARROW. 2011. Repoliticising Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights: Report of a Global Meeting, Langkawi, Malaysia, 3-6 August 2010. www.arrow.org.my/publications/Langkawi_Report.pdf Refer to slide 6 of the APA presentation. Cited from OECD DAC Creditor Reporting System Refer to slide 13 of the APA presentation. Cited from International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2010. World Economic Outlook 2010: Rebalancing Growth. Refer to slide 14 of the APA presentation. Cited from Asian Development Bank. 2010. Asian Development Outlook 2010: Macroeconomic Management Beyond the Crisis. www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2010/ Hailu, D. & Singh, S. 2009. “Macro-micro nexus in scaling-up:¬¬ The case of HIV and AIDS control in Kenya, Malawi and Zambia.” International Policy Research Brief No. 11. Brazil: Centre for Inclusive Growth. Refer to slide 15 of the APA presentation. Cited from Asian Development Bank. 2009. Asian Development Outlook 2009: Rebalancing Asia’s Growth. www.adb.org/Documents/Books/ADO/2009/ About US$18 trillion was mobilised globally in a year to bail out banks and financial institutions during the financial crisis. Deen, Thalif. 2009. “Western aid declines, financial bailouts mount.” Inter Press Service. http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=47374

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4 5 6 7

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By Carolina S. Ruiz-Austria, Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), and Marina Durano, DAWN and KANITA, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Email: marina@dawnnet.org


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Financial and Political Support for Women’s SRHR in the Pacific Islands
When the International Conference on Population and capacity to use available funding and, secondly, in connecting Development (ICPD) called for the wider recognition of sexual gender and health concerns. A lack of formal institutional and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in 1994, most arrangements to involve central national policy, planning and Pacific island delegates enthusiastically agreed. However, in budget ministries has hampered broader national consideration of many of these countries, access to even the most basic of these gender equity policies.4 services—namely, contraceptive supplies for married women As has happened globally, even within the health sector, significant funding has been earmarked for HIV while funding (let alone unmarried and young women)—was by no means guaranteed, and there was little appreciation of what SRHR for sexual and reproductive health has declined in relative terms.5 implied in terms of improved and more equitably and widely Now the New Zealand and Australian governments, two major accessible services. What the ICPD called for was a sea-change: donors to the region, have joined forces in the Pacific Fund for a fundamental change in public opinion, Reproductive Health to reinvigorate family planning and scale up integrated services for a radical change in health service policy, The Pacific is a region sexual and reproductive health and HIV. The and the flourishing of a much broader choice of accessible services. Changes of many small countries, Fund supports a number of initiatives that address gender inequality, access to sexual have happened since, but of a much more most of them with many and reproductive health information and conservative scale. and political awareness, The Pacific is a region of many small small islands and remote services, leadershipreproductive health the unpredictable countries, most of them with many communities. Here, access commodity supply, adolescent reproductive small islands and remote communities. Here, access to any basic service is far to any basic service is health, safe motherhood, mother-to-child transmission of HIV and violence against from equal. National averages disguise big differences in health status, health far from equal. National women.6 At the same time, New Zealand’s care and health financing.1 People in the averages disguise big now conservative government has slashed towns and on the main islands generally have much better access to health services, funding to progressive NGOs, such as differences in health compared with those in rural areas, the Fiji Women’s Rights Movement and status, health care and Women’s Action for Change, and even mountainous areas and smaller islands. But even on the basis of simple national moderate ones, and channelled funding to health financing. averages, women still face a high risk to IPPF-supported national family planning their sexual and reproductive health in organisations, which maintain their nine out of 19 Pacific island countries, and a very high risk in two conventional focus and clientele. Furthermore, money pumps more countries, Kiribati and Papua New Guinea.2 Aid per capita out at every mention of HIV, even as Pacific island women die spending on SRHR remains low. In 2007, for Tuvalu and Fiji, for at record rates from cervical cancer through lack of diagnosis for example, it was less than US$1.00 per capita, and in Samoa less HPV—a less acknowledged STI—and very limited treatment than US$2.00. In 2007, external donors provided only US$0.23 facilities. Plus ça change. per capita in 2007 for SRHR in the Asia-Pacific region.3 Endnotes Health service providers still find it easiest—or ‘cost 1 Robertson, A. 2010. “Family planning in the Pacific.” In Narsey, et al. Population and Development in the Pacific Islands, effective’—to maintain the traditional focus on family planning Proceedings of the Regional Symposium held at the University of the South Pacific, 23-25 Nov., 2009, Suva. Suva, Fiji: services. The drive to reduce the region’s vulnerability to HIV UNFPA. The sexual and reproductive health index was developed by Population Action International and calculated for 19 and AIDS has encouraged the development of youth-friendly Pacific island countries. 2 Mackesy-Buckley, S. 2010.Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Risk Index for the Pacific.’ In Narsey, et al. services and greater access to sexually transmitted infections 3 Asia Pacific Alliance for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. 2010. Making Sexual and Reproductive Health and (STI) testing and treatment, but these services are still few and far Rights Count: Asia and Pacific Resource Flows Project. 4 KVA Consult. 2008. Gender Financing and the Empowerment of Women in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories. between. In most countries, the ownership of SRHR and other Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community. gender-related policies agreed to at international meetings has 5 Dickinson, C., Attawell, K. & Druce, N. 2009. “Progress on scaling up integrated services for sexual and reproductive health and HIV.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Vol. 87, pp. 846-851. been limited to the ministries separately responsible for health, 6 NZAID www.aid.govt.nz/programmes/r-pac-health.html women, youth and so on. There has been mostly good funding for gender and mostly adequate funding for health, at least as suggested by the proportion of government spending directed to By Margaret Chung, Independent Consultant, Fiji. the health sector. Problems have been firstly limited institutional Email: zephyredit@yahoo.com.au
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After the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in 2001, the country faced some of the world’s worst health statistics ever recorded nationally, including maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 1,600 per 100,000 live births.1 Sixty percent of the population did not have access to any form of health services, and education on sexuality, health and rights was nonexistent. Early pregnancies, frequent pregnancies, poor health conditions, malnutrition during pregnancies and anaemia in women had especially negative effects on their health. Almost all births took place at home without medical attention during pregnancies and delivery, including access to emergency obstetric care. After the political changes of recent years, a number of international agencies, such as the Asian Development Bank, the European Commission, USAID and World Bank, have been actively involved in improving women’s health in Afghanistan. Programmes like the Basic Package of Health Services and the Essential Package of Hospital Services that focus on maternal health (antenatal care, delivery care, postpartum care, family planning and immunisation) were developed and implemented throughout the country by the direct technical and financial support of national and international agencies and NGOs. A number of specific projects such as the post-partum family planning, post-partum haemorrhage, maternity waiting house and fistula repairing projects have also been implemented during the past few years. Other interventions, such as the Community Nursing Programme and the Community Midwife Education Programme, have significantly increased women’s access to health providers, especially in rural areas. In addition, trainings have been regularly conducted, greatly improving the knowledge, capacity, skills and performance of female health providers, which in turn have improved the provision of health care services to women. While there have been improvements in health outcomes and statistics,2 there is still a long way to go before reaching acceptable standards. This is similarly true for provision of universal access to comprehensive and holistic sexual and reproductive health services that go beyond addressing family planning and maternal and child health. Moreover, lack of health awareness, compounded by lack of sexuality education and information (including on sexual and reproductive health and rights), long distances, prohibitive transportation and medical costs, and the persistent poor quality of healthcare, continue to discourage most women in Afghanistan from seeking health care.3 Culturally sensitive approaches will be critical for raising awareness. International interventions will continue to be necessary to remove these barriers and improve quality of services, and will have greater effect so long as education, infrastructure and income-generation improve, which in turn will require improved security, stability and peaceful conditions. Source: Raz Mohammad Dalili, Executive Director, Sanayee Development Organisation (SDO). Email: dalili_kabul@hotmail.com

Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

The issue of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Pakistan is very important, and can be assessed from three interrelated perspectives: women’s social status, state priorities and donors’ agenda. As a traditional patriarchal, as well as feudal and tribal society,4 Pakistan harbors strong values on issues regarding family, sexuality, SRHR and gender relations. The state of SRHR in Pakistan cannot be understood without Islamic, social and cultural norms shaping society’s collective attitude towards SRHR in general and women’s issues in particular. This situation is generating dismal facts, such as low literacy rates, gender-based violence, lack of discussion and education on sexuality issues, whether formal or in public discourse, and women’s lack of autonomy to make decisions regarding their bodies. These in turn translate to poor sexual and reproductive health.5 Consequently, poor women’s health in Pakistan is as much a social as a medical problem. Since its inception through 1980s, the National Family Planning Programme—the main reproductive health service provider in Pakistan—has been poor in terms of density, service provision and quality. There are number of socio-economic, religious and cultural reasons behind this poor performance but a main factor is the lack of priority given to this issue by state. The security-obsessed state of Pakistan, which allocates its maximum resources to fight the US-led war on terrorism, has very low priority for social sector spending and women’s development. Even its other South Asian neighbors, like Bhutan and Nepal, are spending 10 times more on the health sector. The sexual and reproductive health-related initiatives in Pakistan have been mainly donor-dependent. Donors’ funding is mainly related to mother and child care however, and though it brought the MMR down to marginal extent (from 346 to 276/100,000 in one decade), much more is needed to provide comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services, provide comprehensive sexuality education, and address sexual and reproductive rights. Another issue is the question of enhancement and effectiveness of donors’ aid. Donor’s national security interests as conditionality for aid is a bottleneck to the improvement of SRHR. For instance, USAID’s financial aid for Pakistan in the field of reproductive health6 has waxed over the decades according to the political interests of the US in the region. Such aid should always be free of strings. Source: Bushra Khaliq, Executive Director, Women in Struggle for Empowerment (WISE), Lahore, Pakistan. Email: bushra.khaliq@ yahoo.com

Monitoring country activitieS

The Philippines

While there are international declarations and commitments related to sexual and reproductive health and rights, including for young people, at the end of the day, these issues are gone in national development plans and national budgets. It is thus critical that young people, among those greatly affected,


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are meaningfully involved in the conceptualisation, planning monitoring, evaluation and review of poverty reduction strategies, national development plans and national budgets. With this in mind, the Youth Coalition for Sexual and Reproductive Rights (YC), in partnership with the Family Planning Organisation of the Philippines (FPOP), conducted a national level pilot training on young people’s sexual and reproductive rights (SRR) and poverty reduction strategies in the Philippines. The training was held on 6-8 November 2010 in Manila. It involved the participation of 13 youth leaders from across the country and who are coming from a multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral background, including medical students, LGBT activists, health professionals, journalists and other sectors of civil society. The training aimed to equip them with the necessary skills to understand and influence the implementation and evaluation process of the Middle-Term Development Plan of the Philippines (MTDPP II) as well as local legislature from a youth SRR perspective. From the initial guidance of critiquing position papers and the development plans, the exercises provided the trainees an opportunity to simulate assessment, drafting of suggestions, revising programmes based on evidence, and packaging them in ways that are directed to their respective audiences. The training was designed so that these youth leaders from across the country would return to their respective provinces and practice what they have learned in their own institutions and organisations. Post-training, YC and FPOP are currently working on the assessment and representation of SRHR issues in the legislative and policy arena, particularly for the MTDPP II. The trained youth leaders are then asked to provide input for inclusion into official statements. Attendance in different hearings, forums and discussions are also spearheaded by the Youth Coalition and the youth leaders. This epitomises the greater role that the youth needs to play with regards to sexual rights and reproductive health issues, and in having an active role in making its government accountable to its people. Source: Dr. Romelyn April P. Imperio, Straight Internship Programme, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of the Philippines - Philippine General Hospital. Email: rapimperio@gmail.com Website: www.youthcoalition.org Endnotes
1 2 Contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 5% in 2003 to 22.8% in 2008; ante-natal coverage has Afghan Ministry of Public Health

prenatal care from a skilled provider. However, only one in four learn about the symptoms of complications

during pregnancy. As well, two of three women deliver at home and less than two in five births are assisted by women will die of maternal causes. Rural women’s health is generally the poorest due to the lack of health

a skilled provider; less than half of women receive any kind of postnatal care. Furthermore, one in 89 Pakistani facilities and skilled health providers. For example, Balochistan’s MMR is 785 deaths per 100,000 live births, compared with the national MMR of 276/100,000. Other factors that affect health outcomes are education 6 and socio-economic status. www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR200/FR200.pdf US interests in Pakistan revolves around the war on terrorism. Pakistan is among the top recipients of

military aid after Iraq and Israel. In 2010, the US approved for the first time US$7.5 billion for five years for non-military aid, meant for the social sector in Pakistan. However, the conditions to this aid were so stringent that many Pakistanis considered it tantamount to selling their sovereignty.

Forthcoming Events
• • Access for All: Supplying a New Decade for Reproductive Health, 22-23 June 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. www.rhsupplies.org/AccessForAll Fourth High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, 29 November-1 December 2011, Busan, Republic of Korea. www.busanhlf4.org

Editorial Team

Saira Shameem, Executive Director Shobha Raghuram, Guest Editor Sivananthi Thanenthiran, Programme Manager for Infocom & Research Maria Melinda Ando, Programme Officer, AFC Managing Editor, Layout Artist Nalini Singh, Programme Manager for Advocacy & Capacity Building Ambika Varma, Biplabi Shresta, Mei Li, Rachel Arinii Judhistari, Sai Jyothirmai Racherla & Suloshini Jahanath, Programme Officers

Expert External Readers

Adrienne Germain, President, International Women’s Health Coalition (IWHC); Jacqueline Pitanguy, Founder-Director, Cidadania, Estudo, Pesquisa, Informação e Ação (CEPIA); Khawar Mumtaz, CEO, Shirkat Gah Women’s Resource Centre; Manisha Desai, Director, Women’s Studies, University of Connecticut; Naeemah Khan, Programme Manager, Fiji Women’s Rights Movement (FWRM); Noelene Nabulivou, Associate, Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN); Rokeya Kabir, Executive Director, Bangladesh Nari Pragati Sangha; Vanessa Griffen, Independent Consultant [Note: Expert readers reviewed specific articles, not the whole bulletin.] Thank you as well to the ff.: Alexandra Garita, Hoang Tu Anh, Neha Sood, Ranjani K. Murthy, Ruth Manorama and Roshni Sami ARROWs for Change (AFC) is published by ARROW with funding support from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). It is a peer-reviewed thematic bulletin that aims to contribute a Southern/Asia-Pacific, rights-based and women-centred analyses and perspectives to global discourses on emerging and persistent issues related to health, sexuality and rights. AFC is produced twice-yearly in English, and is translated into selected strategic AsiaPacific languages several times a year. It is primarily for Asian-Pacific and global decision-makers in women’s rights, health, population and sexual and reproductive health and rights organisations. The bulletin is developed with input from key individuals and organisations in the Asia and Pacific region and the ARROW SRHR Knowledge Sharing Centre (ASK-us!). Articles in AFC may be reproduced and/or translated with prior permission, provided that credit is given and a copy of the reprint is sent to the Editors. Copyright of photos belongs to contributors. The e-copy of AFC Vol. 17 No. 1 is also available at www.arrow.org.my/ publications/AFC/v17n1.pdf. All e-copies of AFC can be downloaded for free at www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Print subscription is free for those based in Asia and Pacific, Africa, Eastern Europe, & Latin America and the Caribbean. There is a modest subscription fee for those based in North America and Western Europe. Publications exchange is also welcome. Write to afc@arrow.org.my for subscription matters. AFC is also distributed by EBSCO and Gale. Feedback and written contributions are welcome. Please send them to: Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) No. 1 & 2 Jalan Scott, Brickfields, 50470 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel.: +603 2273 9913 / Fax.: +603 2273 9916 Website: www.arrow.org.my / Email: afc@arrow.org.my

increased from 5% in 2003 to 36.5% in 2008; and births attended by trained personnel increased from 6% in 2003 to 23.9% in 2008. However, MMR has barely changed and stands at 1,575/100,000 live births in 2008.

3 4

There are added challenges to women in tribal and feudal settings of Muslim society. For instance, in the tribal belt of Pakistan, mullahs of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) government have prohibited women exchange marriages, bartering women to settle disputes and stoning to death. Government campaigns on from visiting male doctors. Tribal societies have higher incidences of customary practices like early marriages, contraception are also more difficult to implement in tribal areas.


World Health Organisation. 2006. Afghanistan Country Profile. Department of Making Pregnancy Safer.


young women, four out of 10 women marry before the age of 18, and 13% marry before age 15. Less than half of married women know about AIDS, and only one of five know that it can be prevented by using condoms. One of four married women has unmet need for family planning. Three out of five women receive some

The latest Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07 reports that despite increasing age among

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Alpizar, L., et al. 2010. Trends in Bilateral and Multilateral Funding. Canada & Mexico: AWID. 41p. www.awid.org/ Media/Files/context-and-trends This brief puts forward key trends in funding for gender equality and for civil society organisations from bilaterial and multilateral agencies. It also examines the impact of the financial crisis and economic recession on ODA levels and donor priorities, and the implication of this in terms of available resources for women’s organisations. Asia Pacific Alliance for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (APA). 2010. 10th Asia Pacific Alliance Conference and Meeting Report: Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for the MDGs: Priorities Leading Up to 2015 and Beyond, 4-8 October 2010, Penang, Malaysia. Thailand: APA. 22p. www.asiapacificalliance.org/images/stories/10th_APA_ conference_2010/20110228_10th_APA_Conference_Report_ FINAL.pdf reproductive health.” USA: Population Action International. 6p. www.populationaction.org/Publications/Fact_Sheets/ Financing_International_RH/Summary.shtml This policy and issue brief provides evidence on why donors and governments should maintain and increase budgets for sexual and reproductive health. It then states that actual donor funding falls short of both donor commitments and needs for achieving ICPD goals. Lastly, it presents recommendations to donors and goverments. An accompanying Data Sheet detailing donor expenditures for SRHR is also provided. Gil, M.B. 2010. Making Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Count: Asia and Pacific Resource Flows Project 2010. Thailand: APA. 62p. www.asiapacificalliance.org/images/stories/ FINAL20100924_MAKING_SRHR_COUNT.pdf This report tracks and analyses existing data on resource flows for SRHR for a wide range of countries in the Asia and the Pacific. It indicates the gap between the most urgent needs for SRHR and available resources in the region for SRHR. The report calls for accelerated efforts to enhance financial resource flows in this region, which remains neglected in global development terms. Masters, B. & Osborn, T. 2010. “Social movements and philanthropy: How foundations can support movement building.” The Foundation Review, Vol. 2 No. 2. USA: Dorothy A. Johnson Centre for Philanthropy and Nonprofit Leadership. 17p. www.evaluationinnovation.org/sites/ default/files/Masters%20Movement%20Building%20.pdf Building on prior research, this article describes how to support and evaluate social movements. It identifies five core movement-building elements: organising an authentic base, leadership, vision and ideas, alliances and advocacy infrastructure. It then proposes a framework for activities that foundations can support to foster movement building. McNeill, D. (Ed.). 2010-present. “Special reports: Stories from aidland.” The Broker. The Netherlands: Foundation for International Development Publications (IDP). www. thebrokeronline.eu/en/Special-Reports/Stories-from-Aidland This series offers stories on development policies and projects to identify obstacles to improving aid effectiveness, followed by a reviewer’s commentary. Stories cover the challenges of establishing a multi-donor initiative in Indonesia; aid in fragile states such as Afghanistan; meeting donors’ requirements and working with marginalised communities in Bolivia; the Danish development policy and migration; and participation in the OECD’s monitoring survey on aid effectiveness in Africa. Oxfam International. 2011. “Whose aid is it anyway? Politicising aid in conflicts and crises.” UK: Oxfam International. 36p. www.oxfam.org/en/policy/whose-aid-it-anyway


This conference report provides the highlights and outcomes of the 10th APA conference and the members’ meeting. It contains live links to conference presentations and provides evidence-based information and tools to advocate for sustained investments for SRHR in the Asia-Pacific region. Eyben, R., et al. 2011. “What is happening to donor support for women’s rights?” Contestations: Dialogues on Women’s Empowerment, Issue 4. UK: Institute of Development Studies. www.contestations.net The Contestations e-journal offers a space for dialogue and debate on various issues related to women’s empowerment. In this issue, five women’s rights activists and advocates from the US and Europe present their analyses and views on the state of donor support in OECD countries and its implications for women’s rights and empowerment, and their take on what needs to be done to create transformational change.

Dennis, S. 2011. “More funding needed for international


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This briefing paper examines how skewed aid policies and practices in conflict and crises settings—including aid being dictated by donors’ military and security interests, or conditioned on political or military cooperation—have threatened to undermine commitments to effective, needs-focused international aid. The paper sets out recommendations on how this trend can be reversed. Reproductive Health Matters (RHM) and Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW). 2011. Repoliticising Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights: Report of a Global Meeting, Langkawi, Malaysia, 3-6 August 2010. www.arrow.org.my/ publications/Langkawi_ Report.pdf This report documents the international meeting by the Repoliticising SRHR group to outline a transformative agenda for moving beyond ICPD and the health MDGs to re-politicise SRHR analysis and work. It contains summaries of the presentations and responses to them, the discussion and conclusions arising from them, and notes on ways for moving forward. Funding was one of the six themes tackled in the conference. Sen, G. 2009. “Turning the financial crisis into opportunity for SRHR: Summary of the presentation given at EuroNGOs International Conference, 7th September 2009, Riga, Latvia.” 5p. www.eurongos.org/Files/HTML/EuroNGOs/AGM/ Gita_Sen_Summary.pdf This conference presentation focuses on the potential impact of the financial crisis on health financing and the global SRHR agenda. It also examines the nature of SRHR programming and the possibility for turning the crisis into an opportunity, particularly by looking at the case of HIV and SRHR. Sridhar, D. 2010. “Seven challenges in international development assistance for health and ways forward.” Global Health Governance, pp. 459-469. This paper outlines seven challenges into development assistance for health. It presents a strong case for development assistance to health, and the need for more effective utilisation of funds to improve the health of those living in low- and middle-income countries. The author’s recommendations centre on strengthening mechanisms to hold donors accountable, development of national plans and supporting national leadership in health, and South-South collaboration.

Other Resources
Alpizar, L., et al. 2010. Contexts and Trends Influencing the Funding Landscape for Gender Equality and Women’s Organisations and Movements. Canada & Mexico: AWID. 41p. www.awid.org/Media/Files/context-and-trends ARROW. 2011. “Funding for SRHR in Asia and the Pacific: An annotated bibliography.” Malaysia: ARROW. www.arrow.org. my/IDC/Bibliographies/Funding_Annotated.pdf APA. 2010. “Investing in sexual and reproductive health saves lives: An information kit on MDG 5, sexual and reproductive health and supplies and the funding gap in Asia and the Pacific.” Thailand: APA. 2p. www.asiapacificalliance.org/images/stories/ APA_MDG5_Fact_Kit_On-Screen_Viewing_Spreads.pdf Büthe, T.; Major, S. & de Mello e Souza, A. [unpublished manuscript]. “The politics of private development aid: Serving recipient needs or donor interests?” 33pp. www.duke. edu/~buthe/downloads/BMdMeS_PrivateAid_Nov09.pdf de la Cruz, C. 2010. Financing for development and women’s rights: A critical review. Belgium: WIDE. 35p. download/financingfordevelopment2009translationcarmendelacruz. pdf?id=995 Dennis, S. & Mutunga, C. 2010. Funding Common Ground: Cost Estimates for International Reproductive Health. USA: Population Action International. 42p. www.populationaction. org/Publications/Reports/Funding_Common_Ground/ Summary.shtml Dubel, I. 2007. “Money matters: The strategic relevance of donor funding targets and conditionalities for women’s empowerment and gender equality results.” Presentation at the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women Expert Group Meeting on financing for gender equality and the empowerment of women Oslo, Norway, 4-7 September 2007. 12p. www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/financing_ gender_equality/ExpertPapers/EP.9%20Dubel.pdf Easterly, W. & Williamson, C.R. [forthcoming]. “Rhetoric versus reality: The best and worst of aid agency practices.” World Development. http://williameasterly.files.wordpress. com/2010/08/61_easterly_williamson_rhetoricvsreality_prp.pdf European Commission. 2010. “Contributing to universal coverage of health services through development policy.’”16p. http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/ SEC2010_382_EN.pdf German Foundation for World Population (DSW). Guide to European Reproductive Health, HIV/AIDS and Population Assistance. www.euroresources.org/guide_to_population_ assistance.html Global Humanitarian Assistance. www. globalhumanitarianassistance.org The Guttmacher Institute. 2010. “Facts on investing in family planning and maternal and newborn health.” 2p. USA. www.guttmacher.org/pubs/FB-AIU-summary.pdf Fryatt, R.; Mills, A.; Nordstrom, A. 2010. “Financing of health

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From the arroW Srhr Knowledge Sharing centre

Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

systems to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries.” The Lancet, Vol. 375, pp. 419-26. Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Network for Asia and the Pacific. 2009. Investing in Maternal, Newborn and Child Health: The Case for Asia and the Pacific. Switzerland: World Health Organisation. 20p. www.adb.org/Documents/ Brochures/Maternal-Child-Health/default.asp Mavrotas, G. 2009. “Special issue: Development Aid: Theory, policies and performance.” Review of Development Economics, Vol. 13 No. 3. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ rode.2009.13.issue-3/issuetoc Ooms, G. 2010. “Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: Sustaining the ‘Big Push.’” Globalisation and Health, Vol. 6, No. 17, pp. 1-8. www. globalizationandhealth.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-6-17.pdf Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Creditor Reporting System Database. http://stats. oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=CRSNEW

ARROW Resources
ARROW. ARROW Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) Database of Indicators. www.srhrdatabase.org ARROW. 2011. Reclaiming & Redefining Rights—Thematic Studies Series 1: Sexuality & Rights in Asia. 104p. US$10.00 Ravindran, T.K.S. 2011. Reclaiming & Redefining Rights— Thematic Studies Series 2: Pathways to Universal Access to Reproductive Health Care in Asia. ARROW. 92p. US$10.00 ARROW. 2010. ARROW Publications 1994-2010. [DVD]. ARROW. 2010. “Understanding the critical linkages between gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health and rights: Fulfilling commitments towards MDG+15.” 12p. ARROW & WHRAP. 2010. Making a Difference: Improving Women’s Sexual & Reproductive Health & Rights in South Asia. 126p. ARROW. 2010. “Regional overview—MDG5 in Asia: Progress, gaps and challenges 2000-2010.” 8p. ARROW. 2010. “Briefing paper: The Women and Health section of the Beijing Platform for Action.” 4p. Thanenthiran, Sivananthi & Racherla, Sai Jyothirmai. 2009. Reclaiming & Redefining Rights: ICPD+15: Status of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Asia. ARROW. 162p. US$10.00 ARROW. 2008. Advocating Accountability: Status Report on Maternal Health and Young People’s SRHR in South Asia. 140p. US$10.00 ARROW. 2008. Surfacing: Selected Papers on Religious Fundamentalisms and Their Impact on Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. 76p. US$5. ARROW. 2007. Rights and Realities: Monitoring Reports on the Status of Indonesian Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights; Findings from the Indonesian Reproductive Health and Rights Monitoring & Advocacy (IRRMA) Project. 216p. US$10.00 ARROW. 2005. Monitoring Ten Years of ICPD Implementation: The Way Forward to 2015, Asian Country Reports. 384p. US$10.00 ARROW, Center for Reproductive Rights (CRR). 2005. Women of the World: Laws and Policies Affecting Their Reproductive Lives, East and Southeast Asia. 235p. US$10.00 ARROW. 2003. Access to Quality Gender-Sensitive Health Services: Women-Centred Action Research. 147p. US$10.00 ARROW. 2001. Women’s Health Needs and Rights in Southeast Asia: A Beijing Monitoring Report. 39p. US$10.00 Abdullah, Rashidah. 2000. A Framework of Indicators for Action on Women’s Health Needs and Rights after Beijing. 30p. US$10.00 For ARROW’s older publications, please go to www.arrow.org.my. Electronic copies of all publications are free at www.arrow.org.my. Payments of print copies are accepted in bank draft form. Please add US$3.00 for postal charges. Email arrow@arrow.org.my.


OECD-DAC. 2009. “Measuring aid to health.” France: OECD. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/44/35/44070071.pdf, www.oecd.org/docu ment/44/0,3343,en_2649_34447_24670956_1_1_1_1,00.html Raghuram, S. 2010. “Development futures: Global commitments and national duties.” The Broker. Comment as part of online discussion on WRR’s report, Less Pretension, More Ambition. www.thebrokeronline.eu/en/trackback/id/4808 Reality of Aid. 2009. Democratic Ownership and Human Rights 2009; Reality of Aid: Asia-Pacific Edition. Philippines: IBON. 145p. www.realityofaid.org/roa-reports/index/secid/369/ Democratic-Ownership-and-Human-Rights Roke, C. & Rogerson, A. 2008. Reproductive Health Supplies in the Pacific. New Zealand: Family Planning International. 22p. www.fpi. org.nz/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=jzxYJmZRc7k%3D&tabid=446 Subramanian, S. 2007. “International aid in light of global poverty and inequality: Some unsubtle propositions.” Research Paper No. 2007/31. United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER). 25p. www.wider.unu.edu/stc/repec/pdfs/rp2007/rp2007-31.pdf UN Economic and Social Council. 2010. “Flow of financial resources for assisting in the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: Report of the Secretary-General.” E/CN.9/2010/5. Commission on Population and Development 43rd Session, 1216 April 2010. 20p. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/ GEN/N10/213/64/PDF/N1021364.pdf?OpenElement UNFPA. 2010. “Financing the ICPD Programme of Action: Fifteen years later.” 8p. www.resourceflows.org/index.php/ articles/c87 Wilks, A. 2010. Aid and Development Effectiveness: Towards Human Rights, Social Justice and Democracy: The Reality of Aid 2010 Report. Philippines: IBON. 305p. www.realityofaid.org/ roareports/index/secid/375/part/1 World Health Organisation (WHO). 2009. Women and Health: Today’s Evidence, Tomorrow’s Agenda. Switzerland. 91p. www.who.int/gender/women_health_report/en/index.html


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‘Aid’ refers to official development assistance (ODA) reported to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). For critiques of aid, see Büthe, Oxfam, Reality of Aid, Subramanian and Wilks in the “Resources from ARROW SRHR Knowledge Sharing Centre” section.

Development Assistance Committee (DAC)

Bilateral vs. Multilateral Aid

Bilateral aid is given by one country directly to another; multilateral aid is given through the intermediacy of an international organisation, such as the World Bank, which pools donations from several countries’ governments and then distributes them to the recipients.

The Development Assistance Committee of the OECD consists of 24 members: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, the European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Korea (which joined in 2010), Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. These members have “agreed to secure an expansion of aggregate volume of resources made available to developing countries and to improve their effectiveness.” The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and UNDP participate as observers.

government Funding

Government funding includes expenditure by DAC and nonDAC governments and by the European Commission.


Gross National Income (GNI)

The total value of goods and services produced within a country (i.e., its GDP), together with income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends), less similar payments made to other countries.

Multilateral Agency

Constant Prices

Constant (real terms) figures show how expenditure has changed over time, after removing the effects of exchange rates and inflation. DAC deflators, along with annualised exchange rates, are available at: www.oecd.org/dac.

An international institution with governmental membership that conducts all or a significant part of its activities in favour of developing and aid recipient countries. Such agencies include multilateral development banks (e.g. the World Bank and regional development banks), UN agencies and regional groupings (e.g., certain EU and Arab agencies).

Debt Relief

Official Development Assistance (ODA)

Debt relief can be counted as part of a DAC donor’s ODA. It can take the form of cancellation, rescheduling, refinancing or reorganisation.

Development Aid vs. Humanitarian Aid

Development aid or development cooperation is aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries. It focuses on alleviating poverty in the long term. On the other hand, humanitarian aid is material or logistical assistance provided for humanitarian purposes, typically in response to humanitarian crises including natural disaster and man-made disaster. The primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain human dignity. In DAC reporting, humanitarian aid is a sector of ODA. Other ODA sectors include agriculture, governance, health, population, education, water and sanitation—these other sectors are sometimes collectively known as ‘development assistance.’

ODA is a grant or loan from an ‘official’ (government) source to a developing country or multilateral agency for the promotion of economic development and welfare. It is reported by members of the OECD DAC according to strict criteria each year and by a small number of donors outside of the OECD DAC group, who typically report a less comprehensive dataset. It includes sustainable and poverty-reducing development assistance (for sectors such as governance, growth, social services, education, health, and water and sanitation) as well as funding for humanitarian crises. Endnotes
1 2 Adapted from the Development Initiative’s GHA Report 2010. www.globalhumanitarianassistance.org/wpcontent/uploads/2010/07/GHA_Report8.pdf www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3746,en_21571361_44315115_47515235_1_1_1_1,00.html

Compiled by Maria Melinda (Malyn) Ando, AFC Managing Editor, Programme Officer, ARROW. Emails: malyn@arrow.org.my, mariamelinda@yahoo.com
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A commitment refers to the firm—but not necessarily legally binding—pledges of assistance made by donors. In 1970, governments agreed to a target of giving at least 0.7% of their gross national income (GNI) as aid. The DAC member countries set a revised target of 0.51% of GNI in 2005. These commitments are not being met; the 2010 ODA figures represent only 0.32% of the GNI. The only countries who met the 0.7% target in 2010 are Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. In addition to these countries, Belgium, Finland, Ireland and the United Kingdom met the 0.51% target in 2010.2

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The total market value of goods and services produced by workers and capital within a nation’s borders.

Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW) www.arrow.org.my

Contraceptive (In)Security in South East Asia1,2
Global calls for achieving contraceptive security, which entails enabling “every person to choose, obtain, and use quality contraceptives and condoms for family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STIs) and HIV prevention,”3 have paid limited attention to South East Asia. Still, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs in the region remain substantial and are not equitably met by the current supply of contraceptive commodities and services. Notwithstanding significant SRH differentials reflecting socio-economic disparities in the region, overall maternal mortality and morbidity is high in a majority of countries, millions of unwanted pregnancies are terminated, often unsafely at great risk, STIs are widespread and HIV infections are rising among women and the general population. This reveals the population’s insufficient access to quality contraceptives. Although South East Asia as a whole has a higher contraceptive prevalence when compared to other parts of the developing world, absolute use in certain countries and groups remains low with traditional methods accounting for a considerable share. Estimates for the 2000-2005 period suggest that 11% of married women of reproductive age had an unmet need for contraception, and it can be expected that figures for unmarried, sexually active people are higher as most governments exclude them from public contraceptive services. Unmet need for condoms to prevent STIs/HIV is acute among both married and unmarried individuals and couples. Demand for contraceptives is expected to expand as the regional population continues to grow from 586 million people in 2008 to 826 million in 2050, and a large number of young people enter reproductive age and become sexually active. For this increasing demand to be met, however, South East Asian governments have to reconsider their present position with regards to providing contraceptive services. With the exception of Thailand, countries in the region fall under three main categories: (i) countries taking a pro-natalist stance for religious or demographic reasons that oppose or reduce access to modern contraceptives, namely Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore; (ii) countries, like Indonesia and Vietnam, with strong family planning programmes that emphasise those methods considered more effective to achieving population control, yet neglect short-term contraceptives; and (iii) countries hampered by a lack of resources, namely Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Timor-Leste, with some also not wholly supportive of contraception. While financial and technical scarcity remains a concern, and unchecked privatisation and market

segmentation threaten the fulfillment of equity and universality principles in the purchasing and delivery of contraceptive methods, it is the realisation of an enabling policy environment that presents the greatest challenge to achieving contraceptive security in South East Asia. A regional advocacy agenda ought to address the ideological objections to modern contraceptives and people’s SRH choices value. The exclusive focus of contraceptive services on married women and the taboo against discussion of sexuality and condom use ought to be questioned, exposing the moralistic and gender biases underpinning current policies. It also needs to be stressed that the ongoing demographic transition does not justify a neglect of contraceptive services, rather their reform into more comprehensive SRH services that include STIs/HIV prevention. In parallel, it is important to harness resources to meet growing demand in an equitable manner. Advocacy strategies need to ensure that donors do not overlook the needs of the poorest countries and disadvantaged groups in the region. At the same time, donor-dependent countries should strive to diversify funding and not to rely on single-donor supply. Mechanisms could be developed for joint regional procurement and storage of contraceptive commodities, maximising the fact that Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand are significant producers of contraceptive commodities, and that the region is in between China and India, two of the largest producers of generic products. Efforts to enhance quality of local contraceptive commodities so as to meet international standards should be prioritised and, when still not done, contraceptives should be included in national essential drug lists. Affordability and availability of contraceptive services could be further enhanced by ensuring their coverage by universal health insurance schemes, like in the case of Thailand. This could be part of a broader discussion on the ‘right’ mix of private and public services and on strengthening the government’s stewardship role in regulating the market to ensure that disadvantaged groups are not excluded from services nor have only access to lesser quality services. All these efforts would be needed so as to truly realise contraceptive security for all in South East Asia. Endnotes
1 This article is adapted from the author’s 2010 report, Achieving Contraceptive Security and Meeting Reproductive Health Needs in South East Asia (www.asiapacificalliance.org/population-areproductive-health-archive/289-contraceptive-security-and-meeting-reproductive-health-needs-insoutheast-asia.html). The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect that of the organisations she is or has been associated with. Definition used by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Available at www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/pop/news/issue_briefs/supplies.html Used in the author’s report.

Fac t F i l e

2 3

By Rosalia Sciortino, Regional Director, International Development Research Center (IDRC) Regional Office for South East and East Asia in Singapore. Email: rosaliasciortino@yahoo.com


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