A project

of Volunteers

in Asia
of

The Design and Develooment Refrigerator by: R.H.L. Exoll, Wijeratna Published by: Asian Institute P.O. Box 2754 Bangkok Thailand
Sommai

a Solar

Powered

Kornsakoo,

and D.G.D.C.

of Technology

Paper copies are $8 in Thailand, $10 in developing countries, and $15 in developed countries. This document is available in microfiche form for $3 per sheet from the Asian Institute of Technology. Available from: Library and Regional Documentation Asian Institute of Technology P.O. Box 2754 Bangkok Thailand Reproduced Technology. by permission Center

of the Asian Institute

of

Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

Asian Institute Bangkok

of Technerlegy T haihand

research repori

No. 42

THE DESIGN

AND DEVELOPMENT

OF A SOLAR

POWERED

REFRIGERATOR

Dr. R. H. B. Exell Sommai Kornsako~ D. G. D. C. Wijeratna

THE DESIGN AbD DEVELOPMENTOF A SOLAR POWERED REFRIGERATOR

Dr. R. H. B, Exe11 Assistant Professor

Sommai Kornsaicoo D, G. D. C. Wijeratna

for The John F. Kennedy Foundation, Thailand

Bangkok, February,

Thailand 1936

PREFACE This research refrigeration size report describes work on the development of a solar powered

system which will

eventually unit

lead to the production for food preservation. in his

of a ..-illage

ice maker or to a cold The subject

storage

was examined by Mr. D. G. D. C. Wijeratna Report (No. 34). and the experimental and testing unit

Individual by Sommai

Studies

Project

was designed was by tir.

Dr. R. H, B, Exell. Kornsakoo for

The construction Degree Thesis. of Technology for financial

of the unit

his Master Institute

The Asian Foundation, energy

(AIT)

is indebted

to the John F. Kennedy for solar

T'hailand,

support

in the form of a grant

research

made in response President of AIT,

to a proposal

made in 1973 by Professor

Hz E, Hoelscher, Foundation.

to Dr. Tbanat Khoman, Chairman of the

iii)

SUMMARY A small flat plate ammonia-water solar collector intermittent absorption as a first refrigerator with a 1.44 m2 the

has been tested ice maker. during No oil

step towards

development Regeneration absorption

of a village takes place

or electricity

is used. at night. proposed plate. are Rapid by Swartman,

the day and refrigeration first

is obtained

by means of a new feature, is dissipated

in which the heat of absorption In the generator used 3 On a clear

from the flat

15 kg of solution day the solution

containing

46% ammonia in water rises

temperature at 32'C.

from 30°C to 88WC and refrigeration overall heat the solar absorbed) work. is

C,9 kg of pure ammonia is condensed temperature coefficient 0.09, which of the ammonia drops of performance though small (cooling

During

to -%'C, effect with

The estimated divided by solar

is comparable

previously

published

Developments

in the design

are discussed.

(iii)

CONTENTS Preface Summary Contents I. INTRODUCTION The Basis for Objectives of Possibilities The Rationale Considering Solar Energy the Study for Research and Development for Selecting Solar Refrigeration
8 8 9 9 13 15 23 23 24 25 26 28 28 30 32 32 33 33 37 37 37 52 54 55 56 56 ii

iii
iV

II

SOLAR FFFRIGERATION Indices of Performance Operation of the Intermittent Ammonia-Water System Analysis of the Ideal Cycle Rigorous Analysis of the Ammonia-Water Cycle Historical Development DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTAL UNIT Choice of Configuration Operation of the System Concentration of Aqua-Ammonia Regeneration Phase of the Cycle Refrigeration Phase of the Cycle Collector-Generator Specifications The Volume of the Generator The Size of the Receiver for Ammonia Heat of Generation Heat of Condensation Further Details of the Design EXPERIMENTAL TESTS Relationship between Plate Temperature and Solution Temperature Experimental Results Amount of Ammonia Distilled Cooling Ratio Heat Absorbed by Solution During Regeneration Solar Coefficient of Performance Discussion CONCLUSIONSAND PLANS FOR CONTINUING RESEARCH Conclusions Economic Considerations Modifications The Development of a Village Ice-Maker Alternatives References Appendix A Charging Appendix B Estimation - Equipment of Incident - Procedure Solar Radiation
(iv>

III

IV

V

59 59 59
60 60

65

67

72

-lI The Basis for Considering Solar important INTRODUCTION Energy reasons for considering countries. solar energy First, as an

There are several energy resource

to meet the needs of developing called developing available.

most of and have need of these supplies countries

the countries good solar countries

are in or adjacent Secondly, energy

to the tropics is a critical readily

radiation but they

do not have widely resources. climates, capital

distributed, Thirdly, dispersed

available

of conventional are characterised

energy

most of the developing and inaccessible

by arid

populations

and a lack of investment insuperable example, available obstacles

and are thus faced with

practically means, for is readily Fourthly, all over the of rural

to the provision

of energy by conventional to this solar energy

by electrification. and is already

In contrast distributed nature of solar which

to the potential

users,

because of the diffuse world

energy the developments fits well into

have been in smaller

units

the pattern

economics. Objectives of the Study study is part of a project in solar energy utilization units for demonstrating in

The present AIT,

aimed at the development

of one or more prototype of solar energy

the usefulness purposes, The specific area of solar and further, investigation.

and economic viability

the designed

objective utilization

of the argument useful device

in this

chapter

is to identify countries of Asia,

an

energy to select:

to the developing for development

a suitable

and for

a preliminary

-2Possibilities Solar two decades. and conferences comprehensive advisory for energy Research research and Developnent seems to have gathered period with of solar there momentum during the last seminars

Over this dealing surveys

have been many publications,

solar

energy.

One of the most up to date and is a report for by an ad-hoc

energy

applications

panel of the Board on Science entitled 'Solar Energy for

and Technology Developing

International Perspectives of this and

Development Prospects', report

Countries:

NATIONAL ACADEMYOF SCIENCES (1972). those of earlier that solar salt such surve,s evaporation

The conclusions

supersede

and are summarised below. has been a historical, or brines; it remains There

The panel observes traditional important appears using

method of obtaining today on both a small to be little research

from sea water scale as well

and a large that cannot

in many countries.

be done by the industries

this

process. technology is well established and the needed development and manufacturing for hospitals, schools availit

Water heating is largely capabilities anu other able with to adapt

the technology

to use materials Hot water could

of the country such institutions these developments.

in question. and families The nature countries,

become much more widely is such that it to their

of the equipment and adapting

can be manufactured conditions Solar community

in developing

seems to be straightforward. distillation stills for must still be regarded as experimental applications. but small Designs a scale are

are near to extensive solar stills that

commercial are serviceable

now available

and can be used with

-3reasonable involve countries materials degree of confidence. of existing Further technology research in this application would

adaptation through and locally

to the specific to allow

needs of developing ava,ilable

design modifications manufactured and widespread

the use of locally

components. use of solar energy ts for drying, for that particularly,

A traditional of agricultural crops or other

products. materials applications

The design to be dried

and control are areas

of tilese

particular could result lead to in

of research

more practical improved

in developing

countries

which could

utilization

of food supplies. in solar heating have been aimed almost countries. entirely The

Research at applications

and development

in the temperate of the real

climates extent

of industrialised

panel knows little countries, Studies Australian appears

of needs for energy

space heating in meeting at United

in developing

or of the possible in air applications to be assured; conditioning

role

of solar

these needs. and feasibility The best are

aimed primarily in early feasibility solar energy stages.

States

are still economic cooling with

Technological

is now under study. in developing

methods of obtaining far from clear at this

countries

time and the immediacy and extent

of needs for air

conditioning

are not known. cycles and systems that can be considered what may be the best countries. There and the of available

There are many refrigeration for scale solar refrigeration. to operate It solar

has yet to be established refrigerators

on which

in developing regarding of better

are a substantial application foodstuffs

number of open questions possibility could

refrigeration, utilization

has the attractive if refrigeration

be successfully

provided,

-4The possible energy conversion applications of the successful mechanical yet development or electrical of economic energy solar

to meet needs for remains an elusive

are wide.

This conversion Solar its

intriguing~problem. in its applied, technical technology and significant in

cooking if it

appears

to be simple

advantages

can be successfully of satisfactory

Solar cookers performance However, for

have been providing field

developed at least trials

to a degree part

of the cooking

.needs of families,

extensive in social

in India,

Mexico and Morocco devices.

have so far not resulted

acceptance

of these

The conclusions that which drying, are now useful they could distillation solar

at the Panel are summarised thus: or that could be brought results heating. cooling

the solar

processes in

to a stage of development

produce

useful

in the shortest More extensive and thermal design

time are evaporation, development of buildings Applications in should of solar

and water heating,

refrigeration,

make some of these power will The Rationale require for

uses practical the substantial Selecting Solar

within

the decade.

development Refrigeration section

of new technology.

The discussion energy air applications

in the earlier that

indicates
Stagej

that

out of the solar space heating and

are in the experimental priority

conditioning

are not high energy

needs in Asia,

conversion

to mechanical

or electrical laboratories solar possible cooking

is best left

to be carried and that leaves

out by well-equipped the social solar acceptance as a development of

of industrialised is rather doubtful,

countries This

refrigeration for further

area of study.

In order

to select

a device

-5the following device questions must be answered. especially, What size find What is the need for in Asia? should it be? such a be a

in developing

countries,

Should the device Ths rest questions, of this

food cooler section

or an ice maker?

is devoted

to an attempt-to solar scientist

answers to these

A distinguished

of South East Asia writing entitled 'A Case for

anonymously a Solar Ice

makes the following Maker',

comments in an article

ANON., (1963).

"After eight years of study of the problems of applying solar energy in an underdeveloped country I believe that the most promising line of research is to develop an ice making machine. The goal should be a self contained, reliable ice making machine capable of making at least 10 lbs. of ice per sunny day at a cost of one U.S. cent per pound using only solar energy and water as inputs, In tropical countries vast amounts of fresh fruit, vegetabies and fish are lost or their value depreciated by spoilage. This spoilage could be prevented by freezing them with ice... Ice is an important commodity of commerce, fetching as much as 10 U.S. cents per pound in remote areas because of its high cost of transportation (due to melting en-route or the alternative high cost of making it locally at the remote place by electricity or fuel), A foreign made electric refrigerator costs about 250 $ LJ.S,, the cost of a comparable solar icemaker would be at least 250 $ U.S. It may seem strange that a solar ice maker costing 250 $ U.S. would be bought when people were not buying solar cookers at only 10 $ LJ,S, each., The explanation is that the solar ice maker would be bought by traders and shop owners who can easily afford the amount and they would use the ice for preserving their valuable stocks of fresh fruits, fish etc...,.. Also the poor people who produce the fresh fruit, fish etc., can afford to buy ice at about one or two U.S. cents per pound, as it is only a small short-term investment of about 10 or 20 U.S. cents, which they can recover within a faw days after the sale of their frozen products", BA HLI et al. (1970) have studied They state purely the possibilities that solar for the development

of ice makers in Burma. are assured also size observe of success that

ice makers and refrigerators point can either The domestic of view. They

from the meteorological ice making facilities

the solar size for

be of domestic solar ice makers

or of community

local

conditions.

-6and refrigerators electrically must be as automatic refrigerators. because there as possible in order solar to compete with ice makers can available for

operated

Community size

have manual participation each ice maker. is half Roughly,

would be an operator

the cost

of production

of ice by local but the cost

factories

U.S. cent per pound of ice ex-factory,

of i,"e in the hand season and

of the consumer would be about one U.S. cent per pound in the cold much higher if a solar in the hot season. They conclude that under these

conditions,

ice maker can make ice anywhere ice could

in Burma for

about one U.S. cent

per pound that

be a boon to the country. possible thus: applications of solar energy in

MERRIAM (1972) developing countries

discussing observes

"A very promising application is refrigeration. Refrigeration encompasses household refrigerators, space cooling, air conditioning of buildings etc., but I have chosen to concentrate attention on one particular possible device, a machine for making ice. This is for several reasons, both technological and socio-economic. For one converting the solar radiation into ice solves the problems thing, of intermittency and storage. Ice can be stored for months. Also it is transportable, e.a, An ammonia-water cycle is contemplated. ..*.. Several ice makers and refrigerators using this cycle and solar energy input have been built, The design I have in mind would be constructed of mild steel, and would be rugged and simple without moving parts. The out!ut would be 60-70 kg/day of -1O'C ice, the input would be lo-12 m of solar radiation and the services of a full-time unskilled operator", The answers to the questions viz: is one of the most promising fields for further raised at the beginning of this section

can now be provided, Solar

refrigeration

development; An ice maker seems to be the most useful If ice can be made at about is assured. one U.S. cent device in developing countries;

per pound commercial

viability

2

-7A community with size unit producing is loo-150 lbs. of ice a day, for initial

some manual operation domestic

to be preferred

development;

refrigerators

need to be automatic

as far as possible. The first conclusions, The next community experimental experience for objective i.e., that of the study of selecting has been reached a suitable device with for the above further development. of a

step is to make a preliminary size solar ice maker.

study aimed at the development step towards this goal an

As a first

ice maker will further

be designed

and built

which wiJ.1 provide

development.

-8II Some of the theoretical performance A brief of solar SOLAR REFRIGERATION concepts will that are useful in analysing in this chapter. will be the

refrigerators

be presented cycle will

analysis

of the ammA-* ulAra-water refrigerator.

be made as this

used in the experimental Indices of Performance cooling

Any solar unit employti:g

device

essentially cycle

consists

of two parts: from that with

a cooling in or a

a thermodynamic refrigerators,

no different heat source

employed

conventional focussing

and a solar it.

a flat-plate

collector index

to operate

The usual is the coefficient produced refrigerator

by which the performance of performance which

of a refrigerator as the ratio

is measured of cooling to the

is defined

to heat

supplied.

This

same concept ratio

may be applied as

component and a cooling

may be defined

heat absorbed by refrigerant during refrigeration heat absorbed by generator contents during regeneration The performance given by heat absorbed by the contents of the generator incident solar radiation on the collector The overall two above defined performance ratios, ratio can now be defined as during refrigeration on the collector of the solar collector can be defined

l

by a heating

ratio

' as the product of the

or explicitly

heat absorbed by refrigerant incident solar radiation

-9The concepts when analysing Operation of heating ratio and cooling ratio are especially are separate. useful

systems where the collector Ammonia-water

and generator System

of the Intermittent

Figures connected

2.1 and 2.2 show a simple pipe.

system consisting hand vessel The left

of two vessels contains aqua-ammonia contains

by an overhead

The right

and functions

as the generator-absorber.

hand vessel

pure ammonia and functions The operation two phases: regeneration

as the condenser-evaporator. aqua-ammonia system can be divided phase. which During into the

of the intermittent

the regeneration

phase and the refrigeration to the generator-absorber As the solution is reached

phase heat is supplied

contains the off of

an ammonia solution pressure rises

of high concentration, pressure

is heated

and once condensation

ammonia distills

and condenses water, Fig. During

in the evaporator-condenser 2.1, the refrigeration is allowed drawing

which

is immersed in a bucket

phase the heat to cool.

source

is removed and the drops and the ammonia thus producing absorbs cooling.

generator-absorber starts evaporating

The pressure

heat

from the surroundings

The weak ammonia solution ammonia and the process evaporated, Analysis Fig. 2,2,

in the generator-absorber continues until all

the evaporated is

the ammonia in the condenser

of the Ideal

Cycle analysis of the ammonia-water absorption cycle all

In the following thermodynamic processes

are assumed to be reversible,

- 10 -

Condenser ~hfmnia
--a------a_

Aqua Ammonia----__

-----

-

Coaling Water

Fig. 2.1 - Operation

of

the

Regenemtion

Phase

LCooling

Water

Tank

Fig. 2.2 - Operation

of

the

Refrigeration

Phase

- 11 Energy is transferred . i.e., atmospheric condenser temperature and absorber, at which heat is taken from the cold chamber T cg T . g performing a Ta' at which heat is rejected in the in the form of heat at three temperature levels,

the temperature the temperature It a function reversible rejects is possible equivalent heat engine

at which heat is received an arrangement of the absorption a quantity Ta while

in the generator machines 2.3.

to imagine to that receives

of reversible plant, Fig.

Firstly, T

of heat Q, at a temperature a quantity of work W ga

heat at a temperature

producing

and g with

an efficiency, w ga Q, where all T =

g - Ta T g

temperatures

are measured

on the thermodynamic receives a quantity

temperature of heat

scale. Q, at Tc

Secondly, and rejects

a reversible at Ta while

refrigerator absorbing is

a quantity

heat

of work Wca.

The coefficient

of performance

of the refrigerator

W ca

T -Tc a

= plant will be equivalent to an

this If w is made equal to - W ca' ISa absorption refrigerator, The coefficient plant can be defined as 9,/Q,, which

of performance

of the combined expressions

on combining

the two previous

becomes,

-

12 -

RI /““/‘/{/“‘/“‘J

+--

Heat Engine

d--

Refrigerator

Fig. 2.3 - ~&dent

Absorption

Machine

C.O.P.

=

Tc(T - Ta' Qc/Qg =
T 0
g = Tc) l

The practical under consideration

importance

of this

result

is that

if since

a C.O.P.

for

the cycle and Tc is

is known Tg may be calculated,

Ta is fixed

chosen by the designer. Rigorous Analysis of the Ammonia-water presents Cycle analysis of the theoretical for comparison for chart. pressure with aquathe system

CHINNAPPA (1961), ammonia cycle, actual cycle.

a rigorous

Two forms of the cycle These two cycles

are suitable

are shown plotted (p-t-X) 'constant

the aqua-ammonia The first absorption

on a pressure-temperature-concentration theoretical cycle may be designated in Fig.

form of the cycle'

and is represented theoretical represented

2,4 by 2-3-4-5-2. 'constant

The second form of the absorption cycle' and is

may be designated in Fig.

temperature

2.4 by 1-3-4-6-1. pressure cycle is the more efficient temperature one it cycle is is

Even though difficult

the constant

to realise

in practice. detail., temperature

Hence, the constant

examined in greater In the constant processes

absorption

cycle

regeneration

consists

of two process

1-3 and 3-4.

In the refrigeration usually

phase during in a water tie

the cooling bath, to a

4-6 the solution temperature refrigeration t 6

is cooled, which takes

by immersion

is equal place for

to the initial the process

temperature 6-l. is

Effective

during

The expression

the amount of refrigeration

350

300

250

0

IL

200
. 150

100 LL Ol f! 5og P @

0

-50

Weight

Fraction

of

Ammonia

in

Saturated

Liquid

Fig. 2.4 -

Ammonia

Absorption

Cycle

where Lm w;, = = mean latent weight heat of the refrigerant at point during 6. l-3-4 is given by the process 6-1.

on the refrigerant during

The heat supplied

the regeneration

process

W4H4 - wlHl + where W weight cycle, H specific

J
w4

w1 HvdW

9

of the solution,

suffix

indicating

the point

of the

enthalpy

of the solution,

suffix

indicating

the point

on the cycle, specific
HY

enthalpy

of the vapour boiling

out of the liquid, out of the liquid.

dW

differential for

mass of the vapour boiling the C.O.P. becomes

Thus the expression

W4H4

- WlHl + /" ' HvdW w4

Historical

Development to the Survey of Solar-Powered the first Refrigeration study undertaken carried out by the use of

According

SWARTMAN,HA, and NEWTON(19731, of solar Florida energy by Green. water reflector. for refrigeration

to explore

was probably

in 1936 at the University refrigerator line

The steam to power a steam jet flowing in a pipe placed

was produced of a cylindro-

by heating parabolic

at the focal

- 16 Oniga reported parabolic reflector in 1937 that researchers in Brazil tried to adapt a

to an absorption stage.

refrigerator

but the system never got

beyond the experimental Kirpichev

aud Baum of Russia refrigerators

reported producing

the successful

operation

of

an assembly of solar in 1954. type placed driven

250 kilogrammes

of ice per day

The refrigerators by a heat engine of a large

were of the conventional operating mirror. of solar

vapour-compression by a boiler

on the steam produced However, energy it

at the focus that

has been generally power, the ,

conceded

the low efficiency of equipment, factors

in producing of this

very high cost are unfavourable built, there

and the complexity

type of syst@, Since this

in the future interest

development. shown in this

system was

has been little

direction

of solar

refrigeration, The first major project on an all solar absorption Fig. refrigeration 2.5 shows the ammonia-water a pipe placed at

system was undertaken general solution the focai vapourized evaporator set-up

byTROMBE and FOEX (1964). which

of the system, to flow

has these main features: reservoir reflector. condensed through

is allowed line

from a cold

cf a cylindro-parabolic is subsequently

Heated ammonia-water in a cooling coil. The trials, the of ice The

in the boiler is a coil

surrounding reflector

the container

used as an ice box. In the prototype

cylindro-parabolic daily production

measured 1.5 m'. 6 kilogrammes four-hour

of ice was about of collecting

or about 4 kilogrammes heating.

per square metre

area for

- 17-

----Cooled

Water

Valves

_.. ___------

Liquid Ammonia Reservoir Evaporator Freezer

-Cold

Chamber

Fig. 2.5 - Intermittent Absorption Refrigerator Built by TROMBE and FOEX (1964).

Solar Heated Water Ammonia Solution Ammonia

Charging

Mode

Cooling Water b :::;;;j :I. A!sF Aimckia Solution

@ LiqG Ammonia

Chilled Water

Cooling Mode Fig. 2.6 -The Basic Solar-Powered Intermittent Absorption Refrigerator.

- 18 The design further boiler, although byTrombeand modifications Foex is very promising may be necessary and should be studied

on the solar

collector,

and condenser, Williams and others at the University of Wisconsin rural built areas. a small food

cooler consisted

in 1957 intended of two vessels

for use in underdeveloped linked together mirror

The apparatus 2.6. The with

by a pipe as shown in Fig.

energy was provided an aluminized Ammonia-water study mylar

by a parabolic polyester film ether

of moulded 1.27 mm polystyrene at the rim by metal solutions.

and stiffened

tubing. This

and R-21-glycol refrigeration

were used as working

showed that

can be achieved Although cycle, obtained

by the use of intermittent is limited by the

absorption characteristics accounts study ether

refrigeration

cycles.

performance the simplicity

of the intermittent the low temperature ammonia-water

of the system Finally, the

for

in the evaporator. performance

showed that

has a superior system. intermittent

over R-21-glycol

in an intermittent CHTNNAPPA (1962) built

refrigeration a simple

refrigerator 2.7.

operated

with

a flat-plate absorber with

collector in this

at Columbo,

Ceylon as shown in Fig. construction

The generatorand incorporated

refrigerator collector

was of welded pipe and a water 152,4 cooled

a flat-plate

absorber.

The solar

collector

was a copper black.

sheet measuring wassolded

cm by 106.7 cm, 0,76 mm thick, 6.35 cm diameter glass covers steel pipes

and painted and the pipes which

The plate

to six

were welded

to headers, by strips fluid.

There were three of cork board.

on the collector solution

were supported as the working

An ammonia-water

was used

Fv

Pressure Gauge

t-s

I 1
-

-Boiler Flat - Plate Collector l- ---k ---1

Charging Pipe 4 Solution ReservoirVD t - s = Thermometer Socket Absorber I
I-G

Fig. 2.7- Schematic Diagram of Solar Refrigerator Operated with Flat-Plate Collector by CHINNAPPA(1962).

- 20 While it has been generally for tests the lower expected temperature that the flat-plate collector in air that would

be more suitable conditioning, it is possible

of generation

required

in the investigation

by CHINNAPPA (1962) incorporated It with

indicated

to use a flat-plate at a temperature in this refrigerator Results a simple device

collector

the generator that ice

to produce

cooling

as low as -12'C.

is noted

can be produced collecting they

at one kg a day per 0.7 m2 of solar investigation refrigerator were not using spectacular, but

surface.

in this

showed that

intermittent

a low temperature can achieve cooling. refrigeration collector schematically. connecting to the

heat collecting

such as the flat-plate built

collector a simple, with

SWARTMAN and SWAMINATHAN(1971) system incorporat-ing at the University The collector-generator a 5.1 cm feeder tubes material water

intermittent

the generator-absorber of Western Ontario. assembly consisted Fig.

a 1.4 m2 flat-plate

2.8 shows the system of 1.27 cm steel sheet was pipes

and 15.2 cm header.

Thin copper

soldered insulation

and the whole

assembly was enclosed and a two-layered varying

in a wooden box with glass cover on the top.

at the bottom solutions

Ammoniawere tested.

of concentration successful;

from 58 to 70 percent temperatures rate

Tests were relatively

evaporator

were as low as -12OC,

but due to poor absorption, was low. Another study

the evaporation

of ammonia in the evaporator

at the University thiocyanate solution

of Western

Ontario

in 1970 investigated described of 0.05 to 0.14

an ammonia-sodium above. Results for

in the same system as that showed that the coefficients

of the investigation NH3-NaSCN range

performance for

from 0.11 to 0.27 compared with study, Nevertheless,

NR3-H20 obtained

from the earlier

the system was

- 21 -

Rectifying Column

Charging LineVapour Return Line During Refrigeration L External Return Line

Collector Tubes Lower Header -

Fig. 2.8 - Intermittent Solar Refrigerator Built at University of Western Ontario by SWARTMAN and SWAMINATHAN (1971)

Top Header ‘-\

Condenser

Fig. 2.9- Solo! Ice Maker Built at the University of Florida by FARBER(1970)

- 22 still unable to make any considerable that lower amount of ice at the evaporator. performance than that NH3-H20. It It

was concluded also offered

NH3-NaSCN has a better equipment cost as it

did not need a rectifying An optimal concentration

column due of 54%

to the low volatility was suggested for

of the NaSCN salt. intermittent has built refrigeration.

FARBER (1970) date. energy

the most successful ice maker using

solar

refrigeration collector

system to as the

It was a compact solar source. Fig.

a flat-plate

2.9 shows the flow diagram was 1.49 m2, consisting

of the system.

The solar The

collector-generator 2.54 ized cm pipes iron

of a 6,35 cm top header. and soldered

were spaced on 10.2 This unit

cm centres

to a 20 gauge galvan' sheet behind metal box with

sheet, glass cover

was placed

in a galvanized insulation components,

a single generator evaporator,

and one inch In addition

of Styrofoam to the usual there

the absorber-

element.

such as condenser, column of

ice box, heat exchanger,

was an ammonia absorbing the liquid that

the shell-and-tube chilled 42,200 produced water

type and two pumps to circulate It was reported

ammonia and of about

in the evaporator.

an average

kJ of solar was about

energy was collected 18.1 kilogrammes.

by the collector This gave an overall

per day and ice coefficient of

performance surface

of about

0.1 and 12.5 kilogrammes

of ice per m2 of collector

per day. as solar system, refrigeration but it should is concenred, be noted that this has been the most

As far successful solar-powered

the system was not totally by electricity. The system

as there

were two pumps operated

would not work in areas where electricity

is not available,

- 23 III Choice of Configuration It was stated a solar on either collectors. Flat-plate diffuse provided absorbed solar collectors radiation. are flat Transparent heat blackened covers surfaces to absorb direct may be and power unit earlier that a solar refrigerator unit. flat-plate consists of two components, is based DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTAL UNIT

and a refrigeration concepts, i.e,,

The solar collectors

power unit

of two basic

or focussing

and back insulation

to reduce solar

or control

losses

from the plate,

On the plate, usually water heat, or air.

energy

is converted

to a desired energy, suitable

form of energy, usually as heated

and means are provided Flat-plate position, The basic a parabolic receiver energy element collectors

to remove that are generally

for

operation

in a fixed

of the focussingcollector to focus

is an optical

device, radiation

e.g., on a

reflector, smaller

the beam component of solar This collector collector gives

than the reflector. Although the focussing it it

can produce higher

a higher

flux.

temperatures Also, for

than the flat-plate a small plate experimental collector, study.

collector, -unit, Therefore,

is more difficult

to operate.

seems to be more expensive a flat-plate collector

than the flatfor this

was selected

particular

The refrigeration absorption serve system, if

unit

can be either

a continuous

or an intermittent system cannot in rural areas

The continuous

absorption power.

refrigeration Therefore, absorption

the purpose

the pumps require

where electricity

is unavailable,

the intermittent

refrigeration

- 24 -

system is preferred. operations, heating regeneration

The intermittent and refrigeration. fluid

refrigeratlzn

cycle

has two major is the process of

Regeneration to drive off

the refrigerant-absorbent

the refrigerant Refrigeration

vapour takes place the

and condense the vapour when the liquid evaporator. refrigerant

in a separate vapourizes,

container. producing

a cooling

effect

around

The refrigerant

is re-absorbed is a purely

by the absorbent, device it was decided

Since the refrigerator to keep it Fig. 3.1. as simple Simplicity

experimental

as possible.

The configuration by having

chosen is shown in the condenser function as

has been achieved function

the evaporator Operation During strong

and the generator

as the absorber.

of the System the regeneration, valve A is open and valve B is closed, heated by the flat-plate returns and the boils,

solution vapour

in the generator at a high

being

collector

producing header

pressure,

The weak solution return pipes.

from the top in the than

to the bottom is mainly

header by the insulated ammonia because water passes into

The vapour volatility

top header ammonia.

has a much lower the condenser The pressure

The ammonia vapour

which

is immersed throughout pressure than

in a tank of cold water the system.

to keep it stops

cool,

is uniform

Khen heating drops. regeneration,

valve A is closed

and the vapour

in the generator it was before cooling water

The concentration Before

in the generator is started

is now less the tank of

refrigeration B is opened.

is removed and valve

The condenser

now functions between heat from

as the evaporator. the generator

Ammonia gapourizes

due to the pressure

difference

and evaporator.

The vapourization

of ammonia absorbs

- 25

Valve thermometer Ammonia Receiver Coded in a lank of *+ir: Water Safety Valve Upper Hsdler

Eye

-btedRetwn ed G6nerutar ng Aqua nia

Ammda-Absurph-’ Inlets Fig.3.1 -The First Experimental Unit

- 26 the surroundings Ammonia vapour bottom header of the evaporator, from the evaporator of the generator solution thus thus producing passes through the incoming absorption the refrigeration the pipe taken vapour bubbles in it. effect. to the through

so that facilitating

the aqua-ammonia covers

The glass can be

are removed from the collector to the sky from the generator the liquid

so that risers.

the heat of absorption Refrigeration has vapourized.

dissipated until all

continues A full cycle

ammonia in the evaporator

of operation availability and refrigeration available. Concentration

has now been completed. of solar takes energy, place

To accommodate the intermittent is carried the radiation out during is no longer the day

the refrigeration at night after

of Aqua-Ammonia is to produce pressure a temperature of anhydrous of 17'F in the evaporator, temperature temperature is

The objective The saturation 45 psia. which mixture Hence,

vapour

ammonia at this is the atmospheric there

The temperature

of the absorber

is assumed to be 86'F. at temperature from the p-t-x thus

Thus in the absorber the pressure aqua-ammonia point

is an aqua-ammonia at 45 psia. is found cycle, shown

of 86'F with diagram for

of ammonia vapour the concentration of refrigeration

to be 0.46, as point

determining 3.2.

the starting

1 in Fig.

Regeneration

Phase of the Cycle temperature is 86'F. From the p-t-x temperature diagram the saturation Point 2 of (which

The condenser pressure the cycle

of anhydrous

ammonia at this since

is 170 psia.

can be determined,

the pressure

and the concentration

_----------------em

---------------------

.-----------m---w-

---_---------------

--.

-.

----__

17

0 XL - Weight Fraction

0.40 of Ammonia

0.46 Liquid -lb NH, per lb of Liquid

I

in Saturated

Fig.3.2

-

Ideal

Thermodynamic

Cycle

- 28 does not change during cycle is fixed process l-2) at point 2 are known. attainable determines diagram. point Point with 3 of the the

by the maximum solution is assumed to be 189'F, which is 0.40

temperature This

collector,

which

3 and hence

the concentration Refrigeration Ideally, first cooled

from the p-t-x

Phase of the Cycle during the refrigeration pressure phase of the cycle, of 45 psia, the solution'is

to the absorption to an initial The cycle at 17'F

which at a concentration of 103'F. 4-l during This which

of 0,40 corresponds fixes point 4.

absorption

temperature

is completed is reabsL,rbed

by the process into

ammonia evaporating Collector-Generator It was decided by four frontal

the solution.

Specifications to keep the unit for as compact as possible. the collector-generator. to resist with corrosion Thus, a four Black iron ft.

area was selected were used throughout associated four

seamless pipes mixture trations. the collecting to twelve 1 inch

by ammonia-water high ammonia concenwas used for

and the pressure A copper plate

the necessarily feet

sheet

by four dull

and 0,06 inch thick The plate

and c\'as painted tubes

black.

was soldered

1 inch

diameter

at four-inch

intervals. for

The ends of the adequate separation a 4-inch gave a liquid level For the The

tubes were welded

to headers.

To provide

of the water

from the ammonia vapour the top header,
n

out of the collector-generator, This 56 in, length full. of pipe

pipe was used for surface could

area of 225 in‘ be observed through

when the header was half bull's

The liquid

eyes at both ends of the header. in diameter and 54 inches

bottom header arrangement

a pipe

2 inches

long was used. 3.3.

of the colletitor-generator

is shown in Fig.

- 29 -

t -Thermameter 1
tl56”-y -i--------------

-Top
v

bd8r

-”

i

Vapour Absorpkon Inlets ~2” Pipe

l-

Dottom Header

Fig.3.3 -

Solar

Collector

- Generator

- 30 To prevent foam four inches heat loss thick at the rear of the collector-generator insulation. polystyrene

was used for

The top and bottom headers were also covers thermally in front insulated of the collecting % in thick glass was'

and the risers with polystyrene

at each end of the collector foam. There were two glass

surface used.

supported

by a wooden frame, the collecting

Ordinary

window glass

The gap between

tubes and the first The glass

cover was % in; were

between the two glass removable. The inclination horizontal with

covers

the gap was 3/4 in.

covers

of the plane facing

of the generator due south,

was 20 degrees

to the

the unit

The Volume of the Generator The volume of the generator dimensions is used to determine calculated the quantity below from the standard of aqua-ammonia level pipe

in the system, throughout

and to determine the cycle. Top header 4,667 14 risers

the changes in the liquid

in the generator

(half ft

full) = 0.206 ft3

x 0.5 x 000882 ft3/ft

14 x 4 ft x 0.00585 Bottom header 4>5 ft x 0.0233 ft3/ft

ft3/Et

=

0.328

ft3

=

0.105 0.639

ft3 ft3

Total

volume

=

- 31Surface area of the liquid in the top header half = = = = Specific volume of aqua-ammonia 1, Vl 2, V2 3, V3 4, V4 in generator with weight 0.639 is ft3 of 0.46 aqua-ammonia at 86'F = 33.281 lbs is = = = = 0.0192 0.0205 0.0202 0.01895 ft3/lb ft3/lb ft3/lb ft3/lb ID.x 4.026 225,456 1.565 ft2 Lull length in x 56 in in2

at point point point point Liquid level Start Its

0'.639/0.0192

Thus volume of 33.281 33.281 Increase

lbs of 0.46 aqua-ammonia

at 170'F ft3 ft3 ft in

x 0.0205

0.682 0.043 0.027 0.331

in volume is 0.682 - 0.639 level is 0.043/1.565

Rise in liquid

When concentration, wt. of ammonia + wt. wt. wt. of water

X

0.46 33.281 15.309 17,972 lbs lbs lbs

Therefore,

of ammonia of water X

When concentration, wt. wt. Total of ammonia of water weight

0.40 11.981 17.972 29.953 lbs lbs lbs

- 32 Therefore, After wt. of ammonia distilled of 3.328 = 3.328 lbs. lbs of

the distillation at 139'F =

lbs of ammonia we have 29.958

0.40 aqua-ammonia Volume Decrease Fall

29.953 x 0.0202 volume at point is 0,034/1.565

=

0.605

ft3 ft3. ft in.

in volume below initial level below centre

1 is 0.034 = = 0.022 0.261'

in liquid

Volume of 29.953

lbs of aqua-ammonia

at 103'F

is 29.953 x 0.01895
=

0.568

ft3

Decrease Fall

in volume below initial level below centre

volume at point is 0.071/1.565

1 is 0,.071 ft3. = = 0.045 0.544 ft in,

in liquid

The Size of the Receiver

for

Ammonia = = 3.328/37.16 = 40, 4-inch = 3.328 0.089 pipe. 12.18 in. was made of lbs ft3.

Weight of ammonia distilled This ammonia has volume (at 86°F) Let the ammonia receiver Required length

be made of Schedule = 1.015 ft

= 0.089/0.0882

Consequently, &inch black iron

the ammonia receiver pipe, 16 inches long.

(condenser-evaporator)

Heat of Generation Let enthalpy enthalpy of 3.328 of 29.953 lbs of 0.40 aqua-ammonia at 189'F = H3,

lbs of ammonia vapour at mean generation 178'~ lbs of 0.46 aqua-ammonia at 86'F

temperature = = HA, Hl.

(approximately) enthalpy of 33.281

- 33 From fig. 3.2: Hl HA H3 Therefore, Daily global = = = 33.281 x (-55) 627 75 H3 + HA - Hl surface r: = = = = = -1830 2086 2246 6162 Btu. Btu. Btu. Btu. -1

3.328 x 29.953 = x

heat of generation solar radiation

on horizontal

400 Cal.cm. -2day 22,800 Btu on

4 by 4 feet per day Therefore, generation. 7. Heat of Condensation After Enthalpy rectification of 3.328 the ammonia has a temperature at temperature of 120°F. 120'F = at pressure 170 psia = = constant within 2110 and 462 1648 Btu. Btu. Btu. the solar energy incident on the collector is 3.7 times

surface

the heat of

lbs of ammonia vapour = 3,328 x 634

Enthalpy

of 3.328 86O~

lbs of ammonia liquid = 3.328 x 138.9 =

temperature Total

heat of condensation The condenser was kept

2110 - 462

at a temperature

l°F by immersing

it

in 135 gallons The water Details

(80 x 80 x 80 cm3) of cold water tank was supported

during

the generation

cycle. Further

by a wooden stand.

of the Design pipe was used to connect of this pipe rising the generator to the ammonia reservoir. was used The absorption 3.4.

A l-inch A 28 in, length

vertically

from the top header distilled.

as a rectifier line

to remove water

from the ammonia being to the bottom

was made of 4 in pipe connected

header as shown in Fig.

1

.--.-- -

.--a-----

J

--------1 I

I I IL3 I> me a -I

- 35 -

Fig.35

- Solar - Powered

Refrigerator

- 36 -

There were two ammonia shut-off pressure in the system was indicated to the generator

valves

to control

the system.

The one

by two bourdon-type

ammonia gauges;

was attached leading

and the other

was at the top of the tube was also used at the top of

to the ammonia receiver.

A thermometer

the rectifier

to measure the temperature

of the ammonia vapour.

IV Relationship Between Plate

EXPERIMENTAL TESTS and Solution charged with Temperature water and temperature temperature out (see Fig. than the (T P)

Temperature was first

The collector-generator meazarements and solution 4.1). were made to find temperature

the relation Five tests

between

Lhe plate

(TL) m that

runs were carried temperature

It was concluded plate

the solution by about

was lower

corresponding that

temperature

2.4'F.

However,

it was observed were the same. 4.2.

at the beginning values

and end of each day both temperatures differences

The average

of the temperature was necessary

TP-TL are shown in Fig. thermometer fitting

This calibration had been attached

because no high pressure for measuring internal

to the generator

temperatures.

EXDeriUEntd

Results After evacuation, A). the system was charged The results obtained during with four 0,46 aqua-ammonia test solution

(see Appendix Figu:es

runs are shown in cloudless days.

4.3 to 4.14. in Fig. (TL) derived (Pl), cooling pressure,

These runs were performed 4.3 are the plate from the calibration temperature

on nearly (Tp),

Illustrated temperature vapour

temperature

the solution 4.2, the solution (T2),

shown in Fig. when leaving

pressure

ammonia-vapour water temperature

rectifier period.

and condenser The evaporator absorption

(T3) during

the generation

evaporator

temperature temperature

derived for

from the pressure, period by the

pressure, 4,4.

and absorption

the refrigeration cycles executed

are shown in Fig. solution respectively

The theoretical

and actual

in the collector-generator in Fig. 4.5

are shown as l-2-3'-4'

and l-2-3-4-5

(April

22,1975)

30
1 lo 1

I

1

I

I

I

9.00

IO.00
Time - hrs

II.00

25 Time - hrs

12.00 12 0

(April

24,1975) I 1 12.00 Time - hrs

(April

23,1975)

43% 8.00

I 9.00

I

1 1 10.00 Time-hrs

8 II.00

0

IL 90
I

2 80 F al k70 p 65

?!

(April

18,1975)

Time - hrs

Fig.4.1 - Observations

on

Plate

and

Solution

Temperatures

“C 4 3@. 2 e@@ee I 0 -I zoo 8.00 9.00 10.00 II.00 12.00 Time - hrs 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 a e ee @e e e a
w D

Fig.42

- Differences Five Test

between Runs.

Plate

and

Solution

Temperature

( Tp - TL ) : Mean

of

l9C

-

2a 24( 2a 2a

18C 17c . 16c IX l4C
0

.

l8C I6( = Plots Temperature

IL , I30 aa 2120 L z ; II0 IO0 90 80 70 60 6( 4c 2c Q I 7.00 1 I 8.00 I I 9.00 I I IO.00 I 11.00 Time - hrs
I I I I

. .E 14( x

= Solution Temperature = Solution Vapour Pressure = Ammonia Vapour Temperature Leaving Rectifier q Condenser Coaling Water Temp.

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

12.00

13.00

14.00

15.00

16.00 -

Fig.43 - Observations

during

Refrigeration

Test

on

May 9, 1975

-

41

-

- 42 -

‘0 - aJlI+DJadUJCtl

II

24r

18l i7( Ia

2of I81 Plate Temperature l6( Solution Temperature Solution Vapour Pressure Ammonia Vapour Temperature Leaving Rectifier r3 Condenser Cooling Water Temperature

0 154 I s l4( 6 tI E” l3f If!
12( IN lof 9( 6( 7( 6( 4( 2f (
1 1 1 I I I I

IL

I 4’ ” I

T-

--

k-----x

I

I

8.00

9.00

10.00

II.00

12.00

13.00

14.00

15.00

16.00

17

Time - hrs.

Fig.4.6

- Observations

during

Regeneration

Test

on

May

IO, 1975

Evcporrrhx

Pressure

r Evaporator 60-

TemDerature

50 -

Absorption 3OL
Ul 0 I IO I 20 I 30 1 40

Pressure
I 50 I 60 1 70 I 1 1 I I I

J

80 Time - min

90

100

II0

120

130

Fig.4.7 - Observations

during

Refrigeration

Test

on

May

IO, 1975

I%
l8C 17c I60 I50 h Ol 5 + 0 & E z 140 I30 I20 II0

----__

33 OF

Theoretical

Cycle -4

a I I I
I I

TO =F

-Actual

Cycle

-w-----m__

)2OF O°F

90
-we--__

VP--_

0

80 70 60 1 0.36 XL I 0.38 - Weight Fraction

---_-

go;

I
I I 0.40 of

i I I II 0.417 Ammonia

.

._

I 0.44 in Saturated

t I I 0.46 Liquid -lb NH3

I 0.48

.
I I

0.50 per lb of Liquid

0.52

Fig.4.8

- Actual

and

Theoretical

Solution

Cycles

for

Test

on

May IO, 1975

26r

18(

TL T2 T3

= =

Plate Temperature

Solution Temperature Solution Vapour Pressure = Ammonia Vapour Temperature Leaving Rectifier Condenser Cooling Water Temperature

=

8(
I I I 1 I

700

8.00

9.00

10.00

II .oo

12.00 Time - hrs.

13.00

14.00

15.00

16.00

17

Fig.49

- Observations

during

Regerwation

Test

on

May

14, 1975

( I69 psia)

9’ Absorption Temperature

8

IOC

0 .:: & 2 In 0) L

9‘ 80

70

60

3(

Evaporator

Pressure ( P3 1

Evaporator

Temperature

2(

I(

Absorption
I I I

Pressure
I 1 I I I I I I
I I I

10

20

30

40

50

60

70 Time -min.

80

90

IO0

II0

I20

130

I40

I

Fig.4.10 - Observations

during

Refrigeration

Test

on

May

I 4, 1975

- 48 -

201 19( l8( l7( l6( l5(
0

.

26 24( 22( 20( l8(

IA I 5 Fi g P

l4( l3C 12c IIC IOC 9c 8C 7c 6C
0

Piate Temperature Solution Temperature Solution Vapour Pressure Ammonia Vapour Temperature Leaving Rectifier Condenser Colling Water Temperature

8( 6( 4( 2(
I
I I
I

I

1

%

I

I

I

8.00

9.00

10.00

Il.00 Time -

12.00 hrs.

13.00

14.00

15.00

16.00

Fig.4.12

- Observations

during

Regeneration

Test

on

May

17, 1975

69 psia) I3 Absorption Temperature

I2

9(

-~-~~x=.---x-

x-v

xl-

Y-x-----X-----

IO

7(

I
LJl 0 I

61

3(

Evaporator

Pressure

Evaporator

Temperature

-L-m 5( 2c

4(

IC

/

d T

Absorption

Pressure

3(

I 10

I 20

1 30

I 40

I 50

I 60

1

I

1

I

1

1

1

1

70 Time -min

80

90

\

100

II0

120

I30

140

I50

Fig.4.13

- Observations

during

Refrigeration

Test

on

May

17, 1975

91 OF

c

i I
Theoretical Cycle -1 I I I

‘<

70°F

c- Actual

Cycle

--_:

-----I. i

l-1
32OF 34OF 0.36 XL -Weight 3.38 Fraction 0.40 of Ammonia 0.42 in 0.425 0.44 Liquid 0.46 - lb. NH3 0.48 0.50 0.52

3 3 0.34

Saturated

per lb. of Liquid

Fig. 4.14 - Actual

and

Theoretical

Solution

Cycles

for

Test

ivo. 6

(May 17,1975)

- 52 The analysis of the test.on May 14th 1975 (Figures 4.9, 4.10, and 4.11)

is given as an example below, Amount of Ammonia Distilled Initially we have: Concentratfon Total weight of solution of solution = = = = concentration 4.11, 0.46 33.281 15.309 17.972 lbs lbs lbs

Weight of ammonia Weight of water After regeneration is 0.416, the final

of the solution

in the collector-

generator

as shown in Fig.

Weight of ammonia Weight of ammonia + Weight of water Since the weight of water Weight of ammonia in solution Therefore, amount of ammonia distilled was also determined

= E = =

0.416 17.972 12.800 2,509 lbs, lbs. lbs. the liquid section,

The amount of ammonia distilled level in the receiver. Fig.

by observing of the cross

4,15 shows the geometry

of the receiver, Let A be the cross section area of the liquid, cross level section, above the center of the

R be the radius h be the height receiver, 1 also, let v be the length

of the receiver of the liquid

of the receiver; pipe below the receiver.

be the volume of the drain

Then the volume of the liquid

is equal to Al + v

r

Ammonia

Receiver

I

\-

-

-\ - - -\--

-

-.

--

--.---L:--.L-----

~

-- __

-

+-.p-&-----/

I

-- -~I&z-iygz;;/ ---I---ii-\/

- z -- -- zJ”s-I/ -- -.-. \
\ ~ --..-+----

&

Bull’s Eye

Drain

Valve

FULL

SCALE

Fig. 4.15 -

Cross - Section

Ammonia

Receiver

where A We have after this R = 8R2 2 = 2.013 run + h k??? inches, + R2 arcsin 1 = 1.25 ft, and 1 . v = 0.00105 This gives 0.0666 tuft. tuft; and

h was observed

to be 0.3 inches. =

volume of liquid This volume of liquid after the regeneration;

ammonia distilled ammonia was observed the vapour pressure

at 7.00 am in the morning of the ammonia was 169 psia.

We now have from the ammonia tables: Ammonia temperature Density Therefore, This calculated of liquid of liquid ammonia ammonia distilled with the quantity = = 86'~ 37.16 = lb ft-3

weight

2.48 Ibs. 2.509 lbs previously If 2.48 lb is 0.4165, 4.11. of

is in good agreement

from the change in the ammonia-water the final concentration

solution.

ammonia is distilled, this confirms Ratio ratio as ratio

in the generator as shown in Fig.

the actual

thermodynamiccycle

Cooling

The cooling and is defined Cooling

of the cycle

measures the performance

of the system

=

n

=

%

- 55 -

lrhere Qc = = cooling available during refrigeration period, during period and regeneration.

Qg

heat absorbed available

by collector-generator refrigeration

The cooling as follows. 2.509 lbs

during

can be calculated

of liquid = =

ammonia at 86'F

(169.2

psia)

has enthalpy

2.509 x 138.9 Btu 348.9 Btu. at 19'F has enthalpy

2.509

lbs

of ammonia vapour = =

2.509 x 617.5 Btu 1549.30 Btu

Therefore,

cooling

obtainable = f 1549.30 1200.8 During - 348.50 Btu Regeneration at

Heat Absorbed

by Solution

Let enthalpy 193'F enthalpy

of 30.772 = H3,

lbs of 0.416 aqua-ammonia

of 2.509 lbs of ammonia vapour at mean generation = HA, lbs of 0,46 Hl, aqua-ammonia at

temperature

180'F and enthalpy

of 33.281 86O~ =

From Fig. Hl HA H3 Total

4.11, = = = 33.281 x (-55) = = = -1830 1568 2431 = = Btu Btu Btu H3 + HA + Hl 5829 Btu

2.509 x (625) 30.772 x (79)

heat absorbed

by solution

Therefore,

cooling

ratio

C

1200.8/5829 0.209

= Solar Coefficient The solar of Performance C.O.P. is defined energy absorbed B.

as the ratio

of the cooling plate.

obtainable The amount

to the amount of solar of the solar energy

absorbed

by the collector plate

by the collector

shown in detail energy absorbed Therefore,

in Appendix by the plate solar C.O.P.

as . For the run on May 14th the amount of solar = 13,237 Btu. 1200.8/13,237 0.0907 runs are summarized in Table 4.1.

can be calculated

= =

The results Discussion Although are still

of all

four

experimental

the system has worked,

the cooling

ratio

and the solar

C.O.P.

low as in the previous It

studies

of CHINNAPPA (1962) to control

and SWARTMAN in the to be slow,, in this system. of

and SWAMINATHAN(1971). system, there However, while

is difficult

heat losses process process

Swartman found the absorption in the refrigeration within two hours took half

were no such difficulties process surface

The absorption ice on the outer

was completed

and the formation an hour (Fig. 4.16).

of the evaporator

- 57 Table 4.1 Summary of Experimental Results

9 Regeneration Initial Initial mass of soln. soln. temp. (lb) (OF) 33.28 84 186 196 80-94 (Btu) (Btu) 22257 12018 0.44 1.19

Date May 1975 10 14

17

33.28 90 193 204 86-93 24571 13267 0.417 2.46

33.28 86 194 205 84-90 24514 13237 0.416 2.509

33.28 84 191 202 87-91 24083 13004 0.425 2.03

Max. soln. Max. soln.

temp. press

(OF) (psia) (OF)

Temp. of condenser Incident solar

radiation plate

Heat to collector Final concentration (lb)

NH3 distilled Refrigeration Min. evaporator

temp (OF) (Btu)

21.5 570 0.120 0.047

20 1178 0.203 0.089

19 1201 0.206 0.091

21 974 0.167 0.075

Cooling Cooling Solar

obtainable ratio C.O.P,

- 58 -

Fig.4.16 - Refrigeration Process - Lower Frost on the Evaporator.

Photograph

Shows

- 59 V Conclusions The capability solar of AIT in the design, construction, and operation Furthermore, in accordance well the with the of a CONCLUSIONSAND PLANS FOR CONTINUING RESEARCH

powered refrigerator conditions specifications. The new feature to the bottom the refrigeration

has been demonstrated. to be almost exactly

operating design stood. taken during

were found

The theory by which

of the system is therefore ammonia vapour so that

underis

from the evaporator

header of the generator process is dissipated encountered for satisfactory

the heat of absorption plate has been

from the flat workers

shown to remove the difficulty sufficiently rapid absorption

by previous operation.

of obtaining

Economic Considerations The cost depreciation of making this and maintenance The cooling of ice, experimental is 10 percent effect unit was 15,500 bahts. If annual

of the cost,

then the cost per

day is 4 bahts.

obtained

on a good day is sufficient radiation climate of ice

to make 2 kilogrammes show that per day.
times

and studies yield

of the solar

over one year the average Therefore 1 kilogramme price

would be about 1 kilogramme cost 4 bahts. bahts

of ice would

This is eleven

the wholesale However,

of ice in Bangkok (0.375 in making this effect no attempt the cost.

per kilogramme). unit was merely and to to

the objective the refrigeration experience;

experimental from solar

demonstrate gain practical

produced

energy,

was made to optimize It seems, therefore, striking

the performance that an

of the system or to minimize economically viable solar

ice maker is within

distance.

- 60 -

Modifications Work is at present The first is an expansion under way to test value with two new features coil on the refrigerator. connected coils between will mirror of

a dry evaporator inlets.

the ammonia receiver

and the absorption ice.

The evaporator

be used to cool a box for making used to enhance the solar the mirror attachment will heating

The second feature

is a flat positions

of the generator.

Various

be tested, are shown in Fig. Ice Maker for domestic or village use. The 5.1,

These two new features The Development A solar larger cheaper. test using a solar oil village of a Village

ice maker may be designed sized units would will produces It

be more efficient therefore

and hence relatively construct, and

The main objective ice maker that

be to design,

100 kilogrammes

of ice per day without A unit

or electricity. 100 kilogrammes of about

must be rugged and easy to operate.
a solar

producing surface

of ice per day requires

collecting

20 square metres, of the system will will with capacity be avoided be improved by keeping in several ways. High

The efficiency generation

temperatures constant

the ammonia concentration containing will excess by Heat

in the generator solution, using

the help of a reservoir of the solar instead heater

The thermal

be reduced header.

a packed column separator will

of a larger

diameter

exchangers during

be used to save heat during

regeneration 5.2.

and to save cold

refrigeration,

The system is shown in Fig.

\ c
Packed Column Separator

1
> I
Ammonia Heat Receiver Condenser

Exchanger

I
3’ N

Solar

Hea?er

Aqua - Ammonia Reservoir

Fig. 5.2 - Proposed

New

Solar

Powered

Ice - Making

System

- 63 In the daytime, Strong solution during regeneration, valve A is open, and B is closed. passes through the heat to the bottom in a coil in the

from the top of the reservoir of the heater,

exchanger

to the bottom

and weak solution

returns is condensed is collected

of the reservoir. immersed in cold receiver. At night, during

Ammonia vapour static water,

from the separator

and the ammonia liquid

refrigeration, passes

valve A is closed, through the heat

and B is open. the expansion in weak aquais to the top is

Ammonia from the receiver valve B, and the evaporator,

exchanger,

The vapour

is then absorbed

ammonia from the bottom dissipated by the solar Also,

of the reservoir. heater,

'i'he heat of solution solution returns

and the strong water

of the reservoir. cooled by exposure In this reported before, problems. Alternatives It has recently

the static sky,

surrounding

the condenser

to the night

system the workability but

of all

the individual

units

has been in this way

in the literature, However,

they have never

been combined

the system is unlikely

to present

any serious

technical

been reported

by GUPTA (1976)

that

R. L. Datta system capable

and of is

his group are developing producing three inherent parabolic

an ammonia-sodium The design value

thiocyanate coefficient

75 kg of ice per day. the previously obtained

of performance of rectification

times

and the problems

in ammonia-water collector

systems will

be avoided. be'used for

A cylindrical heating the generator.

25 m2 in area will

- 64 DATTA (1976) himself has remarked +;lat

"It is much easier to cool to 50°F or 60°F and provide a decreased .oeo. humidity than it is to refrigerate food to ice temperature. Intensive research should 'be directed toward inexpensive 9.. . . indigenous equipment to provide such cooling in cellars which Stationary flat plate collectors might be partly underground, with selective surfaces could be used rather than movable and operation by manpower of the developing focussing collectors, countries in their rural areas will be cheaper than automatic There is a machines which require larger capital investment, challenging problem of operating such solar coolers in remote areas where electricity is not available.'.! The remarks refrigeration that there made above show that for lfnes the development areas of solar powered field, and

technology are various

use in developing of research

is an active AIT will

to be followed.

keep in contributions

touch with to the field.

these development

and is capable

of making significant

- 65 REFERENCES ANON., (1963), BA HLI, F., A Case for (1970), a Solar Ice Maker, for Solar Solar Energy L p.1. Ice Makers. Australia. Vapour International

et al

Possib!lities Conference,

Solar

Energy Society

Melbourne,

CHINNAPPA, J. C. V., Absorption

(1961),

Experimental Cycle

Study of the Intermittent the Refrigerent-Absorbent Nitrate, Solar

Refrigeration

Employing

Systems of Ammonia-Water, pp. l-18. CHINNAPPA, J. C. V., Operated DATTA, C. L., Working (1962),

and Ammonia-Lithium

Energy -5

Performance Collector, Energy Working - Its

of an Intermittent Solar Energy Vol.

Refrigerator 6, pp. 143-150. Countries. Energy,

by a Flat-Plate (1976), Paper, Solar Expert

Relevance

to Developing

Group on the Use of Wind and Solar Division, ESCAP, Bangkok. of a Compact Solar Solar

March 1976, Natural FARBER, E. A., (1970),

Resources

Design and Performance 1970, Australia, Energy International

Refrigeration

System, Paper No. 6/58, Conference, GUPTA, C. L., Melbourne, (1976), Solar

Energy Society

in India,;Working Energy,

Paper,

Expert

Working Resources

Group on the Use of Wind and Solar Division, ESCAP, Bangkok. Decentralized Institute

March 1976, Natural

MERRIAM, M. F.,(1972), Technology Series

Power Sources East-West

for Developing Centre, Working

Countries, Paper

and Development

No. 19. Solar National Energy in Developing Countries: Washington,

NATIONAL ACADEMYOF SCIENCES (1972), Perspectives D. C. and Prospects.

Academy of Sciences,

- 66 -

SWARTMAN,R. K., Refrigeration, 73-WA/Sol-6. SWARTMAN,R. K., Mechanical TROMBE, F., with

HA, V..H.,

and NEWTON,A. J., Society

(1973),

Survey of Solar-Powered Engineers, August 1973,

the American

of Mechanical

and SWAMINATHAN, C., Engineering,

(1971),

Solar

Powered Refrigerator,

June 1971, Vol. (1964),

6, pp. 22-24. Sheet of Ice Manufacture

and FOEX, M., an Absorption

Economic Balance Utilizing

Machine Vol.

the Sun as the Heat Source, Sales No. 63.1.38,

New Courses pp. 56-59,

of Energy,

4, U.N. Publication

- 67 APPENDIX A -Charging For this research, a solution of ammonia in water was required. it directly It is

sometimes more economical into water under Since controlled

to buy anhydrous conditions

ammonia and unload a solution

to obtain refrigerator Recharging off

of the desired it the unit

strength.

the solar-powered recharging.

was a closed-system, was required for if

did not require developed Equipment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Procedure Liquid a leaks

periodic or if

the ammonia was bled

any reason.

ammonia cylinder water reservoir tank

Demineralized Aqua-ammonia Pressure

gauge

Rubber hose Potassium Weighing Valves Vacuum pump. dichromate scale, O-200 lbs

Set up the equipment to remove air of the system. It

as shown in Figs. The presence

Al,

and A2. of air

It

is necessary the performance

from the system. Therefore,

impairs

a vacuum pump is required. dichromate internal (1 ounce per 60 pounds) of the solarto

fs advisable

to add potassium water to minimize

the demineralized refrigeration

corrosion

system.

- 68 The following steps V-2, all are taken in the charging air procedure:

a) b) C) d) e> f) Ed h)

Open V-6,

V-l,

V-3 to evacuate valves.

from the system by a vacuum

PumPS then close

Weigh the empty aqua-ammonia Open V-l, reservoir; V-2 and V-5 to let close V-5 and V-2. to let

reservoir. 18,9 pounds of water into the aqua-ammonia

Open V-3 and V-4 gently slowly Allow into the reservoir,

16.1 pounds

of

liquid

&dnia

then close V-3 and V-4. for about six or eight hours after which

the reservoir will

to cool fall

the pressure Evacuate

to a low level. unit by a vacuum pump. equipment and fit it

the solar

powered refrigeration reservoir

Remove the aqua-ammonia to the refrigeration To get charging the vapour pressure watering flow unit

from the mixing A3. reservoir

as shown in Fig.

from the aqua-ammonia in the reservoir Therefore

to the generator, than the vapmr is cooled by

pressure

must be higher the generator

in the generator. and the reservoir process

is heated by the sun. when the upper header of the generator

3

The charging is half full.

is stopped

Demineralized later Tank

, a”

Aqua

- Ammonia v-2

Reservoir

V-6

L Rubber

HOSI?

Fig. Al

-

Mixing

Equipment

- 70 -

Fig. A2 - Mixing

Equipment

- 71 -

- 72 APPENDIX B Estimation It of Incident is assumed that Solar Radiation radiation in May in Bangkok the diffuse radiation is 200 on an and is one

the diffuse also

-2 -1 Cal cm day , inclined half plane

We shall is a linear

assume that

function

of the angle

of inclination

of the maximum amount when the plane is vertical. The angle of inclination = 20 degrees to the horizontal. (D') is estimated Therefore, to be

the diffuse 200 -+oo Daily

radiation = totals using

on the inclined 178 cal emB2 day-l,

collector

global

radiation

at the Asian Actinograph

Institute

of Technology on the roof of the Bl.

were recorded north

a Bimetallic building of AIT.

installed

engineering During

The results

are shown in Fig.

the period

of the tests

the sun passed very close that, of 20'

to the zenith since to the should be GE direct the

at midday. collector horizontal, multiplied radiation

It was therefore (which faced south)

assumed as an approximation was inclined of direct in order at an angle solar

the vertical by the factor normally incident radiation

component cos 20'

radiation

to estimate

the component

on the collector, (Q) = collector = = direct (Q') D' + (Q-200) 178 + (Q-200) cos 20" x 0.94 -2 -1 cal cm day , radiation + diffuse radiation,

Since global total radiation

on the inclined

where Q is the daily

global

radiation.

55C i 500

6 0 ‘;; 45c 0 2 , 4oc E ..g 35c 2 $3OC 8 2 25C s 200

100

P -- ----Fig. 01 -

3

-Global of

May 1975----

-----

___-

_ .__ .__ 4

Doily
Institute

S&or

Radiation

at

The

Asian

Technology

- 74 -

For the test

run on May 14, 1975
Q =

467 429

cal cm-2 day

-1

D

Therefore,

Q’

= =
i

-2 -1 cal cm day -1 on 4' x 4' collecting 24,514 Btu. day 16,342 Btu per 8 hours. cover = solar 90 percent, energy will therefore, be transmitted cover.

area

Assume the transmission about 90 percent glass

by the glass

of the original

incident

by the first Therefore, 13,237 Btu, It

cover and another proceeds

90 percent

by the second glass plate

the heat that

to the collector

is about

should

be emphasized

that

the estimates

obtained

by this

method

are very rough.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful