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Xenakis on Xenakis, Pp.28-43

Xenakis on Xenakis, Pp.28-43

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Xenakis on Xenakis Author(s): Iannis Xenakis, Roberta Brown, John Rahn Reviewed work(s): Source: Perspectives of New Music

, Vol. 25, No. 1/2, 25th Anniversary Issue (Winter Summer, 1987), pp. 16-63 Published by: Perspectives of New Music Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/833091 . Accessed: 30/10/2011 22:36
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XENAKIS ON XENAKIS

47W/
IANNIS XENAKIS
INTRODUCTION

he wasbornin Greece? That he wentthrough doors thePolythe of those the Conservatory? he thought an architect That as technic University before of as an he IannisXenakis occupies extraodinary before heard a musician? placein the musicof ourtime. He is compared thesages Greek to to of Antiquity,tothepainters theRenaissance, of theEncyclopedists Century Enlghtenment. the oneis tempted scoff to of of Occasionally at his theoreticalpositionsthe merging music,architecture, science. on and of lannis Xenakisresponds an artist:through philosophic as his and questioning the directions hisresearch, to thetoment thatdwells withinhim: his expression of hegives violent echo chaos poetry thegalaxies,his mortalwarsof atom-sounds theprimitive of and immortalize in a ceaseless it storm.
ITSTBECAUSE

from the French by RobertaBrown and John Rahn. *Translated

Xenakison Xenakis

17

IANNIS XENAKIS

annisXenakis? reealshimself us in theinteriew He to Who,really,is thecreator this whichopens artcle. as in composers instruWhyhasIannisXenakis emerged oneof themostimportant mentalmusicof ourtime? in How do thepreoccupations the composer, developed example Metastasis for of meettheapproach thearchitect? (1955), of musicand the computer. the lannis Xenakisis revolutionizing relationbetween at with computer works ST/10, ST/48, conceived IBM) go backto (ST/4, Hisfirst a theyears1955-60. Sincethen, he has beeninventing new wayto think musicde the from a drawing:he created UPIC system(Unite Polyagogique Informatique centerthat he directsin CEMAMu) in 1977 at the CEMAMu (the research and between science music? Paris). What needledhim to the confrontation theinteriewherewithIannisXenakis theexcerpts and Toeachof these questions, a us withan initialrespose: partialapprch tothe hisownwritings from willprovide universe. hghly complex, composer's constantly evolving -L.B.

I. PORTRAIT IANNISXENAKIS OF

me Why music?It thrilledme. It carried away.When I was twelve or thirteen I was practicing piano, I was readingAstronomy Flammarion the yearsold, by for hours on end. I was doing mathematics archaeology: didn't likelife. I I and had all kinds of failures. The power of musicis such that it transports from one stateto another. you Like alcohol. Like love. If I wanted to learnhow to compose music, maybe it was to acquirethis power. The power of Dionysus. And at a certain togo intoscience? point,youchose No. I wanted to do everythingat the sametime. Earnmy living,learnmath and physics: the only reallyserious place was the Polytechnic University in Athens. The entranceexams were difficultand I worked hard to pass them. I made it. But at the same time, I was doing music, archaeology,and law. Did youconsider musicas a discipline amongothers? were scattered.Eachsubjectwas a domain. I wasn't tryAbsolutely.Things had ing to makeany connection. If my professors reallytaughtme, in the true sense of the word, they would have made the connection: they would have shown me music combinatorics which would have opened up for me a more abstractvision of harmony,of contrapuntal polyphony, of form. They didn't do it. They were speakingas musicians. At that time, I was workingwith privateteachers.I didn't think about the I Conservatory. thought music should be learnedlike that. Likehow? Without going to school. It's strange.I had the impressionthat music, like

My painting,escapedacademics. desireto study musicwas intense. But, at the same time, I was ashamedthat I wanted to, as if it were a weakness. for Obviously, the milieu in which I lived was not veryfavorable music:few milieus are! I was very young when my mother died. I was five. She was a musician.She playedthe piano. She wanted me to playthe violoncello;maybe it was for that reason that I eventuallywrote for the cello. As for myself, I didn't want to learnthe cello. So I playedthe piano. When I was seventeenyearsold, all of a sudden I realizedthat I wanted to makemusic,thatis, that I wantedto writeit myself.I lookedforprofessors capable of teachingme the rudimentsof composition. But the decisionto do only that, to be a musicianexclusively,camelater. I was twenty-fiveyearsold, and I was in a hopelesssituation.Therehad been the war. I had fought in the Resistance.All the marvelousuniversethat I had of imagined,firstby myself, then in readingTheRepublic Plato (anotherway of life in which artwould havea fundamental placein behavior,dress,language)everythingthat had pushed me to join the Communist Party suddenly collapsed.I decidedto withdrawinto myself.In this innermostrecess,therewas no science.But therewas music. EitherI committedsuicide.Or I startedout on a new foot. I had the choice of continuingon the samecoursethat I had followedfor yearswith all the force and strengththat youth has and that distress gives-to be a politicalactivist(but this was no longerpossiblein Greecebecausethe authoritieswere looking for me)-or to withdrawinto music.This was the decisionthat I madein comingto France.Actually,I hadleft to go to the United States:France been defeated. had I thought it would be chaos there. I wasn't mistaken.But I had friendsthere. I stopped there. The strangething is that I neverthought about going to the USSR!I haveto say that I climbedon the bandwagonwhen the Alliesbecameso friendlywith the Russians orderto win the war.Rooseveltand even Stalinweresayinghow in much differentlife would be on the planetafterthe war. This went rightalong with my militantbeliefsand with readingPlato and Marx.This was the instant solutionfor a richerlife. But all this had been shattered. ByStalin? Not only by Stalin.Stalinbetrayed Greekresistance, the whichwasessentially a communistmovement. But the Englishalso betrayedthe resistant fervourof that reallyruinedcountry.And even the Americans, with Truman.If Roosevelt had remained in government, there would not have been the Cold War. Trumanwas a simplelittle man from the rightwing who broughtto the presiand dency all the paltriness the racismof his clan. 1947, in France,markedthe beginningof a period of moving about from placeto placethat lasteduntil1952. I had heardof NadiaBoulanger,and I went to see her-I wasstilllookingforsomeonewho could guide me. She told me that I had talentbut that she was too old to takea beginnerlikeme. Forthat matter, she was only sixtyyearsold then. But she stillcould choose her students.

By chance, I found work with the architect, Le Corbusier, whose team includeda numberof Greeks,and who took me with him as engineer.For me, architecturehad stopped at Antiquity. All architecture-Byzantine, Roman, Gothic and modem-was nonexistent. ThatofLeCorbusier well? as as No. I realizedhis importance soon as I saw him working.When an artistis aroundhim a fieldof verysensitiveforces.This was his case. not a fool, he creates He One day, I told him that I wanted to work at architecture. responded, not?" He, himself, had not come out of a school. He had not been "Why as admittedto the School of FineArts, andin the end, he did his architecture he understoodit. It was a good example. He detestedallmusicexceptthatofVarese,whom he had known personally. It should be said that his mother was a greatpianist (by dint of hearingMendelssohnallthe time, he must havegotten fed up!) and that one of his brothers, the darlingof the family,was a composer.As for himself, he made his way all watch-backs La-Chaux-de-Fonds. at alone, startingby engraving I wanted to work in those days in the electronicstudio of PierreSchaeffer. This musicinterestedme a lot. I wasgoing to the concertsat the "Petit Conservatoire"where therewere nevermore than threepeople in the audience. I wrote to Schaeffer. neveransweredme. Finally,I broughthim a score, He Saifice for eight instruments.Sincehe couldn't readmusic, he gaveit to Pierre Dsets by Henry, who, verykindly,showed it to Scherchen,who wasrehearsing Varese.They were interested. What counted above all was the row I had with Honegger. I was enrolled in his compositionclassat the Ecole Normale. The studentswould bringtheir works, and he would critiquethem in front of everyone. I went there. I showed him a score. He playedit and said, fifths." "There, you have got parallel "Yes, but I like them." "And there, parallel octaves." "Yes, but I like them." "But all this, it's not music, except for the first three measures,and even those..." And the madder he got, the madder I got. I thought that he was a freeafter fifths, especially thinkingman. How could he makea thing out of parallel Debussy, Bart6k,and Stravinsky? So I left Honegger-hardened. I learnedthat I should no longer look to someone else for what existedin me. The class of Messiaenwas a differentmatter: he analyzedscores, also his own. It was he that made me discoverthe possibilities abstraction of starting with Beethoven and Stravinsky.I said to myself-they're crazy, those guys.

What criteria dictatedtheir choices? TraWhy don't they reallydo everything? dition?But what is tradition?So I deduced that, theoretically,one could do everything.This was what clickedinto placein my head. Whatpushed to adopt,earlyon, compositional that wereabsolutely methods you new? It's My developmentwas that of sleepwalker. difficultfor me to explainit. A posteriori, think that drawing came easy to me: I was drawing, and my I musicalsymbols. I knew traditional drawingsrepresented solfege.But freedom of thought, for me, could not come from there. I was convinced that one could invent another way of writing music. I set myself to imaginingsound phenomena, using drawingsto help me: a spiral,intersecting planes.... And then, I alwaysadored the sound of nature, the sea, crickets.During the Occupation,the demonstrations againstthe enemy broughttogetherhundreds of thousands of people in Athens who shouted slogans, who planted mines. Apart from these sceneswhich markedme politically,the sound phenomenaareengravedin me. During the streetfightingof December1944 there were scatteredexplosions, tracerbullets, bombings:extraordinary sounds. Your critics conclude ideas notspeciically are musical. thatyour Those who say that have a conception of music based on polyphony and tonal harmony.Berlioz, in the same way, thought that Chinese music wasn't music. musictechniques? Didn'tyou thinkimmediately usingelectronic of That was private ground. I wasn't admitted into the "Groupe de Recherche" at the French Radio until 1957, and even then-at a time when Schaeffer ill! For me it was too late. What I had to do I did in the instruwas mental domain. realmis richerthan the electronic:an Besides,I think that the instrumental orchestra made up of individuals, eachindividual transmitan infinity is and can of sounds. The composercan obtain the greatestconfigurations that he could for. It sufficesto imaginethem, then to transcribe them onto paper.The hope human orchestra machine thus lends itself to the most complex, abstract speculations. On the contrary,if you use magnetic tape, you must record each sound, manipulateit, and mount it: this is an enormous amount of work. Successive mixingsdegradethe sound and cannot be multiplied. Electronic music obtained from frequencygeneratorsis even worse-the sounds are all the same kind. That's what happens at least when one limits one's self-like at the studio at Stanfordin the States or at IRCAM-to juxtapositions of pure sounds. When one approachesthe computer with new music-theoretical thought, one will make music that will go furtherthan that of today's orchestra. Theprogress musicwill therefore in to agreater always according you, towards go, complexity?

At a given moment, yes. But not necessarilyall the time. Because from complexityto complexity,it can happenthat you no longerknow what you're serialmusic makes a doing. There are examplesof enormous simplifications: in harmonicrelationsand in tonal functions. It was because of simplification this that it had to reintroduce the complex polyphony of the Renaissance. When Einsteinformulates equivalence energyand matterin a shortmulthe of he makesa fantastic tiplication, simplification. But all this is relative: what you find to be simplearethe signsfor extremely To complicatedrealities. get acrossquicksand,you have to hold onto branches. Abbreviations, names, formulaeplay the role of branches. The problem is not one of complexity but of power and of freedom of action. A bad composer, a bad artistdoes only what he has been taught. He is incapableof makinga creativeblunder. To make such blunders-maybe even brilliant ones!-one cannot have mental rails. Freedom then means total responsibility. One can go everywhere. One chooses to go there and not elsewhere. is Usingthecomputer a wayof beig freer? The computer should be used not only for sound synthesis but also for constructions.Technologystill had to follow, and large-scale macro-structures, as for that, I was waiting with no success (since the beginning of the 1960s). Finally, thanks to grantsfrom the GulbenkianFoundation and the National Center of Telecommunications Studies of France,we built a first system for sound synthesisin 1971.1 computer The obstacle stood on the side of the computer: how to transmitto the machinea notation and conceptsthat the musicianlears in the conservatories. The solution was the hand: the musiciangives his commandsto the computer through drawings,and not punch cardsor programs. So we have made the UPIC.2 This is a graphictable,a drawingtable,likean architect's.Equippedwith a specialpen, the musiciantraceslines on the table. The computerinterpretsthese signs and reconstructs them in the form of isolated sounds or of music. The interest for the composer is that all this should happen in real time. When he writesa score, he has to wait for it to be copied and executed. With this system, he writesand the resultis immediate.Moreover,he can go hunting for timbresand instrumentsby drawing-no need for symbols, nor for solfege. Nothing but lines having a certainrelationship-which one learnsvery quickly-with the sound. The pedagogicinterestis obvious: with the UPIC, music becomes a game for the child. He writes. He listens. He has everythingin his reach. He correctsimmediately.He is not forcedto become initiatedto instruments.He can imagine the timbres. And, above all, he can devote himself right away to composition.

Is it imprtantthat the handbe involved? Yes. What is obtained by calculationalwayshas limits. It lacks inner life, that unlessvery complicatedtechniquesareused. Mathematics gives structures are too regularand that are inferiorto the demands of the ear and the intelligence. The greatidea is to be able to introducerandomnessin orderto break functions,but we're only at the beginning. up the periodicityof mathematical The hand, itself, standsbetween randomnessand calculation.It is both an instrumentof the mind-so close to the head-and an imperfecttool. The products of the intelligence are so complex that it is impossible to purify them in order to submit them totally to mathematicallaws. Indusis trialization a forcedpurification. you can alwaysrecognizewhat has been But made industrially and what has been made by hand. Industrial means are clean, functional,poor. The hand adds inner richnessand charm. Youmeanthat thisis art? chance.Only one set of my works, the Not necessarily. thereis a greater But ST, came out of computerprograms.All the others are mostly handiwork,in the biologicalsense: adjustmentsthat cannot be controlledin their totality. If God existed He would be a handyman. Music, today, must go through the stagesthat the sciencesencounteredin the nineteenthcentury.Sounds must be likenedto signsand symbols.The significanceof music is found in them, in their physicalrelation,and not in the psychologicalconditionings that are submissiveto passingfashions. Whence my idea of symbolicmusic. Doyou denythat musicbe mystic? Music cannot lead to mysticism.The imbecileswho listen to it that way are the mystics. Mysticismis a drug. One thinks that one is makingmysticismlook at Messiaen!-but the high valueof his music is elsewhere:Religioussensitivity evolves so quickly that before long this mysticism takes on the of froth, linked to the color of the times. appearance superficial That is why I like Bach. What interestsme in him, in spite of all the years among the notes. A certainnumberof relations, us, separating arethe relations the more abstractones, remain. The proportionsand the forms are the hard body of the work. The architecture of ancient times was swept away by a female form of in era. Byzantineart, the dome. Then it reappeared the Renaissance Likewise, mathematics withstood milleniathanksto its innerforce. This forceis both has rationaland intuitive: A machine is able to compute, but it does not understand mathematics.A work of art, it too, remainsthanksto its hardyolk. It is neitherthe perfumesof an era nor the mysticismwhich gives it this power. I appearperhapsvery optimistic: Finally, maybe, nothing lasts. And yet, paleontology shows that biologicaldata three billion yearsold lives on in us without our being awareof it. All of our fundamental chemistrydatesbackto

24

of Perspectives NewMusic

that era. And it goes even further:Accordingto certaintheories,life on earth comes from the cosmos. In the artistic sphere,we ourselvesarealso no doubt rooted in the cosmos. -Remarks noted by PascalDusapin and Anne Rey

MUSICOF IANNISXENAKIS II. THE INSTRUMENTAL

music.In theyears new Xenakis 1965-70, continually explores territriesin stochastic works with several for appeared: Terretektorh(1965) eighty-eight spatialized totally Nomos Gamma(1969) an orchestra the musicians scattered for throughout audience, the and musicians (1969) for spread ofninety-eight throughout audience, Persephassa a the he the sixpercussionists surrounding audience, becomes first coposer to confront and newauditive sonrousspace. is whena certain burn-out beingfelt Duringthe lasttenyears,a period amongthe and musicians hisgeneration, whenmanyarespeaking ageneralcisis in contemof of his is lannisXenakis establishing style coposition. No trace vacof of poary esthetics, illationmarks mostrecent his compositions. kinds He develops various Thus,in Mikka(1976) violinsolo,wefind for ofresearch. as in his discoveries "random walks"fromthe samelinesof research in N'Shima and (1975) ensemble vices. for
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stemsdirectly workon Jonchaies (1977),for full orchestra, from his theoretical soundsynthesis computer and leadingas well to the elecmusic-accomplishments La withinthearchitectural structure he tracouticalpiece Legended'Er, performed created Paris the inauguration the Centre in the for of Beauboutg: Diatope (978). With his mostrecent and Cendrees(1973) orchestra chorus, lage scores, Ais for and Nekuia (1981) orchestra baritone, percussion, amplified (1980) orchestra, for for and chorus, is working furtherdevelop of his theoretical he to some findings:He works in several a and music oftree structures directions, making sortofamaram ofstochastic lines.He alsoconcerns with melodic scales, of melodic himself pitch,and timein a systematic a will in way.Fromthese perhaps newstyle develop hiscurrent copositions. -L.B.

III. IANNIS XENAKIS: MUSIC AND COMPUTERS

In thefollowing IannisXenakisexplains the interview, whyhe introduced computer into his compositional He wrote work. of Achorripsisin 1956-57with theassistance his sliderule. Then he automated approach, this whichled to compositions as such the de ST4, ST10, ST48. In 1966, Xenakisfounded EMAMu (Equipe MatheCEMAMu (Centre matiqueet AutomatiqueMusicales)which in 1972 became d'Etudes Mathematique d 'Automatique de et established the CNET at Musicales). Nationald'Etudes Telecommunications)Paris,and underwritten des in (Centre by the Ministryof Culture. In 1977, CEMAMu setup UPIC1, thefirstgeneration the UnitePolygyique of thenthe CEMAMu Infomatique the CEMAMu. UPIC2 camein 1983. Since of has beencollaborating Hewlett-Packard IBM and ispresently with and installing underUPIC a system real-time sound of synthesis. -L.B.

The fundamentalproblem is that a musicianis not necessarily computer a (thatwill change, for a new categoryof expert, an engineeror a mathematician musiciansis appearing);it is thereforenecessaryto provide tools for the user that are simple and elegant. The difficulty is thus to conceive well-adapted interfaces between thought and music. When I founded CEMAMu in 1966, I wantedprimarily constructsomethingthat would allowmusicians comto and to producemusicby graphicdesign, usinga micro-computer. The result posers was UPIC, signifyingUnitePolyagogique Infonatiq de CEMAMu. This comallows one to compose music directly by means of a graphic puter system design, even without knowledge of music or computer science. As you can

26

of Perspectives NewMusic

IANNIS XENAKIS

see, it is a matterof immediateaccessand of makingcompleteuse of computer science.A child can use it. Whatdoesthechilddo with the machine? He draws houses, flowers, suns, then he coordinateswhat he hearswith what he draws. Youmeanthat he modifies design his to according whathe hears? Yes, that's it.. .and the youngest childrenare the most inventive. That is why this mechanization, if it is fun and appealing, can radicallychange the practiceof composing music. In addition, it allows us to discoverthings that the books on acousticsdon't tell us. What things example? for The importanceof modifyingthe tone and the color of the sound by contractionsof time The same sounds, heardin differenttime frames, produce unexpectedtimbraleffects:The earperceivesthem in anotherway. To summainteractsintimatelywith all rize, with this type of computersystem, creativity of the physico-mathematical apparatus. Foryou, is thephysico-mathematical an apparatus aid to creation? Not purely.. .it is a basisfor my compositionalwork. As for computerscias ence, it providesthe necessary equipment, the hardware the Anglo-Saxons callit. However, musicis the sonorous rendering thought. If this thought is of limited to veins of feeling, it does not go very far;but if it is molded by philosophic and mathematical procedures,then musicbecomesa partof fundamental research. Whatareyoualludingto?Particle physics? One definessubpartiYes, as an example.What goes on in particlephysics? cles by the symmetriesthat they breed. Now, musicis steeped in the problem of symmetry, and symmetry is made accessible by the theory of groups. Among other examples,we could takegenetics, where one finds permutation made from the pergroups. What is music, if not veryoften a set of structures mutations of notes, of sounds? I believe that with this type of scientific approach,we could have another perspectiveon music, even on that of the past-and that we could createthe music of the future. Thisis thustheperfect between artistic creation technique and ? marriage Yes,almostperfect,but beware,techniquecan submergethe user:We must defend ourselves;it is good to use techniques,but we have to dominatethem, to stay on the alert. Technologyallows the explorationof new domains proposed by theoretical thought and esthetics; but once these domains are explored,we must push further.In fact, computerscienceis a product of simas ple rationality; a composer, I unceasingly bringcomplexity,sometimesirrational, to this rationality. Howdoyouenvisage evolution musicand computers theyears come? the in to of Firstof all, the developmentof microprocessors allow the multiplication will of systemslike the UPIC. The introductionof such machinesat universities, at

conservatories,and at all the culturalcenterswill open tremendous perspectives, not only for research,but also for pedagogy. Secondly, this is the first time in the historyof humanitywhen man can have directaccessto composition. He no longerneeds to know the symbolismofsolfege or have to playan instrument.In the yearsto come with the developmentof computernetworks and of individualized computer science-the computer in the home-an individualwill be able to createalone at home, with an electromagnetic tableconI nected to peripherals. think that in a certainway, the socialfoundationof art could also be resolvedby computerscience.Finally,the man on the streetwill be able to thinkin terms of music. -Pour la Science, November 1982

IV. IANNIS XENAKIS THE ARCHITECT

In 1947, lannisXenakis exiledin rance.He wasbrought theoffice thearchiinto of tectLe Corbuser whilethere, and some works modproduced of themostrecognized of de on ern art: the Couvent la Tourette Evreux theArbresle (at from1953 to1957), thePhilips at Pavilion theBrussels InternaionalExposition (1956to1958)... where executed choices "musical" he la some nature.Thefacade theCouventde Tourofa of ettedisplays immense in platesofglass- "screens musicalglass"-arrawed of vertically Thuswe onceagainfind the densities intervals. and superimposed of irregular layers has simultaneous and complex rhythmic composer theseconcerns: layers durations, of to Le testifies thiscollaboration: polyphony.3 Corbusier These two solutionsarestatic.We havethereforeadopteda thirdone, named 'musicalglazed panels.' provisionally Here, the dynamics of the Modulor are given free reign. The elements areset faceto face,in masses,in the two cartesian directions,horizontal and vertical.Horizontally,we obtain variations the densitiesof in membranes a continuousmanner,afterthe fashionof the undulations in of elasticmedia. Vertically createa harmoniouscounterpointof variwe able densities.The two scalesof the Modulor, the red and the blue, are used either separately together, thus creatinga subtle balance,using or the whole of the two Moduloricprocesses. (In the end, for fearof being bitten by snakesor adders,we adopted for this invention the name of 'undulatoryglazed panels.') -Le Corbusier,Modulor I, translated Peter de Francia by and Anna Bostock (London: Faberand Faber,1958), 323-26.

"UNDULATORY GLAZED PANELS"

PhilipsPavilion A two minute interval,and an eight minute show. Firstdecision:the containerwill be a sort of stomach with a separateentranceand exit for five hundred people. Second decision: to use two almost vertical,concave walls allowing the audience, standing and looking forward, to see above the headsof their neighbors. We had at first considered a construction of plaster-which is the used for temporary exhibitions-a bottle suspended basic,fragilematerial in a cage of tubularscaffolding.But Xenakis,who was put in chargeof the study, quicklyabandonedthe plaster.After having consideredtimber and concrete,Xenakis,who had known Bernard Lafaille well, turned towardsself-supporting, curvedsurfaces. made his draft,Xenakis Having constructed a first model with wire and sewing thread. Then a second model that he coveredwith cigarettewrappers. -Le Corbusier, "La Po'eme electronique," in LesCahiersForces Vives (Paris: Editions de Minuit 1958), 24.

Perspectives

the his lannisXenakis cities,4 Polytopes-original produced owncosmic quickly, Very success. whichmetbrilliant and sound lqght spectacles de Firstadventure:the Polytope Montral, in 1967. Within the French pavilion,a structureof steel cables,curvedinto hyperbolae,1200 flashes, 35 programmedstages, and 90,000 changesof light in six minutes! As a contrast, giant loudspeakersbroadcastcontinuous, smooth music, in uninterruptedglissandicomprisedof four recordedorchestras. In order to assimilatethe medium of sound and light, Xenakispurde sued this exploration in Persepolis (1971), in Paris, with the Polytope and controlled by Cluny(1972), the first show to be totally organized computer. At Beaubourg, in 1978, for the inaugurationof the Centre Georges Pompidou, his Diatpe--a structurewith three curved apicesmarksa decisive step: the realizationof a tri-dimensionalcomposition d^Er, (architecture,light and sound). For the musicalpart, La Ligende the tape combines recordings of African or Asian instruments with microsoundscreatedwith converters,a supernaturally strangeeffect. All for years in his Parisian studio of the these researches, conducted CEMAMu, have led him to the inventionof the UPIC machine. (authorunknown)

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Perspectives

On thesubject thisDiatope. lannisXenakis comments hisexperience. himself upon of La Legended'Er (firstversion): of Light and Sound of the Diatope Song at the GeorgesPompidou Center Music is not a language.Everymusicalpiece is like a highly complex rock with ridgesand designsengravedwithin and without, that can be interpreted in a thousand ways without a single one being the best or the most true. By virtueof this multipleexegesis,music sustainsall sorts of fantastic imaginings, like a crystalcatalyst.Myself, I wanted to deal with the abyssesthat surround us and among which we live. The most formidable those of our destiny, of are life or of death, visible and invisible universes. The signs that convey these abyssesto us arealso made of the lightsand sounds that provokethe two prinwould liketo be a placefor cipalsensesthat we possess.That is why the Diatope the condensation of those signs from the many worlds. Rationalknowledge coalesceswith intuitiveknowledge, or revelation.It is impossibleto dissociate one from the other. These abyssesare unknowable, that is to say, knowledge of them is an eternaland desperate flight,composed of milestones-hypotheses across the epochs. It is difficult and probably not necessaryto attempt to on explainthe light-showand the music of the Diatope all levels. The sense of these actsof light and sound will be glimpsedin the extractsof significant texts published elsewhere.5This spectacleand its music form multiple resonances with the texts, a sort of sonorous stringheld by humanityin cosmic spaceand This spectacleis creeternity,a stringcomposed of ideas, sciences,revelations. ated from the harmonicsof that cosmic string. These texts explain it better than any other discourse.They form the argumentfor the spectacle. I chose in a sort of panorama some of the epochs which were significant and rich particularly in ideasand poetics, and I presentherein a group the few texts that appearto me to be the summits, those of course that I preferred among others. I gave the generictitle "La Legended'Er" to these texts, becausethis of ideas legend which paradoxically completesthe Republic Plato, incorporates of morality,of destiny, of the physicaland extraphysical, death, of life, in a of visions. system which is closed but highly poetic due to its apocalyptic realism,I placethe hermetic Opposite Plato'sgrandiosepoetics and rational Then the admirable of Blaise text text, "Poimandres"of Hermes Trismegiste. and scientific Pascal,a universalthinkerpossessingextraordinary philosophical intuitions. Then the vision of Jean-PaulRichterin "Siebenkas"where man is alone in the blackof the universe.Ultimately,our universeas seen by modem astrophysics.

Xenakison Xenakis

33

SOME PRINCIPLESOF COMPOSITION

of The form of the plasticshell of Diatpe is a materialisation a Architectural. which I have had in mind for more than twenty years.It is a response project to the perennial, never-resolvedquestion: What architectural form is to be I given to musicalor visualperformances? say that there is no unique answer. But I also say that the effect of architectural forms has a quasi-tactile influence on the qualityof the musicor show that is performed there. This apartfrom all considerationsof acoustics or of optimal proportions for seeing or hearing. Architectural forms, theirtypes, arean elementwhich is generally neglectedor scorned.Whence we get hallsthat arecubicalor rectangular polygons, that is, or conical as the case may be. Architects are inhibited verticallycylindrical

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of when it is a matterof givingfree rein to the imagination new and richforms which contort three-dimensional space. I wanted to give a differentsolution comparable that which I conceived to and executed for Le Corbusier with the Philips Pavilion at Expo '58 in Brussels.But the form of Le Diatope,because of the lasertrajectories,had to a conformto the followingprinciple: maximumof free volume for a minimum of enclosingsurface.The classical answeris the sphere. But the sphere, beautiful in itself,is bad for acousticsand lesstangiblyrichthan some other, doublecurved, warped or skewed forms. Whence the currentconfiguration,which thus shapinga kind of envelopingform, makesuse of hyperbolicparaboloids, closedand opened to the world at the sametime by the convergence its geoof metricalconstruction. d'Er is made of the following families of Musical. The music of La Legende sounds: for a) instrumental, example,the sonorousshooting starsof the beginning and the end, or the sounds of the Africanjew's harps,or of the Tzuzumis (smallJapanese hourglassdrums). b) noises, for example, clapping special blocks, scrapings against cardboard.... c) realisedby mathematicalfunctions on a computer and converted from digital to analog at the Centre d'Etudes de Mathematique et d'Automatique Musicales (CEMAMu). Here, I have inaugurateda new approachto the production of sounds, different from and even opposed to the methods of the electronic music studios and laboratoriesusing computers and digital-to-analogconversion. It is no longer a matter of starting from analysisand of Fourier synthesis, which permits the generation of sound by means of bundles of sine-tone harmonicsor partials.This new method constructs and acts directly on the pressure-timecurve which itself acts on the tympanum of the ear. (See my text, "New proposal in microsound structure," Chapter 9 of Formalized Music.) I have used probability functions to generate the pressure-time curves, that is, I worked directly with the 1/40,000 of a second. Nothing remains of the traditional approach except the notion of periodicity, but taken in its more general sense, that is, the stochastic renewal of equivalence classes of values for pressure and values for duration. The functions used here are, essentially, Cauchy functions (t/((t**2 + x**2)*+)) and the famous "logistic" a*exp(- a*x - 1)/((1 + exp(- at*x - ,P))**(- 2)), as

well as functions of these functions. It is then a means of controlling Brownian motion (random walk). These families of sounds, some of them realized at WDR (West Deutsche Radio), are then treated by filtering, reverberating,transpositions of speeds, and various mixings at the electronic music studio of WDR, which has also commissioned this music and which has financed all its processing. The music is on a seven-tracktape. Each trackis distributed over the eleven high-qualityloudspeakersarrangedunder the shell of Diatope.This static or cinematic distribution is realized by means of a special computer program. Visual.The visual acts are built from mobile configurations,either of points (electronic flashes) or of lines (laserbeams). The 1680 flashes form galaxies in movements, thanks to the rapid turning on of the flashing lights (every 1/25 second), and all kinds of interpenetrating,disappearing,rebounding, transformingfigures. It goes without saying that the organization of these light gestures in their continuity or their discontinuity is regulated by tangles of mathematicalfunctions ranging from functions of imaginary(complex) numbers to probabilitydistributions. The beams of the four lasersare taken in charge by some four-hundred special mirrorsas well as by optics designed for the intended effects. In short, just as our universe is formed from grains (of matter) and straight lines (photon radiation) ruled by stochastic laws (probability), this spectacle offers a reflection of it which is miniature but symbolic and abstract.So music and light unite together. In some sense, this is a kind of cosmic "harmony of the spheres" which, by means of art, becomes one with that of thought. in on prvoked newtheaters Paris(Basof recently by Finally, theoccasion thedebate lannis Xenakisexpresses notions aboutarchitecture tille Opera La Villette), and his and the hearing music. of By removing the main floor seating, one can arrangethe audience on bleachers while accentuating frontality,which is the most effectiveprocedure from the point of view of visibility.One can imagineplanes,platforms that rise and descend, differentiated where space reliefs.This is unliketraditional opera, is alwaysexpected to remain oriented toward the place of action, of drama, toward the scene. It is possible to imagine the multiplication of places of action, such as Mnouchkine in the Theatre du Soleil. Space can even be occupied up above: Look at the acrobatsof the Peking Circus!The physical presenceof singers,of the choristers,of the constraints imposed by the drama, with the unities of place, occasionallyof time, mark the limit of an eventual reform of the traditionalbuilding. It will alwaysbe necessaryto construct a place where the characters play, meet one another.... The presenceof musifrom the pit, placeit on ciansis also a constraint.One can removethe orchestra

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the stage or elsewhere,but its presencein a given spot is inescapable. Operais an object of artin itself, one which tells the thought and the mentalitiesof an epoch. Nd theatrewill never be stagedin French!The constraint that I am evoking is of the same order;it is a question of language. Todaywe have at our disposalmore numeroustechnicalmeansthan before, such as electricity,instrumentsfor programingthe lighting, the possibilityof solutionsother than changingthe scene more rapidly.One can find acoustical the orchestra That's an easy changeto make. pit. On the other hand, with presentaudio-acoustical proceduresand the comwe can createspectacles whereneitherthe actionnor the voice arenecesputer, sarilylocalized.One can think in termsof human voice, human presence,and no longerdo opera. Artisticcreationis no longerdone in the same context as beforeand we can imaginenew spaces. At La Villette, free experimental spacewill be created.I have proposed in my architectural projectsome ideasfor the future edifice.Firstof all, therewill not be a single floor, but ratherplatforms, perhaps mobilized, arrangedin spaceso that one can look in all directions.The spectator,suspendedin space like a spiderat the end of its filament,should no longerhave the feelingof livin little ing on one plane, but rather all threedimensions.These floorsresemble islands, clouds on which one could place the spectators,the performers,the equipment. Light must be designed to come from all directions, including from below. Technicallyit is entirelypossible to construct transparent floors which allow light and sound to filterthrough. It would also be necessary that the sound sources be spreadthroughout the space, something that is never in anticipated halls.The mixingconsoleswould be situatedin the hall, and not in a recordingroom where one hearsnothing. This space, empty and capable of being filled, is neverorientedeitherfor seating,for viewing, or for listening. to Music, spectacle,contrary that which happensin traditional opera, does not favorone particular of orientation. type This has nothing to do with a polyvalenthall. I do not believe in mobile framestructure.The designermust anticisystems, in an infinitelyadjustable pate a distributionof elementsin space. In what sense?That liberty,that neutralitymust be handledin such a way that the diversitycreatedwill be interesting. There are technicalquestionsbearingon distances... but that all belongs to the domain of the study. As faras the formsareconcerned,we do not have an infinite number. They must withstand the construction. We had many problemswhen constructingthe PhilipsPavilion,due to the extremethinness of the concrete, warped shells. Mobile architectureis nothing but garbage, becauseno one is able to replacean architectof worth. As an artist,I preferto use somethingfixed, interesting,captivating, ratherthan leavingtotal libertyof structuring the space with each use. Polyvalence is proof of the absence of taste, of will, of the architect'sreflection. One must createa space which is in strong, rigid, but which neverthelessallows for a richnessin arrangement,

the permutationof things and events. This space, it would at first be like an envelope which would serve as a sonorous shelter, as thermal insulation. The envelope could have certain sonorous qualitiesbasedon forms and volumes, and not on correcting panels, as usually happens. Acoustics is bound to the conformationof space, to the form need not be conventional.The shape of the covering. The architectural are sphere, the rightangle, level surfaces absolutelyto be avoided. I would use instead a contour surface,a sail. That is what I did with the PhilipsPavilion. The contoured surfacehad the advantage better reflecting of and diffusingthe sound. At the polytope of the Pompidou Centerwe used a fabricthat had no sonorous inertia,but that nevertheless reflecteda partof the sound, and there was no untimely echo, rathera satisfying diffusionof the sound. The envelope need not be unique becausethere are many things arranged aroundthe periphery.What?Sourcesof lighting,eventuallysourcesof sound, and then the directcontact of the productiondepartmentwith the space.... To allow for the most liberty,we need a sort of metallicnet on which to hang all sorts of things, like islandsfastened to the envelope. Behind the cloud of these objects, there is the shell, the actualcover. What form should it assume? What materialmight be used? Just as the firstmembrane,the netting, is open and pierced,it is this second membrane,this shell, which will serve as reflector.While visibleforms always playa role, we can also be sensitiveto invisibleforms. The human eye and ear are sufficiently skilledand cunning to sense the proximityof forms from afar. we must connect this closed space with the exterior.Now and then, Finally, one must be able to leavethe events of the interior. The edificegainsnothing in being weighed down by a conventionally thick, uselessshell. The eleganceof the material found in its effectiveness. is The shell of the Philips Pavilionwas five centimetersthick, no more. The limit of the non-constructible continuallypushed further. is To realize something different from the traditional building implies a rediscoveryof fundamental questions, of lines of force, abandoning certain architectural prejudices. Identical elements are too frequently multiplied, repeating a rhythm, a module:pilotis,posts, orders.... The utilizationof repetitiveelements complies with simple motives, firstly economic-those of industrialization-the ease, the rentability-the peace of mind. Secondly, repetitionis very strong, it is also the architectural traditionof the discrete.The shell, the sailon the conan aspectof continuityin construction,in space. It is naturally traryrepresents more expensiveto construct.In a finalanalysis, will depend on the ultimate all controller,the State, which must decideif it wants to leaveits name in contemporaryarchitecture. There are prejudicesconcerning the purpose of the edifice, its function. Even here things arenot simple. Functioncan be consideredin severalways. I

were being designed, Le Corremember,when the apartmentsof Marseilles busierspoke about women's liberationwith respectto the opening out of the kitchen toward the living room and thus toward the exterior.A woman was certainlyno longer shut away in the kitchen, but she was still subservientfor the simple reason that she alwaysdid the cooking, even if she had a lovely countrysideview. One must invent this architecturalspace and not choose it as if it were in to already existence.It is a placeto be discoveredaccording the fundamental necessities that faceus. There arethings that one cannot imagine,and yet that must be discoveredand created.This is an entirelydifferent,dynamicattitude. It is not a questionof permutations of combinations existingthings, that or of is what I want to say.... Thereis no automaticrationality can in itselfbringone to an interesting that solution. Firstone must considerthe needs and the initialfunctions, and from mattersor there, searchand invent. In everythingthat we do, in architectural we inevitablymanipulatecertainconcepts, certainstructures.It anythingelse, is thus necessaryto work in the theoreticaldomain, without which we are that we manipulatewithout slaves,trappedby cliches,by inheritedstructures them perfectly.Theoreticalexplorationavoidsmakingsuch unfortuknowing nate mistakes.A theoreticaleffort startsin any case from premiseswhich are intuitive, esthetic, from an idea; it then exploresand uses tools: logic, other knowledgecoming from other sciences.For example,if you compose musicon the computer that you considerbad, it is not necessary respectthat music to on the pretext that it is the result of a computer, as do certaincontemporary musicians.On the contrary,one freesoneselffrom such a theory in orderthat the result may be interesting. Theory and the machine are not a criterion. Music is the finalcriterion. Thus, you set down the basicnecessities,then you discover the elements that correspondto the emotions, to the imagination.If you succeedfor example in creatinga space that gives the impressionof flying, that is tremendous. At Saint Sophia in Constantinople, one has this impression.... It is only in this way that you manageto createsomethingthat is universal.These aimsare inevitable.Greatartistsare those who attainthe universal.In reality,the universalis not so farremoved;it is found in you sinceyou arehuman. To find the differencebetween that which is of value diachronically synchronicallyand acrossthe ages and on the planet-and that which is not, providessolutions, that arenot petty. To get beyond pettinessis not easy. To say that expressions women were going to be "liberated"in the new apartments Marseilles an of is But moment, no one realexampleof such small-mindedness. at that particular ized it. In operamusicthereareuniversal aspectswhich remainand which certainlywill remain,becausethey arepresentmuch in the sameway as arecertain

Egyptianbas reliefs.The bas reliefsof the mastersof ancientEgypt arenot confused with those of the copyistswho spreadthem throughout the realm.... -Remarks noted by StephaneGalzy and FrancoisGrucon
V. THE MIND OF IANNIS XENAKIS TODAY

In thesetwoarticles in someof his published Fnce, lannis Xenakis deelops recently his thecomposer notably lofty fivoritethemes refection, for philosophicalpreoccupations: the and joinsthe mathematician, physicist theastrphysicist. -L.B.

THE SOURCE OF THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE

rules by itself. Firstprposition: canonlybeimposed thework -One alwayscomes backto the same question-what is true or what is false in artisticmatters?-or to the only response worth considering, to refuse all rulesoutside the work is to refuseto be crippled,blind, and deaf. -All philosophicalthought, all rulesareprovidedin an originalway by the actor, by the artist. We touch here upon the foundation of art: what is originality. -The analysis will certainlybringus back to genetics. It sufficesalreadyto remarkthat though man's originalactsarenumerous(asin dailylife, the event of walking... ), the more they arerareand symbolicthe strongeris theirdegree of originality. Second is Prposition: from nothing. nothing born -To speakof our originality to speakof our constitution, and as a conseis of the makingof the universeand of its process.It is the samefor artas quence for the destiny of humans and of the universe. The preoccupations of the musicianjoin those of the astrophysicist. -For centuries, scientific tradition has predicted that nothing can come from nothing. It has viewed the universeas an automation,continuingto exist without a point of return, without a new creation.Suddenlyin 1973, a professorfrom the Universityof New Yorkput forth an opposing hypothesis:All

the matter and energy in the observableuniverse could have emerged from nothing. -I am not an astrophysicist, but, for a long time, I have thought that music is nothing but a path among others, permittinghumankindfirst to imagine, then, afterlong generations,to lead the existinguniverseto another, entirely createdby humanity. -Since 1958, I have been writingon the subjectof the originality artand of music:
TO yap avTo voelv E(TiV TE Kat El'ca
TO yap aVTo Elvac atlt Tv Kai OUK E'tl'ct

"For it is the same to think as to be" (Poem by Parmenides); my paraand "For it is the same to be as not to be." In a universeof nothingness.A phrase, brieftrainof waves, so briefthat its end and beginningcoincide(time in nothitselfendlessly. ingness)disengaging It creates. engenders resorbs, Nothingness being. -Still today, through lack of conceptual and suitableexperimentaltools, astrophysicists are unable to respond to this question, to this captivating notion of a universeopen to spontaneouscreation,which could form or disapA pear without respite, in a truly creativevortex. From nothingness. disapinto nothing. pearance ThirdProposition: universe in perpetual the is creation. Plato alreadyfought, on a more religiouslevel, againstthe theory of a continuously extended universe. According to him, God creates the universe, builds it and leaves it. The automaton deregulates itself and becomes chaotic (this could be the currentepoch...), to the point where increasingly the Creatortakesit in hand againand reconstructs universe. the Transcribed a scientific to level, the anecdoteassumesits true force:Because of gravitation,the universecould stop dilatingand could commence to contract until it becomes an implosion towards nothingness. This pendulum movement createsthe state of perpetualcreation. backto the foundationof art. You often hearit said: Again, we arereferred To construct,it is necessary destroy. In my opinion, this assertion false.It to is sufficesto put the proposition:The contributionof an individualdepends on his originality, own distinctiveness, his even though he is caughtin a globaland of generalflux. Einstein would not exist without the breakthroughs Lorentz. We could extrapolate forever. Thus opens before us the reason for certain remarkableworks, sorts of

unsurpassableparadigms(for example the Egyptian bas reliefs...); what is done is an absolute. Likewise in music, the architectureof a work, its performance, depend on technique, but also on factors which are impossible to name-the life of him who composes it, of him who performs it, the instrument, the acoustics. Richness elaboratesupon itself by stages, to the point of the highest universalpreoccupations. Thought is nothing but a partof doing, whence the absenceof archetypes, and a differentexistenceeach time. That is, in effect, at leastpartly,the theory of probabilities: flux of aleatoric a functions.

It is in fact the innerinitiative,the transfer a deed which engendersfulfilto ment. I am not speakingof happiness,which is a myth, for nothing is absolute. They exist, of course, the joys, the tears. But that is not what should count: They arenothing but epiphenomenaof that which one does, suffers,or lives. Death, for example,a suprememisfortune,is a part of life. We sense it, we anticipate But we prudentlyavoidspeakingabout it, as if it were a guest it. that we must avoid. Nevertheless,it is there, omnipresent,at our sides. Our organism, degeneratingevery second, knows it. Now, this definitive disappearancecan be transposedin the domain of work: the choices that I make when I compose music, for example. They are distressing, for they imply renouncing something. Creation thus passes through torture. But a torture which is sane and natural. That is what is most beautiful: to decide at any moment, to act, to renounce, to proposesomethingelse. It's great.The joy is the filfilment of living. That's what it means to live. This tormented life is necessary.Everywhere,at all times. Only, one does not live with it, one refuses it. We surround ourselves with references, politeness,taboos, ethics, for ourselvesas well as for others. Or, as a lastresort, we spreadbutteron the psychoanalyst's bread,but what a myth it is to believe that in rememberingsomething, we delve more profoundly into ourselves! The subconsciousalso forgets. Like memory, it is putrescible.It is not a veil one can lift from the shadow castby a long abandonedplanet. A sort of Hades from Antiquity. In our life, there are entire patches of the past which have or completelydisappeared, that we will neverfind again.It is illusoryto think that the subconsciouscan retainthe fantasticquantityof impressions,of suggestions, of fascinations experienced at such and such a moment in our existence. I can nevertheless ponder: Is it becauseI no longerrememberit that a particularthing no longer exists?The fact that I do not rememberit does not mean that the thing no longerexistsin my subconscious,certainly.However, I cannot maintainthat these memoriesexist, since they are inaccessible. And if

anyone claimsthat they are accessible,I would very much like to possess the methods for accessto them. Becauseit would be fascinating explorethem, if to only in orderto turn one's past into a cinema. The inaccessibility this memory thus implies that we cannot prove its of existence.That is the theory. In addition, practically speaking,it is unthinkable, impossiblethat the human brainconserveintact, and not degraded,traces or printsof the past. Which areextremelyfine and subtle. Let's takethe example of our most recent recollections.When we remove them from memory's drawer,we damagethem likepinned butterflies.In fact, we replacethem with others. And, if we go back further, we realize that memory, if it still exists somewhere, is still more inaccessible,tucked awaymore deeply. Becauseit is coveredwith new traces.Starting from the oldest, yes, but completelyrestructured. We are speakingof a theoreticalview. For me, psychoanalysis a subis conscious view. Moreover (just as other disciplines)it has sufferedfrom an abusiveextrapolation; people have wanted to see it as a panacea. hisPaleontologist, geneticist,biologist,physician,chemist, mathematician, torianand expertin human sciences.These qualifications the identificomprise cationcardof tomorrow'smusician.Of him whom I callthe conceivingartist. Who searchesafterthe secretorder that rulesthe universalapparentdisorder. Who considersa new relationbetween art and science, notably between art and mathematics.Since Greek Antiquity and right up to our twentieth century, moreover, certainconquests in music and severaldiscoveriesin mathematics spring forth almost at the same moment. And, contraryto what we often think, there have been interactions,osmosis, reciprocalinfluences. In 500 B.C., for example, the relation between the pitches and the lengths of stringshad been established.Music thus gives a seriousimpetus to the theory of numbers(positiverational) and to geometry. Later(eleventhcentury), the bi-dimensional of spatialrepresentation pitchesas a functionof time by the use of staves and punctaundoubtedly influencedDescartes'analytical geometry, proposed six centurieslater. Direct influence?I do not know, not knowing Descartesin personat all! But ideascrossone anotherlike currentsof air. And sometimesvery little sufficesfor the sparkto burstforth. Another interesting example:the fugue. A fixedstructure,and fixedif there ever was one, when speakingof school work, the fugue is an abstractautomatism, which was utilized two centuries before the birth of the theory of abstractautomata. It was the first automaton. And what is an automaton if not the expression of mankind's profound need to reproduce?To project worlds, universes,to createhimselfin his properimage? In constructingrobots, man took the placeof gods. For he felt that the latter were nothing but his own reflection.And now, we areconstructing biologicalrobots which tomorrow will give birth to little robots: The dreamsof the gods are materialized! Yet, we alwayslive in the shadow of Sisyphusand Tantalus.Becauseevery-

thing around us moves, shifts, is in constant turmoil. We are not moving through an epoch of certitudes:Cosmonautsin a swarm, we navigatein the provisional,we must reconsidereach thought at every instant. This isn't all bad, moreover, for our life thereby becomes much more complicated,more complex, more alive, finds itselfall the more enriched.We live more intensely when we must confront swarmsof problems, when we must decipher this growing complexity,which is here, beforeour eyes, hieratic,even if we try to ignore it. That which we live is a bloody hand-to-hand with nature. Which engenders anguish. But, luckily, when we are afraidof something, when it becomes bitter, acidic,we immediatelyerectdefenses.We cannot live without defenses, anyway, at the risk of being immediately annihilated. And our defenseis to refuseto see, is to deny the complexitythat surroundsus. It is also to create beliefs, myths, good or bad gods. Or elegant theories of physics, which structureour spiritualenvironmentand reassure be they legitimate us, or not. These areour bunkers,our mentalmachines,veritable automatainterconnectedwith our defensivetactics,with our linesof conduct, with our physicaland mentalself-protection.So that we can act, know how to act and what to do. I was about to forgetmemory, which is forgettable,we all know that. Fortunately. It is even made to be forgotten, it is perishable.For, if we should remember,what with the acuityof reality,of all the past instants,marvelsand we transformations, could never take the shock. Memory, nothing but the traceof these instants,equalizes,cushions, lulls. Another self-defense. But in other respects,one must avoid the trapof becoming imprisonedin memory. It is good to look around, to risk shock, to keep a criticalspirit, a power of constantrenewal.In brief,a freshoutlook. This risk,for thereis one, comprisesa part of our existence,just as defense, survival.It is our fate to be destiny. Society, which stifles us, constitutes an additionalrisk. It is thus in selfdefense that we try to participate little as possible. So that we can judge it as from the exterior.For it rubsoff on us, just as historytaintsthe present.Thus, I would ratherbe outside-putting on the decals-than within-being plastered with decals. Everyoneof us tries, accordingto our ability,to pull away from society and from the work it implies. Work which, for many, is synonymous with slavery.Yet anotherproof-if one were wanting-that servitude always exists. For if one does not find in his work the possibility of being oneself, the joy-or anguish-of existing, then one is enslaved.And one buys moments of releasetime-but which arenot free-liquified instantsof reallife, which one doesn't know how to live anyway.Becauseone doesn't know, one no longerknows. In his Repub/ic, Platosaysthat a societyis just when its citizensdo what they like to do. This amounts to sayingthat all presentsocietiesareunjust. In spite of socialor socializingtheorieswhich seek to liberatehumans, to renderthem

Perspectives of

creative,to lead them to make decisions in their own interiorsolitude. And not to impose them from the outside. If only that were practiced since childhood! When I was at school, we were set one againstthe other, creating idian a superficial emulation. For what reason?Perhaps otically competitive spirit, one day to obtain recompenses,glory, fortune, privileges... materialthings. Thus, from the very beginning, we do not act accordingto our own, profound individuality. We must recognize that this aberration,that this false route is a powerfularm of society. The forceof a work is in its truth. And truth is that which can existwithout crutches. Those crutches which are often sentimentality,sensitivity, "emotional filth," as Kunderasays. Sentiments, understood in this sense, are the alibiof cruelty,of barbarity, blackmail. of Me, I againfind myselfin that which I do. In movementsoutside of creation,in the stringswhich hold it as if in perpetual expectation.Movementsof clouds, of galaxies,of crowds, of ourselves within ourselves.All trulycreative people escapethis foolishside of a work, the exaltationof sentiments.They areto be discarded the fat surrounding like meat beforeit is cooked. This blubberwhich envelopsthe work can also be secreted by our own way of seeing, now: Thus, when one listens to the "Ride of the Valkyries,"for example,we should make an effort to abstractourselvesfrom all the mythology which surroundsthese viragos,from all that which Wagner and his crowd have found to say about this music. So as to listen only to the music, to have it within us. That is what confersits value, its perennity,independentlyof the sentimentsof the time. That is also why we listen to it. It is the same for African,Hindu, Chinese, or Egyptianart. Why am I so sensitiveto them without everhavingstudiedthem?BecauseI appreciate them as I appreciate curl of a leaf, the photographof a galaxyor of a cosmic the just dust cloud lighted by the stars. For in these sorts of things there exist signs made by mankind. Signs that we must see, not as representations, as relabut tions among them, without any romanticism.If these relationsare sufficiently rich, necessary,and elegant, then the piece is a work of art. The greatestwork is thus that which invokesthe highestlevelof abstraction. That which presentsthe fewest possible referencesto representation.In this sense, Altdorfer'sTheBattle with its myriadsof soldiersadvancing ofAlexander, under the vault of heaven, immense, is a much more abstract paintingthan a Mondrian or a Malevitch, because it implies an effort of abstractionon our part, of enormous reductionto nothingness.We must cleanseit from the historicaltime that clogsit. Thereis the truefestivalof the imaginary: construct to abstractions from that which is the most scrupulouslyconcrete. There also is the force of humanity,which is in its power of generalization, universality. of To see realitywith new eyes, that is reality,that is life itself.

NOTES

1. CEMAMu: Centre d'Etudes de Mathematique et d'Automatique Musicales.) 2. Unite Polyagogique et Informatiquede CEMAMu (realizedwith grants from the Ministryof Culture in France). and Other 3. See the text by Iannis Xenakis in Le Corbusier, La Tourette 1955-1957 (New York:GarlandPublishing,Inc., and and Buildings Projects Paris:Fondation le Corbusier,1984). et 4. See FrancoiseChoay, L'Urbanisme:Utopies realites(Paris:Editions du Seuil, 1965). 5. In the booklet printed by the Centre Georges Pompidou, to accompany the production of le Diatope.

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SYRMOS(1959)* Pour 18 ou 36 instrumentsa cordes (6.6.0.4.2.ou le double). Duree: 14 minutes. A ANALOGIQUE et B (1959)* et 9 instrumentsa cordes (3.3.0.2.1.), bande magnetique4 pistes. Duree: 7 minutes. AROURA (1971)* 12 instrumentsa cordes (4.3.2.2.1.), un multiple: ou Duree: 12 minutes. RETOURS-WINDUNGEN (1976)* 12 violoncelles. Duree: 8 minutes. POURLES BALEINES (1982) Grandorchestre A cordes. Dure : 2 minutes 30". SHAAR(1983) Grandorchestre a cordes. Duree: 14 minutes.

CEUVRES POUR ORCHESTRE ORCHESTRAL MUSIC ORCHESTERMUSIK
METASTASIS (1953-54)* Pour orchestre de 61 instruments:piccolo, flute,2 hautbois,clarinette basse, 3 cors, 2 trompettes,2 trombones tenor, timbales, percussion (xylophone,triangle,woodblock,tambour,caisse claire,grosse caisse, timbales)et cordes (12.12.8.8.6.). Dure : 7 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. PITHOPRAKTA (1955-56)* Pour orchestre de 50 instruments : 2 trombones tenor, xylophone, woodblock et cordes (12.12.8.8.6.). Dure : 9 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. DUEL(1959) Jeu pour deux orchestres. 2 piccolos, 2 hautbois, 2 clarinettes en sib, 2 clarinettes en mib, 2 clarinettes basses, 2 bassons, 2 contrebassons, 4 trompettes, 2 trombones, percussion (2 caisses claires, 2 tambours, 4 bongos, 6 congas) et cordes (2.2.0.8.4.) Duree variable: environ 10 minutes. ST/48 (1962) Pour orchestre de 48 musiciens : piccolo, flute, 2 hautbois, clarinette, clarinette basse, basson, contrebasson, 2 cors, 2 trompettes,2 trombones, 4 timbales, percussion (4 toms, 5 temple-blocks, woodblock, et tambour,vibraphone,marimbaphone) cordes (8.8.6.6.4.). Duree: 11 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. * sur disque - on record

STRATEGIE (1962)* Jeu pour deux orchestres. 2 piccolos, 2 flutes,2 hautbois,2 clarinettesen sib, 2 clarinettesen mib, 2 clarinettes basses, 2 bassons, 2 contrebassons, 4 cors, 4 trompettes, 4 trombones 2 tenor,2 tubas,percussion(2vibraphones, marinmlbapones, 2 maracas, 2 cymbales suspendues, 2 grosses caisses, 2 X 4 toms, 2 X 5 temple-blocks, 2 X 4 woodblocks, 2 X 5 cloches a chevres) et cordes (12.12.8.8.6.). Dur6e variable: environ 10 a 15 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. TERRETEKTORH (1965-66)* Pour orchestre de 88 musiciens 6parpilles dans le public : piccolo, 2 flOtes,3 hautbois,clarinetteen sib, clarinetteen mib,clarinettebasse, 2 bassons, 3 contrebassons, 4 cors, 4 trompettes,4 trombonest6nor, tuba, percussions et cordes (16.14.12.10.8.), chaque musicien devant posseder en plus: 1 woodblock, 1 fouet, 1 maracas, 1 sir6ne Acme. Duree: 18 minutes. POLYTOPE MONTREAL DE (1967)* et Spectacle lumineux sonore, avec une musiquepourquatreorchestres clarinette basse, contrebasson,trompette, identiques:piccolo,clarinette, trombonet6nor,percussion (grandgong, woodblocks japonais,4 toms), multiplesde 4 violons et 4 violoncelles. Duree : 6 minutes. EditionsBoosey et Hawkes. NOMOSGAMMA (1967-68)* Pour orchestre de 98 musiciens 6parpilles dans le public : piccolo, 2 flutes, 3 hautbois, clarinette en sib, clarinette en mib, clarinette contrebasse, 2 bassons, 3 contrebassons, 6 cors, 5 trompettes, 4 trombones tenor, tuba, percussion (7 batteurs munis de 4 toms cordes (16.14.12.10.8.). echelonnes, 1 timbalier), Duree: 15 minutes. KRAANERG (1968-69)* Musiquede balletpourbande magnetique4 pistes et orchestre:piccolo, haubtois, 2 trompettes,2 trombones et cordes (multiplesde 3.3.2.2.2.). Duree: 75 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. ANTIKHTHON (1971)* Musique de ballet pour orchestre. 3.3.3.2 (+ CB) - 4.3.3.1.,percussion, cordes (10.8.6.6.4.). Dure : 23 minutes. ERIDANOS (1973) 2 cors, 2 trompettes,2 tubas et cordes (16.14.12.10.8.). Dure : 11 minutes. NOOMENA (1974) 3 (+ Pic), 3 (+ CA), 3 (+ Cl. mib & BC), 3 (+ CB) - 6.5.4.1., cordes (18.16.14.12.10.). Duree: 17 minutes. EMPREINTES (1975) 1 piccolo, 2 flutes, 3 hautbois, cor anglais, 1 clarinette en mib, 2 clarinettes, 1 clarinette basse, 2 bassons, 1 contrebasson, 4 cors, 4 trompettes,4 trombones tenor, 1 tuba, cordes (16.14.12.10.8.). Duree: 12 minutes. JONCHAIES (1977)* 2 piccolos, 2 flutes, 4 hautbois, 2 cors anglais, 1 clarinette en mib, 2 clarinettes en sib, 2 clarinettes basses, 2 bassons, 2 contrebassons, 6 cors, 4 trompettes,2 trombones tenor, 2 trombones basse, 1 tuba contrebasse, timbales,4 percussionnistes (4 jeux de 4 toms, 10 blocks chinois, 3 cymbales suspendues, grosse caisse, vibraphone,xylomacordes (18.16.14.12.10.). rimba), Duree: 17 minutes.

4 flOtes picc.), hautbois CA), clarinettes 3 bassons (1 CB), 4 4 sib, (1 (1 4 corsen fa,4 trompettes,trombones 4 2 t6nor, trombones contrebasse, 4 4 1 tuba 3 contrebasse, timbales pedale, percussionnistes:X (1paire a 1 1 de bongos,3 tom-toms, grossecaisse treslarge), xylophone, fouet, 1 1 1 woodblock, cymbalesuspendue,1 gong chinois large,1 piano, cordes(16.14.12.10.8.). Dur6e:16 minutes. Pour3 ensemblesinstrumentaux: (flOte, 3X clarinette sib,2 corsen en 2 fa,trombone t6nor, violon, violoncelles). harpe,1 percussionniste, 21 Dur6e: environ minutes 1/2
ALAX (1985)

I LICHENS (1984)

PIANOET ORCHESTRE PIANOAND ORCHESTRA KLAVIER UND ORCHESTER
SYNAPHAI (1969)

Pianoet orchestre. 3.3.3.3. - 4.4.4.1., percussion (3 tambourssans timbres),cordes (16.14.10.10.8.). Dur6e:14 minutes. ERIKHTHON (1974) Pianoet orchestre. 3 (+ Pic.).3.3. BC). (+ CB).- 4.4.4.1., 3 cordes(16.14.12.10.8.). (+ Dur6e:15 minutes.

ET PERCUSSION ORCHESTRE BARYTON, PERCUSSION AND ORCHESTRA BARITONE, UND ORCHESTER SCHLAGZEUG BARITON,
AIS (1980)

Pourbaryton, percussionsolo et orchestre: 4, 1 piccolo,4, 1 C.A., 4,1 clarinette basse, 4, 1 CB.- 4.4.4.4.- percussions,piano,cordes (16.14.12.10.8.). Dur6e:17 minutes.

ET CHCEUR ORCHESTRE CHORUS ANDORCHESTRA CHOR UNDORCHESTER
Pourchoeurd'enfants orchestre:20 voix d'enfants, et piccolo,flute, 2 hautbois, 2 clarinette clarinette, basse, basson,contrebasson, cors, 2 trompettes, trombones, 2 4 percussion (vibraphone,toms,5 templeet blocks,maracas, timbales) cordes(8.8.6.6.4.). cymbales suspendues, Dure : 6 minutes. Editions Modern Wewerka.
CENDREES (1973)* TA POLLA DHINA (1962)*

Choeur mixtede 72 voix(ouminimum et orchestre. 36) 2 (Pic.).2.2. cordes(16.14.12.10.8.). (CB).2 2.2.2.1. Dur6e:25 minutes.

ANEMOESSA (1979) Pour chceur et orchestre :4 flutes (dont1 pic.),4 hautbois,4 clarinettes en sib, 3 bassons, 1 contrebasson, 4 cors, 4 trompettes,4 trombones, 1 tuba,2 timbales,1 grosse caisse, choeurmixte:sopranos,altos, tenors, basses (80 personnes environ,ou 56 minimum), cordes (16.14.12.10.8.). Duree: 15 minutes. NEKUIA (1981) Chceurmixte et orchestre : 4 (1 pic.).4.4.4.- 6.4.4.1. - 4 percussions, 2 harpes, piano, cordes (14.12.10.8.8.). Duree: environ 26 minutes.

CHCEUR ENSEMBLE ET CHORUS ANDENSEMBLE CHOR UNDENSEMBLE
ORESTEIA (1965-66)* Musique de scene pour chceur mixte,choeurd'enfantset orchestre de chambre: piccolo, hautbois,clarinette,clarinettebasse, contrebasson, cor, trompette,trompettepiccolo en r6 bemol, trombone t6nor, tuba, percussion (instrumentstraditionnelset inusites) et violoncelle. Duree: 100 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. Suite de concert pour choeurmixte et orchestre de chambre. Dure : 46 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. MEDEA (1967) Musique de scene pour choeur d'hommes (jouant egalement des rythmesavec des galets de riviereou de mer)et ensemble instrumental: clarinette, contrebasson, trombone, violoncelle, percussion (4 toms, 3 woodblocks, claves, maracas). Dur6e: 25 minutes. A COLONE (1977) Choeurd'hommes (ou choeurde femmes), de 20 personnes minimum. (1 cor, 1 trombone,6 violoncelles, 1 contrebasse). Duree: 14 minutes. POURLAPAIX(1982) Choeurmixte,bande magnetiqueet recitants. Duree: 26 minutes 45". Voiraussi version pour choeura cappella. CHANT DES SOLEILS (1983) Chceurmixte,choeurd'enfants,cuivres, (6.6.6.0.),percussion. Duree: 8 minutes. IDMEN (1985) A Choeurmixteet 4 percussionnistes (clavier: marimba, marimbabasse, glockenspeil, xylophone,vibraphone.Avec diverses peaux). Duree: environ 14 minutes 1/2 IdmenA peut etre jou6 conjointementavec IdmenB. IDMEN B Voirpage 12

MUSIQUE D'ENSEMBLE ENSEMBLE MUSIC MUSIK FURENSEMBLE
ACHORRIPSIS (1956-57)* Pour 21 instruments: piccolo, hautbois, clarinette en mib, clarinette basse, basson, contrebasson, 2 trompettes,trombonetenor,xylophone, woodblock,grosse caisse, 3 violons, 3 violoncelles et 3 contrebasses Duree: 7 minutes. EditionsBote und Bock.

ST/10 (1962)* Pour 10 instruments : clarinette, clarinette basse, 2 cors, harpe, percussion (5 temple-blocks,4 toms, 2 congas, woodblock)et quatuora cordes. Duree: 11 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. ATREES (1960)* 10 instruments : flOte, clarinette, clarinette basse, cor, trompette, trombone,percussion (maracas,cymbales suspendues, gong, 5 templeviolon, violoncelle. blocks, 4 toms, vibraphone), Dure : 15 minutes. EONTA (1963)* Piano, 2 trompettes,3 trombones. Duree: 18 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. HIKETIDES (1964) (Les Suppliantesd'Eschyle) Suite instrumentale,2 trompettes,2 trombones, cordes (6.6.0.8.4.ou multiple). Duree: 10 minutes. AKRATA (1964-65)* & Pour16 instruments vent: piccolo, hautbois,clarinetteen sib, clarinette en mib,clarinettebasse, basson, 2 contrebassons, 2 cors, 3 trompettes, 2 trombones tenor et tuba. Dur6e: 11 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. ANAKTORIA (1969)* Clarinette,basson, cor, 2 violons, alto, violoncelle, contrebasse. Duree: 11 minutes. PHLEGRA (1975) 11 instrumentistes:flute(piccolo),hautbois,clarinetteen sib, (clarinette basse), basson, cor, trompette, trombone, violon, alto, violoncelle, contrebasse. Duree: 14 minutes. N'SHIMA (1975) 2 cors, 2 trombones,2 mezzo-sopranos, violoncelle. Duree :17 minutes. EPEI(1976) Cor anglais, clarinette en sib, trompette en ut, 2 trombones tenor, contrebasse. Duree: 13 minutes. AKANTHOS (1977) Flte, clarinette,soprano,2 violons,alto,violoncelle,contrebasse, piano. Duree: 11 minutes. PALIMPSEST (1979) Hautbois(etcor anglais),clarinettesib, (etclarinettebasse), basson, cor, quintette piano,percussion (2 bongos, 1 tumba,3 toms-toms, 1 timbale), a cordes. Duree: 11 minutes. PERR(1983) KHAL Quintette a cuivres et percussion : 2 trompettes en ut (2 petites trompettesen sib), 1 cor en fa, 1 trombone,1 tuba, 1 percussionniste (vib.,2 bongos, 3 tom-toms, 1 grande caisse large). Duree : 10 minutes 30". THALLEIN (1984) Pour14 instrumentistes:flute(piccolo),hautbois,clarinettesib, basson, cor en fa,trompetteen ut(aigue sib),trombonetenor,1 percussionniste, piano, 2 violons, alto, violoncelle, contrebasse. Duree: 17 minutes

ANALOGIQUE et B* A Voirp. 4. AROURA* Voirp. 4. RETOURS WINDUNGEN* Voirp. 4.

CHCEUR CAPPELLA A A CAPPELLA CHORUS CHORA CAPPELLA
NUITS(1967)* Douze voix solistes mixtes. Dur6e: 12 minutes. A HELENE (1977) Texte d'Euripide. Choeurde femmes. Dure : 12 minutes. SERMENT-ORKOS (1981) Texte d'Hippocrate. Choeurmixte. Duree: 7 minutes. POURLAPAIX(1982) Version pour choeurmixte.

MUSIQUE VOCALE VOCAL MUSIC VOKALMUSIK
N'SHIMA (1975) voir p. 8 AKANTHOS (1977) voir p. 8 POURMAURICE (1982) Barytonet piano. Duree: 4 minutes.

MUSIQUE ELECTRO-ACOUSTIQUE ELECTRO-ACOUSTIC MUSIC ELEKTRO-AKUSTISCHE MUSIK
DIAMORPHOSES (1957)* Musique electro-acoustique pour bande magnetique4 pistes. Duree : 7 minutes. R.T.F. CONCRET (1958)* PH Musique electro-acoustique pour bande magnetique4 pistes. Duree: 2 minutes 45". R.T.F. ORIENT-OCCIDENT (1960)* Musique electro-acoustique pour bande magnetique4 pistes. Duree: 12 minutes. R.T.F.

BOHOR (1962) Musique electro-acoustique pour bande magnetique 8 pistes (existe 6galement en version 4 pistes). Dur6e: 23 minutes. HIBIKI HANAMA(1969-70)* Musiqueelectro-acoustique sur 12 pistes magnetiques (egalementen version 4 pistes) pour un spectacle audiovisuel a base d'orchestre. Duree: 18 minutes. PERSEPOLIS (1971)* Spectacle lumineuxet sonore avec musique electro-acoustique pour bande magnetique 8 pistes (existe egalement en version 4 pistes). Dur6e: 57 minutes. POLYTOPE CLUNY DE (1972) Spectacle lumineuxet sonore avec bande magnetique7 pistes (existe Bgalementen version 4 pistes). Dur6e: 24 minutes. LALEGENDE D'EER(1977) Pour le Diatope, actions de lumieres et de son, pour 1 600 flashes 6lectroniques, 4 rayons laser, 400 miroirs,optiques diverses et bande magnetique 7 pistes. Dur6e: 46 minutes. A MYCENES (1978) Bande st6r6o, musique compos6e sur I'UPIC CEMAMu du Dur6e: 10 minutes. POURLA PAIX(1982) voir p. 7

MUSIQUE INSTRUMENTALESOLISTES DE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC FORSOLOISTS INSTRUMENTALISCHE FURSOLISTEN MUSIK
Piano HERMA (1960-61)* Duree 9 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. EVRYALI (1973)* Dur6e: 11 minutes. MISTS(1981) Dur6e: 12 minutes. Voiraussi: MORSIMA-AMORSIMA, p. 12 EONTA, 7 p. SYNAPHAI, 6 p. ERIKHTON, 6 p. p. DIKHTHAS, 11 AKANTHOS, 8 p. PALIMPSEST, 8 p. POURMAURICE, 9 p. Clavecin KHOAI (1976)* Dur6e: 15 minutes. NAAMA (1984) Dur6e: 16 minutes.

Clavecin et percussion KOMBOI (1981)* Duree: 17 minutes.

Orgue GMEEOORH (1974) * Version pour orgue de 56 notes. * Version pour orgue de 61 notes. Duree: 29 minutes.

Violon MIKKA (1971)* Duree: 4 minutes. MIKKA (1976)* "S" Duree: 5 minutes.

Violon et piano DIKHTHAS (1979)* Dur6e: 12 minutes. Alto EMBELLIE (1981)* Dur6e: environ 7 minutes.

Violoncelle NOMOSALPHA (1966)* Pour violoncelle solo. Duree: 17 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. KOTTOS (1977)* Dure : 11 minutes. Voiraussi: CHARISMA,* 11 p. Contrebasse THERAPS (1975-76) Duree: 11 minutes. Hautboiset percussion DMAATHEN (1976) Duree: 10 minutes. Clarinetteet violoncelle i CHARISMA (Ho,nimrage Jean-Pierre GUEZEC:1971)* Duree: 4 minutes.

Instruments traditionnels japonais NYUY6(SOLEIL 1985 COUCHANT) Pour shakuhachi,sanger et 2 kotos Dur6e: 10 minutes Cuivres EONTA (1963-64)* Pour piano et 5 cuivres: 2 trompettes,3 trombones t6nor. Dur6e: 18 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. LINAIA-AGON (1972) Jeu musical. Trombonetenor, trompetteen fa, tuba. Dur6evariable. Nouvelle version definitive1982. KHAL PERR(1983) Quintettede cuivres et percussion. Voirp. 8. Percussion PSAPPHA(1975)* Percussion solo. Duree: 13 minutes. PERSEPHASSA (1969)* Six percussionnistes. Duree: 24 minutes. PLEIADES (1978) Six percussionnistes. Dure : 46 minutes. IDMEN (1985) B Pour six percussionnistes et interventionseventuelles de choeur Dur6e: 13 minutes 1/2. IdmenB peut etre joue conjointementavec IdmenA (voirpage 7). Voiraussi: p. KOMBOI, 11 DMAATHEN, 11 p. AIS, p. 6 KHALPEER, 8 p. IDMEN p. 7 A, Trioa cordes MORSIMA-AMORSIMA (1962)* Pour piano, violon, violoncelle et contrebasse. Duree: 11 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. IKHOOR (1978)* Dur6e: 11 minutes. Quatuora cordes ST/4 (1956-62)* Duree: 11 minutes. EditionsBoosey & Hawkes. TETRAS (1983) Duree: 16 minutes.

Perspectives of

LIVRES ECRITSPAR XENAKIS BOOKSWRITTEN XENAKIS BY BUCHER VONXENAKIS
MUSIQUES FORMFI FS I 232 pages. La Revue Musicale, double numero special 253-254. RICHARDMASSE, Paris 1963, epuise. Nouvelle edition STOCK, Paris 1981. Aussi en italienSPIRALI, Milano1982. MUSIQUE ARCHITECTURE 160 pages, collection Mutations-Orientation. Tournai CASTERMAN, Belgique1971. Deuxiemeedition,revueet augmentee,238 pages, 1976. Edition japonaise, traduction de Yuji TAKAHASHI, Zen-On Music Company CTD Tokyo 1976, 178 pages. Edition italienne SPIRALI, Milano1972. Editioncatalane AntoniBOSCH,Barcelone 1982. FORMALIZED MUSIC 273 pages en anglais. INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS, Bloomington, Indiana(U.S.A.). Londres 1971. Aussi en italienSPIRALI, Milano1982. ALLIAGES ARTS/SCIENCES, These de doctorat es lettres et sciences humaines. CASTERMAN, Paris 1979. Editionam6ricaine:ARTS/SCIENCES, traduction ALLOYS, Sharon Kanach,New York,Pendragon,1985. XENAKIS/LES POLYTOPES Avec Olivier REVAULT d'ALLONNES. Paris 1975. Edition BALLAND, ASAHI SHUPPANSHA, japonaise, traduction Yuji TAKAHASHI, Tokyo 1978.

LIVRES ECRITS SUR XENAKIS BOOKSWRITTEN ABOUTXENAKIS
IANNIS XENAKIS. L'ARC Paris 1972. 51, REGARDSSUR IANNISXENAKIS. STOCK,Paris 1981, articles par 47 auteurs. IANNIS Par XENAKIS. N. MATOSSIAN, Paris 1981. FAYARD, Editionanglaise KAHN AVERILL, & London1984. IANNISXENAKIS (ENTRETIENS AVEC)par Balint Andras VARGA, Budapest 1982 (en hongrois).

DISCOGRAPHIE
De nombreuses editions franSaises et etrangeres. Pour des enregistrements de travailsur cassette, vous pouvez vous adresser aux EditionsSalabert.

IANNIS XENAKIS- OEUVRESNOUVELLES (1986) A L'ILEDE GOREE (1986) clavecin (amplif16) et ensemble Instrumental
1 (picc.).1.1.1. - 1.1.1.0. - cordes (1.1.1.1.1.)

EAS 18386p

Dur6e : 14 minutes Creation : Amsterdam, 1986, par I'Ensemble Xenakis et Elisabeth Choinacka AKEA (1986) piano et quatuor h cordes : 2 violons, alto,
violoncelle

EAS 18445p

Dur6e : 12 minutes Crdatlon : Paris, 15 ddcembre 1986, par Claude Helffer et le Quatuor Ardittl KEQROPS (1986) EAS 18362p plano et orchestre de 92 Instruments: 4.4.4. (cl. basse). 4 (cbasson). - 4.4.4.1., harpe, timbale, 1 percussion (grosse calsse, 3 toms, 2 bongos), cordes (16.14.12.10.8.) Duree t 17 minutes Creation : New York, Lincoln Center, 13 novembre 1986, par le New York Philharmonic, direction Zubin Mehta, soliste Roger Woodward KEREN (1986) EAS 18450 trombone solo Dur6e : 6 minutes Creation: Festival de Strasbourg, 19 septembre 1986, par Benny Sluchin HIOROS (1986) EAS 18414p orchestre de 89 Instruments 4.4.4.4. - 4.4.4.0., percussion, cordes (16.14. 12.10.8.) Duree : 16 minutes Creation ; Tokyo, Inauguration du Suntory Hall, 24 octobre 1986, par the Japan Philharmonic Orchestra, direction Htroyukl Iwaki Plece pour 15 Instruments (titre non dtabll) (1986) Duree : 10-15 minutes Creation : Paris, 26 Janvler 1987, par I'Ensemble Intercontemporain, direction Plerre Boulez

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Xenakison Xenakis

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