A SEMINAR REPORT ON ³NANOROBOTICS AN UPCOMING REVOLUTION ´

Presented by: PIYUSH KUMAR 3BR07EC070 ECE BITM
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[1] Nanotechnology is so new that no one is really sure what will come out of it. More specifically. image processing/vision control and sophisticated sensors.[3] This seminar presents the major aspects of nanorobotics which are at the verge of implementation and would be no less than revolution in the field of medicine if brought into reality. Even so. a million times smaller than a grain of sand. Many new nanotechnology research fields require a high degree of precision in both observing and manipulating materials at the atomic level[2]. will be the key to realising such nanomanipulation. predictions range from the ability to reproduce things like diamonds and food to the world being devoured by self-replicating nanorobots.ABSTRACT Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10í9 meters).The integration of different technologies to act as simultaneous real-time nanoscale `eyes´ and `hands´. nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. The advanced nanorobotics technology needed to manipulate materials at this scale. devices ranging in size from 0. 5 . is being developed . including the advanced nanorobotics. high-resolution ion/electron microscopy.

6 . REFERENCES«««««««««««««««««««««. 3..2 POWERING THE NANOROBOT«««««««««««« 4. NANOROBOTS ± TODAY AND TOMORROW«««««««. 7.1 NANOROBOTS NAVIGATION «««««««««««« 3. NANOROBOT INSPIRATION«««««««««««««. CONCLUSION ««««««««««««««««««««. 2. WORKING OF NANOROBOTS««««««««««««« 3..CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION««««««««««««««««««. APPLICATIONS«««««««««««««««««««« 5. 6.

1. capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. INTRODUCTION Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10í9 meters). nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobotsanddevices ranging in size from 0. and the measurement of their concentrations. in the environment. which might use them to identify and destroy cancer cells. Nanotechnology promises futuristic applications such as microscopic robots that assemble other machines or travel inside the body to deliver drugs or do microsurgery 7 . The first useful applications of nanomachines. nanites or nanomites have also been used to describe these hypothetical devices . An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1. but some primitive molecular machines have been tested. As of 2010 nobody has yet built artificial nonbiological nanorobots: they remain a hypothetical concept.5 nanometers across. nanoids. The names nanorobots. Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals. might be in medical technology. Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase[1] .1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components[1]. if such are ever built. More specifically.

the paramecium can swim in any direction. Fig: Nanorobot designers sometimes look at microscopic organisms for propulsion inspiration. Some scientists are looking at the world of microscopic organisms for inspiration. Organisms whip flagella around in different ways to move around. Similar to cilia are flagella. there's no need for an internal power source. which are longer tail structures. The magnetic fields cause the robot's arms to vibrate.the system must be able to move the nanorobot around without causing damage to the host. which uses small appendages to grip and crawl through blood vessels. The scientists manipulate the arms by creating magnetic fields outside the patient's body. the propulsion system has to be relatively strong for its size[2]. like the flagellum on this e-coli cell. it will need a means of propulsion to get around the body. By vibrating the cilia. They hope the relatively simple design will make it easy to build even smaller robots. Another important consideration is the safety of the patient -. Scientists in Israel created microrobot.NANOROBOT INSPIRATION Assuming the nanorobot isn't tethered or designed to float passively through the bloodstream. The scientists point out that because all of the energy for the nanorobot comes from an external source. pushing it further through the blood vessels. 8 . Because it may have to travel against the flow of blood. a robot only a few millimeters in length. Paramecium move through their environment using tiny tail-like limbs called cilia.2.

3. The robot detects the cause of your fever. WORKING OF NANOROBOTS Imagine going to the doctor to get treatment for a persistent fever. travels to the appropriate system and provides a dose of medication directly to the infected area[2]. Surprisingly. They're called nanorobots and engineering teams around the world are working to design robots that will eventually be used to treat everything from hemophilia to cancer. 9 . Instead of giving you a pill or a shot. we're not that far off from seeing devices like this actually used in medical procedures. the doctor refers you to a special medical team which implants a tiny robot into your bloodstream. Fig : The robot in this illustration swims through the arteries and veins using a pair of tail appendages.

3.[4] Another potential way nanorobots could move around is by using a vibrating membrane. One of these methods is to use ultrasonic signals to detect the nanorobot's location and direct it to the right destination. Miniaturized jet pumps could even use blood plasma to push the nanorobot forward. a nanorobot could generate small amounts of thrust. there would need to be moving parts.1 Nanorobot Navigation There are three main considerations scientists need to focus on when looking at nanorobots moving through the body -. Doctors could keep track of the nanorobot's location and maneuver it to the right part of the patient's body. this thrust could be significant enough to act as a viable source of motion. One would use capacitors to generate magnetic fields that would pull conductive fluids through one end of an electromagnetic pump and shoot it out the back end. Most options can be divided into one of two categories: external systems and onboard systems. which doctors could detect using special equipment with ultrasonic sensors. The nanorobot would move around like a jet airplane. 10 . unlike the electromagnetic pump. power and how the nanorobot will move through blood vessels.navigation. Other devices sound even more exotic. The signals would either pass through the body. The nanorobot could emit pulses of ultrasonic signals. External navigation systems might use a variety of different methods to pilot the nanorobot to the right location. Nanotechnologists are looking at different options for each of these considerations. though. On the nanoscale. or both. Doctors would beam ultrasonic signals into the patient's body. each of which has positive and negative aspects. By alternately tightening and relaxing tension on a membrane. reflect back to the source of the signals.

Nanorobots could get power directly from the bloodstream. While it might be possible to create batteries small enough to fit inside a nanorobot. nanotechnologists are considering both external and internal power sources. Power generation would be a result of the Seebeck effect.2 Powering the Nanorobot Just like the navigation systems. The metal conductors become a thermocouple. 11 . The nanorobot would hold a small supply of chemicals that would become a fuel source when combined with blood. they aren't generally seen as a viable power source. The Seebeck effect occurs when two conductors made of different metals are joined at two points that are kept at two different temperatures. A more likely candidate is a capacitor. so a very small battery would only provide a fraction of the power a nanorobot would need. some designs use forces outside the patient's body to power the robot[3]. Finally. it's unlikely we'll see many nanorobots use body heat for power[7]. meaning that they generate voltage when the junctures are at different temperatures. A nanorobot with mounted electrodes could form a battery using the electrolytes found in blood. Another option is to create chemical reactions with blood to burn it for energy.3. The problem is that batteries supply a relatively small amount of power related to their size and weight. which has a slightly better power-to-weight ratio. Some designs rely on the nanorobot using the patient's own body as a way of generating power. but there would need to be a gradient of temperatures to manage it. Since it's difficult to rely on temperature gradients within the body. A nanorobot could use the patient's body heat to create power. Other designs include a small power source on board the robot itself.

but keep in mind the amount of material is small and. External power sources include systems where the nanorobot is either tethered to the outside world or is controlled without a physical tether. Optical systems use light through fiber optics. 12 . A physical tether could supply power either by electricity or optically. according to some experts.Fig :Engineers are working on building smaller capacitors that will power technology like nanorobots Another possibility for nanorobot power is to use a nuclear power source. Tethered systems would need a wire between the nanorobot and the power source. but it would also need to move effortlessly through the human body without causing damage. easy to shield [source: Rubinstein]. public opinions regarding nuclear power make this possibility unlikely at best. which would then need to be converted into electricity on board the robot. The wire would need to be strong. Still. The thought of a tiny robot powered by nuclear energy gives some people the willies.

Fig: Robots may treat conditions like arteriosclerosis by physically chipping away the plaque along artery walls. scientists and doctors believe that nanorobot applications are practically unlimited.1 Breaking up blood clots: Blood clots can cause complications ranging from muscle death to a stroke. Nanorobots could conceivably treat the condition by cutting away the plaque. microwaves or ultrasonic signals or they 13 . Nanorobots could travel to a clot and break it up. The robot must also be small enough so that it doesn't block the flow of blood itself[source: Freitas]. 4. APPLICATIONS Several engineers. The robots could either attack tumors directly using lasers.4.the robot must be able to remove the blockage without losing small pieces in the bloodstream. which could then travel elsewhere in the body and cause more problems.3 Fighting cancer: Doctors hope to use nanorobots to treat cancer patients.2 Treating arteriosclerosis: Arteriosclerosis refers to a condition where plaque builds along the walls of arteries. This application is one of the most dangerous uses for nanorobots -. which would then enter the bloodstream refer below figure[5]. 4. Some of the most likely uses include: 4.

or artificial platelet. A nanorobot could break up the crystalline structures at the joints.. 4. A nanorobot could break up a kidney stones using a small laser. but it's not always effective.7 Breaking up kidney stones: Kidney stones can be intensely painful -. Doctors break up large kidney stones using ultrasonic frequencies. the man who designed the clottocyte.could be part of a chemotherapy treatment. delivering medication directly to the cancer site.5 Parasite Removal: Nanorobots could wage micro-war on bacteria and small parasitic organisms inside a patient. This waste sometimes crystallizes at points near joints like the knees and ankles. Doctors could use clottocytes to treat hemophiliacs or patients with serious open wounds. 4. 4. Freitas. Doctors believe that by delivering small but precise doses of medication to the patient. People who suffer from gout experience intense pain at these joints. side effects will be minimized without a loss in the medication's effectiveness[2]. It might take several nanorobots working together to destroy all the parasites[2]. though it wouldn't be able to reverse the condition permanently.6 Gout: Gout is a condition where the kidneys lose the ability to remove waste from the breakdown of fats from the bloodstream. clotting could be up to 1.the larger the stone the more difficult it is to pass.4 Helping the body clot: One particular kind of nanorobot is the clottocyte.000 times faster than the body's natural clotting mechanism . The clottocyte carries a small mesh net that dissolves into a sticky membrane upon contact with blood plasma. Jr. 14 . providing relief from the symptoms. According to Robert A. 4.

8 Cleaning wounds: Nanorobots could help remove debris from wounds. They would be particularly useful in cases of puncture wounds.Fig : Treatment of kidney stones 4. 15 . decreasing the likelihood of infection. where it might be difficult to treat using more conventional methods.

Fig : Although this 2-centimeter-long robot is an impressive achievement. Robots ranging from a millimeter in diameter to a relatively hefty two centimeters long already exist. future robots will be hundreds of times smaller 16 . Nanorobots: Today and Tomorrow Teams around the world are working on creating the first practical medical nanorobot. Today's microrobots are just prototypes that lack the ability to perform medical tasks. We're probably several years away from seeing nanorobots enter the medical market. though they are all still in the testing phase of development and haven't been used on people.5.

Some believe that semiautonomous nanorobots are right around the corner -. Richard Thompson. Another potential future application of nanorobot technology is to re-engineer our bodies to become resistant to disease. medical organizations and the government to talk about nanotechnology now. Kudos to the engineers for this revolution[8].doctors would implant robots able to patrol a human's body.6. Dr. Unlike acute treatment. it seems like anything is possible. Doctors could treat everything from heart disease to cancer using tiny robots the size of bacteria. Robots might work alone or in teams to eradicate disease and treat other conditions. a former professor of ethics. reacting to any problems that pop up. CONCLUSION In the future. increase our strength or even improve our intelligence. nanorobots could revolutionize medicine. bruises and illnesses? With nanotechnology. has written about the ethical implications of nanotechnology. a scale much smaller than today's robots. these robots would stay in the patient's body forever[6]. Ultimately one can what a piece of work MAN is. and that it's pivotal for communities. while the industry is still in its infancy. Will we one day have thousands of microscopic robots rushing around in our veins. He says the most important tool is communication. making corrections and healing our cuts. 17 .

References [1]Wang.htm [8] Knight. (2009). "Drugs delivered by robots in the blood. 2004. [3] www.1021/nn800829k. J.com/introduction. and James F.dreamstime. "Can Man-Made Nanomachines Compete with Nature Biomotors?".nanorobotdesign. October.com.ACS Nano3 (1): 4±9. http://www. Weir. [6]Nanorobotics research project 2005-2009 [7]Introduction to Thermoelectrics.com [4]www. Will.Sandia National Laboratories. Sierra.htm 18 .com/article/dn6474.newscientist.com [5] Nathan A. www.thermoelectrics. doi:10." NewScientist. Dannelle P. PMID 19206241 [2] ³hownanorobots will work ³ by Jonathan Strickland.2006. Jones ³A Review of Research in the Field of Nanorobotics .

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