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Comm2 References: Set 3

Comm2 References: Set 3

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Del Rosario, C.S., Espiritu, M.C. (1993).

Filipino urban adolescents¶ sexual attitudes according to educational attainment, religious affiliation, and sex with their perceived influences. De La Salle University, Manila. y y y y y y The Filipinos have been perceived to be traditionally conservative. The males, while reputed to be preserving the machismo image (Bautista, 1979), have never been flagnant in the open display of their sexual urges. These have changed tremendously over the years. Present day observations seem to point to a loosening of traditionally held ways of behaving. One cannot deny the increasing number of living-arrangements, even with married partners, one-night-stands, etc., now topics that are just a part of everyday conversation. The number of youths who are engaging in premarital sex has increased in an alarming rate of 12% (Young Adult Fertility Survey, 1982). There have been reports which indicate that Filipinas here and abroad are becoming prostitutes for monetary returns. These observations are rather contradictory to the fact that majority of the Filipinos are Christians, the Philippines being the only Catholic country in Asia. There is a need to examine the Filipino sexual orientation, specifically the adolescents because it is in this stage that sexual attitudes are further strengthened because of their growing interest in sex while they seek more information about it (Hurlock, 1982). The factors to be considered are those according to sex, socio-economic status, educational attainment, and religious affiliation. Sexual orientation is rather abstract. A definition by Storms (1980) has revealed that most theories about the nature of a person s sexual orientation lies between two assumptions: (1) that sexual orientation elates to a person s sex role orientation, or (2) that a person s sexual orientation is related to his erotic orientation. Theories like Freud (1922/1961) closely associate sexual attraction toward women with a masculine sex role orientation and sexual attraction towards men with a feminine sex role orientation. The second idea is that the erotic orientation explains an individual s sexual orientation. This view holds that sexual orientation arises solely from an individual s acquired erotic impulsiveness to stimuli associated with one s sex or scripts, which develop from various learning processes and experiences. Here, an individual s sexual orientation should be primarily defined through the type, extent, and frequency of the person s erotic fantasies (Kinsey, et. al., 1948/1953 in Storms, 1980). Lastly, other characteristics associated with sexual orientation other than the mentioned erotic responses (sex role identity and behavior) are just secondary effects of social labeling (Weinberg and Williams, 1974 in Storms, 1980) It has also been established that erotic fantasy, under the right circumstances, can have certain behavioral effects. It is also the product of a person s sexual beliefs and sexual attitudes, where sexual behavior is a product of sexual attitudes.

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However, in a survey done by Sandoval (1992) regarding Filipino attitudes toward sexual relations, it seems that Filipinos still maintain a conservative attitude concerning premarital, extramarital, and homosexual relations although there is a tendency to be less conservative towards the former. Another study by the National Population Center in 1982 (Adolescent Fertility in the Region: A Summary) produced the same results. Teenagers still prefer to be virgins at marriage, if they can help it. Only a small percent (8-10) for the rural and urban communities did not consider virginity very important. It has been agreed that males are more likely to approve of premarital sex than females (Nichols, et.al., 1987) Sandoval (1992) purports that Filipinos who belong to the lower social bracket or the less privileged sector and limited educational attainment tend to be less tolerant with premarital sex than those belonging to the upper social classes or those belonging to the privileged sector and higher educational attainment. However, regarding extramarital and homosexual relations, it seems that it is the privileged class who is less tolerant than the less privileged ones. Further researches have indicated that sexual intercourse was more frequent among the sons of manual laborers than the sons of white collar workers and businessmen. A positive relationship exists between education and the timing of premarital sex. This means that being in school can postpone women s initiation into premarital sex. Education seems to have an impact on premarital sex exposure concerning economically deprived women (those who quit school due to financial reasons) which is substantiated by the significant relationship which exists between education and premarital sex. Certain religions affect sexual attitudes by prohibiting sensuality in general. One example is the Judeo-Christian religions of Western societies, where prohibitions against sensuality are found in the Old and New testaments. These tend to develop attitudes which bring about one s repression of sexual thought and conduct. The knowledge of adolescents concerning sex which help form their sexual attitudes is noted to have come from various sources such as the media, school, religion, friends, relationships with the opposite sex, parents, aspirations and self-attitudes. An NPC survey (1982) indicated that those who have higher probabilities of engaging in premarital sex are the out-of-school and non-working youths. As a person engages in religious activity more, which was measured according to the frequency of church attendance, the less likely he or she is to engage in premarital sex behavior. The hypothesis is that among generally conservative individuals, those of higher status would be less permissive than those of lower status; whereas among generally liberal individuals, their relations would be in the opposite direction. Weiss, Atkin, Bribble, and Andrade-Palos (1991) say that the adolescent who does not engage in sexual intercourse is one who is living among peers and family where sexual intercourse and adolescent pregnancy are neither topics of conversation nor models of behavior.

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In a survey done by Raymundo (1988), it appears that when it comes to the personal or confidential matters of the adolescents, consultation with the parents is less preferred. For such discussions, adolescent males and females talk to their brothers or sisters, respectively, than their mothers and fathers, respectively. More often than not, they try to lessen their ignorance on sex matters by discussing it with people belonging to their same age group or consulting with reading materials. Parental authority, whether it be actual, perceived, or both, is significant in the parent s influence in the sexual behavior of their children. If the child perceives their father to be strict (they do not allow their young girls to go on chaperoned dates, spend weekends in friends homes, and live away from home), it has been shown that they were more successful in maintaining the virginity of their daughters than those who were more liberal in allowing their teenage daughters freer movement outside the home (Daguino, 1987). Other studies have shown that the better the relationship is with the parents, the better contraception among adolescents is. The ones who are likely to be less promiscuous are those who grew up with both real parents (Adolescent Fertility in the Regions: A Summary, 1982). This has been further strengthened by a study on Muslim adolescents (Daguino, 1987), wherein girls who were raised by both natural parents are less likely to have premarital sex than those raised by single parents or other people. Hypotheses: (1) Those with higher educational attainment will possess more conservative sexual attitudes, while those with low educational attainment will tend to have a more liberal attitude. (2) Non-Christians, as compared to Christians, will have more conservative sexual attitudes. (3) Males in general have more liberal sexual attitudes than females. (4) There is no significant difference in the sexual attitudes of adolescents in terms of educational attainment and religious affiliation. (5) Female non-Christians, in contrast to male Christians, tend to have more conservative sexual attitudes. (6) Regardless of the level of educational attainment, males will have more liberal sexual attitudes than females. (7) There are no significant differences in the sexual attitudes of adolescents in terms of educational attainment, religious affiliation, and sex combined.

McPartland, J. (1947). Sex in our changing world. London: Torchstream Books. y One of the many frustrations of our times is that while we have developed an easy humor towards sex, have colored and perfumed it with new elegances, have sterilized and packaged it, we seem to be lost in understanding the rules of the game. Our moral code is issued in numerous versions, tailored for each variety of our people by distinctions in class, tradition, and custom, but most of these versions still describe a people who are sexually shy. This was fairly true of us, not too long ago, but today we are a sexually bold people, sensuous and unchaste. Unfortunately, we are only occasionally honest about the matter; our laws and religions are that of a chaste, modes, monogamous society, our

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amusement are those of a gay and amoral culture, and our sexual habits have become something of a worldwide scandal. Usually morals are code by church and court, with systems of enforcement and penalties. This gives the code rigidity, and it tends to change more slowly than the society it represents. We have a set of moral codes that are the result of long evolutions of that sort, with the usual embroideries of taboo, tradition and custom. In the nature of the human animal are the powerful drives of sexual curiosity, sexual ego, and a strange, terrible streak of sexual cruelty. These drives have been regulated by taboo, law and ethical code for the protection of the family.

Gordon, P. (1949). Sex and religion. New York, NY: Social Science Publishers. y No highlights. Ask for the content from me if you need to reference this.

Hirsch, A.H. (1955). Human relations research, publications in human relations research: Vol. 1. Sexual behavior of the upper cultured: Mid-century study of behavior trends outside marriage in the United States since 1930.New York: Vantage Press. y Several generations ago, upper cultured women in the United States were considered monogamous by nature. Today such claims are refuted in proportion to the extent that women are known to have become polygamous. Some men in the upper brackets can point to as many, or even more, temporary wives, without benefit of a marriage ceremony. The attitude is that the pressure of social considerations (including the economic) forces these conditions upon them, and that they have no other choice in the struggle for survival. There is in some women the doubtful pride that they can be as polygamous (promiscuous) as men, and that when they receive the merited cooperation from husband or other mate, they can be as ardent and as powerful as men in the expressions of love. They claim greater self-possession than men and a competence beyond the reach of the male. Though upper culture women are usually likely to be more cautious in romance than men, especially when they are aided by experience and observation, today women are less cautious than in 1920 to 1930, and they are more daring and courageous. Everywhere the female figure is seen partly clad, to proclaim the sales items of industry. Sex creates demand, enhances buying motives, and closes the sale. There are so many instances in the scope of this study showing very devout and religious persons who turn regularly to extramarital intimacies that the conclusion seems justifiable that religion is no longer the substantial barrier to illicit behavior It was even two decades ago.

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An example of combining illicit intimacy with drinking is found in an incident which never reached the school or civil authorities: Myra, a widow, mother of a child of three, and her chum, Nel, both public school teachers, accepted an invitation to drive to a nearby town one night. They would play bridge and enjoy a few drinks. The men had made reservations for two adjoining rooms, the women supposing that this meant they would occupy one room for sleeping, and the men, the other. The early evening was spent in card playing and moderate drinking. Toward midnight drinking became heavier and drowsiness overtook the women. By arrangement, one of the men remain sober, following an old custom practiced by American Indians, to see that nothing unfavorable would happen. The last thing Myra remembered was seeing Nel and her mate go to the other room, together, leaving her, Myra, to the other man. Why have the moral leaders not admitted long ago that the normal man is hopelessly inseparable from his congenital masculine inclinations, and that, likewise, the normal woman is not separable from her feminine allure and is in no wise any more capable of divesting herself of her femaleness than she is of completely concealing her amatory inclinations from the male view?

Cheng, K., Jacinto, J., Paras. I. (2007) A study of the factors that affect male and female Filipino adolescents¶ sexual 5ehaviour. De La Salle University, Manila. y Sexual behaviors of adolescents differ depending on the social norm that is rampant in their society. According ot Ream and Savin-Williams (2005), an adolescent s sexual activity may be regarded as a symptom of a syndrome of deviance. The accessibility of information provided by media has made a significant increase in the level of sexual activity of adolescents (Ward and Rivadeneyra, 1999). This shows that there is a lower level for single females than single males who engage in premarital sex regardless of whether they are married or unmarried.

Comment [C1]: This is a myth. Rendered acceptable only in relation to the date this article was published.

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Payne, M. (1997). A dictionary of cultural and critical theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. y If you think you can reference something from this document, ask for a copy from me.

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