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BY: GUIRIGAY, REBECCA S. 3Nu05
SUBMITTED TO: MRS. BUATIS
ovary. These definitions may vary slightly depending on the source and the laboratory reference used. For men. breast. The normal level of hemoglobin is generally different in males and females. Heavy menstrual periods or bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract can cause blood loss. or cancer also can cause blood loss. "Inherited" means your parents passed the gene for the condition on to you. and pregnancy. or CHOP • • • ETIOLOGY Blood Loss Blood loss is the most common cause of anemia. the body may lose enough red blood cells to cause anemia. head and neck. and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma • Advanced stage of cancer • Prior treatment • Treatment regimen that includes paclitaxel. carboplatin.Anemia is a medical condition in which the red blood cell count or hemoglobin is less than normal. especially iron-deficiency anemia. cisplatin. Blood loss can be short term or persist over time. topotecan. Risk factors for developing anemia: Elderly patients Presence of comorbid conditions Type of cancer. trauma. This condition can be acquired or inherited. Surgery. anemia is typically defined as hemoglobin level of less than 13. especially lung. but you develop it. If a lot of blood is lost. "Acquired" means you aren't born with the condition.5 gram/100ml and in women as hemoglobin of less than 12. hormones. .0 gram/100ml. Examples of acquired conditions and factors that can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells include diet. Lack of Red Blood Cell Production Both acquired and inherited conditions and factors can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells. some chronic (ongoing) diseases. Aplastic anemia also can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells.
A low level of this hormone can lead to anemia. like kidney disease and cancer. This hormone stimulates the bone marrow to make these cells. Conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb nutrients also can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells. the fluid portion of a woman's blood (the plasma) increases faster than the number of red blood cells. Some cancer treatments may damage the bone marrow or damage the red blood cells' ability to carry oxygen.Diet A diet that lacks iron. Acquired conditions or factors. riboflavin. If the bone marrow is damaged. During the first 6 months of pregnancy. it can't make red blood cells fast enough to replace the ones that died or were destroyed. This condition is called aplastic anemia. Your body also needs small amounts of vitamin C. can make it hard for your body to make enough red blood cells. or vitamin B12 can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells. and copper to make red blood cells. such as certain medicines. Pregnancy Anemia can occur during pregnancy due to low levels of iron and folic acid and changes in the blood. Hormones Your body needs the hormone erythropoietin (eh-rith-ro-POY-eh-tin) to make red blood cells. folic acid (folate). . and infectious diseases. Infants and children who have aplastic anemia often need blood transfusions to increase the number of red blood cells in their blood. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to make enough red blood cells. toxins. also can cause aplastic anemia. This dilutes the blood and can lead to anemia. People who have HIV/AIDS may develop anemia due to infections or medicines used to treat their diseases. Diseases and Disease Treatments Chronic diseases.
thalassemias. These conditions create defects in the red blood cells that cause them to die faster than healthy red blood cells. Inherited conditions can cause this type of anemia.High Rates of Red Blood Cell Destruction Both acquired and inherited conditions and factors can cause your body to destroy too many red blood cells. The spleen is an organ that removes wornout red blood cells from the body. certain medicines. or reactions to blood transfusions. Examples of inherited conditions that can cause your body to destroy too many red blood cells include sickle cell anemia. and lack of certain enzymes. Examples include immune disorders. One example of an acquired condition that can do this is an enlarged or diseased spleen. infections. Hemolytic anemia is another example of a condition in which your body destroys too many red blood cells. causing anemia. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • • • • • • • • • Cognitive dysfunction Hypoxia weakness Shortness of breath Dizziness Headache Coldness in the hands and feet Pale skin Chest pain . If the spleen is enlarged or diseased. it may remove more red blood cells than normal. Acquired conditions or factors also can cause hemolytic anemia.
Unknown etiology .
He or she may: • • • Listen to your heart for a rapid or irregular heartbeat Listen to your lungs for rapid or uneven breathing Feel your abdomen to check the size of your liver and spleen The doctor also may do a pelvic or rectal exam to check for common sources of blood loss.DIAGNOSTIC EXAMS Physical Exam Your doctor will do a physical exam to find out how severe your anemia is and to check for possible causes. .
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Dietary Changes and Supplements Iron • • • • • • Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables Tofu Peas. orange juice. and cheese) Vitamin B12 • • • • Foods fortified with vitamin B12. white. soybeans. This fruit can affect the strength of a few medicines and how well they work. . red. liver. such as prunes. and baked beans. and chickpeas Dried fruits. such as soy-based beverages and vegetarian burgers Folic Acid • • • • • • Bread. and some other fruits and juices Vitamin C Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron. pasta. tangerines. yogurt. If you're taking medicines. raisins. and juices usually have more vitamin C than canned ones. lentils. Fresh and frozen fruits. ask your doctor or pharmacist whether you can eat grapefruit or drink grapefruit juice. Other fruits rich in vitamin C include kiwi fruit. vegetables. and similar fruits. Good sources of vitamin C are vegetables and fruits. strawberries. and apricots Prune juice Iron-fortified cereals and breads Breakfast cereals with added vitamin B12 Meats such as beef. and cantaloupes. grapefruits. poultry. Citrus fruits include oranges. especially citrus fruits. and fish Eggs and dairy products (such as milk. oranges. and rice with added folic acid Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables Black-eyed peas and dried beans Beef liver Eggs Bananas.
you may need surgery to control ongoing bleeding due to a stomach ulcer or colon cancer. For example. • • Chelation (ke-LAY-shun) therapy for lead poisoning. You and your doctor will decide whether the benefits of this treatment outweigh the risks. Procedures Blood Transfusion A blood transfusion is a safe. This is because children who have iron-deficiency anemia are at increased risk of lead poisoning. common procedure in which blood is given to you through an intravenous (IV) line in one of your blood vessels. potatoes. Chelation therapy is used mainly in children. cabbage. Once the stem cells are in your body. Stem cells are found in the bone marrow. A man-made version of erythropoietin to stimulate your body to make more red blood cells. which is like a blood transfusion. Brussels sprouts. For more information. This hormone has some risks. Hormones to treat heavy menstrual bleeding in teenaged and adult women. Surgery If you have serious or life-threatening bleeding that's causing anemia.Vegetables rich in vitamin C include broccoli. Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant A blood and marrow stem cell transplant replaces your faulty stem cells with healthy ones from another person (a donor). peppers. you get donated stem cells through a tube placed in a vein in your chest. Medicines • • • Antibiotics to treat infections. go to the Diseases and Conditions Index Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant article. you may need surgery. tomatoes. and leafy green vegetables like turnip greens and spinach. they travel to your bone marrow and begin making new blood cells. They develop into red and white blood cells and platelets. . During the transplant. Transfusions require careful matching of donated blood with the recipient's blood. Medicines to prevent the body's immune system from destroying its own red blood cells.
An enlarged or diseased spleen may remove more red blood cells than normal. you may need to have your spleen removed. NURSING MANAGEMENT Side rails up Position the patient (fowler’s) Promote bed rest Provide quiet and calm environment Provide assistance in ambulation Encourage patient to eat recommended die Monitor pulse rate blood pressure and respiratory rate Monitor intake and output Provide oxygen as indicated .If your body is destroying red blood cells at a high rate. causing anemia. The spleen is an organ that removes wornout red blood cells from the body.
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