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# 2007/2008-1

Chapter 2: Drilling Hydraulics

2.5

DRILLING MUD CALCULATIONS

The most common mud engineering calculations are those concerned with the changes of mud volume and density caused by the addition of various solids or liquids to the system. The first step is to compute the system volume, which is the sum of the mud in the hole and surface pits. While the surface volume is readily obtained from the pit size, the downhole volume is difficult to determine. Boreholes are not always cut to gauge (the same size as the bit) and unless a caliper log is available, which is unusual at the time of drilling, the true hole size must be estimated. In hard rock areas, little error may result from assuming bit size to exist; in salt or sloughing sections, however, this will be a gross error. With experience in the area, the mud engineer is able to make reasonable approximations. Those lacking this experience may compute hole volume (borehole less drill string volume) and apply any correction factor deemed applicable. Consider then the volume and density change of a mud (or water) resulting from the addition of solids. Two basic assumptions must be made: (1) The volumes of each material are additive. This may immediately raise a question concerning bentonite and water mixtures since it is known that bentonite swells when wet. This expansion is due, however, to the adsorption of water; hence the clay volume increase is at the expense of water volume, and the total volume (clay plus water) is, for practical purposes, unchanged. The weights of each material are additive.

(2)

Writing expressions for these assumptions: Vs + Vm1 = Vm 2 ……………….. (1) ……………….. (2)

**ρ sVs + ρ m1Vm1 = ρ m 2Vm 2
**

where: Vs = volume of solid Vm1 = volume of initial mud (or any liquid) Vm2 = final volume of mixture

**ρs = density of solid ρm1 = density of initial mud ρm2 = density of final mud
**

Solving for Vs:

Vs = Vm 2 ( ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ) ρ s − ρ m1

……………….. (3)

As to units, the densities may be in any consistent set; lb/gal or gm/cc is commonly used in field or laboratory problems, respectively. Vs will then be in the same units chosen for Vm2; bbl, cc, etc. Equation (3) is not particularly useful as it stands, since the net volume of a powdered solid is not readily measurable. However, the corresponding weight to add is

ρ sVs =

ρ sVm 2 ( ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ) ρ s − ρ m1

……………….. (4)

ARIFF OTHMAN

Drilling Engineering – SKM3413

Page 1

it is desired to mix one liter of bentonite fresh water mud having a viscosity of 30 cp (3. (a) (b) What will be the resulting mud density? How much of each material should be used? Solution 2 Altering Equation (3) (a) 0.045 gm/cc = 8.2007/2008-1 Chapter 2: Drilling Hydraulics Example 1 A 9. (5) ARIFF OTHMAN Drilling Engineering – SKM3413 Page 2 .4% Vm 2 ρ s − ρ m1 (2.5)(8.0 = ρ s − ρ m1 2.6% ρ m 2Vm 2 ρ m 2 ( ρ s − ρ m1 ) 9. Suppose that the quantity of solids (Vs) necessary to increase (or decrease) the density of an initial mud is desired.5 X 30 = 75 gm 2. Then: Vs = (Vm1 + Vs )( ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ) ρ s − ρ m1 ……………….33) X 100 = s m 2 X 100 = X 100 = 20. Solution 1 (a) Altering Equation (3): Volume % solids = Vs ρ − ρ m1 9.0) = 30 cc = 2..5) and fresh water. (3a) where Vm1 + Vs = Vm 2 (volumes additive) Solving for Vs gives Vs = Vm1 ( ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ) ρs − ρm2 ……………….33 X 100 = m 2 X 100 = X 100 = 9.5 − 8.045 − 1.8 − 8.5(20.7 lb/gal (b) Vs = 1000(1.0 Also: Vm1 = Vm 2 − Vs = 1000 − 30 = 970 cc water For certain types of problems it is convenient to express Equation (3) in a different form.5 − 1.33) Example 2 For laboratory purposes.8(9..5 lb/gal mud contains clay (SG = 2. Compute (a) the volume % and (b) the weight % clay in this mud.5 − 1.0% bentonite powder is needed to produce 30 cp bentonite fresh water mud).0 from which ρ m 2 = 1.5 − 8.03 = ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ρ m 2 − 1.33) − 8.33 (b) Weight % solids = ρ sVs ρ ( ρ − ρ m1 ) 20.

it is useful to express Equation (5) in field units.0665 ≅ 15 sacks.2007/2008-1 Chapter 2: Drilling Hydraulics Example 3 (a) (b) How much weighting material (BaSO4.33) = (1000 + Vw )(42)(10) from which Vw = 1200 bbl ARIFF OTHMAN Drilling Engineering – SKM3413 Page 3 . Let SB = sacks of barite necessary to increase the density of 100 bbl of mud from ρm1 to ρm2.7) = 50. or 0.8 − ρ m 2 SB = 1500( ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ) 35.3)(62.8 − 14 100 bbl 1000 bbl 2750 = 1180 bbl 15 Vm 2 = 1000 + Example 5 (a) (b) How much fresh water must be added to 1000 bbl of 12 lb/gal mud to reduce its density to 10 lb/gal? What will the resulting volume be? Solution 5 (a) (1000 bbl)(42 gal/bbl)(12 lb/gal) + (Vw )(42)(8.61 = 0.8 − ρ m 2 or ……………….4) = 0. Substituting these special conditions into Equation (5): S B 100( ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ) = 15 35. Therefore 1 barrel (net) of barite = 1/0.. the mineral barite.4 = 1050 cc Since barite is so universally used as a weighting material.4 = 217 gm 35.0665 barrels of net material.373/5. (5a) Example 4 (a) (b) How many sacks of barite are necessary to increase the density of 1000 bbl of mud from 10 to 14 lb/gal? What will be the final mud volume? Solution 4 (a) Using Equation (5a) SB = (b) 1500(14 − 10) sacks sacks = 275 = 2750 35.8 − 10 (b) Vm 2 = 1000 + 50. SG = 4.373 cuft.4 cc or 4. Barite is sold in 100 lb bags or sacks.3) should be added to the mud of Example 2 to increase its density to 10 lb/gal? What will the resulting volume be? Solution 3 (a) Vs = 1000(10 − 8. Such a sack contains 100/(4.3 X 50.

(7) where: Vw = barrels of water necessary to reduce density of Vm1 barrels initial mud from ρm1 to ρm2. in.. Example 6 A mud engineer finds from pilot tests that 2..0 gm of CMC is required to obtain the desired water loss reduction for a one liter mud sample. it is necessary to express these results in pounds per barrel.33 875( ρ m 2 − ρ m1 ) 20.2007/2008-1 Chapter 2: Drilling Hydraulics (b) Vw = 1000 + 1200 = 2200 bbl Equations (6) and (7) are other commonly used forms of Equation (3). it is necessary to know the time required for the entire mud system to make a complete cycle. Normally in field operation the types of pump used is a duplex mud pump. Sc = sacks (100lb) of clay (SG = 2. (6) ……………….. it is convenient to work with a 350 cc quantity so that treating agent additions in gm/per 350 cc of mud will be equivalent to field additions in lb/bbl. it is convenient to measure quantities in grams or cubic centimeters.0 X 1000 = 700 lb 1000 In making recommendations for mud treating. For field use.8 − ρ m 2 ………………. In working with laboratory size samples. How much CHIC should be added to the actual 1000 barrel system? Solution 6 CMC needed = 350 X 2. (9) q S = pump discharge rate. Drilling Engineering – SKM3413 ARIFF OTHMAN Page 4 .00679 SN (2 D 2 − d 2 )e where: ………………. gal/min = stroke length. (8) For laboratory or pilot testing purposes. It is then useful to realize: 1 lb/bbl X or 454 gm/lb = gm/cc 3785 cc/gal X 42 gal/bbl gm/350 cc = lb/bbl ………………. The displacement of a duplex mud pump can be computed from: q = 0.5) necessary to change density of 100 bbl initial mud from ρm1 to ρm2.. Vw = Sc = Vm1 ( ρ m1 − ρ m 2 ) ρ m 2 − 8. This is called the cycle time and is computed from a knowledge of pumping rate and system volume.

in. pump volumetric efficiency. Piston rod diameter = 2¼ in. piston rod diameter. bbl Example 7 What is the cycle time for the following conditions? Vm = 1000 bbl Pump liners = 75 in.5) 2 − (2. N = 40 strokes per minute Power pump is used Solution 7 tc = (16)(40) (2)(7. Treating materials would then be added at a rate allowing their uniform distribution in the system. (10) where: tc = cycle time. in. Cycle time is then expressed as tc = 6180 Vm SN (2 D 2 − d 2 )e ……………….90) ( (6180)(1000) ) = 100 min. commonly used as 90% for power pumps and 85% for steam. they could be added at the approximate rate of one sack per five minutes. ARIFF OTHMAN Drilling Engineering – SKM3413 Page 5 . min Vm = system volume.2007/2008-1 Chapter 2: Drilling Hydraulics N D d e = = = = complete strokes per minute piston (liner) diameter. if 20 sacks of material were needed.25) 2 (0. In Example (7).. diameter Stroke length = 16 in.