GEOGRAPHY (IAS OUR DREAM) Compiled by IOD member Swati Chaudhary for January 2012

 What is regolith? The upper unconsolidated and disintegrated rock materials. These are the bases for soil formation.  Due to differential erosion on the coast the hard rock remains projected outside while the soft rocks are cut inside. These indentations on the coast are known asCliff Cove Haffs Nehrung Cliff  The intensive erosion due to a network of streams in the plain adjoining the shiwalik hills, particularly in the Hoshiarpur District, is known as_ Doab Pat Chos Khols Chos.  places through which standard meridian pass in india Allahabad.  A dwarf scrub commonly found in the semi-arid parts of west and southern Australia is called asMaquis Chapparal

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Baobabs Mallee Mallee  Which of the following statements is/ are true? (1) Hamilton is known as "Birmingham of Canada" (2) Eskilstuna is known as "Birmingham of sweden". Only (1) Only (2) Both (1) & (2) Neither (1) nor (2) 2  The 'Long, narrow and sinous ridges of sands and gravels situated in the middle of ground moraines' are termed as Eskers Drumlins Roche mountonnees Aretes Drumlins  Atlas Maps are also known as (a) Cadastral Maps (b) Topographical Maps (c) Thematic Maps (d) Chorographical Maps Chorographical Maps  Taiwan (China) and Philippines are separated from each other by which strait? Soya Strait Malacca Strait Luzon Strait Formosa Strait

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Luzon Strait

 The layer of the water in the oceans that separates the warmer surface layer from the deeper colder layer is called. Epiliminion Hypsotherm Hypotherm Thermocline Thermocline

 The 'Accra - Kumasi - Takordi' triangle, is well-known for which of the following plantation crop? Cocoa Rubber Palm Oil Coffee A. Cocoa

 Which of the following climatic types is said to be "ideal climate for maximum comfort and mental alertness"? (a) British Type climate (b) Laurentian Type climate (c) Mediterranean Type climate (d) Gulf Type climate A. British Type climate

 Which of the following river has cut an extra-ordinary gorge in the Nari-khorasan province in Tibet?

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Indus Satluj Brahmaputra Shyok B. Satluj

 'Dhands' areAlkaline lakes formed in former dried river courses. Mass of alluvium broken by rivers and streams. Continous ridges of aeolian deposits in bhangar Calcareous formations in bhangar. Alkaline lakes formed in former dried river courses.

 Solfatara' is a term that indicates smoke and gas emitting vent a depression formed at the mouth of a volcanic vent a flat lava dome formed of basaltic lava a volcanic vent emitting sulphur as a dominant constituent. a volcanic vent emitting sulphur as a dominant constituent.  The 'knock-and-lochan' topography is associated with which of the following landforms? Fluvial Landforms Arid Landforms Coastal Landforms Glacial Landforms Glacial Landforms

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 What is albedo of the earth? Reflected Amount of radiation is called the ALBEDO of the Earth.  What is shatter belt? a region that is persistently splintering and fracturing.  Name the country share longest land frontier with india? Bangladesh  duncan passage is in? b/w great andman and little andman..  Name the countries larger in size than india russia,canda,usa,china,,brazil and australia..  Gujarat is the largest producer of salt in India because (a) It has extensive shallow seas (b) Beside producing salt from saline water it has reserves of rock salt (c) it has extensive dry coast (d) Its coastal water are very saline  A. It has extensive shallow seas

 India's largest mica belt lies in the district of (a) Hazaribagh, Gaya and Monghyr (b) Salem and Dharmapuri (c) Balaghat and Chhindwara (d) Udaipur, Ajmer and Alwar A. Hazaribagh, Gaya and Monghyr

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 The only place where tin is found in India is (a) Quilon (b) Hazaribagh (c) Rewa (d) Salem REWA in MP Chhattisgarh is the only tin producing State in India. Tin ore is known as cassiterite, which was reported in Dantewara district (Bastar district in formerly Madhya Pradesh) Source - Director of geology and mining Chatisgarh.  The main oil refinery in India are situated near seaport because (a) India needs much crude oil which is mostly imported (b) Petrol is available near sea port (c) Most of the crude oil is exported (d) Sea water is required for refining crude oil A. India needs much crude oil which is mostly imported  Which Indian state leads in the production of silver ? (a) Karnataka (b) Rajasthan (c) Gujarat (d) Madhya Pradesh A. Karnataka

 why earth exp. highest temp in sub tropics in the north hemisphere rather than at the equator ? a) sub tropical area tend to have less cloud cover than equatorial areas. b) sub tropical areas have longer day hours in the summer than the equatorial. c) sub tropical areas have an enhanced green house effect compared to equatorial areas.

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d) sub tropical areas are nearer to oceanic areas than the equatorial locations. A. sub tropical area tend to have less cloud cover than equatorial areas. These are the regions of Dynamically induced high pressure belts of Earth where subsiding air doesn't favour the formation of clouds. Clouds form where there are convectional currents set in.  Among the following areas, the widest continental shelf off India is found (a) Around the Gulf of Cambay (b) Off the krishna and Godavari deltas (c) Around the Konkan coast (d) Around the Palk Strait D. Around the Palk Strait  In which season is the frequency of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal maximum ? (a) After summer (b) During autumn (c) During winter (d) During monsoon It is during august to november, Bay of Bengal experiences highest no. of cyclones. As long as ITCZ lies over Indian subcontinent, it attracts the cyclones formed in the BoB.  The four season recognised by the Indian Meterological Department are (a) Winter spring summer autumn (b) None of these (c) winter monsoon summer fall (d) Winter monsoon summer post-monsoon D. ) Winter monsoon summer post-monsoon

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 The climate of India is (a) Subtropical monsoon (b) Tropical climate (c) Sub tropical climate (d) Savanna type of climate B. Tropical climate  The maximum number of workers are employed in which industry in India / (a) Sugar (b) Iron and Steel (c) Jute (d) Textiles D. Textiles

 The first modern steel industry was set up in India at (a) Jamshedpur in Bihar (b) Rourkela in orissa (c) Salem in Tamil Nadu (d) Kulti in West Bengal D. Kulti in West Bengal  The principal cashew proccesing centre of India is in (a) Quilon (b) Madras (c) Goa (d) Cochin its Quilon also called as Kollam in Kerala  The premonsoon mango showers occur predominantly in (a) West Bengal And Assam (b) Gujarat and Maharashtra (c) Deccan Plateau (d) Kerela and Karnataka

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D. ) Kerela and Karnataka  Nepanagar is famous for (a) Textiles industry (b) None of these (c) Newsprint industry (d) Steel industry C. Newsprint industry  Which of the following industry started first in India ? (a) Tea (b) Cotton (c) Paper (d) Jute A. Tea  Which one of the following factors account largely for the concentration of glass industry in Uttar Pradesh ? (a) Avalability of good quality sand and skilled worker in the art of glass making (b) Rapid urbanisation which create large market from urban consumers (c) Rapid industrialisation which led to great demand for glass products (d) Availability of good quality sand and chemical like sulphur and soda ash D. Availability of good quality sand and chemical like sulphur and soda ash  Aircrafts are built in India at (a) Madras/Bombay (b) Delhi/Dehradun (c) Kanpur/bangalore (d) Calcutta/Cochin C. Kanpur/bangalore

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 The north - western India receives substantial rainfall during winter months because of (a) South - west monsoon (b) North -east monsoon (c) Retreating monsoon (d) Westerly disturbance D. Westerly disturbance  Name the states having 2 bio sphere reserves? ASSAM(2), KERALA(2), MP(2),TN(3).

Biosphere Reserves are: 1. Nilgiri, 2. Nanda Devi3. Nokrek, 4. Manas, 5.Sunderbans, 6.Gulf of Mannar, 7.Great Nicobar, 8.Similipal, 9.Dibru-Saikhowa, 10. Dehang Debang, 11. Kanchanjunga, 12. Pachmarhi, 3.Agasthyamalai, 14.Achanakmar-Amarkantak, 15.Kachchh, 16.Cold Desert and17. Seshachalam Statewise distribution: 1. AndhraPradesh- Seshachalam 2. Arunachal Pradesh- Dehang Debang 3. Assam* - Dibru-Saikhowa, Manas 4.Chattisgarh- Achanakmar-Amarkantak(Part) 5. Gujarat - Kachchh 6. Himachal Pradesh- Cold Desert 7. Karnataka- Nilgiri(Part) 8. Kerala*- Nilgiri(Part), Agasthyamalai (Part) 9. Madhya Pradesh*- Pachmarhi, Achanakmar-Amarkantak(part) 10. Meghalaya- Nokrek 11. Orissa- Similipal 12 Sikkim- Kanchanjunga 13. Tamil Nadu*- Nilgiri(Part), Agasthyamalai(Part), Gulf of Mannar 14. Uttarakhand- NandaDevi
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15. West Bengal- Sunderbans 16. A&N Islands- Great Nicobar  which planets or satellites in our solar system show Anti green house effect?? TITAN- STAURN  Which country has Largest area under forest in South Asia? Bhutan  Tallest grass?? Bamboo: Dendrocalamus strictus Family: Graminae(family of grass & herb)  which country has largest area under forest? Russia  largest deposits of coal(country)? India

 greatest newspaper producer?(country) canada..  largest producer of timber? USA  Douglas? d tallest trees of d world found in California
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 why is annual range of temp high in siberian plains ? huge extent of land & no effective rainfall in that region!!!!  What is perihelion? Earth's minimum distance frm sun. around 3rd or 4th jan.  What is aphelion ? Earths maximum distance frm sun. around 4 july..  fastest train in india Shatabdi ex delhi Bhopal  write about shale gas ? Shale is a common rock formation across the world. India has huge shale deposits across the Gangetic plain, Assam, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and many coastal areas. Gas has long been found in shale across the world, but its extraction has been viewed as uneconomic because of shale’s low permeability — gas does not flow easily through this rock. So, exploration for oil and gas has traditionally focused on limestone and sandstone, which have high permeability  World's Largest Producer of Uranium? producer-AUS and reserv-Kazak  what is Oasis ? An oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source.  hottest and coldest place of india coldest place is drass in jammu kashmir hottest place is jaisalmeer in rajasthan
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 Potato cultivation in India...nd exports, UP tops the list of producers.  what is equinox? day and night r equal length, two times in the year 21 March and 23 Sep. sun's rays are verticle to equator.  The Earth is spinning on its rotational axis at a rate ? 1670 km/hr  country largest producer of marine fish china in the term of quantity 2004.. mayanmar in the term of growth  Brazilian rain forests? Brazilian rain forests known as Selvas.

 difference between dwarf planet and planet? planet...a rocky, or gaseous, spherical, celestial body..orbits the sun, but does not emit its own light..also considered to be a celestial body that has sufficient mass, it has its own gravity that overcomes unyielding body forces, and is formed into a hydrostatic equilibrium, or round, shape. It is neither a star nor a satellite of another planet. dwarf planet is also a spherical body orbiting the sun; however, to be a dwarf planet, it must be smaller than 3031 miles in diameter, but heavy

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enough to bear a resemblance to a planet...a dwarf planet is not big enough to have a distinct orbital path, nor does it orbit another object, like a moon.

Currently, only 5 planets – Pluto, Ceres, Makemake, Haumea, and Eris – are known as dwarf planets, while there are 9 main planets, which includes the earth.  patagonia is a desert in the rain shadow area of the andes, explain ? The Andes prevent the westerly flow of moisture from the south pacific from reaching inland and makes the wind on the lee side arid and hence the desert.  Explain the difference between shore and coast ? Geographically speaking, the coast is the strip of land bordering the sea or ocean along a continent or an island. The coastline marks the seaward limit of the landmass, which is permanently exposed to wave action. Waves, currents, tides and winds are the chief agents shaping our coastlines. Some coasts are straight, while others are rugged or contain marshes or coral reefs. The shore is the zone between the lowest and the highest watermarks reached by storm waves. The position of the shoreline varies with the rise and fall of tides, and fluctuates at different parts of the day and night. There are three distinct parts of the shore 1 Offshore: this part of the shore is nearest to the sea. It is under water even at low tide. There is much sand on the sea bed. 2 Foreshore: this refers to the zone between high tide and low tide. It is under water during high tide. It s the surf zone. 3 Back shore: it is the part of the shore between the high tide and the highest water level, which can only be reached by exceptional storm waves. Its sea bed is strewn with shingle and pebbles
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 Tektites are? natural glass rocks  difference between tropical rain forest and coniferious forest?? Tropical Rainforest ---location between 23.5 degrees N latitude and 23.5 degrees S latitude. Coniferous Forest --typically found in coastal areas with mild winters and heavy rainfall or in in-land mountainous areas with mild climates. Examples of where these forests are found are Pacific Northwestern United States and Canada, southwestern South America, Southern Japan, New Zealand and small parts of northwestern Europe (Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Norway).  Saint Helena island, located in the South Atlantic Ocean, is the Overseas Territory of which country ? (A) Canada (B) Germany (C) United Kingdom (D) United States of America united kingdom  Which Indian state would you be in if you were enjoying sun bath at Devbagh Beach ? (A) Karnataka (B) Tamil Nadu (C) Andhra Pradesh (D) West Bengal A. ) Karnataka

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 10th International Seafood Summit, which will be held September 6-8, 2012 at the Kowloon-Shangri-La Hotel in Hong Kong, China

 why kutch area is called rann of kutch ? Rann means salt marsh, an environment in coastal intertidal zone between land and salt water or brackish water, it is dominated by dense stands of halophytic (salt-tolerant) plants. its Arid n Desert lyk area in kutch peninsula there r two rann in kutch 1. Big Desert near pakistan Border and 2. Some arid area between kutch and suredranagar district. KUTCH BIG DESERT ALSO KNOWN AS MAHAMARUSTHALI Kutchh is also largest district of India in area.  Difference between Salinity and Alkalinity. How it impacts the soil? SALINITY : - relative proportion of salt in a solution ALKALINITY : - pH value above 7.

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 Natural vegetation map of India

 LARGEST SALTY LAKE OF RAJASTHAN AND LARGEST FRESH WATER LAKE OF RAJASTHAN???

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sambhar is largest SALTY lake while JAISAMAND is largest fresh water lake..

 temperature of surface water of oceans in northern n southern hemisphere? avg annual temp for ocean n.h.-19 degre c s.h- 16 degre c

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 which major food crop is most likely to be affected by climate change? wheat is a quirky kind of crop ,,,nd it requires ideal conditions...cold climate is very imp for germination nd vernalisation period of wheat crop..If winter wheat did not receive ideal conditions, it would not produce a crop and would appear only as straw.  Write about ACE Satellite? There are at least two ACE satellites in space that produce information that is of value to the amateur radio operator. The United States maintains the The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Satellite and the Canadian Government maintains the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Satellite . NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Satellite is being suspended about 1million miles in space to study energetic particles from the solar wind, the interplanetary medium, and other sources..  What is a rift ? place where the Earth's crust and lithosphere are being pulled apart. the divergant plate boundaries at the margin cause the development of rift.  highest peak of satpura range??? dhupgarh of mahadeo hills.  What is the significance of trenches? most of them lie along the ring of fire and so they r greatly associated with earthquakes since they hav activ volcanic activity .

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Ring of fire region means southeast pacific its mostly known as High risk damage zone. These region has active valcanic activity inculding Indonesia, japan, etc. Sediments can be accumulated in these trenches. Lateron these sediments are squeezed, compressed, folded and uplifted as mtns. So trenches are the orogenic sources.  What is an oceanic ridge an underwater mountain range formed by plate tectonics. they r activ since they r formed out of magma constanly emerging out of dem,,nd so they cud termed to b d world's longest mountain ranges over 65,000 km.  what is a biotope? An area that is uniform in environmental conditions and in its distribution of animal and plant life. Example is Amzon rainforest !  Jet streams are caused due to?? Jet streams are caused by a combination of a planet's rotation on its axis and atmospheric heating (by solar radiation). Jet streams form near boundaries of adjacent air masses with significant differences in temperature, such as the polar region and the warmer air towards the equator.  gravitational force is maximum at ? 1) north pole 2) south pole 3) equator 4) surface its max at poles, but both r given in it. So alternatively. g is max at surfarce of earth n it decreases with height n depth.  whats el-nino??

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it is hot pacific ocean current flowing 180 km west from peru...increases temp by 5* c of that area which affects south west mansoon.  The Trans-Siberian Railway passes through how many time zones? Moscow - Vladivostok (the original Trans-Siberian) goes through 7 time zones. Moscow time is GMT+3, Vladivostok time is GMT + 10.  Tributaries of krishna river ? 1)hiranyakeshi,hemavati, tungabhadra 2)panchaganga,bhima,tungabhadra 3)malaprabha,ghataprabha,dhoodganga 4)kali,ghataprabha,hiranyakeshi select the options 1)1 only 2)2&3 only 3)2,3&4 4)none of these 2  which is highest peak in Western Ghat ? a. Kalsubai b. Kudremukh c. Anaimudi c. Anaimudi  K-index? K-Index in meteorology is a measure of the thunderstorm potential based on vertical temperature lapse rate, moisture content of the lower atmosphere, and the vertical extent of the moist layer.  Which one of the following is not a fact regarding South India? (a) Diurnal range of temperature is less here. (b) Annual range of temperature is less here.

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(c) Temperatures here are high throughout the year. (d) Extreme climatic conditions are found here. (d) Extreme climatic conditions are found here.  what are karrens (lapies)?
Karren are minor forms of karst due to solution of rock on its surface. The name Karren is German, or better Austrian, describing a common surface feature in the Austrian and German Alps. Lapies is the same thing, the term originates from the French. In English both terms are used equally and synonymously. Karren are formed when water runs down a rock surface with a slope, dissoluting the rock while it runs. Thus karren can be found on any soluble rock like limestone, dolomite or gypsum. Water always takes the direction of the highest gradient, which is commonly described by the term steepest slope. When solution of the surface forms a shallow furrow in this direction, water is flowing into the furrow and through it, deepening it more and more. Finally the whole rock surface is drained through karren.

 Explain Larbrador current. The Labrador Current is a cold current in the North Atlantic Ocean which flows from the Arctic Ocean south along the coast of Labrador and passes around Newfoundland, continuing south along the east coast of Nova Scotia. It is a continuation of the West Greenland Current and the Baffin Island Current.....  Which one of the following phenomenon happens when the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere? (a) High pressure develops over North-western India due to low temperatures. (b) Low pressure develops over North-western India due to high temperatures. (c) No changes in temperature and pressure occur in north-western India. (d) ‘Loo’ blows in the North-western India.

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A. High pressure develops over North-western India due to low temperatures.  What is the difference between forest area and forest cover? forest area-area notified by govt as forest, even if it dsnt hv a single tree. forest cover- actual canopy of trees.  Sandalwood is an example of: (a) Evergreen forest (c) Deltaic forest (b) Deciduous forest (d) Thorny forest Decidious.  What is the proportion of area of India which receives annual rainfall less than 75 cm? One-third  which country is largest producer of mica? INDIA  what is XBT ? it's application ? Expendable bathythermograph, a device for obtaining a record of temperature as a function of depth from a ship.  The time at a place is determined by a)the parallels of longitude b)the parallels of latitude c)distance from equator d)distance from prime meridian a and d

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 Endemic Species ?
An endemic species is an animal or plant species whose habitat is restricted to a particular area or space on the globe.

 What is Jet Stream ? these are narrow , meandering, very long and swift wind streams present on the upper layer of troposphere. these may be thousands of km. long , 140 kms width but 10 -20 km in depth. these are polar front(primary jet stream) , subtropical jet stream , tropical jet stream existing only in North hemisphere, and polar jet. out of these suntropical jet stream persists through out the year .and tropical jet st, is important for the south west monsoon . ..caused by combination f planets rotations on axis and atmosphere heating  What is Humbolt Current A cold ocean current of the South Pacific, flowing north along the western coast of South America. Also called Peru Current. also called PERU CURRENT....low -salinity current..flowin in d direction f equator.  El Niño literally means ? El-ninô-"little boy"christ child La-Nina-"little girl" both r derived from Spanish  Write about Dudhsagar waterfall...? Situated at border of KARNATAKA n GOA...highest waterfall in INDIA & among top 100 waterfall f world.  Torrential Rains ? rain comes like "TORRENT"....simply means vry heavy rain....cause flooding

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 Mango Shower ? Premonsoonal rains in south ,dat helps in early ripening of mangoes is knwn as Mango showers!  WHICH COUNTRY IS THE LARGEST PRODUCER OF SUGARCANE IN THE WORLD??  Brazil

 Define estuary ? Estuary is the point where fresh water frm river and salt water frm ocean meets nd mixes. estuary is made whn river directly (without making delta) falls in the sea. Narmada n tapi make esturies.  How Air Pressure and wind affect on Climate ? Explaine it The difference in air pressure cause wind and when wind blows it takes clouds away particularly black clouds that cause rain etc.  HVJ NATURAL GAS PIPELINE??? its hazira vijaipur jadishpur natural gas pipeline owned by Gail India limited. earlire it was called as HBJ  Elaborate E A 'd ( Thornthwaite climatic classification) with example for such region in india .. E-> Arid (Humidity Province), A'-> Thermal province, d->dry (Sub-types, typical signify rainfall regimes) SO EA'd refers to Marusthali region of RJ ii.e, Great India Desert region.

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 Lighthouse of the mediterranean sea is_____? volcano on strombli island  Which one of the following countries shares the longest land frontier with India? (a) Bangladesh (c) Pakistan (b) China (d) Myanmar Bangladesh-------4,096.7 km

 TIME ZONES **There is a general understanding among the countries of the world to select the standard meridian in multiples of 7°30' of longitude. That is why 82°30' E has been selected as the ‘standard meridian’ of India. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by 5 hours and 30 minutes. **There are some countries where there are more than one standard meridian due to their vast east-to-west extent. For example, the USA has seven time zones. France has the most time zones with12. On March 28, 2010, Russia eliminated two time zones, going from 11 to 9, but still has the most contiguous time zones.  Write about strait of hormuz and its importance on economy...? it connects gulf of persia nd gulf of Oman. the only sea passage to the open ocean for large areas of the petroleum-exporting Persian Gulf. About 14 tankers carrying 15.5 million barrels (2,460,000 m3) of crude oil pass through the strait on an average day, making it one of the world's most strategically

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important choke points. This represents 35% of the world's seaborne oil shipments, and 20 percent of oil traded worldwide in 2011....  What are Endogenic Forces? Orginate in the interior of the earth,Causes sudden or slow movements Eg: Earthquke, Building Mountains

 What are Exogenic Forces Originate in the atmosphere or on the surface of the earth,Causes slow movements. Eg: Erosional and Depositional  What is Arthur's seat? In Indian context - Authur’s Seat is 1470 meters high. The queen of all points, Authur’s point got its name after Arthur Mallet as he was the first man to come here and build a house. The arrangement of rocks on the southern side is compared with the world notable stratification of rocks of the Grand Canyon of Colorado in the USA. The desolate deep valley Savitri on the left side and the not so deep green valley on the right side is a captivating sight. The Arthur's seat is the only point from where one can see clearly the geographical differentiation of Kokan and Deccan. Just below the point is the window point.

 Earth's Radiation Budget
**The Earth's Radiation Budget is a concept used for understanding: How much energy the Earth gets from the Sun and How much energy the Earth-system radiates back to outer space as invisible light. *If the Earth and the Earth's atmosphere retains more solar energy than it radiates back to space, the Earth will warm. * If the Earth and the Earth-system radiates more energy to space than it receives from the sun, the Earth will cool.

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**the Radiation Budget in terms of a see-saw or balance. If the Earth retains more energy from the Sun, the Earth warms and emits more infrared energy. This brings the Earth's Radiation Budget into balance. If the Earth emits more of this energy than it absorbs, the Earth cools. As it cools, the Earth emits less energy. This change also brings the Radiation Budget back into balance. ***Absorbed sunlight raises the Earth's temperature. Emitted radiation or heat lowers the temperature. When absorbed sunlight and emitted heat balance each other, the Earth's temperature doesn't change - the radiation budget is in balance.

 What are atmospheric windows?

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any of the wavelengths at which electromagnetic radiation from space can penetrate the earth's atmosphere.  WRITE ABOUT STRAIT OF MALACCA AND ITS IMPORTANCE ON GLOBAL ECONOMY? The Strait of Malacca is a narrow, 805km stretch of water between the Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.The strait is the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, linking major Asian economies such as India, China, Japan and South Korea. Over 50,000 vessels pass through the strait per year,carrying about one-quarter of the world's traded goods including oil, Chinese manufactures, and Indonesian coffee.  How many countries border the Mediterranean Sea? 21  NAME THE CONTINENTS THAT FORM THE MIRROR IMAGE OF EACH OTHER.....? AFRICA & SOUTH AMERICA  HOW MANY KILOMETRES ARE REPRESENTED BY 1 DEGREE OF LATITUDE? 1 degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles (111 kilometers) apart. The range varies (due to the earth's slightly ellipsoid shape) from 68.703 miles (110.567 km) at the equator to 69.407 (111.699 km) at the poles.  only volcanic mountain of africa??? Mt kilimanjaro in africa and mt.fujiyama in japan....

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 what are little willies? cyclones in australia are called willy willy while little willies is the name of a band with norah jones.  WHAT IS DOOMSDAY PLANE? In the event of nuclear war, a powerful meteor strike or even a zombie apocalypse, the thoroughly protected doomsday plane is ready to keep the president, secretary of defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff and other key personnel in the air and out of danger. 

Nationalisation of Coal mines
**India has a long history of commercial coal mining covering nearly 220 years starting from 1774 by M/s Sumner and Heatly of East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of river Damodar. ** However, for about a century the growth of Indian coal mining remained sluggish for want of demand but the introduction of steam locomotives in 1853 gave a fillip to it. **The production got a sudden boost from the First World War but went through a slump in the early thirties **Right from its genesis, the commercial coal mining in modern times in India has been dictated by the needs of the domestic consumption. **On account of the growing needs of the steel industry, a thrust had to be given on systematic exploitation of coking coal reserves in Jharia Coalfield. **Adequate capital investment to meet the burgeoning energy needs of the country was not forthcoming from the private coal mine owners. ** Unscientific mining practices adopted by some of them and poor working conditions of labour in some of the private coal mines became matters of concern for the Government. **On account of these reasons, the Central Government took a decision to nationalise the private coal mines

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 . Lunar eclipse occurs on _______? full moon nights.  Why earth's core in solid form?? The melting point of materials varies depending on the applied pressure. As pressure increases so to does the melting temperature. The main constituent of the inner core is iron and the inner core pressure is approximately 330360 GPa while the temperature varies from approximately 5000 to 7000 K. The extremely high pressures in the Earth's inner core therefore drive the melting point of the iron up beyond the temperature that occurs and the metals of the inner core cannot melt. Therefore the inner core is solid, even though it is the highest temperature region in the Earth.

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 LONDON London is made up of two ancient cities which are now joined together.. They are: * The City of London, know simply as ‘the City‘ which is the business and financial heart of the United Kingdom. It is also known as the Square Mile (2.59 sq km/1 sq mi). It was the original Roman settlement (ancient Londinium), making it the oldest part of London and already 1,000 years old when the Tower of London was built.. * The City of Westminster, where Parliament and most of the government offices are located. Also Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the Queen and the Royal family are located there too.. Together they all make up a region known as Greater London.. * London is the biggest city in Britain and in Europe.. * London occupies over 620 square miles.. * London has a population of 7,172,036 (2001).. * About 12 per cent of Britain’s overall population live in London.. * London has the highest population density in Britain, with 4,699 people per square kilometre.. * London is in the southeast of England.. * London is the seat of central government in Britain.. * The tallest building in London is the Canary Wharf Tower.. * London was the first city in the world to have an underground railway, known as the ‘Tube’.. * Some of the most important people from countries all over the world visit the Queen at Buckingham Palace.. * There are over 100 theatres in London, including 50 in the West End.

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London theatre accounts for 45% of all UK theatre admissions and over 70% of box-office revenues..

Isthmus
Isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas. It's sides are covered by water. Usually they obstruct the ocean navigation and canals are constructed to overcome them. Some famous Isthmuses: * The Isthmus of Kra connecting Malay Peninsula with the mainland of Asia. * The Isthmus of Suez between North Africa and Sinai Peninsula. *Isthmus of Panama between North and South America. * Isthmus of Gibraltar

 NEWLY DISCOVERED PLANETS Two more planets orbiting binary stars discovered: Kepler-34 b, Kepler-35 b binary star Kelper-34 b The Kelper-34 b planet has 22 per cent of the mass of Jupiter and 76 per cent of the radius of Jupiter. The planet takes 289 days to complete one orbit around the binary stars.
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Kepler 35 b In the case of Kepler 35 b, the transiting planet has 13 per cent of the mass of Jupiter and 73 per cent of radius of Jupiter. The planet takes just 131 days to complete one orbit around the binary stars.

 where is 'death valley' located? eastern california highest point at 13000 feet nad lowest is below 250 feet of sea level. source of limestone and a salty river.  which of the following cities in the world is known for the highest avg. No. Of thunderstorms in a year?? A) kampala B) sydney C) khartoum D) asuncion Khartoum  'ojos del salado' significance??? highest volcanic peak  Ojos del Salado, a massive stratovolcano, is the highest active volcano on earth. It last erupted 700 A.D., plus or minus 300 years. It’s most recent activity was a gas and ash emission in 1993. Fumaroles, openings that emit gases and steam, and lava flows (of an uncertain age) also indicate recent minor volcanic activity. A strong smell of sulphur sometimes engulfs the summit from nearby fumaroles. The summit of Ojos del Salado has two peaks which are roughly the same elevation. The west summit in Chile measures 21¼ inches (54
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centimeters) higher than the east summit in Argentina. Most climbers ignore the slight difference in elevation and climb one or the other, although some, to make sure that they’ve reached the true summit, climb both peaks. The east summit is more difficult to reach, requiring a short technical climb that is usually climbed with a rope for protection. Both are rotten and loose. Ojos del Salado rises above the Atacama Desert, the driest place in the world. Some parts of the Atacama have never recorded any rain, and evidence indicates that the desert received no measurable precipitation from 1570 to 1971. Ojos del Salado is extremely dry for a high mountain, especially compared to those farther north in the Peruvian Andes. The mountain has no glaciers and any snow that falls in the winter melts off completely in summer. Ojos del Salado is the second highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. It is located 370 miles (600 kilometers) north of 22,841 feet (6,962 meters) Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere. Ojos del Salado, with 12,200 feet (3,688 meters) of prominence, is an ultraprominence peak (one with more than 5,000 feet of prominence) and the 43rd most prominent mountain in the world. Nevado Ojos del Salado, with an elevation of 22,615 feet, is the second highest mountain in South America and the highest mountain in Chile. The mountain straddles the border between Chile and Argentina.

 which is warm current?? A) Benguela B) East Greenland C) Canary D) Leeuwin

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leeuwin. it flows southwards near the western coast of Australia.  HEIGHEST HIMALAYAN PEAK IN INDIA?? Kanchanjunga. K2 is part of the Karakoram Range, and is located on the border between Baltistan, in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan-administered Kashmir.  which type of precipitation is independent of the latitude?? A) Orographic B) Convective C) Convergent D) Frontal orographic  Difference between catchment area, river basin, drainage basin, watershed A river drains the water collected from a specific area, which is called its ‘catchment area’. An area drained by a river and its tributariesis called a ‘drainage basin’. The boundary line separating one drainage basin from the other is known as the ‘watershed’. The catchments of large rivers are called ‘river basins’ while those of small rivulets and rills are often referred to as watersheds. There is, however, a slight difference between a river basin and a watershed. Watersheds are small in area while the basins cover larger areas.  rainage basin - pertains to area drained by a river + its tributaries Catchment area - Area drained by a single river (not its tributaries) River Basin - catchments of large rivers Watershed - Catchments of small rivulets. Also acts as a divide between two drainage basins.

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 each river n each of its tributaries has its respective catchment area bt d set of these catchment areas together is called a drainage basin  ridge to ridge approach River basin: ridge to valley approach.  where is sugar loaf mountains r located?? Reo de janeiro  who is referred as 'glacier man of India'?? Chewang Norphel.....  Bihu is regional dance form of A. B. C. D. Andhrapradesh Assam Kerala Karnataka

Assam . set of three different cultural festivals of Assam and celebrated by the Assamese diaspora around the world.  BOSTON TEA PARTY The Boston Tea Party was a direct action by colonists in Boston, a town in the British colony of Massachusetts, against the British government and the monopolistic East India Company that controlled all the tea imported into the colonies. On December 16, 1773, after officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor. The incident remains an iconic event of American history, and other political protests often refer to it. The Tea Party was the culmination of a
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resistance movement throughout British America against the Tea Act, which had been passed by the British Parliament in 1773. Colonists objected to the Tea Act for a variety of reasons, especially because they believed that it violated their right to be taxed only by their own elected representatives. Protesters had successfully prevented the unloading of taxed tea in three other colonies, but in Boston, embattled Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson refused to allow the tea to be returned to Britain. He apparently did not expect that the protestors would choose to destroy the tea rather than concede the authority of a legislature in which they were not directly represented.  LARGEST PRODUCER OF THE BAUXITE IN THE WORLD??? australia: in the northern portion just beside the gulf of carpentria, there is a town known as Wiepa hav largest open carst mine of bauxite in the world.....  what is ecology and it s principle? the term ecology was given by huxley .ecology refers to the study of relation between biotic and abiotic in a environment setting and also the relation within the biotic component.ecosystem is subset of ecology within the superset. principle of ecology 1.the energy flow in ecosystem is unidirectional within the trophic level . 2.flow of matter takes place in cyclic pathway. 3. flow of energy follow the principle of thermodynamic it means energy is never destroyed nor being created. 4.black model approach is used to study ecosystem in which only output and input is taken in consideration in terms of energy and matter. 5.ecosystem has spatial and temporary dimension. with spatial it means that ecosytem occupy area or space and with temporay it means that eosystem is not permanent for eg. pond created due to flood in agriculture field act as ecosytem but it may dry if not replenished next year. 6.ecosytem is open system where interaction takes place between ecoystem and surrounding environment through matter and energy flow.

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 wht do u kw abt Zulu time?? zulu tym is k\a universal coordinated tym..it is a succesor of greenwich mean tym in near by close succession range it is based on International Atomic Time (TAI) with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth's slowing rotation An email sent from someone in the Z time zone will have the time zone listed as "+0000" in the headers of the email.  Based on the variations in its geological structure and formations, India can be divided into three geological divisions. These geological regions broadly follow the physical features: (i) The Penisular Block (ii) The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains (iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain. explain abt each.  (I)THE PENINSULAR BLOCK: The northern boundary of the Peninsular Block may be taken as an irregular line running from Kachchh along the western flank of the Aravali Range near Delhi and then roughly parallel to the Yamuna and the Ganga as far as the Rajmahal Hills and the Ganga delta. Apart from these, the Karbi Anglong and the Meghalaya Plateau in the northeast and Rajasthan in the west are also extensions of this block . The north eastern parts are separated by the Malda fault in West Bengal from the Chotanagpur plateau. In Rajasthan, the desert and other desert–like features overlay this block. The Peninsula is formed essentially by a great complex of very ancient
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gneisses and granites, which constitutes a major part of it.

(II)THE HIMALAYAS AND OTHER PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS: The Himalayas along with other Peninsular mountains are young, weak and flexible in their geological structure unlike the rigid and stable Peninsular Block. Consequently, they are still subjected to the interplay of exogenic and endogenic forces, resulting in the development of faults, folds and thrust plains. These mountains are tectonic in origin, dissected by fast-flowing rivers which are in their youthful stage. Various landforms like gorges, Vshaped valleys, rapids, waterfalls, etc. are indicative of this stage. (III)INDO-GANGA-BRAHMAPUTRA PLAIN: comprises the plains formed by the river Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. Originally, it was a geo-synclinal depression which attained its maximum development during the third phase of the Himalayan mountain formation approximately about 64 million years ago. Since then, it has been gradually filled by the sediments brought by the Himalayan and Peninsular rivers. Average depth of alluvial deposits in these plains ranges from 1,000-2,000 m.  what is paleomagnetism?? It is d study of record of d Earth's magnetic field in rocks. This record provides information on d past behaviour of Earth's magnetic field and the past location of tectonic plates.

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 differentiate between a gulf and a strait? A strait or straits is a narrow, typically navigable channel of water that connects two larger land masses.../// while gulf is the large bay that is arm of ocean or sea mostly surronded by land....////

 Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.

 what is 'environmental determinism' ? the doctrine that individual human actions, beliefs, and values are controlled or determined by the ambient environment....as the doctrine normally is, societies, cultures, and civilizations are also held to be the product of their environments. in the early stage of their interaction with their natural environment humans were greatly influenced by it…they adapted to the dictates of nature….this is so because the level of technology was very low and the stage of human social development was also primitive….this type of interaction between primitive human society and strong forces of nature was termed as ‘environmental determinism’ 

what is coral bleaching ?
it refers to decolorisation or whitening of coral system ,loss of color pigment,decrease in density of color pigment of coral system. it was first discovered by alfred mayor in 1919 however wilkinson in 1998 highlighted the issue and catogorised it in 4 categories1.extremely effected -when destruction is more than 75% such system is found in pacific ocean. 2.severely effected -when destruction is between 52 -75 eg -red sea. 3.moderately effected 25 to 50 lakshadweep ,andaman nicobar island 4.not effected below 25 causes of coral bleaching 1.epoozitics -the killing of algae by pathogen,disease such as coral

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plague,white band ,black band. 2.increase in pH value may bring destruction of coral reef,presently pH value is around 7.6 to 7.8 . 3.global warming is one important reason of coral bleaching as coral can not tolerate high temperature. 4.turbidity currents and sedimentation-turbidity current originate near river mouth and along river coast ,with erosion ,they act as driller and sedimentation prevent sunrays hence causes hindrance in process of photosynthesis. 5.xeno biotic -coral bleachng by chemical pollution. 6. el lino which refers to warming of eastern pacific due to global warming shifted to central pacific . 7.other factor like mining in continental shelf,oil spilling. conclusion1997 year was proclaimed as year of coral reef to create awareness around the world about the devasting situation of coral system in central pacific.accelerated coral bleaching is product of human activities.UNCCR (united nation convention on coral reef) was constituted to protect and conserve the most valuable and fragile marine ecosystem but still efforts are required.

Wish u a happy n colourful holiiii

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