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2 Wb / m 2 and number of primary turns 1250 T , calculate the number of secondary turns and cross-sectional area of the core when the operating frequency is 50 Hz . 2- A single-phase 50 Hz transformer is required to step-down from 2200V to 250V . The cross sectional area of the core is 36cm 2 and the maximum value of the flux density is 6 Wb / m 2 . Determine the number of turns of the primary and secondary windings and also the turn ratio. 3- A single-phase 50 KVA transformer has primary voltage of 6600V and secondary voltage of 254 V and has 32 secondary turns. Calculate the number of primary turns and primary and secondary currents. 4- A single-phase 50 Hz transformer has primary voltage of 6000V and secondary voltage of 250 V . Find the number of turns in each winding if the flux is to be 80 mWb . 5- A 3000 / 200 V - 50 Hz single-phase transformer is built on a core having an effective cross-sectional area of 150 cm 2 and has also 80 turns in the low voltage winding. Calculate: a) The value of the maximum flux density in the core. b) The number of turns in the high voltage winding. 6- A 40 KVA 3300 / 240 V − 50 Hz single phase transformer has 660 turns on the primary. Determine: a) The number of turns on the secondary. b) The maximum value of flux in the core. c) The approximate values of primary and secondary full-load currents.

7- A 50 Hz single-phase transformer has a turn ratio of 6 . The resistances are 0.9 Ω , 0.03 Ω and reactances are 5 Ω and 0.13 Ω for high voltage and low voltage windings respectively. Find: a) The voltage to be applied to the H.V. side to obtain full load current of 200 A in the L.V. winding on short- circuit. b) The power factor on short circuit. Solution: Turn ratio, k = N 1 / N 2 = 6 Re1 = R1 + R2 .k 2 = 0.9 + 0.03 × 6 2 = 1.98Ω X e1 = X 1 + X 2 .k 2 = 5 + 0.13 × 6 2 = 9.68Ω Z e1 = 1.98 2 + 9.68 2 = 9.88Ω V1 I 2 I 200 = = k ⇒ I1 = 2 = = 100 / 3 A V2 I 1 k 6 a) Vsc = I 1 .Z e1 = 100 / 3 × 9.88 = 329.3 V Re1 1.98 = = 0.2 b) cos ϕ sc = Z e1 9.88 8-The equivalent circuit impedances of a 20 KVA 8000 / 400 V transformer are to be determined. The open-circuit test and the short-circuit test were performed on the primary side of the transformer and the following data were taken. Open-circuit test (on primary) Voc = 8000 V Ioc = 0.214 A Poc = 400 W short-circuit test (on primary) Vsc = 489 V Isc = 2.5 A Psc = 240 W

Find the impedances of the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the primary side and sketch that circuit. Solution: - The power factor during the open-circuit is:

V.214 × 0. 70W on L.7Ω Isc 2.7 × 0. cos ϕsc = 195.7 I c = I o cos ϕ o = 0.7 A .8 Ω 9 .234 Voc. Now: Po 70 cos ϕ o = = = 0.4Ω Ic 0. test: 15V .214 Ic = Io. low voltage winding and the high voltage winding i. sin ϕo = 0.The power factor during the short-circuit test is: Psc 240 cos ϕsc = = = 0. test: 200V .208 Voc 8000 Rc = = = 160000 Ω = 160 KΩ Ic 0.V.C. side S. cos ϕo = 0.606 A V 200 Rc = 1o = = 571.4 Ω Xe = Ze.5 2 Xe = 195. low voltage side.7 o Vsc 489 Ze = = = 195. 85W on H.208 . from the following test results: O.5 and sin ϕ o = 0.cos ϕo = Poc 400 = = 0. side Solution: From O.234 = 0. 10 A . sin ϕsc = 195.C.46 KΩ Im 0. it may be noted that in this test instruments have been placed in the primary i.8Ω or : Re = Ze.6 cos 78.214 × 0.5 Psc 240 Re = 2 = = 38. 50Hz single phase transformer referred to primary i.7 × 0.7 = 38.972 = 0.5 = 0.Obtain the equivalent circuit of a 200/400 V.35 Xm = V1o 200 = = 330Ω I m 0.Isc 489 × 2.866 = 0.05 Voc 8000 Xm = = = 38460 Ω = 38.5 ϕsc = 78.C.Ioc 8000 × 0.4 2 = 191.866 U 1o I 1o 200 × 0.606 .35 A I m = I o sin ϕ o = 0.7 = 191. 4Ω I sc 2.e.05 A Im = Io.6∠78.e.6 sin 78. secondary is left open.1963 Vsc.e. 0.6 2 − 38.

360W on H.000 360 × 100 = 1.5 2 = 0. 2200 / 220V transformer is tested as follows: O.85 2 = 1.e.e.5Ω I sc 10 Re = Psc 85 = = 0.85 × 0.e.) nominal current: I nH = Secondary (L.From S. 148W on L.8% c. test: 220V . test: 86V .) nominal current: I nL b. low voltage side: Re = 0. 9.5 400 Now the values of Re and X e referred to primary i. 4.236Ω These values refer to secondary i.Percentage core losses c. Determine: a.2 A .Equivalent resistance Re and reactance X e referred to primary f .5 2 − 0. 50 Hz .Percentage core losses: 20 × 1000 = 9 . high voltage side.Percentage copper losses: 20.74% 20.V. high voltage winding and the low voltage winding i. side On load test when the normal applied primary voltage is 2200V . side S.The percentage no-load current g.1A .C.C.5 2 = 0.e.Core loss resistance Rc and magnetizing reactance X m referred to primary e.85Ω 2 I sc 100 X e = Z e2 − Re2 = 1.C.The efficiency of the transformer Solution: a.000 .nominal currents of the transformer b.V. Now: V 15 Z e = sc = = 1.V.Percentage copper losses d.236 × 0. it may be noted that in this test instruments have been placed in the secondary i.2125Ω X e = 1.e.The percentage short-circuit voltage h. low voltage side by computing the transformation ratio as follows: 200 K= = 0.309Ω 10 . the secondary voltage drops to 200V and the wattmeter in the primary circuit reads16 KW .V. primary has been short circuited.1 A 2200 20 × 1000 = = 91A 220 148 × 100 = 0.Regulation of the transformer i. They must be referred to primary i.Primary (H.A single phase 20 KVA .

I o 4. it may be noted that in this test instruments have been placed in the primary i.e.Regulation of the transformer: ε % = V2 o 220 − 200 ε% = × 100 = 9.12 X e = Z e2 − Re2 = 9.2 = × 100 = 4.16 and sin ϕ o = 0.e.4Ω Ic 0.2 × 0.From O. primary is left open.d. They must be referred to primary i.45Ω I sc 9. Now: Po 148 cos ϕ o = = = 0.6% In 91 Vsc 86 = × 100 = 3.15 A V 220 Rc = 1o = = 327. Now: V 86 Z e = sc = = 9.45 2 − 4.e.672 V1o 220 = = 53Ω I m 4.1 Re = Psc 360 = = 4.987 U 1o I 1o 220 × 4.e. low voltage winding and the high voltage winding i. high voltage side by computing the transformation ratio as follows: 2200 K= = 10 220 Now the values of Rc and X m referred to primary i.9% g.e.35Ω 2 I sc 9.4 × 10 2 = 32740Ω Xm = X m = 53 × 10 2 = 5300Ω e.e. high voltage winding and the low voltage winding i.16 = 0.C.e. high voltage side: Rc = 327. high voltage side.39Ω These values refer to primary i.2 × 0.Percentage no-load current: .35 2 = 8.672 A I m = I o sin ϕ o = 4.Percentage short-circuit voltage: Vn 2200 V2 o − V2 × 100 = h. low voltage side.2 I c = I o cos ϕ o = 4.e.15 These values refer to secondary i.987 = 4. it may be noted that in this test instruments have been placed in the secondary i. secondary has been short circuited.1% 220 f.C.From S.

6 m .224 × 10 150 × 10 −4 N p V1n 20000 a= = = = 50 N s V2 n 400 N 40000 N2 = 1 = = 80 T 50 50 12.The magnetizing force H (magnetic field intensity) d) .5 H= = = 1250 AT / m l av 1.023 Wb 4.53 Wb / m 2 −4 S 150 × 10 N p I o 4000 × 0.6 B 1. calculate: a) .96825 = 96.44 N p f 4.44 × 4000 × 50 φ 0.A single phase 50 KVA transformer has primary voltage of 20000 V and secondary voltage of 400 V .000 11 . 2200 / 220V .44 N p fφ φ= B= E 20000 = = 0.The permeability µ e) .i.5 A .The magnetic reluctance Rm f) .The number of turns of the secondary N s Solution: E = 4.825% 16.023 = = 1.The flux density B in the core c) . find the efficiency: a) At full load unity power factor b) At three fourths of full load unity power factor c) At full KVA rating 80 percent power factor d) At three fourths of rated KVA 80% power factor . determined by the open-circuit test of 350W and a cupper loss at rated current of 630W determined by the short-circuit test.224 × 10 −3 H / m H 1250 1 l av 1 1.6 Rm = = .The efficiency of the transformer: P + Psc Input Power − Losses Losses η% = = 1− = 1 − oc = Input Power Input Power P1 =1- 148 + 360 = 0. If the no load current drawn by the primary is 0.7 × 10 4 −3 µ S 1.53 µ= = = 1.A 50 KVA . = 8. The number of primary turns is N p = 4000 T and the cross sectional area of the core is S = 150 cm 2 and the length of the magnetic path in the iron core is 1. 50 Hz single phase transformer has a core loss.The magnetic flux φ in the core b) .

12 A P1o = 80W S. Test V1o = 450V I o = 1. 450 / 120V transformer.C. test Vsc = 9.8 + 350 + 630 3 / 4 × 50000 × 0.The following readings were obtained in the open circuit and short circuit tests on 10 KVA .8 = 97.2% b) η = 3 / 4 × 50000 × 1 + 350 + (3 / 4) 2 630 50000 × 0.8 lagging p. O.1% 50000 × 1 + 350 + 630 3 / 4 × 50000 × 1 = 98.2 A 450 10000 I 2n = = 83.6% c) η = 50000 × 0.f.8 + 350 + (3 / 4) 2 630 13 .C.75 120 .7% d) η = 3 / 4 × 50000 × 0.3 A 120 450 a= = 3.65Ω I sc = 22.8 lagging p.f. Solution: a): 10000 I 1n = = 22.Solution: a) η = 50000 × 1 = 98.2 A Psc = 120W Calculate: a) The equivalent circuit constants b) The efficiency and voltage regulation when delivering full load 0.8 = 97. (power factor) c) The efficiency at half full-load and 0.

178 450 Xm = = 409Ω 1.2 A a 3.2) 2 Xe = 0.75 ε % = 22.159 450 × 1.56% 10000 × 0.0 power factor and at 0.12 × 0. c) Calculate the full load voltage regulation at 0.C.361 × 0.21A Po = 50W S .2(0. sin ϕo = 1. b) Find the equivalent circuit of the transformer referred to the low voltage side.32% 1 / 2 × 10000 × 0. .12 × 0.243 × 0.A 15 KVA .8 η= = 0.12 sin ϕo = 0.8 η= = 0.1A 450 Rc = = 253Ω 0.8 + 0.435Ω 22. O.04% c): At half full-load Iron losses = 80W Cu losses = (1 / 2) 2 × 120 = 30W 1 / 2 × 10000 × 0.Test Vsc = 47V Isc = 6.9756 = 97.3 ' I2 = 2 = = 22. The following test data have been taken from the primary side of the transformer.2 120 Re = = 0.8 + 80 + 120 I 83.65 Ze = = 0.Test Vo = 2300V Io = 0.80 = 0.987 = 1.987 Ic = Io.9732 = 97. 1.8 + 80 + 30 cos ϕo = 14 .0 A Psc = 160W a) Find the equivalent circuit of the transformer referred to the high voltage side.8 leading power factor.C.243Ω (22.159 = 0. cos ϕo = 1.178 A Im = Io.6) / 450 = 2. 2300 / 230V 1-phase transformer is to be tested to determine its excitation branch components and its series impedances and its voltage regulation.361Ω b): 10000 × 0.8 lagging power factor.1 9.

1035 ⇒ ϕo = 84 o 2300 × 0.8 + 6.21 I c = 0.21 × 0.6) = −0.2 ' I2 = 2 = = 6.12 = 0.1035 = 0. Solution: 15000 15000 = 6.21 × 0.21 47 Ze = = 7.088% 2300 d) The efficiency: .2 A a) I 1n = 2300 230 The equivalent circuit referred to high voltage: 50 cos ϕo = = 0.52 ε %( R ) = (4.0445Ω X e = 6.12 = 0.45 × 0.0126 = 1.21A 2300 = 105795 Ω = 105.45 × 0.52 A a 10 6.00088 = −0.45 × 0.6) = 0.0645Ω c) The regulation: The secondary current (load current) referred to the primary 2300 a= = 10 230 I 65.1% 2300 6.45Ω 6 Rc = X e = 7.83Ω 6 160 Re = 2 = 4.4Ω = 10.45 2 = 6. I 2 n = = 65.8 − 6.52 ε %( L) = ( 4.45 × 0.12 = 109.52Ω Re = 4.d) Calculate the efficiency of the transformer at full load with a power factor of 0.021 = 2.02174 A I m = 0.8 lagging.45 × 0.52 ε %(C ) = (4.45 × 0.95 KΩ 0.45 × 1 + 0) = 0.02174 2300 Xm = = 10952 .8 × 0.52 A .26% 2300 6.45Ω The equivalent circuit referred to low voltage: 230 a= = 10 2300 Rc = 105.952 × 0.9945 = 0.12 = 1.8 lagging and at half full load with a power factor of o.8 KΩ 0.058 KΩ = 1058Ω X m = 10.83 2 − 4.

η= η= iS n cos ϕ 2 1 × 15000 × 0.8 + 50 + 0.76 (II) By solving (I) and (II) Pi = 1KW Pcu = 3KW 16 .44 × f × N 1 × B × S 2300 = 4.5 × 15000 × 0.5% 0. 2300 / 230V .5 × 15000 × 0.8 p.8 = = 0.44 × f × N 1 × φ = 4. Calculate: a) The iron losses b) The full load cupper losses Solution: P P2 η= 2 = P1 P2 + Losses 0. the power input is 1200W and on open-circuit with rated voltage.A single phase transformer is rated at 100 KVA .25 Pcu = 1.8 p.77% when delivering full load at 0.25 Pc 0. Solution: a): The number of primary and secondary turns E1 = V1 = 4.The efficiency of a 400 KVA single phase transformer is 98.9828 = 98.28% 2 iS n cos ϕ 2 + piron + i p cu 1 × 15000 × 0.13% at half load and unity power factor.5 2 × 160 15 .8 + 50 + 12 × 160 0.5m and the relative permeability µ r is 1200.44 × 50 × N 1 × 1.8 + losses + Pcu = 4 (I) 0. and 99. 50 Hz.985 = 98.8 = 0.9877 = Piron 400 × 0. lagging. The maximum flux density B in the core is 1.8 ⇒ losses = 4 KW 400 × 0.f.5 × 400 × 1 + Pi + (0.5) Pcu 200 + Pi + 0.f. Determine the efficiency of the transformer at 75% of full load with 0.2Wb / m 2 and the net cross sectional area of the core is 0. determine the magnetizing current c) On short-circuit with full load current flowing.04 ⇒ N 1 = 216 turns . the power input was 400W .04m 2 .9913 = Pi + 0.5 × 400 × 1 200 = ⇒ 2 0.2 × 0. Determine: a) The number of primary and secondary turns needed b) If the mean length l of the magnetic circuit is 2.

5 = 216. 3Vn ( L.V .V .3 A = I nLine ( L. 3Vn ( H .a= N 1 V1n 2300 = = = 10 N 2 V2 n 230 216 216 = 10 ⇒ N 2 = = 21.The transformation ratio is: 3300 K= = 14.) = 144 .I ⇒ 4π × 10 −7 × 1200 I = 9. b .l = N . side.I ⇒ .V .I ⇒ .) = I nLine ( L.) which is the line current.8 η= = 98.6 = 22 turns N2 10 b): The magnetizing current B B F = H .V.V . 6000/400V. Calculate: a .V .8 + 400 + (0.A 120 KVA.V.21A c): The efficiency 0.75) 2 × 1200 17.000 × 0.l = N . side) nominal current: Sn 100 × 1000 I n ( L.The phase voltages on each side.V . Calculate: .The phase currents and the line currents on each side.) 3.5 I nphase ( H .) = = = 10.75 × 100.V .V . side and Star connected on the L.000 × 0.) 3.5 A = I nLine ( H .3 A .I ⇒ µ µo µr 1. 3-phase transformer is star/delta connected.V .) = = = 17.V. 18.The primary (H.1A 3 3 The secondary (L.75 × 100.l = N .) 17. Solution: a.The transformation ratio. side) nominal current: Sn 100 × 1000 I n ( H .The transformation ratio.2 × 2.29 400 / 3 b. .The nominal line and phase currents in each winding.3300 Since the primary is delta connected so the phase current equals: I nLine ( H . .) which is the line current.V.) = = = 144.V .400 Since the secondary is star connected so the phase current is the same as line current: I nphase ( L.26% 0.A 100KVA 3-phase 50Hz 3300/400V transformer is Delta connected on the H.

R1 I1 jX1 M jX2 I2 R2 V1 Rc jXm V2 ZL E1 E2 The Magnetic Circuit of the Transformer R1 I1 jX1 Io Ic ja²X2=jX2 Im a²R2=R2 I2/a=I2 V1 Rc jXm aV2=V2 ZL The Exact Electrical Equivalent Circuit of the Transformer .

R1 Io Ic Im I1 jX1 ja²X= jX a²R2= R2 2 2 I2/a= I 2 V1 Rc jXm aV2= V2 ZL The Approximate Electrical Equivalent Circuit of the Transformer .

the core loss current I c and the magnetizing current I m from the test results and construct the phasor diagram. A W AC V 1 V 2 Connection Diagram for no-load Test Equivalent circuit of the transformer on no-load Phasor Diagram of currents in Exciting Impedance . 5Deduce the transformation ratio.Open-circuit Test: The purpose of this test is to: 1Calculate the phase angle φ between V1 and I o . 6Draw the equivalent circuit for the transformer on no-load and insert these values into it. 4Determine the percentage of the no-load current. 2Calculate the core loss resistance Rc and the magnetizing reactance Xm. 3Determine the core losses of the transformer.

4.Calculate the percentage of the short circuit voltage v sc .Results: V1o V1n Io Po Piron V2 o V2 n (2 − 6)% I 1n Calculations: Po cos ϕo = V1o .Draw the complete equivalent circuit for the transformer and insert the values of its parameters into it. 2. . 5.I o I c = I o cos ϕo I m = I o sin ϕo V Rc = 1o Ic V1o Im The ratio of transformation is: V V N a = 1 = 1o = 1n N 2 V2 o V2 n The percentage no-load current is: I io = o × 100 I 1n Xm = Short-circuit Test: The purpose of this test is to: 1.Calculate cos ϕsc .Calculate the equivalent winding resistance Re and leakage reactance X e . A W AC V .Determine the rated cupper losses Pcu . 3.

cos ϕsc X e = Z e .I sc Re = Z e .Connection Diagram for Short-circuit Test Re ISC VSC jXe Equivalent circuit of the transformer on short circuit jXe X’2 Ze X1 R1 R’2 Re Results: Vsc (5 − 10)% V1n Calculations: V Z e = sc I sc Re = Psc 2 I sc I sc In Psc Pcu ( n ) ϕsc X e = Z e2 − Re2 Psc cos ϕsc = Vsc . sin ϕsc The percentage short circuit voltage is: V v sc % = sc × 100 V1n .

Load Test: The purpose of this test is to determine the following: 1.The percentage voltage regulation ε %.i.The efficiency: P2 Output power P2 η= = = Input Power P1 P2 + iron losses( Pi ) + cupper losses ( Pcu ) The percentage load of the transformer is: I i = 2 ⇒ I 2 = i.Pcun 2. 2.S n cos ϕ 2 η= = 2 i.The efficiency of the transformerη % .The load characteristics V2 = f ( I 2 ) of the transformer A1 W AC V 1 V 2 ZL A2 Connection Diagram for Short-circuit Test 1.P2 n The iron losses Pi are constant and don't depend on the load (they depend on the 2 inserted voltage Pi ∝ V 2 2 2 2 The cupper losses Pcu = Re I = Re .I 2 n . cos ϕ 2 = i.The percentage voltage regulation: ε% = V2 o − V2 V2 n − V2 = V2 o V2 n aV2 n − aV2 V1n − V2' ε% = = aV2 n V1n From the equivalent circuit of the transformer: ' ' V1n = V2' + Re I 2 + jX e I 2 .S n cos ϕ 2 + Pi + i 2 .Pcu ( n ) Thus: i.Pcun i.P2 n i.i I n = i . 3.P2 n + Pi + i .I 2 n I 2n The output power P2 = V2 I 2 cos ϕ 2 = V2 .

X e V1n V1n ε% = 3.' ' V1n = V2' + Re .Re V1n V1n If the load is only capacitive (C): I' I' ε % = 2 [ Re cos( −π / 2) + X e sin( −π / 2)] = − 2 .Load characteristics V2 = f ( I 2 ) [V2 [V C V2O=V2n R L [I2=IL [A In Load characteristics V2 = f ( I 2 ) .I 2 cos ϕ 2 + X e I 2 sin ϕ 2 ' The voltage drop ∆V = V1n − V2 = ' ' V1n − V2' = I 2 ( Re cos ϕ 2 + X e I 2 ) The percentage voltage regulation ε % = V1n − V2' = V1n V1n − V2' I' = 2 ( Re cos ϕ 2 + X e sin ϕ 2 ) V1n V1n Where: I ' I2 = 2 a If the load is only resistive (R): I' I' ε % = 2 ( Re cos 0 + X e sin 0) = 2 .

1.1. From F. which is the voltage between a line and a common reference potential (generally neutral). Note that there is no neutral point. . shows the two connections F. symmetrically spaced at 120 o to each other. Star (Y) connected windings: Consider the voltages in the system. . Where F2. F2.a. it is apparent that each line voltage is the phasor difference of two of the phase voltages.:Three Phase Transformer Connections The two usual ways of connecting the three phase transformers are known as star Y and delta ∆ .b.(2-a) that for the delta connected system the . That is the line voltage V AB is obtained by subtracting V B from V A .1 Delta (a) and Star (b) connections The term Vline refers to the line voltage. shows how the voltages in the windings sum to zero. shows the three voltages as separate phasors .F.phase voltage is the same as the line voltage V phase = Vline Hence: F. The term V phase refers to the phase voltage. :The voltages in the two types of connection Delta ( ∆ ) connected windings: It can clearly be seen from Fig.: Delta Connection Phasor Diagram This is demonstrated in F2. which is the voltage between any two lines of a three phase system.b.2.

that for the star connected system the phase current is the same as line current. The term I phase refers to the phase current. Consider the currents in the two types of connection.b.F. which is the current through each individual phase winding. the relationship between the phase and the line voltages can be :calculated Vline = 2 × V phase cos 30 = 3V phase :The currents in the two types of connection . demonstrates the current flow in the windings for both connections F.3. I phase = I line Hence: .4. Star (Y) connected windings: It can be clearly seen from F.4.4. The Current Flow in Windings The term I line refers to the line current..F. Star Connection Phasor Diagram From this. which is the current through each connection line to the three phase system.3. shows the phasor diagram of the voltages in the star connected system F.

.The operating conditions for the star connected system shown in F2. the relationship between phase and line currents can be calculated: I line = 2 × I phase cos 30 = 3I phase Power considerations in three phase transformers: . (5) The Phase Diagram for the Currents From this. shows the phasor diagram for the currents in the delta connected system. Fig. F.5.Delta ( ∆ ) connected windings: F. in which ϕ represents the phase difference between the current and the voltage. The Phase Diagram for the Star Connected System The conditions are summarized as follows: V V phase = line 3 I phase = I line I line cos ϕ 3 Hence since total power in the system is the sum of power in all three phases: Power per phase = V phase I phase = Vline .6.4 are represented in the phasor diagram of F.6.

Total power = 3 × V phase I phase = 3 × Vline F. This is reproduced in F.7. so that the direction of the phasors is clearly shown. The Phase Diagram for Delta Connected System The conditions for delta connections are summarized as follows: V phase = Vline I phase = I line 3 I line cos ϕ 3 Hence since total power in the system is the sum of power in all three phases: I line cos ϕ = 3Vline I line cos ϕ Total power = 3 × V phase I phase = 3 × Vline 3 Hence for both star and delta connections in three phase systems .7.The voltages in the delta connection are represented by the triangle around the outside of F. .I line cos ϕ = 3Vline I line cos ϕ 3 . The instrument is a direct type requiring no external supply connections other than those to appropriate voltage and current terminals. the total power is given by: Total power = 3Vline I line This Wattmeter is suitable in ac/dc circuits when measuring power up to 1Kw.6. Power in each phase = V phase I phase = Vline .

it is called the step. it is called the step-up transformer. showing all the necessary instruments. Deduce the expression for the voltage regulation. 6.Why does voltage drop in a transformer? 14.f.Draw the phasor diagram for a transformer when the load power factor (p.) is lagging.Does iron losses in a transformer increase with load? (Iron losses are constant from no load to full load).What is meant by magnetizing current I m ? 8. may be from low voltage to high voltage or vice-versa). 5. the maximum value of flux and the number of turns on the windings. 4.How can iron loss Pi be measured? 12.Define the voltage regulation of a transformer. 16.down transformer.State the various losses which take place in a transformer.What is the order of magnitude of no-load current of a transformer? (No-load current in transformers ranges from 2 to 5 per cent of full load primary current). 18.m.What type of load should be connected to a transformer for getting negative voltage regulation? (Highly capacitive load). On what factors do they depend? How can these losses be determined experimentally? 7. 22.Derive an expression for induced e. 2.Draw the connection diagrams for the open circuit and short circuit tests of a single phase transformer. when it lowers the voltage.Why core loss ( Pi ) is neglected in short circuit test and copper loss ( Pc ) is neglected in open circuit test of a transformer? 10.How can copper loss Pc be measured? 11. (When transformer raises the voltage.Draw the approximate equivalent circuit of a transformer referred to the primary side. 3. 13.Is there a definite relationship between the number of turns and voltages in transformers? (The voltage varies in exact proportion to the number of turns in each winding).Discuss the principle of working of a transformer.What is the effect of leakage flux in a transformer? 9.f. (E) in a transformer in terms of frequency.EXERCISES 1. 20.What is the order of magnitude of short circuit voltage? (Short circuit voltage in transformers ranges from 5 to 8 per cent of the rated voltage). 21.Write short notes on 3-phase transformer connections and the voltage and current relationships. 15. 17.Why does a transformer have an iron core? (The use of iron core ensures a high permeability of the magnetic circuit and because of high permeability the magnitude of exciting current necessary to create the required flux in the core is small.What is a function of transformer? (The basic function of a transformer is to transform energy from one voltage level to another.Differentiate between step-up and step-down transformers. . 19.

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