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IBM BI Solution Handbook

IBM BI Solution Handbook

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Published by Qaizar Bamboat

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Published by: Qaizar Bamboat on Mar 07, 2012
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  • Notices
  • Preface
  • Now you can become a published author, too!
  • Stay connected to IBM Redbooks
  • 1.1 IBM Business Analytics
  • 1.2 Introduction to IBM Cognos BI
  • 1.2.1 Easily view, assemble, and personalize information
  • 1.2.2 Explore all types of information
  • 1.2.3 Analyze facts and anticipate tactical and strategic implications
  • 1.2.4 IBM Cognos BI user interfaces
  • 2.1 Enterprise class SOA platform architecture
  • 2.1.1 IBM Cognos Platform server roles
  • IBM Cognos Dispatcher
  • IBM Cognos Report Server
  • IBM Cognos Content Manager
  • 2.1.2 IBM Cognos BI services
  • 2.2 Open access to all data sources
  • 2.3 Business intelligence for all
  • 2.4 Common integrated security model
  • 3.1 Business scenario overview
  • 3.1.1 Business questions to address
  • 3.1.2 Information stored in the data warehouse of this company
  • 3.2 Personas used in the scenarios in this book
  • 3.2.1 Advanced Business User
  • 3.2.2 Professional Report Author
  • 3.2.3 Modeler
  • 3.2.4 Administrator
  • 3.2.5 Analyst
  • 3.2.6 Business User
  • 4.1 IBM Cognos Framework Manager overview
  • 4.1.1 Reporting requirements and data access strategies
  • 4.1.2 Metadata model
  • 4.1.3 The IBM Cognos Framework Manager UI
  • 4.1.4 Reporting objects
  • 4.2 Build a model with IBM Cognos Framework Manager
  • 4.2.1 Import metadata using Model Design Accelerator
  • 4.2.2 Model organization
  • 4.2.3 Verify query item properties and relationships
  • 4.2.4 Import additional metadata
  • 4.2.5 Verify the model
  • 4.2.6 Verify the data
  • 4.2.7 Specify determinants
  • 4.3 Add business logic to the model
  • 4.3.1 Add filters to the model
  • 4.3.2 Add calculations to the model
  • 4.3.3 Make the model dynamic using macros
  • 4.4 Create dimensional objects for OLAP-style reporting
  • 4.4.1 Create Regular Dimensions
  • 4.4.2 Create Measure Dimensions
  • To create Measure Dimensions:
  • 4.4.3 Define scope for measures
  • 4.5 Create and configure a package
  • 4.5.1 Analyze publish impact
  • 4.6 Apply security in IBM Cognos Framework Manager
  • 4.6.1 Object level security
  • 4.6.2 Row level security
  • 4.6.3 Package level security
  • 4.7 Model troubleshooting tips
  • 4.7.1 Examine the SQL
  • 4.7.2 Object dependencies
  • 4.7.3 Search the model
  • 5.1 Information delivery leading practices
  • 5.1.1 List reports
  • 5.1.2 Crosstabs
  • 5.1.3 Charts
  • 5.2 Enabling access for more people
  • 5.3 Business use case
  • 6.1 Dashboard overview
  • 6.2 Introduction to IBM Cognos Business Insight
  • 6.2.1 The Getting Started page
  • 6.2.2 Application bar
  • 6.2.3 Dashboard layout area
  • 6.2.4 Content pane
  • 6.2.5 Widgets
  • 6.3 Interaction with the dashboard components
  • 6.3.1 Personalize content
  • 6.3.2 Add new content to broaden the scope
  • 6.3.3 Sort and filter data and perform calculations
  • 6.3.4 Use advanced filtering
  • 6.3.5 Add non-BI content to a dashboard
  • 6.3.6 Work with report versions and watch rules
  • 6.4 Collaborative business intelligence
  • 6.4.1 Create annotations
  • 6.4.2 IBM Lotus Connections activities
  • 7.1 Explore the IBM Cognos Business Insight Advanced interface
  • 7.1.1 Page layers
  • 7.1.2 Context filters
  • 7.1.3 Insertable Objects pane
  • 7.1.4 Page navigation
  • 7.1.5 Work area
  • 7.1.6 Properties pane
  • 7.2 Choose a reporting style
  • 7.3 Change existing reports
  • 7.3.1 Sort data
  • 7.3.2 Filter data
  • 7.3.3 Perform calculations
  • 7.3.4 Set the right level of detail for the analysis
  • 7.4 Create content
  • 7.4.1 Create a crosstab
  • 7.4.2 Create a chart
  • 7.4.3 Set conditional formatting
  • 7.4.4 Analyze the execution query path
  • 7.4.5 Render output in various formats and print content
  • 7.5 Search for meaningful information
  • 7.6 Summarize data and create calculations
  • 7.6.1 Summarization
  • 7.6.2 Calculation
  • 7.7 Add filters to refine data
  • 7.7.1 Filter reports for relational data sources
  • 7.7.2 Filter reports for dimensional data sources
  • 7.7.3 Suppress data
  • 7.7.4 Example
  • 7.8 Add external data
  • 7.8.1 External Data feature example
  • 7.9 Create a package with the Self Service Package wizard
  • 7.9.1 Create a package for Cognos PowerCubes
  • 7.9.2 Create a package for SAP BW
  • 7.10 Create statistical calculations
  • 7.10.1 IBM Cognos Statistics overview
  • 7.10.2 IBM Cognos Statistics use case: Create an IBM Cognos Statistics report
  • 8.1 Accessibility and internationalization
  • 8.1.1 Enabling access for more people
  • 8.1.2 Providing internationalization
  • 8.2 Disconnected report interaction
  • 8.2.1 IBM Cognos Active Report overview
  • 8.2.2 IBM Cognos Active Report features
  • 8.2.3 IBM Cognos Active Report use case
  • 8.3 Interact with IBM Business Analytics using mobile devices
  • 8.3.1 Extended device support
  • 8.3.2 Simplified experience across all devices
  • 8.3.3 IBM Cognos Mobile use case
  • 8.4 IBM Cognos Analysis for Microsoft Excel
  • 8.4.1 Features of IBM Cognos Analysis for Microsoft Excel
  • 8.4.2 IBM Cognos Analysis for Microsoft Excel use case
  • 8.5 Business driven workflow
  • 8.5.1 Enhanced event management
  • 8.5.2 Human task service use case
  • 9.1 Overview of Dynamic Query Mode
  • 9.1.1 What is Dynamic Query Mode
  • 9.1.2 Why use Dynamic Query Mode
  • 9.1.3 Technical overview
  • 9.2 Configuring Dynamic Query Mode
  • 9.2.1 Creating a connection in IBM Cognos Administration
  • 9.2.2 Creating a package in IBM Cognos Framework Manager
  • 9.2.3 Transitioning to Dynamic Query Mode using IBM Cognos Lifecycle Manager
  • 9.3 Query Service Administration
  • 9.3.1 Query Service metrics
  • 9.3.2 Manage the cache in IBM Cognos Administration
  • 9.3.3 Query Service settings
  • 9.3.4 Disabling the Query Service
  • 9.4 Analyzing queries
  • 9.4.1 What is Dynamic Query Analyzer
  • 9.4.2 Working with Dynamic Query Analyzer
  • 10.1 IBM Cognos Administration overview
  • 10.1.1 IBM Cognos Administration capabilities
  • 10.1.2 The IBM Cognos Administration user interface
  • 10.2 Moving to IBM Cognos BI version 10.1 from a previous release
  • 10.2.1 Using IBM Cognos Lifecycle Manager to test the IBM Cognos environment
  • 10.2.2 Validating the target environment
  • 10.2.3 Executing target and source content
  • 10.2.4 Compare the output to ensure consistency
  • 10.2.5 Analyzing the project status
  • 10.2.6 One-click comparison
  • 10.3 Using the administrative features
  • 10.3.1 Enhanced search
  • 10.3.2 Restricting the scheduling options
  • 10.3.3 Intra-day scheduling window
  • 10.3.4 Allowing users to persist personal database signons
  • 10.4 Managing the environment
  • 10.4.1 Metric tolerance thresholds
  • 10.4.2 Reacting to bottlenecks due to unexpected events
  • 10.4.3 System trending
  • 10.4.4 Consuming system metrics from external tools
  • 10.5 Auditing
  • 10.5.1 Configure the audit database
  • 10.5.2 Audit table definitions
  • 10.5.3 Audit levels
  • 10.5.4 Audit and logging for IBM Cognos BI services
  • 10.5.5 Setting audit levels
  • 10.5.6 Maintaining audit detail while troubleshooting
  • 10.5.7 Audit scenarios
  • 10.5.8 Sample audit package
  • 10.5.9 Audit content package
  • 10.5.10 Audit extension
  • 11.1 Overview of IBM Cognos Business Analytics solutions
  • 11.1.1 IBM Cognos TM1
  • 11.1.2 IBM Cognos Planning
  • 11.1.3 IBM Cognos Controller
  • 11.2 Business scenarios and roles to take advantage of IBM Business Analytics
  • 11.3 Integrating IBM Cognos TM1 with IBM Cognos BI
  • 11.3.1 Creating a data source and package
  • 11.3.2 Objects used in the dashboard
  • 11.3.3 Configuration steps
  • 11.3.4 Business case
  • 11.4 Integrating IBM Cognos Planning Contributor with IBM Cognos BI
  • 11.5 Integrating IBM Cognos Controller with IBM Cognos BI
  • Appendix A. Additional material
  • Locating the web material
  • How to use the web material
  • Abbreviations and acronyms

After importing metadata into IBM Cognos Framework Manager, it is
recommended that you verify and edit certain property settings and determine if
the correct relationships are in place to meet the reporting requirements.

Examine query item properties

Object properties allow you to add additional information, such as descriptions
and screen tips, and query item properties (shown in Figure4-33 on page60) let
you edit the behavior of the query items, such as configuring the data format. For
example, should numeric values be displayed as currency, percentage, or a just a
number with comma separators?


IBM Cognos Business Intelligence V10.1 Handbook

Figure 4-33 Query items properties

You need to examine two properties closely after import to ensure that they are
set as expected:

Usage property
Regular Aggregate properties

For example, SALES_ORDER_KEY, as shown in Figure4-33, was imported as
an Int32 data type and had its Usage property set to Fact. This item is not a fact,
but rather is a key. Thus, you expect to see the Usage property set to Identifier.
This issue occurs because the item is not indexed in the database. Examining
this setting allows you to have relevant conversations with the database
administrator. If this key is to be used in a relationship or filter, it is better that the
field is indexed in the database.

The following rules explain how the Usage property is applied during import:

Numeric, time-interval, or non-indexed columns are set as Facts
Key, index, date, datetime, or any indexed columns are set as Identifiers
Strings and BLOBs are set as Attributes

The Regular Aggregate property for numeric facts (measures) describes how
measures should be aggregated and defaults to SUM. Sum is correct for most

Chapter 4. Create reporting packages with IBM Cognos Framework Manager 61

measures (such as SALE_TOTAL and QUANTITY); however, in some instances,
you might want to set the property to Average, Minimum, Maximum, and so on.

Another set of important properties to take advantage of are the Prompt Info
properties, as shown in Figure4-34.

Figure 4-34 Prompt Info properties

You can specify the type of prompt that you want generated in the studios or the
default prompt type for IBM Cognos Report Studio. The default is for the server to
determine the prompt type based on data type.

The remaining properties are used to improve performance by causing automatic
retrieval through indexes while still displaying user-friendly selection values.


IBM Cognos Business Intelligence V10.1 Handbook

Here is a brief description of the remaining properties:

Cascade on Item Reference is for cascading prompts in Report Studio, for
example, where the list of Product Type choices is restricted to those within a
selected Product Line.

Display Item Reference identifies the default value that a manually-created
Report Studio prompt displays for a particular query item. For example, to see
a list of ORDER_METHOD_EN names when using
ORDER_METHOD_CODE in a prompt, set the Display Item Reference
property for ORDER_METHOD_CODE to ORDER_METHOD_EN. If this field
is left blank, it defaults to the values that are returned by the query item to
which it belongs.

Use Item Reference identifies the default value that a manually-created Report
Studio prompt uses in the query’s filter. For example, for a Report Studio
generated prompt on ORDER_METHOD_EN to display a list of
ORDER_METHOD_EN names but retrieve data through the
ORDER_METHOD_CODE, set the Use Item Reference property in

Filter Item Reference identifies the value that an IBM Cognos generated
prompt uses to filter a query. For example, for Query Studio to display
query’s filter, set the Filter Item Reference property to
ORDER_METHOD_CODE, as shown in Figure4-35.

Figure 4-35 Filter Item Reference property

Chapter 4. Create reporting packages with IBM Cognos Framework Manager 63

Examine relationships

Relationships are maintained in the Object Diagram or Context Explorer.

As a quick side topic, Context Explorer, shown in Figure4-36, is another useful
UI element in IBM Cognos Framework Manager.

Figure 4-36 Context Explorer


IBM Cognos Business Intelligence V10.1 Handbook

You can launch this window by selecting one or more query subjects,
right-clicking one of the selected items, and then clicking Launch Context

For larger models, this feature is useful when working with a subset of the model.
You can edit items directly in this window.

Now, back to relationships. When verifying relationships, you must ensure that
the appropriate relationships exist to meet your reporting needs, and you must
decide if you require optional or mandatory cardinalities. Optional cardinalities
require more processing but might be needed to return the desired results.

Optional cardinality, which generates an outer join in the SQL, is represented by
a 0, as in 0..n or 0..1. Mandatory cardinality, which generates an inner join in the
SQL, is represented by a 1 as in 1..n or 1..1.

Cardinality is used by IBM Cognos BI to determine which query subjects are
facts and which are dimensions in the context of a query. This determination is
important, in particular, when querying from multiple fact tables through a shared
dimension. By identifying which query subjects are facts, IBM Cognos BI can
aggregate the facts properly and not lose records from either fact table.

It is important to model as a star schema so that there is no ambiguity about the
nature of a query subject. In short, fact query subjects have only 1..n or 0..n
cardinalities attached, and dimension query subjects have only 1..1 or 0..1
cardinalities attached, as shown in Figure4-36 on page63.

Chapter 4. Create reporting packages with IBM Cognos Framework Manager 65

Unpredictable results can occur when query subjects have a mix of cardinalities,
with the exception of when dealing with snowflake dimensions. Snowflake
dimensions are where the hierarchy for the dimension is split out into two or more
tables, as shown in Figure4-37.

Figure 4-37 Snowflake dimension


IBM Cognos Business Intelligence V10.1 Handbook

The product hierarchy is split out into the following tables:

Product line
Product type

In this case, there is a clear path from the highest level all the way down to the
fact table. The hierarchy does not branch of at higher levels such as product type
level or product line level.

Refer to the IBM Cognos Framework Manager User Guide for more details about

Chapter 4. Create reporting packages with IBM Cognos Framework Manager 67

To edit a relationship, double-click the relationship line in the Diagram pane or the
Context Explorer to open the Relationship Definition dialog box, as shown in

Figure 4-38 Relationship Definition dialog box

Here, you can change the cardinality on either end of the relationship, change
the query items the join is based on, or create a compound definition with
additional business logic by editing the expression located at the bottom of the
dialog box.


IBM Cognos Business Intelligence V10.1 Handbook

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