Einstein College of Engineering

Unit 1 Introduction to Mechatronics Systems Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of Mechanical engineering, Electronic engineering, Computer engineering, Control engineering, and Systems Design engineering in order to design, and manufacture useful products. The term mechatronics is defined as a multidisciplinary engineering system design, that is to say it rejects splitting engineering into separate disciplines. A mechatronics engineer unites the principles of mechanics, electronics, and computing to generate a simpler, more economical and reliable system. Mechatronics is centered on mechanics, electronics, computing, control engineering, molecular engineering (from nanochemistry and biology), and optical engineering, which, combined, make possible the generation of simpler, more economical, reliable and versatile systems. The portmanteau "mechatronics" was coined by Tetsuro Mori, the senior engineer of the Japanese company Yaskawa in 1969. An industrial robot is a prime example of a mechatronics system; it includes aspects of electronics, mechanics, and computing to do its day-to-day jobs.

The development of mechatronics has gone through three stages: The first stage corresponds to the years around the introduction of word mechatronics. During this stage, technologies used in mechatronics systems developed rather independently of each other and individually.With start of eighties a synergic integration of different technologies started taking place.A notable example is opto-electronics, an integration of optics and electronics. The concept of hardware/software co-design also started in this year. The third stage, which is considered as start of ‗Mechatronics Age‘, starts with the early nineties. The most notable aspect of this stage are more and more integration of different engineering disciplinesand increased use of computational intelligence in the mechatronics products and systems.Another important development in the third stage is the concept of ‗micromechatronis‘, i.e., start of miniaturization the components such as microactuators and microsensors.Design of such products and processes, therefore, has to be the outcome of a multi-disciplinary activity rather than an interdisciplinary one. Hence mechatronics challenges the traditional engineering thinking, because the way it is operating, is crossing the boundaries between the traditional engineering disciplines. SENSORS A sensor is a device which receives and responds to a signal. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature changes by 1 °C, the sensitivity is

Einstein College of Engineering 1 cm/°C (it is basically the slope Dy/Dx assuming a linear characteristic). Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities.

A good sensor obeys the following rules:
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Is sensitive to the measured property Is insensitive to any other property likely to be encountered in its application Does not influence the measured property

Characteristics of sensor
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The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error, but the sensor is still linear. Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property. If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has an offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input. If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity. Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range. If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal. If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as drift (telecommunication). Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period of time. Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time. Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one direction than in the other. If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured property. The approximation error is also called digitization error. If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a dynamic error, or if the variable or added noise noise changes periodically at a frequency near a multiple of the sampling rate may induce aliasing errors. The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment. DISPLACEMENT AND POSITION SENSORS Displacement Measurement Measurement of displacement is the basis of measuring: Position Velocity Acceleration Stress Force

Einstein College of Engineering Pressure Proximity Thickness Displacement Sensors types • • • • • • • • • Potentiometers displacement sensors Inductive displacement sensors Capacitive displacement sensors Eddy current displacement sensors Piezoelectric displacement sensors Ultrasonic displacement sensors Magnetostrictive displacement sensors Optical encoder displacement sensors Strain Gages displacement sensors

Resistive displacement sensors: An electrically conductive wiper that slides against a fixed resistive element. To measure displacement, a potentiometer is typically wired in a voltage divider configuration.

A known voltage is applied to the resistor ends. The contact is attached to the moving object of interest The output voltage at the contact is proportional to the displacement.

Einstein College of Engineering Inductive displacement sensors The coil acts as a source of magnetomotive force that drives the flux through the magnetic circuit and the air gap. VOUT=(k1-k2)sin(wt) Positive or negative displacements are determined from the phase of VOUT. Hence. When the coil is in the central position. a small variation in the air gap results in a measurable change in inductance. Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) Motion of a magnetic core changes the mutual inductance of two secondary coils relative to a primary coil Primary coil voltage: VSsin(wt) Secondary coil induced emf: V1=k1sin(wt) and V2=k2sin(wt) k1 and k2 depend on the amount of coupling between the primary and the secondary coils. The presence of the air gap causes a large increase in circuit reluctance and a corresponding decrease in the flux. . k1=k2. VOUT=V1-V2=0 When the coil is is displaced x units. which is proportional to the position of the coil. k1 not equal to k2 .

Einstein College of Engineering .

Einstein College of Engineering .

Einstein College of Engineering .

. attached to the object whose position is to be measured.Einstein College of Engineering The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is a type of electrical transformer used for measuring linear displacement. A cylindrical ferromagnetic core. these mutual inductances change. The center coil is the primary. so that the output voltage is the difference (hence "differential") between the two secondary voltages. As the core moves. causing the voltages induced in the secondaries to change. causing a voltage to be induced in each secondary proportional to its mutual inductance with the primary. The frequency is usually in the range 1 to 10 kHz. The coils are connected in reverse series. slides along the axis of the tube. The transformer has three solenoidal coils placed end-to-end around a tube. An alternating current is driven through the primary. and the two outer coils are the secondaries. When the core is in its central position.

equal but opposite voltages are induced in these two coils. When the core moves in the other direction. The absence of any sliding or rotating contacts allows the LVDT to be completely sealed against the environment. so the output voltage is zero. This is common in large steam turbines. and for automated measurement in machine tools and many ot her industrial and scientific applications. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target. which is why the device is described as "linear". making the LVDT a highly reliable device. or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared. A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors. This voltage is in phase with the primary voltage. LVDTs are commonly used for position feedback in servomechanisms. it can move without friction. For example. and motors that use sleeve-type bearings. When the core is displaced in one direction. a capacitive or photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target. A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic or electrostatic field. The magnitude of the output voltage is proportional to the distance moved by the core (up to its limit of travel).Einstein College of Engineering equidistant between the two secondaries. causing the output voltage to increase from zero to a maximum. Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed object. the voltage in one coil increases as the other decreases. for instance). but its phase is opposite to that of the primary. an inductive proximity sensor requires a metal target. and looks for changes in the field or return signal. Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a graduated detection distance. compressors. The phase of the voltage indicates the direction of the displacement. Proximity sensors are also used in machine vibration monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing. The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined "nominal range". . Because the sliding core does not touch the inside of the tube. the output voltage also increases from zero to a maximum.

carbon resistors. Thermocouples for practical measurement of temperature are junctions of specific alloys which have a predictable and repeatable relationship between temperature and voltage. are supplied fitted with standard connectors. Thermocouples are usually standardized against a reference temperature of 0 degrees Celsius. The main limitation is accuracy: system errors of less than one degree Celsius (C) can be difficult to achieve. diesel engines. Different alloys are used for different temperature ranges. also called resistance temperature detectors or resistive thermal devices (RTDs). film. Carbon resistors have been used for many years because of their advantages.[3] Any junction of dissimilar metals will produce an electric potential related to temperature.[1] There are many categories. Electronic instruments can also compensate for the varying characteristics of the thermocouple. and other industrial processes. and wire-wound types are the most widely used. They generally do not suffer from significant hysteresis or strain gauge effects. The coil diameter provides a compromise between mechanical stability and allowing expansion of the wire to minimize strain and consequential drift. and can measure a wide range of temperatures. perhaps one micrometer. Where the measurement point is far from the measuring instrument.  Carbon resistors are widely available and are very inexpensive. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control[1] and can also be used to convert heat into electric power. Such devices have improved performance although the different expansion rates of the substrate and platinum give "strain gauge" effects and stability problems. They are inexpensive[2] and interchangeable. Advantages of this type are relatively low cost (the high cost of platinum being offset by the tiny amount required) and fast response.  Wire-wound thermometers can have greater accuracy. the intermediate connection can be made by extension wires which are less costly than the materials used to make the sensor. . They are the most reliable form at extremely low temperatures. practical instruments use electronic methods of cold-junction compensation to adjust for varying temperature at the instrument terminals. the layer may be extremely thin. Resistance thermometers. Thermocouples are widely used in science and industry. gas turbine exhaust. especially for wide temperature ranges. They have very reproducible results at low temperatures. due to higher accuracy and repeatability.Einstein College of Engineering A thermocouple is a junction between two different metals that produces a voltage related to a temperature difference. applications include temperature measurement for kilns. They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 °C. Properties such as resistance to corrosion may also be important when choosing a type of thermocouple. they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). As they are almost invariably made of platinum. and so improve the precision and accuracy of measurements. Film thermometers have a layer of platinum on a substrate. are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature.

Alciatore. Electromechanical Systems – Hydraulic – Mechanical Systems. 2003 . ―Mechatronics‖. and. Liquid Flow. Position and Proximity. PROGRAMMING LOGIC CONTROLLERS 9 Programmable Logic Controllers – Basic Structure – Input / Output Processing – Programming – Mnemonics – Timers.VI Semester) OBJECTIVE •To understand the interdisciplinary applications of Electronics. ―Understanding Electro – Mechanical Engineering‖.MECHATRONICS. 1. Rotational – Transnational Systems.. Motion. Electrical. Light Sensors – Selection of Sensors 2.Einstein College of Engineering ME1402 MECHATRONICS (Common to Mechanical and Production. TOTAL : 45 TEXT BOOKS W. Electrical. 2002 (Indian Reprint).C. Continuous and discrete process Controllers – Control Mode – Two – Step mode – Proportional Mode – Derivative Mode – Integral Mode – PID Controllers – Digital Controllers – Velocity Control – Adaptive Control – Digital Logic Control – Micro Processors Control.J.Possible Design Solutions Case Studies of Mechatronics Systems. Buru N. Dawson D.SYSTEM MODELS AND CONTROLLERS 9 Building blocks of Mechanical. Pearson Education Asia.. 2000. Pick and place robot – automatic Car Park Systems – Engine Management Systems. Sensors and Transducers – Performance Terminology – Sensors for Displacement. McGraw-Hill International Editions. 2000. Prentice – Hall of India Pvt. Fluid Pressure. Second Edition. 1999. Dan Necsulesu. Kamm. SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS 9 Introduction to Mechatronics Systems – Measurement Systems – Control Systems – Microprocessor based Controllers. Nitaigour Premchand Mahadik. Bradley D. ―Mechatronics‖. ―Mechatronics‖. 1993. 5.DESIGN OF MECHATRONICS SYSTEM 9 Stages in designing Mechatronics Systems – Traditional and Mechatronic Design . Temperature. Histand and David G. Electrical Actuation Systems – Mechanical Switches – Solid State Switches – Solenoids – D. Velocity. 4. Bolton. ― Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems‖.. Mechanical Actuation Systems – Cams – Gear Trains – Ratchet and pawl – Belt and Chain Drives – Bearings. Internal relays and counters – Shift Registers – Master and Jump Controls – Data Handling – Analogs Input / Output – Selection of a PLC Problem. An Introduction to Mechatronics. 3. Pearson Education.. Liquid Level. Mechanical and Computer Systems for the Control of Mechanical and Electronic Systems. Fluid and Thermal Systems.C Motors – A. Loader A. Force. Lawrence J.ACTUATION SYSTEMS 9 Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems – Directional Control Valves – Rotary Actuators. Ltd. Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Company Ltd. A. REFERENCES Michael B. Chapman and Hall.C Motors – Stepper Motors. ―Mechatronics‖.

The air usually has moisture removed and a small quantity of oil added at the compressor. construction. but it would be an extreme fire hazard. more flexible. when supplied in cylinders. so is never used in pneumatically powered devices. Smaller or stand-alone systems can use other compressed gases which are an asphyxiation hazard. and other areas. pneumatic-power users need not worry about poisonous leakages as the gas is commonly just air. Portable pneumatic tools and small vehicles such as Robot Wars machines and other hobbyist applications are often powered by compressed carbon dioxide because containers designed to hold it such as soda stream canisters and fire extinguishers are readily available. where factories are commonly plumbed with compressed air or other compressed inert gases. 20% of air) would not asphyxiate. Mechanical Actuation Systems – Cams – Gear Trains – Ratchet and pawl – Belt and Chain Drives – Bearings. Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiant and can also be a freezing hazard when vented inappropriately. Pneumatic systems Pneumatics is a branch of technology. mining. such as nitrogen . which deals with the study and application of use of pressurized gas to affect mechanical motion. Pneumatics also has applications in dentistry.often referred to as OFN (oxygen-free nitrogen). to avoid corrosion of mechanical components and to lubricate them.C Motors – A. and more reliable way than a large number of electric motors and actuators.Einstein College of Engineering Unit 1 Unit 2 ACTUATION SYSTEMS Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems – Directional Control Valves – Rotary Actuators. Advantages of pneumatics  Simplicity of Design And Control . Electrical Actuation Systems – Mechanical Switches – Solid State Switches – Solenoids – D.C Motors – Stepper Motors. and the phase change between liquid and gas makes it possible to obtain a larger volume of compressed gas from a lighter container than compressed air would allow. Any compressed gas other than air is an asphyxiation hazard . Factory-plumbed.including nitrogen. Pneumatic systems are extensively used in industry. This is because a centrally-located and electricallypowered compressor that powers cylinders and other pneumatic devices through solenoid valves is often able to provide motive power in a cheaper. safer. Gases used in pneumatic systems Pneumatic systems in fixed installations such as factories use compressed air because a sustainable supply can be made by compressing atmospheric air. Compressed oxygen (approx. which makes up approximately 80% of air.

Safety o Very low chance of fire (compared to hydraulic oil). the equipment is less likely to be damaged by shock. Hydraulic machinery is operated by the use of hydraulics. allowing the use of machines when electrical power is lost. Heavy equipment is a common example.Einstein College of Engineering Machines are easily designed using standard cylinders & other components. where a liquid is the powering medium Advantages of hydraulics   Liquid (as a gas is also a 'fluid') does not absorb any of the supplied energy. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes. o Because gas is compressible. Control is as easy as it is simple ON . whereas the fluid of hydraulics directly transfers force. high-pressure liquid — called hydraulic fluid — is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders. The gas in pneumatics absorbs excessive force. o Machines can be designed to be overload safe. In this type of machine. The popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses. Reliability o Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and require very little maintenance. Storage o Compressed Gas can be stored. . and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power.OFF type control. o    Hydraulic systems Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools which use fluid power to do simple work. Capable of moving much higher loads and providing much higher forces due to the incompressibility.

Some valves are designed to be proportional (flow rate proportional to valve position). The valve block will be mounted to the machine's frame with a three point pattern to avoid distorting the valve block and jamming the valve's sensitive components. When hydraulic fluid flow is stopped. Directional control valves are usually designed to be stackable. When the spool is allowed to return to neutral (center) position the actuator fluid paths are blocked. locking it in position.g. When the spool is moved to the opposite direction the supply and return paths are switched. A seal allows part of the spool to protrude outside the housing. Sliding the spool to one side routes the hydraulic fluid to an actuator and provides a return path from the actuator to tank. Directional control valves are mainly two types:   Hydraulic and Pneumatic. hydraulic oil) and pneumatic directional control valves are for a gaseous (usually air) working fluid. and one fluid input supplying all the valves in the stack. leading to a minimum of spring action. spools typically have a clearance with the housing of less than a thousandth of an inch (25 µm). there is no need to "bleed off" pressurized air to release the pressure on the load.. The control valve is one of the most expensive and sensitive parts of a hydraulic circuit. The movement of the cylinder restricts or permits the flow. in this position the supply fluid is blocked. Tolerances are very tight in order to handle the high pressure and avoid leaking. The spool slides to different positions in the housing. where it is accessible to the actuator. The main valve block is usually a stack of off the shelf directional control valves chosen by flow capacity and performance.Einstein College of Engineering  The hydraulic working fluid is basically incompressible. They usually consist of a piston inside a cylinder which is electrically controlled. hydraulic pilot pressure. Hydraulic directional control valves are for a liquid working fluid (e.  Pressure relief valves are used in several places in hydraulic machinery. thus it controls the fluid flow. The spool position may be actuated by mechanical levers. Directional control valves are one of the most fundamental parts in hydraulic machinery. on the return circuit to maintain a small amount of pressure for brakes. water. Control valves Directional control valves route the fluid to the desired actuator. the slightest motion of the load releases the pressure on the load. intersecting grooves and channels route the fluid based on the spool's position.. or returned to tank. The spool has a central (neutral) position maintained with springs. pilot lines. On hydraulic cylinders. etc. or solenoids which push the spool left or right. while others may be simply on-off. They usually consist of a spool inside a cast iron or steel housing. They allow fluid flow into different paths from one or more sources. to . with one valve for each hydraulic cylinder.

Pilot controlled Check valves are one-way valve that can be opened (for both directions) by a foreign pressure signal. on/off. They generally screw into a valve block and are electrically controlled to provide logic and automated functions. It is used for alternative movements with a limited rotation angle (max 280°). Shuttle valves provide a logical or function. On the hydraulic reservoir. They are available in many configurations. to maintain a small positive pressure which excludes moisture and contamination. Hydraulic fuses are in-line safety devices designed to automatically seal off a hydraulic line if pressure becomes too low. etc. and may consist of a metal block with ports and channels drilled. Auxiliary valves in complex hydraulic systems may have auxiliary valve blocks to handle various duties unseen to the operator. making them easy to populate a proprietary valve block. Sequence valves control the sequence of hydraulic circuits. Mechanical actuation systems . For instance if the load should not be hold by the check valve anymore.Einstein College of Engineering prevent overloading and hydraulic line/seal rupture. etc. close to 95%. proportional. pressure relief. for example. air conditioning power. such as accumulator charging. they are off the shelf components with a standardized envelope. Counterbalance valves are in fact a special type of pilot controlled check valve. Whereas the check valve is open or closed. cooling fan operation.          Hydraulic rotary actuators The hydraulic rotary actuator is a device which transform hydraulic power (pressure and flow) in rotational mechanical power (torque and speed). They are usually custom valves designed for the particular machine. or safely vent fluid if pressure becomes too high. Pressure regulators reduce the supply pressure of hydraulic fluids as needed for various circuits. Often the foreign pressure comes from the other pipe that is connected to the motor or cylinder. Cartridge valves are in fact the inner part of a check valve. to ensure that one hydraulic cylinder is fully extended before another starts its stroke. for example. allowing an accumulator to charge and maintain its pressure after the machine is turned off.The simplicity of construction allows to obtain very high mechanical efficiency values. Cartridge valves are threaded into the ports and may be electrically controlled by switches or a microprocessor to route fluid power as needed. Check valves are one-way valves. the counterbalance valve acts a bit like a pilot controlled flow control.

A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion or vice-versa. chain drive. gear. By rotating a wheel/axle (e.g. of an electric motor). an eccentric wheel) or shaft (e. drum.[1][2] It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e. ball screw and roller screw actuators all operate on the principle of the simple machine known as the screw. rigid chain and rigid belt actuators operate on the principle of the wheel and axle.g. chain or belt) moves. e.attached to the input shaft Driven gears/Motor gears . when driven by a non-linear motion.g. Gear trains may consist of:    Driving gears . By rotating the actuator's nut. a cylinder with an irregular shape) that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path. but provide relatively limited travel. pulley or shaft) a linear member (e. or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower. rack and pinion.g. as is used to deliver pulses of power to a steam hammer. cable. belt drive. creates linear motion (as opposed to rotary motion. for example. chain drive and belt drive) and others only push (e.Einstein College of Engineering Mechanical linear actuators operate by conversion of rotary motion into linear motion. hoist. Conversion is commonly made via a few simple types of mechanism:    Screw: Screw jack. The cam can be a simple tooth.g.attached to the output shaft Idler gears . A compound gear train refers to two or more gears used to transmit motion. Mechanical and hydraulic actuation are the most common methods of achieving the linear motion. its eccentric shape provides thrust at the base of a shaft. Cams A linear actuator is an actuator that. cam actuator).g.interposed between the driving and driven gear in order to maintain the direction of the output shaft the same as the input shaft or to increase the distance between the drive and driven gears. rack. Wheel and axle: Hoist. the screw shaft moves in a line. which is a lever making contact with the cam. . Some mechanical linear actuators only pull (e.[1] Cam: Cam actuators function on a principle similar to that of the wedge. As a wheel-like cam rotates.g. Gear train A gear train is a set or system of gears arranged to transfer rotational torque from one part of a mechanical system to another. winch.

Einstein College of Engineering Types of gear trains include:     Simple gear train Compound gear train Epicyclic gear train Reverted gear train A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to generate power and speed. Electric motors are used with the gear systems to reduce the speed and increase the torque. compound arrangement is preferred. They are also used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor. To create large gear ratio. They are also used in bicycles for controlling power of pedaling automatically or manually. Electric motor is connected to the driving end of each train and is mounted on the test platform. by choosing equal center distance for gears and pinions. Two keys are keyed to a single shaft. Applications Gear trains are used in representing the phases of moon on a watch or clock dial. Planetary gear trains have several advantages. a small gear at the center called the sun. Planetary Gear Train . When the paddle is pushed. The chain moves and meshes with the links in the rear gear that is attached to the rear wheel.For large velocities. Types of Gear Trains  Simple Gear Train .It is made of few components. helical or herringbone.It is the system of epicyclic gears in which at least one wheel axis itself revolves around another fixed axis. the front gear is turned and that meshes with the links in the chain. For larger ratio. The output end output end of the gear train is connected to a large magnetic particle brake that is used to measure the output torque. They have higher gear ratios. Epicyclic Gear Train . A double reduction train can be arranged to have its input and output shafts in a line. gears are connected together to form gear trains. It reduces speed and increases torque.    Ratchet & pawl . They often consist of multiple gears in the train. The sprockets and chain in the bicycle is an example of simple gear train. large size of gear trains are required. They are popular for automatic transmissions in automobiles. It is also used for driving a conventional two-disk lunar phase display off the day-of-the-week shaft of the calendar.The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. several medium sized gears called the planets and a large external gear called the ring gear. The main limitation of a simple gear train is that the maximum speed change ratio is 10:1. The planet gear rolls and revolves about the sun gear and the ring gear rolls on the planet gear. Compound Gear Train . This enables the bicycle to move. The smaller gears are one-fifth of the size of the larger gear. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. The teeth of this type can be spur.

When the teeth are moving in the unrestricted (i. and the terms "ratchet" and "socket" are closely associated in many users' minds. the belt can either drive the pulleys in the same direction. or the belt may be crossed. forward) direction (see Figure 2). Since the backward travel distance is primarily a function of the compressibility of the high friction surface. and a pivoting. Because most socket wrenches today use ratcheting handles. When the teeth move in the opposite (backward) direction. to transmit power efficiently. In cases where backlash must be minimized. Backlash Because the ratchet can only stop backward motion at discrete points (i. the pawl easily slides up and over the gently sloped edges of the teeth. a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to continually carry a load between two points. As a source of motion. with a spring forcing it (often with an audible 'click') into the depression between the teeth as it passes the tip of each tooth. however. The teeth are uniform but asymmetrical. toothless ratchet with a high friction surface such as rubber is sometimes used. or to track relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys. the pawl will catch against the steeply sloped edge of the first tooth it encounters. this mechanism can result in significantly reduced backlash. with each tooth having a moderate slope on one edge and a much steeper slope on the other edge. at tooth boundaries).e. . so that the direction of the shafts is opposite. In a two pulley system. thereby locking it against the tooth and preventing any further motion in that direction. a smooth. the term "ratchet" alone is often used to refer to a ratcheting wrench.Einstein College of Engineering A ratchet is a device that allows continuous linear or rotary motion in only one direction while preventing motion in the opposite direction.e. This backward motion—which is limited to a maximum distance equal to the spacing between the teeth—is called backlash.. a ratchet does allow a limited amount of backward motion.. springloaded finger called a pawl (or click[1]) that engages the teeth. Belts may be used as a source of motion. The pawl bears against the surface at an angle so that any backward motion will cause the pawl to jam against the surface and thus prevent any further backward motion. Belt drives A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. A ratchet consists of a round gear (see Figure 1) or linear rack with teeth.

[1] It is a simple system of power transmission that was well suited for its day. Temperatures ranges from −31 °F (−35 °C) to 185 °F (85 °C). high tolerance for misalignment. so that wear was evenly distributed on both sides of the belt (DB). is simple. Load fluctuations are shock-absorbed (cushioned). Belts were joined by lacing the ends together with leather thonging.Einstein College of Engineering Belts are the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that may not be axially aligned. and are inexpensive if the shafts are far apart. and flat belt pulleys needed to be carefully aligned to prevent the belt from slipping off. and cushion motor and bearings against load changes. The angular-velocity ratio may not be constant or equal to that of the pulley diameters. Here shown driving a threshing machine. outer) side of the leather against the pulley although belts were also often given a half-twist before joining the ends (forming a Möbius strip). They can connect inside and outside pulleys. Power transmission is achieved by specially designed belts and pulleys. It helps protect the machinery from overload and jam. so vee belts have mainly replaced the flat-belts except when high speed is needed over power. and does not require axially aligned shafts. and damps and isolates noise and vibration. The demands on a belt drive transmission system are large and this has led to many variations on the theme.e. . usually 95%). in cases of wide belts and large pulleys.[2][3] or later by steel comb fasteners. They have high efficiency (90-98%. However. moreover. These drives are bulky. Clutch action is activated by releasing belt tension. Adjustment of center distance or addition of an idler pulley is crucial to compensate for wear and stretch. inexpensive. Flat belts also tend to slip on the pulley face when heavy loads are applied and many proprietary dressings were available that could be applied to the belts to increase friction.000 ft/min). and so power transmission. Flat belts were used early in line shafting to transmit power in factories. Because flat belts tend to climb towards the higher side of the pulley. due to slip and stretch. albeit with less strength than gears or chains. They need no lubrication and minimal maintenance. requiring high tension leading to high loads. improvements in belt engineering allow use of belts in systems that only formerly allowed chains or gears. They run smoothly and with little noise. and can come in both endless and jointed construction. Grip was better if the belt was assembled with the hair (i.[4] A good modern use for a flat belt is with smaller pulleys and large central distances. Different speeds can be obtained by step or tapered pulleys. It delivered high power for high speeds (500 hp for 10. pulleys were made with a slightly convex or "crowned" surface (rather than flat) to keep the belts centered. this problem has been largely solved by the use of toothed belts. Flat belts The drive belt: used to transfer power from the engine's flywheel. The Industrial Revolution soon demanded more from the system. However. Pros and cons Belt drive.

The V-belt was developed in 1917 by John Gates of the Gates Rubber Company. They are generally endless. joined either by a metal staple or glued. The "V" shape of the belt tracks in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave). Vee belts Belts on a Yanmar 2GM20 marine diesel engine. the greater the wedging action — improving torque transmission and making the V-belt an effective solution. running on matching multi-groove sheaves. with the result that the belt cannot slip off. Vee belts (also known as V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage and alignment problem. This is known as a multiple-V-belt drive (or . The strength of these belts is obtained by reinforcements with fibers like steel. and their general cross-section shape is trapezoidal. Optimal speed range is 1000–7000 ft/min. They can be supplied at various fixed lengths or as a segmented section. gluing or welding (in the case of polyurethane). V-belts trump flat belts with their small center distances and high reduction ratios. polyester or aramid (e.g. They are for use in low torque situations and may be purchased in various lengths or cut to length and joined. Twaron or Kevlar). They provide the best combination of traction. speed of movement. A multiple-V-belt drive on an air compressor. load of the bearings. The preferred center distance is larger than the largest pulley diameter. two or more vee belts can be joined side-by-side in an arrangement called a multi-V. either by a staple. where the segments are linked (spliced) to form a belt of the required length. V-belts need larger pulleys for their larger thickness than flat belts. to a great effect. For high-power requirements. Early sewing machines utilized a leather belt. but less than three times the sum of both pulleys. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as the load increases — the greater the load. needing less width and tension than flat belts. and long service life.Einstein College of Engineering Round belts Round belts are a circular cross section belt designed to run in a pulley with a circular (or near circular) groove. It is now the basic belt for power transmission.

lawn mowers. they are actually a different kind. tape recorders. allowing high efficiency (up to 98%) and long life. These are seen in business machines. This gives a thinner belt for the same drive surface. A further advantage of the polygroove belt. stability and homogeneity of the drive tension. a high speed ratio. as less energy is wasted in the internal friction of continually bending the belt. When an endless belt does not fit the need. etc. washing machines. and reduced vibration.5-15 millimeters or 100-4000 micrometres) strip of plastic and occasionally rubber. The added flexibility offers an improved efficiency. printers. Although this is sometimes done with vee belts and a single idler pulley for tensioning. In practice this gain of efficiency is overshadowed by the reduced heating effect on the belt. A link v-belt is a number of rubberized fabric links held together by metal fasteners. It operates from contact between the ribs of the belt and the grooves in the pulley. agricultural machinery. fitness bikes. Where a single-vee belt is limited to a simple convex shape. Where more must be driven. limited only by the power capacity of the belt. or even to provide a light driving force. it can wrap any number of driven pulleys. food mixers. They are length adjustable by disassembling and removing links when needed. although often wider. jointed and link Vbelts may be employed. Its single-piece structure it reported to offer an even distribution of tension across the width of the pulley where the belt is in contact. Ribbed belt A ribbed belt is a power transmission belt featuring lengthwise grooves. They consist of a very thin belt (0.Einstein College of Engineering sometimes a "classical V-belt drive"). . and other lightduty operations. thus is more flexible. [6] Any vee belt's ability to drive pulleys depends on wrapping the belt around a sufficient angle of the pulley to provide grip. This can assist the design of a compact engine layout. [6] This ability to bend the belt at the designer's whim allows it to take a complex or "serpentine" path. and the reason they have become so popular. a polygroove belt may be wrapped around a pulley on its back tightly enough to change its direction. The entire belt may be tensioned by a single idler pulley. multiple belts are required. so can drive at most three accessories. The ribbed belt may be fitted on various applications : compressors. a power range up to 600 kW. such as for modern cars with power steering and air conditioning. as a cooler-running belt lasts longer in service. it can adequately wrap at most three or possibly four pulleys. long life. Multi-groove belts A multi-groove or polygroove belt [5] is made up of usually 5 or 6 "V" shapes along side each other. However they are weaker and only usable at speeds up to 4000 ft/min. As the polygroove belt can be bent into concave paths by external idlers. serpentine drives (possibility to drive off the back of the belt). where the accessories are mounted more closely to the engine block and without the need to provide movable tensioning adjustments. high-speed uses. They are generally intended for low-power (10 hp or 7 kW). stems from the ability to be run over pulleys on the ungrooved back of the belt.[7] Film belts Though often grouped with flat belts.

Disadvantages include a relatively high purchase cost. These belts have teeth that fit into a matching toothed pulley. . and are among the most efficient. The helical offset tooth design forms a chevron pattern and causes the teeth to engage progressively. The chevron pattern design is selfaligning. miniature timing systems. They are often used in lieu of chains or gears. and are often used to transfer direct motion for indexing or timing purposes (hence their name).Einstein College of Engineering Timing belts Timing belt Belt-drive cog on a belt-driven bicycle Timing belts. They can bear up to 200 hp (150 kW) at speeds of 16. Cog. (also known as Toothed. and is more efficient at transferring power (up to 98%). Notch. and stepper motors often utilize these belts. and the lack of clutch action. or Synchronous belts) are a positive transfer belt and can track relative movement. less protection from overloading and jamming. Timing belts need the least tension of all belts. Timing belts with a helical offset tooth design are available. they have no slippage. the need for specially fabricated toothed pulleys. The chevron pattern design does not make the noise that some timing belts make at idiosyncratic speeds.000 ft/min. so there is less noise and a lubrication bath is not necessary. run at constant speed. Camshafts of automobiles. When correctly tensioned.

Teeth on toothed drive belts generally wear faster than links on chains. Although well-made chains may prove stronger than belts.Einstein College of Engineering Specialty belts Belts normally transmit power on the tension side of the loop. a flying rope can be used[9]. the pedals of a bicycle can spin all the way around more than once for every rotation of the gear that drives the wheels. designs for continuously variable transmissions exist that use belts that are a series of solid metal blocks. they can also go around corners by placing more than two gears along the chain. Transmission efficiency is generally high. A wire or manila rope can be used to transmit mechanical energy from a steam engine or water wheel to a factory or pump which is located a considerable distance (10 to 100s of meters or more) from the power source. for example. which can be used to lift or drag objects. the gear ratio can be altered. Sometimes the power is output by simply rotating the chain. their greater mass increases drive train inertia. with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain.[1] passing over a sprocket gear. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle. It is also used in a wide variety of machines besides vehicles. plastic. or other substances. and this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system. Most often. The gear is turned. Chains versus belts Drive chains are most often made of metal.[8] Flying rope For transmission of mechanical power over distance without electrical energy. gears that do not put power into the system or transmit it out are generally known as idler-wheels. the power is conveyed by a roller chain. Chain drives Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. By varying the diameter of the input and output gears with respect to each other. A flying rope way could be supported on poles and pulleys similar to the cable on a chair lift or aerial tramway. In other situations. However. Though drive chains are often simple oval loops. particularly bicycles and motorcycles. while belts are often rubber. known as the drive chain or transmission chain. and some work gets lost to the friction of the belt against its rollers. Rolling roads Belts used for rolling roads for wind tunnels can be capable of 250 km/h. transmitting power on the compression side of the loop. but wear on rubber or plastic belts and . a second gear is placed and the power is recovered by attaching shafts or hubs to this gear. linked together as in a chain. so that. Drive belts can often slip (unless they have teeth) which means that the output side may not rotate at a precise speed.

Plain bearings use surfaces in rubbing contact. in particular shaft drive versus chain drive is a key design decision for most motorcycles. With suitable lubrication. It is not unusual for the systems to be used in combination. there are many applications where a more suitable bearing can improve efficiency. buckets. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allow and according to their principle of operation as well as by the directions of applied loads they can handle. chains are often used to move things vertically by holding them in frames. plain bearings often give entirely acceptable accuracy. A plain bearing may or may not be a discrete device. However. while belts are good at moving things horizontally in the form of conveyor belts. or of a planar surface that bears another (in these cases.Einstein College of Engineering their teeth is often easier to observe. again altering the gear ratio. for example the rollers that drive conveyor belts are themselves often driven by drive chains. Drive shafts te Bearing A bearing is a device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts. service intervals. often with a lubricant such as oil or graphite. and friction at minimal cost. you can often tell a belt is wearing out and about to break more easily than a chain. typically rotation or linear movement. the more positive meshing of a chain can make it easier to build gears that can increase or shrink in diameter. as in industrial toasters. speed of operation. reliability. Drive shafts are another common method used to move mechanical power around that is sometimes evaluated in comparison to chain drive. and this can make it easier to shift them to larger or smaller gears in order to vary the gear ratio. It may be nothing more than the bearing surface of a hole with a shaft passing through it. . Multi-speed bicycles with derailleurs make use of this. or it may be a layer of bearing metal either fused to the substrate (semi-discrete) or in the form of a separable sleeve (discrete). Chains are often narrower than belts. or frames to them. weight. they are very widely used. Therefore. accuracy. life. and costs of purchasing and operating machinery. Also. size. not a discrete device). Both can be used to move objects by attaching pockets.

shaft rotation Linear motion e. in which the motion is supported by a load element which bends. Plain bearings are commonly made of varying types of metal or plastic depending on the load. For example. journal bearings. in which the load is carried by a magnetic field flexure bearings. For example. and reduced wear extends the time over which the machine stays accurate. drawer spherical rotation e. principal of operation.g. rifle bearings rolling-element bearings such as ball bearings and roller bearings jewel bearings.Einstein College of Engineering Thus. how corrosive or dirty the environment is. knee . ball and socket joint hinge motion e. a lubricant may improve bearing friction and life. lubrication. and lubricants attract dirt that damages the bearings. but for food processing a bearing may be lubricated by an inferior food-safe lubricant to avoid food contamination. Principles of operation There are at least six common principles of operation:        plain bearing. with varying shape. door. elbow. In addition.g. material. bearing friction and life may be altered dramatically by the type and application of lubricants. in other situations a bearing may be run without lubricant because continuous lubrication is not feasible. reduced friction allows tighter tolerances and thus higher precision than a plain bearing. there are many types of bearings. and so on. and so on. angular contact bearing Motions Common motions permitted by bearings are:     Axial rotation e.g. in which the load is carried by a gas or liquid magnetic bearings. rolling-element bearings use spheres or drums rolling between the parts to reduce friction. sleeve bearings.g. also known by the specific styles: bushings. in which the load is carried by rolling the axle slightly off-center fluid bearings.

This means that a single MOSFET cannot block current in both directions. as there are no moving parts to wear o Output resistance remains constant regardless of amount of use Clean. their switching time is dependent on the time needed to power the LED on and off. For example much less sensitive to mechanical shock and vibration. a solid-state electronic switching device of some kind which switches power to the load circuitry either on or off. allowing use in explosive environments where it is critical that no spark is generated during switching Totally silent operation Inherently smaller than a mechanical relay of similar specification (if desired may have the same "casing" form factor for interchangeability). the common source is always riding on the instantaneous signal level and both gates are biased positive relative to the source by the photo-diode. The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC to the load. or multiple MOSFETs in a paralleled array. . There is an inherent substrate diode in all MOSFETs that conducts in the reverse direction. It serves the same function as an electromechanical relay. particularly if activated many times. Much less sensitive to storage and operating environment. works well for DC loads. For AC (bi-directional) operation two MOSFETs are arranged back to back with their source pins tied together. There is also commonly some circuitry to discharge the gate when the LED is turned off. bounceless operation Decreased electrical noise when switching No sparking. and some coupling mechanism to enable the control signal to activate this switch without mechanical parts. Their drain pins are connected to either side of the output. Advantages over mechanical relays Most of the relative advantages of solid state and electromechanical relays are common to all solidstate as against electromechanical devices. of the order of microseconds to milliseconds Lower (if any) minimum output current (latching current) required Increased lifetime. It comprises a voltage or current sensor which responds to an appropriate input (control signal). speeding the relay's turn-off. humidity. but has no moving parts. It is common to provide access to the common source so that multiple MOSFETs can be wired in parallel if switching a DC load. The substrate diodes then are alternately reverse biased in order to block current when the relay is off. Operation An SSR based on a single MOSFET.Einstein College of Engineering electrical actuators Relay A solid state relay (SSR) is an electronic switching device in which a small control signal controls a larger load current or voltage.          SSRs are faster than electromechanical relays. When the relay is on.

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solenoid[nb 1] is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term solenoid refers to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create controlled magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets. The term solenoid refers specifically to a magnet designed to produce a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out). In engineering, the term solenoid may also refer to a variety of transducer devices that convert energy into linear motion. The term is also often used to refer to a solenoid valve, which is an integrated device containing an electromechanical solenoid which actuates either a pneumatic or hydraulic valve, or a solenoid switch, which is a specific type of relay that internally uses an electromechanical solenoid to operate an electrical switch; for example, an automobile starter solenoid, or a linear solenoid, which is an electromechanical solenoid.

AC motor
An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current. It consists of two basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. (There are examples, such as some Papst motors, which have the stator on the inside and the rotor on the outside to increase the inertia and cooling. They were common on high quality tape and film machines where speed stability is important.) There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used (not including eddy current motors also AC/DC mechanically commutated machines in which speed is dependent on voltage and winding connection). The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a submultiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which runs slightly slower than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current.

Squirrel-cage rotors
Most common AC motors use the squirrel cage rotor, which will be found in virtually all domestic and light industrial alternating current motors. The squirrel cage refers to the rotating exercise cage for pet animals. The motor takes its name from the shape of its rotor "windings"- a ring at either end of the rotor, with bars connecting the rings running the length of the rotor. It is typically cast aluminum or copper poured between the iron laminates of the rotor, and usually only the end rings will be visible. The vast majority of the rotor currents will flow through the bars rather than the higher-resistance and usually varnished laminates. Very low voltages at very high currents are typical in the bars and end rings; high efficiency motors will often use cast copper to reduce the resistance in the rotor. In operation, the squirrel cage motor may be viewed as a transformer with a rotating secondary. When the rotor is not rotating in sync with the magnetic field, large rotor currents are induced; the large rotor currents magnetize the rotor and interact with the stator's magnetic fields to bring the

Einstein College of Engineering rotor almost into synchronization with the stator's field. An unloaded squirrel cage motor at rated noload speed will consume electrical power only to maintain rotor speed against friction and resistance losses. As the mechanical load increases, so will the electrical load - the electrical load is inherently related to the mechanical load. This is similar to a transformer, where the primary's electrical load is related to the secondary's electrical load. This is why a squirrel cage blower motor may cause household lights to dim upon starting, but doesn't dim the lights on startup when its fan belt (and therefore mechanical load) is removed. Furthermore, a stalled squirrel cage motor (overloaded or with a jammed shaft) will consume current limited only by circuit resistance as it attempts to start. Unless something else limits the current (or cuts it off completely) overheating and destruction of the winding insulation is the likely outcome. To prevent the currents induced in the squirrel cage from superimposing itself back onto the supply, the squirrel cage is generally constructed with a prime number of bars, or at least a small multiple of a prime number (rarely more than 2). There is an optimum number of bars in any design, and increasing the number of bars beyond that point merely serves to increase the losses of the motor particularly when starting. Virtually every washing machine, dishwasher, standalone fan, record player, etc. uses some variant of a squirrel cage motor.
Calecon Effect

If the rotor of a squirrel runs at the true synchronous speed, the flux in the rotor at any given place on the rotor would not change, and no current would be created in the squirrel cage. For this reason, ordinary squirrel-cage motors run at some tens of rpm slower than synchronous speed, even at no load. Because the rotating field (or equivalent pulsating field) actually or effectively rotates faster than the rotor, it could be said to slip past the surface of the rotor. The difference between synchronous speed and actual speed is called slip, and loading the motor increases the amount of slip as the motor slows down slightly.
Two-phase AC servo motors

A typical two-phase AC servo-motor has a squirrel cage rotor and a field consisting of two windings: 1. a constant-voltage (AC) main winding. 2. a control-voltage (AC) winding in quadrature (i.e., 90 degrees phase shifted) with the main winding so as to produce a rotating magnetic field. Reversing phase makes the motor reverse. An AC servo amplifier, a linear power amplifier, feeds the control winding. The electrical resistance of the rotor is made high intentionally so that the speed/torque curve is fairly linear. Two-phase servo motors are inherently high-speed, low-torque devices, heavily geared down to drive the load.
Single-phase AC induction motors

Three-phase motors produce a rotating magnetic field. However, when only single-phase power is available, the rotating magnetic field must be produced using other means. Several methods are commonly used:

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Shaded-pole motor

A common single-phase motor is the shaded-pole motor and is used in devices requiring low starting torque, such as electric fans or the drain pump of washing machines and dishwashers or in other small household appliances. In this motor, small single-turn copper "shading coils" create the moving magnetic field. Part of each pole is encircled by a copper coil or strap; the induced current in the strap opposes the change of flux through the coil. This causes a time lag in the flux passing through the shading coil, so that the maximum field intensity moves across the pole face on each cycle. This produces a low level rotating magnetic field which is large enough to turn both the rotor and its attached load. As the rotor picks up speed the torque builds up to its full level as the principal magnetic field is rotating relative to the rotating rotor. A reversible shaded-pole motor was made by Barber-Colman several decades ago. It had a single field coil, and two principal poles, each split halfway to create two pairs of poles. Each of these four "half-poles" carried a coil, and the coils of diagonally-opposite half-poles were connected to a pair of terminals. One terminal of each pair was common, so only three terminals were needed in all. The motor would not start with the terminals open; connecting the common to one other made the motor run one way, and connecting common to the other made it run the other way. These motors were used in industrial and scientific devices. An unusual, adjustable-speed, low-torque shaded-pole motor could be found in traffic-light and advertising-lighting controllers. The pole faces were parallel and relatively close to each other, with the disc centred between them, something like the disc in a watthour meter. Each pole face was split, and had a shading coil on one part; the shading coils were on the parts that faced each other. Both shading coils were probably closer to the main coil; they could have both been farther away, without affecting the operating principle, just the direction of rotation. Applying AC to the coil created a field that progressed in the gap between the poles. The plane of the stator core was approximately tangential to an imaginary circle on the disc, so the travelling magnetic field dragged the disc and made it rotate. The stator was mounted on a pivot so it could be positioned for the desired speed and then clamped in position. Keeping in mind that the effective speed of the travelling magnetic field in the gap was constant, placing the poles nearer to the centre of the disc made it run relatively faster, and toward the edge, slower. It is possible that these motors are still in use in some older installations.
Split-phase induction motor

Another common single-phase AC motor is the split-phase induction motor,[5] commonly used in major appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers. Compared to the shaded pole motor, these motors can generally provide much greater starting torque by using a special startup winding in conjunction with a centrifugal switch. In the split-phase motor, the startup winding is designed with a higher resistance than the running winding. This creates an LR circuit which slightly shifts the phase of the current in the startup winding. When the motor is starting, the startup winding is connected to the power source via a set of spring-loaded contacts pressed upon by the stationary centrifugal switch. The starting winding is

a 3 phase motor can be converted to a . creating an LC circuit which is capable of a much greater phase shift (and so. along with the run windings. creating capacitance.Einstein College of Engineering wound with fewer turns of smaller wire than the main winding. The lower L/R ratio creates a small phase shift. [6] with the capacitor connected to the other windings as "start" windings. This added starter provides assistance in the starting and initial direction of rotation.[6] and what correspond to the start windings (second windings) are permanently connected to the power source (through a capacitor). Also. Once the motor reaches near design operating speed. provided all 6 winding connections are available separately. The phase of the magnetic field in this startup winding is shifted from the phase of the mains power.[6] and reverse motion can be achieved by reversing the wiring of the 2 windings. Permanent-split capacitor motor Another variation is the permanent-split capacitor (PSC) motor (also known as a capacitor start and run motor). [6] PSC motors are frequently used in air handlers. but there is no centrifugal starting switch. between the flux due to the main winding and the flux of the starting winding.[6] This motor operates similarly to the capacitor-start motor described above. opening the contacts and disconnecting the startup winding from the power source. so it has a lower inductance (L) and higher resistance (R). A capacitor start motor is a split-phase induction motor with a starting capacitor inserted in series with the startup winding. not more than about 30 degrees. By changing taps on the running winding but keeping the load constant. the centrifugal switch activates. The capacitor naturally adds expense to such motors. blowers. the motor can be made to run at different speeds. The starting winding must be disconnected since it would increase the losses in the motor. allowing the creation of a moving magnetic field which starts the motor. Resistance start motor A resistance start motor is a split-phase induction motor with a starter inserted in series with the startup winding. and fans (including ceiling fans) and other cases where a variable speed is desired. Capacitor start motor Schematic of a capacitor start motor. The starting direction of rotation may be reversed simply by exchanging the connections of the startup winding relative to the running winding. The motor then operates solely on the running winding. a much greater starting torque). [6] The "start" windings and run windings are identical in this motor. A capacitor ranging from 3 to 25 microfarads is connected in series with the "start" windings and remains in the circuit during the run cycle.

connected to slip rings on the shaft. where the motor coils are initially connected in star for acceleration of the load. reduced voltage starting using either series inductors. In this case. Transistorized drives can directly vary the applied voltage as required by the starting characteristics of the motor and load. A technique sometimes used is (star-delta. Where the large inrush current and high starting torque can be permitted. special motors may have up to 7% slip. Carbon brushes connect the slip rings to an external controller such as a variable resistor that allows changing the motor's slip rate. the wound-rotor becomes an active participant in the energy conversion process with the wound-rotor doubly-fed configuration showing twice the power density. the speed will be very close to synchronous. but they were the standard form for variable speed control before the advent of compact power electronic devices. rectified and returned to the power supply through an inverter. in revolutions per minute F = AC power frequency p = Number of poles per phase winding Actual RPM for an induction motor will be less than this calculated synchronous speed by an amount known as slip. thyristors. that increases with the torque produced. The speed of the AC motor is determined primarily by the frequency of the AC supply and the number of poles in the stator winding. an autotransformer. With no load. is used when variable speed is required. the rotor has the same number of poles as the stator and the windings are made of wire.Einstein College of Engineering capacitor start and run motor by commoning two of the windings and connecting the third via a capacitor to act as a start winding. Compared to squirrel cage rotors and without considering brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed technology. where it is known as the asynchronous traction motor. . In certain high-power variable speed wound-rotor drives. called the wound rotor. DOL). Wound rotors An alternate design. This technique is more common in Europe than in North America. by applying full line voltage to the terminals (direct-on-line. With bidirectionally controlled power. Where it is necessary to limit the starting inrush current (where the motor is large compared with the short-circuit capacity of the supply). Transistorized inverters with variable-frequency drive can now be used for speed control. then switched to delta when the load is up to speed. the slip-frequency energy is captured. and wound rotor motors are becoming less common. standard motors have between 2-3% slip. When loaded. YΔ) starting. This type of motor is becoming more common in traction applications such as locomotives. the motor can be started across the line. according to the relation: Ns = 120F / p where Ns = Synchronous speed. and a class of motors known as torque motors are rated to operate at 100% slip (0 RPM/full stall). or other devices are used. wound rotor motors are expensive and require maintenance of the slip rings and brushes. Several methods of starting a polyphase motor are used.

the TGV may be the best-known example of such use. aside from stabilizing the motor speed on load changes. each unit can produce 563. the result is called a synchronous motor because the rotor will rotate synchronously with the rotating magnetic field produced by the polyphase electrical supply. When pumping. As an example. Nowadays. Some of the largest AC motors are pumped-storage hydroelectricity generators that are operated as synchronous motors to pump water to a reservoir at a higher elevation for later use to generate electricity using the same machinery.400 horsepower (420 megawatts). a typical four-pole motor running on 60 Hz might have a nameplate rating of 1725 RPM at full load. One use for this type of motor is its use in a power factor correction scheme. Six 350-megawatt generators are installed in the Bath County Pumped Storage Station in Virginia. making them preferred for very high power applications. They are referred to as synchronous condensers. USA. The synchronous motor can also be used as an alternator. It thus appears to the supply to be a capacitor. while its calculated speed is 1800 RPM.Einstein College of Engineering The slip of the AC motor is calculated by: S = (Ns − Nr) / Ns where Nr = Rotational speed. developments in power electronics mean that the frequency of the power supply can also now be varied to provide a smoother control of the motor speed. This greatly eases the problem of starting the massive rotor of a large synchronous motor. and could thus be used to correct the lagging power factor that is usually presented to the electric supply by inductive loads. The excitation is adjusted until a near unity power factor is obtained (often automatically). S = Normalised Slip. synchronous motors are frequently driven by transistorized variable-frequency drives. Machines used for this purpose are easily identified as they have no shaft extensions. Three-phase AC synchronous motors If connections to the rotor coils of a three-phase motor are taken out on slip-rings and fed a separate field current to create a continuous magnetic field (or if the rotor consists of a permanent magnet).[7] . However. They may also be started as induction motors using a squirrel-cage winding that shares the common rotor: once the motor reaches synchronous speed. This exploits a feature of the machine where it consumes power at a leading power factor when its rotor is over excited. Synchronous motors are valued in any case because their power factor is much better than that of induction motors. Synchronous motors are occasionally used as traction motors. in revolutions per minute. The speed in this type of motor has traditionally been altered by having additional sets of coils or poles in the motor that can be switched on and off to change the speed of magnetic field rotation. no current is induced in the squirrel-cage winding so it has little effect on the synchronous operation of the motor. 0 to 1.

the motor can be turned by a precise angle. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit. which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. Fluid and Thermal Systems. Stepper motors. the armature brushes are shorted together rather than connected in series with the field. Electrical. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step". Continuous and discrete process Controllers – Control Mode – Two – Step mode – Proportional Mode – Derivative Mode – Integral Mode – PID Controllers – Digital Controllers . first one electromagnet is given power. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off. and from there the process is repeated. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet. Stepper motor A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless. and generally are closed-loop commutated.the stator induces currents in the rotor. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller). By transformer action . the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count. they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. The universal motor is widely used in small home appliances and power tools. Electromechanical Systems – Hydraulic – Mechanical Systems. effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. on the other hand. In that way.SYSTEM MODELS AND CONTROLLERS Building blocks of Mechanical. such as a microcontroller.) Fundamentals of operation Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors. which create torque by repulsion instead of attraction as in other motors. with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. Rotational – Transnational Systems. To make the motor shaft turn.Einstein College of Engineering Universal motors and series wound motors AC motors can also have brushes. which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Unit 3. In a repulsion motor. Repulsion motor Repulsion motors are wound-rotor single-phase AC motors that are similar to universal motors. synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. DC MOTOR A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity.

This is an example of a simple proportional control.Einstein College of Engineering – Velocity Control – Adaptive Control – Digital Logic Control – Micro Processors Control. This typically involves the mixing of two process streams. it may turn the hot valve only slightly if warm water is desired. This can be thought of as a derivative control method. the output would oscillate around the setpoint in either a constant. Controllers are used in industry to regulate temperature. Generally controllers are used to reject disturbances and/or implement setpoint changes. flow rate. The desired temperature is called the setpoint (SP). or decaying sinusoid. Control loop basics A familiar example of a control loop is the action taken when adjusting hot and cold faucet valves to maintain the faucet water at the desired temperature. If a controller starts from a stable state at zero error (PV = SP). chemical composition. The difference between the temperature measurement and the setpoint is the error (e) and quantifies whether the water is too hot or too cold and by how much. the controller may try to speed-up the process by opening up the hot water valve more-and-more as time goes by. Sensing water temperature is analogous to taking a measurement of the process value or process variable (PV). If the oscillations increase with time then the system is unstable. If the controller were to repeatedly make changes that were too large and repeatedly overshoot the target. and hence on the PV. Making a change that is too large when the error is small is equivalent to a high gain controller and will lead to overshoot. a known ideal value for that output (SP) and an input to the process (MV) that will affect the relevant PV. After measuring the temperature (PV). The input to the process (the water valve position) is called the manipulated variable (MV). This is an example of an integral control. Based on this feedback they perform a control action to adjust the hot and cold water valves until the process temperature stabilizes at the desired value. If the oscillations remain at a constant magnitude the system is marginally stable. speed and practically every other variable for which a measurement exists. The person touches the water to sense or measure its temperature. the controller decides when to change the tap position (MV) and by how much. whereas if they decrease the system is stable. pressure. and then calculating the error. Changes in feedwater temperature constitute a disturbance to the faucet temperature control process. In theory. the controller may wish to damp the anticipated future oscillations. . In the interest of achieving a gradual convergence at the desired temperature (SP). So in order to compensate for this effect. a controller can be used to control any process which has a measurable output (PV). growing. When the controller first turns the valve on. the controller may elect to temper their adjustments. then further changes by the controller will be in response to changes in other measured or unmeasured inputs to the process that impact on the process. Variables that impact on the process other than the MV are known as disturbances. or it may open the valve all the way if very hot water is desired. In the event that hot water does not arrive quickly. the hot and cold water.

A proportional control system is a type of linear feedback control system. Stability may be expressed as correlating to the power-to-weight ratio of the vehicle. to control speed. Proportional control overcomes this by modulating the output to the controlling device. but would obviously result in poor control and large variations in speed. the power is reduced slightly. the heavier the car. which is the difference between the set point and the process variable. The proportional control system is more complex than an on-off control system like a bi-metallic domestic thermostat. An analogy to on-off control is driving a car by applying either full power or no power and varying the duty cycle. "overshoot". The power would be on until the target speed is reached. the greater the stability. so the car reduces speed. the output of a proportional controller is the multiplication product of the error signal and the proportional gain. and then the power would be removed. This can be mathematically expressed as . but will result in instability if the system being controlled has a rapid response time. if any.Einstein College of Engineering Proportional control The fly-ball governor is a classic example of proportional control. full power would again be applied. When the speed falls below the target. or in proportion to the error (the actual versus target speed). Two classic mechanical examples are the toilet bowl float proportioning valve and the fly-ball governor. the controller output is proportional to the error signal. such as a continuously variable valve. It can be seen that this looks like pulse-width modulation. the greater the instability. with a certain hysteresis. Proportional Control Theory In the proportional control algorithm. The more powerful the engine. Further refinements like PID control would help compensate for additional variables like hills. but simpler than a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control system used in something like an automobile cruise control. where the amount of power needed for a given speed change would vary. which would be accounted for by the integral function of the PID control. so the result is much smoother control than on-off control. If the car is at target speed and the speed increases slightly. In other words. so that the car reduces speed gradually and reaches the target point with very little. On-off control will work where the overall system has a relatively long response time. Proportional control is how most drivers control the speed of a car.

[1] The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate parameters. . In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process. and D is a prediction of future errors. Some applications may require using only one or two modes to provide the appropriate system control. I on the accumulation of past errors. A PID controller will be called a PI. these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error. and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control: the proportional. a PID controller is the best controller. and D. I. Heuristically. the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint and the degree of system oscillation. Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability. [2] By tuning the three constants in the PID controller algorithm. PD.Einstein College of Engineering where      Pout: Output of the proportional controller Kp: Proportional gain e(t): Instantaneous process error at time t. whereas the absence of an integral value may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action. since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise. denoted P. e(t) = SP − PV SP: Set point PV: Process variable PID controller A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems – a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. This is achieved by setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. PI controllers are fairly common. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error. the integral and derivative values. based on current rate of change.

and Dout are the contributions to the output from the PID controller from each of the three terms. the measured value e: Error = SP − PV t: Time or instantaneous time (the present) A high proportional gain results in a large change in the output for a given change in the error. a tuning parameter SP: Setpoint. The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp. and a less responsive (or sensitive) controller. Hence: Where Pout. as defined below. Iout.Einstein College of Engineering PID controller theory The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting terms. the process gain . the control action may be too small when responding to system disturbances. called the proportional gain.drift in the absence of control. If the proportional gain is too low. whose sum constitutes the manipulated variable (MV). The proportional term (sometimes called gain) makes a change to the output that is proportional to the current error value. the desired value PV: Process value (or process variable). Droop A pure proportional controller will not always settle at its target value. such as cooling of a furnace . but may retain a steady-state error. In contrast. Specifically. a small gain results in a small output response to a large input error. The proportional term is given by: where Pout: Proportional term of output Kp: Proportional gain. If the proportional gain is too high. the system can become unstable (see the section on loop tuning).

or corrected by adding an integration term (in a PI or PID controller). Droop is proportional to process gain and inversely proportional to proportional gain. then the bias will be below the set point. the desired value PV: Process value (or process variable). Despite droop. The magnitude of the contribution of the integral term to the overall control action is determined by the integral gain. biases a pure proportional controller. as in cooling. both tuning theory and industrial practice indicate that it is the proportional term that should contribute the bulk of the output change. Ki. Summing the instantaneous error over time (integrating the error) gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. the measured value .Einstein College of Engineering towards room temperature. Specifically the steady-state error is given by: e = G / Kp Droop is an inherent defect of purely proportional control. which effectively computes a bias adaptively. Droop may be mitigated by adding a compensating bias term (setting the setpoint above the true desired value). If the process gain is down. hence the term "droop". The integral term is given by: where Iout: Integral term of output Ki: Integral gain. Integral term The contribution from the integral term (sometimes called reset) is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain and added to the controller output. a tuning parameter SP: Setpoint.

Einstein College of Engineering e: Error = SP − PV t: Time or instantaneous time (the present) τ: a dummy integration variable The integral term (when added to the proportional term) accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a proportional only controller. it can cause the present value to overshoot the setpoint value (cross over the setpoint and then create a deviation in the other direction). The derivative term is given by: where Dout: Derivative term of output Kd: Derivative gain.. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term (sometimes called rate) to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain. Hence. However. For further notes regarding integral gain tuning and controller stability. However. differentiation of a signal amplifies noise and thus this term in the controller is . derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral component and improve the combined controller-process stability. see the section on loop tuning. its first derivative with respect to time) and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. Kd. the measured value e: Error = SP − PV t: Time or instantaneous time (the present) The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller output and this effect is most noticeable close to the controller setpoint.e. Derivative term The rate of change of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time (i. since the integral term is responding to accumulated errors from the past. the desired value PV: Process value (or process variable). a tuning parameter SP: Setpoint.

air cylinder. An actuator such as a hydraulic pump. linear actuator. printing. and can cause a process to become unstable if the noise and the derivative gain are sufficiently large. linear actuator. or an electric motor. The basic architecture of a motion control system contains:      A motion controller to generate set points (the desired output or motion profile) and close a position and/or velocity feedback loop. Newer "intelligent" drives can close the position and velocity loops internally. ball screw. the larger the proportional term compensation. The latter is often called General Motion Control (GMC). in which the position and/or velocity of machines are controlled using some type of device such as a hydraulic pump. where the kinematics are usually simpler. integral. Summary The proportional. resulting in much more accurate control. The trade-off is larger overshoot: any negative error integrated during transient response must be integrated away by positive error before reaching steady state. Ki Larger values imply steady state errors are eliminated more quickly. Integral gain. An excessively large proportional gain will lead to process instability and oscillation. . Kd Larger values decrease overshoot. Mechanical components to transform the motion of the actuator into the desired motion. Motion control is an important part of robotics and CNC machine tools. Defining u(t) as the controller output. semiconductor production. including: gears. Motion control is widely used in the packaging. however it is more complex than in the use of specialized machines. shafting. and assembly industries. resolvers or Hall effect devices to return the position and/or velocity of the actuator to the motion controller in order to close the position and/or velocity control loops. Hence an approximation to a differentiator with a limited bandwidth is more commonly used. One or more feedback sensors such as optical encoders. A drive or amplifier to transform the control signal from the motion controller into a higher power electrical current or voltage that is presented to the actuator. or electric motor for output motion. generally a servo. Motion control Motion control is a sub-field of automation. and linear and rotational bearings. the final form of the PID algorithm is: where the tuning parameters are: Proportional gain. belts. textile. but slow down transient response and may lead to instability due to signal noise amplification in the differentiation of the error. linkages. Derivative gain. Kp Larger values typically mean faster response since the larger the error.Einstein College of Engineering highly sensitive to noise in the error term. Such a circuit is known as a Phase-Lead compensator. and derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID controller.

until open interfaces were developed that satisfied the requirements of coordinated motion control. but it must be an animated function. Position (point-to-point) control: There are several methods for computing a motion trajectory. Feedback Adaptive Control Applications When designing adaptive control systems. Adaptive control is different from robust control in the sense that it does not need a priori information about the bounds on these uncertain or time-varying parameters. Adaptive control Adaptive control involves modifying the control law used by a controller to cope with the fact that the parameters of the system being controlled are slowly time-varying or uncertain.Einstein College of Engineering The interface between the motion controller and drives it controls is very critical when coordinated motion is required. Typical applications of adaptive control are (in general): . as it must provide tight synchronization. Feedforward Adaptive Control 2. Later interfaces capable of motion control include Profinet IRT. Trans-mutational vector mapping. Common control functions include:      Velocity control. For example. special consideration is necessary of convergence and robustness issues. A more advanced case of electronic gearing is electronic camming. or an S-curve profile. Pressure or Force control. a slave axis follows a profile that is a function of the master position. robust control guarantees that if the changes are within given bounds the control law need not be changed. Historically the only open interface was an analog signal. This profile need not be salted. the first being SERCOS in 1991 which is now enhanced to SERCOS III. A good example of this would be in a system where two rotating drums turn at a given ratio to each other. trapezoidal profile. These are often based on the velocity profiles of a move such as a triangular profile. Classification of adaptive control techniques In general one should distinguish between: 1. while adaptive control is precisely concerned with control law changes. With electronic camming. Electronic gearing (or cam profiling): The position of a slave axis is mathematically linked to the position of a master axis. we need a control law that adapts itself to such changing conditions. Ethernet Powerlink. as an aircraft flies. its mass will slowly decrease as a result of fuel consumption. and EtherCAT.

THESE LOGIC GATES ARE DIGITAL CIRCUITS CONSTRUCTED FROM DIODES. there are several ways to apply adaptive control algorithms. TRANSISTORS. BOOLEAN 0 AND 1 DO NOT REPRESENT ACTUAL NUMBERS BUT INSTEAD REPRESENT THE STATE OF A VOLTAGE VARIABLE. BOOLEAN VARIABLES & TRUTH TABLES BOOLEAN ALGEBRA DIFFERS IN A MAJOR WAY FROM ORDINARY ALGEBRA IN THAT BOOLEAN CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES ARE ALLOWED TO HAVE ONLY TWO POSSIBLE VALUES. Self-tuning of fixed controllers on request if the process behaviour changes due to ageing. Adaptive control or self-tuning control of nonlinear controllers for nonlinear processes. NOT) PERFORMED ON THE INPUTS. wear etc. AND NOT. Hence. Usually these methods adapt the controllers to both the process statics and dynamics. optimizing the steady state. 0 OR 1. AND. THERE ARE THREE BASIC LOGIC OPERATIONS: AND . THE TABLE LISTS ALL POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF LOGIC LEVELS PRESENT AT INPUTS A AND B ALONG WITH THE CORRESPONDING OUTPUT LEVEL X..Einstein College of Engineering       Self-tuning of subsequently fixed linear controllers during the implementation phase for one operating point. TRUTH TABLE A TRUTH TABLE IS A MEANS FOR DESCRIBING HOW A LOGIC CIRCUIT'S OUTPUT DEPENDS ON THE LOGIC LEVELS PRESENT AT THE CIRCUIT'S INPUTS. Adaptive control of linear controllers for nonlinear or time-varying processes. AND RESISTORS CONNECTED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CIRCUIT OUTPUT IS THE RESULT OF A BASIC LOGIC OPERATION (OR. leading to adaptive control based on characteristic curves for the steady-states or to extremum value control. Self-tuning of subsequently fixed robust controllers during the implementation phase for whole range of operating points. OR WHAT IS CALLED ITS LOGIC LEVEL. drift. .OR. Adaptive control or self-tuning control of multivariable controllers for multivariable processes (MIMO systems). IN BOOLEAN ALGEBRA. In special cases the adaptation can be limited to the static behavior alone. SOME COMMON REPRESENTATION OF 0 AND 1 IS SHOWN IN THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM. IN THE FOLLOWING TWO-INPUT LOGIC CIRCUIT.


The output is 0 for any case where one or more inputs are 0 An example of three input AND gate and its truth table is as follows: . The multiplication sign stands for the AND operation.The AND operation produces a result of 1 occurs only for the single case when all of the input variables are 1. 1+ 1 + 1 = 1 and so on.Einstein College of Engineering With the OR operation. 1 + 1 = 1. same for ordinary multiplication of 1s and 0s. AND Operation The expression X = A * B reads as "X equals A AND B".

1*1 = 1. the result x can be expressed as x = A' where the prime (') represents the NOT operation. For example. 1*1*1 = 1 and so on. NOR Operation . and these terms are used interchangeably. This expression is read as: x equals NOT A x equals the inverse of A x equals the complement of A Each of these is in common usage and all indicate that the logic value of x = A' is o pposite to the logic value of A. The truth table of the NOT operation is as follows: 1'=0 0' = 1 because because NOT 0 is 1 NOT 1 is 0 The NOT operation is also referred to as inversion or complementation. NOT Operation The NOT operation is unlike the OR and AND operations in that it can be performed on a single input variable.Einstein College of Engineering With the AND operation. if the variable A is subjected to the NOT operation.

This small circle represents the inversion operation. This small circle represents the inversion operation. Therefore the output expression of the two input NAND gate is: X = (AB)' . OR and NOT. NOR gate symbol is the same as the OR gate symbol except that it has a small circle on the output. These gates combine the basic operations AND. which make it relatively easy to describe then using Boolean algebra.Einstein College of Engineering NOR and NAND gates are used extensively in digital circuitry. Therefore the output expression of the two input NOR gate is: X = (A + B)' An example of three inputs OR gate can be constructed by a NOR gate plus a NOT gate: NAND Operation NAND gate symbol is the same as the AND gate symbol except that it has a small circle on the output.

may be completely described using the Boolean operations. Circuits containing Inverters Whenever an INVERTER is present in a logic-circuit diagram. because the OR gate. unless there are parentheses in the expression. and NOT circuit are the basic building blocks of digital systems. This is an example of the circuit using Boolean expression: If an expression contains both AND and OR operations. no matter how complex. its output expression is simply equal to the input expression with a prime (') over it. in which case the operation inside the parentheses is to be performed first (X= (A+B) +C: A+B is performed first). AND gate.Einstein College of Engineering Describing Logic Circuits Algebraically Any logic circuit. the AND operations are performed first (X=AB+C: AB is performed first). .

First. B=1. D=1 X = A'BC (A+D)' = 0'*1*1* (0+1)' = 1 *1*1* (1)' = 1 *1*1* 0 =0 Let A=0. . Determining Output Level from a Diagram The output logic level for given input levels can also be determined directly from the circuit diagram without using the Boolean expression.Einstein College of Engineering Evaluating Logic Circuit Outputs Once the Boolean expression for a circuit output has been obtained. 4. the output logic level can be determined for any set of input levels. perform the operations of the expression first and then invert the result. perform all inversions of single terms. that is. These are two examples of the evaluating logic circuit output: Let A=0. 0 = 1 or 1 = 0. 2. the following rules must always be followed when evaluating a Boolean expression: 1. Then perform all operations within parentheses. B=0. E=1 X = [D+ ((A+B)C)'] * E = [1 + ((0+0)1 )'] * 1 = [1 + (0*1)'] * 1 = [1+ 0'] *1 = [1+ 1 ] * 1 =1 In general. C=1. 3. Perform an AND operation before an OR operation unless parentheses indicate otherwise. D=1. C=1. If an expression has a bar over it.

This Boolean expression contains three terms (AC. Note the use of INVERTERs to produce the A' and C' terms required in the expression. BC'. BC'. which are ORed together. and A'BC. which means that an AND gate with appropriate inputs can be used to generate each of these terms. A'BC). Each OR-gate input is an AND product term. Boolean Theorems . a logic-circuit diagram can he implemented directly from that expression. This tells us that a three-input OR gate is required with inputs that are equal to AC. respectively.Einstein College of Engineering Implementing Circuits from Boolean Expression If the operation of a circuit is defined by a Boolean expression. Suppose that we wanted to construct a circuit whose output is y = AC+BC' + A'BC.

Einstein College of Engineering Investigating the various Boolean theorems (rules) can help us to simplify logic expressions and logic circuits. Multivariable Theorems The theorems presented below involve more than one variable: (9) (10) (11) (12) (13a) (13b) (14) (15) x + y = y + x (commutative law) x * y = y * x (commutative law) x+ (y+z) = (x+y) +z = x+y+z (associative law) x (yz) = (xy) z = xyz (associative law) x (y+z) = xy + xz (w+x)(y+z) = wy + xy + wz + xz x + xy = x [proof see below] x + x'y = x + y Proof of (14) x + xy = x (1+y) = x * 1 [using theorem (6)] = x [using theorem (2)] DeMorgan's Theorem .

Einstein College of Engineering DeMorgan's theorems are extremely useful in simplifying expressions in which a product or sum of variables is inverted. The two theorems are: (16) (x+y)' = x' * y' Theorem (16) says that when the OR sum of two variables is inverted. (17) (x*y)' = x' + y' Theorem (17) says that when the AND product of two variables is inverted. . this is the same as inverting each variable individually and then ORing them. this is the same as inverting each variable individually and then ANDing these inverted variables.

can be used to perform each of the Boolean operations OR. . This is because NAND gates. in the proper combination. AND. and INVERT.Einstein College of Engineering Example X = [(A'+C) * (B+D')]' = (A'+C)' + (B+D')' [by theorem (17)] = (A''*C') + (B'+D'') [by theorem (16)] = AC' + B'D Three Variables DeMorgan's Theorem (18) (x+y+z)' = x' * y' * z' (19) (xyz)' = x' + y' + z' Universality of NAND & NOR Gates It is possible to implement any logic expression using only NAND gates and no other type of gate.

the operation symbol is not changed. and the right side shows the alternate symbol. This is done by adding bubbles (small circles) on input and output lines that do not have bubbles. The alternate symbol for each gate is obtained from the standard symbol by doing the following: 1. (In the special case of the INVERTER. Invert each input and output of the standard symbol. it can be shown that NOR gates can be arranged to implement any of the Boolean operations. 2.Einstein College of Engineering In a similar manner. and by removing bubbles that are already there. Alternate Logic Gate Representations The left side of the illustration shows the standard symbol for each logic gate. or from OR to AND. Change the operation symbol from AND to OR.) .

. Concept of Active Logic Levels: When an input or output line on a logic circuit symbol has no bubble on it. then. determines the active-HIGH/activeLOW status of a circuit's inputs and output. and all the alternate symbols do. When an input or output line does have a bubble on it. that line is said to be active-HIGH. The standard and alternate symbols for each gate represent the same physical circuit: there is no difference in the circuits represented by the two symbols. and so both the standard and alternate symbols for each will have a bubble on either the input or the output. None of the standard symbols have bubbles on their inputs. 4. AND and OR gates are noninverting gates. NAND and NOR gates are inverting gates. and is used to interpret the circuit operation. 3. The equivalences are valid for gates with any number of inputs. 2. and so the alternate symbols for each will have bubbles on both inputs and output.Einstein College of Engineering Several points should be stressed regarding the logic symbol equivalences: 1. that line is said to be active-LOW. The presence or absence of a bubble.

c+d‘. Otherwise. f = (a +b) • (c+d‘) Precedence: a+b. the constants 0 & 1. NOT 3. x • y + x • z‘ e. f = x • y + x • z‘ The Boolean function f has 3 binaryvariables x. y and z The function is 1 if x and y are both 1 or if x is 1 and z is 0. f = x • y + x • z‘ Precedence: z‘. its truth table will have 2n rows e.g.g. Parentheses 2. x • z‘. x • y. OR e.For a set of given values of the variables.Einstein College of Engineering Boolean Function A Boolean function is an algebraic expression consists of binary variables.If the function has n variables.g. (a +b) • (c+d‘) The parentheses precedence is the same as in normal algebra Boolean Function Truth Table Boolean function can be represented by truth table as well. d‘.g. f = 0 Operator Precedence The operator precedence is: 1. the function is evaluated to either 0 or 1 e. and the Boolean operators. AND 4. f = x • y + x • z‘ f has 3 variables so 23 combinations .

there are 4 and only 4 possible combinations: x‘+y‘. x•y‘ & x•y Each of the 4 product terms is called a MINTERM or STANDARD PRODUCT By definition. a Maxterm is a sum in which each variable appears once and only once either in its normal form or its complement form but NOT BOTH. x+y‘. a binary variable (x) may appear either in its normal form (x) or in its complement form (x‘). x‘+y. for a function with 2 variables x and y: x•y‘ is a minterm but x‘ is NOT a minterm e. Minterm In a Boolean function. x+y. e.g. for a function with 3 variables x.Einstein College of Engineering f is 1 when the expression is evaluated to 1 otherwise it is 0. y andz: x‘yz‘ is a minterm but xy‘ is NOT a minterm Maxterm Consider 2 binary variables x and y and an OR operation. there are 4 and only 4 possible combinations: x‘•y‘.Consider 2 binary variables x and y and an AND operation.g. a Minterm is a product which consists of all the variables in the normal form or the complement form but NOT BOTH.By definition. x‘•y.Each of the 4 sum terms is called a MAXTERM or STANDARD SUM. Minterms and Maxterms for 3 Variables .

7) f2 = M0•M1•M3•M5 = Π M(0. 6.g. e. 7) Maxterm Boolean Expression Boolean functions can also be expressed with maxterms. 1.z) = m1 + m4 + m6 = Σm(1.g. 4.z) = m2 + m4 + m6+ m7 = Σm(2. 4.y. 6) f2(x. 5.y. 5) .Einstein College of Engineering Minterm Boolean Expression Boolean functions can be expressed with minterms.f1(x. 3. e. 2. 3.f1‘ = x‘y‘z‘+x‘yz‘+x‘yz+xy‘z+xyz f1 = (x‘y‘z‘+x‘yz‘+x‘yz+xy‘z+xyz)‘ = (x+y+z)(x+y‘+z)(x+y‘+z‘)(x‘+y+z‘)(x‘+y‘+z‘) = M0•M2•M3•M5•M7 = Π M(0.

each minterm must have 3 literals Neither a‘ nor bc‘ are minterms.b. therefore.g. 2 and 3 literals Express Boolean Functions in Minterms If product terms in a Boolean function are not minterms.c) = a‘ + bc‘ + ab‘c To convert a‘ to a minterm.g. 2 and 3 literals respectively x‘(x+y‘)(x‘+y+z) is an expression of product of sums.c) = a‘+bc‘ = (a‘+b)(a‘+c‘) {not maxterms} = (a‘+b+cc‘)(a‘+c‘+bb‘) {cc‘=0} = (a‘+b+c)(a‘+b+c‘)(a‘+c‘+b)(a‘+c‘+b‘) = (a‘+b+c)(a‘+b+c‘)(a‘+c‘+b‘) Boolean Function Manipulation .ab‘c is a minterm Conversion to Minterms e. f(a.c) = a‘ + bc‘ + ab‘c Function f has 3 variables.Einstein College of Engineering Literal A Literal is a variable in a product or sum term xy‘ is a 2-literal product term x‘yz has 3 literals x‘ + xy‘ + x‘yz is an expression of sum of products with 3 product terms. f(a.The 3 product terms have 1. a‘b = a‘b(c + c‘) = a‘bc + a‘bc‘ and a‘b‘ = a‘b‘(c+c‘) = a‘b‘c + a‘b‘c‘ bc‘ = bc‘(a+a‘) = abc‘ + a‘bc‘ f = a‘bc+a‘bc‘+a‘b‘c+a‘b‘c‘+abc‘+a‘bc‘+ab‘c Express Boolean Functions in Maxterms By using the Distribution Law: x+yz = (x+y)(x+z).They can be converted to minterm.b.Since a‘=a‘•1 & 1 = b+b‘.The 3 sum terms have 1. the 2 variables (b. c) must be added.b.g. a‘= a‘(b + b‘) = a‘b + a‘b‘ Similarly. without changing its functionality . they can be converted to minterms e. a Boolean function can be converted to an expression in product of maxterms e. f(a.

The function is converted into numeric notation.e. -> These prime implicants must be in the final answer. The single crosses on a column are circled and all the crosses on the same row are also circled.Manipulation can transform logic expressions. The next step is to identify the essential prime implicants. Begin with the minimization procedure. Each minterm of one group is compared with each minterm in the group immediately below. indicating that these crosses are covered by the prime implicants selected. If any non-essential prime implicant has all its crosses circled. the intersection of the corresponding row and column is marked with a cross. .Einstein College of Engineering Boolean functions can be manipulated with Boolean algebra. but still keep the same logic functionality. Each time a number is found in one group which is the same as a number in the group below except for one digit. all the crosses on that column can be circled since the minterm is now covered. The above procedure is repeated on the second column to generate a third column. Once one cross on a column is circled. the prime implicant is redundant and need not be considered further. Where a prime implicant covers a minterm. This composite number has the same number of digits as the numbers in the pair except the digit different which is replaced by an "x". The minterms are arranged in a column divided into groups. fewer logic gates Boolean Function Manipulation Example f = xy‘ + xyz + x‘z = x(y‘ + yz) + x‘z {common factor} = x[(y‘+y)(y‘+z)] + x‘z {Distribution law} = x(y‘+z) + x‘z {y‘ + y = 1} = xy‘ + xz + x‘z {Distribution law} = xy‘ + (x + x‘)z {common factor} = xy‘ + z {x + x‘ = 1} Simplify f1=abc+a‘b+abc‘ and f2=(a+b)‘(a‘+b‘) to the minimum literals f1 = abc+a‘b+abc‘ = ab(c+c‘) + a‘b = ab + a‘b = (a+a‘)b = b f2 =(a+b)‘(a‘+b‘) = a‘b‘(a‘+b‘) {DeMorgan} = a‘b‘a‘+a‘b‘b‘ = a‘b‘ + a‘b‘ = a‘b‘ QUINE-McCLUSKEY MINIMIZATION Quine-McCluskey minimization method uses the same theorem to produce the solution as the K-map method. the numbers pair is ticked and a new composite is created. The numbers are converted into binary form.Manipulation can reduce the complexity. hence. which can be done using a prime implicant chart. namely X(Y+Y')=X Minimization Technique                The expression is represented in the canonical SOP form if not already in that form. easier to be implemented in hardware. i. Those columns with only one cross identify the essential prime implicants.

Binary representation of minterms Minterms 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 U 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 V 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 W 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 X 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Group of minterms for different number of 1's No of 1's 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Minterms 1 2 8 3 9 10 7 11 14 U 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 V 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 W 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 X 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 .3. One generally would take those prime implicants which cover the greatest number of crosses on their row. using Quine-McCluskey method. a selection must be made from the remaining nonessential prime implicants.7.2. Example Find the minimal sum of products for the Boolean expression.10. If all the crosses in one row also occur on another row which includes further crosses. f= (1. The dominated prime implicant can then be deleted.9. Firstly these minterms are represented in the binary form as shown in the table below.15).8.11. then the latter is said to dominate the former and can be selected. The above binary representations are grouped into a number of sections in terms of the number of 1's as shown in the table below.14. by considering how the non-circled crosses can be covered best.Einstein College of Engineering     Next.

3.15) (14.11) (10.11).10) (8. the prime implicants table can be plotted as shown in table below.11).11) (8.11.9) (8.11) (9.11) combination could be written as (1. 2-Cell combinations Combinations (1.15) (11.Einstein College of Engineering 4 15 1 1 1 1 Any two numbers in these groups which differ from each other by only one variable can be chosen and combined.11) (2.9) (2.3) (1.3) and (9.15) U 1 1 V 0 0 0 W 1 1 1 X 1 1 - The cells (1.7) (3.10. Prime Implicants Table Prime 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 .14) (7.3.15) U 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 V 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 W 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 X 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 - From the 2-cell combinations. Combinations (1. one variable and dash in the same position can be combined to form 4-cell combinations as shown in the figure below.10) (3.3.11) ( (10.9. The order in which the cells are placed in a combination does not have any effect. Thus the ( to get 2-cell combination. as shown in the table below.3) (2.14.11) form the same 4-cell combination as the cells (1.15) (10.9) and (3.9. From above 4-cell combination table.

9.7. Sequential logic blocks have the outputs depending on the current inputs as well as any previous inputs.11) (8.15) - X X X X X X - X X X X X - X X X - X X X X - X X X - The columns having only one cross mark correspond to essential prime implicants.11) (2. A yellow cross is used against every essential prime implicant. b) The outputs are 1-bit sum (s) & 1-bit carry (c) The logic is: .3.Einstein College of Engineering Implicants ( The prime implicants sum gives the function in its minimal SOP form.10. Y = V'X + V'W + UV' + WX + UW Logic  Combinational logic blocks have the outputs depending on the combinations of the current inputs.11) (3. Binary Adder  Binary Adder is for binary number addition  Logic Circuit to be discussed:  Half Adder  Full Adder  Ripple Adder  Carry Look Ahead Adder  Half Adder o o o o Half adder is for addition of 2 single bits It has two 1-bit inputs and two 1-bit outputs The inputs are the 2 bits to be added (a.9.

the adder needs to take in 3 inputs: a. b and ci) and produces 2 outputs (s. ci is the carry input (carry over from the previous bit) and co is the carry output (to the next bit) . an adder with 3 inputs is required. Full Adder To carry the addition.Einstein College of Engineering Binary Addition The half adder adds 2 single-bit inputs It cannot complete a full addition To complete a full addition. A Full Adder takes in 3 inputs (a. co) a & b are the 2 bits to be added. b and the carry from the previous bit.

Circuit-SUM .Einstein College of Engineering Logic for Full Adder Logic equations derived from the truth table: s = a b   ci co = ab + bci + aci Full Adder The below implementation shows implementing the full adder with AND-OR gates. The basis of the circuit below is from the above Kmap. instead of using XOR gates.

we need a n-bit adder.which can be built from ‗n ‗fulladders .Einstein College of Engineering Circuit-CARRY Full adder can be built from 2 half adders s = a b ci co = ab+bci+aci = ab+(a‘bci+abci)+(abci+ab‘ci) = ab + abci + ci (a‘b+ab‘) = ab + ci (a  b) n-bit Ripple Adder To perform an addition of 2 n-bit numbers An-1…A1A0 & Bn-1…B1B0. where An-1 & Bn-1 are theMSB & A0B0 are the LSB.

Once these bits are available to the rest of the circuit. carry_in0 carry_out2 = G2 + P2G1 + P2P1G0 + P2P1P0 . For each input bits pair these functions are defined as: Gi = Xi . This solution involves a "look-ahead carry generator" which is a block that simultaneously calculates all the carry bits involved. carry_in0 carry_out1 = G1 + P1 . carry_in0 carry_out3 = G3 + P3G2 + P3P2G1 + P3P2P1G0 + P3P2P1 . In the second. The design of the look-ahead carry generator involves two Boolean functions named Generate and Propagate. The input signals need to propagate through a maximum of 4 logic gate in such an adder as opposed to 8 and 12 logic gates in its counterparts illustrated earlier. each individual three-bit addition (Xi+Yi+carry-ini) is implemented by a simple 3-input XOR gate. the carry bit is received from the less significant elementary addition and is propagated further to the more significant elementary addition. the carry bit is activated by the local conditions (the values of Xi and Yi). In the first case. For large values of N. carry_out0 = G1 + P1G0 + P1P0 . the delay becomes unacceptably large so that a special solution needs to be adopted to accelerate the calculation of the carry bits. carry_in0 The set of equations above are implemented by the circuit below and a complete adder with a look-ahead carry generator is next.carry_in(i-1) For a four-bit adder the carry-outs are calculated as follows carry_out0 = G0 + P0 .Einstein College of Engineering Ripple Adder: Carry ripples through the chain Carry-Look-Ahead Adder The delay generated by an N-bit adder is proportional to the length N of the two numbers X and Y that are added because the carry signals have to propagate from one full-adder to the next. Therefore. the carry_out bit corresponding to a pair of bits Xi and Yi is calculated according to the equation: carry_out(i) = Gi + Pi. Yi Pi = Xi + Yi The carry bit c-out(i) generated when adding two bits Xi and Yi is '1' if the corresponding function Gi is '1' or if the c-out(i-1)='1' and the function Pi = '1' simultaneously. .

we obtain the sum & carry for the full adder: Ci+1= Gi + PiCi C1 = G0 + P0C0 C2 = G1 + P1C1 = G1 + P1(G0 + P0C0) = G1 + P1G0 + P1P0C0 C3 = G2 + P2C2 = G2 + P2(G1 + P1G0 + P1P0C0) = G2 + P2G1 + P2P1G0 + P2P1P0C0 Carry no longer depend on its previous stage Look-Ahead Carry Generator .Einstein College of Engineering Pi is called Carry Propagate Gi is called Carry Generate With Pi and Gi.

where carryout is taken from the carry calculated in the above circuit.Einstein College of Engineering Speed: 2 gate delays for all carry Cost: more gates Sums can be calculated from the following equations. sum_out0 = X 0 sum_out1 = X 1 Y0 Y1 carry_out0 carry_out1 .

Einstein College of Engineering sum_out2 = X 2 sum_out3 = X 3 Y2 Y3 carry_out2 carry_out3 MSI Adder Adders are available in Medium Scale Integration (MSI) devices Both TTL and CMOS are available. e. 74183: TTL 1-bit Full Adder 7482: TTL 4-bit Carry-Look-Ahead Adder 4008: CMOS 4-bit Carry-Look-Ahead Adder 74182: 4-bit Look-Ahead Carry Generator 4-bit Addition .g.

  Half Subtractor Full Subtractor Half Subtractor . difference and borrow (carry-in the case of Adder). it gives out two outputs.Einstein College of Engineering To add 2 4-bit numbers: Z = X + Y 8-bit Addition To add 2 8-bit numbers: Z = X + Y Subtractor Subtractor circuits take two binary numbers as input and subtract one binary number input from the other binary number input. Similar to adders. There are two types of subtractors.

It has two inputs. X (minuend) and Y (subtrahend) and two outputs D (difference) and B (borrow). The logic symbol and truth table are shown below. The boolean expression for the difference and Borrow can be written. . Symbol Truth Table X 0 0 1 1 Y 0 1 0 1 D 0 1 1 0 B 0 1 0 0 From the above table we can draw the Kmap as shown below for "difference" and " borrow".Einstein College of Engineering The half-subtractor is a combinational circuit which is used to perform subtraction of two bits. From the equation we can draw the half-subtractor as shown in the figure below.

subtrahend. and borrow-in. The logic symbol and truth table are shown below. Symbol Truth Table X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Bin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 D 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Bout 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 From above table we can draw the Kmap as shown below for "difference" and "borrow". . namely minuend.Einstein College of Engineering Full Subtractor A full subtractor is a combinational circuit that performs subtraction involving three bits.

Y + X'.Einstein College of Engineering The boolean expression for difference and borrow can be written as D = X'Y'Bin + X'YBin' + XY'Bin' + XYBin = (X'Y' + XY)Bin + (X'Y + XY')Bin' = (X =X Y)'Bin + (X Y Bin Y)Bin' Bout = X'. .Bin From the equation we can draw the full-subtractor as shown in figure below.Bin + Y. Full-subtractor circuit is more or less same as a full-adder with slight modification.

. seen before in parallel binary adder section. The circuit for a 4-bit serial subtractor using full-adder is shown in the figure below. The subtrahend is stored in the Y register and must be 2's complemented before it is added to the minuend stored in the X register. Below is the block level representation of a 4-bit parallel binary subtractor. It has 4-bit difference output D3D2D1D0 with borrow output Bout. A serial subtractor can be obtained by converting the serial adder using the 2's complement system. which subtracts 4-bit Y3Y2Y1Y0 from 4-bit X3X2X1X0.Einstein College of Engineering Parallel Binary Subtractor Parallel binary subtractor can be implemented by cascading several full-subtractors. Implementation and associated problems are those of a parallel binary adder.

B=10xx or A=01xx. A3=B3 and A2=B2 and A1B1=10 and A0B0 is xx: e. B=00xx 3. A3=B3 and A2B2 is 10 and A1 A0 & B1B0 can be anything: A=11xx. . Y A=B For each bit.g. A=011x. B=010x 4. Logic comparing 2 bits: a and b Magnitude Comparator Comparator compares binary numbers 4-bit Magnitude Comparator: Inputs: A3A2A1A0 & B3B2B1B0 Outputs: Y A>B. A3=B3 and A2=B2 and A1=B1 and A0B0 is 10: e.g. Y A<B. B=0xxx 2.Einstein College of Engineering Comparator Comparator compares binary numbers. there are 4 cases: 1. we must have: A3=B3 and A2=B2 and A1=B1 and A0=B0 Hence. let: Si = AiBi + Ai‘Bi‘ = (AiBi‘ + Ai‘Bi)‘ Si is true when Ai = Bi For A = B. A3B3 is 10 and A2 A1 A0 & B2B1B0 can be anything: A=1xxx. Y A=B = S3•S2•S1•S0 136 Logic For A > B For A > B.

B=01xx 3) A3=B3 and A2=B2 and A1B1=01 and A0B0 is xx: e. B=1010 Y A>B=A3B3’+S3A2B2’+S3S2A1B1’+S3S2S1A0B0’ Logic For A < B For A < B.Einstein College of Engineering A=1011. B=1001 Y A<B=A3 ’B3+S3A2 ’B2+S3S2A1 ’ B1+S3S2S1A0 ’ B0 4-bit Comparator Logic Circuit MSI: 7485 4-bit Magnitude Comparator . A=0xxx. B=111x 4) A3=B3 and A2=B2 and A1=B1 and A0B0 is 01: e.g. B=1xxx 2) A3=B3 and A2B2 is 01 and A1 A0 & B1B0 can be 1. A=110x.g. 1. A=1000. 1. B=11xx or A=00xx. anything: A=10xx. there are also 4 cases: 1) A3B3 is 01 and A2A1A0 & B2B1B0 can be anything: 1.

bit Numbers .Einstein College of Engineering Comparison of 4-bit Numbers Comparison of 8 .

A binary decoder has n inputs and 2 n outputs. 7 segment display and memory address decoding. Figure below shows a representation of Binary n-to-2n decoder . Only one output is active at any one time.Decoding is necessary in applications such as data multiplexing. corresponding to the input value. multiple-output logic circuit that converts coded inputs into coded outputs. where the input and output codes are different. Enable inputs must be on for the decoder to function. otherwise its outputs assume a single "disabled" output code word. Inputs have all the 2n combinations and the corresponding output will be activated for each input combinations.Binary Decoder has n inputs and 2noutputs also called as n-to-2n decoder.Einstein College of Engineering Decoder A decoder is a multiple-input. Figure below shows the pseudo block of a decoder.

g.Einstein College of Engineering  e. 3-to-8 decoder has 3 inputs and 8 outputs 3-to-8 Decoder Function Table 3-to-8 Decoder Logic Circuit .

Einstein College of Engineering 2-to-4 Decoder with Output Enable Implement Logic Function with Decoder    Any n-variable logic function. and an OR gate to form the sum. The output lines of the decoder corresponding to the minterms of the function are used as inputs to the or gate. Any combinational circuit with n inputs and m outputs can be implemented with an n-to-2n decoder with m OR gates. Suitable when a circuit has many outputs. . and each output function is expressed with few minterms. in canonical sum-of-minterms form can be implemented using a single n-to-2n decoder to generate the minterms.

X 0 0 0 0 1 1 Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 Z 0 1 0 1 0 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 1 S 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Use a 3-to-8 decoder to implement: f = x‘y‘z + xy‘z + xyz (m1 + m5 + m7) . z) = C(x.2. y.Einstein College of Engineering (Ex) Full adder using decoder S(x. z) = ( Truth Table From the truth table we know the values for 1 1 0 1 which the sum 1 1 1 1 (s) is active and also the carry (c) is active. y. Thus we have the equation as shown above and a circuit can be drawn as shown below from the equation derived.7) (3.

BCD-to-Decimal Decoder 5. 4-to-16 Decoder 4. Low Power Schottky TTL: 74LS138 3-to-8 Decoder where G1. G2A and G2B are enable pins Logic Symbol . 3-to-8 Decoder 3. BCD-to-Seven-Segment Decoder e.g. 2-to-4 Decoder 2.Einstein College of Engineering MSI Decoders 1.

Einstein College of Engineering 74LS138 3-to-8 Decoder Implement Logic Function with74LS138 Use a 3-to-8 decoder to implement: f = x‘y‘z + xy‘z + xyz (m1 + m5 + m7) .

A Outputs: Y0 – Y15 When D = 0.bottom decoderis enabled En‘ is enable Binary Encoders . C. top decoder is enabled When D = 1.Einstein College of Engineering 4-to-16 Decoder Use 2 3-to-8 decoders Inputs: D. B.

g. where it has only one of 2n inputs = 1 and the output is the n-bit binary number corresponding to the active input. The simplest encoder is a 2n-to-n binary encoder. Truth Table I0 1 0 0 0 0 I1 0 1 0 0 0 I2 0 0 1 0 0 I3 0 0 0 1 0 I4 0 0 0 0 1 I5 0 0 0 0 0 I6 0 0 0 0 0 I7 0 0 0 0 0 Y2 0 0 0 0 1 Y1 0 0 1 1 0 Y0 0 1 0 1 0 . priority encoders. 2n-to-n. the device is usually called an encoder.g. If a device output code has fewer bits than the input code has. The figure below shows the truth table of an Octal-to-binary encoder. At any one time. It can be built from OR gates  e.Einstein College of Engineering An encoder is a combinational circuit that performs the inverse operation of a decoder. only one input line has a value of 1. e. thus doing the opposite of what the 3to-8 decoder does. 4-to-2 Encoder Octal-to-Binary Encoder Octal-to-Binary take 8 inputs and provides 3 outputs.

The priority encoder includes a priority function. we can draw the circuit as shown below Priority Encoder If more then two inputs are active simultaneously. 4-to-2 PriorityEncoder A3 has the highest priority A0 has the lower priority . the output is unpredictable or rather it is not what we expect it to be. no matter how many inputs are active at a given point of time.Einstein College of Engineering 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 For an 8-to-3 binary encoder with inputs I0-I7 the logic expressions of the outputs Y0-Y2 are: Y0 = I1 + I3 + I5 + I7 Y1= I2 + I3 + I6 + I7 Y2 = I4 + I5 + I6 +I7 Based on the above equations. The operation of the priority encoder is such that if two or more inputs are active at the same time.This ambiguity is resolved if priority is established so that only one input is encoded. the input having the highest priority will take precedence.g.    e.

The block diagram of MUX with n data sources of b bits wide and s bits wide select line is shown in below figure. . A number of select inputs determine which data source is connected to the output. The Input 15 has highest priority Multiplexer A multiplexer (MUX) is a digital switch which connects data from one of n sources to the output.Einstein College of Engineering 74148 8-to-3 Priority Encoder 16-to-4 Priority Encoder Cascade two 74148 8-to-3 priority encoders.

based on the select input signal. Selection lines S are decoded to select a particular AND gate. At any given point of time only one input gets selected and is connected to output. As you can see at any given point of time only one input gets transferred to output. This rotary switch can touch any of the inputs.Einstein College of Engineering MUX acts like a digitally controlled multi-position switch where the binary code applied to the select inputs controls the input source that will be switched on to the output as shown in the figure below. each 2 input lines A to B is applied to one input of an AND gate. . The operation of a multiplexer can be better explained using a mechanical switch as shown in the figure below. 2x1 MUX A 2 to 1 line multiplexer is shown in figure below. The truth table for the 2:1 mux is given in the table below. which is connected to the output.

S Truth Table B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Kmap A 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 S 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Y 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 . we can draw the K-map as shown in figure for all the cases when Y is equal to '1'.S‘ + B. we can drive the output y as shown below Y = A. Combining the two 1' as shown in figure. And once we have the truth table.Einstein College of Engineering Design of a 2:1 Mux To derive the gate level implementation of 2:1 mux we need to have truth table as s hown in figure.

Einstein College of Engineering Circuit MSI MUX 74150: 16-to-1 74153: Dual 4-to-1 74157: Quad 2-to-1 74151: 8-to-1 .

Einstein College of Engineering 16-to-1 MUX Use two 74151 D = 0 enables top MUX D = 1 enables bottom MUX W = Y‘ = (Y1+Y2)‘ = (W1‘+W2‘)‘ = W1W2 .

8-to-1 multiplexer from Smaller MUX 16-to-1 multiplexer from 4:1 mux . An 8-to-1 multiplexer can be constructed from smaller multiplexers as shown below.Einstein College of Engineering Larger Multiplexers Larger multiplexers can be constructed from smaller ones.

Einstein College of Engineering Quadruple 2-to-1 MUX It is 2-to-1 MUX with 4 bits for each input There is 1 output of 4 bits There is 1 select signal When 1 input is selected. the whole group of 4 bits goes to the output .

Construct the truth table for the function. Express function in canonical sum-of-minterms form. Choose n-1 variables as inputs to mux select lines. but grouping inputs by selection line values (i.Einstein College of Engineering Quad 2-to-1 MUX Implementing Functions Multiplexers Any n-variable logic function can be implemented using a smaller 2 n-1-to-1 multiplexer and a single inverter (e.e select lines as most significant inputs). .g 4-to-1 mux to implement 3 variable functions) as follows.

5. Connect to the inverted remaining variable if the function is equal to the remaining variable inverted 3-variable Function Using 8-to-1 mux Implement the function F(X. 3-variable Function Using 4-to-1 mux Implement the function F(X. 7 are connected to 0.Y.3.Z) = S(0.Y. 4. Connect to remaining variable if function is equal to the remaining variable. 5.1. 6 that correspond to the function minterms are connected to 1.3. Z to mux select lines. Y as mux select lines. Y.6) using a single 4-to-1 mux and an inverter. Connect to 1 if the function is 1 for both values of remaining variable. Mux data input lines 1. 2.Einstein College of Engineering Determine multiplexer input line i values by comparing the remaining input variable and the function F for the corresponding selection lines value i.6) using an 8-to-1 mux.Z) = S(1. Truth Table Select i 0 0 1 1 2 X 0 0 0 0 1 Y 0 0 1 1 0 Z 0 1 0 1 0 F 1 1 0 1 0 Mux Input i 1 1 Z Z 0 . 3. The remaining mux data input lines 0. Connect the input variables X. We have four possible mux input line i values:     Connect to 0 if the function is 0 for both values of remaining variable. We choose the two most significant inputs X.

Einstein College of Engineering 2 3 3 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Z' Z' We determine multiplexer input line i values by comparing the remaining Z and the function F for the corresponding selection lines value i     input variable when XY=00 the function F is 1 (for both Z=0. Z=1) thus mux input0 = 1 when XY=01 the function F is Z thus mux input1 = Z when XY=10 the function F is 0 (for both Z=0. Z=1) thus mux input2 = 0 when XY=11 the function F is Z' thus mux input3 = Z' .

Einstein College of Engineering Example for logic function implementation using MUX De-multiplexers .

one b-bits-wide data input and n b-bits-wide outputs.The figure below shows a de-multiplexer block diagram which has got s-bits-wide select input.Usually implemented by using n-to-2n binary decoders where the decoder enable line is used for data input of the de-multiplexer. The operation of a de-multiplexer can be better explained using a mechanical switch as shown in the figure below. As you can see at any given point of time only one output gets connected to input. This rotary switch can touch any of the outputs.Einstein College of Engineering They are digital switches which connect data from one input source to one of n outputs. 1-to-4 De-multiplexer . which is connected to the input.

amusement rides. or lighting fixtures. immunity to electrical noise. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. This program notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. Early PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. based on a stack-based logic solver. and so the logic was instead represented as a series of logic expressions . otherwise unintended operation will result. Internal relays and counters – Shift Registers – Master and Jump Controls – Data Handling – Analogs Input / Output – Selection of a PLC Problem. extended temperature ranges. PROGRAMMING LOGIC CONTROLLERS Programmable Logic Controllers – Basic Structure – Input / Output Processing – Programming – Mnemonics – Timers. Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways. which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic. the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements. Unlike general-purpose computers. A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes. from ladder logic to more traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Many early PLCs did not have accompanying programming terminals that were capable of graphical representation of the logic. Other early PLCs used a form of instruction list programming. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time. a very high-level programming language designed to program PLCs based on state transition diagrams. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic". and resistance to vibration and impact. such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines.Einstein College of Engineering Truth Table S1 0 0 1 1 S0 0 1 0 1 F0 D 0 0 0 F1 0 D 0 0 F2 0 0 D 0 F3 0 0 0 D Unit 4. Another method is State Logic.

and in practice implementations of ladder logic have characteristics . Manufacturers of programmable logic controllers generally also provide associated ladder logic programming systems. As programmable logic controllers became more sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation systems. By executing the loop fast enough. because of the resemblance to familiar hardware systems. Newer formats such as State Logic and Function Block (which is similar to the way logic is depicted when using digital integrated logic circuits) exist. the effect of simultaneous and immediate execution is relatively achieved to within the tolerance of the time required to execute every rung in the "loop" (the "scan time"). A primary reason for this is that PLCs solve the logic in a predictable and repeating sequence. However. Example of a simple ladder logic program . Typically the ladder logic languages from two manufacturers will not be completely compatible. Ladder logic can be thought of as a rule-based language rather than a procedural language. The name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders. As programming terminals evolved. with two vertical rails and a series of horizontal rungs between them. it became more common for ladder logic to be used. but they are still not as popular as ladder logic. for the aforementioned reasons. proper use of programmable controllers requires understanding the limitations of the execution order of rungs. An argument that aided the initial adoption of ladder logic was that a wide variety of engineers and technicians would be able to understand and use it without much additional training. ladder logic is better thought of as a set of closely related programming languages rather than one language. When implemented in a programmable logic controller. A "rung" in the ladder represents a rule. When implemented with relays and other electromechanical devices. It is primarily used to develop software for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. similar to Boolean algebra. Often the ladder logic program is used in conjunction with an HMI program operating on a computer workstation. the various rules "execute" simultaneously and immediately. Ladder logic is widely used to program PLCs. where sequential control of a process or manufacturing operation is required. It is somewhat similar to other rulebased languages. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control systems or for reworking old hardwired relay circuits. like spreadsheets or SQL. (The IEC 61131-3 standard has helped to reduce unnecessary differences.Einstein College of Engineering in some version of Boolean format. the rules are typically executed sequentially by software. and ladder logic allows the programmer (the person writing the logic) to see any issues with the timing of the logic sequence more easily than would be possible in other formats.such as sequential execution and support for control flow features—that make the analogy to hardware somewhat inaccurate. in a continuous loop (scan). Ladder logic is a programming language that represents a program by a graphical diagram based on the circuit diagrams of relay-based logic hardware. This argument has become less relevant given that most ladder logic programmers have a software background in more conventional programming languages. but translating programs between systems still requires significant work. typically many times per second.) Even different models of programmable controllers within the same family may have different ladder notation such that programs cannot be seamlessly interchanged between models.

Each rung of ladder language typically has one coil at the far right. --( )-. there may be hundreds or thousands of rungs.Einstein College of Engineering The language itself can be seen as a set of connections between logical checkers (contacts) and actuators (coils). the rung is true and the output coil storage bit is asserted (1) or true. through asserted (true or "closed") contacts.a regular coil. Some manufacturers may allow more than one output coil on a rung. or may represent an internal storage bit for use elsewhere in the program. or may represent the status of internal storage bits which may be generated elsewhere in the program. Ladder logic has contacts that make or break circuits to control coils. energized whenever its rung is open --[ ]-. If no path can be traced. In real life. then the output is false (0) and the "coil" by analogy to electromechanical relays is considered "de-energized". energized whenever its rung is closed --(\)-. So-called "contacts" may refer to physical ("hard") inputs to the programmable controller from physical devices such as pushbuttons and limit switches via an integrated or external input module. --[\]-. equivalent to a relay with an indefinitely large number of contacts.A regular contact. a ladder program can refer any number of times to the status of a single bit.A "not" contact. The analogy between logical propositions and relay contact status is due to Claude Shannon. Examples Here is an example of what one rung in a ladder logic program might look like. closed whenever its corresponding coil or an input which controls it is energized. Unlike electromechanical relays. For example: 1. open whenever its corresponding coil or an input which controls it is energized. The "coil" (output of a rung) may represent a physical output which operates some device connected to the programmable controller.a "not" coil. If a path can be traced between the left side of the rung and the output. Each coil or contact corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller's memory. ----[ ]---------|--[ ]--|------( ) X | Y | S | | |--[ ]--| Z The above realizes the function: S = X AND ( Y OR Z ) .

The lock solenoid gets power when either set of contacts is closed. ----[ ]----[ ]-------------------( ) S X T 2. The stop button itself is wired as a normally closed switch. which are numbered in order of evaluation. and we want to turn it off with a big red "Stop" button. Often we have a little green "start" button to turn on a motor.) or into rung 3 on the ladder. After the first line has been evaluated. (Note that the contact X on the second rung serves no useful purpose.) This system allows very complex logic designs to be broken down and evaluated. above This represents a slightly more complex system for rung 2. electricity is able to flow to the motor which opens the door. When the normally open contacts of both switches close. 1. This is a logical AND. ----[ ]-----------|---[ ]---|----( ) X | Y | S | | |---[ ]---| Z 2. the PLC input is read . light etc. This is a logical OR. as X is already defined in the 'AND' function of S from the 1st rung. T = S AND X where S is equivalent to #1. which is then evaluated and the output coil T could be fed into an output device (buzzer. As each of the lines (or rungs) are evaluated the output coil of a rung may feed into the next stage of the ladder as an input. For more practical examples see below: ------[ ]--------------[ ]----------------( ) Key Switch 1 Key Switch 2 Door Motor This circuit shows two key switches that security guards might use to activate an electric motor on a bank vault door. In a complex system there will be many "rungs" on a ladder.Einstein College of Engineering Typically. +-------+ ----------------------------+ +---+-------+ Remote Receiver --|-------[ ]-------+-----------------( ) | Remote Unlock | Lock Solenoid | | |-------[ ]-------| Interior Unlock This circuit shows the two things that can trigger a car's power door locks. the output coil (S) is fed into rung 2. complex ladder logic is 'read' left to right and top to bottom.. The remote receiver is always powered.

Einstein College of Engineering as normally open. When the stop button is pushed, the input will go false. Making the rung false, stopping the "run" output.

--+----[ ]--+----[\]----( ) | start | stop run | | +----[ ]--+ run -------[ ]--------------( ) run motor

This latch configuration is a common idiom in ladder logic. In ladder logic it is referred to as seal-in logic.

Additional functionality
Additional functionality can be added to a ladder logic implementation by the PLC manufacturer as a special block. When the special block is powered, it executes code on predetermined arguments. These arguments may be displayed within the special block.

+-------+ -----[ ]--------------------+ A +---Remote Unlock +-------+ Remote Counter +-------+ -----[ ]--------------------+ B +---Interior Unlock +-------+ Interior Counter +--------+ --------------------+ A + B +----------+ into C + +--------+ Adder

In this example, the system will count the number of times that the interior and remote unlock buttons are pressed. This information will be stored in memory locations A and B. Memory location C will hold the total number of times that the door has been unlocked electronically. PLCs have many types of special blocks. They include timers, arithmetic operators and comparisons, table lookups, text processing, PID control, and filtering functions. More powerful PLCs can operate on a group of internal memory locations and execute an operation on a range of addresses, for example,to simulate a physical sequential drum controller or a finite state machine. In some cases, users can define their own special blocks, which effectively are subroutines or macros. The large library of special blocks along with high speed execution has allowed use of PLCs to implement very complex automation systems.

Einstein College of Engineering

Anatomy of a Ladder Program

  

Input instructions are entered on the left Output instructions are entered on the right The power rails simulate the power supply lines L1 and L2 for AC circuits and +24 v and ground for DC circuits Most PLCs allow more than one output per rung The processor (or ―controller‖) scans ladder rungs from top-to-bottom and from left-to-right. The basic sequence is altered whenever jump or subroutine instructions are executed.

 

Einstein College of Engineering

Logic Functions

PLC programming is a logical procedure

Sometimes called ―inclusive OR‖. OR. a motor turns on) If the proper input conditions are not TRUE:The rung becomes FALSE and an output action does not occur Ladder logic is based on the following logic functions: AND. Exclusive OR.Einstein College of Engineering   In a PLC program. . ―things‖ (inputs and rungs) are either TRUE or FALSE If the proper input conditions are TRUE:The rung becomes TRUE and an output action occurs (for example.

Einstein College of Engineering .

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