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# Fundamentals

of fluid flow

Mohsen Soltanpour
Email: soltanpour@kntu.ac.ir
URL: http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

.
.
.
(Velocity field) :
) (particles ) (solid .
:

) (v x ) n = f n (t

n*:

) (v y ) n = g n (t
) (v z ) n = hn (t

.
) **:(field approach -

) v x = f ( x, y , z , t
) v y = g ( x, y , z , t
) v z = h ( x, y , z , t
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

) (x,y,z ) (t *.

. :

) v x = f ( x, y , z
) v y = g ( x, y , z
) v z = h ( x, y , z

.
) (x,r, ) (
) (:

r 2
v = v x (r )i = vmax [1 ( ) ]i
R

)v = v ( r , x

= vr (r , x)er + v x (r , x)i

r
) (uniform ***.
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

*.
:

**:
z

V0

V0

xz

) (streamlines
:
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

) (pathlines
.
.

dx
= v xp
dt
dy
= v yp
dt
dz
= v zp
dt

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

dA t )(streamtube
.
. .
.

v = vx i + v y j + vz k

## ds = dxi + dyj + dzk

v ds :

) dA (

v ds = 0

ds

dx dy dz
=
=
vx v y vz
) (
) (
. ) (streakline .
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

t < t1

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

t > t1

(Pathline) :

t < t1

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

t > t1

(Streakline) :

) ( .
.

)pathline (t>t0

)pathline (t=t0

)streakline (t>t0

)streakline (t=t0
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

:
P ) ( .
. A t=0 )K (x0,y0,z0
t=t ) P (x1,y1,z1 . A . t=t +t
) (B P B . C
t=t +2t P C . t1 A A1 B
B1 C C1 .
P ) .(t=t1

)
( t=t3

)
( t=t2

) :M(x0,y0,z0
t=t+2t P

)
( t=t1

A2

) : P(x1,y1,z1

) :K(x0,y0,z0
t=t P

A1
B1

A3
B2

C1
C2
C3

B3
A

) :L(x0,y0,z0
t=t+t P

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

t=t2 t=t3
. B A C
) ( .
.
) P(x1,y1,z1 .
t=0 ) (x0,y0,z0 :
)(I

) x = f ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t
) y = g ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t

) z = h( x0 , y0 , z0 , t

) P(x1,y1,z1 )
t=0 L K M P (:
)(II

) x1 = f ( x0 , y0 , z0 ,
) y1 = g ( x0 , y0 , z0 ,

) z1 = h( x0 , y0 , z0 ,
t P .
x0,y0,z0 ) (I ) (II t t
) t( P ) t( . t
t P ) B A .(C
t (t>t) t P t
) t=t2 t=t1 .(t=t3

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

(Viewpoints) :
x1, y1, z1
) v(x,y,z,t .
.

) v x = f ( x, y , z , t
) v y = g ( x, y , z , t
) v z = h ( x, y , z , t
.
) y(t) x(t ) z(t
y(0) x(0) . ) z(0 t=0 .
:

) v x = f (t
) v y = g (t

t.

) v z = h(t
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

) .(a
*.
.
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

## (Acceleration of a flow particle) :

.
. :

rp = x p (t )i + y p (t ) j + z p (t )k

= u p (t )i + v p (t ) j + w p (t )k

= a xp (t )i + a yp (t ) j + a zp (t )k

d rp
2

dt 2

drp

dt

dv p

dt

vp

= vp

= ap

rp
O

x
y

) (rp .
*.
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

) t
y x z :

v
v
v
v
dx + dy + dz + dt
= dv
x
y
z
t

dv Dv
)(total derivative
) (
=a
dt dt

v dx v dy v dz v
=
+
+
+
x dt y dt z dt t

) v ( x, y , z , t

dx , dy , dz v x , v y , v z .:

dt dt dt

)(local acceleration

v v v
v
v
a = vx
+ vy
+ vz
+
= v .v +
x
y
z t
t
)(acceleration of transport
)(convective acceleration
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

v x
v
v v
+ v y x + vz x + x
x
y
z
t
v y
v y
v y v y
a y = vx
+ vy
+ vz
+
x
y
z
t
v
v
v v
az = vx z + v y z + vz z + z
x
y
z
t

ax = vx

.
.
z

) (Q=cte

x .

x
v2

v1

v2 > v1

v
v
v
v v
+ vy
+ vz
+
= vx x > 0
a = vx
y
z t
x
x

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

) s
(:

v = v ( s, t ) = v( s, t )et

dv v ds v
s
=a
= . +
dt s dt t

v v
v
=v +
s t

## ) (normal and tangential coordinates

:

v2
a = vet + en

v = vet

dv dv ds
dv 1 dv 2
= . =v
=
= at = v
2 ds
dt ds dt
ds
v2
= an
) (osculari .

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

(Irrotational flow) :

)
flowparticle

## . dr = dxi + dyj + dzk t B A

( rotation rate) ( deformation rate)
: B A
B
z

dr
dr dx dy dz
y
v=
= i+
j+ k
A

v z
dz
z

v x
dz
z
v z
dx
x
v x
dx
x
http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

v y

E z

dt

dz

dt
dt
dt

= vx i + v y j + vz k

dz

dr
dy

A
dx
v y

v z
dy
y

dx

D
v x
dy
y

v y
y

dy

v
vC = v A + dx
x

v x v y v z
v
= vC v A
= dx
dxi +
dxj +
dxk
x
x
x
x

A C

D E A ) ( .
) (normal strain xx :
AC

v x
dx
v x

x
= xx
=
dx
x

(dot) . ) ( . :

v z
z

v y

= zz

= yy

## ) (normal strain rate 1/s .

ii
. AC z C
:
v

v y
x

dx

x
dx

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

v x
dy
v x
y
=
dy
y

## (time rate of change of the shear angle) xy

) CAD t ( z :

v y

v x
)
( = xy = yx
+
x y

CAE DAE :

v y

v z
)
( = yz = zy
+
z
y

v v
) xz = zx = ( x + z
z x

## ) (strain rate tensor :

xz

2
yz 1 vi v j
)
( =
+
2 2 x j xi

zz

xy
2

yy
zy
2

xx

yx
2
zx

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

## ) (rate of angular change of the sides

. AC z C
:
v

v y
x

dx

x
dx

AD z ) z( D :

v x
dy
v x
y
=
dy
y

t :
v

v
1
y
[
]) + ( x
2 x
y

:

1 v y v x
)
( = z

2 x y

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

x y :

1 v x v z
)
( = y

2 z x

1 v z v y
)
( = x

2 y z

1 v z v y 1 v x v z 1 v y v x
( )i +
( )j+

)k

( =
2 y z
2 z x
2 x y

## ) (vorticity vector curlv = rotv = v *:

j
k
1

1
) = curlv = ( v
y z 2
2
v y v z

i
1
=
2 x
v x

curl . = 0
) (irrotational flow . 0
)(rotational flow

**.

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/

v x

=0
y
v y

=0
z
v
z =0
x

v y
x
v z
y
v x
z

= curlv = 0

.

.

. ) (boundary layer .

http://sahand.kntu.ac.ir/~soltanpour/