3 Model of Typical Substation

3.1 General Model

To test the model of the RSS, a generic substation and power system is modeled in EMTP. The selected substation is a 500 kV/345 kV transmission switching station, with four 500 kV transmission lines, two 500/345/34.5 kV transformers, and two 345 kV transmission lines, arranged in a breaker-and-a-half scheme. The power system is modeled to 2 busses away from the substation. This allows the testing of the region of vulnerability for all relays in the substation. Also included in the EMTP model are the necessary current transformers (CT), potential transformers (PT), and anti-aliasing filters.

Bus 1A




Line 501

Line 502

Line 504

B501TX2H TX #2 Line 301


B504TX1H TX #1

Line 503

Line 302




Bus 1B

Figure 6: Substation Layout Ideal sources with an associated equivalent impedance represent the rest of the power system. The generators have identical per-unit constants on their own base. The system is designed with the phase angles of the generaotrs lagging or leading each other to provide some pre-fault load flow.


3.12 The line values are 10 .389 milliseconds. used for the 345 kV lines. The line impedance and admittance values are typical values for a 800 kV flat line. All the 345 kV transmission lines have identical impedance values per unit length.u. used for the 500 kV lines. The use of sections allows the easy placement of faults at a variety of points along the line.1 Transmission Line Model All the 500 kV transmission lines have identical impedance values per unit length.Line 508 Gen 1 50 mile Bus 11 Line 509 65 mile Line 510 75 mile Bus 14 Gen 2 Line 507 55 mile Bus 12 Bus 10 All sources are ideal All line constants are identical 50 mile Bus 13 Line 503 60 mile Bus 3 345 kV TX 2 Substation Line 506 100 mile Line 501 500 kV Line 504 60 mile Line 502 50 mile Bus 1 Line 301 50 mile TX 1 Bus2 345 kV Line 302 50 mile 345 kV Bus 4 Bus 9 Line 505 50 mile Bus 8 Bus 5 Line 511 50 mile Line 512 70 mile Bus 6 Line 514 70 mile Line 513 50 mile Bus 7 Gen 4 Gen 3 Figure 7: Power System Diagram 3. Most sections are 10 miles long. To equal a sampling rate of 12 times per cycle. The π-equivalent circuit provides accurate transient information for system faults.60 seconds long.2. and a 362 kV flat line. which is long enough to illustrate relay operations.2 Substation/Power System Model in EMTP The voltage level of all ideal sources is adjusted so the steady state pre-fault voltage at Bus 1 equal to 1 p. samples are taken every 1. The lines are modeled as π-equivalent circuit sections connected in series. with a few 5 mile sections. The test cases are 0.

and a current of 0.184 0. Table 2: Transmission Line Impedance Series Impedance π-Equivalent Impedance Z1 (Ω/mile) Z0 (Ω/mile) ZS (Ω/mile) ZM (Ω/mile) 0.330 1082. 345/34.60 % 41.1361 + j1. Y-∆-Y transformers.2733 + j0. using the saturable transformer model in EMTP for harmonic restraint.5. The magnetizing current at rated voltage is 0.5.912 1245.1019 + j0. are used. Table 4: Saturation Characteristic Data Voltage 80% 100% 115% Current (A peak) 0.0363 j5.2%.33 158.1169 + j0.3 Values for the saturation characteristic and winding impedance are shown in Table 4 and Table 5.29% at a voltage of 115%. 57%.80 % -3. three winding transformer.2720 j4.0096 + j0.384 11 .4863 π-Equivalent Admittance YS (µ-mhos/mile) YM (µ-mhos/mile) j6.1714 + j0.8543 j7.9991 0.8500 345 kV 500 kV 3.552 Flux (Vs) 866.2.6% between 500/345.015% at a voltage of 80%.2 Transformer Model The transformers are modeled as 3 winding.2712 345 kV 500 kV Table 3: Transmission Line Admittance Shunt Admittance Y1 (µ-mhos/mile) Y0 (µ-mhos/mile) j7.transposed and converted to sequence components.1863 -j0.6160 + j1. 1 Z S = ( Z 0 + 2 Z1 ) 3 1 Z M = ( Z 0 − Z1 ) 3 The resulting π-equivalent impedance and admittance are show in Table 2 and Table 3.710 Impedance (Ω) 52.5 kV.7090 j8.3485 0.5350 0.667 -12. The saturation characteristic is defined by two additional points: a current of 0.8151 0.5912 0.000 65.349 Table 5: Winding Impedance Data Zp Zs Zt Impedance (%) 15. Typical impedance values for a 500/345/34.1073 + j0.20 % Base Impedance (Ω) 333.4080 0.8061 0.710 3. The sequence components are then converted to π-equivalents using the following two equations.33 333.4177 -j0.058%. and 37. The leakage reactance is 12. 500/34.

87 j23. All the generators have the same per-unit impedance. Table 7: Ideal Source Phase Angles Source Generator 1 Generator 2 Generator 3 Generator 4 Relative Phase Angle (degrees) -5 0 20 15 3. The CT model includes a 50 ohm burden. the negative sequence equals the positive sequence.075 p.88 -j2. with an anti-aliasing circuit added in the secondary burden circuit.44 j39.75 j31. Table 6: Ideal Source Impedance π-Equivalent Series Impedance Impedance Z1 (Ω) Z0 (Ω) ZS (Ω) ZM (Ω) j46.25 j17. The filter bandlimits the frequency to 350 Hz.06 -j7.50 j18. For all sources: Z1 = 0. Z0 = 0. The phase angles used are shown in Table 7. This project does not concern itself with the practical relaying effects of CT saturation.2.5 Anti-Aliasing Filter Model The anti-aliasing filter is a two stage RC filter. The generator voltages are adjusted until the voltage at Bus 1 (the main substation bus) is approximately 1 p. for normal conditions. EMTP provides secondary currents and voltages to the RSS model.2. CT and PT ratios are not specifically considered.25 -j6.81 j37. 12 .85 j8.44 j39. The model is designed to work with a sampling rate of 12 times per cycle.3 Ideal Source Model The ideal sources are modeled assuming the impedance is pure inductance.u.98 Generator 1 Generator 2 Generator 3 Generator 4 kV Base 500 500 500 345 MVA Base 800 800 1000 1000 To provide some pre-fault load flow.93 j14.4 CT/PT Models Current transformers (CT) and potential transformers (PT) are modeled as ideal transformers. and that the zero sequence is ½ the positive sequence. 3.u. The source impedances are shown in Table 6.u.81 j46.2. or 720 Hz.15 p. the phase angles of the ideal sources are varied.87 j23. and therefore can use actual current and voltage values for operation.06 -j7.3.

26 kOhm 50 ohm L___ A CX___A CS___A 2.52 kOhm 0.1 microF BUS_ A BU___A CT___A PT Model .1 microF 0.1 microF 0.Ideal Transformer Representation includes A/A filter AA___A 1.26 kOhm 2.CT Model .52 kOhm 0.1 microF L___ A PH___A PT___A PX___A PS___A Figure 8: CT/PT Models with Anti-Aliasing Filter 13 .Ideal Transformer Representation includes A/A filter PA___A 1.

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