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Ek0d ifbmv 2008 ckEpS f twGJ (2)/ trSwf (11)


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1945-ck E S p f t wG i f ; *smreD E d k i f i H w G i f topf r sm;ud k atmuf a zmf j yygtwd k i f ; [ef c suf n D n D vS K yf & S m ;r_ r sm; twG u f
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1918-ck E S p f w G i f *smref y a'o&mZf (Party performance aqG ; aEG ; oabmxm; zvS , f v d k r _ r sm;
wdik ;f jynf}uD;wckv;Hk 'kuw Q iG ;f euf}uD;xJo@kd ajymcJ h z l ; ovd k '&rf r m &k y f & S i f w um;uJ h o d k @
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(The Weimar Republic) *smreD rsdK;cspf &Jabmfa[mif;rsm; tkyfpku ygwD. rsm;ESihf ykrH eS f qufo, G af &; vrf;a=umif;wck
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ppfpepfatmufu q,fpk ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm
&if q d k i f c J h & onf h t jyif ygvD r ef t wG i f ; tcsd e f r S p I tef t ,f v f ' D . Ed k i f i H a &; of media) pkpnf;xm;Edik jf cif; r&Srd . _ tm;enf;csuw f ck
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jrefrmjynfol jynfom;wdkif;u }udKwif 21-&mpk w G i f rD ' D , mES i f h
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cef @ rS e f ; wG u f q xm;=uayvd r f h r nf ? o[Zmwrjzpf o nf h Ed k i f i H a &;ygwD o nf
ae&Sife,fqdk&S,fvpf (The National t+yD;wGif tpd;k & zG@J pnf;jcif;udk rvkyaf qmif xm;onf h yg w D i ,f t qif h o d k @ qd k u f a &muf
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r[mt=uH E S i f h rusuf wusuf Socialists) emZDrsm;. tm%modr;f r_ukd Ekid cf yhJ J ppftyk pf u k OD;aqmifIusi;f ycJah om ud k , f h a owG i f ; ud k ud k , f w l ; rd j yD ; om; oGm;apcJhonf?
'D r d k u a&pD u d k wu,f w rf ; qD a vsmf cH c J h & avonf ? xd k @ aemuf ord k i f ; u trsd K ;om;nD v mcH u d k wuf a &muf c J h + yD ; taetxm;rsdK; qdkufa&mufoGm;Edkifonf?
qkH;jzwfcJhonfhtwdkif; *smreftpGef;a&muf awG @ qk H aqG ; aEG ; a&; vrf ; pOf u d k csrS w f 'Dae@acwf rD', D monf urBm&h mG om;rsm;. “21-&mpkwGif rD'D,mESifh
atmif ac:a0: ok H ; pG J o if h w muawmh &if b wf c sif ; quf o G , f azmuf v k y f
trsdK;om;a&;0g'u 'kwd, urBmhppfESifh vdkufuwnf;u EdkifiHa&; vrf;a=umif; o[Zmw rjzpfonfh
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twl ed*kH;csLyfoGm;cJhavonf? ajymif;oGm;cJhonf? Ed k i f i H a &;ygwD onf udk,fhaowGif;udk
(Militants’ Democracy) ajym&rnf x if o nf ?
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teft,fvf'D. EdkifiHa&;t& tqifoifh
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pnf;urf;&Sdaom 'Drdkua&pD qdkonfrSm aumif;usdK;jyKrnfh ae&mwckawmh jzpfvmEdkifp&mr&Sdyg? wom;wnf ; rjzpf r _ o nf yd k j yD ; uG m [
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tESpfom&rsm;ESifh qef@usifjyD; tcGifhxl;cH
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aocsmaeonf? ArmppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;uom orRw jzpfydkif ajymif;vJvmjcif;udk rsuaf jcjywf ruseaf pzd@k rsm;ESifhvnf; tvkyfrjzpf awmha=umif;
ES p f & yf p vk H ; wG i f ypP w d k cg;=um;xd k ; jyD ;
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tcef @ om; ae&m,l x m;=urnf h ppf 0 g'D cGifhudkvnf; pepfwus ykHazmfa&;qGJxm;aom xdkzGJ hpnf;ykHonf ouf a oxl j yaeonf ? yk & G u f q d w f
rsm;om t"du}udK;udkifxm;aom ygvDref
onf wdkif;jynfESifhvlxktm; aumif;usdK;
iuef;ao iapGwuftkyfcsKyf+yD; EdkifiHa&; tm%mtm; rsd K ;quf q d k i f & m tajymif ; tvJ waumifu a&S@uaeoGm;v#if aemufu
ArmvlrsdK;wrsdK;wnf;uom tpOfxdef;csKyfxm;Edkifa&; (Generational change) yk & G u f q d w f r sm;uvnf ; wef ; pD ; jyD ;
jyKrnfh ae&mwpfckawmh jzpfvmEdkifp&m
vdkufwwfonfh yk&GufqdwfEdkifiHa&;wGif
r&S d y g? pd w f w d k i f ; us a&;qG J twnf j yK r[mAsL[mudk Oya't& twnfjyKxm;jcif;om jzpfonf” rsd K ;quf c sif ; wd k u f r d j cif ; onf a&S@q;Hk u waumiftm; zrf;wm; qGpJ x d m;
xm;aom zG@J pnf;yk/H &,f'rD w d f 0ef=uD;rsm;ESihf
pepfonfvnf; us&_H;+ydKvJcJh&jyD; ,ae@ 0g'a=umif h ygwD 0 if vl i ,f r sm;. ,ae@ jrefrmhEdkifiHa&; ydwfum;=uD;ay:wGif vdkuf&kHjzifh EdkifiHa&; pD;a=umif;}uD;wckvkH;
tajzxGufxm;jyD;om; a&G;aumufyGJudk
xufwdkif jynfwGif;ppfrD; awmufavmif wuf=uGaom EdkifiHa&; pdwf"gwf ,kH=unf jrif a wG @ ae&aom Zmwf 0 if c ef ; wck &yfqikd ;f oGm;Edik f ovdrk sKd ; 'DrD ukd a&pDwyfO;D wGif
usif ; yum “zm;wyd zm;wyd k i f ; ig;wyd k i f ;
aeqJ j zpf u m tm;vk H ; od x m;=uonf h r_rsm; vspfvsL&_cHcJh&onf? aemufqkH;wGif jzpfaeonf? teft,fv'f D ygww D iG ;f u 90 &S d a ecJ h o nf h tef t ,f v f ' D u ouf 0 if
&k y f a o;tpd k ; &rsd K ;”ud ;” k od y ` H e nf ; us
twd k i f ; jref r mh E d k i f i H a &; jy\em. OuUX. 'Drdkua&pD rqefaom wOD;ydkif 0ef;usif touft&G,f &Sad e=ujyDjzpfaom vS K yf & S m ;r_ r&S d a wmh a omtcg Ed k i f i H a &;
trsd K ;om;a&; 0g'jzif h touf o G i f ; jyD ;
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r[mArm ppfpepfukd qGq J ef@vm=urnfrmS
A[k v l @ abmif j zpf y gv#uf xd k v l r sd K ;rsm; tpk v d k u f t +yKH v d k u f Ek w f x G u f o G m ; obm0twdkif; jzpfavh&Sdaom rsdK;quf rqk w f o m tajctaersd K ; qd k u f a &muf
aocsmaeonf? ArmppfAv kd cf sLyfrsm;uom
=um;wG i f Ed k i f i H a &;t& wef ; wl n D r _ cJh=uojzifh ygwDwGif;tusyftwnf;onf uGm[r_u aoG;opfavmif; jyKjyifajymif;vJ oG m ;cJ h & awmh o nf ? tef t ,f v f ' D
orR w jzpf y d k i f c G i f h u d k v nf ; pepf w us
uif ; rJ h j cif ; ES i f h wbuf w G i f r[mArm tjyifodk@ v#HxGufcJhonf[k ajym&ayrnf? r_rsm; vdktyfaea=umif; n$efjyaeovdk A[d k j yKcsOf ; uyf r _ (NLD-Based
ykHazmfa&;qGJxm;aom xdkzGJ hpnf;ykHonf
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tm%mtm; ArmvlrsKd ; wrsKd ;wnf;uom
armifyikd pf ;D xm;jcif;yif jzpfonf? (Rise of drama democracy) today;aeonf? twnf;tm; rajz&Si;f Edik af =umif; ukev f eG f
tpOfxdef;csLyfxm;Edkifa&; r[mAsL[mudk
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Oya't& twnfjyK xm;jcif;om jzpfonf
oaE< w nf tjrpf w G , f v maeaom ppf vltrsm;udk em;0ifcsdKapaom nDaxGr_ r&Sjd cif;onf ygwt D m; txD;userf _ A[d k x d e f ; csKyf r _ +yd K uG J j cif ;
[k xyfaqmif;ajym&ayrnf?
tm%m&S i f p epf u d k tjrpf j ywf csKyf + id r f ; trsd K ;om; &if = um;aph a &;ES i f h awG @ qk H wGif;euf}uD;xJodk@ wGef;cs&m a&mufae (Decentralization) onf aoG;ppfonfh
jynfolvlxk w&yfvkH;udk teD;
oG m ;apzd k @ taysmh q G J r[mAsL[mES i f h aqG;aEG;a&;udk ra&wGuEf ikd af om xkwjf yef ayvdrrhf nf? tem*wfonf rsKd ;qufopf 'D r d k u a&pD . tES p f o m& wck j zpf o nf ?
uyf &efot l jzpfowfrw S +f yD; ppftiftm;udk
ratmifjrifEdkifa=umif;udk ESpfaygif; (20) ausnmcsuf r sm;jzif h awmif ; qk d a ecJ h j yD ; rsm;. vuf x J Y om &S d o nf [ k trS e f awmfvSefa&;onfvnf; us,fjyef@onfh
wdk;csJ@um xdk;ppfqif wdkufcdkuf owfjzwf
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vmcJhaom etzppf0g'D AdkvfcsLyfrsm;.
umvu tajzay;aeonf [ k ajym& odk@r[kwf awG@qkHaqG;aEG;a&; pum;0dkif; olwdk@tm;vGJajymif; ay;tyf&ayvdrfhrnf vl w ef ; pm; tv$ m toD ; oD ; yg0if a om
ppfaoG;ºuGtjrifrsm;jzifh a&;qGJ twnfjyK
ayrnf? 'Drdkua&pD wyfOD;wGif &SdaecJhaom xJo@kd 0ifygvmEdik af om vufawG@usonfh (All power to new generations)? tm;aumif ; onf h tif t m;pk t opf r sm;
xm;onfh zG@J pnf;ykEH iS hf ppfaoG;ºuG 'Dru kd a&pD
trsd K ;om; 'D r d k u a&pD tzG J @ csKyf o nf EdkifiHa&; wdkufuGufrsm;udk razmfaqmif raorcsif ; A[d k a umf r wD 0 if jzpf a e ay:xG e f ; vm+yD ; enf ; vrf ; rsd K ;pk H j zif h
pepf o nf pmcsLyf pmwrf ; Oya'rsm;
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ES i f h v l x k t m; w&m;0if ppf u |ef j yKa&;
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vrf ; pOf wck o mjzpf a =umif ; ay:vG i f
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aeayonf ? vl r sd K ;aygif ; pk H a exd k i f o nf h
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jrefrmEdik if . H Edik if aH &;uyfqu kd jf cif; od@k r[kwf
'D a e@umvwG i f tef t ,f v f ' D &if q d k i f aom pum;vk H ; rsm;jzif h ajymif ; vJ (Loss of social capital) onfvnf; ppfu|ef b0uvGwfajrmuf
EdkifiHa&;udk usOf;ajrmif;onfh r[mArm
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vlrsdK;=uD; ppf0g'Drsm;u aoewfawhjyD;
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vl w pk 0 g' xG e f ; um; aejcif ; onf v l r _
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ajymonfudk &dkufwm owif;wGif azmfjy rsm;udk a'o tm%mydkifrsm;u twif; aus;&GmwGif wnf&adS om ausmif;jzpfonf?
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awmif u d k & D ; ,m;Ed k i f i H r S a'0l ; uk r ` % D owif ; &&S d o nf ? tqd k y g vk y f t m;ay; a=umif & D a csmif ; / acsmif ; &D / yvd a yguf
jzpf o nf ? b*F v m;a'h & S f b uf r S jref r m cdkif;apr_udk wyfrawmf wef;jrifh avhusifh aus;&G m rsm; jzpf = uonf ? “'D v d k o m
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awmif;qdkcsufudk jrefrmtpdk;& bufu AdkvfrSL;aZmfvGif apcdkif;jcif;jzpfjyD; rif;jym; ae&mawG u d k eD ; pyf & m &G m awG u
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owif ; pmwG i f a&;om;cJ h o nf ? jref r m &uf a e@rS p jyD ; apcd k i f ; aejcif ; jzpf a =umif ; &G m awG t m;vH k ; vk y f t m;ay;apcd k i f ; r_
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ESpfEdkifiH tm%mydkifrsm;u ppf auwD 16 Ed0k ifbm 2008 vd k v d k oG m ;vk y f = u&ygw,f ” [k trnf rsm;jzpfa=umif; a'otwGif;rS vmonfh
oabFmrsm;apv$wI f tajctae wif;rm xdkif;EdkifiHawmifykdif; [wf,dkif raz:vdo k l pGe&f &J mG om; wOD;u ajymonf? owif;rsm; t& od&Sd&onf?
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wckjzpfaom w&kwfEdkifiHu =um;0ifaphpyf OD ; aqmif I yxrt}ud r f pk a ygif ; OD;aqmif usif;yaomfvnf; tjcm;aom ppfawGtusOf;axmifrS axmifom;rsm;udk
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w&k w f o wif ; Xmejzpf a om qif [ G m u od&onf? tvSLaiGrsm; pkaygif;x!fh0if+yD; jyKvkyf
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uefaom taetxm;jzifhom &yfwnf xdkif;EdkifiHawmifydkif;&Sd International 4if;wd@k toif;. &nf&, G cf surf mS tusOf;axmifrS axmifom;rsm;udk &cdkif u|ef ; od k Πajymif ; a&G ΠcH & aom tusOf ;
oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif;” w&kwf EdkifiHjcm;a&; Buddhist College rS ausmif;om; ta=umif ; trsd K ;rsd K ;a=umif h vma&muf jynf e ,f t wG i f ; &S d &J b uf t usOf ; pcef ; om;rsm;ud k axmif r S L ; at;xG e f ; u
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rsm;u tjiif ; yG g ;&mae&mrS ppf a wG o d k @ {!fhy&d\wf (100) ausmf vma&muf twwf E d k i f q H k ; ul n D & ef jzpf o nf [ k aea=umif ; owif ; &&S d o nf ? “tm;vH k ; OD;ausmf0if; ydkifqdkifaom ykZGefwmrsm;wGif
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pmrsuf E S m 1 rS t quf csrSwfcJhonf?
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22 jynf+h zdK;atmif (c) eef;rl 10 ESpf 88 a0vGifrsKd; 7 ESpf 6 v xif w ,f ? b,f v d k y J j zpf j zpf jref r mh
23 atmifrsK;d ykid f (c) t¶d;k 10 ESpf 89 OD;rsKd;cif N L D 4 eSpf 6 v ta&;vk y f a ewJ h tzG J @ tpnf ; tm;vH k ; u
24 +zdK;armifarmifp;kd (c) +zdK;}uD; 10 ESpf 90 udkrsKd;cdkif 4 ESpf 6 v td k b m;rm;ud k jref r mjynf t ajctae
25 udk aevif;atmif 22 ESpf 91 udx k ifausmf (MDC) 12 ESpf 6 v yd k o d v matmif pd w f 0 if p m; vmatmif
26 oD[ oufwif 8 ESpf 92 =unfjzLarmif 6 ESpf 6 v 0dik ;f 0ef;vkyaf qmif=u&r,f” [k xifjrifcsuf
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32 OD;atmifjrifh 2 ESpf 98 pnfoal rmif (c) &mjynfh (Auo) 11 ESpf vl @ tcG i f h t a&;ES i f h 'D r k d u a&pD t a&;uk f d
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34 armifuH (0g;c,fr)(H R D P) 10 ESpf (aemufxyf ESpfrsm;pGmcsrSwf&efusefao;) tck o rw topf [ m2009 ES p f p rS m
35 udak tmifausmpf ;kd (awmif}uD;) 10 ESpf 100? OD;auvmo 35 ESpf wm0ef , l j yD ; aqmif & G u f r S m jzpf w J h
36 *DwrSL; ud0k if;armf 7 ESpf 101? uyfvrS ;f ckwf twG u f a =umif h usaemf w k d @ jref r m
37 bdb k 0kd if;v_id f (pkpak EG; tr_w/JG ) 8 ESpf (csi;f vli,facgi;f aqmif) 33 ESpf jynftwGuf ta&;=uD;wJh2009 ckeSpfrSm
38 pkpkaEG; (N L D) 12 ESpf 6 v 102? wifx;l atmif zd z d p D ; pD ; tm&k H p d k u f e d k i f r S m r[k w f b l ; vk d @
39 udkoef;Edkif 6ESpf (&cdik v f il ,facgi;f aqmif) 33 ESpf xifygw,f”[k xifjrifcsuf ay;oGm;onf?
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40 aebkef;vwf 20ESpfESifh6v cH&jcif;onf'Drdkua&pDpepfwGif rnfolrqdk
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42 apma0 (uAsmq&m) 2 ESpf 105? aZmfoufaxG; 15 ESpf jzLjzLrnf;rnf; cGjJ cm;r_r&Sd qdo k nfuv kd nf;
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54 rvSvSarmf 7 ESpf 6 v touf (61)ES p f t &G , f & S d rif ; om;}uD ; aumif ; awG e J @ vl a wG & J @ aomua0'em
55 udkpdk;rif;rif; 7 ESpf 6 v ausmf [ d e f ; onf ol u sif v nf c J h a om awG u d k aysmuf u if ; ouf o matmif
56 udkoef@pifrsKd; 7 ESpf 6 v tEk y nmavmuwG i f tH h = ozG , f & m ul n D r ,f ” [k a jymqd k oG m ;a=umif ;
57 udkausmfpdk;0if; 7 ESpf 6 v atmifjrifco hJ wl OD; jzpfonf? o&kyaf qmif ausmf[def;tm;&[ef;0wfjzifhawG@jrif&ykH jynfwGif;xkwf tywfpOf *sme,frsm;wGif
58 udkqef;0if; 7 ESpf 6 v tqdkawmf 'g&dkufwm pmaya&;om;jcif; azmfjyxm;onfukd awG@& onf?
59 udak tmifrif;Edik f 7 ESpf 6 v ponf j zif h yH k p H r sd K ;pH k v_ y f & S m ;cJ h o nf ? zGichf s&mwGif “ usaemf aomua&mufaewJh aemufqHk;od&aom owif;rsm;
60 OD;0if;jrifh 7 ESpf 6 v pmaye,frSvGJI tm;vHk;aome,fy,fwGif ol a wG yl a vmif a ewJ h o l a wG u d k ul n D t& bkef;}uD;ausmf[def;onf jrefrmEdkifiH
61 udkrsKd;ausmfZif 7 ESpf 6 v txG w f t xd y f u d k a&muf c J h o nf c snf ; csif w ,f c if A s? ol w d k @ awG u d k pd w f t0Srf;odk@ vS!fhvnf=uGcsD+yD; aemuf(2)ESpf
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