U.S.

Government Printing Office

Style Manual
2008

An official guide to the form and style of Federal Government printing

Production and Distribution Notes This publication was typeset electronically using Helvetica and Minion Pro typefaces. It was printed using vegetable oil-based ink on recycled paper containing 30% post consumer waste. The GPO Style Manual will be distributed to libraries in the Federal Depository Library Program. To find a depository library near you, please go to the Federal depository library directory at http://catalog.gpo.gov/fdlpdir/public.jsp. The electronic text of this publication is available for public use free of charge at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/index.html.

Use of ISBN Prefix This is the official U.S. Government edition of this publication and is herein identified to certify its authenticity. ISBN 978–0–16–081813–4 is for U.S. Government Printing Office official editions only. The Superintendent of Documents of the U.S. Government Printing Office requests that any reprinted edition be labeled clearly as a copy of the authentic work, and that a new ISBN be assigned.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-0001
I S B N 978-0-16-081813-4 (CD)

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THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE STYLE MANUAL IS PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION AND AUTHORITY OF THE PUBLIC PRINTER OF THE UNITED STATES Robert C. Tapella

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE STYLE BOARD M. Michael Abramson, Chairman Ernest G. Baldwin Kevin M. Lane James T. Cameron Barbara Day Prophet Tony N. Gilbert Margaret V. Ross Michele Y. Harris Andrew M. Sherman Yalanda Johnson Pamela S. Williams

Ex officio Olivier A. Girod, Managing Director, Plant Operations John W. Crawford, Production Manager, Plant Operations Dannie E. Young, Superintendent, Pre-Press Division M. Michael Abramson Foreperson
Proof and Copy Markup Section Shift 1

Terence D. Collins Foreperson
Proof and Copy Markup Section Shift 2

Kenneth C. Puzey Foreperson
Proof and Copy Markup Section Shift 3

JOINT COMMITTEE ON PRINTING Representative Robert A. Brady, Chairman Senator Dianne Feinstein, Vice Chairman Representative Michael E. Capuano Senator Daniel K. Inouye Representative Susan A. Davis Senator Patty Murray Representative Vernon J. Ehlers Senator Robert F. Bennett Representative Kevin McCarthy Senator Saxby Chambliss

Previous printings of the GPO Style Manual: 1894, 1898, 1900, 1903, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1917, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1945, 1953, 1959, 1962, 1967, 1973, 1984, 2000
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EXTRACT FROM THE PUBLIC PRINTING LAW
(TITLE 44, U.S.C.) § 1105. Form and style of work for departments The Public Printer shall determine the form and style in which the printing or binding ordered by a department is executed, and the material and the size of type used, having proper regard to economy, workmanship, and the purposes for which the work is needed. (Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1261.) Historical and Revision Notes Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., § 216 (Jan. 12, 1895, ch. 23, § 51, 28 Stat. 608).

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About This Manual By act of Congress the Public Printer is authorized to determine the form and style of Government printing. The GPO Style Manual is the product of many years of public printing experience, and its rules are based on principles of good usage and custom in the printing trade. Editors and writers whose disciplines have taught them aspects of style different from rules followed in this Manual will appreciate the difficulty of establishing a single standard. The GPO Style Manual has served Federal printers since 1894, and with this 30th edition, the traditions of printing and graphic arts are carried forward in the 21st century. Essentially, the GPO Style Manual is a standardization device designed to achieve uniform word and type treatment, and it aims for economy of word use. Such rules as are laid down for the submission of copy to GPO point to the most economical manner for the preparation and typesetting of manuscript. Following such rules eliminates additional chargeable processing by GPO. It should be remembered that the GPO Style Manual is primarily a GPO printer’s stylebook. Easy rules of grammar cannot be prescribed, for it is assumed that editors are versed in correct expression. Likewise, decisions on design and makeup are best determined by the individual publisher to meet the needs of the intended audience. As a printer’s book, this Manual necessarily uses terms that are obvious to those skilled in the graphic arts. Users of the GPO Style Manual should consider it as a general guide. Its rules cannot be regarded as rigid, for the printed word assumes many shapes and variations in type presentation. An effort has been made to provide complete coverage of those elements that enter into the translation of manuscript into type. The GPO Style Board made significant revisions to update this edition of the GPO Style Manual. The changes include redesigning the format to make it more modern and easier to read; replacing “What is GPO Access?’’ with “GPO’s Online Initiatives’’; removing the atomic weights column from the Chemical Symbols table; expanding and updating time zone abbreviations;

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About This Manual

listing additional entries to the Post Office abbreviations; extensively reviewing the capitalization chapter to remove outdated entries and include new ones; realigning the abbreviations lists to create a new list of technical abbreviations and initialisms; updating old and adding new tables to the Useful Tables chapter; expanding military titles; creating new sample pages for the Reports and Hearings chapter; providing many URLs as references; and including many suggestions by users. Comments and suggestions from users of the GPO Style Manual are invited. All such correspondence should be addressed as follows: GPO Style Board Mail Stop PDE U.S. Government Printing Office 732 North Capitol Street, NW. Washington, DC 20401 email address: gpostyle@gpo.gov For the purposes of the GPO Style Manual, printed examples throughout are to be considered the same as the printed rules. Acknowledgments The GPO Style Board would like to thank the following people for assistance in the production of this edition of the GPO Style Manual: Stanley P. Anderson, Editor, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, Nebraska, for the new soil orders in the capitalization chapter. Molly N. Cameron, for technical advice on the Index. Robert W. Dahl, Cadastral Surveyor, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Minerals & Realty Management Directorate, Division of Lands, Realty & Cadastral Survey (WO–350), for his contribution of the Principal Meridians and Base Lines of the United States tables. Cynthia L. Etkin, Program Planning Specialist, Library Services and Content Management, Government Printing Office, for her technical advice on the ANSI/NISO standards for publications.

About This Manual

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Robert R. Finch, Mark E. Rockwell, Michele L. Spiro, Operations Directorate, Document Automation and Production Service (DAPS), Defense Logistics Agency, for their contribution to the list of military ranks. Dean Gardei, Brand/Web Manager, Government Printing Office, for the design of the cover and title page. Jeremy Gelb, Pre-Press Specialist, Government Printing Office, for technical assistance in the production of this Manual. Geography Division, U.S. Census Bureau, for supplying the cities list. Robert McArtor, past Chairman of the GPO Style Board and U.S. Board on Geographic Names, who acted as an adviser to the present GPO Style Board. Joanne Petrie, Office of the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Transportation, and Andrew Novick, National Institute of Standards and Technology, for their assistance with time zone abbreviations. Betty R. Smith, composition system operator, Government Printing Office, for technical assistance in the production of this Manual. Douglas E. Smith, Sr., Internal Printing Officer, Government Printing Office, for preproduction planning and administrative assistance. Janice Sterling, Director, Creative Services, and Marco Marchegiani, Graphic Designer, Government Printing Office, for development and production of the new design. Marcia Thompson, Director, Congressional Record Index Office, Government Printing Office, for revisions to the pages relating to the Congressional Record Index. Employees of the Proof and Copy Markup Section of the Government Printing Office, for their contributions during the production process. Current users who have contributed many ideas and suggestions that were incorporated into this edition of the GPO Style Manual.

GPO’s Online Initiatives Printing continues to serve an important purpose in the Federal Government. Congressional documents, official reports, pamphlets, books, regulations and statutes, passports, tax and census forms, statistical data, and more—in printed form these documents represent a major avenue of communication and information transaction between the Government and the public. In the 21st century, the Government Printing Office (GPO) is committed to providing printed information products for Congress, Federal agencies, and the courts as efficiently, creatively, and cost-effectively as the most modern technology will allow. With the advent of the electronic information age, GPO has also assumed the responsibility for providing public access to the online versions of most of the official documents it prints, as well as—to the greatest extent possible—the online versions of Government publications that are not printed but are otherwise made available on other Federal Web sites. GPO recognizes that a Federal author today often begins the content creation process at a personal computer, and frequently publishes the final document on the Web, without creating a print version that will make its way to a user’s hands or a library’s shelves. Many Government publications are now born digital and published to the Web, with few if any copies printed for traditional public access via bookstores or libraries. To accommodate this transition in Federal publishing strategies while preserving the core responsibility for ensuring public access to Government publications, in 1993 Congress enacted Public Law 103–40, the Government Printing Office Electronic Information Access Enhancement Act, which required GPO to establish online access to key Government publications and provide a system of storage to ensure permanent public access to the information they contain. Since then, the number of publications featured by the resulting Web site, GPO Access, at www.gpoaccess.gov, has grown exponentially, as has its use by the public. A decade later the National Archives and Records Administration formally recognized GPO as an affiliated archive for the digital content on the GPO Access site. To meet continued public demand for online access to Government publications, provide for an increased range of search and retrieval options, and
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and dissemination of official Government publications for the years to come. the GPO Access Web site was GPO’s entrance into the digital age. GPO Access services GPO Access services are designed to meet the needs of a variety of users. (3) operate an electronic storage facility for Federal electronic information. under the direction of the Public Printer. Databases are updated based on their print equivalent and generally date back to 1994. and information retrieved from GPO Access can be used without restriction unless specifically noted.x GPO’s Online Initiatives ensure the preservation of official Government information content in the 21st century. which provides no-fee public access to publications disseminated by GPO. the new system will serve as GPO’s digital platform for the production. the Federal Register. full-text information from the three branches of the Federal Government. the Superintendent of Documents. GPO Access provides free electronic access to a wealth of important information products produced by the Federal Government. and other appropriate publications as determined by the Superintendent of Documents. This free service is funded through annual appropriations provided to GPO’s Federal Depository Library Program. is required to: (1) Maintain an electronic directory of Federal electronic information. GPO Access Opened to the public in 1994. . GPO Access consists of content and links. called GPO’s Federal Digital System. regardless of format. which was then already in existence. Users can find information on the Federal Depository Library Program. The information provided is the official published version. or FDsys. storage. in 2004 GPO embarked on the construction of a more comprehensive online capability. including official. Scheduled to become available for public use in late 2008. GPO Access enables users to locate a depository library in their area. Under the GPO Access legislation. (2) provide a system of online access to the Congressional Record. and (4) maintain the Federal Bulletin Board.

Government Bookstore at http://bookstore. at no cost to the customer.GPO’s Online Initiatives xi Users may also locate and order publications available for sale through GPO’s Publication and Information Sales Program.S.gpo. Orders may be placed online securely through the U. The visible digital signatures on online PDF documents serve the same purpose as handwritten signatures or traditional wax seals on printed documents. explains the use of the primary source materials available on GPO Access. Government provides learning tools for K–12 students. To help meet this challenge. In early 2008.S. GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys) A critical part of GPO’s mission of Keeping America Informed is ensuring permanent access to published Government documents. or fax (202–512–2104). The digital signature verifies document integrity and authenticity for online Federal documents. because digital technology makes such documents easy to alter or copy in unauthorized or illegitimate ways. telephone (1–866–512–1800). Users needing assistance with GPO Access or other dissemination services may direct inquiries to the GPO Contact Center specialists available by email (contactcenter@gpo. and explains GPO’s role in the Federal Government. GPO is developing a . The site provides age-specific explanations about how the Federal Government works. but also provide the assurance that an electronic document has not been altered since GPO disseminated it. gov. GPO authenticated the first-ever online Federal budget by digital signature. disseminated by GPO. Authentication of digital documents The increasing use of electronic documents poses a special challenge in verifying authenticity.gov). GPO has implemented digital signatures on certain electronic documents in GPO Access that not only establish GPO as the trusted information disseminator. parents. Ben’s Guide to the U. and educators.

authentication. FDsys supports GPO’s transformation from a print-based environment to a content-based environment. Each release will add functionality to the previous one. in which digital content is created. which describes a generalized structure for storing. An internal proofof-concept release of FDsys was completed in September 2007 to support the last stage of testing. video.htm. submitted.gov/projects/fdsys_documents. and providing access to digital content over time. The design of FDsys is based on the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) (ISO 14721:2003). downloading and printing. This release will replace the familiar Wide Area Information Server (WAIS)-based GPO Access. For a comprehensive discussion of system capabilities by release. authenticated. audio. in use since 1994.gpo. GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys) is an integrated content management system which incorporates state-of-the-art technology for document authentication and digital preservation. and delivered upon request. FDsys is scheduled to become available to agencies and the public in early 2009. preserved. Content may include text and associated graphics.xii GPO’s Online Initiatives comprehensive digital content system capable of managing all known Federal Government documents within the scope of GPO’s Federal Depository Library Program and other information dissemination programs. and delivery to users. or by other dissemination methods. including such foundational elements as system infrastructure and security. Content entered into the system will be cataloged according to GPO and library standards. as document masters for conventional and on-demand printing. and other forms that emerge. FDsys will allow Federal content creators to submit content for preservation. preserving. FDsys capabilities will be deployed in a series of releases. beginning a process of incremental releases. . with enhanced search and retrieval functionality. and will be available on the World Wide Web for searching and viewing. and a digital repository that conforms to the OAIS reference model and enables the management of content and metadata. managed. FDsys will automate content life-cycle processes and make it easier to deliver digital content in formats suited to customers’ needs. The first public release will provide FDsys core capabilities. see the FDsys documentation at http://www.

Most of the documents currently available via GPO Access are derived from databases used in the printing of Government publications. as stated in this Manual. . will serve well when preparing documents for electronic dissemination. electronic or otherwise. punctuation. and related matters. spelling.GPO’s Online Initiatives xiii Information The rules of grammar. However. the rules as stated in this Manual will continue to be the GPO’s standard for all document preparation. as electronic dissemination of Government information continues to grow.

..... 19......................................... Standard Latin abbreviations ......... About This Manual..................................................................................................................... Advice to Authors and Editors .............................................................. 10..................... Principal Foreign Countries.... 15.........S............................................................................ Tabular Work.........S............................................ 12.................................. Contents................................................................................................................ Standard word abbreviations .................................................................. Information technology acronyms and initialisms .............S.... GPO’s Online Initiatives.........................................Contents Chapter Page 1................................................................................ Datelines...................................... Numerals ... Capitalization Rules .......... Addresses................. Spelling ........................................ Indexes........................... Standard letter symbols for units of measure ........................... 5. 18..... Measures....................................... 20........ Congressional Record Index.......... 16......... Index.................. 11.... 8................ 17................................................ Congressional Record ................................................... Abbreviations and Letter Symbols ......... Reports and Hearings ............................................................................................ and Signatures ...... 4.............. Cities by State ................................. Metric and U......................................................... 7................... Capitalization Examples.................... Punctuation ............................................................................ Italic ........................................ 2.. Leaderwork ........... Most Populous U..................................................................................... v ix 1 7 27 43 79 95 109 193 221 238 247 251 255 259 265 269 281 299 303 309 321 321 322 325 332 334 339 340 341 343 371 406 417 433 XV .. General Instructions ... Measurement Conversion........................................................................................................................ Useful Tables................... Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions ..................... 3................................ Common Measures and Their Metric Equivalents ................ U.......... Compounding Examples ...................................... 14................ Compounding Rules .................. Signs and Symbols ........................................ Demonyms: Names of Nationalities........... Currency .................................................................................................. 6. Footnotes............................................................. 13.............................................................................................. 9.... and Outlines.... Presidents and Vice Presidents.......................

3.1. Proper names. must be furnished. 1. Copy should be on one side only with each sheet numbered consecutively. 1. not faint reproductions.4. If a publication is composed of several parts. 1. and technical terms should be written plainly.10. it is advisable to have each page begin with a new paragraph. They should be on individual sheets. 1. 1. 1. 1. T1. Careful observance of the following suggestions will aid in expediting your publication and also reduce printing costs. Cl. C1. Advice to Authors and Editors The GPO Style Manual is intended to facilitate Government printing.6. To reduce the possibility of costly blank pages. 1. as they are handled separately during typesetting. figures. Photographs.7.9. foreign words. drawings. Footnote reference marks in text and tables should be arranged consecutively from left to right across each page of copy. a scheme of the desired arrangement must accompany the first installment of copy. To avoid unnecessary expense.2. 1. Generally these refinements should be limited to quality bookwork. Making changes after submission of copy delays the production of the publication and adds to the expense of the work.1.5. such as Al. 1. Editors must indicate whether the second character is a letter or a figure. Tl are sometimes mistaken for A1. 1 . If both sides of copy are to be used. therefore.8. signatures. copy must be carefully edited before being submitted to the Government Printing Office. avoid use of new odd pages and halftitles whenever possible. Legible copy. Chemical symbols. and legends being used for illustrations should be placed in the manuscript where they are to appear in the publication. a duplicate set of copy must be furnished.

including the preliminary pages. 1.20. They should be plainly marked showing the desired type. avoid having more than two blank pages at the end. and binding.16. Indicate alternative choice of paper on the requisition.11.15. Where possible. 1. Where fold-ins are numerous and cannot be split. All queries on proofs must be answered. Customers should submit copy for running heads and indicate the numbering sequence for folios. indicate head and back margins. including blank pages. 12. and only that set should be returned to GPO. Indicate on copy if separate or self-cover.13. Avoid use of oversize fold-ins wherever possible. 16. 1. In looseleaf or perforated-on-fold work.18. lettering. 24.2 Chapter 1 1. Otherwise. All corrections must be indicated on the “R” (revise) set of proofs. paper.12. Every effort should be made to keep complete jobs of over 4 pages to signatures (folded units) of 8. consideration should be given to folding and inserting these into an envelope pasted to the inside back cover. as later proofs are intended for verification only. confine choice of paper to general use items carried in inventory as shown in the GPO Paper Catalog. 1. not by writing over the print or between the lines. GPO will determine the margins. Samples should be furnished if possible. 1. Do not folio separate covers or dividers. size of type page. 1. indicate if solid or tone.17. 1. 1.19. This can be done by splitting a would-be fold-in and arranging the material to appear as facing pages in the text.14. trim. indicate folio sequence. When reverse printing in whole or in part is required. Corrections should be marked in the margins of a proof opposite the indicated errors. If nonstandard trim sizes and/or type areas are used. or 32 pages. Where possible. illustrations if any. 1. Begin with first text page (title). . Corrections should be made on first proofs returned. by circling in blue.

2008.Advice to Authors and Editors 3 1. workplace safety. 2008. this supplement is equally useful for keyboarding. and paper longevity issues. Word Division: Supplement to the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual This publication serves as a quick reference guide for finding correct word divisions. It includes samples of papers used by GPO.gpo. In addition to the list of words with divisions. weight. Government Printing Office. Washington. go to: http://bookstore. Used as a planning aid and guide in selecting an adequate grade. For the latest information about the availability of these and other such publications. . They may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents. The following GPO publications relate to material included in this Manual. Government Paper Specifications The purpose of these standards is to achieve compliance with relevant statutes regarding printing papers. it also contains wordbreak rules and line-ending rules. Prepared especially for GPO printers and proofreaders. 1987. as well as a spelling and pronunciation guide. address environmental. and color of paper for a job of printing.21. and achieve maximum savings in the Government’s paper purchases.gov. GPO Paper Samples This publication is a supplement to Government Paper Specification Standards. DC 20402.

Corrections made to proofs should be indicated as follows: 1 In lieu of the traditional mark “tr” used to indicate letter or number transpositions.22. the striking out of the incorrect letters or numbers and the placement of the correct matter in the margin of the proof is the preferred method of indicating transposition corrections.4 Chapter 1 1. This mark should be reserved to show transposition of words. . 3 The form of any query carried should be such that an answer may be given simply by crossing out the complete query if a negative decision is made or the right-hand (question mark) portion to indicate an affirmative answer. 2 Corrections involving more than two characters should be marked by striking out the entire word or number and placing the correct form in the margin.

.—The system of marking proofs can be made easier by the use of an imaginary vertical line through the center of the type area.Advice to Authors and Editors 5 Note. The placement of corrections in the left-hand margin for those errors found in the left-hand portion of the proof and in the right-hand margin for right-side errors prevents overcrowding of marks and facilitates corrections.

customer agencies are requested to indicate precise details of any style changes because this set of pages serves as a guide for the copy preparer. The use of computers has dramatically altered every phase of the printing industry beginning with the basic planning of each new job. index. abstract. (e) Availability (publisher. or other source and address). Each format is made to conform exactly to the copy’s specifications for page dimensions. reference. sample pages are produced and submitted to the customer. the beginning of actual production. Upon completion.) Reports of a scientific or technical nature should contain: (a) Title and other title information. Publications such as books and pamphlets should contain: (a) Title and other title information. New publications are evaluated by application specialists who review their requirements and design the necessary formats. typefaces. store. (d) Date of issuance. 7 . etc. Certain identifying elements shall be printed on all publications in accordance with this Manual and with standards developed by the (ANSI) American National Standards Institute. consideration has been given to the changing needs of those who seek to produce. (f) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if applicable. At this time. In recent years.2. indentions. printer. In developing standards to guide publishers of Government documents. and (g) The ISBN (International Standard Book Number). and retrieve data. 2. search. (c) Name of author(s) and editor(s) (department or individual). General Instructions Job planning 2.1. (b) Name of department issuing or creating publication. line length. (b) Report number.2. changes in the needs of the library community have led to a move toward uniform treatment of the component parts of publications.15. Title Leaves of a Book. (See ANSI Standard Z39.

DC 20591 Title Use of Weather Information by General Aviation Pilots. . Knecht Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Oklahoma City.8 Chapter 2 Federal Aviation Administration Report number Availability statement Sponsoring organization DOT/FAA/AM–08/6 Office of Aerospace Medicine Washington. Part I.. New York. NY 10036. Other cover designs and typefaces are acceptable. 25 West 43d St. (3) This sample page was prepared according to the guidelines of the American National Standards Institute. items are justified left. (2) In this sample. Users of ANSI standards are cautioned that all standards are reviewed periodically and subject to revision. Quantitative: Reported Use and Value of Providers and Products William R. OK 73125 Author Performing organization name and address Date March 2008 Type of report Final Report Notes: (1) This sample report cover is reduced in size.

and similar publications should contain: (a) Title and other title information. Scientific and Technical Reports—Elements. when the following elements occur in Government publications. American Standard Reference Data and Arrangement of Periodicals. printer.and magazinetype publications. (See ANSI Standard Z39. (e) Availability (publisher. Performing organization. (b) False title (frontispiece. The designation “new odd page’’ generally refers to bookwork and is not required in most pamphlet. printer. .General Instructions 9 (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Author(s). periodicals.) Makeup 2. (a) Frontispiece.18—1995. if any. Type of report and period covered.3. they generally appear in the sequence listed below. (See ANSI/NISO Standard Z39. (b) Volume and issue numbers. and (i) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if applicable. (f) International Standard Serial Number. The design and makeup of a publication is the responsibility of the publisher. (c) Title page (new odd page).1. and (g) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if applicable. However. or other source and address). Date of issuance. Organization. faces title page.) Journals. or other source and address). (d) Publishing or sponsoring department. (c) Date of issue. magazines. and Design. on back). Sponsoring department. Availability (publisher.

etc. Rewording to fill the line is a preferred alternative. use lowercase Roman numerals. Pages in the back of the book (index. congressional resolution authorizing publication. sales notice. etc. is not usually necessary with so few pages. 2.). Preliminary pages use small-cap Roman numerals. as parts of contents.5. contents on cover. but are permitted if absolutely necessary to maintain uniform makeup and page depth. Widow lines (lines less than full width of measure) at top of pages are to be avoided. (g) Preface. if possible. (h) Acknowledgments (if not part of preface) (new odd page). title page. it should be the first chapter. immediately followed by list of illustrations and list of tables. (f) Foreword. (e) Letter of transmittal (new odd page). if the book is divided into chapters. 2. (m) Appendix (new odd page). begins with page 1 (if halftitle is used.. (l) Bibliography (new odd page). If some of this preliminary matter is necessary. contents. Booklets of 32 pages or less can be printed more economically with a self-cover. etc. title. blank. differs from a preface in that it is an introductory note written as an endorsement by a person other than the author (new odd page).e. by author (new odd page). A table of contents. 2. preface. (k) Glossary (new odd page). note of editions and printings. (j) Text. (n) Index (new odd page). but frequently carries such useful bibliographic information as list of board members.10 Chapter 2 (d) Back of title. . it is more practical if combined. GPO imprint if departmental imprint appears on title page. (i) Contents (new odd page). An introduction differs from a foreword or a preface in that it is the initial part of the text. etc. and foreword on cover 2.4..6. foreword. i. begins with p. 3).

inclusive. 2. the facing page should be of approximate equal depth.13. Where running heads with folios are used.12.7. Jobs that have both running heads and bottom folios or just bottom folios will align all of the page numbers on the bottom in the margin. 2. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued lines over tables. heads are included in overall page depth. 4 picas.8.17. whether in boldface. 2. caps. or italic.14. A blank space or sink of 6 picas should be placed at the head of each new odd or even page of 46-pica or greater depth. Paragraphs may start on the last line of a page whenever necessary. small caps. When a table continues.15. its headnote is repeated without the word Continued. pages with a depth of from 36 to 45 picas. will carry a 5-pica sink. unless special orders are given not to do so.9. 2. pages less than 36 picas. Contents.10. the folio on a new page is set 2 points smaller than the top folios. A landscape or broadside table that continues from an even to an odd page must be positioned to read through the center (gutter) of the publication when its size is not sufficient to fill both pages. A broadside table of less than page width will center on the page. first pages of chapters and pages with bottom folios do not include the folios as part of the overall page depth. 2. 2. 2.11. including those on preliminary pages. 2. Centerheads. should have more space above than below. When top centered folios are used. They are centered at the bottom and enclosed in parentheses. If at all possible avoid use of running heads in conjunction with bottom folios. However. If it is found necessary to make a short page. or any other matter that makes a page in itself will retain normal 6-pica sink. preface. 2.16. 2. list of illustrations.General Instructions 11 2. caps and small caps. . Uniform spacing should be maintained throughout the page.

All backstrips should read down (from top to bottom).19. quoted matter should be indented 2 ems on both sides with space top and bottom.24.12 Chapter 2 2. . 2. Preparers must indicate the proper subformat at the beginning of each extension. cut-ins. and initial and closing quotes should be omitted. as well as indicate other matters of style necessary to give the publication good typographic appearance. footnotes. unless a specific weight is requested by the customer.20. etc. Two or more short footnotes may be combined into one line. 2. If the same type size is used. text preceding a page-width illustration will be divided equally into the appropriate number of columns above the illustration. or Back Title should also be plainly indicated. 1 2. 2.3. verify folio numbers.23. Copy preparation 2. Copy preparers must mark those things not readily understood when reading the manuscript. New Odd or New Page. In tables utilizing down rules. Capitalization 2. hairline rules will be used. Title.21.25. At the beginning of each job the proper formats must be plainly marked. and plainly indicate references. They must also mark the correct element identifier code for each data element. 2. Quotation marks at the beginning and end of paragraphs should be omitted.22.18. with 2 ems of space between. 2 Including imported cases. In making up a page of two or more columns.) Quoted or extract matter and lists should be set smaller than text with space above and below. (See rule 13. 3 Imported. Unusual use of capital and lowercase letters should be indicated by the customer to guarantee correct usage. Unless otherwise marked. text matter will be set in 10-point solid and tables in 7 point. Preliminary. Cover. Preliminary.

“Et cetera. and signatures 2. Headings 2.) Pickup 2. In figure columns containing both decimals and common fractions.General Instructions 13 Datelines.31. is acceptable. In printing a speaker’s language. such decimals and/or fractions will not be aligned.” and “and so forth” 2.” “etc. see Chapter 16 “Datelines. these words should be placed at the beginning of the next line. Caps. .’’) Decimals and common fractions 2. (See rule 3.’’ matter etc. New matter and pickup matter should conform in style. and an em dash should be used at the end of the extract. and line breaks where necessary.49. flush and lowercase. addresses. Folioing and stamping copy 2. the words and so forth or et cetera are preferred. caps and lowercase. Copy preparers must mark caps. lowercase first up (first word and proper nouns capitalized). (For more detailed instructions. The columns will be set flush right.30. caps and small caps.29. small caps. italic. abbreviations.26.. Folio numbers should be placed in the upper right corner.27. small caps. or italic must be prepared.28. If a quoted extract is set in type smaller than that of the preceding text and the speaker has summed up the remainder of the quotation with the words and so forth or et cetera. Addresses. but in “FIC & punc.. preferably half an inch from the top. indentions. The element identifier codes to be used for all headings must be marked. and Signatures. The jacket number of a job from which matter is to be picked up must be indicated.

lit. as they are frequently mistaken for italic or symbols. etc. All signs. Sec. 2624. etc. Copy authorized to be marked “Fol. dashes. 2. V–8. and I-beam. T-bone.32. 2. Sidenotes and cut-in notes are set each line flush left and ragged right. An alleged violation of the rule relating to admission to the floor presents a question of privilege (III. Capital letters of the text face will be used to illustrate shape and form. as U-shape(d).34. Questionable characters will be printed as figures unless otherwise marked.’’ (follow literally).. Fol. but not a higher question of privilege than an election case (III.36. Golf tee(s) should be spelled.14 Chapter 2 Sidenotes and cut-in notes 2.’’ must be thoroughly prepared by the requisitioning agency as to capitalization.35. symbols. lit. must be plainly marked. lit. A capital letter is used in U-boat. Letters illustrating shape and form 2. Footnotes to sidenotes and text should be set 21½ picas. punctuation (including . VI. A-frame. 920.37. Plurals are formed by adding an apostrophe and the letter s to letters illustrating shape and form. as shape is not indicated. unless otherwise prepared.38. symbols. such as T’s and Y’s.33. lit. In one case where an ex-Member was abusing the privilege * * *. and FIC & punc. 4½ picas wide. 2626).’’ The difference between these two typesetting instructions is explained thus: Copy is followed when stamped “Fol. Sidenotes are usually set in 6 point. After submittal to GPO. 579). 2625. Signs. A lowercase l resembles a figure 1 and a capital O looks like a figure 0. Abuse of the rule.’’ or “FIC & punc. 2. manuscript copy is rubber-stamped “Fol. and are always set solid. 2. and other expressions which have no reference to shape or form. superiors. Names of Greek letters must be indicated. 2. Some typesetting systems produce characters that look the same as figures.

42. and no hyphen is used. Abbreviations 2. “section 7 a and b’’. In congressional hearings. including capitalization and punctuation).’’ This data is transmitted to the GPO via fiber optic transmission with element identifier codes in place. An unfamiliar abbreviation. In marking abbreviations to be spelled. abbreviations. with spelled-out form unavailable. Member. symbols. . but “section 9(a) (1) and (2)’’.General Instructions 15 compounding). 2. it is not cost effective to prepare the manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual and update the data once it is in type form. Therefore.—Bill copy will be followed as supplied. Bills will be treated as “FIC & punc. and italic.’’ 2. The lack of preparation on copy so designated shall. which accompany each job. In a head set in boldface.40. Washington. Blank. These instructions must be followed. the name of the interrogator or witness who continues speaking is repeated following a head set in boldface. DC. is not changed. in itself. and “the Honorable’’ preceding a name is shortened to “Hon. division will be made after elements in parentheses. including even obvious errors. Obvious errors are corrected in copy marked “FIC & punc. 2.39. unless the abbreviations are common and not susceptible to more than one construction. will be followed.’’ “paragraph 23(a).’’ Street addresses are also deleted. American Bar Association.’’ “paragraph (a)(2)’’. “Fol. Bill style. John P. and a paragraph enclosed in brackets. are written to cover the general style and certain peculiarities or deviations from style. signs. Copy preparer’s instructions. Example: “Statement of Hon.’’ is not used. 2. figures. a paragraph enclosed in parentheses. constitute preparation. Such copy. In case of an unavoidable break. preparers must show what the spelled form should be.43.’’ does not include size and style of type or spacing. the title “Mr. Paragraph or section numbers (or letters) followed by figures or letters in parentheses will close up. as “section 7(B)(1)(a).’’ “paragraph b(7). lit.’’ (follow.41.

16 Chapter 2 Type composition 2. 2. however. Centerheads are set apart from the text by the use of spacing. if any. 2.53. narrow spacing being more desirable in solid than in leaded matter.50. Unless otherwise marked. flush heads are separated from text by 4 points of space above and 2 points of space below in solid matter. are not to be carried on jobs going directly to press. in 8and 6-point type. caps and small caps.51. 2.48. small caps. In 10-point type. 2. Every precaution must be taken to prevent the soiling of proofs. 2. Operators and revisers must study carefully the rules governing composition. Solid matter (text) is defined as those lines set without horizontal space between them. Leaded text is defined as lines separated by 1 or 2 points of space.44.47. 2. In correcting pickup matter. as it is necessary for the reviser to see clearly every mark on the margin of a proof after it has been corrected. was actually reset. Spacing of text is governed by the leading. However. the spacing would be 10 points over and 8 points under a heading.46. Such queries. the operator must indicate plainly on the proof what portion.45.52. Leading and spacing 2. A single justified word space will be used between sentences. more space is always inserted above a heading than below. 2. 2. the spacing would be 8 points above and 6 points below. . Center or flush heads set in caps. This applies to all types of composition. and by 6 points of space above and 4 points of space below in leaded matter. Corrections of queries intended for the author are not to be made. or boldface are keyed with regular justified spaces between words.49. The amount of space varies with each publication.

Full-measure numbered or lettered paragraphs and quoted extracts are not separated by space from adjoining matter. overruns in hanging indentions are 2 ems more than the first line. Footnotes are leaded if the text is leaded.54. and are solid if the text is solid. Indentions 2. Extracts which are set off from the text by smaller type or are indented on both sides or indented 3 ems on the left side (courtwork only) are separated by 6 points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points of space in solid matter. 2. 2. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems.63. overs are 4 ems. and solid if the text is solid.56. 2. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 6 ems. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 3 ems. Extracts set solid in leaded matter are separated from the text by 6 points. 2. the paragraph indention is 2 ems. Leaderwork is separated from text by 4 points above and 4 points below. Addresses are set flush left. 2. In measures less than 30 picas. the overrun indention is made 1 em more than the following line.58. of a subentry or paragraph). 2.62.59. 2. Flush lines following extracts are separated by 6 points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points in solid matter. In measures less than 30 picas. of a subentry or paragraph). the paragraph indention is 1 em. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems. In matter set 30 picas or wider. the overrun indention is made 2 ems more than the following line. . overruns in hanging indentions are 1 em more than the first line. except that to avoid conflict with a following indention (for example.55. except that to avoid conflict with a following indention (for example. overs are 2 ems. 2.61.60.57. Legends are leaded if the text is leaded.General Instructions 17 2. Addresses are set flush left. In matter set 30 picas or wider.

while those with more than two lines are set with a hanging indention. as that of adjoining main-text indented matter.) At the beginning of a legend or standing alone.70. 5 Figure A. legends for illustrations are set in 8-point roman. the legend is placed above the chart. but heads of three or more lines are set with a hanging indention.73. If a chart carries both a legend and footnotes. an even-page legend should be on the inside margin and an odd-page legend on the outside margin. Overs in flush heads are indented 2 ems in measures less than 30 picas.67. Figure preceding the identifying number or letter is set in caps and small caps and is not abbreviated.65. 2. (See rule 8. Figure 5.68. and 3 ems in wider measures. 2. All special instructions. lowercase. Unless otherwise indicated. layouts. Two-line centerheads are centered.18 Chapter 2 2. Letter symbols used in legends for illustrations are set in lowercase italic without periods. not Fig.112. 2. However.66. 2. Legend lines for illustrations that appear broad or turn page (landscape) should be printed to read up. Indention of matter set in smaller type should be the same. Periods are used after legends and explanatory remarks beneath illustrations. Legends for illustrations 2.74. Paragraph style is acceptable. not Fig. Legends are set full measure regardless of the width of the illustration. 2. It is preferred that legends and explanatory data consisting of one or two lines are set centered. in points. A 2. .69.72.64. 2. legends without descriptive language do not use a period.71. Proofreading 2. and style sheets must be included with the first installment of each job. 2.

77. If the proofreader detects inconsistent or erroneous statements. 2. Proofs that are illegible or are in any manner defective must be called to the attention of the deskperson. The transposition mark should not be used in little-known words or in figures. The manner in which correction marks are made on a proof is of considerable importance. add a query mark.78. irregular lines leading from an incorrect letter or word to a correction.80. it is his or her responsibility to query them. 2. 2. marks made with a blunt pencil. he or she must indicate the proposed correction. 2. the proofreader should place the correction as near as possible to the error. 2.84. as he or she is in a position to know more about the peculiarities of a job than one who reads but a small portion of it.81.General Instructions 19 2. and enclose all in a circle. . All instructions on copy must be carried on proof by readers. It is better to cancel the letters or figures and write them in the margin in the order in which they are to appear. then check off each corresponding footnote number.82. 2. In reading proof of wide tables. unsymmetrical characters. and frequent use of the eraser to obliterate marks hastily or incorrectly made are faults to be avoided.79.75. 2. Proofreaders must not make important changes in indentions or tables without consulting the referee. All queries appearing on the copy must be carried to the author’s set of proofs.85. the proofreader and reviser must draw a ring around footnote references on the proofs. large marks.76. 2. 2. If the grammatical construction of a sentence or clause is questioned by a proofreader and it seems desirable to change the form. The marks of the copy preparer will be followed. indistinct marks. To assure proper placement of footnotes.83. 2. disconnected marks placed in the margin above or below the lines to which they relate. Straggling. Any mark that will change the proof from the copy as prepared must be circled in the margin.

see rule 2. Although a reviser is not expected to read proof. Revising page proofs 2. (For new page information. All instructions.92. If it appears that a correction has not been made. the reviser must submit the proposed change to the supervisor for a decision. If an important change should be made. the reviser should 2. 2. Special care must be exercised in revising corrected matter. The importance of revising proofs cannot be overemphasized.3 “Makeup. and extraneous notes on both copy and proofs that are not intended to be set as part of the text must be circled. .87. In the body of the work. 2. it is not enough to follow the marks found on the proof. Folios of copy must be run by the proofreader and marked on the proof. Revising galley proofs 2.95.86.20 Chapter 2 2.88. The reviser is responsible for marking all bleed and off-center pages. comments. He or she should be alert to detect errors and inconsistencies and must see that all corrections have been properly made and that words or lines have not been transposed or eliminated in making the corrections.90. new pages must be properly indicated on the proof. 2.91. Page revising requires great diligence and care. 2. The reviser must see that the rules governing the instructions of previous workers have been followed. A blank page must be indicated at the bottom of the preceding page. 2. 2.’’) All instructions and queries on proofs must be transferred to the revised set of proofs. A reviser must not remodel the punctuation of the proofreaders or make any important changes.89.93.94.

and transpositions.’’ etc.. change footnote to read “Footnote eliminated.’’ carry the same designating “R’’ on the corresponding clean proof.98. request another if necessary. are correct. if used. print the table footnotes above the text footnotes. unless style dictates that all footnotes are to appear together in one location. Check connection pages. where a sheet is stamped “Another proof. doublets. (f) Legend lines of full-page illustrations that appear broad should be printed to read up—the even-page legend on the binding or inside margin and the odd-page legend on the outside margin.’’ etc. 2.’’ 2. make sure they are consecutive and that the running heads. on each set of page proofs returned from the originating office. It is imperative that footnotes appear or begin on the same page as their reference. Where a table with footnotes falls at the bottom of a page containing footnotes to text. The following rules must be carefully observed: (a) See that the proof is clean and clear. (b) Verify that the galley proofs are in order and that the data on the galleys runs in properly to facilitate continuous makeup.’’ “3R.96.) 2. flush left.77. (c) Make sure that different sets of proofs of the same job are correctly marked in series (“R. with spacing on each side of the rule. do not renumber the footnotes. If a footnote is added in proof.’’ “3R. (e) Watch for dropouts. as 15a.). . (d) Run the page folios.General Instructions 21 carefully examine each line on the page to see if the correction was inserted in the wrong place. separated by a rule 50 points long. Verify correct sequence for footnote references and placement. use the preceding number with a superior letter added. (g) If a footnote is eliminated. Advance the “R. (See also rule 13.’’ “2R.’’ “2R.97.

Signature marks. jobwork. He or she is required to OK all forms that go to press—bookwork. 2. back. etc. folds.—and must see that all queries are answered. . Figures indicating the year should follow the jacket number in signature marks: 125–327—08——4 116–529—08—pt. signature marks are set in 6-point lowercase and indented 3 ems. Imprints and signature lines appearing on short pages of text are placed at the bottom of the page.. (See rule 2. if both appear on the same page. bulletin. to ensure proper trimming of the completed job. etc. the signature line is placed below the allmark or imprint.) The allmark is placed below the page.102. or circular number but above the signature line. Although speed is essential when forms reach the press reviser. On a congressional job reprinted because of change.117. 5——3 116–529—08—vol. 2.101. 1——3 2.104. accuracy is still paramount and must not be sacrificed.105.106. The press reviser must be thoroughly familiar with the style and makeup of Government publications. Press revising calls for the exercise of utmost care. covers. etc.103. 2. and side margins for all work.100. the House and Senate have approved the following styles: House of Representatives: 17–234—08——2 Senate: 17–235—08——2 (Star Print) 2. Unless otherwise indicated. is helpful. 2. 2. A knowledge of the bindery operations required to complete a book or job and familiarity with all types of imposition. When the allmark ( ) and signature or the imprint and signature appear on same page.99.22 Chapter 2 Press revising 2. The reviser must be capable of ascertaining the proper head.

The following forms are used for signature marks in House and Senate documents and reports printed on session jackets: H. the year. 10) 2.109. 08–2. 08–2. Original edition May 1990 Reprinted May 1995 Revised July 1997 The year in the imprint on cover. the marks are placed on the lower right-hand side.111. vol. Doc. Doc.112. On a paster facing an even page. If more than one paster faces the same page. 73. Rept. unless other mends are necessary. title page. year. Reprints 2. In a document or report printed on other than a session jacket. 2. use the jacket number.110. 1——2 H.107. 100. nor are the signatures changed. 08–1——2 S. 19) No. When a paster follows the text. Doc. 08–2——9 2. 57. the dates of the original edition and of reprint or revision should be supplied by the author on the title page or in some other suitable place. 1 12–344——08 (Face p. or elsewhere is not changed from that in the original print. (See rule 2. . 1——2 S. the marks are placed on the lower left-hand side. To aid bibliographic identification of reprints or revisions.General Instructions 23 2. pt. 08–2——8 S.114. the allmark is placed on the last page of the text and never on the paster. and the page to be faced by the paster are used as follows (note punctuation): 12–344——08 (Face p. 57. Thus: First edition July 1990 Reprinted July 1995 First printed June 1990 Revised June 1995 2. 120. 2.113. on a paster facing an odd page. and signature number only.102. 2 2. the jacket number. Rept. 08–1——2 S. 19) No. 57. omitting the document or report number.108. Doc.) For pasters. each is numbered as follows: 12–344——08 (Face p.

The imprint is not used on a halftitle or on any page of a cover. 2. the sales notice is printed at the bottom of the title page below a cross rule. This is one style of an imprint that can appear on the title page. If there is no cover or title page.119. 2. 2. the full imprint is used on the title page. Unless otherwise stipulated.gpo. The full GPO imprint is used on the title page of a congressional speech. Government Printing Office · Internet: bookstore. the imprint is placed on the title page. The imprint and allmark are not used together on any page. with the exception of certain classified work. The use of sales notices is discouraged. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. use the half imprint only. Washington. the other is omitted. the imprint is placed on the last page of the text 4 ems from flush right and below the bottom folio. If there is a title page. 2. If there is a cover but no title page.120. thus—Washington : 2008.115. 2. with or without a cover. the GPO imprint must appear on all printed matter. if it is printed on the title page. 2. but if there is no title page. Sales notices 2. if one is used. Imprint variations 2. If it is printed on page ii.gov · Phone: Toll Free 866–512–1800 · DC area 202–512–1800 · Fax: 202–512–2104 · Mail: Stop SSOP. with the exception of congressional hearings. DC 20402–0001 · www.121. if there is a title page. below the imprint. or if the title page is entirely an illustration. and the two are separated by a cross rule.24 Chapter 2 Imprints 2.gov .118.123. The GPO logo is used only on GPO publications.116. any sales notice is printed at the end of the text.117.gpoaccess.122. Unless otherwise indicated.S. U. the sales notice is printed on the cover.

In the event that a title page is not used. Bibliographies or references There are many styles available to bibliographers. with correct references to volume. Off. U.126. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. .S.S.gov · Phone: toll free 866–512–1800 · DC area 202–512–1800 · Fax: 202–512–2250 · Mail: Stop SSOP. Outside-purchase publications are identified by an open star at the beginning of the imprint line. 2.127. series. These lines are positioned 4 ems from the right margin. number. U. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—456–789 2. Jobs set on outside purchase but printed by the GPO use an asterisk in lieu of the open star.130.124. U. Publications produced from camera copy supplied to the GPO are identified by cc printed at the end of the line.gov 2. —U.gpo. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—456–789 2.129. would be treated as follows: Author’s name (if the article is signed). title of article (in quotation marks). and publisher (U.).gpoaccess. Publications purchased outside which are reprinted by the GPO use an em dash in lieu of the open star. Washington.General Instructions 25 2. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—123–456–cc Franking 2. date.S. the publication (usually in italic).128. DC 20402–0001 · www.S.S.S. *U.125. Govt. Government Printing Office · Internet: bookstore. according to one authority. Print. A Government bulletin citation. for there are many classes of documents. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—456–789 2. The franking (mailing) privilege on covers for Government publications should be at least 1⅛ inches from the trim. the imprint is printed on the last page and positioned flush left below the text. pages.

Dept. and the following references are available for study: Better Report Writing. 10. Rosa. 779. Sci. Wash. Chicago. pp.’’ Conservation Bulletin. The science of bibliography is covered in many texts. U. 41 (serial number not italic). New York. 1940) Edward B. No. Rosa. “The Economic Importance of the Scientific Work of the Government. “How To Select a Sound Horse. U. Wilson.S. Prentice-Hall. 342 (1920) Note that the principal words in both book titles and titles of articles are capitalized. 1974. Washington. 10.. Macmillan Handbook of English. 1–26 (1926).S. Acad. Department of the Interior. The Great Crusade and After: 1914–1928 (New York: Macmillan.S. but only the first word in the title of articles. Dept. New York. . 342 (1920) or: Preston W. Another Government periodical citation would read as follows: Reese. Waldo. Govt. 1982. 2003. No. Slosson. New York. 1997. Words Into Type. “The economic importance of the scientific work of the government.26 Chapter 2 Therefore the example would read: U. by Willis H. of the Interior (or U. Off.’’ J.. Macmillan Co. of Agriculture. Print. The Great Crusade And After: 1914–1928 (New York: Macmillan. Slosson. 1940) Edward B. “Highlights in history of forest and related natural source conservation. University of Chicago Press. Sci.). Wash. Consistency is more important in bibliographic style than the style itself. Acad.’’ Farmers’ Bulletin.’’ J.S. Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1). Other examples are: Preston W. Herbert Harshman. The Chicago Manual of Style. 1 p. Clarity may be maintained by capitalizing each word in book titles. 1965. (or p. by Robert F.

Since this depends upon general and long-continued usage.4. by considering the purpose to be served and the underlying principles. the avenue Washington Monument.1. Proper names 3. but. The correct usage with respect to any term not included can be determined by analogy or by application of the rules. are set lowercased. The list of approved forms given in Chapter 4 will serve as a guide. or no longer identified with such names. it is possible to attain a considerable degree of uniformity. Derivatives of proper names used with a proper meaning are capitalized. the common noun used alone as a substitute for the name of a place or thing is not capitalized. Roman (of Rome) 3. the statue Hoover Dam. the dam 27 . Capitalization Rules (See also Chapter 4 “Capitalization Examples” and Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols”) 3.3. Johannean Italian Derivatives of proper names used with acquired independent common meaning.3. the monument Statue of Liberty. Massachusetts Avenue. Obviously such a list cannot be complete. It is impossible to give rules that will cover every conceivable problem in capitalization. Proper names are capitalized. a more definite and all-inclusive rule cannot be formulated in advance.5. roman (type) brussels sprouts venetian blinds macadam (crushed rock) watt (electric unit) plaster of paris italicize anglicize pasteurize Common nouns and adjectives in proper names 3. Rome Brussels John Macadam Macadam family Italy Anglo-Saxon Derivatives of proper names 3.2. A common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a proper name is capitalized.

the national forest Panama Canal.7. Johnson house (residence) Crow Reservation. record. A common noun used alone as a well-known short form of a specific proper name is capitalized. French.9.8. If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a name becomes separated from the rest of the name by an intervening common noun or adjective. the soldiers’ home Johnson House (hotel). the lakes Lake of the Woods. and United States Governments Presidents Washington and Adams 3. DC. but State capitol building the Channel (English Channel) the Chunnel (tunnel below English Channel) the District (District of Columbia) 3. Seventh and I Streets Lakes Erie and Ontario Potomac and James Rivers State and Treasury Departments British. the canal Soldiers’ Home in Holyoke. the city Cook County. the reservation Cape of Good Hope.6.28 Chapter 3 Boston Light. the Capitol building in Washington. The plural form of a common noun capitalized as part of a proper name is also capitalized. the lake North Platte River. Union Station: union passenger station Eastern States: eastern farming States United States popularly elected government 3. merely to denote time or sequence. the 1960 census 3. the entire expression is no longer a proper noun and is therefore not capitalized. or letter. Charles I Seventeenth Census. the light Modoc National Forest. A common noun used with a date. the river Lower California but lower Mississippi Charles the First. or for the purpose of reference. the cape Jersey City Washington City but city of Washington. number. or . the county Great Lakes.

5 page 2 paragraph 4 part I phase 3 plate IV region 3 room A722 rule 8 schedule K section 3 signature 4 spring 1926 station 27 table 4 title IV treaty of 1919 volume X war of 1914 ward 2 The following terms are lowercased.Capitalization Rules 29 temporary convenience. the Second Hague Conference El Salvador. but the Dalles region. the is not capitalized.38. The Mermaid (title of legal case) The Dalles (OR). DC only) The Gambia but the Congo. the word the (or its equivalent in a foreign language) is capitalized when used as a part of an official name or title. (See also rule 3.10. British Consul v. Las Cruces. the Netherlands . When such name or title is used adjectively. the Weirs streets The Hague. nor is the supplied at any time when not in copy. does not form a proper name and is therefore not capitalized. even with a name or number. figure 7 first district (not congressional) flight 007 graph 8 group 7 history 301 mile 7. the Sudan. The Weirs (NH). The Mall (Washington. L’Esterel The National Mall. aqueduct breakwater buoy chute dike dock drydock irrigation project jetty levee lock pier reclamation project ship canal shipway slip spillway turnpike watershed weir wharf Definite article in proper place names 3.11.) abstract B act of 1928 amendment 5 apartment 2 appendix C article 1 book II chapter III chart B class I collection 6 column 2 drawing 6 exhibit D 3. but the Hague Court. To achieve greater distinction or to adhere to the authorized form.

even if preceded by a forename or title. should be followed. La Forge or Laforge). Individual usage. Rule 3.12. should be followed. airships. Particles in names of persons 3. In foreign names such particles as d’. the two-word form should be used. In names set in capitals. IL. Names of organized bodies 3. are capitalized only in certain specified instances to indicate preeminence or distinction. E. other substitutes.15. IN) but DeKalb County (TN) 3. Alcide d’Orbigny. Prime Minister den Uyl Du Pont. are also capitalized.14. Wernher von Braun but d’Orbigny. de. if ascertainable. Van Rensselaer. firm names. von. Da Ponte. van. du.13. periodicals. etc. .30 Chapter 3 3. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Reginald De Koven Thomas De Quincey.I. Justice Van Devanter. which are most often regarded as common nouns. vessels. da. de la Madrid. but individual usage. If copy is not clear as to the form of such a name (for example. den. etc. the Washington Post the Times the Atlantic Monthly the Mermaid the U–3 the Los Angeles the Federal Express the National Photo Co. Irénée du Pont 3. GA. if ascertainable.. and von are capitalized unless preceded by a forename or title.16.11 does not apply in references to newspapers. della. In anglicized names such particles are usually capitalized. The full names of existing or proposed organized bodies and their shortened names are capitalized. Dr. Stephen van Rensselaer Von Braun. William De Morgan Henry van Dyke (his usage) Samuel F. Cardinal da Ponte Den Uyl. De Kalb County (AL.17. de. Du Pont (his usage). Johannes den Uyl. trains. Miguel de la Madrid 3.

Volunteer officer. the House. but legislative. Air Force: the Air Force U. the Tribunal (only in the proceedings of a specific arbitration tribunal) Hague Peace Conference of 1907: the Hague Conference. the consulate general Treasury of the United States: General Treasury. French Army. Reserve officer. Congress. the commission Montgomery County Board of Health: the Board of Health. Army Establishment.Capitalization Rules 31 National governmental units: U. Public Treasury. the board of health. the Senate. the Peace Conference. Navy: the Navy. the brigade. Montgomery County. executive. but the consulate.S. Robinson’s brigade. All-Volunteer Army.S. 81st Regiment. Regular Army officer. Division of Publications. Coast Guard: the Coast Guard French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. but committee (all other congressional committees) Department of Agriculture: the Department. the highway commission. the Congress. Committee of the Whole. the corps. the subtreasury Department of Defense: Military Establishment. but army shoe. naval station U. British Embassy: the Embassy. the Infantry. the Bureau. Congress: 110th Congress. the council Buffalo Consumers’ League: the consumers’ league. All-Volunteer Forces. Armed Forces. the Secretariat Permanent Court of Arbitration: the Court. Army: the Army.S. National Treasury. British Navy International organizations: United Nations: the Council. but the agency Environmental Protection Agency: the Agency Geological Survey: the Survey Government Printing Office: the Printing Office. Treasury notes. infantryman U. Grant’s army. the Marine Corps. the league Republican Party: the party . the Assembly. the Office American Embassy. similarly all major departmental units. New York Subtreasury. the regiment. the Treasury. the board Common Council of the City of Pittsburgh: the common council. the Division.S. the Committee. but naval shipyard.S. but armed services U. Navy (Naval) Establishment. Army officer. the Army Band. and judicial departments Bureau of the Census: the Census Bureau. naval officer. Navy officer. the Ministry. the Conference Common-noun substitutes: Virginia General Assembly: the assembly California State Highway Commission: Highway Commission of California.

State of Veracruz.) Names of countries. State rights. as proper names. etc. Balkan States. the company Riggs National Bank: the Riggs Bank. and administrative divisions 3. the Nation. but state (referring to a federal government. government. foreign states. the Territory(ies). Southern Road. Province of Ontario: the Province.18.32 Chapter 3 Southern Railroad Co. but dominion (in general sense) Ontario Province. nation (national).. powers. The similar designations commonwealth. School of Law..) a Republican an Elk a Federalist a Shriner a Socialist an Odd Fellow a Communist a Boy Scout a Knight (K. provincial (in general sense) 3.20. Principal Foreign Countries table. Territorial. but a commonwealth government (general sense) . state’s evidence Territory (Canada): Yukon. Yale University. Provincial. or as proper adjectives. the bank Metropolitan Club: the club Yale School of Law: Yale University School of Law.P. etc. statehood. a State (a definite political subdivision of first rank). The official designations of countries. school of law 3. and their principal administrative divisions are capitalized only if used as part of proper names. Guam. Commonwealth of Virginia: the Commonwealth. K. a nation devoted to peace New York State: the State.. British Commonwealth.S. republic. a Representative (U. but territory of American Samoa. the railroad company. but republic (when not referring specifically to one such entity). confederation (federal). The names of members and adherents of organized bodies are capitalized to distinguish them from the same words used merely in a descriptive sense. republican (in general sense).. as proper names. church and state. Northwest Territories. but province. national domains. Federal Government. the Government. six States of Australia.) United States: the Republic. or as proper adjectives. also Federal. the body politic).19. Southern Co. the Union. are capitalized only if used as part of proper names.C. domains. (See Chapter 17.: the Southern Railroad. Virgin Islands Dominion of Canada: the Dominion.

the Federal Government.Capitalization Rules 33 Swiss Confederation: the Confederation. Central Europe) (political entities) but lower 48 (States) the Northeast corridor A descriptive term used to denote mere direction or position is not a proper name and is therefore not capitalized. the Churchill government. but national customs Allied Powers. also for temporary distinction a coined name of a region is capitalized. European governments Cherokee Nation: the nation. localities. the Federal Council. and geographic features 3. north.) the Promised Land the Continent (continental Europe) the Western Hemisphere the North Pole the North and South Poles the Temperate Zone the Torrid Zone the East Side Lower East Side (sections of a city) Western Europe.22. French and Italian Governments: the Governments. American nations National Government (of any specific nation). but Greek nation.21. federal (in general sense) French Government: the Government. etc. or geographic feature is a proper name and is therefore capitalized. but republic (in general sense) Names of regions. northward eastern. locality. A descriptive term used to denote a definite region. Central Powers (in World War I). east. Allies (in World Wars I and II). west northerly. the North Atlantic States the Gulf States the Central States the Pacific Coast States the Lake States East North Central States Eastern North Central States Far Western States Eastern United States the West the Midwest the Middle West the Far West the Eastern Shore (Chesapeake Bay) the Badlands (SD and NE) the Continental Divide Deep South Midsouth the Far East Far Eastern the East 3. Middle East Middle Eastern Mideast Mideastern (Asia) Near East (Balkans. northern. oriental. south. but our allies. but the powers. but confederation. European powers Republic of South Africa: the Republic. but government (in general sense). occidental . weaker allies.

etc. Monday. autumn (fall).34 Chapter 3 east Pennsylvania southern California northern Virginia west Florida. March.24. 3. etc. January. summer. Eve Presidents Day Ramadan Rosh Hashanah St. February. etc. Eve Columbus Day Father’s Day Feast of the Passover. but West Florida (1763–1819) eastern region. Christmas Day. Wednesday. primary day . eastern seaboard northern Italy southern France but East Germany. Jr. April Fools’ Day Arbor Day Armed Forces Day Birthday of Martin Luther King. the Passover Flag Day Fourth of July. but spring. Tuesday. Valentine’s Day Thanksgiving Day Washington’s Birthday Yom Kippur but election day. The names of holidays and ecclesiastic feast and fast days are capitalized. The names of calendar divisions are capitalized. western region north-central region east coast. winter Names of holidays.23. West Germany (former political entities) Names of calendar divisions 3. the Fourth Halloween Hanukkah Hogmanay Inauguration Day (Federal) Independence Day Labor Day Lincoln’s Birthday Memorial Day (also Decoration Day) Mother’s Day New Year’s Day.

and names of market grades and brands are capitalized. even though derived from a proper name. Agnostidae (family). capitalization should be used. The name of a phylum.) Arthropoda (phylum). and aspirin). thermos. Aconitum wilsoni.) Alfisols Andisols Aridisols 3.) Choice lamb (market grade) Red Radiance rose (variety) Xerox (the company) but photocopy (the process) Scientific names 3. Some trade names have come into usage as generic terms (e. In soil science the 12 soil orders are capitalized. (See Chapter 4 “Capitalization Examples” soil orders. The name of a species is not capitalized. aviculoid menodontine 3. Rhynchonellas Spirifers 3.27. Epigaea repens (genus and species) 3. Capitalize the names of the celestial bodies as well as the planets. Hypoparia (order). Crustacea (class).26. Any plural formed by adding s to a Latin generic name is capitalized. when reference is being made to the formal company or specific product name.30. family.25.29. (See rule 11. (See Chapter 4 “Capitalization Examples” trade names and trademarks. order. Agnostus (genus) Agnostus canadensis. class.g. or genus is capitalized.9. cellophane.28. variety names. In scientific descriptions coined terms derived from proper names are not capitalized. Sun Moon Jupiter Saturn Earth Mercury Uranus Neptune Venus Mars but the moons of Jupiter .Capitalization Rules 35 Trade names and trademarks 3.. Trade names.

the Great Society Reformation Holocaust. christological Bible. A vivid personification is capitalized. red Mass. Words denoting the Deity except who. also Biblical. names of confessions of faith and of religious bodies and their adherents. Thou. devil’s advocate . Ten Commandments Gospel (memoir of Christ).32. but divine providence. the Renaissance but Korean war. 1775 English. Jesus’ sonship. Catholicism. For Nature wields her scepter mercilessly. also Christendom. divine service Son of Man. All are architects of Fate. 1917 V–E Day War of 1812 War on Poverty Personification 3. and words specifically denoting Satan are all capitalized. Working in these walls of Time. The Chair recognizes the gentlewoman from New York.33. and whom. messiahship. Daughter(s). christology. Thine. whose. Sister(s) Satan. Scriptures. Lord. Christianity. Christianize Black Friars. the American. messianic. the Almighty. King’s Daughters. He. Him. Scriptural. Your.31. Thirty-nine Articles Episcopal Church. Thy. but gospel music Apostles’ Creed. Holy Scriptures. Religious terms 3. but a messiah. the devils. Heavenly Father. Brother(s). but I spoke with the chair yesterday. [God’s] fatherhood Mass. Koranic New Testament. You. but a devil. Names of historical or political events used as a proper name are capitalized. cold war. Vietnam war. Communion Divine Father. Thee. but himself. Ursuline Sisters. Augsburg Confession.36 Chapter 3 Historical or political events 3. the Messiah. 1789 Russian. Battle of Bunker Hill Middle Ages Christian Era New Deal D-day New Federalism Dust Bowl New Frontier Fall of Rome Prohibition Great Depression Restoration. the Devil. 1688 French. a Protestant Christian. Word. Koran. gulf war Revolution. messianize. names for the Bible and other sacred writings and their parts. an Episcopalian. divine guidance.

the Commander in Chief.34. Her Majesty. the Crown. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Bush. Her Most Gracious Majesty. a common-noun title immediately following the name of a person or used alone as a substitute for it is capitalized. the British Ambassador. the Chief or Assistant Chief. the attaché Title of a ruler or prince: Elizabeth II. foreman Collins 3. similarly the Acting Secretary. similarly the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.S. Minister Without Portfolio. the Chargé d’Affaires. the Chief of Staff. the Senior Ambassador. To indicate preeminence or distinction in certain specified instances. similarly the Lieutenant Governor. former President Truman. the Presidentelect. U. Chief of Staff. Bellinger Queen Elizabeth II Nurse Joyce Norton Ambassador Acton Professor Leverett Lieutenant Fowler Examiner Jones (law) Chairman Williams Vice-Presidential candidate Smith but baseball player Ripken.Capitalization Rules 37 Titles of persons 3. Secretary of State: the Secretary. the Sultan . the Envoy. President of the United States: the President. Admiral Michael Mullen. Queen of England: the Queen. the consul. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: the American Ambassador. Air Force. and professional titles. ex-Vice-President Gore Tim Kaine. the Assistant Secretary. the Minister. the Under Secretary. similarly the Vice President. the Vice-President-elect. the Chief Clerk.35. immediately preceding a name are capitalized. Chairman. but the commanding general. general (military title standing alone not capitalized) Titles of members of diplomatic corps: Walter S. Title of a head or assistant head of state: George W. the Executive. Gifford. religious. attorney general of Maine Title of a head or assistant head of an existing or a proposed National governmental unit: Condoleezza Rice. secretaryship Titles of the military: General of the Army(ies): United States only. the Ambassador. Joint Chiefs of Staff. but the consul general. His Excellency. Supreme Allied Commander. the Chief Magistrate. Governor of Virginia: the Governor of Virginia. as well as those of nobility. maintenance man Flow. but secretary of state of Idaho. the Governor. Ambassador at Large. President Bush Dr. military. the Director. but Secretaries of the military departments. Civil. the Chargé. similarly the Emperor. ex-President Clinton.

Circular A. Balfour Declaration. documents. 2007. Jay Treaty. the chairperson. Chairman Madam Chairman Mr. Four Hundred Twenty-two Casks of Wine (law) American Gothic. laws.38. the first word and all important words are capitalized. Senate Document 70. but New York State constitution: first amendment.H. Public Law 89–1. Titles of publications. House bill 61. North Atlantic Pact. Treaty of Versailles. Newsweek magazine Monograph 55. Hughes.S. 32.37. Executive Order No. but Chicago American Publishing Co. Bancroft’s History. Calendar Wednesday. Atlantic Pact. Revised Statutes. Nighthawks (paintings) . but British white paper Chicago’s American. rear admiral. Reader’s Digest. chairwoman of the committee. all titles and descriptive designations immediately following the names should be capitalized if any one is capitalized. Committee Print No. Article 15: Uniform Code of Military Justice. A title in the second person is capitalized. but seventh annual report. 24. Journal (House or Senate) (short titles). 24. House Resolution 45. the statutes Atlantic Charter. In the full or short English titles of periodicals. series of publications. Private and Union Calendars. 3. Secretary but not salutations: my dear General my dear sir 3. Statutes at Large. but the code.38 Chapter 3 Charles. 12th amendment Kellogg Pact. but New York Times Magazine. president of The George Washington University: the president C. constitutional. but Senate bill 416. Presidential Proclamation No. Research Paper 123. Bulletin 420. U. Prince of Wales: the Prince. acts. the chair 3. committee print. and works of art. Royal Decree No. Your Excellency Your Highness Your Honor Mr.36. historic documents. etc. treaty of 1919 United States v. 80. 19th annual report Declaration of Independence. In formal lists of delegates and representatives of governments. Navy: the rear admiral Steven Knapp. the Declaration Constitution (United States or with name of country). District Code. Calendar No. Congressional Record Annual Report of the Public Printer. Eckles. professor of dairy husbandry: the professor Barbara Prophet. papers. the treaty (descriptive designations). the chairman. but treaty of peace. His Royal Highness Titles not capitalized: Charles F. annual reports. 24.

40. etc. Freedom of Information Act. but the act. State. 3. The foregoing are also quoted. essays.. subheadings. or foreign) the first word and all important words are capitalized. motion pictures and plays (including television and radio programs).42.Capitalization Rules 39 3. articles. or a question mark is not capitalized if the matter following is merely a supplementary remark making the meaning clearer. The capitalization of the titles of books. or of a line of poetry. What is this? Your knees to me? to your corrected son? . Intelligence is not replaced by mechanism: even the televox must be guided by its master’s voice. Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime. 11. headlines.41. is capitalized. editorials. subjects. chapter and part headings. of an independent clause or phrase. The first word following a colon. Harrison narcotic bill. and themes. “And where are you going?’’ The vote was as follows: In the affirmative. of a formally introduced series of items or phrases following a comma or colon.44. short poems.39. In the short or popular titles of acts (Federal. Revenue Act. Shall the bill pass? He asked. The first word of a fragmentary quotation is not capitalized. Harrison narcotic law. The question is. The first word of a sentence. not voting. reports. in the negative. 23. Walsh-Healey Act. of a direct quotation. sunset law 3. papers. not two. headings. an exclamation point. books. All principal words are capitalized in titles of addresses. not to the ideas. First words 3.43. interstate commerce law. But two months dead! nay. songs. Revolutions are not made: they come. 3. Classification Act. not so much. 3.’’ 3. written in a foreign language is to conform to the national practice in that language. She objected “to the phraseology. captions.

) Resolved by the Senate of Oklahoma (the House of Representatives concurring therein). and sideheads are set in lowercase and only the first word and proper names are capitalized. contracts. That * * * Be it enacted. That * * * Ordered.15. and be it further Resolved (jointly). In heads set in small caps. DeHostis. In heads set in caps. etc. otherwise lowercase is used. the first word following an enacting or resolving clause is capitalized. is not capitalized. The first line should be centered and set as full as possible. the second letter of the particle is made a small cap. capitalize all principal words. That * * *. That * * * Provided. In centerheads making two lines. moreover. (one-word forms only). That * * * Provided further. That * * *. (Concurrent resolution. . In heads set in small caps. using name of State.46. however. In such names as LeRoy.) Resolved by the senate (the house of representatives concurring therein). (Concurrent resolution. wordbreaks should be avoided. (Concurrent resolution.40 Chapter 3 3. That * * *. therefore. Federal Government. not using name of State. Whereas the Constitution provides * * *.47. * * *: Therefore be it Whereas the Senate provided for the * * *: Now. a small-cap c or ac. is used in such names as McLean or MacLeod. That * * * And provided further.. set in caps. and Whereas. a thin space is used after the c or the ac. LaFollette.) In matter set in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase. 3.) Resolved by the Washington Board of Trade. That * * * Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring). (Joint resolution. if available. centerheads are set in capitals.48. otherwise a lowercase c or ac is used. if available. be it Resolved. etc. That * * *. That * * * Provided. including parts of compounds which would 3. (See rule 3. a thin space is used. Unless otherwise marked. That * * *. That * * * Center and side heads 3. The first word following Whereas in resolutions.49.) Resolved by the Assembly and Senate of the State of California (jointly). 3.45. using name of State.

) World en Route to All-Out War Curfew To Be Set for 10 o’Clock Man Hit With 2-Inch Pipe No-Par-Value Stock for Sale Yankees May Be Winners in Zig-Zag Race Ex-Senator Is To Be Admitted Notice of Filing and Order on Exemption From Requirements but Building on Twenty-first Street (if spelled) One Hundred Twenty-three Years (if spelled) Only One-tenth of Shipping Was Idle Many 35-Millimeter Films in Production Built-Up Stockpiles Are Necessary (Up is an adverb here) His Per Diem Was Increased (Per Diem is used as a noun here). et al.. Ships. All Returns Are In 3. If a normally lowercased short word is used in juxtaposition with a capitalized word of like significance.52. if it is the only lowercased word in the heading.m. an. Controls To Be Applied but Aid Sent to Disaster Area 3. but. Planes. a normally lowercased last word. et al. such abbreviations as etc. and the. Guns.m. these abbreviations are set in lowercase. it should also be capitalized. are set in small caps. Meeting In re the 8 p.51. or. (no comma) James Bros. etc. et al.. the conjunctions and. In a heading set in caps and lowercase or in caps and small caps. In matter set in caps and small caps. by.129. etc. Meeting . if. in. and the second element of a compound numeral are not capitalized.50.Capitalization Rules 41 be capitalized standing alone. Guns. and up.m. and p. The articles a. In re the 8 p. to. The first element of an infinitive is capitalized. Planes. of. for. Ships. in matter set in caps and lowercase. Buildings In and Near the Minneapolis Mall 3. as. on. Lower Taxes per Person (per is a preposition here) 3. and nor. should also be capitalized. James Bros.53. (See also rule 8. the prepositions at.

salutations. The interjection “O” is always capitalized. Where historic. The first word and all principal words in addresses. caps and small caps.42 Chapter 3 3.56. But. and signatures 3.57. or in caps and lowercase are to be set as in copy. O Ship of State! For lo! the days are hastening on.54. small caps. and signatures are capitalized. or scientific accuracy is required. how fortunate! Historic or documentary accuracy 3. section 1.55. and Signatures. technical. Addresses. salutations. capitalization and other features of style of the original text should be followed.580(f)(1) Addresses. documentary. Interjections within a sentence are not capitalized. .’’ Interjections 3. Paragraph series letters in parentheses appearing in heads set in caps. See Chapter 16 “Datelines. Sail on. oh.

the act: Appropriations Classification Clear Skies Economy Flood Control Military Selective Service No Child Left Behind Organic Act of Virgin Islands Panama Canal PATRIOT Revenue Sarbanes-Oxley Stockpiling Tariff Trademark Walsh-Healey Act. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal unit: Central Intelligence. the agreement: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). if part of capitalized title Active Duty Adjutant General. the general agreement 43 . space age. etc. Capitalization Examples A A-bomb abstract B. policy. or foreign). missile age. 1. State. capitalized standing alone if Federal unit: Farmers Home Food and Drug Maritime Transportation Security but Bush administration. the Academy National Academy of Sciences. British. Paris peace (see Agreement) accords. ice age. etc. the Agency Chippewa (Indian). short or popular title or with number. Lord of the Adobe Acrobat Reader Adviser. Administrative Law Judge Davis. administration bill. the Academy but service academies accord. the Academy Andover. Cambrian age. etc. the academy Naval. but Walsh-Healey law (or bill) act. the agency agent orange Age(s): Age of Discovery Dark Ages Elizabethan Age Golden Age (of Pericles only) Middle Ages but atomic age. the Academy Merchant Marine. labor-management relations Acting. rocket age. Academy: Air Force. Legal (Department of State) Africa: east East Coast north South South-West (Territory of) West Coast African-American (see Black. with name. the Academy Military. Helsinki Act (Federal. copper age. with name. an administrative law judge Admiralty. etc. the academy Coast Guard.4. the (see The) Administration. Judge Davis. Admiralty. Negro) Agency. the Academy of Sciences. stone age. if part of name. Agreement.

but First Amendment. the Amendment American: Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL−CIO). the wheat agreement. a Mother Legion (see Legion) National Red Cross. the (World Wars I and II). the Ambassador. the patrol Command (see Command) One (Presidential plane) Reserve Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Airport: La Guardia. Eskimos. etc. a Mother AmeriCorps Program Amtrak (National Railroad Passenger Corporation) . Inuits. the powers (World Wars I and II) Atlantic alliance Axis. an ambassador amendment: Baker amendment Social Security Amendments of 1983. Ambassador at Large. the Social Security amendments. the Ambassador. the. His Excellency Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Paris peace agreement Air Force: Air National Guard (see National) Base (with name). the powers (World War I) Coalition of the Willing European Economic Community Fritalux (France. Reagan National. the federation Gold Star Mothers.44 Chapter 4 International Wheat Agreement. of the Pacific Big Three Central Powers.. Axis Powers.. the Red Cross Veterans of World War II (AMVETS) War Mothers. etc. Benelux countries) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (see Organization) Western Powers Allied (World Wars I and II): armies Governments Nations peoples Powers. the airport Al Jazeera Alaska Native (collective term for Aleuts. Gold Star Mothers. and Indians of Alaska): the Native. the coffee agreement North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Status of Forces. the amendments to the Constitution (U. etc. Station) Civil Air Patrol. a native of Alaska. Civil Patrol. Luxembourg) Big Four (European). 1983 amendments. Alliance. Netherlands.). the free-trade agreement but the Geneva agreement. but Ohio native. Inc. Italy. the powers. also members of Western bloc (political entity). but status-of-forces agreements United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement. Air Force base (see Base. the Potsdam agreement. but our allies... the powers Benelux (Belgium. Al Qaeda Alzheimer’s disease Ambassador: British. weaker allies. but European powers Supreme Allied Commander Allies. 14th Amendment. Farmers’. etc.S. the Senior Ambassador. the alliance alliances and coalitions (see also powers): Allied Powers. etc.

the Confederates Continental. etc. but the general . A. but Appendix II. acquiculture Arab States Arabic numerals Arboretum. if part of name. the appendix. Metropolitan Washington area. the district Division. etc. the area: Cape Hatteras Recreational White Pass Recreation. Ocean) appendix 1. etc. if part of name. Gordon Highlanders. when part of title: Appendix II: 1 Education Directory appropriation bill (see also bill): deficiency Department of Agriculture for any governmental unit independent offices aquaculture. II. etc. Infantry. if part of name of building. Brigade. bay area. the arm Armed Forces (synonym for overall Military Establishment): British Retirement Home (AFRT) of the United States armed services armistice Armory.. (military). General of the Army.. Philippine. National. but Army engineer Establishment Field Establishment Field Forces (see Forces) Finance Department. the brigade. the Architect Archivist of the United States. etc. 1st. free trade area. the amphitheater Memorial Bridge (see Bridge) National Cemetery (see Cemetery) Arm. but a comma is too weak. capitalized standing alone only if referring to U. the annex Antarctic Ocean (see Arctic. a dash is permissible. the division Engineers (the Corps of Engineers). the archipelago Architect of the Capitol. the Arboretum Archipelago. A Company. Reserve (see Corps) District of Washington (military). etc. American or foreign.. a Freemason Annex. Active-Duty Adjutant General. the armory Army. a Mason. the Engineers. etc. 1st.S. the Department 1st. Continentals Corps. Army: Active. the Archivist Arctic: Circle Current (see Current) Ocean zone but subarctic arctic (descriptive adjective): clothing conditions fox grass night seas Area. Robinson’s brigade Command (see Command) Command and General Staff College (see College) Company A. the Memorial 1 The colon is preferred. the All-Volunteer Band (see Band) branches. Springfield. but area 2.Capitalization Examples 45 Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. Amphitheater.. etc. Royal Guards. etc. the company Confederate (referring to Southern Confederacy). nonsmoking area Arlington: Memorial Amphitheater..

S. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal unit: National Shipping. the Association Young Women’s Christian. 1st Regiment Headquarters of the. etc.) service Surgeon General. etc.S. but attorney general of Maine. the avenue Award: Academy Distinguished Service Merit Mother of the Year the award (see also decorations.) of Impeachment. the. the articles Asian (see Orient. the (see alliances) Ayatollah. occupation army Red Arsenal. oriental) Assembly (see United Nations) Assembly of New York. of occupation. attorney. etc.) Axis. or foreign country). the Staff Headquarters. the authority Tennessee Valley. the association Astrophysical Observatory (see Observatory) Atlantic (see also Pacific): Charter (see Charter) coast Coast States community Destroyer Flotilla. etc. if part of capitalized title. the arsenal article 15. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal unit: American Association for the Advancement of Science. the assembly (see also Legislative Assembly) Assistant.S. Lawrence Seaway Authority of Canada. the (see Surgeon General) Volunteer. the authority St. etc. standard time (see time) but cisatlantic.. Rock Island. Authority. a Regular Revolutionary (American. U. but Article 15. etc. Presidential (see Presidential) Assistant Secretary (see Secretary) Associate Justice (see Supreme Court) Association. French. the association Federal National Mortgage (Fannie Mae). the regiment Regular Army officer. shoe. the flotilla Fleet (see Fleet) mid-Atlantic North seaboard slope South time... 1st. the Volunteers. Constitution. transatlantic Attorney General (U. when part of title: Article 15: Uniform Code of Military Justice Articles: of Confederation (U. the destroyer flotilla. the headquarters Regiment. the Authority Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. an ayatollah B Badlands (SD and NE) Balkan States (see States) . the assistant assistant. if part of name. a Volunteer army: Lee’s army. etc. but Clark’s 5th Army mobile mule. British.46 Chapter 4 General Staff. the Authority Auto Train (Amtrak) autumn Avenue. the port authority.

German Central. of Waterloo. central reserve. if part of name. Scriptures. but Reserve bank at Richmond. (see also book) bicentennial bill. Reserve city First National. the board of Regents (Smithsonian) of Visitors (Military and Naval Academies) on Geographic Names Railroad Retirement . the base (see also Naval). the State bar. etc. etc. battlefield. Reserve bank. Montgomery County Board of Health. Bull Run. soil bank Bar. Marine. the Bank Farm Loan Bank of Dallas. the barracks: Carlisle Disciplinary (Leavenworth) Marine (District of Columbia) but A barracks. etc. San Francisco Bay area. Ex-Im Bank. etc. Louisville Federal Land Bank. of the Wilderness. etc. farm loan bank at Dallas Farmers & Mechanics. capitalized standing alone if referring to international bank: Export-Import Bank of the United States. Negro) Black Caucus (see Congressional) bloc (see Western) block (grants) Bluegrass region. if part of name.Capitalization Examples 47 Baltic States (see States) Band. the Bank International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. the Bank but blood bank. the bank. etc. capitalized standing alone only if referring to Federal or international board: Employees’ Compensation Appeals Federal Reserve (see Federal) Military Production and Supply (NATO) National Labor Relations of Directors (Federal unit). Dallas Farm Loan Bank. barracks A. bizonal. Bay. the belt: Bible Farm Rust Sun but money belt Beltway. Maryland (State) Bar Association. bizone Black (see African-American. Biblical. Maryland (State) bar. but battle at Gettysburg. Manassas. the bay area Belt. (of Cherokee Indians) Bank. if part of name. if part of name. Federal Reserve bank. etc. etc. the beltway Bench (see Supreme Bench) Benelux (see alliances) Bible. Kiess. House bill 31 (see also appropriation bill) Bill of Rights (historic document). Base. Federal Land Bank of Louisville. if part of name. the bar association Barracks. if part of name. Senate bill 217. etc. but board of directors (nongovernmental) of Health of Montgomery County. Air Force base. the board of health. if part of name. capitalized with name. Andrews Air Force. Richmond Federal Reserve Bank. etc. but Sandia Base Basin (see geographic terms) Battery. B’nai B’rith Board. the band: Army. the (New York City) Battle. the battle: of Gettysburg. of the Bulge. of the Marne. land bank at Louisville. Ten Commandments. Navy Eastern. but GI bill of rights Bizonia. Federal land bank Federal Reserve Bank of New York. farm loan bank. battleground.

if part of name or standing alone (see also foreign cabinets): British Cabinet. Dust. a Scout. member Calendar. I. etc. the borough Botanic Garden (National). Explorer Scout Branch. the Cabinet. 99. if part of name: Borough of the Bronx. if part of name. capitalized standing alone only if referring to a Federal unit: Accounts Public Buildings but executive. the Budget (publication) Building. United States-Mexican Borough. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal or international unit: of Customs (name changed to U.. Super. when part of title: Book 1: The Golden Legend Boolean: logic operator search border. Farmers’ Bulletin No. Customs and Border Protection) of Engraving and Printing of Indian Affairs C C−SPAN Cabinet. 420 Bureau. the camp Canal. if part of name. if part of name. with name. etc. the calendar: Consent. House No. etc. Scouting. 1 and 2 of Bills and Resolutions Private Senate Unanimous Consent Union Wednesday (legislative) Cambrian age (see Ages) Camp Lejeune.. Good Book (synonym for Bible) book 1. Calendars Nos.. David. a Boy Scout. Memorial. the garden (not Botanical Gardens) Bowl. the Archives Treasury. the bowl Boy Scouts (the organization). American or foreign. the Cabinet the President’s Cabinet.S. Key but Baltimore & Ohio Railroad bridge Brother(s) (adherent of religious order) budget: department estimate Federal message performance-type President’s Budget of the United States Government. Cabinet officer. judicial. etc. Rose. or legislative branch Bridge. etc. the canal: Cross-Florida Barge . if part of name.48 Chapter 4 bond: Government savings series EE Treasury book: books of the Bible First Book of Samuel. Francis Scott Key. but Book 1. Treasury Annex Bulletin 420. Eagle Scout. if part of name. the bridge: Arlington Memorial. the building: Capitol (see Capitol Building) Colorado House (or Senate) Office Investment New House (or Senate) Office Old House Office Pentagon the National Archives.

Chairwoman Landrieu Chamber of Commerce. the. the Center (Federal) the Lincoln Center. 21st. etc. if part of name. but chairman of the board of directors (non-Federal) of the Committee of the Whole House. the census of agriculture. the Chairman Vice chairman. national chamber Chamber. the Center (Federal) Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. DC): Architect of Building caucus room Chamber Cloakroom dome Grounds Halls (House and Senate) Halls of Congress Hill. Chair. chair (congressional): of the Appropriations Committee of the Subcommittee on Banking but Chairman Davis. but Congressional Black Caucus (incorporated name). Ada Chamber of Commerce. the chamber of commerce. the (Washington. the center (non-Federal): Agricultural Research.. etc. Chairwoman. Central America Central Europe Central States central time (see time) century. the census 2000 census 2000 Census of Agriculture. the Chairman (Federal).Capitalization Examples 49 Isthmian Panama Cape (see geographic terms) Capital. Capital City. the Kennedy Center. the capitol Capitol. if part of name: Arlington National. the channel Chaplain (House or Senate). National Capital (Washington. Chamber of Commerce. Chair: of the Board of Directors. etc. rotunda Senate wing stationery room Statuary Hall the well (House or Senate) west front catch-22 Caucasian (see White) caucus: Republican. but Navy chaplain . chairwoman. the Center (Federal). the center (nonFederal) central Asia. the cemetery Census: Twenty-third Decennial (title). the census the 23d and subsequent decennial censuses Center. the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission. but the capital (State) Capitol Building (with State name).S. if personified Chairman. the chamber of commerce of the United States. first. Twenty-third (title). etc. Sun Belt Caucus CD−ROM Cemetery. the chamber: of Ada. the Hill Police (see Police) Power Plant Prayer Room Press Gallery. U. DC). the (Senate or House) channel 3 (TV).

but city of Washington Windy City (Chicago) but Reserve city (see Bank) civil action No. A. when part of title: Chapter 5: Research and Development. official or popular names: East Side French Quarter (New Orleans) Latin Quarter (Paris) North End Northwest Washington. Christianity. Reserve Coastal Plain (Atlantic and Gulf) Code (in shortened title of a publication). if part of tribal name. coalition force. A. capitalized with name. Parmesan... etc. west. but a coastguardsman.. Clan MacArthur. the code: District Federal Criminal Internal Revenue (also Tax Code) International (signal) of Federal Regulations . but city of New York Twin Cities Washington City.S. Supreme Court). a guardsman. but northwest (directional) the Loop (Chicago) City. coast: Atlantic. etc. etc. east. if referring to head of Federal unit.S. Coastguardsman Smith. of the Senate client client/server coal sizes: pea. of the Supreme Court of the United States clerk. II. the Chargé chart 2. the Northwest. gulf. Cheddar. etc.. but chief justice (of a State) Magistrate (the President) of Division of Publications of Engineers (Army) of Naval Operations of Staff Christian. buckwheat. the Chargé d’Affaires. the city: Kansas City. etc. the Coast Guard. but Class 2 when part of title: Class 2: Leather Products Clerk. (District of Columbia). the circle: Arctic Logan but great circle Circular 420 cities. the clan class 2. stove. British. etc. etc. Christendom. II.50 Chapter 4 chapter 5. coalition members. coalition. but christen church and state church calendar: Christmas Easter Lent Pentecost (Whitsuntide) Church.. the charter: Atlantic United Nations cheese: Camembert. U. Roquefort. Provolone. 46 civil defense Civil War (see War) Clan. the Chief: Clerk Forester (see Forester) Intelligence Office Judge Justice (U. barley. of the House of Representatives. if part of name of organization or building Circle. if part of corporate or popular name.—Army strength Charter. sections of. if part of name. the two Kansas Citys Mexico City New York City. Chief. Red Cross Chargé d’Affaires. Washington chapter. when part of legend: Chart 2. Christianize. the. etc. etc. but Chapter 5. but Chart 2. Coast Guard. II. the.

. the committee. the: Thirteen Thirteen American Thirteen Original but 13 separate Colonies colonists.. etc.. the subcommittee. if referring to Federal or international commission. Colonials (American Colonial Army). Pennsylvania State Radio Television Uniform Code of Military Justice United States ZIP Code (copyrighted) but civil code. subcommittee of the Appropriations Committee Democratic National. United States and Canada of Fine Arts Public Buildings Commissioner. a commando Commission (if part of name. etc. Democratic national committeeman Democratic policy committee. Morse code codel (congressional delegation) collection. the committee. the (Coast Guard or Marine Corps only) Commandos. the committee President’s Advisory Committee on Management. but a joint committee of Defense Ministers (NATO). the Committee of the Whole House. the. . commissioner Committee (or Subcommittee) (if part of name. the committee. etc. master’s. but colonial times. etc. Criminal.) but a U. etc. flag code. the national committee. etc. if referring to international or noncongressional Federal committee or to the Committee of the Whole. the Joint Committee. Commando raid. etc.S. the Command. Subcommittee on Appropriations. the Committee Republican National. the command: Air Force Materiel Army Central (CENCOM) Naval Space Zone of Interior Commandant. the committee Appropriations. if part of name. the Commissioner: Land Bank. or the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union): American Medical Association Committee on Education. Colonies. capitalize with name. the collection collector of customs College. the national committee. the committee on Finance. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal or international commission): International Boundary. the college: Armed Forces Staff Command and General Staff Gettysburg National War of Bishops but electoral college college degrees: bachelor of arts. but land bank commissioner loans of Customs and Border Protection U. the committee Joint Committee on Printing. the Committee (see also Organization. the committee. the Committee. North Atlantic Treaty) of One Hundred.S. Brady. the committee on education. (International Boundary Commission.Capitalization Examples 51 Penal.

. First. Member. committee. etc. if referring to national congress: of Bolivia. Congresswoman. Judicial Conference. the district Medal of Honor (see decorations) but congressional action. the Conference Tenth Annual Conference of the United Methodist Churches. 32. marine fisheries. the compact Company. etc. the conference Congress (convention). First. the Conference Judicial Conference of the United States. 103d. the directory District. the caucus Directory. British. etc. etc. general. the committee Senate policy committee Subcommittee on Immigration. Member of Congress. but New York State Constitution. U.) or international conference: Bretton Woods.. the Black Caucus. consulate. Congressman at Large. Second. Congressman.52 Chapter 4 Republican national committeeman Republican policy committee. 10th. the congress Congress (legislature).S. a Communist compact. the constitution constitutional consul. the Comptroller Comptroller General (U. capitalized standing alone when referring to a specific national constitution. if part of name. U.. with name of country. the Comptroller Comsat Concord Confederacy (of the South) Confederate: Army flag Government soldier States Confederation. etc. the subcommittee but Baker committee ad hoc committee conference committee Committee Print No. membership Conservative Party. Judicial Conference.).. capitalized standing alone if referring to unit of Federal Government: Panama Canal Railway Company. 8 and 9.. the company Comptroller of the Currency. the congressional district. the First District.S.S. if part of name. . etc. British. etc. the Company Procter & Gamble Co. the Congress Congressional: Black Caucus. 10th. if referring to governmental (U.S. the Commonwealth of Australia of Kentucky of Massachusetts of Pennsylvania of Virginia Communist Party. Articles of Conference. a Conservative Constitution. capitalized standing alone if referring to international congress: Library of of Industrial Organizations of Parents and Teachers. Committee Prints Nos. the Congress of the United States. committee print Common Cause Commonwealth: British Commonwealth. National.

).S. the Convention Democratic National. etc. United States. the corpsman Quartermaster Reserve Officers’ Training (ROTC) VII Corps. Continentals (Revolutionary soldiers) Convention. hospital corpsman corridor. the index. Prince George’s. but the Continent (continental Europe) Continental: Army. the shelf. Republican Universal Postal Union. Lawrence Seaway Development Union Carbide Corp. the Corporation. if referring to unit of Federal Government: Commodity Credit Federal Deposit Insurance National Railroad Passenger (Amtrak) Rand Corp. or national political. the corps Ordnance Peace.. etc. North American Continent. the council counsel. Signal Transportation Youth but diplomatic corps corpsman. county of Prince George’s. Democratic Genocide (international) on International Civil Aviation Republican National. the Congress Divide (see Divide) Outer Continental Shelf Shelf. the Army Congress. 1787). etc. Peace Corpsman. Army Engineers. international. Northeast Council. the convention: 89th National Convention of the American Legion Constitutional (United States. the corporation Virgin Islands Corps. but a consumers’ price index (descriptive) Continent.Capitalization Examples 53 Consumer Price Index (official title). the Council National Security... general counsel County. the corps. but Army engineer. the continent. if part of name. governmental (U. if part of name. if part of name. etc. Warsaw copper age (see Ages) Corporation. the corporation St. the council Choctaw. the price index. the Council of Foreign Ministers (NATO). a continental shelf continental Europe. the Privy Council. only if following name. . County Kilkenny. Postal Union also International Postal. the Engineers.. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal or international unit (see also United Nations): Boston City. the Council Philadelphia City. all other uses: Adjutant General’s Army Reserve Chemical diplomatic Finance Foreign Service Officer (see Foreign Service) Job Judge Advocate General’s Marine (see Marine Corps) Medical Military Police Nurse of Cadets (West Point) of Engineers. the Council of the Organization of American States. the council Her Majesty’s Privy Council.

the Declaration of Panama. the court Court of Impeachment. Circuit Court for the Tenth Circuit. the Senate. the court. the Creed Crown. lands. League of Nations. Olympic Gold Medal. the court Supreme Court of the United States (see Supreme Court) Supreme Court of Virginia. to the Court of Impeachment (U. but crown colony. but the Dalles region Dark Ages (see Ages) Daughters of the American Revolution. etc. the ribbon (see also Award): Air Medal Bronze Star Medal Commendation Ribbon Congressional Medal of Honor Croix de Guerre Distinguished Flying Cross Distinguished Service Cross Distinguished Service Medal Good Conduct Medal Legion of Merit Medal for Merit Medal of Freedom Medal of Honor Mother of the Year Purple Heart Silver Star Medal Soldier’s Medal Victoria Cross Victory Medal but oakleaf cluster also Carnegie Medal. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. customs official czar. if referring to a ruler. capitalized standing alone if referring to the Supreme Court of the United States. the court of appeals. etc. Senate).54 Chapter 4 Loudoun and Fairfax Counties. a Daughter daylight saving time Declaration.. the circuit court. the tenth circuit Court of Appeals for the State of North Carolina. cruise missile Current. the declaration decorations. the superior court. the court Tax Court. or to an international court: Circuit Court of the United States for the Tenth Circuit. the county Court (of law) capitalized if part of name. czarist D Dalai Lama Dalles. the district court. the covenant Creed. the court Covenant. the supreme court.. the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. the Court Permanent Court of Arbitration.S. etc. the court International Court of Justice. the court U. the cross.. capitalized with name: of Independence. the Court District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Missouri. the medal. etc. the court Court of Claims. Royal Decree Deep South .S. Apostles’. The. medals. the current: Arctic Humboldt Japan North Equatorial customhouse. the Court Superior Court of the District of Columbia. if part of name. awarded by United States or any foreign national government. but gold medal Decree (see Executive).

but Scotch tape (trademark) shanghai siamese twins spanish omelet stillson wrench surah silk swiss cheese timothy grass turkey red turkish towel utopia. capitalized Delegate (U. American Legion department: executive judicial legislative Depot. the depot (see also Station) Depression. Mississippi River. the department of economics. the delegate. the delegation Delta. but the deputy derivatives of proper names: alaska seal (fur) angora wool angstrom unit argyle wool artesian well astrakhan fabric babbitt metal benday process bologna bordeaux bourbon whiskey bowie knife braille brazil nut brazilwood brewer’s yeast bristolboard brussel sprouts brussels carpet bunsen burner burley tobacco canada balsam (microscopy) carlsbad twins (petrography) cashmere shawl castile soap cesarean section chantilly lace chesterfield coat china clay chinese blue collins (drink) congo red cordovan leather coulomb curie degaussing apparatus delft ware derby hat diesel engine. utopian vandyke collar vaseline venetian blind venturi tube victoria (carriage) vienna bread virginia reel wedgwoodware wheatstone bridge wilton rug zeppelin dial-up Diet. Congress) Delegates. neon light newton nissen hut norfolk jacket oriental rug oxford shoe panama hat parianware paris green parkerhouse roll pasteurized milk persian lamb petri dish pharisaic philistine photostat pitman arm pitot tube plaster of paris prussian blue quisling quixotic idea quonset hut rembert wheel roentgen roman candle roman cement roman type russia leather russian bath rutherford sanforize saratoga chips scotch plaid.S. if part of name. etc. if part of name. capitalized standing alone if referring to a Federal or international unit: of Agriculture of the Treasury of Veterans Affairs Yale University Department of Economics. the department Department of New York. service) .Capitalization Examples 55 Defense Establishment (see Establishment) Deity. Great Deputy. Japanese (legislative body) diplomatic corps (see also Corps. half nelson. Virginia House of delegate (to a conference). the delta Democratic Party. a Democrat Department. if part of capitalized title. dieselize dixie cup dotted swiss epsom salt fedora hat frankfurter french chalk french dressing french-fried potatoes fuller’s earth gargantuan gauss georgette crepe german silver gilbert glauber salt gothic type graham cracker herculean task hessian fly holland cloth hoolamite detector hudson seal (fur) india ink india rubber italic type jamaica ginger japan varnish jersey fabric johnin test joule knickerbocker kraft paper lambert leghorn hat levant leather levantine silk lilliputian logan tent london purple lyonnaise potatoes macadamized road mach (no period) number madras cloth maginot line (nonliteral) manila paper maraschino cherry mason jar maxwell melba toast mercerized fabric merino sheep molotov cocktail morocco leather morris chair murphy bed navy blue nelson. words denoting.

etc. the channel Divide. the bridge Children’s Hospital. the division Dixie docket No. 3. first assembly district.. 4 Congressional (with number) Federal (see Federal) Los Angeles Water. 66. the Memorial Bridge. Continental (Rocky Mountains). the document: Document No. but divine guidance. the hospital District jail. (see decorations) District. school district No.56 Chapter 4 Director. the Director diseases and related terms: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Alzheimer’s disease cerebral palsy Down syndrome German measles HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) Hodgkin’s disease Lyme disease Marfan’s syndrome Ménierè’s syndrome myasthenia gravis Parkinson’s disease Reye’s syndrome spina bifida Distinguished Service Medal. if part of name. the district: Alexandria School District No. the flats Arlington Memorial Bridge. the Division: Buick Division. DC jail Ellipse. Army. a division of General Motors Passport. board of directors (nongovernmental) Director General of Foreign Service. dockets Nos. the divide Divine Father. if referring to Federal governmental unit. 1st Air Cavalry Division. etc. 2. the pool Tidal Basin. The Mall Mayor (when pertaining to the District of Columbia only) Metropolitan Police. Metropolitan policeman. the doctrine. public utility district District of Columbia. divine service Division. the police police court Public Library. but Truman. Eisenhower doctrine doctrine. the division. the basin Washington Channel. 76 and 77 Doctrine. Mideast (Asia) . if part of name. the water district but customs district No. if part of name: 1st Cavalry Division. fairness Document. the Director: District Director of Internal Revenue of Fish and Wildlife Service of National Geodetic Survey of the Mint Office of Management and Budget but director. the District: Anacostia Flats. if referring to head of Federal or international unit. the Director General.— Hydroelectric Power Development Dust Bowl (see Bowl) E Earth (planet) East: Coast (Africa) Middle. the Mall. the library Reflecting Pool. 4. A. divine providence. the division Division. The National. the jail. 130 Document Numbered One Hundred Thirty draconian drawing II. the Division but Trinity River division (reclamation). Monroe. but Drawing 2 when part of title: Drawing 2.

34. etc. the Minister Equator. fourth (the press). equatorial Establishment. the Office Order No. but Exhibit 2. Mideastern (Asia) North Central States Shore (Chesapeake Bay) States United States eastern: France seaboard Wisconsin easterner EE-bond electoral college. the estate estate. Bethesda. the empire Engine Company. third (the commons). No.S. the Envoy. Byrd. the Engineers Engineers. British. Lewis and Clark. but Executive order power executive: agreement branch communication department document paper privilege exhibit 2. Her. the Embassy Emperor. when part of title: Exhibit 2: Capital Expenditures. the establishment: Army Army Field Defense Federal Military Naval. His. etc. euro Excellency. the Emperor Empire. tax. the exposition . Their Excellencies Exchange. (of Engineer Corps). Decree 100. Roman.. the company Engineer officer. etc. Japanese.) Pennsylvania Eastern: Gulf States Middle. 6. the mansion. 1935−49 Expedition. engine company No. Order 34. etc. legislative establishment Estate.Capitalization Examples 57 Near (Balkans) Side of New York South Central States the East (section of United States) east: Africa coast (U. etc. Chief of (Army) Engineers. if part of name. direction Mansion. but naval establishment. Corps of (see Corps) Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Girard (a foundation). 6 engine company. the White House Office. California-Pacific International.... Eurodollar. the stock exchange. II. 100. the expedition Exposition. Naval Establishments Regs Navy Postal Regular Reserve Shore but civil establishment. etc. but Executive decree. New York Stock. the. A. the exchange Executive (President of United States): Chief Decree No. the electors Elizabethan Age (see Ages) email (lowercase within a sentence) Email (uppercase “E’’ to start a sentence) Emancipation Proclamation (see Proclamation) Embassy.

libraries District (Mexico) Establishment Government (of any national government) grand jury. Macmillan Co. Old Glory . the grand jury land bank (see Bank) Register (publication). Johns-Manville Corp. Hartmarx Corp. also Federal Reserve System.: Old Flag. Penney Co. FedEx GlaxoSmithKline Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. Ingersoll-Rand Co.).. Kmart Libbey-Owens-Ford Co. etc. PricewaterhouseCoopers Procter & Gamble Co. etc. Kennecott Exploration Co. Texas State Fair fall (season) Falls.. Inc.I. Intel Corp. Coldwell Banker Colgate-Palmolive Co.— Market scenes firewall firm names: ACDelco America Online (AOL) Bausch & Lomb Inc. A. Dun & Bradstreet eBay E.. Merrill Lynch Microsoft Pfizer Inc. du Pont de Nemours & Co.S. Scott & Co. Niagara. the farm: Johnson Farm. the Board. Phelps Dodge Corp.S. but far western Farm. Hewlett-Packard Houghton Mifflin Co. Byrd. but Figure 2. but Johnson’s farm San Diego Farm Wild Tiger Farm Fascist.. Inc. (A&P) Hamilton Beach/Proctor Silex.C. Merck & Co. Federal Reserve Board Regulation W. the System. First Family (Presidential) First Lady (wife of President) First World War (see War) flag code flag. fascism Father of his Country (Washington) Fed. when part of legend: Figure 2. Stewart. (illustration). the Register Reserve Board. World’s. II. Inc. Rolls-Royce Sun Microsystems 3M Underwriters Laboratories.58 Chapter 4 F Fair Deal Fair. but regulation W but a federal form of government federally fellow. etc. Pirie. Rand McNally & Co. Inc. if part of name. the fair. J. the (no period) Federal (synonym for United States or other sovereign power): Depository Library Program but Federal depository library. Comcast Dow Jones & Co. Far West (U. Inc. U. Xerox Corp. US Airways Wal-Mart Weyerhaeuser Co. Far Eastern.. the field figure 2. fellowship (academic) Field. BP Bristol-Myers Squibb Carson. the falls Far East.

S.S. etc. the Fund International Monetary. the force(s): Active Forces Active-Duty Air (see also Air Force) All-Volunteer Armed Forces (synonym for overall U. Military Establishment) Army Field Forces. Country) four freedoms Framers (of the U. the legion Foreign Service. the Service: officer Officer Corps. etc. etc. . the Emergency Force. U. II. the Force.. Force(s). A. of the Bill of Rights) free world Frisco (for San Francisco. the Staff officer Staff Officer Corps.S. the Ministry Office of Foreign Missions. the forest: Angeles National Black Coconino and Prescott National Forests but State and National forests (see System) Forester (Chief of Forest Service). (naval) 6th Fleet. but United Nations police force foreign cabinets: Minister of Foreign Affairs. the corps Reserve officer. the Minister Ministry of Foreign Affairs. no apostrophe) Fritalux (see alliances) Fund. the task force. the Chief. the fleet: Atlantic Channel Grand High Seas Marine Force Naval Reserve Pacific. the foundation Ford. the Staff Corps.Capitalization Examples 59 Stars and Stripes Star-Spangled Banner flags. the corps Staff officer. etc.. the Fund but civil service retirement fund. when part of title: Form 1040: Individual Income Tax Return. foreign: Tricolor (French) Union Jack (British) United Nations Fleet. the foundation Founding Fathers. Constitution. the fort Foundation. the Reserve Corps. etc. if part of name. the Foundation Russell Sage. Canadian flyway. Founders/Founder (of this Nation. also Chief Forester form 2. Foreign Minister. if part of name. but withholding tax form Fort McHenry. if part of name. if part of name. the Office Minister Plenipotentiary Premier Prime Minister Foreign Legion (French). capitalized standing alone if referring to international or United Nations fund: Democracy (United Nations). flex fuel floor (House or Senate) flyway. the national forest. but Form 2. the foundation National Science. Reserve Force Rapid Deployment Task Force 70. but task force report United Nations Emergency. the Field Forces Fleet Marine Navy Battle (see Navy) Navy Scouting (see Navy). if part of name. the Reserve officer Reserve Officer Corps. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal unit: Chemical. the corps Forest.

14. Scouting G-man Gold Star Mothers (see American) Golden Age (see Ages) Golden Rule Gospel. the Government 2 List compiled with cooperation of the U.. etc.S. revolving fund G Gadsden Purchase Gallery of Art. Board on Geographic Names. mutual security fund.60 Chapter 4 highway trust fund. the poll GAO (Government Accountability Office) Geiger counter General Order No. the canal (Panama) Canyon Cape Cascade Cave Cavern Channel. 14. Missouri River basin (drainage). etc. (legal entity). the (State Department) geographic terms (terms. if referring to the first four books of the New Testament. are lowercased in general sense (rivers of Virginia and Maryland)): Archipelago Area Arroyo Atoll Bank Bar Basin. but gospel music Government: British. . upper Colorado River storage project Bay Bayou Beach Bench Bend Bight Bluff Bog Borough (boro) Bottom Branch (stream) Brook Butte Canal. General Orders No. National (see National) Gallup Poll. but Mississippi River channel(s) Cirque Coulee Cove Crag Crater Creek Crossroads Current (ocean feature) Cut Cutoff Dam Delta Desert Divide Dome (not geologic) Draw (stream) Dune Escarpment Estuary Falls Fault Flat(s) Floodway Ford Forest Fork (stream) Gap Geyser Glacier Glen Gorge Gulch Gulf Gut Harbor Head Hill Hogback Hollow Hook Horn Hot Spring Icefield Ice Shelf Inlet Island Isle Islet Keys (Florida only) Knob Lagoon Lake Landing Ledge Lowland Marsh Massif Mesa Monument Moraine Mound Mount Mountain Narrows Neck Needle Notch Oasis Ocean Oxbow Palisades Park Pass Passage Peak Peninsula Plain Plateau Point Pond Pool Port (water body) Prairie Range (mountain) Rapids Ravine Reef Reservoir Ridge River Roads (anchorage) Rock Run (stream) Sea Seaway Shoal Sink Slough Sound Spit Spring Spur Strait Stream Summit Swamp Terrace Thoroughfare Trench Trough Valley Volcano Wash Waterway Woods Geological Survey (see Survey) GI bill of rights Girl Scouts (organization). such as those listed below. 2 are capitalized if part of name. a general order General Schedule gentile Geographer. Upper (Lower) Colorado River. but Hansen flood-control basin. a Scout. national service life insurance fund. a Girl Scout.

. A. Federal Government information product government: Churchill Communist District (of Columbia) European governments Federal. the Governor of the Federal Reserve Board. and municipal governments insular. lake(s) traffic Plains. heaven (place) Heimlich maneuver hell (place) Hells (no apostrophe) Canyon Hemisphere..Capitalization Examples 61 department. a Governor. National Guard) Gulf: Coast States. etc. the (National) grant. A. the Governor. Pell graph 2. State Governor(s). the command headquarters 4th Regiment Headquarters. the lakes. the division headquarters hearing examiner Heaven (religious). National (see National) guardsman (see Coast Guard. -owned.—Production levels Great: Basin Depression Divide Lakes. the stream H Hall (U. etc. the group Standing (see Organization) World Bank group 2. H-hour Headquarters: Alaskan Command. etc. island military seat of State State and Provincial governments Territorial governmental Governor: of Louisiana.. etc. II.. Greater New York gross national product (GNP) Group: G8 (Group of 8) (representatives of the eight leading industrial nations) Helsinki Monitoring..S. when part of title: Graph 2.S. (U. National. Government) National and State Governments Printing Office (see Office) U. etc. the hemisphere . but southern Great Plains Seal (any nation) Society War (see War) White Way (New York City) great circle (navigation) Greater Los Angeles. Governors’ conference of Puerto Rico. Western. regimental headquarters 32d Division Headquarters. II. the gulf States Stream. but Graph 2.S. but gulf coast of Mexico. when part of title: Group II: List of Counties by States Guard. the Governor General GPO Access grand jury (see Federal) Grange. officials. Senate or House) Halls of Congress H-bomb. State. the group Military Advisory Group. publications. but Group 2. the Governor Governor General of Canada. Eastern.

the institute Institution. the Cancer Institute. the band Five Civilized Tribes.). etc. Holy Writ (Bible) home page Hospice. the high school Highway No. island government intercoastal waterway (see waterway) interdepartmental interface International Court of Justice. but legislative clerk. the tribes Native Americans Shawnee Tribe. the Inquisition inspector general Institute. Rita. speakership HUD (Department of Housing and Urban Development) Hudson’s Bay Co. State Route 9. the Court international: banks (see Bank) boundary . an Independent Indians: Absentee Shawnee Alaska (see Native) Eastern (or Lower) Band of Cherokee. the institution Smithsonian. lower (or upper) House (Congress) House of Representatives (U. if part of name: Western.S. I ice age (see Ages) imam Independent Party. the hospital: Howard University St. Katrina. the Institute Woman’s. Route 40. Caribbean Basin. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal or international organization: National Cancer. Hurricane Andrew. a holocaust Holy Scriptures. if part of name.S. if part of name: Blair Johnson house (private residence) of Representatives. titles of officers standing alone capitalized: Chairman (Committee of the Whole) Chaplain Clerk. the (World War II). the tribe Six Nations (Iroquois Confederacy) Initiative. etc. if part of name. the House (U. 40. the highway Hill (the Capitol) Hispanic Holocaust. Spanish. the Institutes of International Law. but strategic defense initiative Inquisition.62 Chapter 4 Hezbollah High Church High Commissioner High Court (see Supreme Court) high definition High School. if part of name. the institution Carnegie. the Institution insular government. if part of name Hospital. Elizabeths (no apostrophe) but naval (marine or Army) hospital hospital corpsman (see corpsman) House. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal unit: Brookings. Doorkeeper Official Reporter(s) of Debates Parliamentarian Postmaster post office Sergeant at Arms Speaker pro tempore Speaker.) Office Building (see Building) Ohio (State). the Institute National Institutes of Health. the house but both Houses.

etc. if part of name. the clerk Journal (House or Senate) Judge Advocate General. the judge. district judge. if part of name. the legislative assembly. the Librarian Library: Army. the assembly legislative branch. the Legislature Ohio Legislature. the library Harry S. the lane Latter-day Saints law. the Lieutenant Governor Light. the Library Hillsborough Public. but light No. a Legionnaire. the State legislature. Intranet Interstate 95. the Laboratory. the lightship: Grays Reef North Manitou Shoal Light Station. but laboratory (non-Federal) Lake: Erie. the light: Boston Buffalo South Pier Light 2. etc. if part of name: Maiden. the interstate Intracoastal Waterway. if part of name. 378. chief judge.964. Congress). 378. a Liberal Libertarian Party. etc. Legislature: National Legislature (U. clerk. circuit judge. the line(s): Greyhound (bus) . Great Salt. the legion Legislative Assembly. Justice Stevens. the legislature Letters Patent No. League. Truman.964. if part of name: of New York. of the Woods.Capitalization Examples 63 dateline law Morse code (see Code) Internet. Legislature of Ohio. if part of name. the King Koran. the light station. the lake Lane. of Puerto Rico. the curtain Islam. the Legion. the isthmus J Japan Current (see Current) Java (computer language) Jersey cattle Job Corps Joint Chiefs of Staff. Liberty ship Librarian of Congress. etc. capitalized standing alone if referring to Federal unit: Forest Products. a Libertarian Liberty Bell.. the waterway (see also waterway) intrastate Irish potato Iron Curtain.. copyright law. Chiefs of Staff Joint Committee on Printing (see Committee) Journal clerk. session. letters patent Liberal Party. the.S.. Islamic Isthmian Canal (see Canal) Isthmus of Panama. Koranic Krugerrand L Laboratory. the Justice. but patent No. light 2 but Massachusetts Bay lights Lighthouse (see Light Station) Lightship. Urban. the library of Congress. but Judge Judy judiciary. etc. K kaffiyeh (Arabic headdress) King of England. etc. I−95. French Foreign. 2. Ohm’s. the league Legion: American. the library Lieutenant Governor of Idaho. if part of name. the station: Minots Ledge Watch Hill Line(s).

but the majority leader (U. Delegate. congressional committee Memorial: Jefferson Lincoln Vietnam WWII Korean Franklin D. coastguardsmen. but Washington metropolitan area midcontinent region Middle Ages (see Ages) Middle Atlantic States Middle East.64 Chapter 4 Holland-America (steamship) Maginot (fortification) line: Mason-Dixon line or Mason and Dixon’s line State listserv Local: Columbia Typographical Union. the Reserve also a marine. if part of name: California (Mexico) Colorado River Basin Egypt Peninsula (of Michigan) lower: 48 (States) House of Congress Mississippi M Madam: Chair Chairman Chairwoman Magna Carta Majesty.. merchant marine. the (see cities) Louisiana Purchase Low Church Lower. Executive (see Executive) map 3. if referring to Senator. Medicare plan Medicare Plus Medicare Program Medigap Member. when part of title: Map 2.) medals (see decorations) Medicaid MediCal Medicare Act. also Member at Large. etc.. Roosevelt etc. Her. sailors. but local No. Congress. Your. and marines Maritime Provinces (Canada) (see Province) Marshal (see Supreme Court) marshal (U.. II. Majority Leader Hoyer. Middle Eastern (Asia) .—Railroads of Middle Atlantic States mariculture Marine Corps. The Mall (District of Columbia) Mansion. the women marines (individuals). Mideast. Representative.S. Mideastern. A. soldiers. the merchant marine Metroliner Metropolitan Washington. a woman marine. but U. but Map 2. His.S. 180 local time. the memorial Merchant Marine Reserve. Local 101 International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 180. The National. etc.S. Member of Parliament. but membership. but marines (individuals) Reserve.S.. the Reserve.S. or Resident Commissioner of U. local standard time (see time) locator service Loop. member of U. Congress) Mall. Their Majesties Majority Leader Reid. etc. the corps: Marines (the corps).

S. Secretary. the Capital. the Guard. Scud. in general. Creek. the Treasury War College Woman’s Party Zoological Park (see Zoological) national: agency check (NAC) anthem. etc. the museum: Field National National Air and Space. Archives and Records Administration Capital (Washington). the monument (District of Columbia) Mountain States mountain time. Osage. Yellowstone Park. but a nation. Sparrow. the park Treasury. defense agencies . (region) millennium Minister Plenipotentiary. MD) Park. British. the national park.. Balkan nations Nation. Philadelphia. mountain standard time (see time) Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) Mr. National Guardsman Institute (see Institute) Legislature (see Legislature) Muir Woods National Monument etc. Midwestern States. the monument Museum (see Museum) Naval Medical Center (Bethesda.Capitalization Examples 65 Midwest (section of United States). Minority Leader Boehner. the gallery Grange. etc. etc. capitalize with name. Trident. Chairman. etc. Military Academy (see Academy) Military Establishment (see Establishment) milkshed. customs. a guardsman. military mission. Jones mission Monument: Bunker Hill. surface-to-air missile. the Minister. in conjunction with capitalized name: Academy of Sciences (see Academy) and State institutions. also French nation. the Grange Guard. Ohio. etc. the National Gallery. etc. Mission. the mint minutemen (colonial) missiles: capitalize such missile names as Hellfire.. but midwestern farmers. but a National Guard man.. the monument Grounds. but the minority leader (U. if part of name.. etc.. Mujahedeen mullah Museum. Air National. nationwide.. etc. but cruise missile. Mexican. the grounds (Washington Monument) National (see National) Washington. Minister Without Portfolio (see also foreign cabinets) Ministry (see foreign cabinets) Minority Leader McConnell. the mission: Gospel but diplomatic mission. Reserve. the Air Museum National Museum of the American Indian N Nation (synonym for United States). spirit. Yellowstone. etc. air-toair missile. Ohio. Tomahawk. Mr. standing alone National. the Endowment Gallery of Art. etc. etc. the National Guard. but national capital area Endowment for the Arts. etc. Congress) Mint. the nation nation. the national monument.

) Negro (see African-American. etc. Virginia. petroleum reserves. Base. etc. the Battle Force. maneuvers. the Observatory . the (section of the United States) Northwest Washington (see cities) Northwestern: States United States numbers capitalized if spelled out as part of a name: Air Force One (Presidential plane) Charles the First Committee of One Hundred Twenty-third Census (see Census) O Observatory. north-central region. Black) network New Deal. American or foreign. if part of name. Brooklyn. etc. the force Reserve officer. anti-New Deal New England States New Federalism New Frontier New World. officer. the War College. 2 (Buena Vista Hills Naval Reserve). reserve No. stores. but Naval Petroleum Reserve No. in general sense: command (see Command) expenditures. but the naval shipyard Volunteer Naval Reserve War College. Northeast corridor northern Ohio Northern States northerner Northwest Pacific Northwest Territory (1799) Northwest. etc. but Ohio native. if part of name: Academy (see Academy) Air Station (NAS) Patuxent River. hospital corpsman. etc. the corps Regular Seabees (construction battalion). the college naval. the Reserve. service. but new world order North: Atlantic Atlantic States Atlantic Treaty (see Treaty) Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (see Organization) Equatorial Current (see Current) Korea Pole Slope (Alaska) Star (Polaris) the North (section of United States) north: Africa Ohio. Pensacola. American. a Seabee navy yard Nazi. (see Alaska) Naval. Naval Shipyard. Navy: Admiral of the. the establishment Hospital Corps. a reservist Reserve Force. the naval base Establishment (see Establishment) Observatory (see Observatory) Reserve.S. the force Establishment.66 Chapter 4 stockpile water policy Native: Alaska. a Reserve officer Shipyard (if preceding or following name): Brooklyn Naval Shipyard. Guam Naval. the admiral Battle Force. nazism Near East (Balkans. capitalized standing alone only if referring to U. 2 navel orange Navy. capitalized with name: Astrophysical. etc.

the Printing Office. if part of name. a Regular Reserve Old Dominion (Virginia) Old South Old World Olympic Games. the observatory (nongovernmental) Naval. the Office Naval Oceanographic of Chief of Naval Operations of General Counsel of Management and Budget of Personnel Management of the Secretary (Defense). etc. Navy Office. if referring to unit of Federal Government. the Observatory Occident. but Pan American Day Pan American Union (renamed. etc. oriental (see Asian) Osama bin Laden Outer Continental Shelf (see Continental) P Pacific (see also Atlantic): Basin coast Coast (or slope) States Northwest rim seaboard slope South States time. Maryland (State) online Operation Iraqi Freedom. the ocean: Antarctic Arctic Atlantic North Atlantic. XXIX Olympic Games ombudsman. the Office: Executive Foreign and Commonwealth (U. the Department Organization. the. capitalized standing alone if referring to international unit: International Labour (ILO) North Atlantic Treaty (NATO): Chiefs of Staff Committee of Defense Ministers Council Council of Foreign Ministers Defense Committee Military Committee of American States (OAS) Pact Regional Planning Group. division.) Government Printing. if part of name. Secretary’s Office Patent and Trademark but New York regional office (including branch. Pacific standard time (see time) but cispacific.Capitalization Examples 67 Lick. occidental Ocean. 56 (congressional calendar) Ordnance: Corps (see Corps) Department. Olympiad. Oceanographer (the Hydrographer). etc. Regular.K. Southwest Pacific. and Cultural Organization UNESCO) Orient. Navy and Marine officers Regular Army. see Organization of American States) . the Group United Nations Educational. Desert Storm Order of Business No. the regional office. but naval and marine officers Navy. transpacific pan-American games. the office officer: Army Marine. Pacific South Pacific. the. or section therein). the Group Standing Group. Scientific.

Woodrow Wilson.O. the Executive. phase I Philippines. George Washington Memorial. the pass patent (see Letters Patent) Peninsula Upper (Lower) (Michigan). the penitentiary petrodollar phase 2. South. the peninsula Penitentiary. but Part 2. president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York . a Pilgrim Place. Fels.68 Chapter 4 Panel. but post office box (in general sense) Postmaster General PostScript. Port of Norfolk.. the place Plains (Great Plains). etc. Picatinny Arsenal. U. etc. the powers (see also alliances): Allied (World Wars I and II) Axis (World War I) Western but European powers precinct. Hayden. Brenner. the Commander in Chief. etc. etc. polar star Police. II. Sullys Hill.. the Parliament Parliamentarian (U. the pledge Pole: North. etc. Box (with number).S.S. the police: Capitol Park. the memorial parkway.. Chicago. patriarch. Houses of. etc. U. Union Station (Washington. the plan: Colombo controlled materials 5-year Marshall (European Recovery Program) Planetarium.S. White House political action committee (PAC) political parties and adherents (see specific political party) Pool.. exPresident. if part of name. etc. the panhandle. but United States Steel plant plate 2. the President of Federal or international unit but president of the Norfolk Southern Railroad. the pool Pope. 10th precinct Premier (see foreign cabinets) Preserve. etc.. the Pilgrims. the plaza Pledge of Allegiance. but Plate 2.. the parish Park. Northwest Power. when part of title: Part 2: Iron and Steel Industry Party. but parish of Caddo (Louisiana civil division). primate Port. Senate or House) part 2. but a postscript Powers. the Chief Magistrate. the park (see also National) Park Police. former President. the planetarium Plant. A. papers. subpolar Pole Star (Polaris). II. first. the pole. the plant. when part of title: Plate 2. if part of name. the Panel Panhandle of Texas. A. also preceding name of any other country. Atlanta. the Federal Service Impasses (Federal). but white paper Parish. if part of name: Jefferson Place.. Zoological (see Zoological) Parkway. park policeman Park. etc.—Rural Structures Plaza. the port (see Authority) Post Office. the President-elect. the party Pass. but papal. Norfolk Port.. Caddo. if part of name.. if part of name. the papers. National Game Presidency (office of the head of Government) President: of the United States. DC).. Texas Panhandle. the parkway Parliament. Republic of the Pilgrim Fathers (1620). the post office P. Fairmount. etc. capitalized if part of name. pontiff.

a Regular (see also officer) regulation: greenhouse gas W (see also Federal Reserve Board) but Veterans Entitlements Regulations religious terms: Baha’i Baptist Brahman Buddhist Catholic. Aberdeen. but Presidential proclamation Program. Province of Ontario. government bailout Progressive Party. 10th region. Blackwater National Wildlife.. Her Majesty’s (see Council) Prize. Santa Clara. the Province Proving Ground.. Nobel. Public Printer. etc. Islamic Jewish Latter-day Saints . Maritime Provinces (Canada). 24. if part of name. the prison Privy Council. Cascade. etc. Emancipation. Presidential Proclamation No. Special Prosecutor (Federal) Province. order. Gadsden. (mountains). election. the proclamation. etc. Blackwater Refuge. Hinduism Islam. etc. Michigan. Louisiana. the Railroad Ranch. authority. a Red (political) Reformatory. etc. midcontinent Regular Army. the. Moline. first region. the proving ground Public Law. Navy. Pulitzer. the refuge region. Proclamation No. the ranch Range. north-central. Alaska. Puritan. etc. Provincial.. East Moline. and Bettendorf) query queue R Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Railroad. etc. American (see American) Reds. Public Law 110−161. if referring to an administrative subdivision: Ontario Province. Catholicism. etc. puritanical Pyrrhic victory Q Quad Cities (Davenport. the rebellion: Boxer Whisky Reconstruction period (post-Civil War) Red army Red Cross. but catholic (universal) Christian Christian Science Evangelical United Brethren Hindu. 24. King. year. Rock Island. if part of name: European Recovery Food for Peace Fulbright Head Start Mutual Defense Assistance Social Security but universal military training. New Jersey State. timber.Capitalization Examples 69 Presidential assistant. the Government Printer. a Progressive Project: Gutenberg Manhattan Vote Smart Proposition 13 Prosecutor. region 7.. Prime Minister (see foreign cabinets) Prison.. the prize Proclamation. the Printer public utility district (see District) Pueblo. the reformatory Refuge. candidate. the range Rebellion. etc. the pueblo Purchase. proclamation.

) Revolution.S.S. if part of name. Sunni New Thought Protestant. Protestantism Scientology Seventh-day Adventists Seventh-Day Baptists Sikh Zoroastrian Renaissance. National Guard): Active Air Force Army bank (see Bank) Board. the (U. Republic. Representative at Large (U.70 Chapter 4 Muslim: Shiite.S. the Economic Report Railroad Retirement Board Annual Report. or English Revolution) (see also War) rim. the report: 2007 Report of the Chief of the Forest Service 9/11 Commission Report Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense for the year ended September 30. Army Corps. the reservation: Hill Military Standing Rock Reserve. Supplement to the Revised Statutes.N. the statutes. . a Republican Reservation (forest. 31 United States Reports (publication) Reporter. or Indian). Supreme Court) Representative. the Reserve (see also Air Force. capitalized standing alone if referring to a specific government: Czech French Irish of Bosnia and Herzegovina of Panama of the Philippines Slovak (Slovakia) United States also the American Republics. etc. the road Roman numerals. reservist Resolution. Revolutionary (if referring to the American.S. common nouns used with. 2007. Congress). the Republics Republican Party. Statutes at Large (U. the resolution: House Joint Resolution 3 Senate Concurrent Resolution 18 War Powers Resolution (short title) but Tonkin resolution Revised Statutes (U. Merchant Marine. with number. 2008 Grace Commission report President’s Economic Report. Marine Corps. if part of name (with date or number). military. but annual report of the Railroad Retirement Board Report No. the Latin American Republics. capitalized if part of name. the. Coast Guard. part II.). chapter II. not capitalized: book II. the annual report. if part of name. Foreign Service. South American Republics. U. the Pacific rim Road. if part of name: Benning. French. Federal (see Federal) city (see Bank) components Enlisted Establishment Inactive Naval officer Officers’ Training Corps Ready Retired Standby Strategic Reserves. Naval. the (era) Report.

unless preceding a name senatorial Sergeant at Arms (U. Corporation) Second World War (see War) Secretariat (see United Nations) Secretaries of the Army and the Navy. Sabbath Day savings bond (see bond) schedule 2. Holy Scriptures (the Bible) Seabees (see Navy) seaboard. secretaryship Secretary. etc. etc. II. the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (British).S. head of national governmental unit: of Defense.. titles of officers standing alone capitalized: Chaplain Chief Clerk Doorkeeper Official Reporter(s) Parliamentarian Postmaster President of the President pro tempore Presiding Officer Secretary Sergeant at Arms Senate..S..S. but Secretaries of the military departments. etc. Senate or House) Sermon on the Mount server Service. seasons: autumn (fall) spring summer winter seaway (see geographic terms. etc. A. but lowercased if referring to a State senator. the Secretary General: Organization of American States United Nations section 2. Ohio (State). State Route 9 (highways) rule 21. when part of title. II. if part of name. the Secretary also the Assistant Secretary. for the Commonwealth. but rules of the House.. the Service: Extension Federal Mediation and Conciliation Fish and Wildlife Foreign (see Foreign Service) Forest Internal Revenue . Armed Forces Hayes Pawnee Indian Public School 13. the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. rule XXI. when part of title: Rule 21: Renewal of Motion Rules: of the House of Representatives. but rules of the Senate also Commission rules S Sabbath.S. of State.Capitalization Examples 71 but Book II: Modern Types (complete heading). Part XI: Early Thought (complete heading) Route 66. the school: any school of U. when part of title: Section 2: Test Construction Theory Selective Service (see Service. System) Senate (U. but Section 2.S. etc. Congress). if referring to Federal unit. eastern. Authority. but Schedule 2. Atlantic. Schedule 2: Open and Prepay Stations School.). but Rule 21. the Executive Secretary Secretary General. the senate Senator (U. 13 school district (see District) Scriptures. P. House rule X Standing Rules of the Senate (publication). A.

Socialist Party. but selective service. number. the Solicitor Solicitor General (Department of Justice) Son of Man (Christ) Sons of the American Revolution (organization). the Speaker special agent specialist Special Order No. etc. Senior Executive service: airmail Army city delivery consular customs diplomatic employment (State) extension (State) general delivery naval Navy parcel post postal field rural free delivery. pension. etc. the square . No. a Son. a Socialist Society. application. etc. Southern States Southern United States southerner Southwest. system. southeastern California.72 Chapter 4 Marshals National Park Natural Resources Conservation Postal Secret (Homeland Security) Selective (see also System).). Southland Southeast Asia southern California. Special Orders. a Real Son South: American Republics (see Republic) American States Atlantic Atlantic States Deep South (U. selective service classification 1−A.S. of the Cincinnati soil bank soil orders: Alfisols Andisols Aridisols Entisols Gelisols Histosols Inceptisols Mollisols Oxisols Spodosols Ultisols Vertisols Soldiers’ Home. rural delivery. the shuttle space station Spanish-American War (see War) Speaker of the House of Representatives.. trust fund.) Korea Midsouth (U. Continental (see Continental) ship of state (unless personified) Sister(s) (adherent of religious order) Six Nations (see Indians) Smithsonian Institution (see Institution) Social Security Administration (U. 4−F. Inc. etc.S. check. the soldiers’ home. Lafayette. a special order Spirit of ᾽76 (painting). if part of name. free delivery special delivery star route Shelf. the society: American Cancer Society. etc.) Pacific Pole the South (section of United States). (see Armed Forces Retirement Home) Solicitor for the Department of Labor. 12. the (section of United States) space shuttle.. but spirit of ᾽76 (in general sense) Sputnik Square.S. 12. in general sense.

New York of Israel of Maryland of the Union Message/Address of Veracruz out-of-State (adjective). Union Depot.Capitalization Examples 73 Staff. the statue Statutes at Large (U.S. etc. but out-of-stater prison Vatican City state: church and of the art: state-of-the-art technology welfare also downstate. geographic terms) Street. statehouse. Far Western Gulf. the station. original 13 States Western. substation A Statue of Liberty. tristate. Organization of American Pacific Pacific Coast rights South American South Atlantic Southern the six States of Australia. not capitalized if referring to surveying or similar work: Air Force base Grand Central Naval Air Engineering television station WSYR−TV Union. radio station WSM. upstate State’s attorney state’s evidence states’ rights States: Arab Balkan Baltic East North Central East South Central Eastern. instate. statewide. the depot WAMU station. western farming States Station. etc. statehood. fighter Stockpile. Air (U. Ohio-Indiana. but western Gulf. Foreign Service (see Foreign Service). multistate. a foreign state Thirteen Original. the street: I Street (not Eye Street) 110th Street U Street (not You Street) subcommittee (see Committee) . Gulf Coast Lake Latin American lower 48 Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Western Midwestern Mountain New England North Atlantic Northwestern. substate.K. broadcasting station WJSV station 9. station WMAL. but eastern industrial States Eastern Gulf Eastern North Central.) standard time (see time) Star of Bethlehem Star-Spangled Banner (see flag) State: Champion government legislature (see Legislature) line. if part of name. if part of name. Gulf (see Gulf. etc. Iowa. stateside. Strategic National stone age (see Ages) storage facility Stream.) (see also Revised Statutes) Stealth: bomber.

Navy. and Public Health Service) Survey. if referring to Federal unit. etc. The Gambia. Alaska standard Atlantic. subtropic(s) (see tropical) summit meeting. if referring to head of Federal unit. USAREUR Technical Assistance. the Federal Express Third World Thirteen American Colonies. when part of title: Table 2: Degrees of Land Deterioration task force (see Force) Team. the Superintendent: of Documents (Government Printing Office) of the Naval (or Military) Academy Supplement to the Revised Statutes (see Revised Statutes) Supreme Bench. central standard eastern.). the System National Forest. the Federal Bulletin Board. the thruway time: Alaska. the Hague Conference. the Bench. a sun Super Bowl Superfund. the Territory(ies). the System National Highway. the territory Yukon. eastern daylight saving (no s). High Tribunal Supreme Court (U. Territorial (Canada) but territory of: American Samoa. Amtrak system. II. Metro system Selective Service (see also Service) State and National forests but Amtrak railway system..74 Chapter 4 subtropical. Interstate Highway. etc. the team television station (see Station) Telnet Ten Commandments Territorial. A. the System Federal Reserve. the System Regional Metro System. the Times. New York State. The Weirs. the Dalles region. also High Court. the trust territory. but the Dalles Dam. the Survey: Geodetic. the System National Park. the Archives. eastern standard Greenwich mean time (GMT) . capitalized: The Dalles. the System National Wild and Scenic Rivers. the fund Superintendent. The Hague. Guam. the (Air Force. Army. titles of officers standing alone capitalized: Associate Justice Chief Justice Clerk Marshal Reporter but Ohio Supreme Court. the System National Trails. the System: Federal Home Loan Bank. the system also Federal land bank system T table 2. etc. part of name. if part of name of Federal unit. the Weirs streets but the Adjutant General. the supreme court Surgeon General. Virgin Islands The. if referring to a political subdivision Territory: Northwest (1799). also High Bench. eastern daylight.S. the National Archives.. but Table 2. Pacific Islands Trust Territory. Atlantic standard central. the territory Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Northwest Territories. Earth summit Sun. (see Colonies) Thirteen Original States Thruway. Geological System. the Mermaid. the Court.

Pennsylvania. union freight station Teamsters Union. the tomb of the Unknowns. the Assistant Treasurer. the Tropics . also High Tribunal... of the Unknown Soldier. etc. but Transjordan. if part of name. subtropic(s). Unknown Soldier’s Tomb. but Title 2. etc.. if referring to officer of Federal Government. the Postal Union Western (see alliances) Woman’s Christian Temperance but a painters union. neotropical. Pacific standard universal title 2. Lincoln. printers union United Nations: Charter. Treasurys Treasury. the Tribunal (Supreme Court) Tropic of Cancer. the tomb (see also Unknown Soldier) Tower. the Assembly Trade Representative (U. etc. of the United States. II. township of Union trade names and trademarks: Blu-Ray Coca-Cola Dr Pepper Hersheypark iPod iTunes MasterCard TiVo U-Haul UNIX VISA WebTV Yahoo! ZIP Code (Postal) tropical. neotropic. trans-Siberian. Union. Assistant.. trust territory (see Territory) Tunnel. the tunnel. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (see Organization) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) General Assembly.S. capitalized standing alone if synonym for United States or if referring to international unit): Columbia Typographical European Pan American (former name. railroad. of Capricorn. also the Auto Workers. Eiffel. etc. the Teamsters. Paul) U U-boat Under Secretary. Public Treaty. transpacific. Scientific. etc. the Treasurer Treasury notes. Trans-Alaska Treasurer. but union passenger station. etc. etc. when part of title: Title 2: General Provisions Tomb: Grant’s. the charter Educational.) transatlantic. mountain standard Pacific.. North Atlantic Defense of Versailles but treaty of 1919 triad tribe (see Indians) Tribunal. the turnpike Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. the union. but irrigation. the Under Secretary: of Agriculture of State of the Treasury Uniform Code of Military Justice (see Code) Union (if part of proper name. local standard mountain. but assistant treasurer at New York. subtropical Trust. Power. of the United States. tunnel Turnpike. Universal Postal. standing alone capitalized only in minutes and official reports of a specific arbitration.Capitalization Examples 75 Hawaii-Aleutian standard local. etc. A.. Treasurer of the United States. etc. see Organization of American States) Station. General. the treaty: Jay Treaty North Atlantic. National. the tower Township.

the Council World Employment Conference World Health Organization (WHO). World War..R. inland. world war III Vietnam with Mexico War College. Vietnam Veterans Affairs. if part of name: Stanford. the rebellion on Crime on Drugs on Poverty on Terrorism. Shenandoah. Department of (see Department) Vice Chairman. etc. Unknown of Korea. if part of formal name: Between the States Civil First World War. 2.. Second World War. of the Revolution. the Revolution Seven Years’ Six-Day (Arab-Israeli) Spanish-American the two World Wars also post-World War II war. the valley. if part of name: Colorado River Basin Egypt Peninsula (of Michigan) but upper House of Congress U. the university Unknown Soldier. but the valleys of Virginia and Maryland V−E Day. the Secretary General Security Council.S. World War II Unknown. etc. when part of title. hot European French and Indian wars Indian Korean Persian Gulf. World War I. British. Great War. Vice President (same as President) Voice of America. but Volume 2. National (see College) War Mothers (see American) ward 1. etc.. II. the Organization universal: military training (see Program) time (see time) University. etc. World War II for Independence (1776) French and Indian (1754−63) Mexican of 1812 of the Rebellion. etc. Global Revolutionary. the Unknowns (see also Tomb) Upper. descriptive or undeclared: cold. the Voice volume 2. etc. A. etc. the Court Permanent Court of Arbitration (see Court) Secretariat. Korea Unknown.76 Chapter 4 International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) International Court of Justice. first. intercoastal. World War II..S. Volume 2: Five Rivers in America’s Future W War. Unknown of World War II. 11th. (same as Chairman) vice consul. V−J Day. V-chip veteran. but Intracoastal Waterway Web: page site . Washington’s Farewell Address water district (see District) waterway. gulf third world. (former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) V Valley.

Wilderness.) westerner Whip.Capitalization Examples 77 Week. but free world World Bank. Foreign Trade Zone. western Pennsylvania Western: bloc civilization countries Europe(an) (political entity) Hemisphere. Old. San Joaquin Wilderness. ZIP+4 Z39. also world political entity) west. Foreign Trade.S. the Bank World Series World War (see War) World War II veteran World Wide Web (WWW). if part of name: Belleau County Fort Leonard World: New. etc. Majority. etc. fiscal Your Excellency. etc. Youth Corps. calendar.50 Zone. Your Honor. British. Your Majesty. but west coast (U. the wilderness. but the Wilderness (Virginia battlefield) Wood. Western (Germany) Frigid Hot (infectious area) of Interior (see Command) Temperate. Minority Whisky Rebellion (see Rebellion) White (see Caucasian) White House: Blue Room East Room Oval Office Police (see Police) Red Room Rose Garden State Dining Room white paper. Fire Prevention. the zone: British (in Germany) Canal (Panama) Eastern.S. Torrid. welfare state West: Bank (Jordan) Coast (Africa). the West (section of United States. capitalized with name. the zoo.) End. the zone U. the park . Midwest South Central States. western farming States (U. Far Western States Florida (1763−1819) Middle (United States). etc. etc.S. the Web X x ray (note: no hyphen) Y year. free trade zone zone: Arctic eastern standard time no-fly polar tropical Zoological Park (National). the hemisphere ideas Powers States United States World but far western. CA. Third. but the foreign trade zone. (section of city) Europe (political entity) Far West. if part of name. the Corps Z ZIP Code number.

v.) anyway (adv.) effect (result. v. -ant ascent (rise) assent (consent) assassinate athenaeum attester autogiro awhile (for some time) a while (a short time) ax aye B backward baloney (nonsense) bologna (sausage) bandanna A abattoir aberration abetter abettor (law) abridgment absorb (take in) adsorb (adhesion) abysmal a cappella accede (yield) exceed (surpass) accepter acceptor (law) accessory accommodate accordion accouter accursed acetic (acid) ascetic (austere) acknowledgment acoustic adapter 79 . n.) adjurer adjuster ad nauseam adviser advisor (law) adz aegis aesthetic affect (influence.) antibiotic (adj.5.) afterward(s) afterword aging aid (n. GPO uses Webster’s Third New International Dictionary as its guide for the spelling of words not appearing in the GPO Style Manual. Preferred and difficult spellings In addition to indicating the preferred forms of words with variant spellings..) appall. -ed.) aide aide-de-camp albumen (egg) albumin (chemistry) align allottee all ready (prepared) already (previous) all right altogether (completely) all together (collectively) aluminum ambidextrous amoeba ampoule analog analogous anemia anesthetic aneurysm anomalous anonymous antediluvian antibiotics (n.) anywise (adv. the list also contains other words frequently misspelled or causing uncertainty. Spelling (See also Chapter 7 “Compounding Examples” and Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols”) 5. v.1. The tendency of some producers of computer-assisted publications to rely on the limited capability of some spell-checking programs adds importance to this list. -ing appareled. 5. finish.” a supplement to the GPO Style Manual. Colloquial and dialect spellings are not used unless required by the subject matter or specially requested. (See also “Word Division.2.. -ing aquatic aqueduct archaeology arrester artifact artisan ascendance.

-lable..) bluing born (birth) borne (carried) bouillon (soup) bullion (metal) boulder bourgeoisie breach (gap) breech (lower part) brier briquet.80 Chapter 5 bargainer bargainor (law) baritone bark (boat) barreled.) buccaneer buncombe bunion bur burned bus. -ing chlorophyll cigarette citable cite (quote) site (place) clamor climactic (climax) climatic (climate) cocaine coconut cocoon coleslaw colloquy colossal combated. fem. busing butadiene C caffeine calcareous calcimine caldron calendar calender (paper finish) caliber caliper calk (spike) caulk (seal) calligraphy callus (n. bused. -ed. -ting Britannia broadax bronco brunet (masc..) confident (sure) confirmer confirmor (law) conjurer connecter connector (road) connoisseur consecrator consensus consignor consulter consummate contradicter control. -ing cancellation candor canister cannot canoeing cantaloupe canvas (cloth) canvass (solicit) capital (city. -ing chaperon chautauqua chauvinism chiffonier chile con carne chili (pepper) chiseled. -ing cyclopedia czar D darndest debarkation decaffeinated . -er. -ing bettor (wagerer) beveled. -ing crystalline crystallize cudgeled. -ing cozy crawfish creneled. -ing bastille bathyscaph battalion bazaar (event) bizarre (strange on absurd) behoove beneficent benefited. -ing blessed bloc (group) block (grants) blond (masc. -ing center centipede centrifugal cesarean chairmaned chaise longue chancellor channeled. pl. -ing carotene carrot cartilage caster (roller) castor (oil) casual (informal) causal (cause) catalog... fem. -ling converter conveyor cookie cornetist corollary corvette councilor (of council) counselor (adviser) counseled. money) capitol (building) carabao (sing. -ing carburetor Caribbean caroled.) calorie canceled. -ing cataloger catsup caviar caviled. buses. -ing biased.) carat (gem weight) caret (omission mark) karat (gold weight) carbureted. fem. -ing crystaled.) callous (adj. -ing commenter commentor (law) commingle commiserate complement (complete) compliment (praise) confectionery confidant (masc. -ted.

-ing diagrammatic dialed. -ment endwise enfeeble enforce.) enwrap eon epaulet. -ing dialogue dialysis diaphragm diarrhea dickey dietitian diffuser dike dilettante dinghy (boat) diphtheria discreet (prudent) discrete (distinct) disheveled. exposure) expose (v. -ing disk dispatch dissension distention distill. -ment device (contrivance) devise (convey) dextrous (syllable division) diaeresis diaeretic diuretic (water pill) diagramed.) desecrater desiccate desuetude (suspended) destitute (bereft) detractor develop.. -ed.) envelope (n. -ed. -ing duffelbag dullness dumfound dwelt dyeing (coloring) dying (death) E eastward ecstasy edema edgewise electronics (n... -ment enshade ensheathe ensnare ensure (guarantee) insure (protect) entrench entrepreneur entrust entwine envelop (v. -ing. -ing .) eleemosynary elicit (to draw) illicit (illegal) embarrass embed embellish emboweled. -ed. -ing encage encase encave enclasp enclose enclosure encumber encumbrance encyclopedia endorse. -ing epiglottis epilogue equaled. -ment engraft enroll. -ed. adj.Spelling 81 decalogue defense deliverer deliveror (law) demagogue demarcation dependent descendant (n.) electronic (adj. -ing emboweler emigrant (go from) immigrant (go into) emigree eminent (famous) imminent (soon) employee enameled. -ment distributor diverter divorcee doctoral doctrinaire doggerel dossier doweled. -ing erysipelas escallop escapable esophagus etiology evacuee evanescent eviscerate evocative exhibitor exhilarate exonerate exorbitant expellant exposé (n. to lay open) exsiccate extant (in existence) extent (range) extoll. -ing downward dreadnought dreamed drought dueled. -ing eying eyrie F fantasy farther (distance) further (degree) favor fecal feces fetal fetish fetus fiber fiche (microfiche) filigree finable finagle financier fjord flammable (not inflammable) flection fledgling flexitime flier flotage flotation fluorescent focused. -ing.

-ing. -ing lacquer landward lath (wood) lathe (machine) laureled leukemia leveled. formatting forswear fortissimo forward (ahead) foreword (preface) fricassee fuchsia fueler fulfill. inquiry install. -ing. law) guerrilla (warfare) gorilla (ape) guesstimate guttural gypsy H hallelujah hara-kiri harass harebrained healthful (for health) healthy (with health) heinous hemoglobin hemorrhage heterogeneous hiccup highfalutin hijack homeopath homogeneity homologue hors d’oeuvre hypocrisy hypotenuse I idiosyncrasy idle (inactive) idol (statue) idyll imminent (soon) eminent (famous) impaneled. -ing impasse imperiled. -ing impostor impresario imprimatur inculcate indict (to accuse) indite (to compose) inequity (unfairness) iniquity (sin) inferable infold ingenious (skillful) ingenuous (simple) innocuous innuendo inoculate inquire. -ed. -ed. v. -ing gray grievous groveled. -ing kerosene kidnapped.. -ment installation instill. -ment fulsome fungus (n. -ing gruesome guarantee (n.. adj. -ed.. -ing insure (protect) ensure (guarantee) intelligentsia interceptor interment (burial) internment (jail) intern intervener intervenor (law) intransigent (n.) funneled. formatted. -ing furor fuse (all meanings) fuselage fusillade G gaiety gaily galosh gamboled. -ing kidnapper kilogram knapsack kopek kumquat L labeled. -ing libelee libeler license licenser (issuer) licensor (grantor) licorice likable lilliputian linage (lines) lineage (descent) liquefy liquor liqueur liter livable . adj. -ing.) iridescent italic J jalopy jalousie jerry-(built) jury-(rigged) jeweled. -er jewelry judgeship judgment jujitsu juxtaposition K karat kerneled. -ing garrote gauge gazetteer gelatin genealogy generalissimo germane glamorous glamour glycerin gobbledygook goodbye graveled. -ing leveler liable (responsible) libel (legal) liaison libelant libeled.) guaranty (n..82 Chapter 5 folderal forbade forbear (endurance) forebear (ancestor) foresee forgettable forgo (relinquish) forego (precede) format.

-ing pontoon porcelaneous practice (n. -ing marshaler marveled.) Muslim mustache N naphtha Navajo nazism neophyte niacin nickel niter nonplused northward Novocain (trademark) novocaine (anesthetic) numskull O obbligato obloquy ocher octet offal offense omelet ophthalmology opossum orangutan orbited. -ing partisan pastime patrol. -ing metalize meteorology (weather) metrology (weights and measures) meter mil (1⁄1000 inch) mill (1⁄1000 dollar) mileage miliary (tuberculosis) milieu milk cow millenary (1.) pendent (u.) pledger pledgor (law) plenitude pliers plow poleax pollination pommeled.) percent peremptory (decisive) preemptory (preference) perennial periled. -ing monologue mortise movable mucilage mucus (n. -ing medalist medieval metaled.) pedantic (adj. -ing ordinance (law) ordnance (military) organdy overseas or oversea P pajamas paleontology paneled.Spelling 83 loath (reluctant) loathe (detest) lodestar lodestone lodgment logistics (n.) louver luster lyonnaise M madam Mafia maim maize (corn) maze (labyrinth) maneuver manifold manikin (dwarf) mannequin (model) mantel (shelf) mantle (cloak) marbleize marijuana marshaled. -led. -ing permittee perquisite (privilege) prerequisite (requirement) personal (individual) personnel (staff ) perspective (view) prospective (expected) petaled. -ing modeler mold mollusk molt moneys monogramed.m. -ing marvelous material (goods) materiel (military) meager medaled. -ing parallelepiped parceled.) peddler penciled.000) millinery (hats) millennium minable missilery misspell miter moccasin modeled.) photostated pickax picnicking pipet plaque plastics (n. v. -ing pharaoh pharmacopeia phoenix phlegm phony phosphorus (n.) phosphorous (adj.) precedence (priority) precedents (usage) prerogative pretense preventive . -ing paraffin paralleled.) mucous (adj..) logistic (adj. -ing pendant (n.) plastic (adj. -ling peccadillo pedant (n.

-ing stenciler stifling stratagem stubbornness stultify stupefy subpoena. -ing reconnaissance reconnoiter recyclable referable refuse registrar reinforce relater relator (law) remodeler renaissance reparable repellant (n. -ing savable savanna savior Saviour (Christ) scalloped.) prophesy (v.84 Chapter 5 principal (chief) principle (proposition) privilege proffer programmatic programmed. -ing titer tonsillitis .) repellent (adj. RIFed. -ing ruble S saccharin (n.) sacrilegious salable sandaled. -led. -ing schizophrenia scion (horticulture) scurrilous seismology selvage (edging) salvage (save) sentineled. tying timber (wood) timbre (tone) tinseled.) rationale (n.) ptomaine pubic (anatomy) pulmotor pusillanimous Q quarreled.) propellent (adj. -ing supererogation surfeit surreptitious surveillance swiveled.) saccharine (adj. -er. -ed subtlety succor sulfur (also derivatives) sulfanilamide sulfureted. -mer. tied. -ing quartet quaternary questionnaire queue R raccoon racket (all meanings) rapprochement rarefy rarity ratable rational (adj. -ing sideward signaled.) sepulcher seriatim settler settlor (law) sewage (waste) sewerage (drain system) sextet Shakespearean shellacking shoveled. -ing siphon site (place) cite (quote) sizable skeptic skillful skulduggery sleight (deft) slight (meager) smolder sniveled.) prophecy (n.) rattan raveled. RIFs rivaled. -ing separate (v.) requester requestor (law) rescission responder (electronics) responser (electronics) reveled. -ing rhyme. -ing technique teetotaler tercentenary theater therefor (for it) therefore (for that reason) thiamine thralldom thrash (beat) thresh (grain) threshold tie. -ing snorkel soliloquy sometime (formerly) some time (some time ago) some times (at times) southward spacious (space) specious (deceptive) specter spirituous (liquor) spirochete spoliation stationary (fixed) stationery (paper) statue (sculpture) stature (height) statute (law) staunch stenciled. -ing tattoo taxied. -ling propellant (n.. -ing roweled. adj. -ming prologue promissory pronunciation propel. -ing shriveled. rhythmic RIFing. -ing sylvan synonymous syrup T taboo tactician tasseled.

-ing Anglicized and foreign words 5.) frappe G garcon glace grille gruyere H habitue . -ed. -ing tryptophan tularemia tunneled. fem. -s willful withe woeful woolen woolly worshiped. -ing tranquilize(r) tranquillity transcendent transferable transferor transferred transonic transponder (electronics) transshipment traveled. -ing tunneler turquoise typify tyrannical tyro U unctuous unwieldy upward uremia usable V vacillate valance (drape) valence (chemistry) veld veranda vermilion vicissitude victualed. -ing victualer vilify villain visa. -ing vitamin vitrify volcanism voluntarism votable vying W wainscoting warranter warrantor (law) warranty weeviled. -er.Spelling 85 tormenter totaled.3. -ing traveler travelogue triptych trolley troop (soldiers) troupe (actors) troweled. -ing toxemia trafficking trammeled.. -ing welder westward whimsy whiskey. -ing toward toweled. A abaca aide memoire a la carte a la king a la mode angstrom aperitif applique apropos auto(s)-da-fe B blase boutonniere brassiere C cabana cafe cafeteria caique canape cause celebre chateau cliche cloisonne comedienne comme ci comme ca communique confrere consomme cortege coulee coup de grace coup d’etat coupe creme crepe crepe de chine critique critiquing D debacle debris debut debutante decollete dejeuner denouement depot dos-a-dos E eclair eclat ecru elan elite entree etude F facade faience faux pas fete fiance (masc. Diacritical marks are not used with anglicized words.

.4. albinos armadillos avocados banjos cantos cascos centos didos duodecimos dynamos escudos falsettos gauchos ghettos halos indigos infernos juntos kimonos lassos magnetos mementos merinos mestizos octavos octodecimos pianos piccolos pomelos provisos quartos salvos sextodecimos sextos siroccos solos tangelos tobaccos twos tyros virtuosos zeros . chargé d’affaires congé crédit foncier crédit mobilier curé déjà vu détente doña entrepôt exposé longéron mañana maté mère nacré outré passé (masc.) puree R rale recherche regime risque role rotisserie roue S saute seance senor smorgasbord soiree souffle suede T table d’hote tete-a-tete tragedienne V vicuna vis-a-vis Foreign words carry the diacritical marks as an essential part of their spelling. fem. Nouns ending in o immediately preceded by a vowel add s to form the plural. moire N naive naivete nee O opera bouffe opera comique P papier mache piece de resistance pleiade porte cochere porte lumiere portiere pousse cafe premiere protege (masc. fem.) pâté père piña précis raisonné résumé touché à l’américaine attaché béton blessé calèche cañada cañon chargé Plural forms 5. nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant add es to form the plural.86 Chapter 5 I ingenue J jardiniere L laissez faire litterateur M materiel matinee melange melee menage mesalliance metier 5. except as indicated in the following list.5..

comings-in fillers-in goings-on hangers-on listeners-in lookers-on markers-up passers-by swearers-in 5. the plural is formed on the noun. also-rans come-ons go-betweens higher-ups run-ins tie-ins 5. the plural is formed on the last word. When neither word is a noun.6. When a noun is hyphenated with an adverb or preposition.Spelling 87 5. In forming the plurals of compound terms.7. Significant word first: adjutants general aides-de-camp ambassadors at large attorneys at law attorneys general billets-doux bills of fare brothers-in-law chargés d’affaires chiefs of staff commanders in chief comptrollers general consuls general courts-martial crepes suzette daughters-in-law governors general grants-in-aid heirs at law inspectors general men-of-war ministers-designate mothers-in-law notaries public pilots-in-command postmasters general presidents-elect prisoners of war reductions in force rights-of-way secretaries general sergeants at arms sergeants major solicitors general surgeons general Significant word in middle: assistant attorneys general assistant chiefs of staff assistant comptrollers general assistant surgeons general Significant word last: assistant attorneys assistant commissioners assistant corporation counsels assistant directors assistant general counsels brigadier generals deputy judges deputy sheriffs general counsels judge advocates judge advocate generals lieutenant colonels major generals provost marshals provost marshal generals quartermaster generals . the significant word takes the plural form.8.

alumni (masc.) antenna. data (plural.). Cos. flambeaus . automatons axis. five bucketfuls of the mixture (one bucket filled five times) five buckets full of earth (separate buckets) three cupfuls of flour (one cup filled three times) three cups full of coffee (separate cups) 5. addendum. executrices flambeau. zoology) appendix. coccus. The following list comprises other words the plurals of which may cause difficulty. beaus cactus. crises criterion. equilibriums (equilibria. agenda alga. bandeaux basis.9. scientific) erratum. criteria curriculum. bateaux beau. cicatrices Co. cocci consortium. if it is necessary to express the idea that more than one container was filled. axes bandeau. corrigenda crisis. desiderata dilettante. alumna. but singular in collective sense) desideratum. consortia corrigendum. cargoes chassis (singular and plural) cherub. the two elements of the solid compound are printed as separate words and the plural is formed by adding s to the noun. cactuses calix. addenda adieu. calices cargo.10. appendixes aquarium. ellipses equilibrium. 27 and 28 but Bulletin No. curriculums datum (singular). errata executrix. alumnae (fem. adieus agendum. algae alumnus. cherubs cicatrix. 27 and 28 not Bulletin Nos. 27 or 28 coats of arms masters at arms men buyers 5. dilettanti dogma.88 Chapter 5 trade unions under secretaries vice chairmen Both words equally significant: Bulletins Nos. men employees secretaries-treasurers women aviators No word significant in itself: forget-me-nots hand-me-downs jack-in-the-pulpits man-of-the-earths pick-me-ups will-o’-the-wisps Nouns ending with ful form the plural by adding s at the end. bases bateau.. antennas (antennae. aquariums automaton. dogmas ellipsis.

referendums sanatorium. thoraxes vertebra.Spelling 89 focus. plateaus podium. mediums or media memorandum. podiums procès-verbal. insignia italic (singular and plural) Kansas Citys lacuna. octopuses opus. vertebras (vertebrae. abhorrible accendible accessible addible adducible admissible appetible apprehensible audible avertible bipartible circumscriptible coctible coercible cognoscible cohesible collapsible collectible(s) combustible comestible commonsensible compactible compatible competible . scientific) insigne. lenses lira. minutiae monsieur.11. taxis terminus. larvae larynx. phyla plateau. folia formula. hypotheses index. loci madam. fungi genius. forums fungus. oases octopus. zoology) virtuoso. syllabuses symposium. messieurs nucleus. procès-verbaux radius. lacunae larva. opera parenthesis. radixes referendum. larynxes lens. symposia synopsis. radii radix. maximums medium. lire locus. The following words end in ible. synopses tableau. indexes (indices. strata stylus. skis stadium. tableaus taxi. geniuses genus. theses thorax. mesdames Marys matrix. stadiums stimulus. seraphs seta. setae ski. memorandums minimum. sanitariums septum. sequelae seraph. other words in this class end in able. styluses syllabus. focuses folium. matrices maximum. stimuli stratum. thesauri thesis. phenomena phylum. parentheses phenomenon. nuclei oasis. genera gladiolus (singular and plural) helix. formulas forum. septa sequela. virtuosos vortex. vortexes Endings “ible” and “able” 5. helices hypothesis. termini testatrix. sanatoriums sanitarium. minimums minutia. testatrices thesaurus.

90 Chapter 5 compossible comprehensible compressible conducible conductible confluxible congestible contemptible controvertible conversable (oral) conversible (convertible) convertible convincible corrigible corrodible corrosible corruptible credible crucible cullible decoctible deducible deductible defeasible defectible defensible delible deprehensible depressible descendible destructible diffrangible diffusible digestible dimensible discernible discerpible discerptible discussible dispersible dissectible distensible distractible divertible divestible divisible docible edible educible effectible effervescible eligible eludible erodible evasible eversible evincible exemptible exhaustible exigible expansible explosible expressible extensible fallible feasible fencible flexible fluxible forcible frangible fungible fusible gullible horrible ignitible illegible immersible immiscible impartible impatible impedible imperceptible impermissible imperscriptible impersuasible implausible impossible imprescriptible imputrescible inaccessible inadmissible inapprehensible inaudible incircumscriptible incoercible incognoscrible incombustible incommiscible incompatible incomprehensible incompressible inconcussible incontrovertible inconvertible inconvincible incorrigible incorrodible incorruptible incredible indefeasible indefectible indefensible indelible indeprehensible indestructible indigestible indiscernible indivertible indivisible indocible inducible ineffervescible ineligible ineludible inevasible inexhaustible inexpansible inexpressible infallible infeasible inflexible infractible infrangible infusible innascible inscriptible insensible instructible insubmergible insuppressible insusceptible intactible intangible intelligible interconvertible interruptible intervisible invendible invertible invincible invisible irascible irreducible irrefrangible irremissible irreprehensible irrepressible irresistible irresponsible irreversible legible mandible marcescible misicible negligible nexible omissible ostensible partible passable (open) .

” and “yze” 5.” “ize. ize.Spelling 91 passible (feeling) perceptible perfectible permissible persuasible pervertible plausible possible prehensible prescriptible producible productible protrusible putrescible receptible redemptible reducible reflectible reflexible refrangible remissible renascible rendible reprehensible repressible reproducible resistible responsible reversible revertible risible runcible sconcible seducible sensible sponsible suasible subdivisible submergible submersible subvertible suggestible supersensible suppressible susceptible suspensible tangible tensible terrible thurible traducible transmissible transvertible tripartible unadmissible uncorruptible unexhaustible unexpressible unintelligible unresponsible unsusceptible vendible vincible visible vitrescible Endings “ise. all other words of this class end in cede (precede. succeed). .12.” “ceed. proceed. advertise advise affranchise apprise (to inform) apprize (to appraise) arise chastise circumcise comprise compromise demise despise devise disenfranchise disfranchise disguise emprise enfranchise enterprise excise exercise exorcise franchise improvise incise merchandise misadvise mortise premise prise (to force) prize (to value) reprise revise rise supervise surmise surprise televise Endings “cede.13.). The letter l is followed by yze if the word expresses an idea of loosening or separating. all other words of this class. except those ending with the suffix wise and those in the following list.” and “sede” 5. or yze. end in ize. Only one word ends in sede (supersede). etc. only three end in ceed (exceed. as analyze. secede. A large number of words have the termination ise.

a historic occasion a hotel a human being a humble man a union 5. v. or z. c. inputting 5. m. an 11-year-old a onetime winner a III (three) group an VIII (eight) classification a IV–F (four ef) category (military draft) a 4–H Club . an is used before a silent h and all vowels except u pronounced as in visual and o pronounced as in one. inference Indefinite articles 5. traveled. Use of the indefinite article a or an before a numerical expression is determined by the consonant or vowel sound of the beginning syllable. k. the indefinite article a is used. f. traveling If the accent in a derivative falls upon an earlier syllable than it does in the root word.92 Chapter 5 Doubled consonants 5. j. r. preference infer. or x. robbing transfer.16. each having a vowel sound. refer. s. h.17. y. g. e.18.15. u. bagging format. i. A single consonant following a single vowel and ending in a monosyllable or a final accented syllable is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel. w. formatting input. n. transferred but total. a BLS compilation a CIO finding a GAO limitation a UFO sighting a WWW search 5. d. an AEC report an FCC (ef) ruling an NSC (en) proclamation an RFC (ahr) loan 5. p. o. the consonant is not doubled. totaled. reddish rob.19. q. each having a consonant sound. t. the indefinite article an is used. When a group of initials begins with a. The indefinite article a is used before a consonant and an aspirated h. totaling travel. an herbseller an hour an honor an onion an oyster but an H-U-D directive a HUD directive When a group of initials begins with b. reference prefer. l. red. bag.14.

S. 5.S.21. in marking copy or reading proof. etc. In designating the natives of the States. GPO’s preference is for the conventional English form.Spelling 93 Geographic names 5. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) (http://geonames. but these should be consistent throughout the entire job. Copy will be followed as to accents. The table on Demonyms in Chapter 17 “Useful Tables” shows forms to be used for nouns and adjectives denoting nationality. therefore.20. it is the prerogative of the originating office to select the form that is most suitable for the matter in hand. Nationalities.gov). the U. usgs. Directory of Post Offices is to be used. it is required only to verify the spelling of the particular form used. The spelling of geographic names must conform to the decisions of the U.23. If the decisions or the rules of the BGN permit the use of either the local official form or the conventional English form. Alabamian Alaskan Arizonan Arkansan Californian Coloradan Connecticuter Delawarean Floridian Georgian Hawaiian Idahoan Illinoisan Indianian Iowan Kansan Kentuckian Louisianian Mainer Marylander Massachusettsan Michiganian Minnesotan Mississippian Missourian Montanan Nebraskan Nevadan New Hampshirite New Jerseyan New Mexican New Yorker North Carolinian North Dakotan Ohioan Oklahoman Oregonian Pennsylvanian Rhode Islander South Carolinian South Dakotan Tennessean Texan Utahn Vermonter Virginian Washingtonian West Virginian Wisconsinite Wyomingite . 5. the following forms will be used. In the absence of such a decision. 5.22.

Observe the following forms: African-American Alaska Native (Aleuts. Indians of Alaska) Amerindian Native American (American Indian) Puerto Rican Part-Hawaiian (legal status) but part-Japanese.26. Eskimos. including tribal and other proper names of Indian. hyphens. . Aleut. copy is to be followed literally. Native American words 5. Transliteration 5.25. or any other language that does not have a Latin alphabet.24.94 Chapter 5 5. and other groups. Words. etc. Japanese. In the spelling of nongeographic words transliterated from Chinese. etc. Hawaiian. are to be followed literally as to spelling and the use of spaces.

The rules.4. many of them start out unhyphenated.1. Exceptions must necessarily be allowed. Current language trends continue to point to closing up certain words which. aids readability.” the fluid nature of our language should be kept in mind. banking hours blood pressure book value census taker day laborer eye opener fellow citizen living costs palm oil patent right real estate rock candy training ship violin teacher 95 .6. therefore. such division should be made leaving prefixes and combining forms of more than one syllable intact.3. 6. are somewhat flexible. The hyphen is a mark of punctuation that not only unites but also separates the component words. it facilitates understanding.2. It conveys a unit idea that is not as clearly or quickly conveyed by the component words in unconnected succession. omit the hyphen when words appear in regular order and the omission causes no ambiguity in sense or sound. either with or without a hyphen. The tendency to merge two short words continues to be a natural progression toward better communication. In general. Compounding Rules (See also Chapter 7 “Compounding Examples”) 6. through either frequent use or widespread dissemination through modern media exposure. Word forms constantly undergo modification. Although it is often the case that hyphenated compound words eventually lose their hyphen. “Compounding Examples. When compound words must be divided at the end of a line. and ensures correct pronunciation. 6. A compound word is a union of two or more words. General rules 6. In applying the rules in this chapter and in using the list of examples in the following chapter. have become fixed in the reader’s mind as units of thought.

Print solid two nouns that form a third when the compound has only one primary accent.6. cupboard dressmaker fishmonger footnote locksmith workman Print solid a noun consisting of a short verb and an adverb as its second element. especially when the prefixed noun consists of only one syllable or when one of the elements loses its original accent. afterglow bookkeeping cupboard forget-me-not gentleman newsprint right-of-way whitewash 6. (See also rules 6.7. which are generally printed solid.8. except after the short prefixes co. Words are usually combined to express a literal or nonliteral (figurative) unit idea that would not be as clearly expressed in unconnected succession.5. pre.9. except when the use of the solid form would interfere with comprehension.) cooperation deemphasis preexisiting anti-inflation micro-organism semi-independent brass-smith Inverness-shire thimble-eye ultra-atomic shell-like hull-less but co-occupant cross section Solid compounds 6. A derivative of a compound retains the solid or hyphenated form of the original compound unless otherwise indicated. coldbloodedness footnoting ill-advisedly outlawry praiseworthiness railroader Y-shaped 6. blowout breakdown hangover holdup makeready markoff pickup builddown cooldown runoff setup showdown thowaway tradeoff flareback giveaway but cut-in phase-in run-in sit-in . pro. airship bathroom bookseller 6.32. A hyphen is used to avoid doubling a vowel or tripling a consonant. de.29 and 6.96 Chapter 6 6. and re.

especially when the prefixed word consists of one syllable. book eye horse house mill play school shop snow way wood work 6.11. Compounds beginning with the following nouns are usually printed solid.10.Compounding Rules 97 6. Compounds ending in the following are usually printed solid. berry bird blossom board boat book borne bound box boy brained bug bush cam craft field fish flower fly girl grower headed hearted holder hopper house keeper keeping land light like line load maid maker making man master mate mill mistress monger over owner but #ownership person picker picking piece plane power proof roach room shop site skin smith stone store tail tight time (not clock) ward ware water way wear weed wide wise woman wood work worker working worm worthy writer .

This applies particularly to combinations in which one element is a present or past participle. Print as one word compass directions consisting of two points. thing. To avoid mispronunciation. Print a hyphen between words. or abbreviations and words. except as indicated in rule 6. and where. every one of the pilots is responsible. Print solid any.14. every body was accounted for 6. no. Print compound personal pronouns as one word. agreed-upon standards Baltimore-Washington road collective-bargaining talks contested-election case contract-bar rule cost-of-living increase drought-stricken area English-speaking nation fire-tested material Federal-State-local cooperation German-English descent guided-missile program hearing-impaired class high-speed line large-scale project law-abiding citizen long-term loan line-item veto .13. herself himself itself myself oneself ourselves themselves thyself yourself yourselves 6. northeast southwest also north-south alignment north-northeast south-southwest Unit modifiers 6.12.98 Chapter 6 6. print as two words if meaning a single or particular person or thing. but use a hyphen after the first point when three points are combined.15. anybody anything anywhere anyone everybody everything everywhere everyone nobody nothing nowhere no one somebody something somewhere someone but any one of us may stay. When one is the second element.16 and elsewhere throughout this chapter. every. print no one as two words at all times. combined to form a unit modifier immediately preceding the word modified. and some when combined with body.

. 2-inch-diameter pipe a 4-percent increase.-owned property.) Where meaning is clear and readability is not aided.-flagship 1-inch diameter. Print without a hyphen a compound predicate (either adjective or noun) whose second element is a present participle. the 10-percent rise but 4 percent citric acid 4 percent interest. not no hyphen rule 6. The area is used for beet raising.S.S. The shale was oil bearing. atomic energy power bituminous coal industry child welfare plan civil rights case civil service examination durable goods industry flood control study free enterprise system ground water levels high school student elementary school grade income tax form interstate commerce law land bank loan land use program life insurance company mutual security funds national defense appropriation natural gas company per capita expenditure Portland cement plant production credit loan public at large public utility plant real estate tax small businessman Social Security pension soil conservation measures special delivery mail parcel post delivery speech correction class but no-hyphen rule (readability aided). U.16.Compounding Rules 99 long-term-payment loan low-cost housing lump-sum payment most-favored-nation clause multiple-purpose uses no-par-value stock one-on-one situation part-time personnel rust-resistant covering service-connected disability state-of-the-art technology supply-side economics tool-and-die maker up-or-down vote 6. Restraint should be exercised in forming unnecessary combinations of words used in normal sequence. The duties were price fixing. The effects were far reaching. an. The word of is understood here. it is not necessary to use a hyphen to form a temporary or made compound. (Note the absence of an article: a. U. or the.17.

Proper nouns used as unit modifiers. either in their basic or derived form. The area is drought stricken. 6. Moderately fine grained wood. eagerly awaited moment wholly owned subsidiary unusually well preserved specimen very well defined usage longer than usual lunch period not too distant future most often heard phrase but ever-normal granary ever-rising flood still-new car still-lingering doubt well-known lawyer well-kept secret 6.21. This material is fire tested. Paul region North American-South American sphere French-English descent Washington–Wilkes-Barre route or Washington/Wilkes-Barre route . The reporters are better informed. retain their original form. Latin American countries North Carolina roads a Mexican-American South American trade Spanish-American pride Winston-Salem festival African-American program Anglo-Saxon period Franco-Prussian War Seventh-day Adventists but Minneapolis-St. Print without a hyphen a compound predicate adjective the second element of which is a past participle.100 Chapter 6 6. nor use hyphens in a three-word unit modifier the first two elements of which are adverbs. Do not use a hyphen in a two-word unit modifier the first element of which is an adverb ending in ly. The cars are higher priced. better drained soil best liked books higher level decision highest priced apartment larger sized dress better paying job lower income group but uppercrust society lowercase. but the hyphen is printed when combining forms. uppercase type upperclassman bestseller (noun) lighter-than-air craft higher-than-market price 6. The paper is fine grained.20.19. Omit the hyphen in a predicate modifier of comparative or superlative degree. Print without a hyphen a two-word modifier the first element of which is a comparative or superlative.18.

elderly clothesman old-clothes man competent shoemaker wooden-shoe maker field canning factory tomato-canning factory brave servicemen service men and women light blue hat (weight) light-blue hat (color) average taxpayer income-tax payer American flagship (military) American-flagship well-trained schoolteacher elementary school teacher preschool children (kindergarten) pre-school children (before school) rezoned wastesite hazardous-waste site but common stockholder stock ownership small businessman working men and women steam powerplant site meat packinghouse owner 6.to 3. sheep. the hyphens are retained. 3.Compounding Rules 101 6.to 5-ton trucks 2. but boards 2 to 6 inches wide 8-. abstract B pages article 3 provisions class II railroad grade A milk point 4 program ward D beds . and calf skins.23. not intra-state and -city American owned and managed companies preoperative and postoperative examination 6. and 2-percent pay raises moss. Where two or more hyphenated compounds have a common basic element but this element is omitted in all but the last term.25. and calfskins intrastate and intracity. ante bellum days bona fide transaction ex officio member per capita tax per diem employee prima facie evidence 6. 10-.1-.and ivy-covered walls. not moss and ivy-covered walls long.4-.22. and 16-foot boards 6.and short-term money rates. sheep. not goat.by 4-inch boards.and 4. Do not confuse a modifier with the word it modifies. Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier consisting of a foreign phrase. not long and short-term money rates but twofold or threefold.24. 2. not two or threefold goat. Do not print a hyphen in a unit modifier containing a letter or a numeral as its second element.

29. afterbirth Anglomania antedate antislavery biweekly bylaw circumnavigation cisalpine cooperate contraposition countercase deenergize demitasse excommunicate extracurricular foretell heroicomic hypersensitive hypoacid inbound infrared interview intraspinal introvert isometric macroanalysis mesothorax metagenesis microphone misstate monogram multicolor neophyte nonneutral offset outbake overactive pancosmic paracentric particoated peripatetic planoconvex polynodal postscript preexist proconsul pseudoscholastic reenact retrospect semiofficial stepfather subsecretary supermarket thermocouple transonic transship tricolor ultraviolet unnecessary underflow . but quotation marks are not to be used in lieu of a hyphen. and combining forms 6.28. Print combination color terms as separate words.27. but use a hyphen when such color terms are unit modifiers. except as indicated elsewhere. “blue sky” law “good neighbor” policy “tie-in” sale but right-to-work law line-item veto 6. big gray cat a fine old southern gentleman Prefixes.102 Chapter 6 6. Print solid combining forms and prefixes. Do not use a hyphen between independent adjectives preceding a noun. bluish green dark green orange red bluish-green feathers iron-gray sink silver-gray body 6. suffixes.26. Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifier enclosed in quotation marks unless it is normally a hyphenated term.

Compounding Rules 103 6. ex-governor ex-serviceman ex-son-in-law ex-vice-president self-control self-educated quasi-academic quasi-argument quasi-corporation quasi-young but selfhood selfsame . self. or to avoid ambiguity. and quasi. anti-hog-cholera serum co-occurrence co-op mid-decade multi-ply (several plies) non-civil-service position non-tumor-bearing tissue pre-midcourse review pre-position (before) pro-choice pro-life re-cover (cover again) re-creation (create again) re-lay (lay again) re-sorting (sort again) re-treat (treat again) un-ionized un-uniformity but rereferred rereviewed 6.30. lifelike lilylike girllike bell-like Scotland-like McArtor-like 6.32.33. Use a hyphen to join duplicated prefixes. Use a hyphen or hyphens to prevent mispronunciation. but use a hyphen to avoid tripling a consonant or when the first element is a proper name. portable coverage operate plebiscite twentyfold spoonful kilogram geography manhood selfish pumpkin meatless outlet wavelike procurement innermost partnership lonesome homestead northward clockwise 6.34. Print with a hyphen the prefixes ex. re-redirect sub-subcommittee super-superlative 6. except as indicated elsewhere. Print solid combining forms and suffixes.31. Print solid words ending in like. to ensure a definite accent on each element of the compound.

36. Print a hyphen between the elements of compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and in adjective compounds with a numerical first element.37.14. (See also rule 8. twenty-one twenty-first 6-footer 6-foot-11-inch man 24-inch ruler 3-week vacation 8-hour day 10-minute delay 20th-century progress 3-to-1 ratio 5-to-4 vote .104 Chapter 6 6.) 1 month’s layoff 1 week’s pay 2 hours’ work 3 weeks’ vacation 1 minute’s delay but a 1-minute delay .35. Unless usage demands otherwise. (The hyphen is retained in words of this class set in caps.22-caliber cartridge 2-cent-per-pound tax four-in-hand tie 6. three-and-twenty two-sided question multimillion-dollar fund 10-dollar-per-car tax thirty.) anti-American pro-British un-American non-Government neo-Nazi post-World War II or post-Second World War non-Federal but nongovernmental overanglicize transatlantic Numerical compounds 6. use a hyphen to join a prefix or combining form to a capitalized word.(30-) day period but one hundred twenty-one 100-odd foursome threescore foursquare $20 million airfield second grade children Print without a hyphen a modifier consisting of a possessive noun preceded by a numeral.

secretary-treasurer sergeant at arms treasurer-manager under secretary but under-secretaryship vice president but vice-presidency The adjectives elect and designate. 1-quart belts: 2-inch.39. require a hyphen.38. Print a hyphen between the elements of a fraction. President-elect (Federal) Vice-President-elect (Federal) Secretary of Housing and Urban Development-designate ambassador-designate minister-designate . ambassador at large assistant attorney general commander in chief comptroller general Congressman at Large major general notary public secretary general 6. ¼-inch Civil and military titles 6.Compounding Rules 105 6. 2-gallon. ½-inch. motor. Do not hyphenate a civil or military title denoting a single office.40. one-thousandth two-thirds two one-thousandths twenty-three thirtieths twenty-one thirty-seconds three-fourths of an inch 6. 115-volt glass jars: 5-gallon. 60-cycle. 1¼-inch. but omit it between the numerator and the denominator when the hyphen appears in either or in both. but print a double title with a hyphen. alternating-current. as the last element of a title. 3-phase. A unit modifier following and reading back to the word or words modified takes a hyphen and is printed in the singular.41.

) 18-year-old (n.) lick-the-finger-and-test-the-wind economics make-believe (n.9.4-D 6. blue-pencil (v.10)bis(1)oxathiazone-2. Print a hyphen between the elements of technical or contrived compound units of measurement. candela-hour crop-year horsepower-hour light-year passenger-mile staff-hour work-year but kilowatthour Improvised compounds 6. u.. 9-nitroanthra(1.) let-George-do-it attitude how-to-be-beautiful course hard-and-fast rule penny-wise and pound-foolish policy first-come-first-served basis but a basis of first come.m.106 Chapter 6 Scientific and technical terms 6. Freon-12 polonium-210 uranium-235 U235 Sr90 U234 92 6. insects.42. diseases.45. Print with a hyphen the elements of an improvised compound. u.44.7-bisdioxide Cr-Ni-Mo 2. animals. plants) used as unit modifiers if no hyphen appears in their original form. whooping cough remedy but Russian-olive plantings Douglas-fir tree Chemical elements used in combination with figures use a hyphen. carbon monoxide poisoning guinea pig raising hog cholera serum methyl bromide solution stem rust control equivalent uranium content 6. except with superior figures.) know-how (n.) one-man-one-vote principle roll-on/roll-off ship George “Pay-As-You-Go” Miller stick-in-the-mud (n.) know-it-all (n.m. Note use of hyphens and closeup punctuation in chemical formulas. Do not print a hyphen in scientific terms (names of chemicals.. first served .4.46.43.

48.50. boogie-woogie comedy-ballet dead-alive devil-devil even-stephen farce-melodrama fiddle-faddle hanky-panky murder-suicide nitty-gritty pitter-patter razzle-dazzle walkie-talkie willy-nilly young-old but bowwow dillydally hubbub nitwit riffraff 6. the verb form is always hyphenated.52. Print a hyphen in a compound formed of repetitive or conflicting terms and in a compound naming the same thing under two aspects. Use a hyphen to join a single capital letter to a noun or a participle. H-bomb I-beam T-shaped U-boat C-chip C-section V-necked S-iron T-square X-ed out but x ray x raying S turns 6. Print idiomatic phrases without hyphens.Compounding Rules 107 6. come by inasmuch as insofar as Monday week nowadays . cat-o’-nine-tails government-in-exile grant-in-aid jack-in-the-box man-of-war mother-in-law mother-of-pearl patent-in-fee but heir at law next of kin officer in charge 6.51. cold-shoulder blue-pencil cross-brace 6. Use hyphens in a prepositional-phrase compound noun consisting of three or more words. When the corresponding noun form is printed as separate words. Use a hyphen in a nonliteral compound expression containing an apostrophe in its first element.47.49. asses’-eyes ass’s-foot bull’s-eye cat’s-paw crow’s-nest 6.

In order to keep the list from becoming cumbersome. Similarly. The rationale was to provide one or two examples under a keyword rather than needless repetition.’’ but “the material is fire tested. many two-word forms which create no difficulty were omitted. while two-word forms invariably convey a literal meaning.’’ 7. particularly when the adopted form is different than that of Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Care was exercised to achieve fuller coverage of solid compounds. e. 7.1.2. 7. “crystal-clear water. “fire-tested material. A distinction exists between words used in a literal sense and a nonliteral sense. Distinction should also be made in the compounding of two words to form an adjective modifier and the use of the same words as a predicate adjective. This dictionary is GPO’s guide for spelling with the exception of those words listed in rule 5. 7. an analogy of the words listed with like prefixes and suffixes together with an application of the rules will result in easier handling of those compound words not listed. 109 . certain restrictions had to be adopted.3..g. a person may have an interesting sideline or hobby. The listing of hyphenated compounds ending in ed was kept to a minimum. With few exceptions.4.7.2. It is not GPO’s guide to compounding. For example. 7. The following examples are based on the rules for compounding found in chapter 6.6.7. Compounding Examples 7. one-word forms usually express a nonliteral interpretation. Obviously. However. 7.’’ but “the water is crystal clear’’. but be forced to sit on the side line during periods of inactivity. this list or any other list of compound words could not possibly be a complete reference due to sheer volume.5.

e. pro-mother-in-law). verb. unit modifier. ‘‘We know someone should do it and who that some one ought to be. these and similar words should be made uniform by being printed as two words. Words spelled alike but pronounced differently. caller-down. and tie-in resist quick comprehension when solid. A spacemark (#) appearing before an indented entry indicates a two-word form. and maker-up) require hyphens. or to join a combining form or prefix to a hyphenated compound (equi-gram-molar.f. They are: adv.. makeup.14. prefix. farmhand and ranch hand. They are therefore hyphenated. to facilitate a normally capitalized word (mid-April. u. 7. 7. run-on. .. (holderup. In juxtaposition. naso-orbital). bumblebee and queen bee.13. adverb.11.g. Their er derivatives. Caution should be exercised when distinguishing whether a succession of words is being used as a compound or whether they simply appear together. for example.8... For greater readability. conjunction. Combining forms and prefixes are usually printed solid. are listed under the same keyword. To indicate word function. 7. Words printed flush in the following list combine with the words which follow to indicate solid or hyphenated compounds. holdup. c. and conj.m. several abbreviations have been appended..’’ For better appearance.110 Chapter 7 7. but two-word forms appearing in the adjective position usually take a hyphen. such as tear-dimmed and tearsheet. the hyphen is sometimes used to avoid doubling a vowel (anti-inflation. it may sometimes be necessary to treat alike words that would have different forms when they appear separately. un-ionized). combining form.10... Consider. v. calldown.. wind tunnel and windup. 7. 7. n. and similar words should be printed solid. As nouns and adjectives. noun. layout. This is only a temporary expedient and does not supersede the list. layer-out. Such compounds as run-in. pref. to assure distinct pronunciation of each element of a compound or ready comprehension of intended meaning (contra-ion. non-European). 7.9.12.

) blown brake brush burst cargo -clear (u.m.m.m.m.m.m.m.) -American -clear (n.) -written (u.m.) acid fast -treat (v.) course crew -dried (u.) adeno (c.m.m.) all one word able -bodied (u.m.Compounding Examples 111 A A BC(s) (n.) -stricken (u.m.m.) -said (u..) -weary (u.) agribusiness ague -faced (u.) -possessed (u.) fare -floated (u.) -flotation (mining) #fours #in -inclusive (u.m.) -named (u.m. v.) wise alleyway allo (c.) all one word addle brain head pate add-on (n.) -plagued (u.m.) -otitis rest one word afore all one word after (c.f.) -aged (u.) glass alkali#land all -absorbing (u.m.m.m.) time (u.) -fired (u.m.m.) coach -condition (all forms) -cool (v.m.) all one word aero (c.) all one word agar-agar age less long -old (u. etc.) aide-de-camp air bag base bill blast -blasted (u.) -cooled (u.) mark (printing) -out (u.) -mentioned (u.m.) marker mass minded park path photo port (all meanings) #raid scoop ship show sick -slaked (u.) all one word almsgiver along ship .) -water (u.) flow foil -formed (u.m.m.) -given (u.m.) –B–C (u.f.m.) absentminded ace-high (u.m.) ground (u.) works ack-ack acre -foot -inch actino (c. u.) ale cup -fed (u.) -bomb -day -flat -frame -pole -sharp a borning. foot while (adv.m.) abdomino (c.f.m.m.f..m.f.m.m.m.) deck -found (u.) sleeve space speed stream strike strip #time (radio and TV) wave woman worthy alder-leaved (u.f.m.) -driven (u.m.) -minded (u.) spice -star (u.) -round (u.) drome drop -dry (u.) -sore (u. u.m.) frame freight gap glow hammer head hole hose lane lift #line (line for air) line (aviation) liner link locked mail mark (v.m.m.) about-face above -cited (u..m.

m.m. -Christian.) all one word angle hook meter wing worm Anglo (c.m. etc.f. u.f. #mortem mortem (nonliteral) rest one word antero (c.m.) -ion rest one word arc -over (n.) all one word anti (pref.) aorto (c.) -icer -imperial -inflation.) any body how one #one (one thing or one of a group) place (adv.m.) -colored (u. -New#Deal.) -tipped (u.f. rest one word antro (c.) all one word archo (c.f.m.) -faced (u.) armor -clad (u..) food angio (c.) all one word amidships amino #acid as prefix.) plate -plated (u.) all one word anchor hold #light plate angel cake -eyed (u.m.f.112 Chapter 7 shore side alpen glow stock alpha -cellulose -iron -naphthol also-ran (n.f.m.) jack ant eater hill ante (pref.) all one word archi (pref. u.f.m.) arch (pref.) all one word areo (c.m.f.) -weld (v.) all one word anthropo (c. etc.) all one word arithmo (c.m..m.) -piercing (u.) smith arm’s-length (u. etc.) arrow head -leaved (u.f.m.f.m.) April-fool (v.) all one word anvil -faced (u.) -headed (u.f.f.m. etc. all one word ampere -foot -hour meter -minute -second amphi (pref.m.) ambi (c. etc.m. etc.m. etc.f. -choice christ god -hog-cholera (u. -life -missile-missile (u.) all one word aristo (c.) plate .) -American.) all one word apple cart jack #juice sauce -scented (u.) all one word arm band bone chair hole lift pit plate rack rest -shaped (u.f.) #bellum.) all one word apo (pref.) all one word amylo (c.) alto cumulus relievo stratus amber -clear (u.) -American.) all one word ankle bone -deep (u.f.f. rest one word anhydr(o) (c.m.) all one word anthra (c.) aqua culture lung marine meter puncture tint tone aquo (c.) band bishop duke enemy -Protestant archeo (c.) missile personnel trust.

u.) some ax -adz -grinding (u.) all one word artillery man woman asbestos -covered (u.) string strip (book) stroke -swath (v.m.) arterio (c.) all one word arthro (c.m.m.m.) #food sit (v.f.) plate rest road run saw scatter set shift slide space spin spread staff stage stairs stamp stay stitch stop strap -streeter stretch (n.) girl pipe -shaped (u.) shot -toothed (u.f.) trail up (n.) arseno (c.f.m.) lash list (v.Compounding Examples 113 -shaped (u.m.m.) -iodide rest one word authorship auto (c.) cross date down (n.) -logon matic#backup -objective -observation -omnibus -ophthalmoscope rest one word awe -bound (u.) -packed (u.f.) .) -orange -orchil -orseilline rest one word B B-flat baby #boomer face (n.m.) hammer head -shaped (u.f.f.) sitter back ache band bite (v.) wall wash water backer -down -off -up bag boy -cheeked (u. u.) paddle (v.m.m.m.) -filled (u.f.m.) ash bin can -colored (u.m.m.) axletree axo (c.m.m.) all one word attorney#at#law audio frequency gram meter tape visual auri (c.f.m.) all one word azo (c. u.) -gray (u.) furrow ground hand haul -in (n.) log lotter packer (n.) swept swing tack talk tender tenter -titrate (v.m.) baggage man #rack #room #train bailout (n.) track (v.) all one word art-colored (u.) biter bone breaker cap chain charge -country (u.) pay payment pedal (v.) #heap pan pile pit tray assembly #line man #room astro (c.) drop face feed fill fire flap flash flow -focus (v.) -free (u....m.m.. u.) -inspired (u.

m.114 Chapter 7 bake oven pan shop bald faced head (n.) trap beater -out -up beauty -blind (u..m.) bark cutter peel -tanned (u.) wagon width bandy ball -legged (u.) back bone faced foot handed legged necked worn barge-laden (u. u.) barley corn mow #water barnstormer barrel head -roll (v.) bangup (n.m.m.m.) bank book note #paper side (stream) bantamweight bar #bit code keeper maid post tender -wound (u.) stalk bear baiting herd hide hound off (n.) fowl wing batch#file bath mat robe #towel tub batswing (cloth) battercake battle ax -fallen (u.m.m.) pole pot setter -shaped (u.m.m.) ship stead wagon baud#rate baybolt beach comber head wagon bead flush roll beak head iron -shaped (u.m.) beam filling -making (u.m..m.) -clad (u. u.) base ball ball#bat line #line (surveying) -minded (u.m.) #shop beaverpelt bed board chair chamber clothes cord cover -fallen (u. u.m.) -shaped (u.) fast fellow frame lamp linen pad pan plate post quilt rail #rest ridden rock sheet sick side sore space spread spring stand ..m.m.m.m.m.m.) pate ball field #game -like park (nonliteral) #park (literal) player point (n.) all one word basketball bas-relief bat blind -eyed (u.) stock ballot#box band aid box cutter saw stand string -tailed (u.) bare -armed (u.f.m.) bean bag cod -fed (u.) basi (c.) front ground -scarred (u.

) head (ego) horn (sheep) -horned (u.m.) life lime lore mouthed seed shot watcher bird’s -eye #nest (literal) (n..) pinch belowstairs belt -driven (u.) mark (nonliteral) #mark (surveying) warmer bentwing (n.) -market (u.m.f.m.f..) benzo (c.m.) -tie (u.m.m.) birth bed #date day mark place right #year biscuit-shaped (u.) behindhand bell -bottomed (u.) head stock before -cited (u. u.) -marketer out (n.) beta -glucose tron between decks whiles bi (pref.Compounding Examples 115 stead straw time bee bread -eater herd hive keeper line way beechnut beef eater #extract -faced (u.) crank -crowned (u.m..) -aeration -osmosis rest one word birchbark bird bath bander cage call catcher #dog (literal) dog (nonliteral) -eyed (u.) -leaguer mouthed name (top rank) (n.m.) made (u.m.) -faced (u.f.m.) hand -mentioned (u.) -named (u.) -nest (n.m.) bismuto (c.m.) all one word berry-brown (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.m.) bill back beetle broker fold head hook poster sticker billet -doux head billingsgate bio (c..) black ball (nonliteral) -bordered (u.m.) head steak tongue bees wax wing beet field #sugar beetle -browed (u.) all one word bit stock -mapped bitter -ender head sweet -tongued (u.) plate (printing) print -robed (u.m.) guard jack leg list mail mark #market (n. v..) -iliac rest one word big -eared (u.) -eyed (u.m.) best #man seller (n.. u.) saw bench fellow -hardened (u.m.m. u.) #sheep (all meanings) shirted snake strap (n.m.m. v.m.m.m.) hanger hop mouthed ringer wether belly ache band buster button fed (u.m.) top #widow .m.m. u.

m.) out (n.) blue -annealed (u.m..m.m.) off (n..m. u.m.) blithe-looking (u.) blind -bomb (v.m.) cock down (n. u.m.) blow back by (n.m.m. u.) blepharo (c.) -green (u.m.m.. u.f..) ship blood -alcohol (u..m.) ripe shed shot spiller spot stain stock stream sucker thirsty -warm (u.) -spoken (u.m.) boar spear staff board #foot rack walk boat builder crew head hook house loader owner #people setter shop side swain wright yard bob cat sled stay tail white bobby pin -soxer body bearer bending builder -centered (u.) gun hard (n.m..f.) land man trot (v.m.m.m.) point (oyster) print stocking streak (nonliteral) tongue (n. u.116 Chapter 7 blast hole plate blasto (c.) boiler -off -out plate works boiling#house bold face (printing) -spirited (u.) -giving (u.m. u. u.) boil down (n.) blitz buggy krieg block buster head hole (v.) -flying (u.) all one word blight-resistant (u.) gill grass -gray (u. u..m.) all one word bleach ground works blear eye -eyed (u.) .) -red (u.) blood bonnet book (nonliteral) bottle coat (n.) out (n.) fold -loaded (u.m.) blunder buss head blunt -edged (u.m.) pipe spray through (u.) #man spot stitch story blink-eyed (u.m.m.m..) bath beat curdling -drenched (u.) torch tube up (n.m..) hound letting mobile -red (u.) -witted (u.m.) over (n.m.) -hot (u.) -laden (u. u.) -eyed (u.m.m.m.m.) blossom -bordered (u.) hole iron lamp off (n.) guilty -hot (u.) guard -mind plate bog -eyed (u.m.m.m.m.) jack jacket nose -pencil (v.) bloody -nosed (u.) beard (n.m.

) all one word brachy (c.) point .m. u.Compounding Examples 117 bolt cutter head hole -shaped (u.) wright boom town truck boondoggling boot black hose jack lace last leg lick strap bore hole safe sight bosom -deep (u.m.) bottle -fed (u.) bone ache #ash black breaker -bred (u.m.) -dry (u.) -folded (u.f.m.) head lace meal set shaker -white (u.) -even (u.m. u.m.) face bread basket crumb earner fruit #knife liner plate seller stuff #tray winner break away (n.) neck -nosed (u.) wash brake drum head meter shoe brandnew (u.m.) storm -tired (u.m.m.) -lined (u.) bottom#land boughpot bow back bent grace head knot legged -necked (u.) -minded (u.. u.) -smith works brave hearted -looking (u.m.m.m.m.) neck off (n.m.) -taught (u.m.m.) all one word brain cap child -cracked (u.m.) -eater -hard (u.m.) fold -learned (u.m.m...) strake bomb drop fall shell sight thrower -throwing (u.m.m.) brazen -browed (u..) pin shot sprit stave string wow box car haul head (printing) truck boxer -off -up brachio (c. u.) pan sick -spun (u.) out (n.m.) ax back (n.m.) -bold (u.m.) boobytrap boogie-woogie book binder case dealer #end fair -fed (u..) list lore lover mark mobile plate rack rest sale seller shelf stack stall stamp stand stitch -stitching (u.m.m.f.) brandy -burnt (u.m.m..m.m.m.) wine brass -armed (u. u.) bone (fever) #circuit down (n. u.) fast fast#room front -in (n.m.m.) -making (u.

) -swept (u.m.) share (n.m.m.m.) all one word broncho (c.) hook mark piece pin plate plow rail rope work breath -blown (u.m.m.) up (n. u.) brine-soaked (u.) brilliant -cut (u.) all one word bronchio (c.m.m.) -red (u.m.m.m.m..m.) stick brother -german hood -in-law brow beat point post brown back -eyed (u.) setter work yard bride bed bowl cake chamber cup groom knot lace maiden stake bridge builder head pot tree #wall work briefcase bright -colored (u.m.m. u.) broom #handle -leaved (u.m.m.) brusher -off -up buck eye -eyed (u. u.) ware -yellow (u. u.) loom minded -mouthed (u.) -fed (u.f.m..m.f.) -lifted (u.) wind (n.m.) buff -tipped (u.) way bribe -free (u.) breaker -down -off -up breast band beam bone -deep (u.) sheet (n.m.) brim cast cloth head #jump leaf (n.) bringer-up bristle cone (u.118 Chapter 7 through (n.m.m.m..) -covered (u.) -pointed (u.) -colored (u..m.m.) side sword wife woven broken -down (u.) -legged (u.m.f.m.) -eyed (u.) broad acre ax band (n.) -mouthed (u.m.) feed -high (u.m.) -treat (v.m.) print brush ball #holder off (n. v.) -green (u.m.m.) bug bear ..) bromo (c.) out (n.m.) all one word broncobuster bronze -clad (u.m. u.m.) -leaved (u.m.) -beamed (u.m.) horn hound passer plate pot saw shot skinned stall stay stove tooth wagon wash bucket-shaped (u.) kiln layer liner mason -red (u.m.) -making (u.) lock pin plug sight breeze -borne (u.m.) -tainted (u.) giver taker bric-a-brac brick bat -built (u.) taking breech block cloth loader -loading (u.m..

m.) -over (n. u.m.) up (n.) -up (u.m.) hold hole hook mold buzzerphone by -and-by -the-way (n.m.f.) busy body -fingered (u.) note -off (n..) -headed (u.) whack whip bullet head maker proof bull’s -eye (nonliteral) -foot bumble bee foot kite bung hole start burn -in (n.) camel’s-hair (u.) fat fingers head milk mouth nut print -rigged (u.) build down (n.) fight frog head -mouthed (u.m.) up (n..) bull baiting dog doze -faced (u. u.m...m.m...m. u.Compounding Examples 119 bite -eyed (u. u.m.) -your-leave (n..) call back (n.) bus boy #conductor driver fare girl line load bush beater buck fighter -grown (u.) all one word bulk head -pile (v.m.f.m.m.) rest one word C C -sharp -star -tube cab driver fare #owner stand cabbagehead cabinet maker making cable-laid (u.m..) button -eared (u.) built -in (u.) up (n.) out (n.m..) camp fire ground stool can capper not #opener .m.m.) saw stock strap -weld (v.) -in (n.) out (n.m.m. u.) neck nose pen ring #terrier toad -voiced (u.) scotch -smooth (u. u.) hammer -leaguer ranger whacker wife bustup (n.m.) head butt -joint (v.) bulbo (c.m. u.) camshaft camel back (rubber) -backed (u..m.) wife -yellow (u.m.m.) burned-over (u.m. u.m. u..m.) all one word calk-weld (v.) pan walk calci (c..m..) weigh (v.) butter ball -colored (u.m.) caco (c.. u.) -up (u. u. u.m.m.m.m.m.) driver -faced (u. u.) box down (n.m..f.m. u.m.) burner-off burnt -out (u.) bulb-tee (u.) all one word cage#bird cake baker bread -eater mixer -mixing (u. u.m.

) worn carpet bagger beater #cleaner -cleaning (u..) forward (n.m.) fitter layer -smooth (u..m.m..) -sweeping (u. u..120 Chapter 7 canalside candle bomb -foot holder -hour lighter lit -meter power -shaped (u.) -in (n.) back (n.) cart load wheel (coin) whip wright case bearer finding hammer harden load mated worker caser-in cashflow cast away (n.m..) back (n.) over (n.m.) .m.m.f.) -weld (v.) brake crusher cutter #sugar canker -eaten (u. u.) -mouthed (u..m.) web woven carpo (c.. u.) out (n. v.m.m.m.m.m.) all one word carbol (c.m. u.) cry penny plate up (n.) -covered (u.) -as-catch-can (u.m.m. u. u.) cap -flash (v.m.) -aortic rest one word care free giver -laden (u.m.m.) head (nonliteral) juice top (nonliteral) carry all (n.) all one word card case -index (u.) nut screw sheaf shore car barn break builder fare goose hop jacker lot -mile owner pool port sick wash carbo (c.m...) cannonball canvas-covered (u. u.m.) out (n. u.) weaver -weaving (u.) stand stick wick wright candystick cane -backed (u. u.m.m.) carrot -colored (u.f. u..) -ridden (u.m.) weight word cater corner wauling cat’s -eye (nonliteral) -paw (nonliteral) cattle #boat feed -raising (u.m.m.) around (n.) player sharp stock cardio (c.m.) taker -tired (u. u.) -olecranal rest one word carriage-making (u.) face (n.f.m..) fall gut head hole hook -ion like nap nip -o’-nine-tails stitch walk CAT scan catch all (n.f..m.m.) all one word carcino (c.) off (n.m.m. u..f.) caster -off -out castlebuilder (nonliteral) cat back beam bird call -eyed (u.) -by (u.

) mason -temper (v.) all one word cerebro (c.m.) point rack rail rein ring roll rope row sheet strap string up (n.) #breast breasted #coop #farm feed heart pox #yard chief #justice -justiceship #mate child bearing bed birth care crowing hood kind life -minded (u. u.m.) all one word centimeter-gramsecond centri (c.) chartbook chattermark cheapskate check bite forger hook -in (n.) celi (c.f.) list mark nut off (n.) washer weigher writer checker -in -off -out -up cheek bone strap cheerleader cheese burger cake cloth curd cutter head lip parer plate chemico (c.m.m.) all one word chemo (c.m.) all one word cerato (c..) #gang stitch chair fast mender person -shaped (u.) census #taker -taking center #field (sports) head (printing) line most piece -second centi (c.m.m.f.) #fish -in (n.. u.f.f.) all one word cherry -colored (u. u.) cedar-colored (u.) warmer chalk cutter line -white (u.Compounding Examples 121 yak cauliflower -eared (u.m.m.) chicken bill -billed (u.) chamber maid woman changeover chapfallen chapelgoing char broiler coal pit woman charge #book off (n.m.) -red (u.f.f. u.) #ware causeway cave dweller -dwelling (u.m.) out (n.f.f.) all one word centro (c.f.m.) out (n.) passer (n..) ridden wife .f.m.) stone (nonliteral) #stone (literal) chestnut -colored (u.) all one word cell cement -covered (u. u..m..) -ocular rest one word certificate holder cervico (c..m.) -occipital -orbicular rest one word cess pipe pit pool chaffcutter chain #belt -driven (u.) cease-fire (n. u.f.) all one word celio (c.m.m.m.m.) all one word cephalo (c.. u..m. u.

m.) #maker choir boy #master choke bore chain damp out (n.) -osseous rest one word chop -chop stick chowchow Christ -given (u.) room .) cut (forestry) (n.f.) like chromo (c.f.) -bred (u.f.m.m..m.m.) -inspired (u. u.m..m.m.m.) clinch-built (u.) cine (c.) hanger side top -worn (u.m.) alpine atlantic -trans (u. etc. pacific.) all one word chrono (c.) up (n. v.) -edged (u.) handed out (n.m..m.m.122 Chapter 7 chill-cast (u..) #consciousness #day work claw bar -footed (u.) hammer hatchet -tailed (u. u. etc.) -graft (v. u.m.) all one word chisel -cut (u.m.f.) all one word chuck hole plate wagon chucklehead chunkhead church #choir goer like work yard churn -butted (u. u.m.) -smelling (u.m.) clay bank -colored (u.m..) clip -clop -edged (u.) #maker chitchat chitter-chatter chloro (c.m.) cloak -and-dagger (n.m.f.m. -Saturnal.. u.m. v.m.m.) sheet clipper-built (u.) chin band -bearded (u.f.) clink-clank clinker-built (u.m.) all one word chondro (c.m.) client/server cliff dweller -dwelling (u.) -shaved (u.m.) -eyed (u.) up (n.) #shop ware Chinatown chipmunk chiro (c.) chocolate -brown (u..m.m.) folk #man scape clam bake shell clampdown (n.) rest strap china -blue (u.) pan pit works clean -cut (u.) -chin cloth cough -high (u.) -coated (u.m.) rest one word city -born (u..m.) headed -sighted (u.) wing clearinghouse cleft -footed (u.) milk cigar case cutter -shaped (u.m.) cigarette #holder #maker -making (u.m.) arctic. rest one word cirro (c.m.) all one word circuitbreaker circum (pref. u.f.m.) clap net trap clasphook class book -conscious (u.m.m.f.m.) clear cole -cut (u.m.) all one word cis (pref.) all one word chock ablock -full (u.) point strap chole (c.m.

) #loader #mine #oil pit rake sack (astron.m. u.) setter #speed watcher clod head hopping pate close bred -connected (u. only) shed ship #tar #truck yard coastside coat hanger rack tailed cob head meal shed web cock bill brain crow eye fight head pit #robin spur sure -tailed (u.) up (n.m.m.) frame -hammer (v.) cold blooded -chisel (v. u.) -fertilize (v.) hole -laden (u.) breaker #car dealer digger -faced (u.) -forge (v.) clothes bag basket brush #closet horse pin line press rack #tree cloud base burst cap -hidden (u.) up (n.m.) -growing (u.m.) closed -circuit (u.m.m.m.) -roll (v.f. operate.m.) fisted handed -knit minded mouthed out (n..) co (pref. u.) clover bloom leaf seed sick club #car foot hand haul mobile ridden room root -shaped (u.m.m.) -short (u...) -shortness -shoulder (v.m.) cole seed slaw coli (c.m.m.) -rolled (u.) cross -cut (u.m.m.) coffee break cake -colored (u.m.) pot room cofferdam coffin-headed (u. etc.m.) type (printing) #war #wave -work (v.) cogwheel coin-operated (u.m.m.) -op exist. processor rest one word coach -and-four builder whip coal bag bed bin -black (u.) finch -flow (v.) cockleshell cockscomb cod bank fishing head #liver piece pitchings smack code #name -named (u.m.) down (n.Compounding Examples 123 clock case face -minded (u.) -hammered (u.) cuts -draw (v.) pack -press (v.) all one word collar bag band bone .) #end #shop cloth-backed (u.m.

u.f.) -covered (u.) out (n.m.) -growing (u.m.) speaker conference#room Congressman#at #Large contra (pref.m.m..) weal wealth companionship compressed#file comptime cone -shaped (u.m.) -on (n.) -red (u.m.m.) come -along (tool) back (n.m.) gate hand herd hide hitch .f.) #mine nose plate -plated (u..) sense (u.m.m.m.m.) -washed (u.) all one word cotton -clad (u.) head -headed (u. u.) -effectiveness wise costo (c.) husk loft meal #pone stalk starch corner bind post corpsmember cost #effective (n.) down (n. one word country -born (u.m. as combining form.) cork -lined (u..) shack stove coolheaded cooped -in (u.m.m. u.m.) screw corn bin bread cake cob cracker crib crusher cutter dodger -fed (u.) out (n. u.) smith works copy cat cutter desk #editor fitter holding reader right writer coral -beaded (u.) #line type (printing) (n.m.) -acting -approach -ion rest one word cook book off (n..m.m.) -outer uppance comic#book command -line #prompt commander#in #chief common -carrier #law place #sense (n.) -bred (u. u.m.m.) all one word color bearer blind #blindness fast -free (u.m.124 Chapter 7 colo (c..) cow barn bell catcher -eyed (u.) folk people side wide county #seat wide court bred -martial ship cousin -german hood -in-law cover alls let side up (n.m. top.m.) counter #check (banking) #septum -off act.) #mill mouth (snake) packer picker.. ing seed sick countdown (n.m. etc.) copper -bottomed (u.) comb-toothed (u..) -up (u. propaganda.) -colored (u.) cop #out (v.m.m. u.) -off (n. u.m.) -out (n.) -between (n.

m.) -check -claim -compound (v.) -brush (v.m.m.) pin pit shaft crapehanger crashdive (v.) crop -bound (u.) -haired (u.) -dye (v.) -license (v.) talk tie town track trail tree under (n..m. u.) -interrogate (v. u.) -carve (v.) -reference road row -service -shaft -slide -staff -sterile -stitch -stone -stratification -sue (v..m.) -cultivate (v.) -vote .) -fiber (u.) house (slang) jaw pot -the-whip (n.m.m.m.m.) -eyed (u.) -drain (v.m.) up (n.) creditworthiness creek bed side creep hole mouse crepe#de#chine crestfallen crew cut member cribstrap crime fighter solver wave crisscross crook all one word crooked -foot (n.m.m.m.) fall feed -fertile (u.) (n.) -surge (v.) -channel (u.m. u.) all one word crank case -driven (u.) -interrogatory -invite (v.) -legged (u.m.) crawlup (n.) -country (u.) lift (v..f.) cut -date (v.) -nosed (u.) legged legs -level (v.m.) current -curve (math.) lock lots mark member patch path plow (v.) -examine (v.) -fertilize (v...m.) -purpose (n..) -connect (v. u.) cradle side #snatcher song cranio (c.m.) crazy bone cat cream cake -colored (u.) -question rail -reaction -refer (v.) -eye (n.) -pollinate (v.) -dyeing (n.) head mark -year cross -appeal arm band bar beam bearer bedded belt bench -bidding bill (bird) #bill (legal) bind bolt bond bones bred breed -bridge (v. u.m.) file fire flow foot -grained (u. u.Compounding Examples 125 lick path pen #pony pox puncher shed sucker crab cake catcher eater faced hole meat stick crack down (n.) hair hand hatch haul head -immunity -index (u.

.m.) -ender eye (n.m.) -down head -off -out -rigged (u. u.m.) going lighted lit long (u.f.) -dip (v.m.) -made (u.m.) all one word D D -day -major -plus-4-day dairy -fed (u.) #house -struck (u.) dancehall danger#line dare -all (n.m.) rate (u.) throat -toothed (u.m.) streak day beam bed break -bright (u.) -air icer -ink -ion centralize.m.) cubbyhole cumulo (c.m.) -made (u.m.m.) curly head locks (n. u.m.m.) cutter -built (u.m.m.f.) latch #load lock pan -roast (v.) -smooth (u.) -doom (v.) -girded (u.) -tailored (u. energize.) daisy#chain damp proofing -stained (u.) dash plate wheel data bank base set date lined mark daughter-in-law dawn -gray (u.m.) currycomb cussword custom -built (u.) mark side star -to-day (u.) #center -cold (u.) -heater -heavy (u..) -flying (u. u.m.) wood death bed blow day -divided (u. etc.f.f.. u.) -under (u.m..) -drunk (u. rest one word crystal -clear (u.m.f.m..) out (n.m.m..126 Chapter 7 walk web wind word crow bait bar foot crownbar crow’s -foot (nonliteral) -nest (nonliteral) crybaby crypto (c.) back (n. rest one word dead -alive beat (n.) -eyed (u.m.f.) glass -in (n.m..m.m.m.) weight (n.) .m.m.) -skinned (u.) all one word cyto (c.. etc.) worker de (pref.) off (n.) -Christian.) fall head -heated (u.) care dawn dream -fly (aviation) (v.) damping-off (n.m..m.) -up (n..m. u.m. u.) all one word cyber cyclecar cyclo (c. u.m.) horse (nonliteral) room (n.) -up cuttlebone cyano (c.) cut away (n.) all one word cup bearer cake ful head curb side stoner cure-all (n.) born -burn (v.m.m. u. u.m. u.) -olefin rest one word cysto (c.) devil say dark -eyed (u.m.

) plate dirty -faced (u.) -laden (u.m.m.f.m.m.m.f.m.m. v. u.m. etc. v.) -frying (u.) food herd horn hound meat stalker stand tick dehydr(o) (c.) -sunk (u.m.m.m.m.) -freeze (u.m.) drop fall -fed (u.) water (u.) -nothing (n.m.) lit out (n.) going -grown (u.m.. u..m.) -laid (u.m.) diner-out ding bat dong dining#room dinitro (c.) -felt (u.m.) #work dis (pref.) stock diesel -driven (u.) caster -cut (u. u.) all one word dia (pref.) ditch bank digger rider side dive -bomb (v.) deer drive (n.m. -incognito rest one word dermato (c.m.) -oxide rest one word dice cup play die -away (u.) -cut (u.) -grained (u.f.) setter sinker -square (u.m.) decisionmaking deckhand deep -affected (u.m.) -set (u.) -shaped (u.m.m.) head #proof (philately) (n.m.m.) fast -incrusted (u.) all one word devil -devil dog (a marine) -inspired (u.m.m.) -ridden (u.m.) -eyed (u.) most mouthed -rooted (u.) all one word demi (pref..) -minded (u.) -gooder -little (n.m.f.m.) all one word dish cloth #cover pan rack rag #towel washer disk #drive jockey pack plow -shaped (u...m.) dock hand head side worker .) diazo (c.m.) dew beam cap -clad (u.) claw damp -drenched (u.) back case -cast (u.) -electric (u.m..m.m.) head stick dipper-in direct -connected (u.) #spray rest one word dip -dye (v.) all one word desk #room top (n. u.m. u.) all one word di (pref.) #sea -seated (u.) dirt -cheap (u.) -indirect direction-finding (u..f. u.m.m.) all one word dialog#box dial-up diamond back -backed (u.) -voiced (u.m.) cutter hard (n.m.) dillydally dim -lighted (u.m.f.) -Christian. v.) lap point dextro (c..m.) #bomber do -all (n.Compounding Examples 127 trap watch -weary (u.m.) dessert #fork #knife spoon deutero (c..

) -bitt (v.) -dye (v.m.) -click cross (nonliteral) deal (v.m.m.f.m.m.m.) tooth -toothed (u.) doomsday door bed bell case check frame head jamb keeper knob knocker mat nail #opener plate post -shaped (u..f.) -eared (u.) #take talk tone (printing) tree -trouble -up (u.m.) checked (u.) -sided #space (v.) -ear (v.m. u.m.m.) -ender -entendre handed -headed (u.) look most payment pour rate right river rush shore side sitting slip slope -soft (u.) face (soldier) -faced (u.) -barreled (u.m.m. u.m.) trick trot watch -weary (u..) #work dough boy -colored (u..m.m.m.m.) -quick (u.) check (n.) spout stage stairs state stream street stroke sun (adv.m.128 Chapter 7 dog bite -bitten (u.) -charge (v.m.m.) -decker dipper (nonliteral) -duty (u.m.) doll face -faced (u.m.) header -jointed -leaded (u.m.) head mixer nut down beat by cast check coast come -covered (u.) -breasted (u.) -chinned (u.) sill step stop dope fiend passer pusher sheet dorsi (c.) face -faced (u..) -eared (u.) dollyhead donkey back -drawn (u.) swing take throw thrust time .) -edged (u.) -occipital rest one word dot -matrix #pitch double -barrel (n.) breeder cart catcher #days -drawn (u.m.) crier cry curved cut dale draft drag face fall feed filled flow fold grade gradient growth hanging haul hearted hill lead load lock (n.m.) all one word dorso (c.. v. v.m.) hole leg #owner race shore sled -tired (u.) fall fight food -headed (u.m.m. v.

.m.m.) bolt cloth -down -forge (v.m. u.m..) out (n..m.. u.m.) pin plate point sheet span stop string tongs tube drawer -down -in -off -out drawing #board #room dream -haunted (u.m.m.m.) #cell clean -cure (v.) #net pin wind drill case -like stock drip cock -drip -dry (u..m. v. u.m.) belt bolt by (n..) arm back bar beam bench bolt bore bridge cut down (n...m.) sheet stick drive away (n.) gulch (nonliteral) lot -pack (u. u.) bore #breast foot (tool) . u.) file gate gear glove head horse knife knot link loom net off (n. u.) drag bar bolt net pipe rope saw staff wire dragger -down -in -out -up dragon -eyed (u.m.m.m.Compounding Examples 129 town trampling trend trodden turn valley weigh weight wind draft age (allowance) #age -exempt (u.m.m.) dry -burnt (u.m.m.) pipe screw #shaft way drop away (n.) dressing#room drift #boat bolt meter -mining (u.) sonde stitch drug -addicted (u.) -rotted (u. u.) fly #piece drain cleaner pipe plug tile drainage #area #basin way draw -arch (n..m.) front hammer head kick leaf (n. u....) cap head -in (n..m.) leg off (n.) land lore world dredge#net dressup (n.) farming (n. u.) mixer passer pusher seller #user drum beat fire head stick -up (n. u.) dock -dye (v.. u.m. u.m. v..) -farm (v.) -salt (v.) wash duck bill -billed (u.) out (n. u.

) wall east bound -central (u.m.m. u.) electro (c.) all one word .m.) going -northeast #side -sider -southeast Eastertime easy going mark (n.m.) -optics -osmosis -ultrafiltration rest one word embryo (c.m. u.m.m.) head -looking (u.m.) pan storm duty bound -free (u.) -witted (u.) -up (u.) out (n..) fill grubber #house kin lit mover nut quake -shaking (u.) nog plant -shaped (u.) #ball fold penny (nail) -ply (u.) ear ache cap drop drum flap guard hole lap lobe mark #muff phone -piercing (u.f.) all one word E E-minor e file Government Library mail eagle #eye -eyed (u.) all one word dust bag bin brush cloth -covered (u.m.m.m.f.f.) -rising (u.) plug ring screw shot sore splitting tab wax wig witness earth bank born -bred (u.) fall -gray (u.) en #banc #gros #route encephalo (c.m.) all one word empty handed -looking (u.m.) dwelling#house dye mixer stuff works dys (pref.m.) slide -stained (u.m.) dumdum dumb bell head waiter dump car cart site dunderhead duo (c.m..) dull -edged (u.) score -wheeler elbowchair elder #brother -leaved (u.m.m.m.) -spoken (u.m.130 Chapter 7 -footed (u.) fall fast -fed (u.) duffelbag dug out (n.m.f.) -laden (u.) eight -angled (u.) shell -white (u.m.m.) pin pond walk due -in (n.) eavesdrop ebbtide edge #plane shot ways wise eel cake catcher fare pot pout skin spear egg beater (all meanings) cup eater fruit head (nonliteral) hot (n.m.m.m.

m.) #opener peep pit point service shade shield shot sick sight sore spot -spotted (u.m.m.) ever -abiding (u.) all one word even glow handed minded -numbered (u.) sporting (biol.) all one word equi (c.) -hardened (u.m.m.m.) -ready (u.) bolt brow -conscious (u.) -fertile (u.) sayer speaker wishing ex #cathedra cathedral communicate -Governor #libris #officio #post#facto #rights -serviceman -trader -vice-president extra -alimentary -American bold -Britannic -condensed (u.) -looking (u.) matcher -measure (v. u.) most -shrink (v.) -gram-molar rest one word ere long now errorproof erythro (c.) minded (u.m.) song -tempered (u.m..m.m.f.) marginal mural ordinary polar -strong (u.f.m.m.) all one word entry #book way envelope #holder #maker epi (pref.m.) stalk strain string tooth wash #weariness wink witness F F -flat -horn -sharp fable #book teller face about (n..) -present (u.m.) -faced (u.m.m.m.) bell brain gate lap long -match (v.f.m.m.) territorial vascular eye #appeal ball bank bar blink -blurred (u.Compounding Examples 131 end -all (n.) -long (u.) lifting mark .) #day (each day) how one (all) #one (distributive) #time evil doer #eye -eyed (u.) cloth -harden (v.) all one word engine #shop -sized (u.f.m.m.) work #worker #yard entero (c. v. u.) which every day (n.m.) hazardous judicial -large (u.) -arbor (v.) glade going green lasting more -normal (u.) curricular -fine (u.) ways ender -on -up endo (c.m.m. u..) bearing blooming -constant (u..m.) cup flap glance glass hole lash lens lid mark -minded (u.m.

.) -set (u. u.m.m.) #guy -in (n.m.m.m.) -in (n.m.) feather bed (v. u..m.m. u.) -eastern (u.m. u.m.) bedding bone brain edge -footed (u.m.m.m.) marker -shaped (u.m.m..) far -aloft (u.) fact book finding sheet fade away (n. u.) fail-safe faint heart -voiced (u.) -plow (v.m. u.m.m.132 Chapter 7 -off (n.m.m.m.) out (n.) fame -crowned (u.m.) -free (u...m.m.) fetched flung (u.) fast -anchored (u.m.m.m.m.) bag bin box crusher cutter head lot mixer pipe rack store stuff feeder -in -up fellow craft ship rest two words .m.) weight wing (moth) fed-up (u.) #piece (naut.m..) out (n.) fair ground -lead (n.) seeing -seen (u.m.) trap fallow#land false -bottomed (u.m. u.) minded play -skinned (u.m..m.) back (n.) away (n.) #face -faced (u.m.) head -soluble (u.) nought -pursued (u.) father -confessor -in-law land fault finder line slip faux#pas fax -and-voice# mailbox #modem -on-demand fear -free (u..) -shaken (u.) back -dyed (u.m.) #trade fairy folk hood tale faithbreaker fall away (n.m.) going hold -moving (u.m.) feeble -bodied (u.m.) -sow (v.) -read (v.m.) fan back bearer #belt fare fold foot -jet -leaved (u. u. u.m.) sight farm -bred (u.m.) head -leaved (u.) -thirsty (u..) -wrought (u.) hood -tongued (u.m.) hand hold owner people place stead worker fashion -led (u..) gone -off (u.) stitch -stitched (u.) -reading (u.) -on (n.) -stitching -tongue (v. u.m.m.) minded feed back (n.) plate up (n.) -woven (u.m..) -distant (u.) -borne (u.) #out -reaching (u.) fancy -free (u.) -famed (u. u.m.) -tailed (u.m.) #time (daylight saving) fat back -bellied (u.) #plate -setting (u.m.m.m.m.) -loose (u..m. u.m.

u.) power proof -red (u.) -carbon-titanium -uranium rest one word ferry boat #car #slip fever less -stricken (u.) ferro (c..m.) -resistant (u.) -looking (u.) -red (u.) -nighter -rate (u.m.) fin back -shaped (u.) -made (u.m.m. u.m.) -drawn (u.. v.) -osteoma rest one word fickleminded fiddle back -faddle head -shaped (u.) -hot (u.f.m.Compounding Examples 133 felt cutter -lined (u..m.) fine -cut (u.) -tempered (u.) horse hose lit pit place plow plug -polish (v.m..m.m.) -set (u.m.m.) leaf -leaved (u.) -named (u.) -looking (u.) ball bell bolt bomb brand brat break brick -burnt (u.) .) glass #optics stitch Fiberglas (copyright) fibro (c.m.) -set (u.m.) damp #drill -eater fall fang fighter guard -hardened (u.m.m.m.) fiber -faced (u.m.m.) -draw (v.) comer hand (u.m.) fill -in (n.m.m.) trap -warm (u.m.) -up (n.m.m.) #work (printing) file card -hard (u.m.m.) safe side spout trap truck wall warden firm -footed (u.) -clad (u.) coat cracker crest -cure (v.m.m.) -up (n.m.) name setter -soft (u.f.m.) filler cap -in -out -up film cutter goer going #paper slide strip -struck (u. u.) hold hole hook mark nail parted post print shell spin stall tip fire arm back (n.m.m.) first #aid -aider -born (u.) -class (u.) fig bar eater leaf shell figure head -of-eight (u.) finger breadth -cut (u.m.) packer fenbank fence post #row fern -clad (u.) -featured (u.) stick string field ball glass goal -strip fierce -eyed (u. u.m..m.) fiery -flaming (u.m.) out (n.m.m.m.m.

.m..) flash back (n. u.) -reeler score flag bearer pole post -raising (u.m. u.m.m. u.) woods flax drop -leaved (u.m.m.) out (n..) flower bed bud -crowned (u.134 Chapter 7 fish back bed -bellied (u.) trap fleet foot -footed (u.) car -compound (v.) flood cock flow gate lamp lighting mark #plain tide wall water floor beam cloth head lamp mat mop #show space stain walker #wax -waxing (u.) path up (n.) pot fleur-de-lis flextime flight crew -hour path -test (v.) seed flea bite -bitten (u.) kill #ladder meal mouth plate pond pool pot pound trap weir works fisher folk man people fishyback (n.m.) sawn top -topped (u..) -pointed (u.m. u.m.) bulb card cube gun lamp pan point flat back (bookbinding) bed (printing) -bottomed (u...) ship -signal (v.m.) wing flesh brush hook -pink (u.m.) fold foot (n.) -polled (u.) fit out (n.) -rolled (u..) out (n.) proof thrower flannelmouth flap cake doodle -eared (u.m.) staff stick flame -colored (u.) bolt bone bowl cake eater eye -eyed (u.m..) strip five bar fold -ply (u.) flophouse floppy#disk flour bag bin #mill sack #sifter flow chart meter off (n.m.) flimflam flip -flap -flop -up (n.m. u.m. u.) -cut (v. u.) sheet through (n.) fall #farm -fed (u.) .m.) jack flare back (n.m.m.m.m. u.m.m.m.m.m.m. u.) food garth hook -joint (v..) hat head iron nose out (n.

m.m.) fluid -compressed (u.) gear -grain hill hold lambert licker light(s) lining locker loose mark note pad path pick plate -pound -pound-second print race rail rest rope scald -second slogger sore stalk stall step stick stock stool -ton walk wall -weary (u.m.) tail -tailed (u.m. u.) -covered (u.) follower-up food -fasted (u.) packer store stuff foolhardy foolscap foot -and-mouth (u.) (n.m.) -fasting (v.m.f.) -fisher -fisherman #fishing flap -free (u.) all one word fluoro (c.) -decker gate fluvio (c.m.) ball band bath blower board brake breadth bridge candle fall -free (u.m.) all one word flush -cut (u.) glycerate fluo (c.m.m.m.m.) all one word fore -age -and-aft (n.f.) tier trap weight wheel winch flying #boat #fish foam bow -crested (u..f.m.) -decked (u.) #piece pot -scented (u.m.Compounding Examples 135 #grower -hung (u. u. u.m.) up (n.m.m.) -and-after (n.m.) folk #dance lore song follow -on through (n.) form fitting #work (printing) forth coming right with fortune #hunter teller .) worn for (pref.) -white (u. u..) all one word fly away back ball -bitten (u.) blow blown -by-night (n.m.m..m..) catcher eater -fish (v..m.) -edge -end -exercise word rest one word forest -clad (u.) fold -in up (n.m.) extract (pharm.) leaf paper sheet speck -specked (u.m.m.) horn #light -ridden (u.) #land side fork head lift -pronged (u.) fog bound bow dog eater -hidden (u. u.) #shop flue-cure (v.

m.) flusher fold -footed (u.) -headed (u. u..m.) fuse box #gauge plug G G -major -man -minor -sharp gabfest gad about (n.m.) mouthed -spoken (u.f.) #load mouth -strength (u.m.f.) -flowering (u.) -heaving (u.m.m.m.m.) thinker trader wheel (u.) all one word .) -master penny (nail) -ply (u.m.m.m.) fur -clad (u.) coat -lined (u.. u. u.) fountainhead four -bagger -eyed (u.) galact(o) (c.) -text -time (u.) freedom#fighter freeze down (n.m.m..) #order root #rule gaugepin gain say -sharing (u.) -hardy (u.) up (n.m.) all one word gallbladder galley#proof (printing) galvano (c..) -painted (u.) hole hound #hunting skinned tailed trot fracto (c.m.m.) -focused (u.) -lined (u.m.) all one word frameup (n.) fly gaff-topsail gag -check (v.m. u. u..) -killed (u.) fundraising funlover funnel form -shaped (u.m.m.m.. u.m.) -handed (u.m.) out (n.m.) score some square -wheeler fox -faced (u.f.) -occipital -orbital rest one word frost bite bow -free (u.m.) -masted (u.) water frog belly eater -eyed (u. v.) -tongued (u.m.m.) standing (u.m.) fronto (c.m.m.) -grown (u..m.) skin -trimmed (u. u.) -in-hand (n.m.136 Chapter 7 forty-niner foul #line -looking (u.m.) face mouth nose pond tongue (medicine) front -end (u.) blood -bound (u.m.m.m.m.m.) hand (drawing) handed hold lance loader -minded masonry #post -spoken (u.) #will (n..) freight #house -mile #room #train fresh -looking (u.) free booter born drop -for-all (n.m.) will (u.) -grown (u.m.m.m..m.) up (n.) lamp line fruit cake #fly growing #shop stalk frying#pan fuel #line #oil full back -bellied (u.m.) runner stall -wheel (u. u.f.m.) -duplex face -fashioned (u.) wheeler (n.m.

m.) set shift wheel gelatin -coated (u.m.) mouthed -spoken (u.m.f.) gelatino (c.) goal post #setter goat -bearded (u.m.m.) gin-run (u.m.m.f..) giddy brain head -paced (u.) speed -taught (u. u. u.m.) -around (n.m.) pin post tender works gay #blade cat -colored (u..m.m.) -getter -getting (n.) all one word glidepath globetrotter glosso (c.m.) god child .f.m.m.m.) off (n..m.) head -man -ordained (u.m.m..) house works glauco (c.) all one word gentle folk -looking (u.m.m.) -laden (u..) all one word glass blower #ceiling cutter -eater -eyed (u.m.) herd goat’s -hair -horn God -conscious (u. u. u.) ginger #ale bread -colored (u.) man -mannered (u.m.m.m.) -given (u.) snap spice give -and-take (n.) all one word glow lamp meter gluc(o) (c.m.) -hard (u.) write (v.) firing fitter -heated (u.m.) gear box case -driven (u.) #dog -looking (u. u.) -making (u.) -together (n.) gas bag bomb -driven (u.f.) gerrymander get -at-able away (n.Compounding Examples 137 game bag cock gang boss plank saw gapeseed garnet-brown (u.f.f.m.m.) -sped (u.m.) bromide chloride gem cutter -set (u.) cart -devil (n.) -fearing (u..) -omental rest one word gate house keeper leg (u.) glacio (c.) field -fired (u.) all one word germ-free (u.) gilt-edge (u..) away (n.) all one word go -ahead (n.) -eyed (u.m.m.m.m.) by (n.) all one word glue pot stock glycero (c.m.m.) all one word glyco (c.m..) -drunk (u.f.) lamp lighted line (auto) #line (queue) lock #main #mask meter works gastro (c.m.m.) fitter -operated (u.) #stone genito (c. u.m.) woman geo (c.m.) -off (n.m. u.) -between (n..f.) -sent (u.f. u.) -forsaken (u.f.m. u.) ghost -haunted (u.m.m. u.) up (n.) -back (n. u.m.) -as-you-please (u..m..m.

) -natured (u. etc.m. stand grant-in-aid grape fruit #juice -leaved (u.) seed stalk vine graph alloy #paper grapho (c.) digger #dust -filled (u.) -positive (u.) stone gray back (n.) belt (community) -clad (u. or foreign) -in-exile -owned (u.) -eyed (u.m.) -covered (u.m.m.) heart mouthed green back (n.) smithing -wrought (u.m.m.) -clad (u.) grease #gun #pit proof great -aunt coat -eared (u.m. etc.) grand aunt child.) sand (geology) sick stuff sward town (community) #wood (literal) wood (forest) greyhound grid iron .m. city.) gage (plum) gill grocer horn keeper -leaved (u.138 Chapter 7 daughter father head hood less mother parent send ship son sonship goggle-eyed (u.) grab -all (n..m.m.m.m.m.m.m. u. u.) -plating (u.) cutter flat -green (u.) gourdhead Government (U.m.) wide governmentwide (State.) -haired (u.) -plated (u.m.) hop nut plot roots (nonliteral) #roots (literal) widow grave clothes digger side stead gravel -blind (u.) golden -fingered (u.) goings-on gold beater brick (shirker) #brick (of real gold) -bright (u.m. -headed (u.) all one word grass -clad (u.m.) foil -inlaid (u.m.m.) -headed (u.) herd mouth neck pimples rump step wing gospel like -true (u.) flesh -footed (u..) out (n.) leaf plate (v.m.) -looker -looking (u.m.m.m..) coat (n.m.m.m.) beard (n.) head -headed (u.) #bag hook rope grade finder mark grain -cut (u.m. u.m.S.m. u.m.) -brown (u.) good -bye -for-nothing (n.) mark sick gram -fast (u.) field -laden (u.) -meter -molecular -negative (u.m.m.m.m. u..m..m.m.f.m.) #will (kindness) will (salable asset) goose bone bumps -cackle #egg -eyed (u. etc.) -eyed (u.) -grandchild.

m..) grownup (n.m.m.m.) hallmark ham shackle string .m.f.) -mast -miler -monthly (u.) shoe gun #barrel bearer blast builder cotton crew deck fight fire flint lock paper pit play point powder rack -rivet (v.) cocked (nonliteral) -dark #day deck -decked (u.m.) -on (n.m.m.) lock pin #ribbon space (printing) splitting spring streak stroke (printing) #trigger half -and-half (n. u.) all one word gyneco (c. H H -bar -beam -bomb -hour hack barrow hammer log saw hailstorm hair band breadth brush -check (n.m.m.) grubstake guard house plate rail guest chamber house room guided-missile (u.) wit -witted (u.) do dresser -fibered (u.m.) -afraid -alive -angry back (football) -backed (u.) all one word gyro #horizon #mechanism #pelorus plane.m.) pace penny -ripe -shy -sole (v.) runner shop shot -shy (u.) staff stitch -strength (u.) caste -clear cock (v. u.. etc.) -decker -feed (v. compass.) hearted -hourly (u.m.f.m.) -life #load -loaded (u.m.) guidepost guider-in gum boil chewer digger drop -gum lac -saline (n. u.) title tone (printing) track -true -truth -weekly (u.m.) sight stock wale gut less string gutter blood -bred (u.) -baked (u.) #weight ground breaking hog mass nut path plot -sluicer speed #water wave work group-connect (v.m.m..) cloth cut (n.Compounding Examples 139 lock griddlecake grillroom grip sack wheel gross -minded (u.) snipe spout gymno (c.m.) -yearly (u.) -bound (u.

m.) hashmark hat band box brim brush cleaner pin rack rail stand #tree hatchback .) ship spun stand tack top (auto) ware -won (u.) hand bag ball bank (v.) stand stitch stroke stuff -tailored (u.) written wrought hands#free handlebar hang dog nail net out (n.) barrow bill book -bound (u.) hold hole -in-hand (u. u.m. u.m.) -bitten (u.) lift (truck) liner made -me-down (n. u.) clap clasp -clean (v..) -harden (v.) harum-scarum harvesttime has-been (n.m.m) -boiled (u.) mouthed nose pan -pressed (u.) head lock #thrower toe -weld (v.) mower off (n.140 Chapter 7 hammer cloth dress (v.m.) up (n.) crank cuff -cut (v.) -hardened (u.m.m.) -knitter laid -letter (v.) truck weave wheel worked woven write (v.) harness-making (u.m.) post press print rail reading saw scrape (v.) fold grasp grenade grip guard gun -held (u.) -embroidered (u.m.) car -carry (v.) -hard (u..) -high (u.) head -hit (u.m.m.) -fed (v.) out (n.m.) back (beetle) -baked (u.m.) #shell (n.) pick (v. u.m.) mold (v.) set shake spade spike splice split spring spun -stamp (v.) -wrought (u.) -looking (u.m.m.m.) handed hat (n.) mix (v.) case copy (n.m.) -set (u.m.m..m.m.m.m.) #work -working (u.) wrought hare brain foot hound lip -mad (u.m.) kerchief -knit (v.) core #disk #drive fist (n..) tap tool -tooled (u.m.) -tooling (u.) cart -carve (v.m.) bow brake breadth brush -built (u.) hanger -back -on -up happy-go-lucky hara-kiri harbor master side hard -and-fast (u.

m.Compounding Examples 141 hatchet-faced (u.) back (n.) head -nosed (u.m.m. u.) -weary (u.) grief heavy leaf -leaved (u..) haul about (n.m.) seed stack wire hazardous #waste#site hazel -eyed (u.m.) stroke treat (v.m.) nut quake seed sick sore string struck throb -throbbing (u.) handed -looking (u.) hearth rug warming heat drops #pump #rash -resistant (u.) heaver -off -out -over heavy back -duty (u..) hecto (c.m..) -treating (u.) #water weight (n.m..) have-not (n. u.) phone plate post quarters rail reach rest ring rope set shake sill space spin spring stall stand start stick stock stream strong waiter wall wind header-up heal-all (n.m.m.) -sent (u.m.) hawse hole pipe hay band cap cart cock #fever field fork lift loft market mow rack rake rick -scented (u.m.m.m.m.m.) -set (u.) #wave heaven bound -inspired (u.) heart ache aching beat block blood break burn deep felt free (u.) haversack hawk bill -billed (u. u.) nut he-man head ache achy band bander block cap chair cheese chute cloth count dress -ender first frame gate gear hunter lamp ledge lighting liner lock long master mistress mold most note -on (u.) all one word hedge born breaker hog hop pig row #trimmer heel ball band block cap fast grip pad path .m.m..m. u.m.) -footed (u.m.) away (n.f.m.m.m. u.) -eyed (u.

.) -power (u.f.) all one word hemi (pref.) head leg most quarter saddle sight wing hip bone mold shot hippo (c.) all one word hell bender bent born bound bred cat diver dog fire hole hound -red (u.) -or-miss (u.m.f.) -class (u.f.) away (n.m. rest one word hexa (c.m.) jinks lander #light (literal) light (nonlit.m.) -pressure (u.) flying (u.m.. u.f.m. v.142 Chapter 7 plate post print ring stay strap tap helio (c.m.m.m.m.) house pecked roost hence forth forward hepato (c.) all one word histo (c.m.) all one word hemato (c.m.) #tide -up (u.m.m..m.f.m.) all one word hit -and-miss (u. u.) stepper -tension (u.) all one word here about after at by from in inabove inafter inbefore into of on to tofore under unto upon with herringbone hetero (c..) pen sty -tie (v.) -minded (u.m.f.) helpmeet helter-skelter hemstitch hema (c. etc.) -foreheaded (u.m.) all one word hepta (c.m.m.) .) -density flier (n.m.m.) hob goblin nail nob hobbyhorse hockshop hocus-pocus hod#carrier hodgepodge hog back -backed (u.m.m.) out (n.) all one word hemo (c.) high ball binder born bred brow (nonliteral) -caliber (u.) -rigger (n.) rise (building) road #seas -speed (u.) hill culture (farming) side top hind brain cast gut (n.) -ousia.) hitchhiker hoarfrost hoary-haired (u.f.) all one word hi-fi hide -and-seek (n.) -faced (u.) -and-run (u.) #water higher-up (n.f.) -priced (u.) all one word hemp seed string hen bill coop -feathered (u.f. u.) #proof -reaching (u.) wash -wild (u.) #frequency handed -hat (v.) fat frame hide nose (machine) -nosed (u.m.f.

) hook ladder nose -nosed (u. u.) front furnishings (n... u.) all one word horn bill blende blower -eyed (u.) off (n.m.m.m..f.m.m...) body born bred brew builder #buyer comer coming -fed (u.f. u.) back (n.. etc.) -eyed (u.) all one word home#page homo #legalis #sapiens homo (c.) hogshead hoistaway (n.f.) pipe stay tip hornyhanded horse back breaker car cloth dealer fair fight flesh hair head herd hide hoof -hour jockey laugh meat mint play pond power-hour power-year pox race #sense (n.) holo (c.) off (n.m.) through hollow back (bookbinding) -backed (u.) lipped moon mouthed pot sucker sweet honor bound #guard #man hood cap mold wink hoof beat mark print -printed (u.m.m. u..) pin up (n..m.Compounding Examples 143 hog’s-back (geol. u. u.m.) comb -cured (u.m.) dew drop eater -laden (u.) faced -ground (u.) hold all (n. u.) brain cake .m..m.) -clear (n.f..) holder -forth -on -up hole #in#one -high (u.m.m.) down (n.m.m.m.. u.m. u..) -ousia.) felt folk freeze (u. rest one word honey -colored (u.) -in-the-wall (n.) going grown lander life made maker owner #ownership plate #rule seeker sick spun stead stretch town woven homeo (c.) hooker -off -on -out -over -up hoopstick hop about (n. u.m.m.) up (n. u.) fast (n.) out (n.) scotch toad hope#chest hopper burn dozer horehound hormono (c.m.) all one word holy #day stone home -baked (u.m.) shoe thief #trade whip hot bed blood -blooded (u.m.m. v.

) all one word hyper (pref.) hurly-burly hush -hush #money up (n.) -treat (v.) coat dress father furnishing(s) (n.) hydro (c.) -humored (u. #situ.) -cooled (u.m.) ridden top trailer wares warming wife how -do-you-do (n.m.) guest hold husband mother owner parent pest plant -raising (u.m. linked text rest one word hypo (c.f.) ever soever hub cap -deep (u.) -Dorian.) -oophorectomy -salpingo-oophorectomy rest one word I I -bar -beam -iron -rail ice berg blind #blindness blink block bone breaker cap -clad (u.) active (u.m. u.m.) ileo (c.f.) rod (nonliteral) -roll (v.144 Chapter 7 -cold dog foot head (n.m.f.) hospital (u.m.) .) hunger -mad (u. #rem.m.m. sofar #re.) -and-outer -being (u.) in -and-in (u.m.m.) -cold (u.) -house -law (n.) -mix (u..) #cream fall #fishing floe (island) flow (current) -free (u.m.m.f.) #will -wisher -wishing (u.) all one word ill -advised (u.) -bred (u.) migration (u.m.m.) all one word ilio (c.) -rolled (u.) humpty-dumpty hunchback hundred fold -legged (u.m.m.) -percenter -pounder weight hung-up (u.) mouthed -spirited (u. etc.m.f.) -covered (u.m.) -fated (u.m.m.) breeding depth (u.) -looking (u. in (pref.m.) -unit rest one word idle headed -looking (u.m.) all one word hydro#station hygro (c.) humdrum hump back -shouldered (u.m.) maker melt pack plant plow quake #storm #water ideo (c. hotelkeeper houndshark hourglass house breaking broken builder #call cleaner -cleaning (u.m.) #breeding (n.) spot -work (v).m.) -and-out (u.m.m.m.) -doing (n.) pack patch plate -press (v.f.m.) asmuch.m.) -use (v. u.) -minded (u.) all one word hystero (c.) -being (n. etc.) -flight (u.m.) -born (u.m.f.m..m.) -worn (u.m.) humankind humble bee -looking (u.

) jib head -o-jib stay jig -a-jig back -drill (v.) -carmine (u.) -atomic.m.m.) -covered (u.) -long (u.m.) Indo (c.) works ironer-up island -born (u.) jet #airliner #airplane -black (u.) -covered (u.m.Compounding Examples 145 service (u.) #man spring ino (c.m.) lag liner port -powered (u. etc. u.m.m.) twister jay hawk walk jelly bean roll jerry -build (v.) chinese -European.) J J-bolt jack ass hammer head -in-the-box knife -of-all-trades -o’-lantern -plane (v.m.m.) -octane -oleic -osmosis rest one word ivory -tinted (u.m.) type (photog.f.) inter (pref.m.) saw job #lot seeker #shop site joggle#piece joint#owner joulemeter joy hop ride stick jump master off (n.m.m.) all one word Irish -American (u.m.) meal -pound -ton worm index-digest indigo -blue (u. rest one word intra (pref. etc..) iso (c.) rock jungle -clad (u. etc. rest one word intro (pref.m.m.m.) -white (u.) -American.m.) ivy -clad (u. infra (pref.) #gym side junkpile . inch -deep (u.) mold -red (u.m.) prop -propelled (u.) #shot (golf) side -willed (u.) #propulsion stream wash jewel -bright (u.m.m.) -born (u.m.m. etc.m) stain stand well inner -city (u.) handed hard -lined (u.m.).) all one word insect-borne (u.m.) -studded (u.) shod shot (mineral) (u.) mixer pot slinger spot -spotted (u.) pot rabbit screw jail bird house jam nut packed Java #applets Beans Script jaw bone breaker -locked (u.m.m.) -dotted (u.m.m.m.f.) builder -built (u.m.m.) -anal -auricular -axillary -esophageal -umbilical rest one word ink -black (u.) clad fisted -free (u.f.) iron #age back -braced (u.

) up (n.m.) away (n.) out (n. u. u.) just#in#time juxta (c. u.m..) back (n.) -nothing (n..) lamp black -blown (u.m.m. v.m. u. u..m.) off (n. u.m..m.m. u.) #edging wing (insect) -winged (u.m.) -little (n.) #line keepsake kerato (c.) pad pan strap knick knack point knight -errant head hood knitback knock about (n.m.) -foot hole -hour house lighter lit post shade stand wick ...m.m..) knuckle bone buster -deep (u..) all one word laborsaving lace -edged (u.m.m. u.) -kneed (u.m.) off (n.m.m.) killjoy kiln -dry (u.m..) down (n.) eye hole rib stick tree kilo (pref.) -it-all (n. u. u.) lady beetle finger killer ship lake bed front lander shore side lameduck (nonliteral) (n.) hole -jerk (u.) -in (n. u. u.) brush cap -deep (u. u. u.f.) -on (n.) knocker -off -up knot hole horn know -all (n.. u..) all one word kettle drum stitch key board bolt hole lock note punch ring seat stone stop word worker kick about (n.) -how (n.) -high (u.) worked lackluster ladder-backed (u.m. u.m.146 Chapter 7 jury #box -fixing (u.m...m..) L L -bar -beam -block -shaped -square labio (c.. u..m.m.m. u.m..) -knee (n.m.f.) kite flier flying knapsack knee -braced (u.m.m. u.m..) up (n..m.m.) gram-meter voltampere watthour rest one word kindheart king bolt #crab head hood hunter maker piece pin kins folk people kiss-off (n..m.f. u.) -rigged (u.) out (n.m..) -ampullar -articular rest one word K K #car -ration -term keel block fat haul -laying (u.) -kneed (u.

m.m.m. u..) latch bolt key string late -born (u.m.) -ditcher -named (u.m.) leap frog #year lease back (n.m.) -to (n.m.) most lattice #stitch work laughing #gas stock launch #pad site laundry#room law -abiding (u.) -covered (u.) lark -colored (u. u..m.m.m.m. u. u.m..f.) head neck side ware leavetaking lee-bow (v.m.m. u.m.) giver #office suit lawnmower lay away (n.m.) off (n..) -in (n.m..) -cited (u.m. u.) -welding (u.) up (n.) right scape sick side slide slip spout storm wash wire wrack lantern-jawed (u.m. u.m.m.m.) layer -on -out -over -up lazy bones boots #guy legs lead -alpha -burn (v. u.) leader#line leaf bud -clad (u...) -looking (u.) out (n.) -eating (u.m.) #pencil time leaden -eyed (u.) down (n. u.) -minded (u.m.) -handed (u.m.m.m.m.) -gray (u..) latter -day (u.) stalk lean -faced (u.) back (n.f.) spur laryngo (c.) #bird borne fall fast fill flood form grabber -grant (u.) leech eater #rope left -bank (v.) holding lady locked look lord lubber mark mass mine #office owner -poor (u. naut.m.m..) -bound (u. u.) all one word lath-backed (u. only) off (n.) -maturing (u.) line #line (medical.) on (n.m.) -brown (u.) comer -lamented (u.) lap belt -lap robe streak top weld (v.m.) lathe-bore (v.) latero (c. u.) -filled (u.m.m.) mouthed -scale (u.m.m.m..) large -eyed -handed (u.m.) out (n.) -minded (u.) all one word last -born (u.m.) #field (sports) -hand (u.) -welded (u.) .m.m.) -by (n.) -shaped (u.) pated -souled (u.m..m.Compounding Examples 147 land #base -based (u..m.m.m.m. u.m.) hold leased-line leather back -backed (u.) book breaker -fettered (u.

) -year lighter-than-air (u. u.) -sized (u..) lime #juice kiln lighter pit quat stone wash water linch bolt pin line -bred (u.f.m.) lily handed -shaped (u.m..m.) drop float giver giving guard hold jacket long #net raft ring saver -size (u.m.m.) like -looking (u.) off (n.) wurst living#room loadmeter loanword lob fig lolly lobster-tailed (u.m.m.m.m.) -clad (u.) live #load long stock #wire wire (nonliteral) liver -brown (u.) casting crew cut (printing) finder -item (u. u.m.) hearted -maned (u.) press space writer leuc(o) (c.m.) all one word let down (n.m.m.m.m.m.) face (printing) -footed (u.m.) all one word liberal-minded (u. u.) handed house#keeping (nautical) #housekeeping (domestic) mouthed -producing (u.) -minded (u. u.) lip read service stick listener-in litho (c.) lieutenant #colonel -colonelcy #governor -governorship life belt blood boat #buoy #cycle -cycle (u.m.) #up (v.) ship -struck (u.m.m.) -offset rest one word little -known (u.) -colored (u.) light -armed (u..) -draft (u. u.) -drab (u.) length ways wise lepto (c.) washer locker#room lode star stone .) letter bomb #carrier drop gram head -perfect (u.m.m.) -white (u.m. u.) neck (clam) -used (u.) pin ring step stitch up (n.f. u.) lock box fast hole jaw nut out (n.m.) weight (n.) lift-off (n.m.) work lend-lease (n.m.m.m.) -headed (u.m.m..m.m..) span spring stream style tide time vest weary (u.m.m.) lion -bold (u..) -colored (u.m. u.) -breed (v..m.148 Chapter 7 -hander most -sided (u.) up (n.m.m.) walker link up (n.) up (n. u.f.) wing (political) leg band puller rope (v..m...m. u.

m.) run (u.) #knot lorn seat sick low born boy bred brow (nonliteral) browed (nonliteral) -built (u.) -handled (u.) -optics rest one word mahjong maid #of#honor servant maiden hair head hood #name mail bag clad clerk guard -order (u.f.) -past (u.m.m.m.m.) horn (cattle) -horned (u.m. u.) head (n..m.m.m.) play (records) playing (u.) -legged (u.) lop -eared (u.m. u.) rise #water lower case (printing) #deck most lug bolt mark sail lukewarm lumber jack #room lumbo (c.) hand (nonliteral) -handed (u.m.) -bearded (u.m.m..) bow cloth -distance (u.m.m.) johns #jump leaf -leaved (u.) out (n.) over (n. u.) -lying (u.m..m.) -in (n.) mouthed -necked (u.m.m.) -downer -lander -lived (u.m.m..) all one word mad brain cap man (n.m.) nose (n.) mouthed -tongued (u.) -up (u.) felt hair (n.m..) -pressure (u.m.) -drawn (u. u.) beard (n.) magnetite -basalt -olivinite -spinellite magneto (c.) gun -hour -made (u.) -nosed (u.m.) all one word long -awaited (u.m.) love bird born -inspired (u.m.m.f..m.) -term (u. u.m.) -power (u.) -billed (u.) #shop #work macro (c.m.) stitch #term (n.) -ovarian rest one word lumen-hour lunch box #hour room time lying-in (n.m.) -haired (u.) -lived (u.f.) pouch room slot truck .m.m.) through (n. u.m.m.m.) #money made -over (u.f.m.m.) wave (radio) ways wool (sheep) look down (n. u.Compounding Examples 149 log book in jam on off roll sheet loggerhead logo (c.m.m.) M M-day macebearer machine -finished (u..) down (n.) legs (n.) #over (v.) looker-on loop hole #knot stitch loose leaf (u.) sided loud mouthed #speaker (orator) speaker (radio) -voiced (u.) shoreman spun standing (u.

) hook -hungry (u.m.) hearted -spirited (u.) weight (n.) -spirited (u.m. u.) -produce (v.) all one word medio (c.) plies -sided (u.) weight maker -off -up making#up mal (c.) -topped (u.m.) all one word melon grower -laden (u.m.) mark safe stick maxi (n.) -grown (u.m.m.) meetingplace megalo (c.) over ready (printing) shift up (n..m. u.) slaughter slayer stealer stopper trap -woman -year manic-depressive manifold mantel piece shelf tree many -colored (u.m.m.) .) all one word man back -child -created (u.) mapreader marble head -looking (u. u.) beetle day (distress call) hap mealymouth mean -acting (u.) -day eater -fashion (u..) maxi (pref.f.) while meat ball cutter -eater -fed (u.) handle hater -high (u. u.) all one word medium -brown (u.f.m.m.m.m.m.m..) time (meanwhile) #time (astronomical) tone (u.m.m.) mare’s -nest -tail mark down (n.m.m.) head master #at#arms mind #of#ceremonies piece ship #stroke #workman mat-covered (u.) -minute -of-war (ship) power servant -size (u.m.) off (n.m.) -white (u.f.) all one word May #Day -day (u.m.m.m.) -size(d) (u.150 Chapter 7 main frame mast pin sail sheet spring stay stream (nonliteral) top topmast #yard major -domo #league -leaguer -minor make -believe (n.) -layered (u.. u.m.) packer works wrapper mechanico (c.) pole tide may be (adv.) all one word medico (c.m.) meek -eyed (u.m.) -folded (u.m. u.m.) mast -brown (u.) match book head -lined (u..) shot up (n.m..) marker -down -off -up marketplace marrowbone marsh buck mallow (confection) #mallow (plant) mass -minded (u.m.m.m.) fast (n.m.) hole -hour killer kind made (u.f.f.

) breaker brow (nonliteral) -burst (v.) milk -fed (u.) reader set (n.) #shop mole catcher -eyed (u.f.) melt down (n.) all one word mischiefmaking mist bow -clad (u.m.) sight mine field layer ship sweeper thrower works mini (n. etc.) splitter weight midi (n. -April day -decade -dish -ice -level -1958 -Pacific.f. etc.) -lined (u.) meta (pref.) mill cake course dam feed hand -headed (u.m.m.m.) mini (pref.m.) all one word mezzo graph relievo soprano tint micro (c. rest one word middle -aged (u.) midi (pref.) water men folk kind meningo (c.) pond post race ring stock stream wright milli (c.) all one word mighty-handed (u.m.) mixing#room mizzenmast mock -heroic (u.m.) -coated (u.) mix blood up (n. u.) head hill . -Victorian.f.m.m.m. etc..) -ohm post -pound -ton -wide (u. u.m.f.m.) mocker-up mocking stock -up (u.m.m.) -American.m.m.) works meter -amperes gram -kilogram -kilogram-second -millimeter metro (c.) all one word mess hall kit room tin -up (n.m.m.) buster #ear #ground man (nonliteral) most -of-the-roader -sized (u.) -organism rest one word mid (c.) all one word minor #league -leaguer minute#book mirror -faced (u.) mile -long (u.) #turtle up (n..) -spoken (u.) all one word menu-driven merry -go-round meeting -minded (u.) mold made (u..m.) meshbag meso (c.) -mannered (u.) mil-foot mild -cured (u.) gram-hour rest one word mincemeat mind #healer -healing (u.) -covered (u.m.f.m.m.m.m.) head #run shake shed sick sop -white (u.) all one word metal ammonium -clad (u.m.) scope mis (pref.m.) fall miter #box -lock (v. u.f.m.Compounding Examples 151 -shaped (u.

) flat flow guard head hole lark sill slinger -splashed (u.m.) stain sucker track #turtle muddlehead mule back #deer skinner multi (c.m..m.) moosecall mop head stick up (n.m.) hole proof mother board hood -in-law -of-pearl moto (c.) nut pod pot shine #wrench mono (c.) maker saver monkey -faced (u.m. u.) jet -minded (u.) head -lined (u.) all one word musk #deer melon #ox rat mutton #chop (meat) chop (shape) fist head .) -green (u.f.m.) -ideistic -iodo -iodohydrin -ion -ousian rest one word month end long (u.m.) raker sweat muco (c.m.m.m.m.f.m.) maker room musico (c.) eye face gazing glow head lighter lit -mad (u.) morning #sickness #star tide mosquito -free (u.) mouse -brown (u.) path rise sail set shade shine shot sick struck tide walker -white (u.m.m.m.m.m.) -eaten (u.m.m.m.f.m.) #scooter ship truck van moundbuilder mountain -high (u.) all one word motor bike bus cab cade car coach cycle -driven (u.m.) -grown (u.) all one word multiple-purpose (u.) muscle bound power music lover -mad (u.m.) mopper-up mopping-up (u.) most-favored-nation (u.m.f.) all one word mud bank bath -colored (u.) #net moss back -clad (u.m.m.) moth ball -eaten (u.152 Chapter 7 money bag changer getter grubber lender -mad (u.) side top -walled (u.m.) moon beam blind #blindness blink born -bright (u.) -eared (u.m.) hole trap mouth -filling (u.) piece wash muck rake (v.f.) -made (u.

f.) more theless new born -car (u.m.) all one word nerve ache -celled (u.m.) -dropping (u.f.m.m.m.) -hydro-carbon rest one word .) -Greek.m.m.m.f.) #blindness cap -clad (u.m. etc.m.) comer -created (u.m.) gown -grown (u.) -studded (u.) nose (pliers) point -shaped (u.m.m.m.) -racked (u.m.) fast guard -high (u.m.f.) hawk long (u.) type night -black (u.m.f.m.) neck band bone -breaking (u.) worked ne’er-do-well neo (c.m.m.f.f.) newlywed news boy case cast clip dealer #editor letter paper paper#work photo print reader reel sheet stand story teller nick -eared (u.) all one word narrow -mouthed (u.) -plating (u.Compounding Examples 153 myria (c.) name nickel plate (v.m.) -plated (u.m.m.) plate sake nano (c.m.m.) name -calling (u.) mare #school shade #shift shirt side tide walker nimble -fingered (u.m.m.m.) fangled -fashioned (u.m.m.) footed nimbostratus (clouds) nine fold #holes -lived (u.) all one word mytho (c.) all one word needle bill case -made (u.) #hole print puller rod -shaped (u. rest one word nephro (c.m.) -mown (u.f.m.) hole lace line mold tie necro (c.) -flying (u.) -rich (u.) all one word never -ending (u.) all one word naptime narco (c.) -made (u.) -front (v.) pin score nitpicker nitro (c.m.) navy-blue (u.) cloth -deep (u.) clothes club dress fall -fly (aviation) (v.f.) all one word N nail bin brush head -headed (u.m.) work #worth nettle fire foot some neuro (c.) naysayer near by -miss sighted neat’s-foot (u.) all one word myxo (c.) -sharp (u.m.) -occipital -orbital rest one word nationwide native-born (u.) minded naso (c.f.) net ball braider -veined (u.f.

) borne -girdled (u.) heartedness -looking (u. u.) non -civil-service (u.) pipe ring -thumbing (u. -interactive -pros (v..m.m.) shell sweet O oak -beamed (u. u.) -green (u.m.m. u.m.) -thoroughfare (n.m.) meal seed oathbreaker object-oriented oblong -elliptic (u.) wheel note book #paper worthy notwithstanding novel -reading (u.) all one word nut breaker -brown (u.f.m.m.m.m.) oar -footed (u.) nucleo (c.m.) all one word odd -jobber -job man -looking (u.) #leaf -leaved (u.) -flow -go (n.m..m.m.) -par-value (u.m. u.m.) #sequitur.) -minded (u.) going side -spanning (u.) spring stage street .m.f.m.) peak print put -reckoning (n.m.) occipito (c.) -hitter (n.m.) how #man’s land #one -par (u.) saddle scape scour scum -season set shoot shore side site -sorts (n.) man (arbiter) -numbered (u.) east going most -northeast -sider nose bag bleed bone dive down (n.m.) -European.m. u.) lock oarsman oat bin cake -fed (u.m.) whit -year (funds) noble -born (u.m.m. one word none such theless noon day tide time north -central (u. etc.m.m.) octo (c.m..m.m.) -colored (u.m.m.m.) -fault -fee -good (n..) as prefix.) up (n.) nol-pros (v..) beat cast center (u.) -shaped (u.154 Chapter 7 no -account (n.) -otic rest one word ocean -born (u.) -flavor (n.m.) -show (n.m. u. etc.m..) -linear (u.) -clad (u..m.m.f.) -featured (u.m.) -ovate (u.) off -and-on (u.m.) hole -led (u.m.m.m.) cake cracker hatch hook pecker pick -shaped (u. u.) cut (printing) day -fall (v.) color (u.m.) gay guard -high (u.) over (n.) -triangular (u.) -leaved (u. -tumor-bearing (u.m.) going grade hand -hours line loading look -lying (u.) #writer -writing (u.

) type -wheel (n.m.) -go (n.m.) -two-three -way (u.) all one word orange ade colored (u.) -ended -faced (u.) -of-State (u.m.) tightness #well old -fashioned (u.) -sided (u.) -of-door(s) (u.m.m.) oftentimes ofttimes ohm -ammeter meter -mile oil #burner cake can cloth coat cup -driven (u.) hole meal paper proofing seed #shale skinned -soaked (u.m.) -of-the-way (u.) fold -half -handed (u.f.) -looking (u.m. adjective..) -fogy (u.) -sidedness signed (u.f.) -run (u. u. one word olive -brown (u.) all one word orrisroot ortho (c.) -decker -eyed (u.m.m.m.m.f.m.f.) handed #house minded mouthed #shop side (u.) -time (one action) (u.) peel -red (u.m.) stove -temper (v.m.m.) -white (u.) -back (u.) field -forming (u.m.) band (yarn) cast cut (mining) -end (u.) -loud (u.m.) -growing (u.) -harden (v.) -clad (u.m. one word once -over (n.m.m.m.) #oil -skinned (u.m.) -Machiavelli.m.Compounding Examples 155 take -the-record (u.) all one word out -and-out (u.) spill (n.) stick orchard#house orderly#room organo (c.m.) all one word other wise #world worldly oto (c.m.) -backed (u.) going line#service site noun.f.) all one word ornitho (c.m.) -step (dance) -striper time (formerly) (u.) -wheeler (n.) one -armed (u.m.) .) -growing (u.f.f. etc.m.) wood #wood (color) omni (c.) worked opera goer going #house operating#system ophthalmo (c.) -ignorant rest one word on -and-off (n.m.) self -sided (u.m.m.m.m.m.m.) #year office #boy holder seeker -seeking (u.m.) -fed (u.m.) board (u.m.) #maid -maidish (u.) onion peel skin op-ed (newspaper) open -air (u.m.m.) all one word osteo (c.m.m.) -armed (u.) ness -piece (u.) -drab (u.m.m.) #man -new style (printing) timer #woman -young oleo #butter #gear #oil #strut as combining form.m.) -and-outer (n. migration -of-date (u.

m..) #proof (printing) painkiller painstaking paint box brush mixer pot spray stained (u.m. u.) ovato (c.) #way parti (c.) P pace maker #setter -setting (u.) parieto (c.156 Chapter 7 placement -to-out (u. one word outer -city (u.m.) ox biter blood (color) bow brake cart cheek eye -eyed (u.m.) #box #carrier cutter hanger shell (n.) -analgesia -anesthesia legal medic rest one word parcel #carrier -plate (v.m.) face (n.m.f.) panic-stricken (u.m. u.) #maker -making (u.m.m.) palmi (c.m.m.m.) -oblong (u.m.) -reddish (u.) -bounder ovate -acuminate (u.) sack saddle staff thread up (n..) pale belly -blue (u.m.) #owner -time (u.m.m.f.) -looking (u.) -thin (u.) pachy (c.m.) -oblong -orbicular rest one word oven baked dried peel ware over age (surplus) age (older) (n.m.) #man most wear outward -bound (u.m.f.m.m.) -the-counter (u. u.f.) all one word oyster bed #crab house root seed shell -white (u.m.f. etc.f.) as combining form.f.m.f. rest one word pallbearer palm -green (u. u..) -faced (u.m.) -shelled (u.) gall harrow hide horn shoe tail #team oxy (c. or pref.) paleo (c.m.) all one word pan -American.) all one word .) all one word pack builder cloth horse -laden (u. etc.) -Christian. -broil (v.) #ice rest one word Pan #American Union hellenic panel-lined (u.m.) buck -cheeked (u.f.) weight -white (u.f.m.) as prefix.) #post parchment -covered (u.) all one word party#line parvi (c.) all (n.m.m..) -occipital rest one word parimutuel park #forest land way part -finished (u.m.) -timer (n.) papier#mache para (c.) #leaf #oil -shaded (u.) packing#box padlock paddlefoot page -for-page (u.m.) panto (c.m.m. one word owl-eyed (u.) all one word panty hose paper back (n.

m.f.m.m.) maker #pipe time peach bloom blow (color) -colored (u.) book key out (n..m.) -white (u.) #raise roll sheet -TV pea #coal coat cod -green (u...m.m. u.m..m. u.) hen jacket nut pod shooter -sized (u.m..) -feeding (u.) -oryctology rest one word pharyngo (c.m.m.) -acetate rest one word pepper corn #jelly mint pot -red (u.) head knife manship #name point pusher rack script -shaped (u.. u.m..f.m.) peeloff (n.) -esophageal -oral rest one word phase -in (n.) -filled (u.) port through (n.) all one word patri (c.m.f.m.f.. u.m.) #play paste down (n.m.) breaker -loving (u.m.) all one word patrol man #wagon pattycake pawn broker shop pay back (n.m. u.) penny -a-liner pincher weight winkle worth pent-up (u.m.m.) moss stack pebble -paved (u.m. u. u.) check #cut day dirt load off (n.) .) -set (u.m..) peep eye hole show sight peer-to-peer pegleg pellmell pen -cancel (v.) -occipital rest one word pharmaco (c.) meter out (n.) stock trough pencil #box holder -mark (v.) -insular rest one word permafrost pest hole -ridden (u. u..m.m.) -wound (u.) pear-shaped (u.) -studded (u.) -strewn (u.) out (n.m. u.) pastureland patent-in-fee path breaker finder way patho (c.) peptalk per #annum cent #centum compound (chemical) current (botanical) #diem salt (chemical) #se sulfide peri (pref.m.m.m.) pearl -eyed (u.m.m.f.) pot up (n.) peat -roofed (u.Compounding Examples 157 pass back (n.) petcock petit grain #jury #larceny #point petro (c.) way word passenger-mile passer(s)-by passion -driven (u.f.) stick peace -blessed (u.) penta (c.m. u.) fishing -pure (u.

) hammer up (n.f.) over (n.m.) -French.m.f.m.) #tin piece -dye (v.f.m.) #cone -fringed (u.m.) all one word phyto (c.m. u.m.m..f.) picker-up picket#line pickle-cured (u.) all one word philo (c. rest one word phlebo (c.f.) -oscillator rest one word pig -back (v..) up (n.) all one word phyllo (c.) -backed (u.f.f.m.) all one word phonebook phono (c.) #over (v.m.) pocket pole shaft up (n.) -eyed (u.f.m.f.) #needle #oil -shaded (u.) -clad (u.m..f.f.) staff pile driver -driving (u.) all one word phospho (c.m. u.m.) all one word physico (c.) dream .m.) picture #book #writing pie bald crust -eater -eyed marker pan plant #plate -stuffed (u.m.m.) all one word piano forte graph #player pick aback ax lock -me-up (n.) belly -eyed (u.) all one word phylo (c.) #weave woven pill pusher rolling taker pillow case made slip top pilot #boat house #light pin ball block bone case cushion -eyed (u.) foot -footed (u..) headed herd #iron out pen root stick sty tailed wash pigeon gram hole -toed (u.) wheel pinch back bar beck cock fist -hit (v.m.) pipe -drawn (u.f.158 Chapter 7 pheno (c.m.m. u. etc.) all one word photo (c..m.) -hitter penny pine apple -bearing (u.) eye (n.) face -faced (u.m.) wing piggyback pike -eyed (u.) fall feather fire fold head hold hole hook lock paper point prick rail setter spot stripe -tailed (u.m.f.) -bellied (u.m.) -offset -oxidation -oxidative rest one word phrasemark (music) phreno (c. u. u.) off (n..) #goods meal mold piezo (c.m.) all one word physio (c. u.) #tar pink -blossomed (u.

u.) tray -ugly (n.m.) man -marked (u.f.) all one word pleuro (c.m.f..m.m.) bill book boy broker day down (n.) hand horse pan point -shaped (u.m..) all one word plano (c.) blende #box -colored (u.m.) -weary (u.m.f.m.) place card kick plague-infested (u.m.m.) -spoken (u..m.Compounding Examples 159 fitter layer line -shaped (u.m.m.) -dark (u.m. u.) all one word play -act (v.m.m.) hole mark -marked (u.) pluri (c.m.m.m.) pen reader room script suit thing time wright #yard pleasure -bent (u.) -pit (v.m.f.) share shoe sole staff #tail wright plug -and-play hole -in (n.m.m.) #pipe up (n.) -bred (u.m.m.) pole arm -armed (u.m.m.) knife -sized (u.f.m.m.) plane #curve load -mile -parallel (u. u.) piston head #pin #rod #valve pit #boss #bull -eyed (u.) all one word pock mark -marked (u.) pocket book (purse) #book (book) -eyed (u.) -rolled (u.) saw side pitch -black (u..) plain back (fabric) -bodied (u.) -tired (u..) all one word pluto (c. u.m.) all one word pistol-whipped (v.m.f.m.) table (surveying) plani (c.f.f.) -hydato-genetic (u.) fellow goer going ground mate off (n.m.) plumbline plume-crowned (u.) -looking (u.) rest one word pneumo (c..f.) #darkness fork hole -lined (u. u.m..) all one word plow back (n.) pleo (c.m.) all one word plant #food life site plasterboard plate cutter #glass -incased (u.m.) stem walker welder pisci (c.m.) .m.) all one word pneumato (c.m.) back (n.m.) #boat -seeking (u.) clothesman -headed (u.f.) layer mark #proof (printing) -roll (v.) platy (c. u.) -veto (v. u.) clothes (u..) fall head -headed (u.) poet -artist #laureate -painter pointblank Point-to-Point poison-dipped (u.) woven (u. u.) -rotted (u.) out (n.m.m.

m.f.) #fixer -fixing (u.) all one word price #cutter -cutting (u.) pack plant praise -deserving (u.) #chop fish #pie port cullis fire folio hole hook manteau -mouthed (u.) mark pack (v. as prefix. graduate.) poppy -bordered (u.m.) #raiser -raising (u.) #vaulter politico (c.) side #wine post #bellum #boat card -Christian.m.m.) #yard pound cake -foolish (u.m. -cold-war (u.m.) farm -spirited (u.) power boat #mower -operated (u.) #index list -support (u.m. u.m.) -foot worth powder -blue (u.) cock -red (u.m. etc.m.) -made (u. etc.m.) haste #hospital (military) #meridiem #mortem (literal) mortem (nonliteral) #partum #school (military) audit.m.m.m.) sitter -stack (v. etc.) #diem -free (u.) -ministership -ministry prince hood -priest print cloth out script .) -Incan. u.) plate #proof (printing) preter (pref.m.m.) -spoiled (u.) seed pork barrel (n. audit..m.) setter -shaped (u.m.m.160 Chapter 7 ax burn cat -dried (u..f. rest one word president -elect #pro#tempore press #agent -agentry board feeder -forge (v.m.) horse -pile (v.) tag prick -eared (u.) -orthodox rest one word poll book #parrot #tax poly (c. existing. one word postal#card pot ash bellied boil eye hanger head herb hole hook hunter latch lid luck pie pourri rack #roast shot potato#field poultry #keeper -keeping (u.) box #house #keg #mill #room -scorched (u.) mark seam priesthood prime #minister -ministerial (u.m.m.m.) star timber trap -vault (v.) pop corn eye gun up (n.m.) all one word poor -blooded (u. etc.) worthiness pre (pref.m.

m..m.m.) -push (u..m.m.) prisoner-of-war (u.) back -bloom (u.m. -occidental -official -orientalism -orthorhombic -osteomalacia -owner rest one word psycho (c. u.m.) -in (n. rest one word proud hearted -looking (u.) #box down (n. u..f. etc. #forma -life #rata #tem #tempore as prefix.) pussy cat foot #willow put back (n. etc.m.m.) out (n.) -made (u.m.) through (n.) -cut (u. u.) -cast (u.m.) off (n..) -pull (u. u..f. u.) -breed (u..) all one word public hearted -minded (u.m.) -organic rest one word ptero (c. u.m. etc.m.) -clad (u.m.m.) -minded (u.m.m.m...) up (n.m.) puller -in -out pulp board wood punch board bowl card -drunk (u.) -up (n.m.) -Egyptian.) prison bound -free (u.) pro -Ally.) heart (wood) purse making -proud (u. u.m.) all one word Q Q -boat -fever quadri (c. u.f.) punctureproof pup#tent pure blood bred #line (biological) purple -blue (u.f..) deck -miler .f.Compounding Examples 161 printing -in (n.) -spirited (u.m.) -sharing (u.) -put (n.m. u.m. u..m.) all one word pyro (c.) all one word profit -and-loss (u.m...) #boards -bound (u.) all one word proto (c.) -on (n.f. -choice #football. u.) prong buck -hoe (v..) prize fighter #ring taker winner -winning (u. etc.) out (n.) #works pug nose -pile (v. u.m.m.) out (n. u.) off (n. u.m.) horn -horned (u.) proof #press read reader sheet prop jet wash proso (c.m.f. one word problem-solver procto (c.) -colored (u.) up (n.) -invariant rest one word quarrystone quarter -angled (u.m.m.) #ink #office -out (n.f.. u.m.m.f.m.) -on (n. u..) psalmbook pseudo (c.) putter -forth -in -off -on -out -through -up pyo (c.) -Messiah.) mark -marked (u.m..) pull back (n. u.m.m..m.m.) #strings push button card cart off (n.m.

v.) razor back -billed (u.m.m..) all one word quit claim rent R rabbit -backed (u.m.m.m.m.m.) quartermaster #general -generalship quasi all hyphened queen#bee quick -change (u.m. process. u.m.m.) quin (c. etc.) -eared (u. u.) payer -raising (u.) saw (v.) lime sand set silver step #time -witted (u.) trap rate #cutter -cutting (u. rest one word reading#room read out (n. u.m. v.m.m.m.. -crossexamination -ice -ink -redirect evaluate..) through (n.) -cover (cover again) -create (create again).m.) strop razzle-dazzle re (pref..) -fixing (u..) #reference room -witted (u.162 Chapter 7 #note pace -phase (u.m.m.) rat bite catcher hole -infested (u.f.m.m.) bow check coat drop fall #forest -soft (u.) made (u.m.m.m.) rear #end guard ..m. etc.) spout storm wash water rakeoff (n.) -hearted (u.) README ready -built (u.) road setter splitter #train way#maker wayman rain band -beaten (u.) -mix (u.m.) hide -looking (u.m.) #blade edge -keen (u.) -headed (u.m.m.) skin race about (n.m.m.m.) -tight (u.) ram jet rod shackle ranch #hand house Random-access range finder #light rider rapid #fire #transit rash -brained (u.) staff stretch -yearly (u.) setting rattle brain snake trap raw boned -edged (u.) course goer horse track way radarscope radio generally two words except the following forms frequency isotope telegraph telephone rag bolt #doll -made (u.) -minded (u.) sorter tag time rail bird car guard head -ridden (u.m.) #race -tailed (u.m.m.) #fever #foot mouth -mouthed (u.m.m. v.) freeze (u.) -sharp (u.m.) -handed (u.) -drawn (u.

m.m.) -skinned (u.) bolt giver head -in (n.m.m.f..f.f.f.m.Compounding Examples 163 most view (u.) fall (n.m.f..) pin -porous (u.m.m. u.m.) -fallen (u.) worm rip cord -off (n.) -shaped (u.m.m.) #away #field (sports) -handed (u. v.) leader -necked (u.m.m.) -up (n.) all one word red bait (v.) -ocular -omental -operative -oral rest one word rheo (c. u.) rap roaring sack saw snorter tide -up (n.) reformat regionwide religio (c.m.) -eyed (u.f.) -billed (u.m.m.m.) -up (n.f.) all one word rhizo (c.) bone buck cap (porter) coat (n.f.) all one word recto (c.) eye (n.f.) river bank bed #bottom flow -formed (u.m.m.) way -weary (u.m.m.m.m.) front head scape side wash -worn (u.) -haired (u.m.) all one word rhod(o) (c.) handed head (n..) #salt shaft slide rod-shaped (u.m..m.) -hot (u.m. u..) all one word remote-access repair#shop representative #at#large -elect research#worker resino (c.m.) -clad (u.) rock abye bottom (nonliteral) #climber -climbing (u.) -hander -headed (u.m.) -looking (u.) -yellow (u.m.) fill firm pile -ribbed (u.) most -of-way wing (political) rim -deep (u.m.m.) side sight stand stick -tailed (u.) -blooded (u. u.f.m.m.) all one word retro (c.) -faced (u.) right about about-face -angle (u. u...) all one word rhino (c. u.m.) -off (n.) #line (literal) #man out (n.) road bank bed block builder head hog kill map #runner (bird) #show side -test (v.) . u.m.) -billed (u.) -legged (u. u.) -angled (u.) rickrack ridge band pole top riffraff rifleshot rig out (n..) tape (nonliteral) #tape (literal) -throated (u.) -banded (u.) all one word rhomb(o) (c..m.) lead (v.m.) fire lock rock ring -adorned (u.m.m.m.) all one word rice growing #water rich -bound (u.) ward reception#room recordbreaker recti (c.

m. u..) -face (v..) mouthed nose (tool) out (n.) head -made (u.) fast hold #mean#square #rot stalk stock rope dance layer stitch walk rose -bright (u. u. etc.) tan #water rotor craft ship rotten -dry (u.) hew house -legged (u. etc.m.) top up (n.) rubber band -down -lined (u.m. u.m.m.m. u.m.m.) -Chinese.) -in (n.) -throated (u.164 Chapter 7 roe buck #deer roentgeno (c.) by (n..) back (n.m.) -topped (u.m.m.) -on (n.) dry (u.m. u. v.m.m.) -stained (u.m. u. u.m. v.) runner-up Russo (c.) over (n..) #stamp (n.) all one word roll about (n.) around (n..) through (n.) about-face -faced (u.m.m.) round about (n. u.) -minded (u.) wrought rougher -down -out -up roughing-in (u.) film off (n. u. rest one word rust -brown (u.) stamp (nonliteral) (n. u.m..m.) rye#field . u.f. u.m.) #skate Romano (c.m.m. u..m.m..) rough -and-ready (u..) -sweet (u.) ruby -hued (u.m.m.) -coat (v.... u. u.) #trip -tripper up (n.) roller #blade #coaster -made (u.f.m.) call -fed (v.) neck rider setter shod -sketch (v.m.m.m. u.) -faced (u.m.....) -milled (u. u.. v.f.m.) back (n.) -eaten (u.m.m...) robin (petition) seam table (panel) -tailed (u.) -stamped (u.) away (n.m.m.m.m.) proofing -resistant (u. u.) out (n.m. u.m.) -canonical.m.) out (n.) over (n. etc. u.) -and-tumble (n.) cast (u..) draw (v.m.) -looking (u.) off (n.m.) bud bush head -headed (u.) rub -a-dub down (n. u.m. -Gallic.) -set (u. roof garden line top tree room #clerk keeper mate roominghouse root bound cap -cutting (u.) rudder head hole post stock rule#of#thumb rum -crazed (u.) -on (n.m..) dress (v.m.m.m.m. u.) up (n.m.) stuff tailed #work (n..) -scented (u.) runner seller rumpus#room run about (n. u..m. u.m..) work (v.m. u.) -cut (u.) neck -off -set (u...) down (n.m.m.) -red (u..m.m..

f.m.) sauce dish pan sauer braten kraut save-all (n.m.m.) culture #dune fill flea glass heat hill -hiller hog hole lapper lot paper pile pipe pit -pump (u.) sacro (c.) Sabrejet saccharo (c.m.m.m.m.) sample #book #box maker -making (u.) sail cloth -dotted (u.) #horse -making (u.m.m. v.) -shaped (u.) salpingo (c.) saddle back -backed (u.m.) horse setter .m.m.m.) bones (n.) -making (u.m.) tooth -toothed (u..) safe blower cracker -deposit (u.) -smooth (u.) shoe spit storm table weld (v.) sore -stitched (u.) all one word sack bearer cloth #coat -coated (u.m.m.) -welded (u.) iron #sack -voiced (u. v.m.) buck dust -edged (u.m.) saw back belly bill (bird) -billed (u.) all one word sashcord satin #cloth -lined (u.f.) sangfroid sans #serif #souci sapphire -blue (u.f.) -welding (u.m..) sable-cloaked (u..m.m.) #lick mouth pack pan peter pit pond shaker spoon sprinkler water works salver form -shaped (u.m.) sarco (c.m.) tree -wire (u.) nose -nosed (u.m.f.m.m.) -red (u. u.) guard hold #house #site sage brush leaf -leaved (u.m.) -colored (u.m.Compounding Examples 165 S S -bend -brake -iron -ray -shaped -trap -wrench saber -legged (u.m.) all one word sad -eyed (u.) flying saintlike sales book clerk manship people person salmon -colored (u.m.m.) sand bag bank bar bath bin blast blown box -built (u.m.) -buried (u.m.) -oophorectomy -oophoritis -ovariotomy -ovaritis rest one word salt box cellar -cured (u.) bag bow cloth -graft (v.) -cast (u.m.) sandy-bottomed (u.m.

m.) sax cornet horn tuba say -nothing (n.) face -faced (u.m.m.166 Chapter 7 timber tooth -toothed (u. u.m.) #year scientifico (c.m.) all one word scar -clad (u.f.) scapegoat scapulo (c.f.m.f.) nut ship #thread -threaded (u.) -Britannic.m.m.m. u.) drome -encircled (u.) play screw ball bolt cap down (u.m.) beach -beaten (u.f. u.) scatter brain good #rug scene shifter wright schisto (c.m.m.) borne bound -bred (u.) coast -deep (u.m.) pan -reading (u.) -oophoritis -optic rest one word score board book card sheet scot-free Scoto (c.m.) -driven (u.) -turned (u.m.) #fever -red (u.) -winged (u.m.) all one word schizo (c.f.) #tissue scare crow head scarfpin scarlet -breasted (u.) #pad #test screen out (n.) scale bark down (n..) drive (v.) scissors hold -shaped (u..) all one word scissor bill -tailed (u.) fare (food) fighter #floor folk food front girt goer going hound lane #level lift #lion mark port quake #room scape #scout scouting shell shine shore sick side stroke #time (clock) wall .) board #boat -born (u.) -bathed (u.m..) mate ship teacher -trained (u.f.) bed #bird -blue (u.m.m.m.m.m.) dog -driven (u.m.) driver head hook jack -lifted (u.m.) #smith sclero (c.) scroll -back head work scuttlebutt scythe-shaped (u.m.) -so (n.m. Scotsman scout #badge #car hood master scrap basket book #paper works scratch brush -brusher -coated (u.m.) all one word school bag #board book bus children day -made (u. etc.) sea #base -based (u.m.m.m.

m.) setter -forth -in -on -out -to -up seven -branched (u.m.Compounding Examples 167 weed wing worn worthiness -wrecked (u..f.) #rug shake down (n. u.) over (n.) out (n.) out (n. arid. u.) #sight -sighted (u.m.f.m.) faced shank bone #mill shapeup (n.m. u.) up (n..f.) ware .) -headed (u.) #in#command -rate (u.) up (n.) seam blasting rend (v..m.) shame -crushed (u.) hand (adv. u..) all one word sero (c.m.. etc.f.) man #man#and #woman member person wide woman servo accelerometer amplifier control mechanism motor system sesqui (c..) pin screw -stitched (u.) server-based service -connected (u.m.) all one word serrate -ciliate (u.m. u.) fold penny (nail) score -shooter -up (n..m.) out (n.) off (n.m.m. u. u.f.m. u.m.) -welded (u.m.m.) shadow boxing gram graph #line shag bark -haired (u..m.m..m.m.) all one word set -aside (n.) Secret Service secretary #general -generalcy -generalship section#man seed bed cake case coat kin stalk seer band hand sucker seesaw seismo (c.) senso (c.) search #engine light plane seat belt #cover -mile second -class (u.m.m. -idleness -indirect.) -to (n.m.) all one word self dom -extracting hood less ness same reflexive prefix.) -foot -guess (v. use hyphen sell off (n.) severalfold shade -giving (u.) share bone broker cropper holder out (n.) -on (n.) out (n.) back (n.m..m. u.m.) -degree (u.) all one word septi (c. u.m.) all one word septo (c.m. u.m.m..m. u.m..m. u.m.. u.) -dentate (u.) #hand (n. annual.) -grown (u.) -armor-piercing (u.m...f. u. rest one word send off (n.m.) all one word sergeant#at#arms serio (c. etc.m..f. u..) stitch weld (v.) shallow -draft (u. u.) -fair (n.. etc.m. u. u..) semi (pref.) -Christian..) head -in (n.) bolt down (n. u.

) shearer (n.m. v.m. u.) rib run (u.m.) -freeze (u.. v. u.) sheer off (n.m.) head (whale) horn (n.) up (n..m.) up (n.) shop folk lifter -made (u.) naysayer -set (u.) piece place room through (printing) (n.) coming cut (n.) mark owner -soiled (u..) sheet block flood #glass rock ways shell back burst fire fishery #game hole -like shocked shelterbelt shield-shaped (u.) fall (n. u.) off (n. u.) #strap show boat card case down (n.) sighted staff stop #term -term (u.m.) hand (writing) -handed (u. u.m.m.m..) -cut (u..) -fed (u.m.m.) -edged (u.m.m.m.) -witted (u.m.m.m.m.) -horned (u.m. u.) shape side wreck shipping #master #room shirt band #sleeve tail waist shock #therapy #troops #wave shoe black brush horn lace pack scraper shine store string tree shootoff (n.m.) shavetail shear pin waters shedhand sheep biter crook dip #dog faced #farm fold gate herder hook kill -kneed (u.m.m.m.168 Chapter 7 sharp -angled (u.m.) nose (apple) pen shank shear (v.) -lived (u.m. u.) -lasting (u..) bread cake change (v.) shredout (n.) shed stealer walk -white (u.m.) leaf (u.) -freezer -looking (u... u.) shod shooter -tailed (u.) .m.) changer #circuit -circuited (u.m.m..m.m.) shilly-shally shin bone guard plaster shiner-up ship breaker broken broker builder lap mast owning -rigged (u.m. u.) talk walker window shore #bird #boat fast going #leave side short -armed (u.m..) wave (radio) shot gun hole put star shoulder #belt #blade -high (u.. u.m..m.

m.) up (u.m. u.m.m..m.f. u.m.) -downer fast (n.m.) off (n.) -leaved (u.m.) simulcast sin -born (u..) plate (v.m.m.m.m..) -seater stick #stitch tree singsong sink head hole Sino (c..m.) -minded (u.) out (n. u.m.m.m.) side arms band board bone burns car check -cut (u. u.) -bred (u.) -phase (u.) post up (n.) -plated (u.) all one word silk #screen -stockinged (u..m.m.) deep diver flint -graft (v.) plate shut away (n.) shuttlecock sick bay bed #call #leave list room sickle-cell (u.) down (n.) sitter -by -in -out sitting#room sitz #bath mark six -cylinder (u. u. u.m. u.) works siltpan silver -backed (u.) point (drawing) print tip -tongued (u.) fold penny (nail) -ply (u.m.m.) simple -headed (u.) flash head (printing) hill hook kick lap #light (literal) light (nonliteral) #line (literal) line (nonliteral) long note plate play saddle show slip splitting step stitch -stitched (u.) ski #jump #lift plane #suit skid lift (truck) road #row skin -clad (u.m.m.m.) -mouthed (u.) dress (v.) sine#die single bar -breasted (u. u.m.m..m.m.) fish -gray (u.) -witted (u.m.m.) -decker -edged (u.) -in up (n.. u.) -lead (u.m.) sway swipe track walk wall -wheeler winder sight hole read saver seeing setter sign off (n.) -Japanese... sister -german hood -in-law sit down (n.) handed hood -loader -minded (u. etc.m.) beater -bright (u.. u.Compounding Examples 169 shroud -laid (u.m.m.) -haired (u.) top simon-pure (u.) -on (n.m... u.. u. u.m.m.m.f.) -in (n.) eye (n.m.) silico (c.m.) -shooter -wheeler sizeup (n.m.) skipjack skirtmarker skullcap skunk head top .m.) -rooted (u.

m.m.) pot screen stack smoking#room smooth bore -browed (u.m.m.) jacker lift look (v.) bomb chaser -dried (u.m.m.m.) snackbar snail -paced (u.) happy jack stick -up (n.) -witted (u.) smashup (n.) meter sleep -filled (u.. u.m.m.) slack -bake (v.m..m.m.m.m.) -deserted (u.) -working (u.m.m.m.) washer slit -eyed (u.m.m.m..) house jack jumper -laden (u.) head -looking (u.) -cast (u.f.) mouthed poke #time up (n.m.) -mouthed (u.) -Hungarian. etc.) -filled (u.m.m. u.m.) seller slopeways slow belly down (n.) -footed (u.m.m.m.) shell #skirt slop -molded (u.m.) small #arms #businessman pox -scale (u.) #water slambang slant-eyed (u.) sword talk -time (u.m.m.) #proof (printing) proof ring sheet shod sole step stitch stream -up (n.) smart #aleck -alecky (u.) band case cover knot #law -on (n.m.m.) -eater -eyed (u. u. u.m..) -looking (u.m.) gazer -high (u.m.m. sledge #hammer -hammered (u.m.) #set -tongued (u.) slate -blue (u.m.m..) going -motion (u.m.m.m.m.m.170 Chapter 7 sky -blue (u.) -slow (u.) -dry (v.) talker walker sleepy -eyed (u.) works slaughter house pen slave -born (u. u.) -dyed (u.) rocket sail scape scraper shine writer slab-sided (u.) head hole pit snap dragon head hook . u..m.) -filled (u.m.) town (u.) snail’s#pace snake bite -bitten (u.) sleetstorm sleeveband sleuthhound slide film knot #rule sling ball shot slip along (u. u.) smearcase smoke -blinded (u..) holding #market owner pen Slavo (c.) -colored (u.) slap bang dab dash down (n.) -tongued (u.m.) sluice box #gate slum dweller gullion gum lord slumber-bound (u.

u.m.) ring roll shooter shot -up (u.m.m.) foot (n.m.m.m.) all one word some day how one (anyone) #one (distributive) place (adv.m.) out (n.) time (adv. u.) #time (some time ago) what son-in-law song bird fest writer sonobuoy sooth fast sayer sore -eyed (u. u.) sick sound -absorbing (u. u.) sorry-looking (u.) #coal #copy #drink #goods head -pedal (v.m.m.) -soaper (nonliteral) (n.) #field film -minded (u.m.) footed (u.m.) -shelled (u.) tack ware wood sole cutter plate somato (c.Compounding Examples 171 -on (n.) track #wave soup bone #bowl #kitchen #plate spoon sour belly bread dough (n..m.) -ridden (u. etc.) snuffbox so -and-so beit (n.) sides social #work #worker socio (c.) -spoken (u.) clad (u.m..m.m.) -official economic. sod buster culture #house soda jerk #pop #water sofa #bed #maker -making (u.m.) mobile pack pit plow scape shade shed shine shoe sled slide slip storm suit -topped (u.m.m.) head (n..) drift fall field flake line melt -melting (u.f.m.m.) -called (u.) off (n.m.m.) #cover -covered (u.m.) blower break capped -choked (u.) sniperscope snooperscope snow ball bank berg blind #blindness blink block -blocked (u..m.f.) -sweet .m.) soul -deep (u. conj.) mate -searching (u..) snapper -back -up snipe bill #eel -nosed (u.) -seeming (u.m.m.) soft ball -boiled (u.) faced -natured (u.) -so soap box bubble dish flakes #opera rock stock suds sob #sister #story sober -minded (u.m.) -soap (nonliteral) (v.) #water -white (u.m.

) -read (v.) spare -bodied (u.m.) -shaped (u.) spear cast head -high (u.) -face (v.) all one word splay footed mouthed spleen -born (u.m.) -free (u.m.m.) light weld (v.) -speaking (u.) spleno (c.) spill over (n.) all one word spermo (c.m.f...) spoilsport spondylo (c.) Spanish -American -born (u.m.) #key mark ship #time spade -dug (u.f..) all one word sponge #bath cake diver -diving (u.m. u.) .m.m..) spongio (c.) spell binding check down (n.) -olivary rest one word spirit -born (u.m.f.) spectro (c. u.f.172 Chapter 7 source book #file south -born (u.m.) sick -swollen (u.) -shaped (u.m.) all one word spoolwinder spoon -beaked (u.m.m.) spike horn -kill (v.m.) -occipital rest one word sphygmo (c.) cake -laden (u.) -pitch (v.m.m.m.m.m.) foot -footed (u.) rib #room spark #plug (literal) plug (nonliteral) speakeasy (n.) welded (u.) spider #crab -legged -spun (u.) all one word speech -bereft (u.m.) bound -central (u.m.m.) #web (n.) speed boating letter trap up (n.f.) -shaped (u. u.) ways sporeformer sporo (c.) bread -fed (u.) -billed (u.m.) -broken (u.m.) all one word spice -burnt (u.) east going lander paw #side -sider -southeast west soybean sow back belly space bar craft -cramped (u.) spend -all (n.f.) -shaped (u..) all one word spheno (c.) spino (c.f.m.) head -legged (u. v.) thrift spermato (c.m.f.) all one word split finger (crustacean) fruit mouth saw #second -tongued (u.m.m.f.) all one word sports #editor person wear writer spot #check -checked (u.) web (u.m.f.m.m.f.m.m.m.) legs shanks spine bone -broken (u.m.) #writing spit ball fire stick splanchno (c.) way spin back #doctor (slang) off spindle -formed (u.m.) -pointed (u. u.) up (n.m.

) up (n..m.) stroke -studded (u.m.) -heeled (u.) all one word statute -barred (u. u.) quake room side station#house stato (c.) fitter pipe plant -pocket (v.m. u..) stand by (n.m.) tide (season) time trap spritsail spur -clad (u.m.) -driven (u. u.) shooter squeeze -in (n..) hound hunter stage coach hand #set -struck (u. u.m.) down (n. u. u.) staff -herd (v.) spy glass hole tower square -bottomed (u.f.m.) halt head -plow (v.) head out (n.m.) #time starchworks stark -blind (u.m.) -set (v.m..m.) pat pipe point post still (n... u..) off (n.) light lit lite (gem) nose (mole) shake shine shoot -spangled (u..m.m..m.m.m.m..m.m..) spray-washed (u.) starter-off start-stop startup (n.m..Compounding Examples 173 -welding (u.m.) -driven (u. u.) up (n.) horn -horned (u.) flipper head -headed #mile -rigged (u.) -faced (u.m.m.) head -headed (u.m.m.) -plowed (u. v.m.m.) #root -set (u...) -mad (u.m.m.) standard #bearer bred #gauge #time staphylo (c.) spring back (bookbinding) bok -born (u.) #fever finger -grown (u.) -hour time stag -handled (u.) stackup (n.m.) stair case head step #well stake head out (n.) -built (u.m.m.) offish out (n. u.) -naked (u.) all one word State -aided (u.) out (n.f.) spread -eagle (u.m.) state hood -of-the-art (u.m.m.) #book stay -at-home (n.) -in (n. u.m.m..m.) stall -fed (u.) -raving (u.) power (n.m. u.) .. u.m.) #powerplant -propelled (u.) fast (n.) gall -galled (u.m.m.m.m.) buck -clean (v.m.m. u.) stat (pref.m. u.m.) bar bolt boom lace log pin plow sail wire steam boating car -cooked (u.m.) -feed (v..) over (n.) all one word star blind bright dust gazer -led (u.m. u.m.) stale-worn (u.m. u.) #line -owned (u.) squirrel-headed (u.

) -bright (u...) #writing stony -eyed (u. u..) .) jack top stem head post sickness winder stencil-cutting (u. v.m.m.) stock breeder broker #car feeder holding jobber judging list pile pot rack raiser -still (u.) -on (n.) -up (u. u.m.f.) #pump -shaped (u.m.) #life -recurring (u..) all one word step aunt child..) wall (u.) clad -framed (u.m.m.) -hard (u.m.174 Chapter 7 roll (v.m.) -up (n.m.) -walled (u.m..) -out (u.) stomato (c. u. u.m.) all one word stetho (c.m.f.) stand stink ball bomb bug damp pot stir about (n.m.m.) head plate works steep -rising (u.m.m.) sticker -in -on -up stiff -backed (u.m. u.) -eyed (u.) stone stereo (c.m.) over (n.m.) stitch down (n.) up (n.f. etc.m.m.) roller (u.) -looking (u..) -to (u. u.) head layer lifter mason shot #wall (n.) -fish (v.m..) steno (c..m. u.) -weary (u.) pin -to-it-iveness (n.) fry -up (n...) block clock cock gap hound list log -loss (u.m.) fast (n.) out (n.f.) neck -necked (u.) -sick (u. u.m.) steeple chase -high (u.) still -admired (u.) -heavy (u.) -cased (u.m..m.) all one word stew pan pot stick -at-it (n.) #land stop back (n. u... v.m.) up (n.. u.m.) birth born -burn (v.) ladder off (n.) -in-the-mud (n.m.) -deaf (u.m.m.m.m.) -hunt (v.) all one word stone biter blind brash breaker broke brood cast -cold (u..m.m.) all one word stern castle -faced (u. u.) taker truck wright stoke hold hole stomach #ache -filling (u.m.m.m.m.) most post #wheel -wheeler sterno (c.m. dance down (n. u.m.m.m.m.) -in (n. u.f.) stepping -off (u.m.) ship table tightness steamer#line steel -blue (u. u.) #crab crusher cutter -dead (u.m.

.) strike breaker -in (n. u. u.) -looking (u.m. etc. u.m.m.) #vote walker -yellow (u.f. u..m.) #time -up (u.m.) stubbornminded stucco-fronted (u.) -out (n.m.) heartedness -minded (u.) straight away -backed (u.. u...m. u. u.) edge -edged (u.m. etc.) all one word stretchout (n. #specie.) stray away (n.) stylebook stylo (c.) splitting stack -stuffed (u. -subcommittee polar.) watch strato (c..) car cleaner -cleaning (u.) -tossed (u..m.m.m.) -Himalayan.) -upper -uppish (u.f.m.) out (n.m.) stove brush -heated (u.m..) sweeper walker strepto (c.) wing stubble #field -mulch (u.m.) straddle back -face (v.f.) forward head -legged (u. machinegun #rosa.) hat -roofed (u.) striker -in -out -over string course halt #proof (density) ways strip cropping #mine tease strong -arm (u. u.m. u.m.) -over (n..m.m.) box hold #man (literal) man (nonliteral) -minded (u.m.m.) all one word straw berry#field boss -built (u.m.) -swept (u. standard.) all one word such-and-such suck -egg (n.m.) point (n.Compounding Examples 175 off (n. v.) jacket laced stranglehold strap -bolt (v.m.) #trooper wind #window storyteller stout -armed (u.) stuck up (n.) #line -lined (u.m.) stub runner -toed (u.) stud bolt horse mare stuntman stupid head -headed (u.m.) #line mark stream bank bed flow head lined side street -bred (u.m..) all one word sub (pref.m.) cock flow -laden (u.m. u.) down (n.) .m. rest one word subject -object -objectivity subter (pref.m.m. u. u.) #face -faced (u.m.) hanger head -shaped (u..m.) pipe stow away (n. etc.m.) hole -in (n.m.) -up-and-down (u.m.m.) strainslip strait -chested (u.m.) watch storage#room store front house storm -beaten (u.) -legged (u.m..m.) -spoken (u.m.m.) -cut (u.m.m.) sturdy-limbed (u..m.) back (nautical) -backed (u.m.

u.) wing (n..m.) bath -bathed (u.m.) -made (u.m. etc.m.) all one word sulfon (c..m.) -coated (u.) forward (aviation) (n.) -cured (u.) shower spot stricken stroke struck tan #time (measure) time (dawn) up sunny -looking (u.) .m.m.) loaf plum spoon sweet #water works sulfa (c.) swept back (n.m.) swearer-in sweat band #gland #shirt shop sweep back (aviation) (n.m.) head toad swelled-headed (u. #high frequency -superlative highway.m.) summer -clad (u.) -fallow (v.) dive herd mark neck song swansdown swash buckler plate sway back (n.m. rest one word sur (pref. u.m.) forward (n.) fall fast glade glare glow #hat lamp lit quake ray rise scald set shade shine -shot (u.m.) dial dog down dress -dried (u.) swampside swan -bosomed (u. u.m.) board #fish -swept (u.) -Christian.) brier faced heart meat mouthed -pickle (v..f.m.) -footed (u.m.) -dry (v. u.) all one word sulfo (c.) bar -brace (v.m.f.) all one word sure -fire (u..m.m.) super (pref..) -handed (u.m.m.) beam blind #blindness bonnet bow break burn burst -cured (u..m.m.m.) -slow surf -battered (u.) -sour -sweet swell -butted (u.m.m.) all one word sullen hearted -natured (u.m.) swift foot -footed (u.) -abdominal -acromial -aerial anal -angular -arytenoid -auditory -auricular -axillary -Christian. market.) washer sweet bread -breathed (u. etc.) -running (u.) tide time (season) #time (daylight saving) sun -baked (u.m. u. u.m.) swallow pipe -tailed (u. etc. u..m.176 Chapter 7 sugar #beet #bowl cake cane -coat (v.m.) stake through (n.) -natured (u.f.m.m.) -backed (u. rest one word Super Bowl supra (pref.) -dried (u.

) -hooked (u. u. u.) spoon talk top ware tachy (c.) #linen -shaped (u.) tangle foot -haired (u. phenician T T -ball -bandage -beam -boat -bone -cloth -iron -man -rail -scale (score) -shape -shaped -shirt -square table cloth -cut (u.) bread head herd pox sty swing back (n. u.) -saw (v. etc.) -built (u..) -pale (u.m.m.) hook lamp pin pipe race spin stock -tied (u.m.) bearer #belt bill fishing play -shaped (u.m.m.m.) all one word synchro cyclotron flash mesh tron Syro (c.m.) bar dingle #gate #shift stock -swang tree swingle bar tree switch back blade box gear plate plug rail tender swivel #chair eye -eyed (u.m..m.m.m.m.) -looking (u..m. u.) -suited (u.) wheel wind tailor -cut (u.m.) tally #board #clerk ho #room #sheet tame -grown (u.) tan bark works tangent -cut (v.) up (n.m.m.m. u.) tall boy (n.) down (n.) tallow -faced (u.m.m.m.m.) -in (n. u.m.) sword -armed (u.) twister -up (n.m.m.m.) taker -down -in -off -over -up tale bearer carrier teller talkfest talking-to (n.) -looking (u.m.) all one word tag -affixing (u.m.) cutter -cutting (u..) lock rag sore tail band #coat -cropped (u. u.) tank #car farm ship town .f.f...m.) -home (n... u.) -Arabian.m.) take -all (n.) #end -ender first foremost gate head -heavy (u.) -formed (u.m..m. u.) out (n.Compounding Examples 177 swill bowl tub swimsuit swine -backed (u.) off (n.) stick syn (pref.) over (n.) made (u.m.

) -out (n.m.m.) tetra (c.m. u.f.) pot -roofed (u.m. u.m.) -headed (u.m.) #paper -paved (u.m.) all one word teleo (c.m.m.) heart loin -looking (u.f.m.) drop #gas -off (n.f.m.) all one word thanksgiving thatch-roofed (u.) tarpaulin -covered (u..) works tariff-protected (u.) ager teeter-totter tele (c.) brush -coal (u.m.) cup dish kettle #party pot room -scented (u.) text -based #file #mode theater goer going thenceforth theo (c.) footish -handed (u.) tapestry -covered (u.) temporo (c.) taxi auto bus cab meter stand tea ball cake cart -colored (u.f.) #maker -making (u.m.) tenement#house tent -dotted (u.) gatherer -laden (u.) #maker -making (u.m.m.f.) all one word there about(s) above across after against among around at away before between by for .f.) teen age (u.m.) -free (u.) room root -tap water tape #deck #drive #measure string -tied (u..m.m.m.) -riveted (u.) all one word theologico (c.m. u.) #show terra #cotta #firma mara terrace-fashion (u.) all one word tempest-rocked (u.m.) pit sheet stain -stained (u.) down (n.m.m.) foot -footed (u.) #work tapper-out tar -brand (v.m.m.m.) all one word tell tale truth telo (c.) tarso (c.m.m.m.f.) pole -sheltered (u.m.m.) all one word tax -burdened (u.) -occipital rest one word ten fold penny (nail) pins tender #boat -faced (u.) test-fly (v.m.178 Chapter 7 tap bolt dance hole net off (n.) taper bearer -fashion (u.m.) -dipped (u...f.) #collector eater -exempt (u.m. u.) spoon taster teamplay tear bomb -dimmed (u.f.m.) paid payer #roll -supported (u.m.) all one word task #force setter tattletale tauro (c.

) all one word thorn back bill -covered (u.m.m...f.) waiter -worn (u.m.) -in (n.m.) mark -marked (u..m.m.m.) skinned skull (n.m..m.m.) down (n.) -set (u.m.m.) -legged (u..m.) fold -in-hand -master penny (nail) -piece (u.m.) thousand fold -headed (u.m.m.m. u.) #house -rate (u.m.Compounding Examples 179 fore from in inafter inbefore into on over through tofore under until unto upon with thermo (c..) -provoking (u.) . u.m.) score some -spot -square -striper throat band cutter latch strap thrombo (c.) all one word thick -blooded (u.) -weight thrust-pound thumb #hole -made (u.) wit -witted (u.m..) race table -tossed (u.) head -looking (u.) fare going -made (u.f.f.) #line off (n..) over (n.) #writer tidal#wave tiddlywink tide flat head mark -marked (u.) all one word through out put #road way throw away (n.) hand (adv.f.) -wooded (u.) back (n.) -ply (u.m.m.) -strewn (u. u. u. u.m.) -on (n.) all one word thyro (c.. u.f.f.) -rater thistledown thoraco (c.m.m.) -dimensional (u.) -out (u.m..) tail thorough -bind (v.) -degree (u. u.) all one word tibio (c.m.m.) nail print screw stall string sucker tack worn thunder bearer blast bolt clap cloud head peal shower storm struck thymo (c. u.m.f.) thio (c.) thin -clad (u.m.) legs (worm) thrall born dom -less thread bare -leaved (u.) paced pin thought -free (u. u.) skulled -tongued (u.m.m.) all one word tick #feed seed tacktoe tick tock ticket #seller -selling (u.m.) bred -dried (u.) -voiced (u.m.m.) set (u.m.m.m.) out (n.) all one word third -class (u.m. u.m.) pated set (n.) -woven (u.m.m.m.) worn three -bagger -cornered (u.

u. u. u.m.m.m.m.m.m.m.) fisted -fitting (u..m..) tight -belted (u..) piece pleaser saver server sheet slip slot span -stamp (v.) pot -roofed (u.) wad wire tile -clad (u.) cup #fish (torpedo) foil horn kettle -lined (u.) lipped rope -set (u.) jack line -propped (u.) -tie (v.) all one word tithe book -free (u.m.m.) keeper killer lag lock outs (n.m.m.m.) -clad (u.m.m.) frame -honored (u.) #shop toe cap #dance hold -in (n.m. u.f.m.) #wolf wright time bomb born card clerk clock -consuming (u.) payer right title holder -holding (u. u.) most off (n.) -in (n.) #town tintblock (printing) tip burn cart -curled (u.) #wit toad back -bellied (u.) type -white (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) to -and-fro -do (n.) timber -built (u.) #drain -red (u.) setter works wright tilt hammer rotor up (n..) study table taker waster worn tin -bearing (u.) -covered (u..) stool tobacco #grower -growing (u. u.) -out (n.) head -in (n.m.) -on (n.) pin -plater #rod #tack up (n.) staff stock tank -tap toe top -up (u.m.m.180 Chapter 7 tie back (n.m..) tinsel -bright (u.m.m.) blind fish -green (u.m.) nail plate print toil -beaten (u.m..) .m.) over (n.m.m.) #page winner -winning (u..m.m.m. u. u.) man pan plate -plated (u.m.) tierlift (truck) tiger eye #lily #shark -striped (u.) head -headed (u.m.) #bar #beam down (n.) tire changer dresser fitter #gauge #iron -mile #rack shaper some tit bit #for#tat mouse titano (c.) -mark (v.m..) #can -capped (u. u..m.m.m.m. u.

) hat -hatted (u. u.m..) tool bag #belt box builder #chest crib dresser fitter #grinder -grinding (u. u. u.) coat cutter #dog -drain (v.) tongue -baited (u.) up (n..m.m.m.) -shaped (u.) -shaped (u.m... u.) -set (u.f.m. u.) hole -me-not (n.m.) down (n.) paste pick plate powder puller -pulling (u.m.m.) -looking (u.m.) touch #and#go back (n..m.) town -bred (u.m.) flight (u.m.) full gallant (n.) side (naut.) -free (u.m.) worn toilet#room toll bar #bridge #call gate gatherer house #line payer road taker tom boy cat foolery -tom tommy gun rot ton -hour -kilometer -mile -mileage -mile-day tone -deaf (u.m.m.) tow away boat head line mast #net -netter path rope #truck tower -high (u..) -lash (v.m.m.m. u.m.m.) -graft (v.) folk gate going . u.) -skinned (u.) brush drawer mark -marked (u.Compounding Examples 181 some -stained (u.) -producing (u.) soil topo (c.) #drawer dress (v.m.m.) head holding kit mark plate post rack setter shed slide stock tooth ache #and#nail -billed (u.) -weary (u.) shot sore tack tied tip #twister -twisting (u.) all one word topsy-turvy torch bearer #holder lighted lit torpedo #boat #room torquemeter toss pot up (n.) -shaped (u.) tough -headed (u.m.m.) some wash top #brass cap (n.m.m.) -bound (u. u..m.m.m.) down (n.m..m.) heavy kick knot liner mark mast milk most notch (nonliteral) rail rope sail -secret (u.m.m.) #lashing play -shaped (u.) pan reader stone up (n.) #clerk #crier -dotted (u.

m.) scape top #trunk trellis-covered (u.) treaty breaker -sealed (u.) trawlnet tread mill wheel treasure -filled (u.f.) all one word track barrow hound layer mark -mile side walker tractor-trailer trade #board -in (n.) -blue (u.m.) mark #name off #union #wind tradespeople traffic-mile tragico (c.) towns fellow people toy #dog -sized (u. u.) -looking (u.m.m.m.) trench back coat foot #knife mouth #plow -plowed (u.m.m.m.m.f.) -laden (u.m..) time -tired (u.) nail -ripe (u.m.) train bearer bolt crew line -mile shed sick stop tram -borne (u.) all one word trim -cut (u.) all one word trouble -free (u.) -edged (u.m.f.) back (sofa) branched (u.f.) -worn (u.) trinitro (c.m.m.) born bred -eyed (u.) state.m.) all one word trachy (c.m.f.m. u.) alpine atlantic -Canadian.m.) all one word trip -free (u.m.) tree (n.m.) -dressed (u. etc.) -haunted (u.) -iodide -ply (u.m.) fold #play -tailed (u.) side sight -weary (u.) hammer wire triple -acting (u.) #line -lined (u.) all one word trail blazer breaker -marked (u.m.f.) car rail road way trans (pref.) maker shooter some truce breaker -seeking (u.f. etc.m..) penny (n.m.) #time .m.m.m.182 Chapter 7 hall lot ship side site talk -weary (u. rest one word tribespeople tribo (c.m.) all one word tropo (c.) all one word tricho (c.m.) #house -laden (u.) -false love (n.m.) trolley#line troop ship #train tropho (c.) town tracheo (c.) tree #belt -clad (u.) tri (c.) truck driver #farm -mile stop true -aimed (u.m.m.) -made (u.f.m.m. pacific uranic rest one word transit#time trap door fall shoot trashrack travel -bent (u.m.f.

) (bookbinding) -decker -faced (u.) worthy truth -filled (u.m.) square works tube -eyed (u..) -motor (u.m.f.m.) -shaped (u. u.) -ramjet (u.m.Compounding Examples 183 trunk back nose trust breaking buster -controlled (u. u. rest one word turn about (n.m.m.m.) two -a-day (u.f.) -fed (u..) -told (u.) -ovarian rest one word tug boat #of#war tumbledown (n.) out (n..) #war turkey back #buzzard #gobbler #trot Turko (c. u.) head -nosed (u. u.m..) -on (u..m. u.) score -seater some -spot -step (dance) -striper -suiter -up (n..m.) pike pin plate round (n.) back (n.) vision turbo (c..m.) -ply (u.m.) key off (n.. u.) teller try -on (n. u.m.m.m.) -clad (u.) -along (n.) turner-off turtle back dove -footed (u. u.m.) over (n. u.) up (n.m. u. u...m.) -ridden (u. u.) all one word tyro (c.m.m.) -out (u.m.m.) all one word tubo (c.m.) lover seeker -seeking (u.m.m. u.m.) gate -in (n.m.) -reviewed (u.m.) penny (nail) -piece (u.m.) -wheeler tympano (c...) fold -jet (u.f.m.m.) -screw (u.) -down (u.m.m.m.m.m.) around (n.m.) neck (u.) about-face again (n. etc.) all one word U U -boat -cut -magnet -rail -shaped -tube . u..) -Greek.) -over (u.) -in (u.) typho (c.f.) tune out (n.. u.m.) works tuberculo (c.m.) twin #boat born -engined (u.) rest one word turf -built (u.m.m.m.m..m.) buckle cap coat cock down (n.f.) fold -handed (u..m.) up (n.m.) screw sheet sole spit stile stitch table tail -to (n.) -covered (u.) #shell twelve fold penny (nail) score twenty -first fold -one twice -born (u.) turned -back (u.) all one word type case cast cutter face foundry script set write (v.m.m.. u.m.m.f.) under (n.f.f.m.) -way (u. u.) tunnel -boring (u.) all one word typo (c..m. u.) out (n.

f. u.m.m.) -univalent rest one word union -made (u.) -to-date (u.184 Chapter 7 ultra (pref...) -ambitious.m.m.) heard-of (u.) -looking (u.m.f.) #tight (v.) #cultivation (tillage) cultivation (insufficient) #secretary -secretaryship way as prefix.) -covered (u.) -heating (u.m.m.) thought-of (u.m.f.) all one word vainglorious valve -grinding (u.m.) vaso (c.f.) -American.f. one word uni (c.) rest one word under age (deficit) age (younger) (n.) van driver guard pool vapor -filled (u.m.) #lock vase-shaped (u.m. etc.m..f.) -ionized (u.) grade gradient keep lift load -over (u. called-for (u.m.) -in-head (u.f.f.m.m.) self-conscious sent-for (u.m. u.) vellum -bound (u.) -minded (u.) rate river stairs state stream swing take tight (n.) cut #deck most urano (c.m.m. etc.) -pile (u.m.) -and-coming (u.) all one word vertebro (c. u.m.m.m.) up -anchor (u.m.) all one word vibro (c.m..m.) -draped (u.) -green (u.) velvet -crimson (u.) venthole ventri (c.) vagino (c.m.m.) all one word ventro (c.m.) #valorem. etc. rest one word un (pref.f.) user #default -defined -friendly #group #interface utero (c.) #to#date town trend turn wind upper case (printing) #class classman crust (n.f.m.f. v.m.) all one word used-car (u..) #and#up beat coast country dip end (v.) all one word vein -mining (u.) all one word V V -connection -curve -engine -neck -shaped -type vacant -eyed (u.f.) all one word vesico (c.) all one word vice #admiral -admiralty #consul -consulate #governor -governorship #minister -ministry -presidency #president -president-elect -presidential #rector -rectorship regal -regency #regent royal #squad #versa #warden videotape Vietcong . etc.) all one word uretero (c.f.m.) all one word uro (c.) all one word urethro (c.) all one word vegeto (c.f. high#frequency -high-speed (u. -English. -atomic.m.m.) -streaked (u. u.) front (n.) #shop unit-set (u.

m.) up (n.m.m.) -on (n.) -eared (u.m.m.) war #dance -disabled (u.) -covered (u.) fare head horse (nonliteral) like monger -made (u. u.f..m.) walled -in (u.) violet -blue (u.) -famed (u.m.) out (n.) warpsetter wash basin basket board bowl cloth -colored (u.) path plane ship -swept (u.m.) #time (clock) time (duration) ward heeler robe ship warm blooded -clad (u.m.m.m..) up (n.) -in (n.m.m.. u.m.) -up (u..m.) -high (u.f..m.) vulvo (c.) line waiting #list #man #room #woman walk around (n.) breaker -pledged (u.m.m.) -clarain -di-trina rest one word vivi (c.m.m.) vow -bound (u.m.) volleyball volt ammeter -ampere -coulomb meter ohmmeter -second volta (c.m... u.) #scale worker waist band belt cloth coat -deep (u.)` -colored (u.) all one word voice -capable #mail over (n.f.m.m.f.) all one word vitro (c.) all one word W W -engine -shaped -surface -type wage #earner -earning (u.) vis-a-vis viscero (c.m.) waste basket land leaf (bookbinding) paper site word watch band case #chain cry dog -free (u. u.) -hearted (u.m.) pot rag #sale stand tray trough tub up (n.m.m.) all one word vitreo (c.) all one word vote -casting (u.) -tart (u.f. u.m.m.) day down (n.m.) getter -getting (u.m.m.) paper plate -sided (u.m.) vine -clad (u.) warmed-over (u.m.m.m.) way walkie-talkie wall board eyed flower -like -painting (u.) #water violin-shaped (u. u.) -up (u.) #ray -rayed (u. u..f.) off (n.) -making (u.m.m.) away (n.m.) washed -out (u. u.) dresser growing stalk vinegar -flavored (u.) glass tower water bag .) over (n.Compounding Examples 185 view finder point vile-natured (u....m. u.m.m.m.m.. u. u.) out (n. u.

) handed -kneed (u.) #field -grown (u.m.) -up (n.m.m..) -shaped (u.) -bound (u.m.m.m..) worn web -fingered (u.m.m.) worn weak -backed (u.) finder flood flow fog -free (u.m.) beam bill down (n.m.) #paper #stone -yellow (u.) -cooled (u. u.) -hidden (u.) -old (u.) -bred (u.m.m.m.) -soluble (u.m.) -worn (u.) hook killer week day end -ender -ending (u. u.m. u.) #cooler course craft dog -drinking (u.) break cock glass going -hardened (u.) wax bill -billed (u.m.m..) minded mouthed weather beaten blown -borne (u.m.m..m.m.) -cool (v.) lane leaf #line -lined (u.) most proofing -stain (v.m.m.) -drilling (u.m.) scape shed shoot side -soak (v.) form guide -lashed (u.) farer fellow going laid lay mark post side -sore (u. u.) spout stain #table tight wall works worn watt -hour meter -second wave -cut (u.) weed -choked (u.) foot -footed (u..) long (u.m.) front gate head hole horse -inch -laden (u.) length mark meter -moist (u.m. u.) head . u..) -soaked (u.) off (n.m.m.) shaft well -being (n.m.) -beaten (u.m.m.m.m.m.) lock out (n.) -swept (u.m.) -bind (v.m.m.m.) -doer -doing (n.) -on (n.) weigh bridge -in (n.m.m.) drop fall -filled (u.) master #press Web#site wedge -billed (u.m.) -drained (u.186 Chapter 7 bank bearer -bearing (u.m.) -eyed (u. u.m.m.m. u.) #blister bloom buck color -colored (u..m.) -clad (u.m.m.) -beloved (u.m.m.m.) locked log #main mark melon meter plant pot power proofing quake -rot (v.) -deserving (u.m.) strip -stripped (u.) -headed (u.) -born (u.m.m.) way back (n.) #house -marked (u..) chandler cloth -coated (u.

) -read (u.) #book (diplomatic) cap (n.m.m.) going most -northwest #side -sider wet #bar -cheeked (u.) blast pool -shaped (u.) -meaner -nigh (u.m.) coat (n.) plate race spin stitch -worn (u.m.m.m.) -eyed (u.) stalk wheel band barrow base chair -cut (u.) soever -you-may-call-it (n.) -thought-out (u.) -wisher -wishing (u.) post saw -shaped (u.m.m.m.m.m.) comb (n.) -worn (u.) ear -fed (u.) bone -built (u.) foot (n.m.) spring stead -thought-of (u.m.m.m.) -looking (u..) soever where abouts after as at by for fore from in insoever into of on over soever through to under upon with withal wherever which ever soever whiffletree whip cord crack -graft (v.) -set-up (u.) -clean (v.m.) .m.) -footed (u.) wright when ever -issued (u.) ship wharf #boat hand head side what abouts (n.m.) going horse (nonliteral) #load -made (u.m.) whipper -in snapper whirl about (n.m.m.m.) pack wash whale back -backed (u.) welterweight werewolf west bound -central (u.m.) not (n.) -collar (u.Compounding Examples 187 -headed (u.) -to-do (u.) face -faced (u.) corn -eared (u.m.) side -spoken (u.) field grower -rich (u.m.) -headed (u.) ever -is-it (n.) hole -informed (u.m.m.) land -nurse (v.m.) -known (u.) #end -faced (u.m.m.) -settled (u.m.m. u.m.m.) -mouthed (u.m.m.) -off (u.) wind whirlybird whisk broom #tail whistle blower (nonliteral) #blower (literal) stop white back beard (n.m.m.) #hand lash -marked (u.) socket staff stalk stall stick stitch stock -tailed (u.) wheat cake -colored (u.m.

m.m.m.) -shopping (u.) -eyed (u.) -handed (u.) kill -made (u.) mouthed -open (u.m.) -hot (u.m. u.m. u.) wicket keeper keeping wide -angle (u.m.) sill #work wine bag -black (u.m.m.) .) -rode (u.m.m.m.m.) shield shock side sleeve sock speed stop storm stream swept #tunnel worn window breaker -breaking (u.) #hog -hogger sale some whomsoever whooping#cough wicker-woven (u.m.) down (n.m.m.m.m.) glass growing -hardy (u.) pane peeper #shade -shop (v.) row screen -shaken (u.) fire #land life #man wind will -less -o’-the-wisp power wilt-resistant (u.m.) feed #green (color) green (plant.m.) handed -heavy (u.) top (n.188 Chapter 7 handed -hard (u.m.) #dresser -dressing (u.m.m.m.m.) -loose (u.m.) -fallow (v.m.m.) bag ball blown brace breaker burn catcher -chapped (u.m..m.) -clad (u.m.) firm flow #force gall -galled (u.m.) wind (v.) -shear (u..) head -headed (u.m.m.m.) tide time -worn (u.) seller taster tester vat wing band bar beat bolt bone borne bow cut #flap -footed (u.) jammer lass mill pipe -pollinated (u.) -shot (u.) -throated (u.m.) winter -beaten (u.) span -swift (u..) nut over (n.m.) up (n.m.) vein wash who ever soever whole -headed (u. v.) -loading (u.) -drinking (u.) chill fall fast -fertilized (u.m.) -sown (u.m. u.m.m.) -fed (u.) spread -spreading (u.m.) -hardy (u.m.) pot tail -tailed (u.) #cleaner -cleaning (u..m.) widow #bird hood wife beater hood killer -ridden (u.) tip top wall -weary (u.m.m.m.) pot #press -red (u.m.) #line out (u.) -awake (u. etc.) -shaped (u.) wigwag wild cat (n.m.) #gauge hole -hungry (u.

m.m.) wood bark (color) bin bined block -built (u.m.m.) land -lined (u.) #gauge hair (dog) -haired (u.) wooden head (n.m.m.) wool fell gatherer grader growing head -laden (u.) -hulled (u.) word -blind (u.m.) horse -hour (u.m.) play seller smith work aday (n.m.m..m.) print pulp ranger rock #rot shed side stock turner -turning (u.m.m.m.) -white (u.m.Compounding Examples 189 wire bar -caged (u.) bag basket bench book card day -driven (u.) woe begone worn wolf -eyed (u. u.) -cased (u.m.) -deaf (u.m. u.) book builder catcher -clad (u.) -named (u.) less #line photo puller #rope spun stitch -stitched (u.m.m..) -looking (u..) -and-turn (u.m.) -headed (u.m.m.) pack press shearer shed sorter stock washer wheel -white (u.m.) wishbone witch craft #hazel #hunt -hunting (u.m.m.m.) -lined (u.) winder woolly -coated (u.) with draw hold in out stand within -bound (u.m.) -tailed (u. u.m.) cutter dancer draw (v.) lot -paneled (u.m.) #fish hound pack woman folk hood kind womenfolk wonder land strong -struck (u.) -spoken (u.m.) away (n.) wise acre crack guy head (n.) pace pan paper people place room saving sheet .) pecker pile -planing (u.m.m.) -walled (u.) chipper chopper chuck craft cut grub hole horse hung (u.) housed life load manship out (n.m.m.) -cut (u.) -headed (u.m.m.m.m.) -edged (u.) wind (music) working (u.) fare flow folk force group hand -hardened (u.m.) tap walker works -wound (u.m.) flow jobber list -perfect (u.m.m.

) all one word xylo (c. u.m.m.) hole -riddled (u.) year book day end -hour (u.m.m.) stick -wide (u.) -weary (u.m..m.m. u.m. u..m.m.) whileness (n.f.m.) all one word xero (c.m.) -eating (u.m.) -old (u.) -ladylike -looking (u.) X X -body -chromosome -disease #rated -shaped -virus x -axis #ray (n.) stand station stream study table time up (n. u.m...m.m.) neck -set (u.) young eyed (u.) wry bill -billed (u.m.) all one word Y Y -chromosome -joint -level -potential -shaped -track -tube Yankee-Doodle yard arm -deep (u.) -faced (u.m.f..m.m.m.) yaw meter -sighted (u.m.) all one word xeno (c.) outness worrywart worth less while (n.) -manlike -old -womanhood youthtide yuletide .m. u.) seed shaft wood worn #away down (u.m.m.m.) -protect up (n..) long (u.m.) -bellied (u.) yellow back -backed (u.m.m.m.m.) wreck-free (u.) -round (u.m. u.) -in (n.) writing#room wrong doer -ended (u.) off (n.) -minded (u.m.) brush #fever -headed (u.m.) -thinking (u.m.) -mouthed (u.) -tailed (u.m..) -headed (u.190 Chapter 7 shoe shop -shy (n.m.) top yes -man -no yester day year yoke fellow mating -toed (u.) -ripe (u.m.m.) -ray (u. u.) worm -eaten (u.m.m.) ways -weary (u.m.m.) week worn working #capital #load #room world beater -conscious (u.) wreath-crowned (u.f.) -throated (u.) wrought #iron -up (u.m.. u.) -looking (u.m.f.) -up (n.m.) wring bolt staff wrist band bone drop fall lock #pin plate watch write back (n.) xantho (c.) out (u.) -shyness site slip space -stained (u.m.m.) #consciousness #line #power -shaking (u. u.) -long (u.m..m.) belly -billed (u.) wrap around (n.

) zip #gun line -lipped (u.m.f.f.) lock zoo (c.) all one word zygo (c.m.f.f.) -white (u.m.) all one word zygomatico (c.f.) all one word .Compounding Examples 191 Z Z -bar zero axial -dimensional (u.) gravity #hour zigzag zinc -coated (u.) all one word zoologico (c.m.) -orbital rest one word zymo (c.

The possessive case of a singular or plural noun ending in s or with an s sound is formed by adding an apostrophe only. comptroller general’s decision attorneys general’s appointments Mr. media’s people’s. The adopted style. children’s citizen’s. Congresses’ criterion’s. Some irregular plurals require both an apostrophe and an s. ladies’ 8. see rule 11. in the choice and placing of punctuation marks. hostesses’ lady’s. and.8. The GPO Style Manual can offer only general rules of text treatment. Punctuation 8. Punctuation is used to clarify the meaning of written or printed language.4. (For possessives of italicized nouns.’s (no comma) account 193 . Brown of New York’s motion attorney at law’s fee John White. Apostrophes and possessives 8. Jr. 8. peoples’ Essex’s.1.’s. citizens’ Congress’. man’s. Punctuation should aid reading and prevent misreading. the sole aim should be to bring out more clearly the author’s thought. The possessive case of a singular or plural noun not ending in s is formed by adding an apostrophe and s. Joneses’ Jesus’ Mars’ Dumas’ Schmitz’ In compound nouns. The general principles governing the use of punctuation are: If it does not clarify the text it should be omitted. however. except in broad terms. A rigid design or pattern of punctuation cannot be laid down.2. Well-planned word order requires a minimum of punctuation. the ’s is added to the element nearest the object possessed. errata’s hostess’.3. must be consistent and based on sentence structure. men’s medium’s.’ erratum’s. Essexes’ Jones’. The trend toward less punctuation calls for skillful phrasing to avoid ambiguity and to ensure exact interpretation.6. bosses’ child’s.) boss’. criteria’s Co. Cos.

except when plural does not end in s. or after words more descriptive than possessive (not indicating personal possession). James’s St. Mates & Pilots’ Association Dentists’ Supply Co.6. Joint possession is indicated by placing an apostrophe on the last element of a series. United States control United Nations meeting Southern States industries Massachusetts laws Bureau of Ships report House of Representatives session Teamsters Union editors handbook syrup producers manual technicians guide teachers college merchants exchange children’s hospital Young Men’s Christian Association but Veterans’ Administration (now Department of Veterans Affairs) Congress’ attitude 8. soldiers and sailors’ home Brown & Nelson’s store men’s. the titles of books. Peter’s Church St. the names of organizations and institutions. (Note use of “St. women’s. the authentic form is to be followed.7. while individual or alternative possession requires the use of an apostrophe on each element of a series. Generally. of New York International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union Court of St.”) Masters.8.194 Chapter 8 8.5. Allen’s children the Army’s and the Navy’s work master’s and doctor’s degrees 8. In the use of an apostrophe in firm names. and geographic names. and children’s clothing St. Smith’s and Mrs. its ours theirs yours hers whose . Possessive pronouns do not take an apostrophe. Michael’s Men’s Club editor’s or proofreader’s opinion Clinton’s or Bush’s administration Mrs. the apostrophe should not be used after names of countries and other organized bodies ending in s. Elizabeths Hospital Johns Hopkins University Hinds’ Precedents Harpers Ferry Hells Canyon Reader’s Digest Actor’s Equity Association but Martha’s Vineyard 8.

except where clarity and sense demand such inclusion. While an apostrophe is used to indicate possession and contractions. it is not generally necessary to use an apostrophe simply to show the plural form of most acronyms. 7’s watch your p’s and q’s are they l’s or 1’s the Oakland A’s a number of s’s his résumé had too many I’s .11.Punctuation 195 8. 49ers TVers OKs MCing RIFing RIFs RIFed YWCAs ABCs 1920s IOUs 10s (thread) 4½s (bonds) 3s (golf) 2 by 4s IQs don’t (do not) I’ve (I have) it’s (it is/it has) ne’er (never) e’er (ever) class of ’08 (2008) spirit of ’76 (1776) not in her ’70s (age) better: in her seventies not during the ’90s better: during the 1990s or during the twenties but he never crosses his t’s she fails to dot her i’s a’s. Possessive indefinite or impersonal pronouns require an apostrophe. &’s. each other’s books some others’ plans one’s home is his castle another’s idea someone’s guesstimate 8. or abbreviations.9.10. initialisms. The singular possessive case is used in such general terms as the following: arm’s length attorney’s fees author’s alterations confectioner’s sugar cow’s milk distiller’s grain fuller’s earth miner’s inch printer’s ink traveler’s checks writer’s cramp 8.

and buts ins and outs the haves and have-nots ups and downs whereases and wherefores pros and cons yeses and noes yeas and nays but do’s and don’ts which’s and that’s 8. day labor (labor by the day) quartermaster stores State prison State rights . (IPOs) (SUVs) The apostrophe is omitted in abbreviations. twos.14. ifs. in which one noun modifies another. The plural of spelled-out numbers.13. but ’s is added to indicate the plural of words used as words if omission of the apostrophe would cause difficulty in reading. not Hallowe’en copter. The possessive case is not used in such expressions as the following.12. of words referred to as words. not ’coon possum. Danl. 1 day’s labor (labor for 1 day) 12 days’ labor 2 hours’ traveltime a stone’s throw 2 weeks’ pay for charity’s sake for pity’s sake several billion dollars’ worth but $10 billion worth 8.15. and also in shortened forms of certain other words. not ’possum Halloween. not ’copter but ma’am 8. not Dan’l phone..196 Chapter 8 When the plural form of an acronym appears in parentheses. and of words containing an apostrophe is formed by adding s or es. The possessive case is often used in lieu of an objective phrase even though ownership is not involved. threes. not ’phone coon. a lower case s is included within the parentheses. sevens ands. (MPDs) (MP3s) (JPEGs) 8.

) The Witness. such as a correction. [Italic added. Chairman.] or [Emphasis added. the Congressional Record. A possessive noun used in an adjective sense requires the addition of ’s.] The statue [sic] was on the statute books. nouns ending in s or ce and followed by a word beginning with s form the possessive by adding an apostrophe only.16. He is a friend of John’s. This matter is classified. congressional hearings. For euphony. In transcripts. to enclose interpolations that are not specifically a part of the original quotation.”] They fooled only themselves. Hughes’ service for old times’ sake for acquaintance’ sake for conscience’ sake 8. Yes. Q. or a caution that an error is reproduced literally. Our conference [lasted] 2 hours. He did it that way [indicating]. etc. testimony in courtwork. [Reads:] . Do you know these men [handing witness a list]? The bill had not been paid. The general [Washington] ordered him to leave.] Mr. The paper was as follows [reads]: I do not know. in the event of Mary’s leaving the ship’s hovering nearby Brackets Brackets.] A.17. [Laughter.] Our party will always serve the people [applause] in spite of the opposition [loud applause]. Hold up your hands.] Answer [after examining list].] [Deleted. [Show of hands. both are included within the sentence.19.. He came on the 3d [2d] of July. I do. editorial comment. The Witness.18.Punctuation 197 8. Jones. 8. A noun preceding a gerund should be in the possessive case. Q. [Continuing. We found this to be true at the Government Printing Office [GPO]. Stern’s is running a sale. explanation. (If more than one bracketed interpolation. [Deleted. omission. [Continues reading:] [Chorus of “Mr. for goodness’ sake Mr. are used— 8. in pairs.

Now let us take the next item. The Chairman [reading]: Mr. or quotation. Before a final clause that extends or amplifies preceding matter.] Mr. do not demand special privileges. laws. Smith]. It is known—— Mr.24. In mathematics. [Objected to.] [Pause. Colon The colon is used— 8. 8.] The Witness [interrupting]. Absolutely. Jones [continuing]. In bills. The following question came up for discussion: What policy should be adopted? She said: “I believe the time is now or never.23. Jones [interposing].” [When a direct quotation follows that has more than a few words.21. Several Voices. Kelley [to the chairman]. 8. question. Jones [for Mr. To introduce formally any matter that forms a complete sentence. to indicate matter that is to be omitted. Railroading is not a variety of outdoor sport: it is service. Smith]. [Interrupting. Speak up. When matter in brackets makes more than one paragraph.22. Do you mean that literally? Mr.] . A Voice From Audience. Give up conveniences.. to denote that enclosed matter is to be treated as a unit. Smith makes further statement off the record. Smith aside. Smith nods.198 Chapter 8 A. contracts. Quiet! 8. From 15 to 25 percent.20.] [Mr. start each paragraph with a bracket and place the closing bracket at end of last paragraph. Mr.] [Discussion off the record. Smith [presiding]. do not stop work: these are necessary while we are at war. etc. [The matter referred to is as follows:] The Chairman [to Mr.] [Mr.] [Mr. 8.

S. I Corinthians 13:13. if subentries follow. U. 8. After a salutation.27. In Biblical and other citations. manpower. Luke 4:3. Fairhaven district: Alaska Dredging Association (single subitem runs in). In expressing clock time. 8. and leaderwork. Financial Aid for College Students: Graduate Germany Revisited: Education in the Federal Republic 8. In bibliographic references. 8.29.Punctuation 199 There are three factors.25. between place of publication and name of publisher. 2:40 p. and third. tables. Wild Goose Trading Co. Wild Goose Trading Co. as follows: First.31. Government Printing Office.30. Seward Peninsula: Council district: Northern Light Mining Co. In imprints before the year (en space each side of colon). military preparation.26.28. Government Printing Office Washington : 2008 8.m. second.32. My Dear Sir: Ladies and Gentlemen: To Whom It May Concern: 8. In proportions. To separate book titles and subtitles. Journal of Education 3:342–358. industrial mobilization. 8. Washington: U. 8.S. After introductory lines in lists. Congressional Directory. Concrete mixed 5:3:1 but 5–2–1 or 5-2-1 (when so in copy) . Seward Peninsula: Council district (single subitem runs in): Northern Light Mining Co.

(not Brown. Before a direct quotation of only a few words following an introductory phrase.. II Mr.. DC. factory Brown.R. but He suggested that that committee be appointed. also spoke (where only last name is used) Alexandria. Inc. He said. 400 men were dismissed. Sr. Instead of 20. they retreated.R. 50 came. nothing. thousands came. A. Smith was very kind.34.200 Chapter 8 8. Jr. Smith. Smith. etc.” 8. To indicate the omission of a word or words. A. 1:2::3:6 Comma The comma is used— 8. is not known. To separate two words or figures that might otherwise be misunderstood. Then we had much. “Now or never. F. London Washington.36.S. swift streams. Esq..35.. 8. Between an introductory modifying phrase and the subject modified. Ph. Henry Smith.. Inc. What the difficulty is. To John.S. Junior.) but John Smith 2d (or II)...H... now. schools Motorola.. chairman Peter Johns. December 7.H.. VA’s waterfront . but short tributary streams 8. 8. short. Instead of hundreds.33. Beset by the enemy.37. Jr.38. 8. In double colon as ratio sign. within a sentence except where possession is indicated. After each of a series of coordinate qualifying words. Before and after Jr. F. In 2003.D..39. John. 1941. Jr.

or. that this office cannot function. red.) but Jonathan’s brother Moses Taylor was appointed. Mr. letters. white. It must be remembered. phrases. but 70 years 11 months 6 days (age) 8. To set off parenthetic words. and 4 minutes (series). or in remnants a.40. but horses and mules and cattle by the bolt. Smith. was elected. have caused them to put success of the team above the reputation of the college. he suggested.) 8. or nor.Punctuation 201 8. mollusks. He therefore gave up the search. The atom bomb. favored the location of the National Capital at Washington. Black. Jean’s sister. was first used in World War II. 3 hours. was the eldest. The dam that gave way [restrictive clause] was poorly constructed. spoke for the defense. and turtles frequented the shores. Before the conjunction in a compound sentence containing two or more independent clauses. section 15. Joyce. or clauses. or figures used with and. 8. by the yard. rain. each of which could have been written as a simple sentence. The restriction is laid down in title IX. and c neither snow. To set off words or phrases in apposition or in contrast. phrases. . and crustaceans were plentiful in the lakes. Democrat. not Mr. however. (Jonathan had more than one brother. b.43. Their high morale might. mules. of California. Jefferson. chapter 8. Mr. James Roosevelt. and blue horses. The boy went home alone. (Jean had one sister. who was then Secretary of State.41. of the code. Green. the lawyer. Mr. and cattle. and his sister remained with the crowd. nor heat 2 days. attorney for the plaintiff. It is obvious. Fish. but The man who fell [restrictive clause] broke his back.42. After each member within a series of three or more words. which was developed at the Manhattan project. therefore. Jones. signed the petition. that the Government had no guarantee. Mr.

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8.44.

After a noun or phrase in direct address.
Senator, will the measure be defeated? Mr. Chairman, I will reply to the gentleman later. but Yes, sir; he did see it. No, ma’am; I do not recall.

8.45.

After an interrogative clause, followed by a direct question.
You are sure, are you not? You will go, will you not?

8.46.

Between the title of a person and the name of an organization in the absence of the words of or of the.
Chief, Division of Finance chairman, Committee on Appropriations colonel, 12th Cavalry Regiment president, University of Virginia

8.47.

Inside closing quotation mark.
He said “four,” not “five.” “Freedom is an inherent right,” he insisted. Items marked “A,” “B,” and “C,” inclusive, were listed.

8.48.

To separate thousands and millions in numerical figures.
4,230 50,491 1,250,000 but 1,000,000,000 is more clearly illustrated as 1 billion

8.49.

After the year in complete dates (month, day, year) within a sentence.
The dates of September 11, 1993, to June 12, 1994, were erroneous. This was reflected in the June 13, 2007, report. but Production for June 2008 was normal. The 10 February 2008 deadline passed.

The comma is omitted— 8.50. Between superior figures or letters in footnote references.
Numerous instances may be cited.1 2 Data are based on October production.a b

Punctuation

203

8.51.

Before ZIP (Zone Improvement Plan) Code postal-delivery number.
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20401–0003 East Rochester, OH 44625–9701

8.52.

Between month, holiday, or season and year in dates.
June 2008 22d of May 2008 February and March 2008 January, February, and March 2008 January 24 A.D. 2008; 15th of June A.D. 2008 150 B.C. Labor Day 2006 Easter Sunday 2006 5 January 2006 (military usage) spring 2007 autumn 2007

8.53.

Between the name and number of an organization.
Columbia Typographical Union No. 101–12 American Legion Post No. 33

8.54.

In fractions, in decimals, and in serial numbers, except patent numbers.
½500 1.0947 page 2632 202–275–2303 (telephone number) 1721–1727 St. Clair Avenue Executive Order 11242 motor No. 189463 1450 kilocycles; 1100 meters

8.55.

Between two nouns one of which identifies the other.
The Children’s Bureau’s booklet “Infant Care” continues to be a bestseller.

8.56.

Before an ampersand (&).
Brown, Wilson & Co. Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers

8.57.

Before abbreviations of compass directions.
6430 Princeton Dr. SW.

8.58.

In bibliographies, between name of the publication and volume or similar number.
American Library Association Bulletin 34:238, April 1940.

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8.59.

Wherever possible without danger of ambiguity.
$2 gold Executive Order No. 21 General Order No. 12; but General Orders, No. 12 Public Law 85–1 He graduates in the year 2010 (not the year 2,010) My age is 30 years 6 months 12 days. John Lewis 2d (or II) Murphy of Illinois; Murphy of New York (where only last name is used) Carroll of Carrollton; Henry of Navarre (person closely identified with place); but Clyde Leo Downs, of Maryland; President Levin, of Yale University James Bros. et al.; but James Bros., Nelson Co., et al. (last element of series)

Dash A 1-em dash is used— 8.60. To mark a sudden break or abrupt change in thought.
He said—and no one contradicted him—“The battle is lost.” If the bill should pass—which God forbid!—the service will be wrecked. The auditor—shall we call him a knave or a fool?—approved an inaccurate statement. 8.61.

To indicate an interruption or an unfinished word or sentence. A 2-em dash is used when the interruption is by a person other than the speaker, and a 1-em dash will show self-interruption. Note that extracts must begin with a true paragraph. Following extracts, colloquy must start as a paragraph.
“Such an idea can scarcely be——” “The word ‘donation’——” “The word ‘dona’——” He said: “Give me lib——” The bill reads “repeal,” not “am——” Q. Did you see—— A. No, sir. Mr. Brown [reading]: “The report goes on to say that”—Observe this closely—“during the fiscal year * * *.”

8.62.

Instead of commas or parentheses if the meaning may thus be clarified.
These are shore deposits—gravel, sand, and clay—but marine sediments underlie them.

Punctuation

205

8.63.

Before a final clause that summarizes a series of ideas.
Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear—these are the fundamentals of moral world order.

8.64.

After an introductory phrase reading into the following lines and indicating repetition of such phrase.
I recommend— That we submit them for review and corrections; That we then accept them as corrected; and That we also publish them.

8.65.

With a preceding question mark, in lieu of a colon.
How can you explain this?—“Fee paid, $5.”

8.66.

To precede a credit line or a run-in credit or signature.
Lay the proud usurpers low! Tyrants fall in every foe! Liberty’s in every blow! Let us do or die! —Robert Burns. Every man’s work shall be made manifest.—I Corinthians 3:13. This statement is open to question.—Gerald H. Forsythe.

8.67. 8.68.

After a run-in sidehead. To separate run-in questions and answers in testimony.
Q. Did he go?—A. No.

A 1-em dash is not used— 8.69. At the beginning of any line of type, except as shown in rule 8.66.
8.70.

Immediately after a comma, colon, or semicolon.

A 3-em dash is used— 8.71. In bibliographies to indicate repetition.
Powell, James W., Jr., Hunting in Virginia’s lowlands. 1972. 200 pp. ——— Fishing off Delmarva. 1972. 28 pp.

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An en dash is used— 8.72. In a combination of (1) figures, (2) capital letters, or (3) figures and capital letters. An en dash, not a hyphen, is used, even when such terms are adjectival modifiers.
figures: 5–20 (bonds) 85–1—85–20 (Public laws. Note em dash between two elements with en dashes) 1–703–765–6593 (telephone number) 230–20–8030 (Social Security number) $15–$25 (range) capital letters: WTOP–AM–FM–TV (radio and television stations) CBS–TV AFL–CIO (union merger) C–SPAN (satellite television) figures and capitals: 6–A (exhibit identification) DC–14 (airplane) I–95 (interstate roadway) 4–H (Club) LK–66–A(2)–74 (serial number) but Rule 13e–4 section 12(a)–(b) (en dash used for the word “to”) ACF-Brill Motors Co. (hyphen with capital letters and a word) loran-C (hyphen with lowercase word and capital letter) MiG-25 (hyphen with mixed letters with figure) ALL-AMERICAN ESSAY CONTEST (hyphen in capitalized heading) Four Corners Monument, AZ-NM-UT-CO (hyphen with two-letter state abbreviations) 8.73.

In the absence of the word to when denoting a span of time.
2005–2008 January–June Monday–Friday

An en dash is not used— 8.74. For to when the word from precedes the first of two related figures or expressions.
From June 1 to July 30, 2005; not from June 1–July 30, 2005 8.75.

For and when the word between precedes the first of two related figures or expressions.
Between 2000 and 2008; not between 2000–08

Punctuation

207

Ellipses 8.76. Three asterisks (preferred form) or three periods, separated by en spaces, are used to denote an ellipsis within a sentence, at the beginning or end of a sentence, or in two or more consecutive sentences. To achieve faithful reproduction of excerpt material, editors using period ellipses should indicate placement of the terminal period in relation to an ellipsis at the end of a sentence. Note, in the following examples, the additional spacing necessary to clearly define commas and the terminal period when period ellipses are employed.
The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, upon articles of impeachment exhibited against him by the House of Representatives, and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges contained in the second, third, and eleventh articles of impeachment, it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be, and he is, acquitted of the charges in said articles made and set forth. The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson * * * upon articles of impeachment * * * and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges * * *, it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be * * * acquitted of the charges * * *. The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson . . . upon articles of impeachment . . . and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges . . . , it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be . . . acquitted of the charges. . . . 8.77. 8.78.

Ellipses are not overrun alone at the end of a paragraph. When periods are not specifically requested for ellipses in copy that has both periods and asterisks, asterisks will be used. A line of asterisks indicates an omission of one or more entire paragraphs. In 26½-pica or wider measure, a line of “stars” means seven asterisks indented 2 ems at each end of the line, with the remaining space divided evenly between the asterisks. In measures less than 26½ picas, five asterisks are used. Quotation marks are not used on a line of asterisks in quoted matter. Where an ellipsis line ends a complete quotation, no closing quote is used. * * * * * * *

8.79.

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8.80.

Indented matter in 26½-pica or wider measure also requires a seven-asterisk line to indicate the omission of one or more entire paragraphs. If an omission occurs in the last part of a paragraph immediately before a line of asterisks, three asterisks are used, in addition to the line of asterisks, to indicate such an omission. Equalize spacing above and below an ellipsis line.

8.81.

8.82.

Exclamation point 8.83. The exclamation point is used to mark surprise, incredulity, admiration, appeal, or other strong emotion which may be expressed even in a declarative or interrogative sentence.
Who shouted, “All aboard!” [Note omission of question mark.] “Great!” he shouted. [Note omission of comma.] He acknowledged the fatal error! How breathtakingly beautiful! Timber! Mayday! Mayday! 8.84.

In direct address, either to a person or a personified object, O is used without an exclamation point, or other punctuation; but if strong feeling is expressed, an exclamation point is placed at the end of the statement.
O my friend, let us consider this subject impartially. O Lord, save Thy people!

8.85.

In exclamations without direct address or appeal, oh is used instead of O, and the exclamation point is omitted.
Oh, but the gentleman is mistaken. Oh dear; the time is so short.

Hyphen The hyphen (a punctuation mark, not an element in the spelling of words) is used— 8.86. To connect the elements of certain compound words. (See Chapter 6 “Compounding Rules.”)

Punctuation

209

8.87.

To indicate continuation of a word divided at the end of a line. (See Word Division, supplement to the Style Manual.) Between the letters of a spelled word.
The Style Board changed New Jerseyite to New J-e-r-s-e-y-a-n. A native of Halifax is a H-a-l-i-g-o-n-i-a-n. The Chinese repressive action took place in T-i-a-n-a-n-m-e-n Square.

8.88.

8.89.

To separate elements of chemical formulas.

The hyphen, as an element, may be used— 8.90. To represent letters deleted or illegible words in copy.
Oakland’s - - bonic plague Richard Emory H - - - -

Parentheses Parentheses are used— 8.91. To set off important matter not intended to be part of the main statement that is not a grammatical element of the sentence. In colloquy, brackets must be substituted.
This case (124 U.S. 329) is not relevant. The result (see fig. 2) is most surprising. The United States is the principal purchaser (by value) of these exports (23 percent in 1995 and 19 percent in 1996). 8.92.

To enclose a parenthetic clause where the interruption is too great to be indicated by commas.
You can find it neither in French dictionaries (at any rate, not in Littré) nor in English dictionaries.

8.93.

To enclose an explanatory word not part of a written or printed statement.
the Winchester (VA) Star; but the Star of Winchester, VA Portland (OR) Chamber of Commerce; but Athens, GA, schools

8.94.

To enclose letters or numbers designating items in a series, either at the beginning of paragraphs or within a paragraph.
The order of delivery will be: (a) Food, (b) clothing, and (c) tents and other housing equipment. You will observe that the sword is (1) old fashioned, (2) still sharp, and (3) unusually light for its size. Paragraph 7(B)(1)(a) will be found on page 6. (Note parentheses closed up.)

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8.95.

To enclose a figure inserted to confirm a written or printed statement given in words if double form is specifically requested.
This contract shall be completed in sixty (60) days.

8.96.

A reference in parentheses at the end of a sentence is placed before the period, unless it is a complete sentence in itself.
The specimen exhibits both phases (pl. 14, A, B). The individual cavities show great variation. (See pl. 4.)

8.97.

If a sentence contains more than one parenthetic reference, the one at the end is placed before the period.
This sandstone (see pl. 6) is in every county of the State (see pl. 1).

8.98.

When a figure is followed by a letter in parentheses, no space is used between the figure and the opening parenthesis; but, if the letter is not in parentheses and the figure is repeated with each letter, the letter is closed up with the figure.
15(a). Classes, grades, and sizes. 15a. Classes, grades, and sizes.

8.99.

If both a figure and a letter in parentheses are used before each paragraph, a period and an en space are used after the closing parenthesis. If the figure is not repeated before each letter in parentheses but is used only before the first letter, the period is placed after the figure. However, if the figure is not repeated before each letter in parentheses and no period is used, space is inserted after the number if at least one other lettered subsection appears.
15(a). When the figure is used before the letter in each paragraph— 15(b). The period is placed after the closing parenthesis. 15. (a) When the figure is used before the letter in the first paragraph but not repeated with subsequent letters— (b) The period is used after the figure only. Sec. 12 (a) When no period is used and a letter in parentheses appears after a numbered item— (b) Space must be used after the number if at least one other lettered subsection is shown.

8.100.

Note position of the period relative to closing parenthesis:
The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc.). The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc. (sometimes ice cream)).

Index thoroughly 8. 2. May we hear from you. etc. etc. (6). Bread well baked b.104. a.) 8.103. May we ask prompt payment. Punctuate freely 2.—The conditional subjunctive is required for all unreal and doubtful conditions. 2. . After a declarative sentence that is not exclamatory or after an imperative sentence. archeological correspondent) 8. Sometimes to indicate ellipsis.105. The Chairman of the National Security Resources Board. Meat cooked rare c. Tell me how he did it. 2.106.—The Chairman of the National Security Resources Board. cakes. etc.—Industrial mobilization. 8.—The Chairman of the National Security Resources Board.102. etc. Compound sparingly 3. Stars are suns. start each paragraph with a parenthesis and place the closing parenthesis at the end of the last paragraph. Cubed apples stewed 1. 8. He was employed by Sampson & Co. Peacetime preparation. Period The period is used— 8. beverages. In place of a closing parenthesis after a letter or number denoting a series. On with the dance.—a.Punctuation 211 The vending stand sells a variety of items. Conditional subjunctive. To enclose bylines in congressional work. After an indirect question or after a question intended as a suggestion and not requiring an answer. Peacetime preparation. Do not be late. 8. Peacetime preparation—Industrial mobilization plans. After a run-in sidehead.107. (By Harvey Hagman.101. When matter in parentheses makes more than one paragraph. (These include sandwiches.

Statement of characteristics. Department of Commerce. (a) It is important to vary (alternate) the use of letters and numbers in any outline. Note.—Before types of equipment. Usually.—The source material was furnished. and variations. etc. (aa) When absolutely necessary.110. Steps in planning for procurement.25 meters 0. 13. but Source: U. The sequence is not fixed. consistency in indentions and order is essential. Where not needed. Bureau of the Census. depending on the number of parts. etc. typefaces and sizes are chosen to agree with the hierarchy of the head breakdowns.—To plan for the procurement of such arms. DETERMINATION OF TYPES.212 Chapter 8 62. As in any composition. A set space (en space) following the identifier aids alignment.—Statement of characteristics.75 percent $3. The number of levels and the width of the column determine alignment and indention. in addition to the use of center and side heads or indented paragraphs. To separate integers from decimals in a single expression. A.—a.175 . etc. II.S. a. the capital Roman numerals may be discarded and the outline can begin with the letter A. may be adopted.—(1) Determination of needs. Outlines can begin with a capital Roman numeral. etc. may be used as parts of the outline or to identify subparts of any previous parts.—Before types of. Paragraphs and subparagraphs may be arranged according to the following scheme. 62. to indicate thousands. (ii).109. 8.190. (i) The lowercase Roman numerals (i).50 1.108.—Before.08 mile 8.317 72. In continental European languages. Determination of types. I.—(a) Statement of characteristics. 1. (1) Aligning runover lines with the first word which follows the number or letter aids readability. Determination of types. 1. etc. double (or triple) lowercase letters may be used. 8.

Officer B. After a quotation mark that is preceded by a period. etc.114. .D. but Figure 1 (without legend. A told Mr.—Schematic drawing. A center period is sometimes used— To indicate multiplication. Mr. X (for unknown or censored name). 8. She said: “I believe the time is now or never.” 8. Legends without descriptive language do not receive periods. Mr. (Northeast) SSE. After letters used as names without specific designation.. 8. NE. unless otherwise specified.116.115.—Continued. Subject A. (See Chapter 9. Figure 1. but m (meter) kc (kilocycle) NY (New York) 8.Punctuation 213 8. chemical. Section 1. After legends and explanatory matter beneath illustrations. “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols. or other symbols This rule does not apply to abbreviation periods. and running heads. Brand X. After abbreviations.) a•b a b The period is omitted— 8. side.”) Apr. After— Lines in title pages Center. After Article 1. fig.113.117. but is not omitted after run-in sideheads Continued lines Boxheads of tables Scientific. etc. no period) 8. at the beginning of paragraphs. (Use of a multiplication sign is preferable. Figure 1. A said to B that all is well.111. B that the case was closed. (South-Southeast) RR. Ph.112.

...... Alex Ed Mac Sam 8. [for Mr....... After a middle initial which is merely a letter and not an abbreviation of a name. To express more than one query in the same sentence.... Question mark The question mark is used— 8.122........ “Why?” [Note single question mark.119........124........... Truman (President Truman’s preference) 8. even if an abbreviation precedes the leaders.. After words and incomplete statements listed in columns. The meeting is adjourned. Who asked.. Explanatory matter should be set in 6 point type under leaders or rules.. After Roman numerals used as ordinals. Did he do it? He did what? Can the money be raised? is the question. Immediately before leaders. Mr. King George V Apollo XII insigne Super Bowl XLII 8.120... (Position) 8.. [for Mr... 8. (Address) . I do not want to go.. (Name) 8.... even if not in the form of a question..... King]......... A..... Can he do it? or you? or anyone? .118.. After a short name which is not an abbreviation of the longer form.............121.. Daniel D Tompkins Ross T McIntire but Harry S... 8...125. To indicate a direct query. K...... . my son?” she asked.123....] “Did you hurt yourself... Andrews].... .....214 Chapter 8 but Mr.. Fullmeasure matter is not to be regarded as a column...

Punctuation

215

8.126.

To express doubt.
He said the boy was 8(?) feet tall. (No space before question mark.) The statue(?) was on the statute books. The scientific identification Dorothia? was noted. (Roman “?”.)

Quotation marks Quotation marks are used— 8.127. To enclose direct quotations. (Each part of an interrupted quotation begins and ends with quotation marks.)
The answer is “No.” He said, “John said, ‘No.’ ’’ (Note thin space between single and double closing quotes.) “John,” asked Henry, “why do you go?” 8.128.

To enclose any matter following such terms as entitled, the word, the term, marked, designated, classified, named, endorsed, cited as, referred to as, or signed; however, quotation marks are not used to enclose expressions following the terms known as, called, so-called, etc., unless such expressions are misnomers or slang.
Congress passed the act entitled “An act * * *.” After the word “treaty,” insert a comma. Of what does the item “Miscellaneous debts” consist? The column “Imports from foreign countries” was not * * *. The document will be marked “Exhibit No. 21;” but The document may be made exhibit No. 21. The check was endorsed “John Adamson.” It was signed “John.” but Beryllium is known as glucinium in some European countries. It was called profit and loss. The so-called investigating body.

8.129.

To enclose titles of addresses, articles, awards, books, captions, editorials, essays, headings, subheadings, headlines, hearings, motion pictures and plays (including television and radio programs), operas, papers, short poems, reports, songs, studies, subjects, and themes. All principal words are to be capitalized.
An address on “Uranium-235 in the Atomic Age” The article “Germany Revisited” appeared in the last issue. He received the “Man of the Year” award. “The Conquest of Mexico,” a published work (book) Under the caption “Long-Term Treasurys Rise” The subject was discussed in “Punctuation.” (chapter heading)

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It will be found in “Part XI: Early Thought.” The editorial “Haphazard Budgeting” “Compensation,” by Emerson (essay) “United States To Appoint Representative to U.N.” (heading for headline) In “Search for Paradise” (motion picture); “South Pacific” (play) A paper on “Constant-Pressure Combustion” was read. “O Captain! My Captain!” (short poem) The report “Atomic Energy: What It Means to the Nation”; but annual report of the Public Printer This was followed by the singing of “The Star-Spangled Banner.” Under the subhead “Sixty Days of Turmoil” will be found * * *. The subject (or theme) of the conference is “Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.” also Account 5, “Management fees.” Under the heading “Management and Operation.” Under the appropriation “Building of ships, Navy.” 8.130.

At the beginning of each paragraph of a quotation, but at the end of the last paragraph only. To enclose a letter or communication that bears both date and signature. To enclose misnomers, slang expressions, sobriquets, coined words, or ordinary words used in an arbitrary way.
His report was “bunk.” It was a “gentlemen’s agreement.” The “invisible government” is responsible. George Herman “Babe” Ruth. but He voted for the lameduck amendment.

8.131.

8.132.

8.133.

To close up characters except when they precede a fraction or an apostrophe or precede or follow a superior figure or letter, in which case a thin space is used. A thin space is used to separate double and single quotation marks.

8.134.

Quotation marks are not used— In poetry. The lines of a poem should align on the left, those that rhyme taking the same indention.
Why seek to scale Mount Everest, Queen of the air? Why strive to crown that cruel crest And deathward dare?

Punctuation

217

Said Mallory of dauntless quest: “Because it’s there.” 8.135. 8.136. 8.137. 8.138.

To enclose titles of works of art: paintings, statuary, etc. To enclose names of newspapers or magazines. To enclose complete letters having date and signature. To enclose extracts that are indented or set in smaller type, or solid extracts in leaded matter; but indented matter in text that is already quoted carries quotation marks. In indirect quotations.
Tell her yes. He could not say no.

8.139.

8.140. 8.141.

Before a display initial which begins a quoted paragraph. The comma and the final period will be placed inside the quotation marks. Other punctuation marks should be placed inside the quotation marks only if they are a part of the matter quoted.
Ruth said, “I think so.” “The President,” he said, “will veto the bill.” The trainman shouted, “All aboard!” Who asked, “Why?” The President suggests that “an early occasion be sought * * *.” Why call it a “gentlemen’s agreement”?

8.142.

In congressional and certain other classes of work showing amendments, and in courtwork with quoted language, punctuation marks are printed after the quotation marks when not a part of the quoted matter.
Insert the words “growth”, “production”, and “manufacture”. To be inserted after the words “cadets, U.S. Coast Guard;”. Change “February 1, 1983”, to “June 30, 2008”. “Insert in lieu thereof ‘July 1, 1983,’.”

8.143.

When occurring together, quotation marks should precede footnote reference numbers.
The commissioner claimed that the award was “unjustified.” 1 Kelly’s exact words were: “The facts in the case prove otherwise.” 2

218

Chapter 8

8.144.

Quotation marks should be limited, if possible, to three sets (double, single, double).
“The question in the report is, ‘Can a person who obtains his certificate of naturalization by fraud be considered a “bona fide” citizen of the United States?’ ”

Semicolon The semicolon is used— 8.145. To separate clauses containing commas.
Donald A. Peters, Jr., president of the First National Bank, was also a director of New York Central; Harvey D. Jones was a director of Oregon Steel Co. and New York Central; Thomas W. Harrison, chairman of the board of McBride & Co., was also on the board of Oregon Steel Co. Reptiles, amphibians, and predatory mammals swallow their prey whole or in large pieces, bones included; waterfowl habitually take shellfish entire; and gallinaceous birds are provided with gizzards that grind up the hardest seeds. Yes, sir; he did see it. No, sir; I do not recall. 8.146.

To separate statements that are too closely related in meaning to be written as separate sentences, and also statements of contrast.
Yes; that is right. No; we received one-third. It is true in peace; it is true in war. War is destructive; peace, constructive.

8.147.

To set off explanatory abbreviations or words that summarize or explain preceding matter.
The industry is related to groups that produce finished goods; i.e., electrical machinery and transportation equipment. There were three metal producers involved; namely, Jones & Laughlin, Armco, and Kennecott.

The semicolon is not used— 8.148. Where a comma will suffice.
Offices are located in New York, NY, Chicago, IL, and Dallas, TX.

Punctuation

219

Single punctuation 8.149. Single punctuation should be used wherever possible without ambiguity.
124 U.S. 321 (no comma) Sir: (no dash) Joseph replied, “It is a worthwhile effort.” (no outside period)

Type
8.150.

All punctuation marks, including parentheses, brackets, and superior reference figures, are set to match the type of the words which they adjoin. A lightface dash is used after a run-in boldface sidehead followed by lightface matter. Lightface brackets, parentheses, or quotation marks shall be used when both boldface and lightface matter are enclosed.
Charts: C&GS 5101 (N.O. 18320), page 282 (see above); N.O. 93491 (Plan); page 271.

9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
9.1.

Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space and to avoid distracting the reader by use of repetitious words or phrases. The nature of the publication governs the extent to which abbreviations are used. In the text of technical and legal publications, and in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and bibliographies, many words are frequently abbreviated. Heads, legends, tables of contents, and indexes follow the style of the text. Internal and terminal punctuation in symbols represening units of measure are to be omitted to conform with practice adopted by scientific, technical, and industrial groups. Where the omission of terminal punctuation causes confusion; e.g., the symbol in (inch) mistaken for the preposition in, the symbol should be spelled out. Standard and easily understood forms are preferable, and they should be uniform throughout a job. Abbreviations not generally known should be followed in the text by the spelled-out forms in parentheses the first time they occur; in tables and leaderwork such explanatory matter should be supplied in a footnote. As the printer cannot rewrite the copy, the author should supply these explanatory forms. In technical matter, symbols for units of measure should be used only with figures; similarly, many other abbreviations and symbols should not appear in isolation. For example, energy is measured in foot-pounds, NOT energy is measured in ft•lbs.

9.2.

9.3.

9.4.

9.5.

9.6.

Capitals, hyphens, periods (points), and spacing In general, an abbreviation follows the capitalization and hyphenation of the word or words abbreviated. It is followed by a period unless otherwise indicated.
c.o.d. St. but ft•lb

221

222

Chapter 9

9.7.

Abbreviations and initials of a personal name with points are set without spaces. Abbreviations composed of contractions and initials or numbers, will retain space.
H.S.T. J.F.K. L.B.J. U.S. U.N. U.S.C. (but Rev. Stat.) A.F. of L.-CIO (AFL–CIO preferred) A.D., B.C. e.s.t. i.e., e.g. (but op. cit.) B.S., LL.D., Ph.D., B.Sc. H.R. 116 (but S. 116, S. Con. Res. 116) C.A.D.C. (but App. D.C.) A.B. Secrest, D.D.S. but AT&T Texas A&M R&D

9.8.

Except as otherwise designated, points and spaces are omitted after initials used as shortened names of governmental agencies and of other organized bodies. “Other organized bodies” shall be interpreted to mean organized bodies that have become popularly identified with a symbol, such as MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), GM (General Motors), GMAC (General Motors Acceptance Corp.), etc. (See “List of Abbreviations.”) Symbols, when they appear in copy, may be used for acts of Congress. Example: ARA (Area Redevelopment Act).
VFW NLRB TVA AFL–CIO ARC ASTM

Geographic terms 9.9. United States must be spelled out when appearing in a sentence containing the name of another country. The abbreviation U.S. will be used when preceding the word Government or the name of a Government organization, except in formal writing (treaties, Executive orders, proclamations, etc.); congressional bills; legal citations and courtwork; and covers and title pages.
U.S. Government U.S. Congress U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. district court U.S. Supreme Court (but Supreme Court of the United States) U.S. Army (but Army of the United States)

Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

223

U.S. monitor Nantucket U.S.-NATO assistance U.S. Government efforts to control inf lation must be successful if the United States is to have a stable economy. but British, French, and United States Governments; United States-British talks 9.10.

With the exceptions in the preceding rule, the abbreviation U.S. is used in the adjective position, but is spelled out when used as a noun.
U.S. foreign policy U.S. farm-support program U.S. attorney U.S. citizen United States Code (official title) United States Steel Corp. (legal title) Foreign policy of the United States not Temperatures vary in the U.S.

9.11.

The names of foreign countries are not abbreviated, with the exception of the former U.S.S.R., which is abbreviated due to its length. In other than formal usage as defined in rule 9.9, all States of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are abbreviated immediately following any capitalized geographic term, including armory, arsenal, airbase, airport, barracks, depot, fort, Indian agency, military camp, national cemetery (also forest, historic site, memorial, seashore, monument, park), naval shipyard, proving ground, reservation (forest, Indian, or military), and reserve or station (military or naval).
Prince George’s County, MD Mount Rainier National Forest, WA Stone Mountain, GA National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, IL-IA-MO (note use of hyphens here) Richmond, VA Arlington National Cemetery, VA Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD Baltimore-Washington International Airport, MD Redstone Arsenal, AL but Leavenworth freight yards, Kansas Altoona sidetrack, Wisconsin

9.12.

9.13.

The Postal Service style of two-letter State, Province, and freely associated State abbreviations is to be used.

224

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United States
[Including freely associated States] Alabama........................................AL Alaska ........................................... AK American Samoa ........................ AS Arizona .........................................AZ Arkansas .......................................AR California .....................................CA Colorado ..................................... CO Connecticut .................................CT Delaware .......................................DE District of Columbia ................. DC Federated States of Micronesia .............................. FM Florida ...........................................FL Georgia......................................... GA Guam ............................................ GU Hawaii ............................................HI Idaho...............................................ID Illinois .............................................IL Indiana ...........................................IN Iowa.................................................IA Kansas ........................................... KS Kentucky.......................................KY Louisiana ...................................... LA Maine............................................ME Marshall Islands ....................... MH Maryland .................................... MD Massachusetts ........................... MA Michigan....................................... MI Minnesota .................................. MN Mississippi....................................MS Missouri...................................... MO Montana.......................................MT Nebraska .......................................NE Nevada .........................................NV New Hampshire .........................NH New Jersey .....................................NJ New Mexico ............................... NM New York ..................................... NY North Carolina........................... NC North Dakota .............................ND Northern Mariana Islands......................................MP Ohio ..............................................OH Oklahoma.................................... OK Oregon ..........................................OR Palau .............................................PW Pennsylvania................................ PA Puerto Rico .................................. PR Rhode Island ................................. RI South Carolina .............................SC South Dakota ............................... SD Tennessee..................................... TN Texas ..............................................TX Utah ...............................................UT Vermont ........................................VT Virgin Islands ...............................VI Virginia .........................................VA Washington.................................WA West Virginia.............................WV Wisconsin.....................................WI Wyoming .................................... WY

Canada
Alberta ..........................................AB British Columbia ........................BC Manitoba .....................................MB New Brunswick ...........................NB Newfoundland and Labrador ...NL Northwest Territories ............... NT Nova Scotia .................................. NS Nunavut .......................................NU Ontario.........................................ON Prince Edward Island .................PE Quebec ......................................... QC Saskatchewan ...............................SK Yukon ............................................YT

9.14.

The names of other insular possessions, trust territories, and Long Island, Staten Island, etc., are not abbreviated. The names of Canadian Provinces and other foreign political subdivisions are not abbreviated except as noted in rule 9.13.

9.15.

Addresses 9.16. Words such as Street, Avenue, Place, Road, Square, Boulevard, Terrace, Drive, Court, and Building, following a name or number, are abbreviated in footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and lists.
9.17.

In addresses, a single period is used with the abbreviations NW., SW., NE., SE. (indicating sectional divisions of cities) following name or number. North, South, East, and West are spelled out at all times.

Rs. half and quarter are used (not one-half or one-quarter). 2 S. 34. south half of T. 9.20. and & are used. footnotes. Rs.22. and 12 S. 9.) should be abbreviated. or leaderwork. The word Street or Avenue as part of a name is not abbreviated even in parentheses. an effort should be made to retain the exact form used by the signer. 3 S. If fractions are spelled out in land descriptions... Mount. Ltd. George Wythe Geo.. Inc. 32 (with or without a township number) 9. 1 W. Bros. In the description of tracts of public land the following abbreviations are used (periods are omitted after abbreviated compass directions that immediately precede and close up on figures): SE¼NW¼ sec. . 9. 12 S. and copy should be followed as to periods: Al Alex 9. R. 14th Street Bridge Ninth Avenue Bldg. 64 E. and Port are not abbreviated. R. sixth principal meridian Tps. tables. 4... use no hyphen and break after fraction. R. 6 N. Taylor 9.. Corp. T. Fort.19. The words County.23. In case of an unavoidable break in a land-description symbol group at end of a line. 4. sidenotes...18. R.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 225 9. 8. Names and titles 9. 7 N.. In company and other formal names. 12 and 13 W. W½E½. 11.24. 9. T. and 10 E... The following forms are not always abbreviations. 2 W. NE¼ sec.. 47 N..21. Saint (St. W½. T... R. sec. Point. such forms as Bro. of the Boise Meridian lot 6. T. 15 E. 20. 26 T. 1 E.. if it is not necessary to preserve the full legal title.25. N½ sec. lists. Ben Ed Fred Sam Walt Will In signatures. Association and Manufacturing are not abbreviated. Descriptions of tracts of land 9. and W½SE¼SE¼ sec.) and Sainte (Ste. sec.. 10. Co.

of America Aluminum Co.. Baker & Bro. These officers hold presidential commissions and are confirmed at their ranks by the Senate. or naval title preceding a name is abbreviated if followed by first or given name or initial. The commissioned ranks are the highest in the military. and leaderwork. & Co. military. except in such names as “Washington Railway & Electric Co. Electronics Manufacturing Co.” SS for steamship. News & World Report Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Mine.).27. and Ry. Army.S. and Marine Corps officers are called company grade officers in the pay grades of O–1 to O–3. of New Jersey H.” and “Florida Railroad & Navigation Corp.. Miss.. Inc. 9.J.28. field grade .29. Messrs. M. abbreviate the words railroad and railway (RR. Jones Bros.. tables. Gilbert and Sullivan Currier and Ives 9. Mme. and Dr. etc. In the names of informal companionships the word and is spelled out.. American Telephone & Telegraph Co. In parentheses. Norton Enterprises. but Mr. Mlle. Ltd. Housing and Urban Affairs Committee Company and Corporation are not abbreviated in names of Federal Government units. Commodity Credit Corporation Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 9. Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Fairmount Building & Loan Association 9. are abbreviated with or without first or given name or initial. U. Ms. Texas College of Arts & Industries Robert Wilson & Associates. Inc. sidenotes.26.. Maryland Steamship Co. Air Force. Mill & Smelter Workers but Little Theater Company Senate Banking. Mrs... United States military titles and abbreviations Officer rank Officer ranks in the United States military consist of commissioned officers and warrant officers. MS for motorship. of America Standard Oil Co. footnotes. MM. a civil. preceding name are used at all times. In other than formal usage.226 Chapter 9 Radio Corp...

Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

227

officers in pay grades O–4 to O–6, and general officers in pay grades O–7 and higher. The equivalent officer groupings in the Navy are called junior grade, mid-grade, and flag. Warrant officers hold warrants from their service secretary and are specialists and experts in certain military technologies or capabilities. The lowest ranking warrant officers serve under a warrant, but they receive commissions from the President upon promotion to chief warrant officer 2. These commissioned warrant officers are direct representatives of the President of the United States. They derive their authority from the same source as commissioned officers but remain specialists, in contrast to commissioned officers, who are generalists. There are no warrant officers in the Air Force.
Army Navy Coast Guard Marines Air Force

General of the Army Fleet Admiral (Reserved for wartime only) (Reserved for wartime only) Admiral ADM Chief of Naval Operations and Commandant of the Coast Guard Lieutenant General LTG Major General MG Brigadier General BG Colonel COL Lieutenant Colonel LTC Major MAJ Captain CPT

General of the Air Force (Reserved for wartime only)

O10

General GEN Army Chief of Staff

General Gen. Commandant of the Marine Corps

General Gen. Air Force Chief of Staff

O9

Vice Admiral VADM Rear Admiral Upper Half RADM Rear Admiral Lower Half RDML Captain CAPT Commander CDR Lieutenant Commander LCDR Lieutenant LT

Lieutenant General Lt. Gen. Major General Maj. Gen. Brigadier General Brig. Gen. Colonel Col. Lieutenant Colonel Lt. Col. Major Maj. Captain Capt.

Lieutenant General Lt. Gen. Major General Maj. Gen. Brigadier General Brig. Gen. Colonel Col. Lieutenant Colonel Lt. Col. Major Maj. Captain Capt.

O8

O7

O6

O5

O4

O3

228

Chapter 9

Army First Lieutenant 1LT Second Lieutenant 2LT Chief Warrant Officer CW5 Chief Warrant Officer 4 CW4 Chief Warrant Officer 3 CW3 Chief Warrant Officer 2 CW2 Warrant Officer 1 WO1

Navy Coast Guard Lieutenant Junior Grade LTJG Ensign ENS Chief Warrant Officer CWO5 Chief Warrant Officer 4 CWO4 Chief Warrant Officer 3 CWO3 Chief Warrant Officer 2 CWO2 Warrant Officer 1 WO1

Marines First Lieutenant 1st Lt. Second Lieutenant 2nd Lt. Chief Warrant Officer 5 CWO5 Chief Warrant Officer 4 CWO4 Chief Warrant Officer 3 CWO3 Chief Warrant Officer 2 CWO2 Warrant Officer 1 WO

Air Force First Lieutenant 1st Lt. Second Lieutenant 2nd Lt.

O2

O1

W5

NO WARRANT

W4

NO WARRANT

W3

NO WARRANT

W2

NO WARRANT

W1

NO WARRANT

Source: http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/officers.html.

Enlisted rank Service members in pay grades E–1 through E–3 are usually either in some kind of training status or on their initial assignment. The training includes the basic training phase where recruits are immersed in military culture and values and are taught the core skills required by their service component. Basic training is followed by a specialized or advanced training phase that provides recruits with a specific area of expertise or concentration. In the Army and Marines, this area is called a military occupational specialty; in the Navy it is known as a rate; and in the Air Force it is simply called an Air Force specialty. Leadership responsibility significantly increases in the mid-level enlisted ranks. This responsibility is given formal recognition by use of the terms noncommissioned officer and petty officer. An Army sergeant, an Air Force staff sergeant, and a Marine corporal are considered NCO ranks. The Navy NCO equivalent, petty officer, is achieved at the rank of petty officer third class.

Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

229

At the E–8 level, the Army, Marines, and Air Force have two positions at the same pay grade. Whether one is, for example, a senior master sergeant or a first sergeant in the Air Force depends on the person’s job. The same is true for the positions at the E–9 level. Marine Corps master gunnery sergeants and sergeants major receive the same pay but have different responsibilities. E–8s and E–9s have 15 to 30 years on the job, and are commanders’ senior advisers for enlisted matters. A third E–9 element is the senior enlisted person of each service. The sergeant major of the Army, the sergeant major of the Marine Corps, the master chief petty officer of the Navy, and the chief master sergeant of the Air Force are the spokespersons of the enlisted force at the highest levels of their services.
Army Navy Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy (MCPON) and Coast Guard (MCPOCG) Command Sergeant Major (CSM) Master Chief Petty Officer (MCPO) Fleet/ Command Master Chief Petty Officer Master Chief First Gunnery Master Sergeant Sergeant Sergeant (MGySgt) (CMSgt) Senior Master Sergeant (SMSgt) Master Sergeant (MSgt) Command Chief Master Sergeant (CCM) Marines Air Force

E9

Sergeant Major of the Army (SMA)

Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps (SgtMajMC)

Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force (CMSAF)

E9

Sergeant Major (SGM)

Sergeant Major (SgtMaj)

E8

Master Sergeant (MSG)

First Sergeant (1SG)

Senior Chief Petty Officer (SCPO)

Master Sergeant (MSgt)

First Sergeant

First Sergeant

E7

Sergeant First Class (SFC)

Chief Petty Officer (CPO)

Gunnery Sergeant (GySgt)

First Sergeant

E6

Staff Sergeant (SSG)

Petty Officer First Class (PO1) Petty Officer Second Class (PO2) Petty Officer Third Class (PO3)

Staff Sergeant (SSgt)

Technical Sergeant (TSgt)

E5

Sergeant (SGT)

Sergeant (Sgt)

Staff Sergeant (SSgt)

E4

Corporal (CPL)

Specialist (SPC)

Corporal (Cpl)

Senior Airman (SrA)

230

Chapter 9

Army

Navy Coast Guard

Marines

Air Force

E3

Private First Class (PFC)

Seaman (SN)

Lance Corporal (LCpl)

Airman First Class (A1C)

E2

Private E–2 (PV2)

Seaman Apprentice (SA)

Private First Class (PFC)

Airman (Amn)

E1

Private

Seaman Recruit (SR)

Private

Airman Basic

Source: http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/enlisted.html.

9.30. 9.31.

Spell out Senator, Representative, and commandant. Unless preceded by the, abbreviate Honorable, Reverend, and Monsignor when followed by the first name, initials, or title.
Hon. Elihu Root; the Honorable Elihu Root; the Honorable Mr. Root the Honorables John Roberts, John Paul Stevens, and Ruth Bader Ginsberg Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Reverend Dr. King; Rev. Dr. King; Reverend King (not Rev. King, nor the Reverend King) Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman; the Right Reverend James E. Freeman; Very Rev. Henry Boyd; the Very Reverend Henry Boyd Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Bird; the Right Reverend Monsignor John Bird

9.32.

The following and similar forms are used after a name:
Esq., Jr., Sr. 2d, 3d (or II, III) (not preceded by comma) Degrees: LL.D., M.A., Ph.D., etc. Fellowships, orders, etc.: FSA Scot, F.R.S., K.C.B., C.P.A., etc.

9.33.

The abbreviation Esq. and other titles such as Mr., Mrs., and Dr., should not appear with any other title or with abbreviations indicating scholastic degrees.
John L. Smith, Esq., not Mr. John L. Smith, Esq., nor John L. Smith, Esq., A.M.; but James A. Jones, Jr., Esq. Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D., not Mr. Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D. George Gray, M.D., not Mr. George Gray, M.D., nor Dr. George Gray, M.D. Dwight A. Bellinger, D.V.M.

9.34.

Sr. and Jr. should not be used without first or given name or initials, but may be used in combination with any title.
A.K. Jones, Jr., or Mr. Jones, Junior, not Jones, Jr., nor Jones, Junior President J. B. Nelson, Jr.

Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

231

9.35.

When name is followed by abbreviations designating religious and fraternal orders and scholastic and honorary degrees, their sequence is as follows: Orders, religious first; theological degrees; academic degrees earned in course; and honorary degrees in order of bestowal.
Henry L. Brown, D.D., A.M., D.Lit. T.E. Holt, C.S.C., S.T.Lr., LL.D., Ph.D. Samuel J. Deckelbaum, P.M.

9.36.

Academic degrees standing alone may be abbreviated.
John was graduated with a B.A. degree; but bachelor of arts degree (lowercase when spelled out). She earned her Ph.D. by hard work.

9.37.

In addresses, signatures, lists of names, and leaderwork but not in tables nor in centerheads, Mr., Mrs., and other titles preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr., 2d, and 3d following a name, are set in roman caps and lowercase if the name is in caps and small caps. If the name is in caps, they are set in caps and small caps, if small caps are available—otherwise in caps and lowercase.

9.38.

Parts of publications The following abbreviations are used for parts of publications mentioned in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, list of references, tables, and leaderwork, when followed by figures, letters, or Roman numerals.
app., apps. (appendix, appendixes) art., arts. (article, articles) bull., bulls. (bulletin, bulletins) ch., chs. (chapter, chapters) col., cols. (column, columns) ed., eds. (edition, editions) fig., figs. (figure, figures) No., Nos. (number, numbers) p., pp. (page, pages) par., pars. (paragraph, paragraphs) pl., pls. (plate, plates) pt., pts. (part, parts) sec., secs. (section, sections) subch., subchs. (subchapter, subchapters) subpar., subpars. (subparagraph, subparagraphs) subpt., subpts. (subpart, subparts) subsec., subsecs. (subsection, subsections) supp., supps. (supplement, supplements) vol., vols. (volume, volumes)

232

Chapter 9

9.39.

The word article and the word section are abbreviated when appearing at the beginning of a paragraph and set in caps and small caps followed by a period and an en space, except that the first of a series is spelled out.
Art. 2; Sec. 2; etc.; but Article 1; Section 1 Art. II; Sec. II; etc.; but Article I; Section I

9.40.

At the beginning of a legend, the word figure preceding the legend number is not abbreviated. Figure 4.—Landscape.

Terms relating to Congress 9.41. The words Congress and session, when accompanied by a numerical reference, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, and text footnotes. In sidenotes, lists of references, tables, leaderwork, and footnotes to tables and leaderwork, the following abbreviations are used:
106th Cong., 1st sess. 1st sess., 106th Cong. 9.42. Public Law 84, 102d Cong. Private Law 68, 102d Cong.

In references to bills, resolutions, documents and reports in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork, the following abbreviations are used:
H.R. 416 (House bill) S. 116 (Senate bill) The examples above may be abbreviated or spelled out in text. H. Res. 5 (House resolution) H. Con. Res. 10 (House concurrent resolution) H.J. Res. 21 (House joint resolution) S. Res. 50 (Senate resolution) S. Con. Res. 17 (Senate concurrent resolution) S.J. Res. 45 (Senate joint resolution) H. Conf. Rept. 10 (House conference report) H. Doc. 35 (House document) S. Doc. 62 (Senate document) H. Rept. 214 (House report) S. Rept. 410 (Senate report) Ex. Doc. B (Executive document) Ex. F (92d Cong., 2d sess.) Ex. Rept. 9 (92d Cong., 1st sess.) Misc. Doc. 16 (miscellaneous document) Public Res. 47

Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

233

9.43.

References to statutes in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and congressional work are abbreviated.
Rev. Stat. (Revised Statutes); 43 Rev. Stat. 801; 18 U.S.C. 38 Supp. Rev. Stat. (Supplement to the Revised Statutes) Stat. L. (Statutes at Large) but Public Law 85−1; Private Law 68

Calendar divisions 9.44. Names of months followed by the day, or day and year, are abbreviated in footnotes, tables, leaderwork, sidenotes, and in bibliographies. (See examples, rule 9.45.) May, June, and July are always spelled out. In narrow columns in tables, however, the names of months may be abbreviated even if standing alone. Preferred forms follow:
Jan. Feb. Mar. 9.45. Apr. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

In text only, dates as part of a citation or reference within parentheses or brackets are also abbreviated.
(Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 2005) (Congressional Record, Sept. 25, 2007) [From the New York Times, Mar. 4, 2008] [From the Mar. 4 issue] On Jan. 25 (we had commenced on Dec. 26, 2005) the work was finished. (In footnotes, tables, leaderwork, and sidenotes) On January 25, a decision was reached (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 2006). (Text, but with citation in parentheses) but On January 25 (we had commenced on December 26, 2008) the work was finished. (Not a citation or reference in text)

9.46.

Weekdays are not abbreviated, but the following forms are used, if necessary, in lists or in narrow columns in tables:
Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat.

234

Chapter 9

Time zones 9.47. The following forms are to be used when abbreviating names of

time zones:
AKDT—Alaska daylight time AKST—Alaska standard time AKT—Alaska time (implies standard or daylight time) AST—Atlantic standard time AT—Atlantic time CDT—central daylight time CST—central standard time CT—central time DST—daylight saving (no “s”) time EDT—eastern daylight time EST—eastern standard time ET—eastern time GCT—Greenwich civil time GMAT—Greenwich mean astronomical time GMT—Greenwich mean time HDT—Hawaii-Aleutian daylight time (not observed in HI) HST—Hawaii-Aleutian standard time LST—local standard time MDT—mountain daylight time MST—mountain standard time MT— mountain time PDT—Pacific daylight time PST—Pacific standard time PT—Pacific time UTC—coordinated universal time

Acronyms and coined words 9.48. To obtain uniform treatment in the formation of acronyms and coined words, apply the formulas that follow:
Use all capital letters when only the first letter of each word or selected words is used to make up the symbol: APPR (Army package power reactor) EPCOT (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow) MAG (Military Advisory Group) MIRV (multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle) SALT (strategic arms limitation talks); (avoid SALT talks) STEP (supplemental training and employment program) Use all capital letters where first letters of prefixes and/or suffixes are utilized as part of established expressions: CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) ESP (extrasensory perception) FLIR (forward-looking infrared) Copy must be followed where an acronym or abbreviated form is copyrighted or established by law: ACTION (agency of Government; not an acronym) MarAd (Maritime Administration) NACo (National Association of Counties) MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) Use caps and lowercase when proper names are used in shortened form, any word

Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

235

of which uses more than the first letter of each word: Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation) Pepco (Potomac Electric Power Co.) Inco (International Nickel Co.) Aramco (Arabian-American Oil Co.) Unprofor (United Nations Protection Force) Use lowercase in common-noun combinations made up of more than the first letter of lowercased words: loran (long-range navigation) sonar (sound navigation ranging) secant (separation control of aircraft by nonsynchronous techniques) 9.49.

The words infra and supra are not abbreviated.

9.50.

Terms of measure Compass directions are abbreviated as follows:
N. NE. E. SW. S. NNW. W. ESE. 10° N. 25° W. NW. by N. ¼ W.

9.51.

The words latitude and longitude, followed by figures, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork, and the figures are always closed up.
lat. 52°33'05" N. long. 13°21'10" E.

9.52.

Avoid breaking latitude and longitude figures at end of line; space out line instead. In case of an unavoidable break at end of line, use hyphen. Temperature and gravity are expressed in figures. When the degree mark is used, it must appear closed up to the capital letter, not against the figures. Note the following related abbreviations and letter symbols and their usages:
abs, absolute Bé, Baumé °C,1 degree Celsius 2 °F, degree Fahrenheit °R, degree Rankine K, kelvin 273.15 K °API API, American Petroleum Institute Twad, Twaddell 100 °C 212 °F 1 671.67 °R 18 °API

9.53.

1 2

Without figures preceding it, ˚C or ˚F should be used only in boxhead and over fi gure columns in tables. Preferred form (superseding Centigrade).

9.) 2:30 p.m. Metric unit letter symbols are set lowercase roman unless the unit name has been derived from a proper name. (not 10:00 a. minute.m. and second of plane angle. (12 midnight) 9.m.55.56. (12 noon) 12 a.m. The exception is the letter L for liter. The word o’clock is not used with abbreviations of time.236 Chapter 9 9. in which case the first letter of the symbol is capitalized (for example Pa for pascal and W for watt).m. 3m 45 mm 25 °C but 33°15'21" Metric units m g L meter (for length) gram (for weight or mass) liter (for capacity) Prefixes for multiples and submultiples E P T G M k h da exa (10 ) peta (1015) tera (1012) giga (109) mega (106) kilo (103) hecto (102) deka (10) Length km hm dam m dm cm mm kilometer hectometer decameter meter decimeter centimeter millimeter km2 hm2 dam2 m2 dm2 cm2 mm2 18 d c m μ n p f a deci (10 ) centi (10—2) milli (10—3) micro (10—6) nano (10—9) pico (10—12) femto (10—15) atto (10—18) Area square kilometer square hectometer square decameter square meter square decimeter square centimeter square millimeter —1 Volume km3 hm3 dam3 m3 dm3 cm3 mm3 cubic kilometer cubic hectometer cubic dekameter cubic meter cubic decimeter cubic centimeter cubic millimeter . not 10 o’clock p.54. The preferred symbol for cubic centimeter is cm3. use cc only when requested. A space is used between a figure and a unit symbol except in the case of the symbols for degree.m. 12 p. The same form is used for singular and plural. References to meridian in statements of time are abbreviated as follows: 10 a.

58. In astrophysical and similar scientific matter. A VA F H Hz J ampere voltampere farad Henry Hertz joule V W kc kV kVA kW volt watt kilocycle kilovolt kilovoltampere kilowatt mF mH μF millifarad millihenry microfarad (onemillionth of a farad) 9.57. kilogram hectogram dekagram gram decigram centigram milligram microgram ha a Land area hectare acre kL hL daL L dL cL mL Capacity of containers kiloliter hectoliter dekaliter liter deciliter centiliter milliliter A similar form of abbreviation applies to any unit of the metric system.59.5h . the same form of abbreviation being used for both singular and plural: Length in ft yd mi Time yr mo d h min s year month day hour minute second gr dr oz lb cwt dwt ton(s) but t inch foot yard mile (statute) Weight grain dram ounce pound hundredweight pennyweight (not abbreviated) metric ton (tonne) gill pt qt gal pk bu bbl in in3 mi2 ft3 2 Area and volume square inch cubic inch square mile cubic foot Capacity (not abbreviated) pint quart gallon peck bushel barrel 9. magnitudes and units of time may be expressed as follows: 5h3m9s 4.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 237 Weight kg hg dag g dg cg mg μg 9. The following forms are used when units of English weight and measure and units of time are abbreviated.

If abbreviations are required. dol (dollar) c.—abstract acct.60.—American Reports Amtrak—National Railroad Passenger Corporation AMVETS—American Veterans of World War II.R. see the table “Currency” in Chapter 17 “Useful Tables.a.4D (insecticide) 3d—third 4˚—quarto 8˚—octavo A1 (rating) A.—Alcoholics Anonymous AARP—American Association of Retired Persons abbr. ¢ (cent.—also known as A.D.61. 937) ADDH—attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity ADHD—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder AEF—American Expeditionary Forces AF—audiofrequency AFB—Air Force Base AFL–CIO—American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations AID—Agency for International Development AIDS—acquired immunodeficiency syndrome a. The following are some of the abbreviations and symbols used for indicating money: (For the abbreviations of other terms indicating currency. or M.—master of arts a.—(ante meridiem) before noon Am.L.D.—(anno mundi) in the year of the world A. ct.238 Chapter 9 Money 9.”) $.—(anno Domini) in the year of our Lord (A.A. use these forms: 2.k. Amvet(s) (individual) antilog—antilogarithm (no period) AOA—Administration on Aging API—American Petroleum Institute .000 € (euro) Mex $2.M. Repts. Standard word abbreviations 9.—abbreviation abs.—account ACDA—Arms Control and Disarmament Agency ACTH—adrenocorticotropic hormone A. cents) TRL175 (Turkish) USD15.—American Law Reports AM—amplitude modulation (no periods) A.M.A.m.650 ₧ (peso) £ (pound) d (pence) Use “USD” if omission would result in confusion.

S.—caps and small caps ca.o.—bachelor of literature BLM—Bureau of Land Management BLS—Bureau of Labor Statistics Blvd.A.—avenue AWACS—airborne warning and control system AWOL—absent without leave B.—Code of Federal Regulations Supplement CHAMPUS—Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services CIA—Central Intelligence Agency CIC—Counterintelligence Corps C.) B.—District of Columbia Appeal Cases App.R.—bachelor of arts BBB—Better Business Bureau B.N.—before Christ (1200 B.c.—Atlantic Reporter.—Appellate Division APPR—Army package power reactor approx.Cls. or Lit(t). Lit(t).—Circuit Court of Appeals CCC—Commodity Credit Corporation CCITT—Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony C.—(corpus juris) body of law.—boulevard b.B.—Before Common Era BCG—(bacillus Calmette-Guerin) antituberculosis vaccine bf.—buyer’s option B.—Army service number ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials ATM—automatic teller machine Atl. Cas. D.C.C. CAT scan—computerized axial tomography C.—Court of Customs and Patents Appeals CCR—Commission on Civil Rights CDC—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention C. second series AUS—Army of the United States Ave.C.Cls.—Blatchford’s Prize Cases Bldg. Atlantic Reporter.—approximately ARC—American Red Cross ARS—Agricultural Research Service ASCS—Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service ASME—American Society of Mechanical Engineers A.—Common Era CEA—Council of Economic Advisers cf.C.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 239 APO—Army post office (no periods) App.A.E.—(circa) about ca—centiare CACM—Central American Common Market CAD—computer-aided design CAP—Civil Air Patrol CARE—Cooperative for American Remittances to Everywhere. Div.—bachelor of science c.C.Sc. or A.C.B. Pr.—Court of Claims Reports C.—building B. Chief Justice .S.J.—(confer) compare or see CFR—Code of Federal Regulations CFR Supp.—Court of Claims C.A.—boldface BGN—Board on (not of) Geographic Names BIA—Bureau of Indian Affairs BIS—Bank for International Settlements Blatch. and s. or B.2d.E.P. Inc. A.

—doctor of veterinary medicine E. Gen.P.—doctor.g.—doctor of public hygiene DPT—diphtheria.a. debtor Dr.—daylight saving (no “s”) time D. Supreme Court Reports) DAR—Daughters of the American Revolution d. Ct.—(exempli gratia) for example EHF—extremely high frequency emcee—master of ceremony e.—chemically pure C.—District Court D.S.S. or Lit(t).b.s. pertussis.P.—east EDGAR—Electronic Data Gathering.Lit(t).240 Chapter 9 CNN—Cable News Network CO—commanding officer Co.—continued conelrad—control of electromagnetic radiation (civil defense) Conus—continental United States Corp.P.—corporation (commercial) cos—cosine (no period) cosh—hyperbolic cosine (no period) cot—cotangent (no period) coth—hyperbolic cotangent (no period) c.D.t. drive d.—credit. Analysis and Retrieval (SEC) EEOC—Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EFTA—European Free Trade Association EFTS—electronic funds transfer system e.—debit.—company (commercial) c.—doing business as d.—doctor of dental surgery DDT—dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DHS—Department of Homeland Security Dist.m.p.d.—(ditto) the same DOC—Department of Commerce DOD—Department of Defense DOE—Department of Energy DOJ—Department of Justice DOL—Department of Labor DOS—Department of State DOT—Department of Transportation DP—displaced person (no period) D.o.—doctor of literature DNC—Domestic Names Committee (BGN) do.—Dallas (U.—court Dall. creditor C–SPAN—Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network csc—cosecant (no period) csch—hyperbolic cosecant (no period) Ct.—cash on delivery COLA—cost-of-living adjustment Comp.Hy.—doctor of public health D.o.—diameter at breast height D.—doctor of divinity D.D.M.—Comptroller’s Decisions (Treasury) Comp.—certified public accountant CPI—Consumer Price Index CPR—cardiopulmonary resuscitation cr.A.H.b.D.—Comptroller General Decisions con. tetanus innoculation dr.V.h.—end of month EOP—Executive Office of the President EPA—Environmental Protection Agency . Dec.

dollars used to finance foreign trade Ex. third series FEOF—Foreign Exchange Operations Fund FHA—Federal Housing Administration FmHA—Farmers Home Administration FHLBB—Federal Home Loan Bank Board FHWA—Federal Highway Administration FICA—Federal Insurance Contributions Act FLSA—Fair Labor Standards Act FM—frequency modulation FMC—Federal Maritime Commission FMCS—Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service FNMA—Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) FNS—Food and Nutrition Service f˚—folio f.b.o.S.3d. Doc. (with letter)—executive document Ex-Im Bank—Export-Import Bank of the United States f. Federal Reporter. F.—Federal Reporter.—free alongside ship FAS—Foreign Agricultural Service FBI—Federal Bureau of Investigation FCA—Farm Credit Administration FCC—Federal Communications Commission FCIC—Federal Crop Insurance Corporation FCSC—Foreign Claims Settlement Commission FDA—Food and Drug Administration FDIC—Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDLP—Federal Depository Library Program Fed.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 241 et al.—(et sequentia) and the following etc.Supp.—(et alii) and others et seq.a..—free on board FPC—Federal Power Commission FPO—fleet post office (no periods) FR—Federal Register (publication) FRG—Federal Republic of Germany FRS—Federal Reserve System FS—Forest Service FSLIC—Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation FSS—Federal Supply Service F.—(et cetera) and so forth EU—European Union Euratom—European Atomic Energy Community Euro—currency (common) Eurodollars—U.s.—Federal Supplement FTC—Federal Trade Commission FWS—Fish and Wildlife Service GAO—Government Accountability Office GATT—General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDR—German Democratic Republic GI—general issue. ff. Government issue .—and following page (pages) FAA—Federal Aviation Administration FACS—Faculty of the American College of Surgeons FAO—Food and Agriculture Organization f.

C.M.—Governor GPO—Government Printing Office GPS—Global Positioning System gr. Doc. (with number)—House joint resolution HMO—health-maintenance organization HOV—high-occupancy vehicle How. Res. medical. (with number)—House resolution HUD—Housing and Urban Development (Department of) IADB—Inter-American Defense Board IAEA—International Atomic Energy Agency ibid.e.—House of Commons H.—(id est) that is IEEE—Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IF—intermediate frequency (no periods) IFC—International Finance Corporation IMCO—Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization IMF—International Monetary Fund Insp. Con.242 Chapter 9 GIS—Geographic Information System G. Gen. and surgical GNMA—Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae) GNP—gross national product Gov.—Howard (U. (with number)—House document hazmat—hazardous material HDTV—high definition television HE—high explosive (no periods) HF—high frequency (no periods) HHS—Health and Human Services (Department of) HIV—human immunodeficiency virus H. Supreme Court Reports) H. Rept.&S.—gross weight GSA—General Services Administration GSE—Government-Sponsored Enterprise H. Res.—(idem) the same IDA—International Development Association IDE—integrated drive electronics i. (with number)— House concurrent resolution H.S. wt. Res.—general. (also IG)—inspector general Interpol—International Criminal Police Organization IOU—I owe you IQ—intelligence quotient IRA—individual retirement account IRBM—intermediate range ballistic missile IRE—Institute of Radio Engineers IRO—International Refugee Organization IRS—Internal Revenue Service ISO—International Standards Organization ITO—International Trade Organization ITU—International Telecommunications Union JAG—Judge Advocate General .R. (with number)—House bill H.J.—(ibidem) in the same place ICBM—intercontinental ballistic missile id. (with number)—House report H.

—lowercase L.B. M.l.—National Association of Counties NAFTA—North American Free Trade Agreement . MM.—month MOS—military occupational specialty M. M2.—Japan or Japanese where necessary to abbreviate Jr.—(loco citato) in the place cited log (no period)—logarithm long.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 243 jato—jet-assisted takeoff J.—longitude loran (no periods)—long-range navigation lox (no periods)—liquid oxygen LPG—liquefied petroleum gas Ltd.—feminine title (plural Mses.Ed.—(meridies) noon M—more MAC—Military Airlift Command MAG—Military Advisory Group MarAd—Maritime Administration MC—Member of Congress (emcee. MTN—multilateral trade negotiations N.—(jurum or juris doctor) doctor of laws JOBS—Job Opportunities in the Business Sector JIT—just in time Jpn.P.S. manuscript.—Judge Advocate General LAFTA—Latin American Free Trade Association lat.—lightface LF—low frequency LL. Supreme Court Reports) liq.) MRI—magnetic resonance imaging Mrs. not applicable NACo. messieurs m.—limited Lt.—monsieur..—Lawyer’s edition (U.—doctor of laws loc. Gov.—doctor of medicine MDAP—Mutual Defense Assistance Program MediCal—Medicaid California memo—memorandum MF—medium frequency.—latitude LC—Library of Congress LCD—liquid crystal display lc.—mistress Ms.—junior Judge Adv.D..S.—mean sea level MSNBC—Microsoft National Broadcasting Co. microfiche MFN—most favored nation MIA—missing in action (plural MIA’s) MIRV—multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle Misc. etc.) M. (with number)— miscellaneous document Mlle.—liquid lf. cit.—mademoiselle Mme.—monsignor m.—mister (plural Messrs.D.—master of science MS.—bachelor of laws LL.D. Gen.—north NA—not available.—Member of Parliament MP—military police Mr.—mesdames mo. Doc.—lieutenant governor M—money supply: M1.—madam Mmes. master of ceremonies) M.—MSS. manuscripts MSC—Military Sealift Command Msgr.s.

o.—Pacific Reporter. P. Pacific Reporter.k. Oks OMB—Office of Management and Budget Op.F.i.s.e.—not otherwise provided (for) n.—natural log or logarithm NLRB—National Labor Relations Board NNTP—Network News Transfer Protocol No.—Opinions of the Attorney General op.n.e.244 Chapter 9 NAS—National Academy of Sciences NASA—National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization NCUA—National Credit Union Administration NE.—not otherwise specified NOVS—National Office of Vital Statistics NPS—National Park Service NRC—Nuclear Regulatory Commission NS—nuclear ship NSA—National Security Agency NSC—National Security Council NSF—National Science Foundation n.—doctor of optometry OECD—Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OK—Oked. numbers NOAA—National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration n.D. second series PAC—political action committee (plural PAC’s) Passed Asst. number.—not otherwise indexed by name n.—National Formulary NFAH—National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities NIH—National Institutes of Health NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology n. cit.l.s. Disability.—northeast n.s. Gen.—not specified by kind n. Odd. Surg.—net weight N.—(opere citato) in the work cited OPEC—Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OSD—Office of the Secretary of Defense OTC—Organization for Trade Cooperation PA—public address system Pac. Oking.—not elsewhere specified net wt.f. Atty.b. Survivors.o..2d.—passed assistant surgeon PBS—Public Building Service PCV—Peace Corps Volunteer .—northwest OAPEC—Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OAS—Organization of American States OASDHI—Old-Age. overdosed O. and Health Insurance Program OASI—Old-Age and Survivors Insurance OCD—Office of Civil Defense OD—officer of the day OD—overdose.—Nos.—not elsewhere classified n.s.—not specifically provided for NW.c.p.p.o.

—road RDT&E—research.—bachelor of philosophy Ph.—(scilicet) namely (see also ss) s.—reverend Rev.Ph.—professor pro tem—(pro tempore) temporarily P.G.—southeast SEATO—Southeast Asia Treaty Organization SEC—Securities and Exchange Commission sec—secant sech—hyperbolic secant 2d—second SHF—superhigh frequency shoran—short range (radio) .—doctor of pharmacy Ph.S.—small caps S.B. development. (with number)—Senate document SE.—graduate in pharmacy PHS—Public Health Service PIN—personal identification number Pl.—doctor of philosophy Ph. Senate bill (with number) SAC—Strategic Air Command SAE—Society of Automotive Engineers S&L(s)—savings and loan(s) SALT—strategic arms limitation talks SAR—Sons of the American Revolution SBA—Small Business Administration sc.O.D.—railroad RRB—Railroad Retirement Board Rt. (with number)— Senate concurrent resolution s. Res. or D.D.—place p.D.—south.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 245 Pet.—(post scriptum) postscript.—Revised Statutes RF—radiofrequency R.—railway S. Stat.d.—registered nurse ROTC—Reserve Officers’ Training Corps RR. (with number)— private resolution Prof.—right reverend Ry. RIFs R. or B. Supreme Court Reports) Ph—phenyl Phar.S.—Peters (U.—rural free delivery Rh—Rhesus (blood factor) RIF—reduction(s) in force. Con. Rev.c.—(sine die) without date SDI—Strategic Defense Initiative S. and evaluation REA—Rural Electrification Administration Rev. testing.Ph. Doc. public school (with number) PTA—parent-teachers’ association Public Res.m. Post Office Protocol POW—prisoner of war (plural POWs) PTSD—post-traumatic-stress disorder Private Res.N.F. RIFing. RIFed. Box (with number)—but post office box (in general sense) POP—Point of Presence. (with number)—public resolution PX—post exchange QT—on the quiet racon—radar beacon radar—radio detection and ranging R&D—research and development rato—rocket-assisted takeoff Rd.—(post meridiem) after noon P.

—surgeon Surg.—Supreme Court Reporter Supp.—United States Code U.C. Geological Survey USIA—U.S. 40—U. (with number)—Senate resolution SS—steamship ss—(scilicet) namely (in law) (see also sc. gr.246 Chapter 9 SI—Systeme International d’Unités sic—thus sin—sine sinh—hyperbolic sine S. SS. No.S. Sainte. Res..S.S.—southwest S. Highway No. U.—senior S.S.—street Stat.D. Supreme Court Reports U. Rept. 40 USGS—U.) SSA—Social Security Administration SSS—Selective Service System St..J.—Ste. (with number)—Senate report S.S.—Surgeon General SW.C.N.S. Scientific.S.S.—Tps.—Treasury Decisions TDY—temporary duty Ter. Supp.—United Nations UNESCO—United Nations Educational. Department of Agriculture USES—U.—United States Code Annotated U. Navy .A.A.C.S. and ranging (no period) SOP—standard operating procedure SOS—wireless distress signal SP—shore patrol SPAR—Coast Guard Women’s Reserve (semper paratus— always ready) sp.S.S.S..—United States of America USA—U.—United States Code Supplement USCG—U.—terrace t.S. Ct.S.—superintendent Surg. Rev. Air Force U.S. Stat. Information Agency USMC—U.S. Employment Service U. Saint.—Statutes at Large STP—standard temperature and pressure Sup.—uppercase UHF—ultrahigh frequency UMTA—Urban Mass Transportation Administration U. township. Gen.—square (street) Sr. (with number)—Senate joint resolution sonar—sound.—Supplement to the Revised Statutes Supt. Res. Marine Corps USN—U.m. Coast Guard USDA—U. Saints St.—true mean TNT—trinitrotoluol TV—television TVA—Tennessee Valley Authority uc. Army USAF—U. and Cultural Organization UNICEF—United Nations Children’s Fund U.S.2d—Southwestern Reporter. second series SWAT—special weapons and tactics (team) T.—U.W. navigation. 40. townships tan—tangent tann—hyperbolic tangent TB—tuberculosis T.—specific gravity Sq.

—when actually employed Wall. ft. Postal Service U.S.e. Supreme Court Reports) wf—wrong font Wheat. calth—thermochemical) cd/in2—candela per square inch cd/m2—candela per square meter cg—centigram cd•h—candela-hour Ci—curie cL—centiliter cm—centimeter c/m—cycles per minute .o.S.—Yale Law Journal ZIP Code—Zone Improvement Plan Code (Postal Service) ZIP+4—9-digit ZIP Code Standard letter symbols for units of measure 9. The same form is used for singular and plural senses.S. Supreme Court Reports) WHO—World Health Organization WIPO—World Intellectual Property Organization WMAL—WRC.P.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 247 USNR—U. one-hundredth) C—coulomb °C—degree Celsius cal—calorie (also: calIT. etc. radio stations w.—Wheaton (U.—(versus) against VA—Department of Veterans Affairs VAT—value added tax VCR—video cassette recorder VHF—very high frequency VIP—very important person viz—(videlicet) namely VLF—very low frequency VTR—video tape recording W. cent(s) c—centi (prefix.—United States Pharmacopeia USPS—U. International Table.S.a. use fbm Bé—Baumé Bev (obsolete).S.S. ct. A—ampere Å—angstrom a—are a—atto (prefi x.—Wallace (U.S.J. see GeV Bhn—Brinell hardness number bhp—brake horsepower bm—board measure bp—boiling point Btu—British thermal unit bu—bushel c—¢.—without pay Yale L.62. Naval Reserve U.S.—U.—west w.—board foot (obsolete). technical atm—atmosphere at wt—atomic weight au—astronomical units avdp—avoirdupois b—barn B—bel b—bit bbl—barrel bbl/d—barrel per day Bd—baud bd. or vs.. one-quintillionth) aA—attoampere abs—absolute (temperature and gravity) ac—alternating current AF—audiofrequency Ah—ampere-hour A/m—ampere per meter AM—amplitude modulation asb—apostilb At—ampere-turn at—atmosphere. Senate v.p.

one-quadrillionth) fbm—board foot. gross h—hecto (prefix. 1 billion) g—gram. 10) dag—dekagram daL—dekaliter dam—dekameter dam2—square dekameter dam3—cubic dekameter dB—decibel dBu—decibel unit dc—direct current dg—decigram dL—deciliter dm—decimeter dm2—square decimeter dm3—cubic decimeter dol—dollar doz—dozen dr—dram dwt—deadweight tons dwt—pennyweight dyn—dyne EHF—extremely high frequency emf—electromotive force emu—electromagnetic unit erg—erg esu—electrostatic unit eV—electronvolt °F—degree Fahrenheit F—farad f—femto (prefi x. acceleration of gravity Gal—gal cm/s2 gal—gallon gal/min—gallons per minute gal/s—gallons per second GB—gigabyte Gb—gilbert g/cm3—gram per cubic centimeter GeV—gigaelectronvolt GHz—gigahertz (gigacycle per second) gr—grain. board foot measure fc—footcandle fL—footlambert fm—fentometer FM—frequency modulation ft—foot ft2—square foot ft3—cubic foot ftH2O—conventional foot of water ft•lb—foot-pound ft•lbf—foot-pound force ft/min—foot per minute ft2/min—square foot per minute ft3/min—cubic foot per minute ft-pdl—foot poundal ft/s—foot per second ft2/s—square foot per second ft3/s—cubic foot per second ft/s2—foot per second squared ft/s3—foot per second cubed G—gauss G—giga (prefix. 100) H—henry h—hour ha—hectare HF—high frequency hg—hectogram hL—hectoliter hm—hectometer hm2—square hectometer hm3—cubic hectometer hp—horsepower hph—horsepower-hour Hz—hertz (cycles per second) id—inside diameter ihp—indicated horsepower . one-tenth) d—pence da—deka (prefi x.248 Chapter 9 cm2—square centimeter cm3—cubic centimeter cmil—circular mil cp—candlepower cP—centipoise cSt—centistokes cwt—hundredweight D—darcy d—day d—deci (prefi x.

see also MHz (megahertz). see also kHz (kilohertz). avoirdupois pound lbf—pound-force lbf/ft—pound-force foot lbf/ft2—pound-force per square foot lbf/ft3—pound-force per cubic foot lbf/in2—pound-force per square inch (see psi) lb/ft—pound per foot lb/ft2—pound per square foot lb/ft3—pound per cubic foot lct—long calcined ton ldt—long dry ton LF—low frequency lin ft—linear foot l/m—lines per minute lm—lumen lm/ft2—lumen per square foot lm/m2—lumen per square meter lm•s—lumen second lm/W—lumen per watt l/s—lines per second L/s—liter per second lx—lux M—mega (prefix. one-thousandth) M1—monetary aggregate m2—square meter m3—cubic meter μ—micro (prefi x. one-millionth) μm—micrometer mA—milliampere μA—microampere MB—megabyte mbar—millibar μbar—microbar Mc—megacycle. megacycles per second mc—millicycle. carat kV—kilovolt kVA—kilovoltampere kvar—kilovar kW—kilowatt kWh—kilowatthour L—lambert L—liter lb—pound lb ap—apothecary pound lb—avdp. 1.000) k—thousand (7k=7.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 249 in—inch in2—square inch in3—cubic inch in/h—inch per hour inH2O—conventional inch of water inHg—conventional inch of mercury in-lb—inch-pound in/s—inch per second J—joule J/K—joule per kelvin K—kayser K—kelvin (use without degree symbol) k—kilo (prefix. 1 million) M—million (3 M=3 million) m—meter m—milli (prefix. millicycles per second mD—millidarcy meq—milliquivalent MeV—megaelectronvolts mF—millifarad μF—microfarad .000) kc—kilocycle. see also mHz (millihertz). kilocycles per second kcal—kilocalorie keV—kiloelectronvolt kG—kilogauss kg—kilogram kgf—kilogram-force kHz—kilohertz (kilocycles per second) kL—kiloliter klbf—kilopound-force km—kilometer km2—square kilometer km3—cubic kilometer km/h—kilometer per hour kn—knot (speed) kΩ—kilohm kt—kiloton.

use pF) mmHg—conventional millimeter of mercury mΩ—megohm mo—month mol—mole (unit of substance) mol wt—molecular weight mp—melting point ms—millisecond μs—microsecond Mt—megaton mV—millivolt μV—microvolt MW—megawatt mW—milliwatt μW—microwatt MWd/t—megawatt-days per ton Mx—maxwell n—nano (prefix. preferred) oz—ounce (avoirdupois) p—pico (prefix. obsolete) pF—water-holding energy pH—hydrogen-ion concentration ph—phot. use pm.250 Chapter 9 mG—milligauss mg—milligram μg—microgram Mgal/d—million gallons per day mH—millihenry μH—microhenry MHz—megahertz mHz—millihertz mi—mile (statute) mi2—square mile mi/gal—mile(s) per gallon mi/h—mile(s) per hour mil—mil min—minute (time) μin—microinch mL—milliliter mm—millimeter mm2—square millimeter mm3—cubic millimeter μm2—square micrometer μm3—cubic micrometer μμ—micromicron (use of compound prefixes obsolete. phase pk—peck. picometer) μμf—micromicrofarad (use of compound prefixes obsolete. p/m—parts per million ps—picosecond psi—pounds per square inch pt—pint pW—picowatt qt—quart quad—quadrillion (1015) °R—rankine °R—roentgen R—degree rankine R—degree reaumur rad—radian rd—rad rem—roentgen equivalent man r/min—revolutions per minute rms—root mean square . one-billionth) N—newton nA—nanoampere nF—nanofarad N•m—newton meter N/m2—newton per square meter nmi—nautical mile Np—neper ns—nanosecond N•s/m2—newton second per square meter nt—nit od—outside diameter Oe—oersted (use of A/m. one-trillionth) P—poise Pa—pascal pA—picoampere pct—percent pdl—poundal pF—picofarad (micromicrofarad. amperes per meter.

according to A. Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries .—alia. years A.—anno ante.—anno.—anno mundi. on this passage ad inf.l.—ad valorem. in the year. at pleasure ad loc. before Christ A. bachelor of arts ab init. to infinity ad init.M. before ann. anni.—ad initium. in the meantime ad lib.—ad interim.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 251 r/s—revolutions per second s—second (time) s—shilling S—siemens sb—stilb scp—spherical candlepower s•ft—second-foot shp—shaft horsepower slug—slug sr—steradian sSf—standard saybolt fural sSu—standard saybolt universal stdft3—standard cubic foot (feet) Sus—saybolt universal second(s) T—tera (prefix.—ad libitum. year.—annus. ante meridiem.—Academiae Americanae Socius. a. at the beginning ad int. alii.63. 1 trillion) Tft3—trillion cubic feet T—tesla t—tonne (metric ton) tbsp—tablespoonful thm—therm ton—ton tsp—teaspoonful Twad—twaddell u—(unified) atomic mass unit UHF—ultrahigh frequency V—volt VA—voltampere var—var VHF—very high frequency V/m—volt per meter W—watt Wb—weber Wh—watthour W/(m•K)—watt per meter kelvin W/sr—watt per steradian W/(sr•m2)—watt per steradian square meter x—unknown quantity (italic) yd—yard yd2—square yard yd3—cubic yard yr—year Standard Latin abbreviations 9. to one end ad h. at the place ad val. Fellow of the American Academy [Academy of Arts and Sciences] A.C. Annus mirabilis.—ad locum.—ante Christum.—ad hunc locum.. in the year of the discovery al. to this place. re.—ab initio.—artium baccalaureus. in the year of our Lord a.S. in the year of the world.—ad finem.B. the defendant being absent A. follow this list. a.A.—ante diem. When Latin abbreviations are used. annals.—ad infinitum.—anno Domini.—anno inventionis.m.S. at the end. before the day ad fin.A.S. the wonderful year [1666]. ante.R.—absente reo.—Antiquariorum Regiae Societatis Socius. Christum in the year before Christ A.—annales. other persons A. from the beginning abs. before A. other things.D.C. ante.d. before noon an.I.

parv. for denarius. that is h.—folio recto. about cent.—Fraternitatis Regiae Socius.—hic est. on the back of the leaf guttat. a spoon.—Dei gratia. for example et al. Dominus. right-hand page F.—circa. in this year. that. died without issue D. wt. a teaspoonful con. bachelor of science C. conjunx. a dessert spoonful coch.—hora. hoc est. in [the year from] the building of the City [Rome]. wt. fluidus.—d. hujus anni. facsimile.R.S. this is. in this month. floruit.G. and those that follow et ux.. son f. the same i. huius mensis. keeper of the seal cwt. immortalis. flourished.s.—et uxor. decretum.P. hour h.U. hoc titulo.—cochlear magnum.D. master of surgery coch. corp.—divinitatis doctor. here is buried. look for this H.—guttatim. a hundred.C.S.—hoc quaere. bachelor of arts B. that is .—c.—hic sepultus.—centum.—Dominus noster. a bundle fl.—filius. a decree. here rests in peace H.t.—hoc mense.—ibidem.g. a hundred cf.252 Chapter 9 A.—habeas corpus.s. med. Sc. condemno.A.N. doctor of divinity D.m. here lies.—Historiae Societatis Socius.—baccalaureus artium. Fellow of the Royal Society f.—centum. wife C. at this time.I. and wife F.—exempli gratia.—contra.—flores. in or under this title I—Idus. a large spoonful coch.—cochlear medium. for weight. and others.—hoc anno.q. by drops H.—Deus. 753 B. a penny. hic situs. or aliae.R. denarius. for weight pennyweight e.e.—cochlear parvum. an exact copy fasc. doctor of science d.S. spoonful coch. immortal ib.—fasciculus.—cochlear. Lord.—chirurgiae magister. a tablespoonful coch.—custos privati sigilli.—confer.C.—hic requiescat in pace.—fiat.—factum similis. let it be made. this year’s hab. keeper of the privy seal C.—id est. strong fac. this month’s h.—baccalaureus scientiae. give D.—folio verso. thanks to God D. flowers. and elsewhere. i. et alii.r.S. against.S.a.—hoc tempore.S. or ibid. have the body—a writ h.—anno urbis conditae.—decessit sine prole. find guilty c. in the same place id.—et cetera. the Ides. I condemn. hundredweight D. hoc sensu. for centum. B. forte.V.—Deo volente. Sc. and so forth et seq.—cochlear amplum.P. God willing dwt.—et alibi. d. h. ab urbe conolita.—idem. fluid f.—et sequentes. Fellow of the Historical Society h. Deo gratias. id. in this sense H.. mag.M..v. our Lord D. and others etc.—custos sigilli.—doctor scientiae.e. da. by the grace of God.p. compare C. God. amp.

mark well ni. on the way i.A.—liber. master of surgery M.S. solidi.—literarum humaniorum doctor. pound (singular and plural) L. doctor of medicine m. shillings. doctor of both civil and canon law L. name.q.—manuscriptum. MSS. master of arts M. master of the liberal arts L. at the end inf.D.—libra. or she. as 401. pound.—magister artium. noon M.l. handful. D.—medicinae doctor.—musicae doctor. master of laws loc.B.—in transitu.—in principio. in the place cited loq. manuscripta. pri.—baccalaureus literarum.q. D. manuscripts Mus.—juris civilis doctor. bachelor of medicine M.m. not far non obs.—non obstante.M.d. notwithstanding non pros.—non culpabilis.—in fine. doctor of laws LL. m. natus.—infra.—in loco citato. grandson.—mutatis mutandis.—musicae magister. of medicine.—jurum or juris doctor. in the beginning in trans. manuscript. non liquet. sanction.c. locus.e. bachelor of letters lb.—initio.H. if l. non longe. a book. B.B.—imprimatur. speaks L. placed before figures thus £10. below init.—legum doctor.—literarum doctor. unless before nob.—nisi prius.D. n. on the threshold..—liberalium artium magister. in its place in loc. M.—Nepos. born. master. cit.—non licet. meridies.A. d.D.—loco supra citato. it is not permitted. bachelor of laws LL.B..—nobis.—nota bene. what was to be proved J. not guilty n.s.n. he. bachelor of music Mus. nocte. pros.—loquitur.—librae. manipulus. at night N.—legum baccalaureus. at the outset in loc. to be placed after.—medicinae baccalaureus.D. he does not prosecute .Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 253 imp.B. names. in the beginning in lim. pounds.D. L.D. our. with the necessary changes m. denarii. the same as i. it is not clear.—in nomine Dei.C.—magister. doctor of music Mus. let it be printed I. medicinae.M.—nolle prosequi. pence M. nomen.—musicae baccalaureus.—in loco. a place £—libra. in the place above cited £ s.—loco citato.—legum magister. doctor of the more humane letters Litt.—mutato nomine.—magister chirurgiae. the name being changed MS. nomina. noster. judge J.—judex. master of music N.. Ch.D..—juris utriusque doctor. the place of the seal l.N.—in limine.U. doctor of civil law J. in the place cited in pr. for (or on) our part nol. will not prosecute non cul.—locus sigilli. doctor of letters LL. in the name of God in f.—id quod erat demonstrandum. cit.—non prosequitur.—idem quod. doctor of laws J.

per.—secundum legem.c.—quod erat faciendum.—proximo.S. lies. which was to be found out q.254 Chapter 9 non seq. quos. or she.. carved or engraved it Sc.P. first.—opere citato. solidus. right-hand page. as much as you please q. pius. he. ae. equal parts pass.—opere citato.—obiit. commonwealth —recipe.p.—or per ann. it does not follow logically O. half.I.M. as much as seems good q. father. recto. or she.a.—secundum regulam. p..—papa. pl. populus. partim. take R. died without issue o.—obiit sine prole. semi.d. died.v.—non sequitur. buried. or naturally sec.—pro tempore. yearly. s. doctor of political science R. qq. queen. doctor of science S.—quod erat inveniendum. in the work cited P. B.—quod erat demonstrandum. quasi dixisset.—quod est. as if he had said q.D.e. obiter. according to nature. which see. or they. by. pill Ph. secundum artem. bishop.—sine die. namely. in the work cited op. according to rule . holy. pro anno. shilling s. people. quam. societas.—sepultus. socius or sodalis. everywhere percent. which is Q. v. for.—requiescat. sends greetings s. opera. without date.SS. for the time being prox. P. indefinitely sec.D.—partes aequales.—quantum sufficit. rest in peace R. by the hundred pil.—opus. society.—post meridiem. work.S. in or of the next [month] P. nat.—secundum naturam.—salutem dicit.m. quod vide.—rerum politicarum doctor.I.E. leg. postscripts q.—regina. pontifex.d. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries sc.—post mortem. D. bachelor of philosophy P.—scilicet. cit. per annum. or requiescant. reg.—postscriptum.—octarius. fellow.D.—Regiae Societatis Sodalis.—passim. post. in part. postscript. for the year p.—per centum. may he.—scientiae doctor.—pilula. quasi dictum.—quantum libet. primus. for p.s. pondere. bachelor of science Sc.—quasi dicat.S.—scientiae baccalaureus. quem.A. which was to be demonstrated Q.. after. incidentally ob. as much as you will. a pint ob.P.S. according to art S. works op.—sine anno. B. in pace. according to law sec. as if one should say.l. according to sec. or quae vide. pro. sufficient quantity q.a. afternoon pro tem. which see (plural) R. Fellow of the Royal Society S. s. quas. pater. pope.. respublica.—philosophiae baccalaureus. which was to be done Q.—quantum vis. postscripta. after death p. sculpsit.F. situs. as if said. she.—Societatis Antiquariorum Socius. he.E.—quantum placet. by weight.E..—secundum.

—uxor. without lawful issue s. last month (may be abbreviated in writing but should be spelled out in printing) ung.—sacrae theologiae doctor. qual.—sine prole superstite.T.n.v.g.p. sequentia. sequentes.S. vixit —— annos—lived [so many] years verb.—supra. namely (in law) S.—unguentum. Fellow of the Historical Society s.—talis qualis.s.P. under this word s. without surviving issue S. ointment u. voce. above t. a word to the wise suffices v.T.—ut dictum.R.. for example viz—videlicet.C. If abbreviations are required.S.—sine prole.l.s.—subaudi. doctor of both civil and canon law ult.D. Classification. doctor of sacred theology S.m.D. average quality U.—sine loco.—sine nomine.—sine mascula prole. Society of the Holy Cross stat. or name s. supply sup.64. vide. Fellow of the Royal Society ss—scilicet.—Societatis Historiae Socius.—Societas Sanctae Crucis. bachelor of sacred theology S.—vide supra. namely v. without name s.—Societatis Regiae Socius or Sodalis. professor of sacred theology sub.—versus.H. sap. as above ux.B.—sacrae theologiae professor.—ubi supra.p.P.—tempore.—Societatis Philosophiae Americanae Socius. use these forms: AARP—Apple Address Resolution Protocol ABLS—Automated Bid List System ABM—asynchronous balanced mode ACES—access certificates for electronic services ACP—Access Content Package ACS—Access Content Storage ACSIS—Acquisition.S. immediately S. voice.a. vel nomine. in the time of tal.—sine legitima prole. understand.—statim. without place. Fellow of the American Philosophical Society s. word v.—sequens. without issue S. wife v.—verbi gratia.T. just as they come. anno.h.—verbum [satis] sapienti.J.A. and Shipment Information System AES—advanced encryption standard AIFF—audio interchange file format AIP—Archival Information Package AIS—Archival Information Storage ANSI—American National Standards Institute AP—access processor ARK—archival resource key ARP—address resolution protocol ASCII—American Standard Code for Information Interchange .Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 255 seq. without male issue s.l. in the place above mentioned ut dict. —— a.S. date.—sacrae theologiae baccalaureus.s. see above Information technology acronyms and initialisms 9. see.—ultimo. against.n.—ut supra.—utriusque juris doctor. as directed ut sup. or temp.p.p. the following S.—sub hac voce or sub hoc verbo.

Government Publications CMS—content management system CMYK—cyan.256 Chapter 9 ASP—application service provider BAC—billing address code BBS—bulletin board service BPEL—business process execution language BPI—business process information BPS—business process storage CA—certification authority CCSDS—Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems CD—compact disk CDN—content delivery network CDR—critical design review CD–ROM—compact disk read only memory CE—content evaluator CFR—Code of Federal Regulations CGP—Catalog of U. black CO—content originator COOP—continuity of operations plan CP—content processor CPI—content packet information CRC—cyclic redundancy checks CSV—comma separated variable DBMS—database management system DES—data encryption standard DIP—Dissemination Information Package DMI—desktop management interface DNS—domain name system DO—digital objects DOI—Digital Object Identifier DoS—denial of service DPI—dots per inch DSR—deployment system review DSSL—document style and semantics language DVD—digital versatile disc EA—enterprise architecture EAD—encoded archival description EAC—estimate at completion EAP—enterprise application platform EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code ePub—Electronic Publishing Section FAQ—frequently asked question FBCA—Federal Bridge Certificate Authority FDDI—fiber distributed data interface FDLP—Federal Depository Library Program FDsys—Federal Digital System FICC—Federal Identity Credentialing Committee FIFO—first in first out FIPS—Federal Information Processing Standard FOB—free on board FOSI—format output specification instance FTP—file transfer protocol GAP—GPO Access Package GDI—graphical device interface GFE—government furnished equipment GFI—government furnished information GGP—gateway-to-gateway protocol GIF—graphics interchange format GILS—Government Information Locator Service GUI—graphical user interface HDTV—high definition television HMAC—key hashed message authentication code HSM—hardware security module HTML—hypertext markup language HTTP—hypertext transfer protocol Hz—Hertz ICMP—internet control message protocol ID—Information Dissemination IDD—interface design description .S. yellow. magenta.

green. maintainability. Shamir. Adleman (public key decryption algorithm) RTF—rich text format RVTM—requirements verification traceability matrix SAML—security assertion markup language SDLC—software/system development life cycle SDR—system design review Section 508—Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act SGML—standard generalized markup language SHA—secure hash algorithm . availability RPC—remote procedure call RSA—Rivest. blue RI—representation information RMA—reliability.Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 257 IEEE—Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers IETF—Internet Engineering Task Force ILS—Integrated Library System IP—internet protocol IPR—internal progress review IPSEC—internet protocol security ISO—International Organization for Standardization ISP—internet service provider ISSN—International Standard Serial Number IT—information technology ITU—International Telecommunications Union JDF—Job Definition Format JPEG—Joint Photographic Experts Group LAN—local area network LDAP—lightweight directory access protocol LPI—lines per inch MAC—message authentication code MARC—Machine Readable Cataloging METS—Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard MHz—megahertz MIME—multipurpose internet mail extensions MIPS—millions of instructions per second MMAR—Materials Management Procurement Regulation MODS—Metadata Object Descriptive Schema MPCF—marginally punched continuous forms NAT—network address translation NDIIPP—National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program NFC—National Finance Center NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology NNTP—network news transfer protocol OAI—Open Archives Initiative OAI–PMH—Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting OAIS—Open Archival Information Systems OCLC—Online Computer Library Center OCR—optical character recognition OLTP—online transaction processing PRONOM—Practical Online Compendium of File Formats PTR—program tracking report PURL—persistent uniform resource locator RAID—redundant array of inexpensive disks RAM—random access memory RFC—request for comments RGB—red.

258 Chapter 9 SIP—Submission Information Package SLIP—serial line internet protocol SMP—storage management processor SMS—storage management system SMTP—simple mail transfer protocol SNMP—simple network management protocol SPA—simplified purchase agreement SSL—secure sockets layer SSP—system security plan SSR—software specification review TDES—Triple Data Encryption Standard TIFF—tagged image file format TLS—transport layer security UDP—user datagram protocol URL—uniform resource locator URN—uniform resource name/ number VLAN—virtual local area network VPN—virtual private network VRML—virtual reality modeling language W3C—World Wide Web Consortium WAIS—wide area information service WAN—wide area network WAP—wireless application protocol WAV—waveform audio format WIP—work in process WML—wireless markup language WMS—workflow management system WWW—World Wide Web WYSIWYG—what you see is what you get XML—extensible markup language XMLDsig—xml signature XMLENC—xml encryption .

etc. 8. Signs and Symbols 10. In that period the price rose 12.. The increased use of signs and symbols and their importance in technical and scientific work have emphasized the necessity of standardization on a national basis and of the consistent use of the standard forms. 10.000 Early June × Bright (crossed with) × 4 (magnification) miles ÷ gallons 10. Certain symbols are standardized—number symbols (the digits.5. such as the degree mark. 9). 10. a. 5. not 5–7' long 3¢ to 5¢ (no spaces) ±2 to ±7. 15.000±5. it will be separated from the accompanying words by a space. not In that period the price rose 12 percent. etc. d. and 19 percent. and graphic symbols (the mathematical signs +. 0. letter symbols (the letters of the alphabet. number mark. the spelled form is preferred. 6. ±. and 19 percent. b.1.3. ×. Following a figure. The percent symbol is used in areas where space will not allow the word percent to be used.10. 2°±1° #61 to #64 but § 12 (thin space) ¶ 1951 (thin space) from 15 to 25 percent 45 to 65 °F not 45° to 65° F 259 . The signs +. 4. 7. Any symbol set close up to figures. When the × is used to indicate “crossed with” (in plant or animal breeding) or magnification.2. −. or cent mark. and ÷.6. ×. 15 percent. Symbols with figures 10. is used before or after each figure in a group or series. ±. i–vii+1–288 pages The equation A+B The result is 4×4 20. dollar mark. −. $5 to $8 price range 5'–7' long. 2. c. 3. ÷).4. 1. are closed against accompanying figures and symbols. In technical publications the degree mark is used in lieu of the word degree following a figure denoting measurement.). 10.

including superiors and inferiors.260 Chapter 10 Letter symbols 10. use roman for figures.12. break before +. Space out the line so that the equation will begin on the next line. A short equation in text should not be broken at the end of a line. Two or more equations in a series are aligned on the equal signs and centered on the longest equation in the group. . 10.10. Connecting words of explanation.13. 10. 10. 10. the equal sign is to clear on the left of other beginning mathematical signs. the two are aligned on the left. If an equation or a mathematical expression needs to be divided.15. Parentheses. =. small capitals. Letter symbols are set in italic (see rule 10. In mathematical equations. Equations 10. and summation signs should be of the same height as the mathematical expressions they include. etc. Inferiors precede superiors if they appear together. since the capitalized form may have an entirely different meaning. the second half of the equation is set flush right. 10. but if either inferior or superior is too long. However. or better.14. therefore. and similarly.7. An equation too long for one line is set flush left. integral signs.9. use italic for all letter symbols—capitals.56) without periods and are capitalized only if so shown in copy. 10. such as hence. brackets. braces. and the two parts are balanced as nearly as possible. are set flush left either on the same line with the equation or on a separate line. center the equation on a line by itself. 10.11.8) or in roman (see rule 9.8. lowercase. −. and superiors and inferiors (exponents and subscripts).

..... Element Actinium... Thallium .............................. Dubnium .......... Rubidium ........................... Polonium ..................................... Tellurium ............................................................................. Erbium .............................................................................. Promethium. Tantalum ............................. Scandium ................................................. Indium ............................. Zirconium ............ Xenon ................................ Hassium .............................. Lanthanum................................................................................................ Bismuth ........................................ Platinum ............. Thulium .... Tin ................... Palladium .................................................................. Mercury ............ Potassium ............................................................. Hafnium .................... They are set in roman without periods........ Tungsten ................ Antimony ........................ Ruthenium ....................... Yttrium.......... Dysprosium... Gadolinium . Berkelium ...... Boron ...................... Lutetium .................................... Iodine ...................... Lithium ............................... Praseodymium ......................Signs and Symbols 261 Chemical symbols 10. Technetium ..... Fluorine ....... Argon....................... Uranium . Strontium............................................................................. Astatine ........ Nitrogen .......................... Nobelium ........... Symbol Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi Bh B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Ds Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf Hs He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Mt Atomic No....................................... Curium ................................................................... Symbol Md Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rg Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc Sg Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr Atomic No....................... Krypton................................... Holmium ......................................................................................... Silicon ............................................................................................................................ Meitnerium ............ Seaborgium .................................................. Fermium ... Copper............................ Cadmium............................................. Carbon ...................... Roentgenium ...... Samarium ...................... Magnesium.. Cesium .................... Neodymium ............ Phosphorus.... The names and symbols listed below are approved by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry............ Nickel..................................... 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 107 5 35 48 20 98 6 58 55 17 24 27 29 96 110 105 66 99 68 63 100 9 87 64 31 32 79 72 108 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 3 71 12 25 109 Element Mendelevium .............. Titanium ........... Aluminum..................... Silver ..................................................... Bohrium........................... Beryllium ..................... Terbium....................... Molybdenum ..... Sulfur ...................... Iridium .......................................... Osmium ........................................ Lead............... Cobalt ... Rhodium ..... Thorium ...... Helium ........... Plutonium ...................................... Lawrencium ................................................................... Francium ........................ Calcium...... Gold . Americium ............................. Gallium ........... Ytterbium............................... Hydrogen .... Neptunium ................16.................................................. Manganese .. Bromine ................... Rutherfordium ..................................................................... Germanium....... Protactinium...................................... Einsteinium....... 101 80 42 60 10 93 28 41 7 102 76 8 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 111 37 44 104 62 21 106 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ........................... Barium ................ Neon ........... Californium ................. Arsenic ................................................................................................. Iron ......... Europium..... Zinc ........... Niobium ................. Cerium ............ Rhenium .................. Sodium ................. Selenium ................ Chromium. Darmstadtium ............................... Radium..................................................... Oxygen ....... Radon ................................................ Vanadium ............................................................................................................ Chlorine .................................

It is important that editors and writers clearly identify signs and symbols when they appear within a manuscript. The following list contains some signs and symbols frequently used in printing. professional.262 Chapter 10 Standardized symbols 10. The issuing office desiring or requiring the use of such standardized symbols should see that copy is prepared accordingly.18. . The forms and style of many symbols vary with the method of reproduction employed. Symbols duly standardized by any national scientific.17. Signs and symbols 10. or technical group are accepted as preferred forms within the field of the group.

Signs and Symbols 263 .

264 Chapter 10 1 Standard letter symbols used by the Geological Survey on geologic maps. Capital letter indicates the system and one or more lowercased letters designate the formation and member where used. .

ante. 11.2. foreign words. titles following signatures or addresses. etc. as well as the abbreviations id..” these instructions will not apply to Ordered. an excessive amount of italic defeats this purpose and should be restricted. Italic is sometimes used to differentiate or to give greater prominence to words. phrases. it should not be changed. or the parts of datelines that are always set in italic. vessels. 11. Emphasis. and their abbreviations.. and supra are italicized only when part of a legal citation. infra. Otherwise these terms. and spacecraft The names of aircraft. ibid.. Italic (See also Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols” and Chapter 16 “Datelines..” or “emphasis ours” appears in copy. cit. 265 . they will be set in roman. foreign words.1. vessels. are printed in roman. etc. and titles of publications 11.6. When copy is submitted with instructions to set “all roman (no italic). However.” “emphasis supplied. post. phrases.5. 11. and Signatures”) 11. Resolved. et seq. In nonlegal work. Italic is not used for mere emphasis. When “emphasis in original.4. but “underscore supplied” should be changed to “italic supplied. when emphasis in quoted or extracted text is referred to by the foregoing terms. or the titles of publications.. and other foreign words. Names of aircraft.” “emphasis added. Addresses.3. such emphasized text must be reflected and set in italic. and manned spacecraft are italicized unless otherwise indicated. 11. Be it enacted. In lists set in columns and in stubs and reading columns of tables consisting entirely of such names.11. op. Missiles and rockets will be set in caps and lowercase and will not be italicized.” Therefore.

Hornet HS (hydrofoil ship) Denison MS (motorship) Richard GTS (gas turbine ship) Alexander NS (nuclear ship) Savannah 11. In matter set in italic. Div. Richard Roe but John Doe against Richard Roe..8. Coast and Geodetic Survey) ship Pathfinder C. Smith Bros. Atlantis (U. BROWN ET AL.S. Virginia CG cutter Thetus the U–7 destroyer 31 H. Smith v.” 124 F.M.S. the liner America the Bermuda Clipper USS Los Angeles (submarine) USS Wisconsin ex-USS Savannah USCGS (U.S. “The Hornet” and “The Hood. the Cement case. except for the v.7. The names of legal cases are italicized. spaceships) West Virginia class or type the Missouri’s (roman “s”) turret the U–7’s (roman “s”) deck but Air Force One (President’s plane) B–50 (type of plane) DD–882 LST–1155 MiG. Brown et al. Brown et al. the names of such cases may be set in roman with an italic v. being set roman.266 Chapter 11 SS America. which is always set in lowercase. case (172 App. MV (motor vessel) Havtroll Apollo 13. Sinking of the “Lusitania” Sinking of the “Lusitania” Sinking of the “Lusitania” SINKING OF THE “LUSITANIA” Names of legal cases 11. 149) Smith Bros. case. even if there is italic type available in the series. (heading) Durham rule Brown decision John Doe v. When requested. supra Smith Bros. . (heading) SMITH v.2d 45 Smith v.S.N. MiG-35 PT–109 F–22 Raptor F–117 Nighthawk (Stealth fighter) A–10 Thunderbolt Names of vessels are quoted in matter printed in other than lowercase roman. case As cited in Smith Bros. legal cases are set in roman with the v.

lowercase.s. no period) see also Mechanical data (index entry) 11. Resolved further. also the words To be continued. That [To be continued] (centered. The words Resolved. Resolved.11.7=0.12.Zn)S. families.7 5Cu2S. The scientific names of genera. resolutions. In italic matter. Quotation marks should be used in place of italic for scientific names appearing in lines set in caps. And provided further. Provided.2(Cu. pubescens the genera Quercus and Liriodendron the family Leguminosae.2Sb2S3O4 . in bills.042/G−1Vm2. and See and see also (in indexes and tables of contents only). and subspecies (varieties) are italicized but are set in roman in italic matter. orders. perpallidus Dorothia? sp. Provided further. the names of groups of higher rank than genera (phyla.025Vm2. Chemical symbols (even in italic matter) and certain other standardized symbols are set in roman. small caps.10. tribes.9.Fe. subgenera. roman letters are used. nth degree. and ordered. no period) [Continued from p. even if there is italic type available in the series. (roman “?”) Tsuga canadensis Cypripedium parviflorum var. A.Italic 267 Scientific names 11. species. acts. Continued on p. —. superiors. the family Nessiteras rhombopteryx Measurements of specimens of Cyanoderma erythroptera neocara 11. Words and letters 11. and formal contracts and agreements are italicized. x dollars D÷0. caps and small caps. however. etc. —. or boldface. All letters (caps. and inferiors) used as symbols are italicized. 3] (centered. classes. That (resolution) Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled.) are printed in roman. Provided. Continued from p.

16. etc. except chemical symbols. c. are italicized in general work but not in laws or other legal documents.14. . 11. Letters (a).15. Internet Web sites and email addresses should be set in roman.. 11. and a. (c)..268 Chapter 11 11.13. etc. drawings. b. 11. used to indicate sections or paragraphs. are set in italic without periods and are capitalized if so shown in copy. or in text as references to such material. (b).. etc. Letter symbols used in legends to illustrations. are italicized. Letter designations in mathematical and scientific matter.

but That man has three suits. Arabic numerals are preferable to Roman numerals. 6 were farm equipment manufacturers. and only three were among the largest concerns. There were three 6-room houses. and they were built by 20 carpenters. However. That man has 3 suits. 12. scientific. and 12 pairs of socks. Some of them. Lit. but Only nine of these were among the large manufacturing companies.9 and 12. Petroleum came from 16 fields. numbers are spelled out in certain instances. and 1 was not classified in the machinery industry. (See supporting rule 12.4. but Petroleum came from nine fields. Of the 13 engine producers.21. for special reasons.6. A figure is used for a single number of 10 or more with the exception of the first word of the sentence. 12. five 4-room houses. 2 pairs of shoes. or statistical matter.) 269 . except in FIC & punc. of which 8 were discovered in 1956. are based on typographic appearance rather than on the general principle stated above. figures are used for each number. When 2 or more numbers appear in a sentence and 1 of them is 10 or larger. of which eight were discovered in 1956. and three 2-room cottages. Numbers expressed in figures 12.5.3. and four hats.) 50 ballots 10 guns 24 horses about 40 men nearly 13 buckets 10 times as large Numbers and numbers in series 12.) Each of 15 major commodities (9 metal and 6 nonmetal) was in supply.2.1. two pairs of shoes. Most rules for the use of numerals are based on the general principle that the reader comprehends numerals more readily than numerical word expressions. 6 were principally engaged in the production of other types of machinery. matter. (See rule 12. and Fol. however. but Each of nine major commodities (five metal and four nonmetal) was in supply. Numerals (See also Chapter 13 “Tabular Work” and Chapter 14 “Leaderwork”) 12. (See also rules 12. particularly in technical.23. The following rules cover the most common conditions that require a choice between the use of numerals and words.12.

(See rule 12. but If two columns of sums of money add or subtract one into the other and one carries points and ciphers. which is always expressed in figures. does not affect the use of figures for other numerical expressions within a sentence. Bulletin 725 Document 71 pages 352–357 lines 5 and 6 paragraph 1 chapter 2 290 U. seven dissented. actual or implied. and one surveyor inspected the 1-mile road.463 12. three four-room houses.9. This usually requires from two to five washes and a total time of 2 to 4 hours.9). only one Senator and one Congressman testified.270 Chapter 12 There were three six-room houses. Units of measurement and time. and they were built by nine carpenters.7. and four two-room cottages. the other should also carry points and ciphers. A colon preceding figures does not affect their use. Figures are used for serial numbers. are expressed in figures. The result was as follows: 12 voted yea. Clair Avenue but Letters Patent No. a.S.8.6. and they were built by nine workers in thirty 5-day weeks. A unit of measurement. The result was as follows: nine voted yea. 12. Each of the five girls earned 75 cents an hour. At the hearing. Each of the 15 girls earned 75 cents an hour.) 12. or money (as defined in rule 12. time. There are four or five things that can be done. Age: 6 years old 52 years 10 months 6 days a 3-year-old at the age of 3 (years implied) . five four-room houses. The contractor.189. Measurement and time 12. 2. and three tworoom cottages. A team of four men ran the 1-mile relay in 3 minutes 20 seconds. one engineer. 325 Genesis 39:20 202–512–0724 (telephone number) the year 2001 1721–1727 St. but There were two six-room houses.21. 4 dissented. This usually requires 9 to 12 washes and a total time of 2 to 4 hours.

30 inch.C. the second year is not shortened and the word to is used in lieu of the dash (from 1933 to 1936.5h. 10:00 p. June. 2359 (astronomical and military time) 08:31:04 (stopwatch reading) c. 1879).m. and B.m. Dates: 9/11 (referring to the attack on the United States that occurred on September 11. 1985) March 6 to April 15. 15–17 April 1951 (military) 4th of July (but Fourth of July. 1895–1914 and to avoid multiple ciphers together. if the word from precedes the year or the word inclusive follows it. 1875–79 are used (but upon change of century. 30 calibers (length) . a comma is used instead of a dash (1875. Decimals: In text a cipher should be supplied before a decimal point if there is no whole unit. in scientific work. 0. 1985).). B. or a continuous period of 2 years or more. 1990.m.m. Clock time (see also Time): 4:30 p. In dates. if so written in copy 0025. 2001) June 1985 (not June. For two or more separate years not representing a continuous period. when contracted.m. (12 noon) 12 a. inclusive).C. 1935 to 1936. 1. June 29.C..E.900 fine specific gravity 0. 1801–2. 1990) May. 937). bore of small arms).D. d. to April 15. half past 4 10 o’clock or 10 p. in the afternoon. not referring to specific days) in the year 2000 (not 2. 1931–32. the forms 1900–11.000) In referring to a fiscal year. 2 p. 1990 (not March 6.D. (not 10 o’clock p.m. follows the year (254 B. and ciphers should be omitted after a decimal point unless they indicate exact measurement. follow the year. meaning the holiday) the 1st [day] of the month (but the last of April or the first [part] of May. 2000–2001). 1985 (not June 29th. and July 1965 (but June and July 1965) 15 April 1951. (12 midnight) 4h30m or 4. consecutive years.) 12 p.25 inches silver 0.Numerals 271 b. 1906–38. precedes the year (A. C..0 feet but .m.E. A.25 inch.9547 gauge height 10.30 caliber (meaning 0.

dip 47° W. 16° E.1234 f. Measurements: 7 meters about 10 yards 8 by 12 inches 8. . not 0.76 gold is 109 wheat at 2.30 sugar. 12 degrees of freedom 32d degree Mason 150 million degrees Fahrenheit 30 Fahrenheit degrees g.5 (lens aperture) . 25. etc.03. Game scores: 1 up (golf) 3 to 2 (baseball) 7 to 6 (football). Mathematical expressions: multiplied by 3 divided by 6 a factor of 2 square root of 4 j.03 i.5' (preferred) also 25'.123 456 789. Use spaces to separate groups of three digits in a decimal fraction. (spaces omitted): longitude 77°04'06'' E. a polariscopic test of 85° an angle of 57° strike N.27. or 47° N.272 Chapter 12 e.by 12-inch page 2 feet by 1 foot 8 inches by 1 foot 3 inches 2 by 4 (lumber) (not 2 x 4 or 2 4) 1½ miles 6 acres 9 bushels 1 gallon 3 ems 20/20 (vision) 30/30 (rifle) 12-gauge shotgun 2. 2 all (tie) h. 109 Dow Jones average of 10500. 31° W.) 0. but 0.500 horsepower 15 cubic yards 6-pounder 80 foot-pounds 10s (for yarns and threads) f/2. (See rule 12. Market quotations: 4½ percent bonds Treasury bonds sell at 95 Metropolitan Railroad. 35°30'. etc. 35°30' N.5 but two degrees of justice. Degrees.

75 cents.644 (Indian rupees) 2.5 francs or fr2. Time (see also Clock time): 6 hours 8 minutes 20 seconds 10 years 3 months 29 days 7 minutes 8 days 4 weeks 1 month 3 fiscal years. Proportion: 1 to 4 1–3–5 1:62. 0. 3s 50–50 (colloquial expression) 5 percentage points a 1. Percentage: 12 percent. third fiscal year 1 calendar year millennium FY 2010 but four centuries three decades three quarters (9 months) statistics of any one year in a year or two four afternoons one-half hour the eleventh hour FY10 .00) per 200 pounds 75 cents apiece Rs32. 5–20 bonds.5 percent (or one-half of 1 percent) thirty-four one hundredths of 1 percent 3.5 cent $3 (not $3.5 percent.65. $0.65s. etc. Money: $3.Numerals 273 but tenpenny nail fourfold three-ply five votes six bales two dozen one gross zero miles seven-story building k. or an 1100-percent increase m.65 bonds. 5–20s. 0. l.100-percent increase. 3.500 n.75. 25.5 65 yen P265 but two pennies three quarters one half six bits.25. 4½s.

Except as indicated in rules 12. In tables. etc.11 and 12.10.274 Chapter 12 o. 17th region 323d Fighter Wing 12th Regiment 9th Naval District 7th Fleet 7th Air Force 7th Task Force 12. (For ordinals in addresses. and in sidenotes. He served in the 9th and 10th Congresses.19. 102d Congress ninth century. 11th grade 1st Army 1st Cavalry Division but XII Corps (Army usage) Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit Seventeenth Decennial Census (title) When ordinals appear in juxtaposition and one of them is 10th or more. 38th parallel fifth ward. Vitamins: B12. 66th birthday first grade. and also for day preceding month. Unit modifiers: 5-day week 8-year-old wine 8-hour day 10-foot pole ½-inch pipe 5-foot-wide entrance 10-million-peso loan a 5-percent increase 20th-century progress but two-story house five-member board $20 million airfield p. Ordinal numbers 12. 21st century Second Congressional District. A 1. Military units are expressed in figures at all times when not the beginning of a sentence. . 20th Congressional District seventh region. but May 29 First Congress. figures are used in text and footnotes to text for serial ordinal numbers beginning with 10th. figures are used for such ordinal numbers. footnotes to tables and leaderwork.) 29th of May. leaderwork. eighth parallel. except Corps. 12th ward ninth birthday. see rule 12. B T.11. This legislation was passed in the 1st session of the 102d Congress.13. figures are used at all times.

and 12. figures are used at all times and street. avenues.Numerals 275 From the 1st to the 92d Congress.. North First Street. avenue. In chemical formulas full-sized figures are used before the symbol or group of symbols to which they relate. but The district comprised the first and second precincts. 810 West 12th Street. The eighth and ninth groups contained 9 and 12 items. 711 Fifth Avenue. third.5. 3d. 2d. tables.15. etc. 2031 18th Street North. 12. leaderwork. The 8th and 10th groups contained three and four items.4. Beginning with 10th. We read the 8th and 12th chapters. respectively. Chemical formulas 12. astronomical and military time.) The fourth group contained three items. and inferior figures are used after the symbol. and fourth regions. However. (See rules 12.Cu)2S•2As2S3O4 . except in serial numbers. and footnotes to tables and leaderwork. and kilocycles and meters of not more than four figures pertaining to radio. 6PbS•(Ag. First Street NW. common and decimal fractions. 1021 121st Street.13. He represented the first. 12. 518 10th Avenue. Their children were in 1st. The comma is used in a number containing four or more digits. respectively. etc. and 10th grades. The report was the sixth in a series of 14.14. Ordinals and numerals appearing in a sentence are treated according to the separate rules dealing with ordinals and numerals standing alone or in a group. figures are used in text matter for numbered streets.24. 51–35 61st Avenue Punctuation 12.12. are abbreviated in sidenotes. 12. also in parentheses: (Fift h Street) (13th Street). The fourth group contained 12 items.

Mr. Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence or head. Rephrase a sentence or head to avoid beginning with figures. or name of interrogator or witness for years (e. not 5 years ago * * * Five hundred fift y men hired * * *. not five dollars (5) ten dollars ($10). 200 years. DC 20004. street numbers. Ninety-eight persons.603. Smith. In verbatim testimony. and question-andanswer matter. A spelled-out number should not be repeated in figures. One hundred years? A. not ten ($10) dollars .) Five years ago * * *. Mr. and for numerical expressions beginning with 101. decimals. Q.566 * * *. Mr. Ten-year average would be how much? 12.16.603. Colonel Davis. $1 per share was the return. Bell. Junior. Smith. and A. transcripts.843 workers * * * Benefits of $69. (See rule 12. not “5-Year Plan Announced” (head) The year 2065 seems far off * * *.. 1240 Pennsylvania Avenue NW.17. Mr. Washington.25 for related numbers.566 worth of benefits * * * 1958 report change to the 1958 report $3.8 people. hearings. 101 years? But Q. Birch.843 * * *. Two thousand ten may be another story. not 550 men hired * * * “Five-Year Plan Announced”. not 2065 seems far off * * * Workers numbering 207. except in legal documents.000 budgeted 4 million jobless change to jobless number 4 million 12. figures are used immediately following Q.276 Chapter 12 Numbers spelled out 12.g. not $69. not 207. 92 cents.000 budgeted change to the sum of $3. 12. Jones. Mr. sums of money. Smith. 2008).. In such instances use these forms: five (5) dollars. Mr. 2008 was a good year.18. Two dollars in 1956 was the alltime high.

fortyfold. thirteenfold. mid-1970s 40-odd people. Fifteenmile Creek. Three Rivers. 2. but the early 1870s or 1970s in his eighties. Indefinite expressions are spelled out. two ¾-inch boards twelve 6-inch guns two 5-percent discounts but 120 8-inch boards three four-room houses 12. twentyfold to thirtyfold midthirties (age. nine-odd people 40-plus people 100-odd people 3½-fold.5-fold. whole numbers should be set in the following form: two thousand twenty one thousand eight hundred fift y one hundred fift y-two thousand three hundred five eighteen hundred fift y (serial number) When spelled out. 250-fold. Numbers appearing as part of proper names.21. years. hundredfold. Numbers below 100 preceding a compound modifier containing a figure are spelled out. PA. If spelled out. the early seventies.20. any number containing a fraction or piece of a whole should use the word “and” when stating the fraction or piece: sixty-two dollars and four cents ninety-nine and three-tenths degrees thirty-three and seventy-five one-hundredths shares 12. not his ’80’s nor 80’s between two and three hundred horses (better between 200 and 300 horses) twelvefold.19. the seventies. and in formal writing are spelled out. 41-fold . or mentioned in connection with serious and dignified subjects such as Executive orders. legal proclamations. used in a hypothetical or inexact sense. the Thirteen Original States in the year two thousand eight the One Hundred Tenth Congress millions for defense but not one cent for tribute three score years and ten Ten Commandments Air Force One (Presidential plane) back to square one behind the eight ball our policy since day one 12.22.Numerals 277 12. etc. money) a thousand and one reasons but 1 to 3 million mid-1971.

the word million or billion is used.000 to $1 million . do not reflect indefinite expressions.000. about.23.24. The following are guides to treatment of figures as submitted in copy.7 million dollars. If copy reads— $12.000.270. The bass weighed about 6 pounds.000 $2¾ billion. a number less than 10 is spelled out within a sentence.9.5 times 12.7 million also $10 to $20 million. between 10 and 20 million 4 million of assets amounting to 4 million $1. 12.000. etc. change to $2. change to 1½ million two thousand million dollars. For typographic appearance and easy grasp of large numbers beginning with million. change to 100 cows a thousand dollars.200. 10 or 20 million.000 dollars. change to $2. do not convert to $2. change to $2⅜ million two and one-half million dollars..278 Chapter 12 Words such as nearly. change to $2.700.750.7 million 2⅜ million dollars. six horses five wells eight times as large but 3½ cans 2½ times or 2.000 a million and a half.75 billion. She was nearly 8 years old. change to less than $1 million but $2. $2. around. approximately.000 $1. Except as indicated in rules 12. change to $2½ million a hundred cows.270.5 and 12.000.750 million $500. $2. change to $1. change to $12 million 2.000 million less than a million dollars.750 million 2.

Sixty and.Numerals 279 300.) Fractions are used in a unit modifier.28. . Related numbers appearing at the beginning of a sentence. ½. Mixed fractions are always expressed in figures. quite often.) three-fourths of an inch. are generally spelled out. ½954) or full-sized figures with the shilling mark (1/4. separated by no more than three words. not one-half-inch pipe ¼-mile run ⅞-point rise 12. or if followed by of a or of an. not ¾ inch nor ¾ of an inch one-half inch one-half of a farm. two one-hundredths one-thousandth five one-thousandths thirty-five one-thousandths but ½ to 1¾ pages ½-inch pipe ½-inch-diameter pipe 3½ cans 2½ times Fractions (¼.9e. but Fifty or. ⅝. ½-inch pipe.000. are treated alike.26. $1¼ to $1½ billion three-quarters of a billion dollars 5 or 10 billion dollars’ worth 12. not 300 thousand $½ billion to $1¼ billion (note full figure with second fraction).25. (See rule 12. ⅞. ¾. 1/2954) may be used only when either is specifically requested. Fift y or sixty more miles away is snowclad Mount Everest. almost 60 applications were filed. seventy listeners responded. Fractions standing alone.27. however. A comma should not be used in any part of a built-up fraction of four or more digits or in decimals. not ½ of a farm one-fourth inch seven-tenths of 1 percent three-quarters of an inch half an inch a quarter of an inch one-tenth portion one-hundredth 12. in some instances. (See also rule 12. ⅜. Fractions 12.28.

............................................ LIX ..... 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 ................................................ a dashline over a letter denotes multiplied by 1..................... LXXIX .......................... LXXV .................. VIII .............. MDCCC........................................ V. a letter placed before one of greater value subtracts from it. LX ..............................................................000........................... LXV . VII ............29.................. IC ... MCMXXX... XCV .... XIX ................... XXIX ..................................................................................................... III ...................... MCMX . MCML ....................... MD ............ DCC .......... IX ....................... XXXV ................ CL .. A repeated letter repeats its value. LXXXIX ........... DCCC .......... XV................or MV...... II.................................... V ..................... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 19 20 XXV ................. MMMM . MM ........000 5..000.... 500 600 700 800 900 1.................... M................. VI ............ 1600 1700 1800 1900 1910 MCMXX...... CD ......... MDCC ...500 2.............. CC ........................ IV ...... C................... 25 29 30 35 39 40 45 49 50 55 59 60 65 69 LXX ...........................................................280 Chapter 12 Roman numerals 12............. MCM or MDCCCC ......... XL .. MCMXC .................. LXXX ................. XXXIX ............................................................000 1............................................. XX ..........................................000 1........ LV ........ MMX ............ DC ... X... 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 MCMLXX ........... MCMLX ......... MMM ....... 70 75 79 80 85 89 90 95 99 100 150 200 300 400 D ......................................... CCC ......................................... XLIX ......... Numerals I . XLV............................ CM ......................... MCMLXXX .............................................................. LXXXV ..... LXIX ........................000 Dates MDC .... MM ............................................................................... XXX ........................... M......................000 3..... L ................................. a letter placed after one of greater value adds to it..000 4............................................ XC ............. MCMXL ....

Tabular work in the Congressional Record is set 6 on 7. when followed by figures.. and building. are abbreviated. For numbered streets.8. The object of a table is to present in a concise and orderly manner information that cannot be presented as clearly in any other way. and Ry. court.9. the various parts of publications.4. etc. 13.10. or (2) the agency has indicated on the copy they are to be used. 13. 13. commonly known abbreviations are used in tables. Tabular material should be kept as simple as possible. following a name. or as an adjective generally. 13.. drive. Use lat. The names of months (except May. following name or number. avenues. boulevard. 281 .2.5. avenue. part. preceding a name.1. etc. Metric and unit-of-measurement abbreviations are used with figures. place. Abbreviations 13. road. etc. Use the abbreviations RR.6. The publication dictates the type size used in setting tables. figures are used.13. 13. Abbreviate the words United States if preceding the word Government.3. section. except where: (1) In GPO’s judgment down rules are required for clarity. 13. The words street. and July) when followed by the day are abbreviated. Tabular Work (See also Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols” and Chapter 14 “Leaderwork”) 13. and SS. June. The mere presence of down rules in copy or enclosed sample is not considered a request that down rules be used. so that the meaning of the data can be easily grasped by the user. as article. the name of any Government organization. terrace. square. To avoid burdening tabular text. MS. 13. The balance of congressional tabular work sets 7 on 8. Abbreviate. 13. and long. Tables shall be set without down (vertical) rules when there is at least an em space between columns.7. with figures.

. Stat.. H.14. 13.405 Distribution (percent) 15. S. 13.16.... An en space is used for all bearoffs.. when down rules are necessary. Rept.. fractions. 21. Boxheads 13.5 Time of year at beginning work [depth of this box does not influence the depth of box on left] June to August Number 1. Periods are not used after abbreviations followed by leaders.3) Employed boys and girls whose work records were obtained Total Sex and age Number Boys (12 to 14).... Down-rule style (see Rule 13. 13. 410. Use. such abbreviations and contractions as 98th Cong. 3. generally. 13. Periods are omitted after all boxheads.. Res.282 Chapter 13 13. Doc. 13... In columns containing names of persons.15. parentheses.12. Boxheads are set solid.415 Distribution (percent) 9... Rev. even in leaded tables. 5. but a dash is used after any boxhead which reads into the matter following.. Fractions are set flush right to the bearoff of the allotted column width. etc.20.869 Distribution (percent) 45. S. the bearoff may be reduced in figure columns.6 September to May Number 2. copy is followed as to abbreviations of given names. In a crowded table..18. Res... Boxheads run crosswise... and brackets are set with a normal bearoff. 62.. 1st sess. H..19.17. and not aligned.J.. 13. Mathematical signs... 13...8 Not reported 49 .. 13.. Bearoff 13. Boxheads are centered horizontally and vertically.21.13.11.

..............710 497..... Lead... In referring to quantity of things......510 11.200 ............853 Alabama ............... 393..........875 6...401 12.....300 6......... Mill cleanings (lead-zinc) ............ Total: 2008 .......... the word Number in boxheads is spelled if possible.....122 14.. 4......754 41....749 166.400 14.200 2.....176. ..078 159....290 13.........060 Crude material shipped to smelters Dry gold........100 249.424 1........ ..246 10..839 39. Units of quantity are set in parentheses within boxheads..601....100 ... 220..950 1... 2007 ...544... dry gold-silver ore ..260 290........270 844 421 10 528 12 31 ......970...... 125. Lead ..693 254 45.578....980 26...184 919 1...... Leaders may be supplied in a column consisting entirely of symbols or years or dates or any combination of these......... Total: 2008 .. use brackets in boxhead..........789 70....756 432..............738..........266 127....450 30.....590 5....22..044.870 8..940 107......23.. etc........639 (6) $1.......125 ....... Department of Agriculture Commodity Credit Corporation..... (If alignment of parentheses is required within the table............................. 2..159 249...749 Bureau of Public Roads: Highway construction Regular grants 2 Emergency grants 3 (7) $247......375... 300 4.................890 26.... value of commodities donated (1) Value of commodities distributed within States Disaster loans....) These column references align across the table...................442............. copper..—Mine production of gold......441....346 72.....362 269.....500 263.366...........24. Slag ... 124...749 ..................875 591....444 47..... (payments to assist States in furnishing hay in droughtstriken areas) (4) ........155 9......284 297... Department of Commerce Civil Aeronautics Administration— Federal airport program— regular grants (5) $79.........176 2.....357 48.....882 285................983 13.....950 5..923............. .......106 9.....622..............931 25.. Column numbers or letters in parentheses may be set under boxheads and are separated by one line space below the deepest head......... Zinc ....512......... lead.Tabular Work 283 No-down-rule style (preferred) Table 9..........545.730.317....... silver.....274 823. 110.......... 134 52 2.520... States Special school milk program 1 (2) $1...154 Alaska .042 13.........636..750 581....515 472.487 6.136 (3) $7.484 Arizona ..421 5.......... 2007 ...270 26.346 3...... $4.....861 165 1..436 367.. 13..... and zinc in 2008 Class of material Short tons Gold (fine ounces) Silver (fine ounces) Copper (pounds) Lead (pounds) Zinc (pounds) Concentrate shipped to smelters and recoverable metals Copper ...................326 41.........242.....845 .................. Copper: Crude ore .430 763 392 269 1..

.. 4 .............................................................................. and subentries 13.......................584..................6 42. 4 ..........................2 46...........................1 48......................................................................7 15 15 18 15 15 Jan............5 45.................... 14 ...... 24 ...........................................................5 15 18 14 16 17 16 16 2008 Jan. 26......... Flush entries and subentries over subordinate items are followed by a colon (single subentry to run in..... transmission plant 42 Structures and improvements ......... May 22 .................. 2007 Oct........................... rule.......... Mar.... 26 Roads..26... if it clears by less than an em...................9 47.........284 Chapter 13 Centerheads...... Dec.... $245................ but a dash is used instead of a colon when the entry reads into the matter below.......................... 45................940.......... 43...........................................53 966.........................417................ Feb....... Punctuation is omitted after centerheads....................................................................... Apr...................2 43......... 16 ........... the extra space is not added........ 2 .. Feb..0 40...248.....................................................6 45........................................................ creates a blank space above the head..... etc.........78 2.................. Apr...................81 768.............. Total ........... Nov.............................................. or in the same column........................................... Oct...... Mar.......................................... and bridges ...... Total .. a space is used..............................253..28...............43 13.....335....................... If an overrun. June 9............6 45.......................................9 .......37 275....164... Heads follow the style of the tables as to the use of figures and abbreviations................................. 46.......... July 9 .................................040........... July 24 .......................................943...34 520................................ Aug............ In reading columns if the centerhead clears the reading matter below by at least an em.... 28 .....9 41.................. 43 Station equipment ............. 35....... railroads..........71 25 Miscellaneous: Powerplant equipment ...... flush entries.......... 17 .....................7 40......................................900.1 47...................................... the space is omitted............ general plant General plant: Norris . in another column....................... 19 ....... 31 .........97 15......................25...... 3 ............ 13. preserving the colon)...................4 45............... Total ... 6 ............ 13..9 46.. Grand total .....41 992............... 1 ..................281.....7 15 15 15 15 15 15 13 May 8 ......... Units of quantity and years used as heads in reading and figure columns are set in italic with space above but no space below. No-down-rule style (preferred) The rules are used here to aid readability.................. Other .....................2 50.................. June 24 ...................................94 753.............27........................

...4 45.......... 4 ....... 3 .....0 4......2 50..9 15 15 18 15 15 Jan............ March .....1 0 0 +2...... 14 . ciphers will be supplied on right of decimal point in the absence of figures. July 24 ...... 28 ....... A cipher used alone in a money or other decimal column is placed in the unit row and is not followed by a period.....7 15 15 15 15 15 15 13 May 8 ...3) 2007 Oct.... 6 ....8+ 150...6 45.1 13..4 +66..............2 5..9 41..5 45...6 45...........1 48....... 4 .........9 46. 46...4 +98..32....... Mar.......6 42.... 13... Dec............ January ...........31.. 0.... June 24 .............. February .. The cipher repeats in mixed units before decimals unless the group totals...... +26.......2 46... Where the first number in a column or under a cross rule is wholly a decimal.....7 40....6 0 3............... 31 .................7 43...9 +12....263 4 2. 17 ...... July 9 .... If neither one appears in the copy.....7 −.5 15 18 14 16 17 16 16 Ciphers 13.. Nov........ 35........ a cipher is added at the left of its decimal point. 0....... Where column has mixed decimals of two or more places...................6 +40.. Aug... May 22 ... Copy is followed in the use of the word None or a cipher to indicate None in figure columns..........4 27...... Apr. Oct........33.... do not supply ciphers but follow copy........ 1 ....1+ 65...22453 1...29.... Mar. 24 . Apr...60 3..7 +143....... ...1 +224.. Where column consists of single decimal......0 40.................. In columns containing both dollars and cents...2 43....30....4567 78 12... supply a cipher on the right unless the decimal is a cipher..............1 47...5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 +$0...Tabular Work 285 Down-rule style (see Rule 13.. unless a clear is specifically requested........6 0 0 −7..6 102.......... leaders are inserted....14423 13. 2008 Jan.. 2 ..............0 13. June 9 ... 16 ........ Feb... 19 ....... Feb......9 47.... 45.....

38. 13. the situation will determine as it is encountered. place one cipher under both Ft and In. if ciphers are used for None. 13. Notes above tables are repeated.36. depending on the length of the word being repeated. Ditto (do. clear under Ft. if only feet are given.35. one cipher is supplied under s and one under d. above a grand total.40. Rules are not carried in reading columns or columns consisting of serial or tracing numbers. In columns of figures under the heading £ s d.41. closing quotes will be used. if only shillings are given.37. footnote references are repeated in boxheads and in continued lines. in the first and last columns.286 Chapter 13 13. 13. No period is carried after a continued line. 13. 13. over and over. the period and ciphers are omitted if the column consists entirely of whole dollars. verbatim. lowercased and preceded by leaders (6 periods) when there is matter in preceding column. if a whole number of pounds is given. Continued heads over tables will be worded exactly like the table heading. 13. 13. In columns of figures under Ft In. or the width of the column. In any column containing sums of money.34.39. is used to indicate that the previous line is being repeated instead of repeating the line. Capitalize Do. also. If ditto marks are requested. Parallel rules are used to cut off figures from other figures below that are added or subtracted. It is used in reading columns only. but are carried through all figure columns. . Dashes or rules 13.42. These are indented 1 or 2 ems.) The abbreviation do. Continued heads In continued lines an em dash is used between the head and the word Continued. supply cipher under In. one cipher is supplied under d. generally. if only inches are given.

Bearoff is not included. the indention of Do. Do. in the first column or before or after Do. (3) Under a line of leaders or a rule. 13. 13. does not apply to a reference mark on the preceding item. In all other columns 6 ems or less in width. is not used— (1) In a figure or symbol column (tracing columns are figure columns). is added to do. item is repeated). is preceded by six periods which are indented to align with item above. (2) In the first line under a centerhead in the column in which the centerhead occurs. is increased accordingly. 13. six periods are used. Do.45. in the last column.50.44. (5) Under an abbreviated unit of quantity or other abbreviations. is used. under an indented item in an inside reading column. (4) Under an item italicized or set in boldface type for a specific reason (italic or boldface do. do. however. 13. 2 ems of space are used before Do.Tabular Work 287 13. .47.49. six periods are used. under a clear space and under the word None in a reading column. If the preceding line is indented. Bearoff space is not included. In all other columns more than 6 ems in width. or (6) Under words of three letters or less. Leaders are not used before Do. with or without matter in preceding column.46. a 1-em space is used before Do. In a first and/or last column more than 6 ems in width.48. 13. In mixed columns made up of figure and reading-matter items. is used only under the latter items. In a first and/or last column 6 ems or less in width. 13. if needed. The reference mark. 13. Do. is never used.43. Do.

.......8 13... the dollar mark... Water supply available (gallons) .507 642 96. $1 to $24 ......................................................... 0 $300 500 700 but $0...43 15.000 $442.. is repeated before each sum of money.......................07 23..496 571................ Note................................. Number of plants ...............288 Chapter 13 Dollar mark 13.......... Source: U.....000 $396.....................................000 9.................. peso mark................ 13.......................... 0 to $0...................... as required... or other symbol...........53......................8 4.......... Malaria control ....S.18 13......000............ and the symbol is placed on the first figure of the separated group only..................... Wheat production (bushels) .....040 134.. ....... Percent of budget ........... Bureau of the Census. The dollar mark is omitted from a first item consisting of a cipher..)........................—Preliminary figures...........................800 426....148...... Operations: Water-dispatching operations . In a double money column.................... it is used only at the head of the table and under cross rules when the same unit of value applies to the entire column....55...........56...54..... 1958 1967 3.......016 13..12 13............ Department of Commerce..... dollar marks are used in the first group of figures only...... pound mark.....720 525 78............... The dollar mark or any other money symbol is placed close to the figure........ Total ......600 58.........................51.......... $50 to $74 .........014–1.............................................99 . etc......000 8..........000..... The dollar mark should be repeated in stub or reading columns..........................320 881........................ In columns containing mixed amounts (as money..................................................... $25 to $49 ................. gallons.................000... 13......................................... If several sums of money are grouped together........................................ Plant protection .......................................971 1....... tons...52.. $7–$9 10–12 314–316 1........000.......... en dashes are aligned.... they are separated from the nonmoney group by a parallel rule..................

... etc.. There is no bearoff on leaders..61.... Decimal points are aligned except in columns containing numbers that refer to mixed units (such as pounds...........................Tabular Work 289 Figure columns 13...... with an en space bearoff......... In double rows of figures in a single column....................... plus and minus signs at the right of figures are cleared........) and figures in parentheses are aligned on the right..... ............. and in dates appearing in the form 9–4–08...................... or minus sign........57... $62 Small $100 17 ................... Figures in parentheses align... Footnotes and references 13............ . $224 $54 $211 25 ........ Median value of livestock ..............62.................. It is preferred that all columns in a table consisting entirely of figure columns be centered..........59....... ................... Median age (years) .................. Words and Roman numerals in figure columns are aligned on the right with the figures. dollars.... a plus......... Median value of machinery ............ Figures align on the right........................ 5............................5 $144 486 None 13........................................... Footnotes to tables are numbered independently from footnotes to text unless requested by committee or department. . and percentage) and have irregular decimals.... 13....... .. .......... Fraternal membership: Men ............................64..... 13................... Women ......... .... IV ... connected by a dash...60..............................................66... It is preferable to retain the bearoff. the dashes or signs can be aligned.......63.................... Plus or minus signs at the left of figures are placed against the figures regardless of alignment......................................... 13........................... ......... dollars.............. 13............................ Figures (including decimal and common fractions) expressing mixed units of quantity (feet....................... In a crowded table the bearoff may be reduced in figure columns only. Median value ................58..................................................... without periods....................................................... ..... Median value of furniture ........... 13............................................... Possessing automobiles (percent) .................................................................................65....... 13..... 13.................

” is supplied. footnotes may be placed at the end of a lengthy table. For better makeup or appearance. daggers. The remaining footnotes in a table will follow this sequence: footnotes (numbers.76. asterisks.69. The footnote to it precedes all other footnotes. When items carry several reference marks. 13. 13. 13. dagger..—. In a symbol column it is set at the left and cleared. These. In a reading column. precede mathematical signs. letters. not commas. in connection with a chemical formula). 13.74.71.75. the superior-figure reference precedes an asterisk. If a sign or letter reference in the heading of a table is to be followed. 13. it is set at the left in parentheses and is followed by leaders.67. etc. dagger. Footnote references are placed at the right in reading columns and symbol columns. . In a figure column. Superior figures are used for footnote references. but in the last column it is followed by a period. Two or more footnote references occurring together are separated by spaces. in the same sequence. 13. Numbered footnotes are placed immediately beneath the table. or symbols). Note. 13. and at the left in figure columns (also at the left of such words as None in figure columns).72. as if it were a word. beginning with 1 in each table. 13. References to footnotes are numbered consecutively across the page from left to right. A thin space is used to bear off an asterisk.70. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued lines over tables. or similar character used for reference. then Source:. If figures might lead to ambiguity (for example. may be used. or similar character.68. a footnote reference standing alone is set in parentheses and flushed right.73. 13. and are separated by a thin space. or italic superior letters. A line reading “Footnotes at end of table.290 Chapter 13 13. it is not changed to become the first numbered reference mark.

10 cut .78... except when footnotes are short. 2 in.. 8. if any... Armhole length ... If the footnotes to both table and text fall together at the bottom of a page... An explanatory paragraph without specific reference but belonging to the table rather than to the text follows the footnotes..42 10 9 5½ 2717⁄32 25½ 25 43 10 9½ 57⁄12 2815⁄32 2715⁄32 26½ 44 11 9½ 5½ 28 28 27½ 0.. Sleeve cuff length (if cuff is used).. and is separated from them or from the table by space.81... the copy preparer should add an introductory line.77..79... Neck opening... 13... Footnotes and notes to tables and boxheads are set the same size...Tabular Work 291 13.... Footnotes to cut-in and indented tables and tables in rules are set full measure...... but not smaller than 6 point.... 13......... the 50-point rule is retained... The footnotes and notes to tables are set solid........ 11.. 1 in. but if there are footnotes to the text and none to the table.... numbers are expressed in figures... Footnotes are set as paragraphs.... Maximum. 14 cut .. figures.......85. separated by not less than 2 ems. it should always be preceded by introductory matter carrying the reference number.. and the two groups are separated by a 50-point rule flush left.. Sleeve length ...... In footnotes. 13. such as “ 1 See the following table:”. 1 in.84...... Total length . 13. If a footnote consists entirely or partly of a table or leaderwork.. 13... Footnotes to tables follow tabular style in the use of abbreviations.......... Waist: 7......... 40¾ 10⅝ 8⅝ 5½ 26½ 23½ 22½ 41 10 8½ 5½ 26 24 23½ 0.. 13.. Fractions 13.86........82... 13.. etc. they can be set in 1 em under indented table......83....... All fractions are set flush right to the bearoff.. if necessary..... 9... unless specified otherwise.. 6 pct. even at the beginning of a note or sentence.. 6 pct.80...455 11 10 57⁄12 2917⁄32 29½ 29 46 11 10½ 5½ 30 31 30½ 47 11 10½ 5½ 30 48 11 11 5½ 31 ½ in.. but two or more short footnotes should be combined into one line.... 13..... 12. the footnotes to the table are placed above the footnotes to the text.. 32 33½ 31½ 33 .

13. The indention of subentries is determined by the width of the stub or reading column. Overruns are indented 1 additional em space. and period omitted at end.292 Chapter 13 13.91. All overruns are indented 1 em more. Runovers of total lines are also indented 1 additional em space. 13. but not smaller than 6 point.or 2-em indentions. Headnotes should be set lowercase.92. even if the statement is a complete sentence. total lines may be reduced to 1. with short entry lines and few overruns. It is not necessary to maintain uniform indention of the word Total throughout the same table.88. Where overrun of item above conflicts. the total line is indented 1 em more. Subentries in columns more than 15 ems wide are indented in 2-em units. in columns 15 ems or less. Subentries in columns of 15 ems or less are indented in 1-em units. depending on length of line. mean. 2-em indentions are also used. and average lines 13. but should be spelled out at the beginning of a footnote.87. but periods should not be omitted internally if required by sentence structure. Total.94. The word Total is supplied when not in copy. Indentions and overruns Subentries 13. Headnotes 13. bracketed.89. Fractions standing alone are expressed in figures. 13. . even at the beginning of a line.93. All total (also mean and average) lines are indented 3 ems. In very narrow stub columns. 13.90. Headnotes are repeated under continued heads but the word Continued is not added to the headnote.

.............. savings bonds . Total (indent 1 em more to avoid conflict with line above)............ for versus)..024.97.. or (2) tables with any combination of more than one reading or symbol column leader from the top line.....................974 12.............267.228 1.....094...881 1... Commercial and industrial loans .........493 450.500 3...721 490........ Real estate loans: Secured by farmland .S.. Leaders run across the entire table except that they are omitted from a last reading column..........485 23.158.... Set “See” and “See also” in roman......95.....Tabular Work 293 Wide stub column—subentries 2 ems ASSETS Loans and discounts: Loans to banks ..044 3..532 1......149.......... In gothic typefaces without italic.........827... titles of legal cases (except v.. The style of leadering is guided by two rules: (1) Tables with a single reading column leader from the bottom line...........837 3... Government obligations: Direct obligations: U... ......764 242... 13....916 718...409 29........................677 3........191..... quotes are allowed..................... and certain scientific terms are set in italic....388 $1........796 732.....776.619 18.............96..949 154.. Total (total lines generally indent 3 ems) ......554.. 1.. Securities: U.......................98.......765 194...084 1...........361........................... The word “Total” and headings in the column do not affect the application of this rule......312 $135...597 1..456 2. all banks National banks Nonnational banks Building associations $74................. 13.......689 3......506 167.241 Total (indent 1 em more than runover above) . Secured by residential property other than rural and farm . ...289 211.............753....392.398 2..740.854 167........264 Italic 13.....619 $947...011..735 191. Leaders 13........856 1.....568 19...........172. Names of vessels and aircraft (except in columns consisting entirely of such names)... Nonmarketable bonds (including investment series A–1965)....886 186..... Total.S....................518 2...285........

13. Tables with tracing figures or stub. are divide tables and not parallel tables. Figures. or both.105. repeating on the left of odd pages. with 2-em hanging indention for three or more lines when combined measure exceeds 30 picas in width. 13.294 Chapter 13 13. 13.100. respectively. leader from the top line.99. with stub column repeated. Parallel and divide tables are discouraged 13. Two-line heads are set across the pair of pages. and fractions are used in all parts of a table.101. ordinals. 13. . with Continued added. 13.107. overruns end with a period. Numerals in tables 13.104. Boxheads are not divided but are repeated.” In divide tables that are made up parallel. Tracing figures are carried through from the outside columns of both pages and are set to “leader from the top line. beginning on a left-hand page and running across to facing right-hand page.106. Heads and headnotes center across the pair of pages.102. with Continued added to the head only.103. If leadering from the top line. 13. except fractions that will be spelled out at the beginning of a footnote. A single-line head or headnote is divided evenly. with Continued added.109. the head and headnote repeat on each succeeding page. Parallel tables are set in pairs of pages. A column of dates is regarded as a reading column only if leaders are added. Over such tables the heads are repeated. Words are not divided between pages. Boxheads and horizontal rules align across both pages. 13. 13. leader from top line. in all other cases it is treated as a figure column. each part set flush right and left. In tables with tracing figures on left and right of page.108.

Free flowing in any weather . change to to throughout.......... Universal gear lubricant ..... letters and figures....111..... including numbered streets...115..112.. CG . even at the beginning of an item... High-speed use .......... Symbol columns 13.... G090 . are expressed in figures.. is not used under such items... B General description Fuel.......... Further tests being conducted...Tabular Work 295 Reading columns 13. 13...... Ball and roller bearing grease.. Special grade for marine use Especially adapted to very cold climates...... Blank lines in a last column are cleared.. The en dash is not to be used for to in a reading column..&D... Water-pump bearing grease Exposed gear chain lubricant E...... Wheel-bearing grease .... In case of blank lines in a last column. ........ Figures or combinations of figures and letters used to form a reading column align on left and are followed by leaders. Do...&T... cup grease. hypoid lubricant . under pressure....... AE10 NXL 749 Symbol or catalog number WBD 14L88 5190 376 Chassis grease.. 2 Filing order symbol A N X ... chassis... Typical commercial designation Symbol or product number 961 SWA 12L 863 ......... SAE10 and SAE10W grades.. Cut-in items following a colon are indented 2 ems.. A column consisting entirely of letters.. is not used in a symbol column.... or soap base..... S..116. No closing period is used when such column is the last column...... or any combination of these. avenues..... Do.P.... etc. 13..... 13... it should then be leadered.. Numerical terms. Symbol GM(2) ... A single entry under a colon line should be run in....do .114. or signs.. leaders will be used as in figure columns. retain the colon. Columns composed of both symbols and figures are treated as figure columns and are set flush right... grease... It should be set flush left and cleared. CW 1 ..... if both occur................ except when it takes the place of the stub... is called a symbol column. Grease not typified ..110. Specification symbol G.... 13..... For experimental use only... BR WBG 3 80D Gasoline and diesel engine oil...113. 13.. Extreme pressure ........ Water-pump grease ........... Typical commercial designation Army product symbol OR10 4l–X–59 OE20 .. Symbol or fi lling order symbol A 352 N X 468 General description Symbol or specification number 1359 .. symbols.... Under moderate pressure .......

319 (113..... ($539) 2..820 $306 122...336) 124..276) (937.....143 .001........261) ..119.470 10. 7....390 Employee service and facilities: Commissary Division .315.973.174) (26..819 104.242..... 2008 (table 9–a) Investment Current additions Adjustments Transfers Operations Retirements Balance June 30..891) (244.....373 2.. Horizontal rules (spanner) used between a spread or upper level column heading carried over two or more lower level column headings are set continuous and without break...... Column heads over figure columns in 6...012.665 44. Power system .....295.. (342) .. (290..670 Housing Division........... When so indicated on copy..597 10...... It is preferable to set all tables alike.. 60. ...916) (1.777 530 (485..118. ..197 2....141.891) ..............739...039 ...999 13..484.....561) .......714...... tabular matter may be set without rules....241) (466...751. with italic boxheads....178 13..123..........590...............647........723) 6.. Motor Transportation Division ...838.... Communication system . Water system and hydroelectric facilities .....117..054 .258 105...113) 60...or 8-point leaderwork are set in 6-point italic. 2008 13.261) 2.606 2......... 3. Steamship line .. that is.... .021 (130....610) (2...653..164) (36.920) $11.204....426.....012 10.... $12.100) (48.....562. Table 9.......... by ordering agency...729..440.. transportation and utilities .296 Chapter 13 Tables without rules 13.247 366.......010 34. (130..... .......220.121 3........ between the two levels of such headings. 107...........752........600 Total.....236 755.... without either down rules or cross rules and with roman boxheads..—Changes in fixed assets and related allowances Fixed assets Balance June 30.358) (147. ($113..989 19.796 105. 46. 35.......... 1..236 19.465 Total employee service and facilities..836 Grand total .923 (797..168 2.... Supporting and general facilities: Transportation and utilities: Panama Railroad ........952 29....702 880...664.684..152) 21...311 151. 13....661 ($284.418) (230.............086 (10...548) (463..701 Service centers..... from left to right....364....

.........119 For construction......................419...............200) 1..................... Expenditures.. etc...................842 Commercial .....800 (70.........555 230..................Tabular Work 297 13...........000 98......................... etc.....335......................................... Deduct 2004 deficit .....: Recorded money outlay .............605 1.............................................................. improvements.................................: Capital stock issued recorded amount ................................................................................................................J. rule.................................... 144............ 100................. 346. bearoff.) ................. Net surplus.. Undetermined consideration recorded ......................... estimated for 2008.... $75.......... 61.......................................218.................. Pan American Bonded Pipeline Co......................... $157........... 2008 over 2004 ..........................................................................800 (67........................ Mitchell: Recorded money outlay..... Quantity (million cubic feet) Value at point of consumption Use: Residential ...... and Lynch Refining Co.............: Recorded money outlay ............ also illustrating use of dollar mark.......... $64......... and replacements................404 Industrial: Field (drilling..........800 1..704 Total ..052 All other industrial: Fuel for petroleum refineries .500 300 Net improvement........................300) 2008 $69.....................000 Subtotal ..... pumping............... M...000 (-3...........704 $21................. More than one figure column.........440......... recorded money outlay .......................702 Other........................................... Lacy....257....................120.............................778 5................................................445 $309..............476 730 For property purchased from— Central Pipeline Distributing Co............................000 Note issued ..............246 Estimated 2004 General account: Receipts .... 34..................... Less value of oil in lines and salvaged construction material ............................000 26.................. R.....100) Change +$5........992 522 933........ 636............................. 96................................................ 257.....000 341 3..................................000 .......................................................468 10.............. 14..................... For construction work in progress...................................... recorded money outlay .............. .244......... including electric utility plants .......... Total ................ Inc................

....762..519.....................................06 734.... without periods other than abbreviating periods.....303 29....123....... ................ Total available ........... are set in italic and are placed immediately above the figures..704.........437 (123) 765 (1) 183..502.... but if one unit of quantity is abbreviated...............................766 5.............. and the abbreviations a............ Units of quantity and other words as headings over figure columns are used at the beginning of a table or at the head of a continued page or continued column in a double-up table....... all in the same table will be abbreviated.. Quoted tabular work 13........................ If there are no footnotes and the table is the end of the quotation.828 (1) 2 18.......99 Return from agency accounts of currencies advanced for liquidation of obligations incurred prior to July 1..............07 Total receipts ............ $165.........85 569.122..................784....080..........367.............................................................. Over figure columns.......450....... If units change in a column.............. $564....m.........349 (1) 2 30...... quotation marks close at end of footnotes..465 1 25...... these units should be placed in the boxheads in parentheses...... When a table is part of quoted matter...........526.. 2007....................388..-dollar equivalent] Balance with the Treasury Department July 1............ Ferroalloys (short tons) ...........124............. 4.... 2008.. Feldspar (crude) (long tons) ........................................468.......646 (1) 6.............. Diatomite..... the new units are set in italic with space above and no space below................ Any well-known abbreviation will be used to save an overrun............ Emery (pounds) .......403 (1) 1........046 (1) 259...................... units of quantity and other words used as headings. The space is placed both above and below only when there is no italic available............ if table is end of quoted matter..871 (123) 9.91 Units of quantity 13......m..... In congressional work (gothic)... Units of quantity in stub columns are set in lowercase in plural form and placed in parentheses............ 4.....121.... quotation marks close at end of last item.......................... Receipts: Collections ........577........ and p.S....944.........719............. if not included in the boxheads... quotation marks will open on each centerhead and each footnote paragraph... and... 13..... Coke (short tons) .... or at any time when italic is not available..............395...........................298 Chapter 13 [In U....756 2 13............080..

............124... The period is omitted immediately before leaders........ In general............... No bearoff is required at the right in a single reading column...... Where both columns are reading columns.......... 655........................3.....2.............1. aligning on the top line.......................................... 1........... Total rules are to be the full width of all figure columns.......... Unless otherwise indicated...14.......... leaderwork (except indexes and tables of contents.. Leaderwork is a simple form of tabular work without boxheads or rules and is separated from text by 4 points of space above and below in solid matter or 6 points of space in leaded matter.......233 2010 .......... Pounds Year: 2000 ..........................172 14...................... 368.... 100.......... 299 ..939 Fiscal year: 2009 ......4............................. which are set the same style as text) is governed by the same rules of style as tabular work..............000 Total ............................ Leaderwork (See also Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols” and Chapter 13 “Tabular Work”) 14........ they are separated by an em space........ leadered from the bottom line....... It may also consist of two reading columns..... It consists of a reading (stub) column and a figure column............................... leaderwork is set in 8 point..... A figure column is at least an en quad wider than the largest group of figures but not less than 3 ems in single columns or 2 ems in double-up columns....... Columns 14... Bearoff 14...........

.... and the dollar mark or other symbol is repeated before each sum of money.... George Washington.......... gallons.6... Attributed to Jonathan E...... is indented and capitalized in the stub...) the figures are aligned on the right...... Roses ............. Vuillard. tons........... 14.... It is capitalized and cleared in last reading column.8....... with the exception of Mlle..... Oxholm.7...... Subheads are centered in full measure...5............................ Dollar mark and ciphers 14........ 14.........9. and the symbol is placed on the first figure of the separated group only..... Forain.... Fantin-Latour). ......... The use of continued heads in leaderwork is not necessary.. Continued heads 14.............. Flush items clear the figure column. Flush items and subheads 14.300 Chapter 14 Particulars Artist To the French Government: The entire collection of French paintings on loan.... To Col. Gauguin. If several sums of money are grouped and added or subtracted to make a total.. Axel H.... Los Angeles.. Earl............................ If two columns of sums of money add or subtract one into the other and one carries points and ciphers....... Avant la Course .... 14.... DC: Martha Washington... they are separated from the nonmoney group by a parallel rule.. Degas............... CA..... etc......................10. Ditto (do.....) The abbreviation do. In a column containing mixed amounts (as money.... Do....... Roses in a Chinese Vase and Sculpture by Maillol Maternity ................. Washington. DuBourg (Mme.. Renoir......... Do .... and Thomas Jefferson. the other should also carry points and ciphers....

Baltimore & Ohio RR.......14. Separate notes from matter following by not less than 6 points of space. (Position) 1 If footnotes to leaderwork and text fall at bottom of page........ 1......000 52....... Coal carried . including freight carried by all its subsidiaries .. June ... The two groups are separated by a 50-point rule.............16............ leaderwork footnotes are placed above text footnotes..... run in with colon line and preserve the colon.............................. 1999............. The following example shows the style to be observed where there is a short colon line at left................................... In case of only one subentry... Footnote references begin with 1 in each leadered grouping.................... Units of quantity 14.............................................000 90...........12........... Footnotes to leaderwork follow the style of footnotes to tables.... . the style is as follows: Freight carried by the Dixie RR...........................................................1 14. (Name) ... the footnotes will be placed at the bottom of the leadered material..........000 Livestock not included............................ Dixie RR...... in May.....17.. Explanatory matter is set in 6 point under leaders (note omission of period): ......................500 14.......... (Address) ............Leaderwork 301 Footnotes 14............................: Freight carried: May ........ 1 Tons 50... and footnotes are placed at the end..... If there is no colon line......: Freight carried Jan............11........ and the Baltimore & Ohio RR.......... Tons 71........... separated from it by 4 points of space.................000 1 n 2...............13.. 14............... If the leaderwork runs over from one page to another............................. 14.......................... 14......15......... Units of quantity or other words over a stub or figure column are set italic.............

.... Osage-orange .6 21........................................................................................................................... Land under cultivation (acres) ...................................... Estimated weekly production of butter per milk cow (pounds) .... In half measure doubled up..................... Cows: Number ................4 50 8 $1.........................19............................................ On this ... $8........................... day of ........ 16 Green ash .................. Inches Inches Seedlings: Black locust ...................................................... Forest land (square miles) ............................. 27 Honey locust .............000 128..................................................................................................................500 18 7½ 46 None .......................000 $3........ In blank forms......................................20........ units of quantity are aligned across the page.......................................................... leaders used in place of complete words to be supplied are preceded and followed by a space........................................................... 16 Black walnut ........................................................................................................................ Livestock: Horses: Number .... 10 Mixed units of quantity and amounts and words in a figure column are set as follows: Capital invested ... Loss from cholera ............................................................................... Value of implements and stock .. Orchard (acres) .. Value ........................................................... 20 Catalpa ....................302 Chapter 14 14..................................................................................... Hogs: Number ...........18. 14...................... 7 14........................... 20 ...

Indexes.and 8-point text are set in 7 point.’’ 15.—.2. these footnotes are also indented and placed at the bottom of the excerpt. However. each beginning a new page.8. except in Supreme Court reports. 10.15. which are not parts of the publication proper. Footnotes to indented matter (other than excerpt footnotes) are set full measure. Contents. text footnotes begin with 1 in each such division. such as appendixes and bibliographies. in supplemental sections.’’ Footnotes appearing in tabular material follow the guidelines set forth in Chapter 13 “Tabular Work. In a publication without such divisional grouping. footnotes are numbered consecutively from 1 to 99.4. Text footnotes follow the style of the text with the exception of those things noted in Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols. and then begin with 1 again.) on p. 15. Copy preparers must see that references and footnotes are plainly marked. (3) footnotes to 10. in which they are set in 9 point. 15.6. separated 15.7. it should carry the original footnote. 15. the copy preparer may use the words “See footnote 3 (6. 303 . set flush left. footnotes begin with 1. 15. but to avoid repetition of a long note. sections. or articles.5. and Outlines Footnotes and reference marks 15. etc. Footnotes are set as paragraphs at the bottom of the page and are separated from the text by a 50-point rule. Footnotes. 15. (2) footnotes to 11-point text are set in 8 point. Unless the copy is otherwise marked: (1) Footnotes to 12-point text are set in 8 point. If a reference is repeated on another page.’’ instead of repeating the entire footnote. To achieve faithful reproduction of indented excerpt material (particularly legal work) containing original footnotes. with no less than 2 points of space above and below the rule.3. In a publication divided into chapters.1.

graphs. When a footnote break occurs on facing pages. in matter containing exponents). 15. unless immediately preceded by periods or commas. Footnotes must always begin on the page where they are referenced.11. it is preferable in such instances to use symbols as reference marks. (‡) double dagger. the (Continued) line is not set. 15. No side dash is used. A cutoff rule is not required between a chart or graph and its footnotes.16. etc. the word (Continued) is set inside parentheses in italic below the last line of the footnote where the break occurs. A 50-point rule is used above each part of the footnote. 15. (†) dagger. and other illustrations should be placed immediately beneath such illustrative material. from an even page to an odd page. these may be doubled or tripled. 15. letters.. it will be continued at the bottom of the next page. or italic superior letters may be used. but for simplicity and greater readability. such as the percent sign (%) and the number mark (#). Reference numbers are not changed to fit the numbering sequence of text footnotes.13.15. Should more symbols be needed. If the entire footnote will not fit on the page where it is cited. 15. 15. but the 50-point rule is duplicated.. For reference marks use: (1) Roman superior figures. and (3) symbols. Where reference figures might lead to ambiguity (for example. it is preferable to extend the assortment by adding other single-character symbols.12. 15.10. and symbols are separated from the words to which they apply by thin spaces.1 Footnotes to charts. and (§) section mark. asterisks. Symbols with established meanings. 1 When a footnote breaks from an odd (right-hand) page to an even (left-hand) page. (2) italic superior letters. When symbols or signs are used for footnote reference marks.e. To avoid possible confusion with numerals and letters frequently occurring in charts and graphs. their sequence should be (*) asterisk. .304 Chapter 15 by 6 points of space. i. daggers. 15.14.9. are likely to cause confusion and should not be used for reference marks. Superior figures (preferred).

. 224.......... and excerpts..... For better appearance.......... If the entry makes three or more lines and the last line of figures is not full. In supplemental volume 15...................... 230....... B. it is set flush on the right. dagger.. viii Capitalization (see also Abbreviations) ..... 390. the superior-figure reference precedes an asterisk. 246........... 370. 240 And this way when overrun folios make two or more lines .20....... Roman numerals should be set in small caps in the figure columns of tables of contents and indexes............... In indexes set with leaders. 570............. 350... 220................................22............. if the page numbers will not fit in the leader line.......... Page 15..........21......... 15.............. 400....Footnotes. 220.......23.. 258... 560... When items carry several reference marks...... Explanatory diagram ...... ...... 320........ 227... 600–620. If the word extends back into the leaders.....) Appendixes A.. 245... Indexes...... Two or more superior footnote references occurring together are separated by thin spaces... 15.. 224–225...... except that See and see also are set in italic.. but it falls inside a closing parenthesis or bracket if applying only to matter within the parentheses or brackets. 250–255..... either alone or with a figure.... 530. and Outlines 305 15. .. A superior reference mark follows all punctuation marks except a dash.. or similar character used for reference.. (See Miscellaneous rules........... 16 Correct imposition (diagram).. 410–500..... Contents. 630......................... 540....... 360..... 300..... do not use a period at the end.... Where a word occurs in an index page column............ it is preceded by an en space......17. 520............. Indexes and tables of contents Indexes and tables of contents are set in the same style as the text... C.......... 510........ 380........ the first number only is set in that line and the other numbers are overrun....... If page folios overrun due to an excessive amount of figures use this form ........ 650 15... 330................ 580.. 230–240.... Facing 34 Legends.19.....18..... 640............ Frontispiece General instructions.. maps.......... 15............ 550.. 590... illustrations................................ and D...........

...... 7 ......... 59 Sea..................28...... 558–567 Proposals for: Inclusion of all clauses...... Co.. 58 Air. Jr.....) 15........ 3 Medicolegal dosage... Introduction... & Sons Co... 61 Ship.. radiological defense.....24........... 60 Military............................. (not Brown Co.) Brown..25.... A...... radiological defense..27..... 3 Example 2 Brazil—Continued Exchange restrictions—Continued Williams mission (see also Williams..H... 15......... more than one line being used if necessary...... Examples of block-type indexes: Example 1 Medical officer....... 61 Monitors.........) Brown.... Conclusions. 62 Personnel....... A....26.. In index entries the following forms are used: Brown. The periods are aligned on the right. exchange control situation.. or figure is followed by a number and period.... A...... 531 15.... i II. proposed: Draft text..................... Chapter Page I.. A... where chapter.. 4 Monitoring...... A....) Brown... 1 VI.. John H.. & Sons (not Brown & Sons.. A... 44 Military Liaison Committee..H...... plate... an en space is used after the period.... Overrun page numbers are indented 3½ ems in measures not over 20 picas and 7 ems in wider measures....H....... A.... special mission)..... Summary . In a table of contents.....H... A...H.....306 Chapter 15 (For examples of item indentions in a reading column of indexes set with leaders........ These indentions are increased as necessary to not less than 2 ems more than the line immediately above or below........ the runovers of the figure column shall be held in 2 ems more than the specified indention..) 15..........H....... When copy specifies that all overs are to be a certain number of ems. (not Brown.. see index in this Manual.. (not Brown & Sons Co.........H......... 15.. 586–588 Trade agreement with United States.... Jr...... 59 Civilian....H..........

......................................29........................................ Each new level indents 2 ems more than the preceding level...................................Footnotes...... Part I....................... Disarmament ......... ... Page 15.....30.........................................31...... Maintenance of Peace and Security ........ The enumerators for the first four levels are followed by a period and a fixed amount of space.... It uses the enumerators listed in rule 8.... Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy ...... Outlines vary in appearance because there is no one set style to follow in designing them.................................................................... Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy . The following sample outline demonstrates a very basic and structured arrangement.. Part I..... Contents.......... and Outlines 307 15... or a combination of boldface and lightface type............. Maintenance of Peace and Security .......................................................... Disarmament . Maintenance of Peace and Security . Disarmament ................... and data that runs over to the next line aligns with the first word following the enumerator..................................... Part I............. all leaders and page numbers will be set in lightface roman type.............................. The enumerators for the second four levels are set in parentheses and followed by the same amount of fixed space.............. Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy ........................................................... Contents set entirely in boldface will use boldface page numbers.. Subheads in indexes and tables of contents are centered in the full measure. The width of the measure... the number of levels required for the indentions.108 to identify each new indented level................................. Indexes................................... In contents using two sizes of lightface type..................... and the labeling concept selected to identify each new level all contribute to its individuality......... All page numbers will be set in the predominant size............ 5 6 7 5 6 7 5 6 7 Outlines 15.....

Indicate those check numbers cashed (1) Mark off check number on the statement (a) Verify amount of check (i) Highlight discrepancies on statement (aa) Enter figures on back (ii) Enter missing check numbers on back with amounts (aa) Identify missing check numbers in register (bb) Verify those check numbers were not cashed previously . Verify no check numbers were duplicated b. Verify no check numbers were skipped B. Correct any mistakes in register b. Verify all check numbers a. Balancing a checkbook A. Open your bank statement 1. Put canceled checks in sequence 2. Open your check register 1.308 Chapter 15 Outline example: I. Compare amounts on checks to those in register a.

as set forth below... Datelines 16. the address and date in italic. Street addresses and ZIP Code numbers are not to be used. successively.. Certain general instructions apply alike to datelines. In certain lists that carry ZIP Code numbers.. if the name is in caps.. if small caps are available—otherwise in caps and lowercase. the originating office in caps and small caps. it is set in caps and small caps. they are set in caps and small caps.4.3. if only the date is given. Datelines at the beginning of a letter or paper are set at the right side of the page. and titles accompanying signatures are capitalized. or signature and address.5. This is accomplished by using caps and small caps and italic. successively. In measures 30 picas or wider.2. Ms. 3 ems and 1 em. these indentions are increased by 1 em. Principal words in datelines. Addresses. 3 ems. Such datelines are indented from the right 1 em for a single line. for two lines. 16. and 2d following a name in address and signature lines. and all other titles preceding a name. Datelines. text and signature. Miss. Mr. and Esq.1. the address is set in caps and small caps and the date in italic. Jr. Sr. address and text. or 5 ems. are set in roman caps and lowercase if the name is in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase. Mrs. addresses. 309 .16.. General instructions 16. Spacing At least 2 points of space should appear between dateline and text or address. for three lines. addresses. addresses. 16. if the originating office is not given. and signatures. and Signatures 16. Other typographic details are designed to ensure uniformity and good appearance. and signatures is that they should be set to stand out clearly from the body of the letter or paper that they accompany. regular spacing will be used preceding the ZIP Code. The general principle involved in the typography of datelines. and 1 em.

□ U.□□□□□□□ COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY. January 1.□□□ July 30. 2008.□ THE WHITE HOUSE.□ JANUARY 24. MAY 8.□ THURSDAY. November 28. DC.□□□ CITIZENSHIP.□□□ Washington. 2008—10 a. 2008.□□□ Washington.. SENATE. . Congressional hearings: TUESDAY. 2008.M.□□□ BORDER SECURITY.□□□ New York. 2008. NY. JULY 29.□ CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES. January 1.□□□□□ OFFICE OF THE TREASURER.□□□ Washington.□ 1 Normally.S.310 Chapter 16 THE WHITE HOUSE.□□□ [Received December 5.□□□□□ SUBCOMMITTEE ON IMMIGRATION.□□□□□ JOINT COMMITTEE ON PRINTING.□ WASHINGTON. DC.□ ON BOARD USS “CONNECTICUT. 2008—2 P. June 6.m. VA. DC.□ TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 2008.□□□ Washington. REFUGEES.□ WASHINGTON. July 30.□ 16. 2008. 2008.□□□□□ COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES.□ DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. 2008. 2008 1 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 2008. May 20. 2008].□ FAIRFAX COUNTY.’’□□□ January 22.6. DC. DC.□□□ Washington.□ TREASURY DEPARTMENT. July 30. dates in House hearings on appropriation bills are set on the right in 10-point caps and small caps. AND INTERNAL LAW.□ OFFICE OF JOHN SMITH & CO.

At beginning or at end: To SMITH & JONES and □BROWN & GREEN.—A message received here from * * *. House of Representatives. U. (Collective address. either above or below signatures. 2008. Senate. NANCY PELOSI. □ABOARD USS Ronald Reagan April 3. 2008.9. 2008.Datelines. Datelines at the end of a letter or paper. When the word dated is used. July 1.11. □Dated July 1.S. Senate. Green. and Signatures 311 16. □ROANOKE. Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management.8. Addresses 16. VA. NY. □□the Federal Workforce and the District of Columbia. U. Addresses. Addresses are set flush left at the beginning of a letter or paper in congressional work (or at end in formal usage). DIANNE FEINSTEIN.10.) The PRESIDENT.S.— □NEW YORK.. A long title following an address is set in italic caps and lowercase. the address in caps and small caps and the date in roman caps and lowercase. followed by a period and a 1-em dash. AKAKA. Attorneys for Claimant. 16. 2008. August 21. are set on left in caps and small caps for the address and italic for the date. 16. 16. Datelines in newspaper extracts are set at the beginning of the paragraph. 2008. March 13. 2008. Chairman. DANIEL K. Esqs. VA.S. overruns indented 2 ems to clear a following 1-em paragraph indention. □MAY 7. Hon. U. . □ROANOKE. □Dated Albany. The White House. (Attention of Mr. Hon.7. □□Washington.) Hon. DC. dateline is set in roman caps and lowercase. the first line flush left and right.

Washington.15.12. with overruns indented 2 ems and ending with a colon. Navy immediately following a name are set in roman caps and lowercase in the same line as the name. U.. Army. Hon. 16. Washington. DC. but Mr. JIM WEBB. Sr. □GENTLEMEN: You are hereby * * *. Washington. Example of general address when followed by salutation (note the use of period at end of italic line): Senate and House of Representatives. 16.S. MILLER.14. Senator. LORRAINE C. VAN ANTWERP. Army or U.. U. U..) Lt. Lt. or 2d following a name. DC: To the American Diplomatic and Consular Offi cers: To Whom It May Concern: Collectors of Customs: To the Congress of the United States: 16..S. Chief of Engineers.13. are set in roman caps and lowercase. .S. Gen. ROBERT C. Hon.S. Examples of general addresses when not followed by salutation (note the use of colon at end of italic line): To the Offi cers and Members of the Daughters of the American □□Revolution. (Full title. DC. Jr. in which case a period is used. Jr. the matter following is set in italic. BYRD. Russell Senate Offi ce Building. and Esq. U.. DC. The COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS.S. Jr. The words U. or other title preceding a name.. VAN ANTWERP. House of Representatives. The name or title forming the first line of the address is set in caps and small caps. Clerk of the House of Representatives. Army. Mrs. General (or collective) addresses are set in italic caps and lowercase.312 Chapter 16 16. ROBERT L. all caps and small caps. Hon.S. CHIEF OF ENGINEERS. ROBERT L. ARMY. except when followed by a salutation. Gen.. flush left. Chief of Engineers. Washington.

and 5 ems. Addresses. County of New York. NELSON.S. Greeting: To the CLERK OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES : CHIEF OF ENGINEERS (Through the Division Engineer). STATE OF NEW YORK. for two lines.. successively. Signatures. REED: I have the honor * * *. REED: I have the honor * * *. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Birmingham. Mr. Jr. (jg.) JOHN SMITH.. Sr. . NELSON. Examples illustrating other types of addresses: To the EDITOR : To JOHN L. are sometimes run in with last line of text. 3 ems and 1 em.. DC 20515 Signatures 16. □DEAR MR. successively. In measures 30 picas or wider. preceded by an em dash. Greeting: To JOHN L.18. 3 ems. Signatures are set at the right side of the page. the title following name is set in italic. are set in roman caps and lowercase. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor 2181 Rayburn House Office Building Washington. Lt. Mrs. Envelope addresses U. and 2d following a name. 16. and Signatures 313 16. 16. The name or names are set in caps and small caps.Datelines. Signatures as they appear in copy must be followed in regard to abbreviations. these indentions are increased by 1 em. □MY DEAR SIR : I have the honor * * *.16.17.19. and all other titles preceding a name. and Esq. ss: □Before me this day appeared * * *. They are indented 1 em for a single line.. and 1 em. □MR. Navy Department: □The care shown by you * * *. for three lines. ss: □Before me this day appeared * * *. AL..

with or without titles.23. Heilbut. they are set as two lines. .. Denniston. HUGHES. JOANNE WILDER. A detached complimentary close is made a new paragraph.. If name and title make more than half a line. by George Harrison.20. Miller & Co. SMITH□□□ (And 25 others).. Chairman. □□□□□Brown.□ JOHN W. The punctuation of closing phrases is governed by the sense. Commander. are set full measure. Two to eight independent signatures. Navy (Retired). 16.□ WILLIAM H. Hambro & Sons.J. ANDRE RODGERS.. indent 2 and 3 ems. SCHWENK. Attorneys.□□□□□ Lieutenant Governor□□□ (For the Governor of Maine). indented 5 and 7 ems in measures of 26½ picas or wider. Secretary.□ JOHN SMITH.314 Chapter 16 16.24. & □□□□□□□Co. 16. COUGHLIN. TEXARKANA TEXTILE MERCHANTS & MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION. Examples of various kinds of signatures: UNITED STATES IMPROVEMENT CO. Symons & Co. Harrison Bros. JONES. at approximately the center of the measure. run in. (By) JOHN SMITH. □□□□□□□Nathan & Co. ERICA N. QUEEN E. Shipley & Co. JOHN L. Thomas □□□□□□□Eaton Co. with or without titles..21.□ 16. roman caps and lowercase. Board Member and Secretary. Cross & Co.. are aligned on the left. PROPHET.S. Hoare.. 16. C. in measures less than 26½ picas. Fruhling & □□□□□□□Groschen. ROBERT E. U. Secretary. More than eight signatures.22. Hardy. TEXARKANA TEXTILE MERCHANTS & MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION.

□□□ Superintendent. CAMPBELL. KLEINSCHMIDT. (Signed)□FRED C.S. King (Typed)□JOHN R. SYLVIA ROONEY. MARY FARRELL. □I have the honor to be. U. FRANK WOLF.□ □Respectfully submitted. BIDEN.□ □On behalf of the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce: GEO.□ □□□Very respectfully.□ □□□Yours truly. Managers on the Part of the Senate. yours.□ .□ or (S)□John R. Addresses. Court of Claims. Capt. Secretary.□ □By the Governor: NATHANIEL COX. Notary Public.□□□ Assistant Clerk. Jr. W.□ NITA M. FRANK E. Secretary. LOWEY. Mrs. KING. JOHN [his thumbmark] SMITH.□ □I am. □□□Very respectfully.□ □□□Respectfully yours. and Signatures 315 NORTH AMERICAN ICE CO. RICHARD LUGAR. (Signed)□John R. Secretary of State..S. Managers on the Part of the House. U. (BETTY) SHEFFIELD. your obedient servant. JOHN SMITH.□ □Attest: RICHARD ROE.Datelines.□ JOSEPH R. Governor. very respectfully. RON GOLDEN. PHILIPS.□ □Approved. KING. Secretary of State. Jr. SAML.. JAMES STALEY.. Indian Agent. King JOHN R.□ □By the President: CONDOLEEZZA RICE. Indian Agent. Secretary.

□DEAR MR. NUGENT. application pending. JOHN L. FEINGOLD: You have for some time * * *.□□□ National Weather Service. Umanos.□ Re Romeo O.S. “BRANDON PROCTOR. JOHN D. □□□Sincerely yours. JONES. GILBERT. Umanos. U. Washington.26. addresses. MI. Subcommittee on the Constitution. FEINGOLD. In quoted matter: □□□“Very respectfully. DC. etc. DINGELL: We have been in contact with your office. Mr.316 Chapter 16 16.’’ 16. February 15. Susanna M.□ . “PAUL HARTMAN. Committee on the Judiciary. 2008.25.□□□□□ Executive Director.□ LINCOLN PARK. EDWARD PULTORAK. “ALBERT H. DINGELL. S–254. “TODD S. “JACK” HAYES. House Committee on Energy and Commerce. “JOAN C. DC. RUSSELL D.□□□ Architectural Designer. Chairman. Washington. Chairman. case No. and signatures: Re weather reports submitted by the International Advisory Committee of □□the Weather Council. Examples of various kinds of datelines. □□Citizenship and Immigration Services. Hon. “DOLORES HICKS. □DEAR MR.

GENE GREEN. □DEAR MR. February 8. DC. □DEAR MS. 2008.□□□□□ NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE. Washington.□□□ Washington. New York State. □□Border Security and International Law of the Committee on □□the Judiciary. DC. BUSH. May 16. GREEN: We will be glad to give you any further information. northern and □□eastern divisions. From: Production manager. Addresses. Citizenship. Chairman.□ NEW YORK.Datelines.□ Hon. NY.□ The Honorable the SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. LOFGREN: You have for some time * * *. U. ZOE LOFGREN. □It has come to our attention that the time * * *. health and welfare plans. DEPARTMENT OF □□□□□ COMMERCE. □□□Very sincerely yours. □DEAR MR. DC. House of Representatives.S.□ .□□□ Chief of Service.□ To: All supervisory employees of production plants. □□and wage contract negotiations. March 3. [SEAL]□GEORGE W. Washington. Refugees. House of Representatives. and Signatures 317 Hon. 2008. REICHELDERFER. 2008. Subject: Regulations concerning vacations.W. F. SECRETARY: This is in response to your letter * * *. □□□Sincerely yours. WASHINGTON. Subcommittee on Immigration.

DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.R. September 16. 2008.□□□ Washington.—A special word of thanks to you from J. He has been employed * * *. (Signed)□THOMAS E. Chairman.□ Hon. □□□Sincerely yours. Committee on the Judiciary. □□□Yours truly. GONINO. JONES : In reply to your letter * * *. WILLIAM E.□□□□□□□ Deputy Secretary□□□□□ (For and in the absence of□□□ James B. U. DC.□ WASHINGTON. □DEAR SENATOR LEAHY: Further reference is made to your reply * * *. Attorney for Howard □□Sutherland. Secretary). □□□Sincerely yours.R.. Director. Offi ce of Alien Property.S. 2008. AGOSTINO J.□ Mr.S. we are. □Wishing you success in your difficult and highly important job. □DEAR MR.E.□ □P. LOUISE M.□ To Whom It May Concern: □I have known Kyu Yawp Lee for 7 years and am glad to testify as to his fine character. RHODES. Brown for your fine □□help. MANSFIELD. DC. Special Assistant to the Attorney General. JONES. June 10. PATRICK J.□□□ Special Assistant to the Attorney General. DC.□ .□□□□□□□ OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF□□□□□ VETERANS AFFAIRS. T. LEAHY. Senate.318 Chapter 16 EAST LANSING. Peake. MI. U. GONINO. Washington.S. Jr. GORDON M.

THEREFORE.□ [SEAL]□J. Detroit. BUSH. Addresses. CA. [SEAL]□RICHARD ROE. LOHR. ROBINS & CO. GRACE C.S. I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of September. protocols.□ [SEAL]□BARTLETT. JAPAN.S.□□□ APO 343. The word seal is to be set in small caps and bracketed. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY. or other international agreements. by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States.□□□□□ Inspector General Section.□ .□ U. BUSH. President of the United States of America.27. The word seal appearing with the signature of a notary or of an organized body.□ 16. November 13. as National Hunting and Fishing Day. GEORGE W.28.M. conventions. * * * * * * * IN WITNESS WHEREOF. 1967. do not utilize the seal except when they pertain to treaties. GEORGE W. such as a company. AFFE. I. MI. CITIZENSHIP AND NATURALIZATION SERVICES. in the year of our Lord two thousand eight.□ 16. 2008. and Signatures 319 TOKYO. I call upon the people of the United States to join me in recognizing the contributions of America’s hunters and anglers. NOW.□□□ Notary Public. Presidential proclamations after May 23. WILBER. and all those who work to conserve our Nation’s fish and wildlife resources. □□□Very truly yours. do hereby proclaim September 27. U. San Francisco. □GENTLEMEN: This letter will testify to the personal character * * *. Mrs.Datelines. is spaced 1 em from the signature. and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-third. HQ. 2008. Copy will be followed literally with respect to the inclusion of and between elements of numerical expressions.

William Henry Harrison ............................ Garret A................................................................................ Truman .............................................................................. James S............... Thomas A........ Vacant .................................... Wallace ............. Andrew Johnson ... Marshall ............................................................................. Daniel D... Henry Wilson................................................ Calhoun.................. John C.... Vacant .................................... Chester A............................... Dwight D..................................................... Taft ............. James K.................... Millard Fillmore .................................... Arthur .................. Tompkins .................... Henry A.............. Morton .................... (1817–1825) (1825–1829) (1829–1837) (1837–1841) (1841) (1841–1845) (1845–1849) (1849–1850) (1850–1853) (1853–1857) (1857–1861) (1861–1865) (1865–1869) (1869–1877) (1877–1881) (1881) (1881–1885) (1885–1889) (1889–1893) (1893–1897) (1897–1901) (1901–1909) (1909–1913) (1913–1921) (1921–1923) (1923–1929) (1929–1933) (1933–1945) (1945–1953) (1953–1961) 321 ............................................................. Polk . Levi P........................................................ Martin Van Buren ............................................................................................... U................... Rutherford B...... Theodore Roosevelt ........... King ......... John Tyler ...... George M......................................................................................... Vacant ................................. Nixon ........ Vacant ............... Chester A...... Grover Cleveland .... John Tyler .........17.......................... Useful Tables This chapter contains useful tables presented in GPO style. Years (1789–1797) (1797–1801) (1801–1809) (1809–1817) Vice President John Adams ... James Buchanan.......................... William R.............. The tables display various design features most frequently used in Government publications and can be considered examples of GPO style...................................................... Alben W.................................................................. George Clinton ................................. Richard M......................................................................... Vacant . Calvin Coolidge..................................................................................S........................................................ Vacant .... Presidents and Vice Presidents President George Washington ........ Harding ....... Breckinridge.................................................................. Vacant .................................. Years (1789–1797) (1797–1801) (1801–1805) (1805–1809) (1809–1812) (1812–1813) (1813–1814) (1814–1817) (1817–1825) (1825–1829) (1829–1832) (1832–1833) (1833–1837) (1837–1841) (1841) (1841–1845) (1845–1849) (1849–1850) (1850–1853) (1853) (1853–1857) (1857–1861) (1861–1865) (1865) (1865–1869) (1869–1873) (1873–1875) (1875–1877) (1877–1881) (1881) (1881–1885) (1885) (1885–1889) (1889–1893) (1893–1897) (1897–1901) (1901) (1901–1905) (1905–1909) (1909–1912) (1912–1913) (1913–1921) (1921–1923) (1923–1925) (1925–1929) (1929–1933) (1933–1941) (1941–1945) (1945) (1945–1949) (1949–1953) (1953–1961) James Monroe...................................................................... Millard Fillmore ............. Charles Curtis ............................ Garfield ....................................................... Charles W..................................................................... Hendricks .......... Thomas Jefferson .................... Zachary Taylor .......... Theodore Roosevelt ............................................................................................................................................... John C..................................................................................................... Benjamin Harrison ............................................... Vacant ............................... Martin Van Buren .... William McKinley........... Arthur............. Truman ........................................................ Thomas R...................................................... Andrew Johnson ...... Harry S................. Johnson.............. Roosevelt ...... Fairbanks ............. James Madison ................................................................................................ Elbridge Gerry ............................................ Eisenhower .............................................. William H................ John C..................... Warren G........ Calvin Coolidge .................... John Nance Garner ..................................................................... Dallas............................. William A...................... Wheeler .... Harry S............... Herbert Hoover ................................ Franklin D... George Clinton ............................................................................................. Adlai E...................................................................... Aaron Burr............................................................................................................................................................ Hannibal Hamlin.......................................................................................................................................................... Schuyler Colfax......... James A.............................................. Vacant .......................... Richard M............ Hobart ........ Franklin Pierce........................................ Grant ............. Dawes ................ Woodrow Wilson . John Adams ...................... Charles G.................................... Abraham Lincoln ....................... Vacant ............................. Barkley ......................................................... Vacant ...... Calhoun.................................... Grover Cleveland ...................... Ulysses S....... Vacant ............. Sherman .................................. John Quincy Adams ............ Vacant ............................................................................................................................................. Vacant .............................. Andrew Jackson . Thomas Jefferson ................... Stevenson .................... Hayes....

........................................................................................................638 Nampa ...................................... Johnson ...................... William J...............................321 Aurora ..............................................................................................936 San Francisco..... Years (1961–1963) (1963–1965) (1965–1969) (1969–1973) (1973–1974) (1974–1977) (1977–1981) (1981–1989) (1989–1993) (1993–2001) (2001– ) Most Populous U......830 Huntsville ...........................531 Chandler .................................832 Pocatello......................... 30.................................530 Florida: Jacksonville ................................................... 785.... Kennedy ................... 142................................................... George W...........................188......................... Agnew......................... Richard M........170................................................................................................................. George H............. 246.....................541 Glendale ........... 453...................378 San Diego.........956 Mesa ....................................................................................................833...........794.........................024 Fort Collins ..332............ 111............1....................................... Vacant .......................................................404.....................................888 St.................................. Richard B....................048 Tampa .................. 9................... Spiro T........................ Clinton .....31........................................... Ronald Reagan .......................................S.....................595 Arkansas: Little Rock* ............................... 59........................................................637 Evansville .......................................951 San Jose ............................................................................. Walter F... 581......580 Hawaii: Honolulu* .............................. Humphrey......240.................. 486.................................72.............................................................................932 Idaho Falls ................272 Milford ........................................................617 Rockford ........... Albert Gore........................... 377....... Mondale......... Petersburg ........................119...411 Augusta .................................................................................................. Hubert H................................................................................852 District of Columbia: Washington.........................................................................461 Fayetteville ..................... 52.............................................. Years (1961–1963) (1963–1969) (1969–1974) (1974–1977) (1977–1981) (1981–1989) (1989–1993) (1993–2001) (2001– ) Vice President Lyndon B............. Presidents and Vice Presidents—Continued President John F........587 Meridian .........................489 California: Los Angeles ..................................... 34..............826 Dover* ...........424 Montgomery* ....................................................... Lyndon B.. George H......................................................................555 Miami ... 116.....261 Waterbury ...... Ford .....................422 Fort Smith.........482 Indiana: Indianapolis* .....................744... Bush ..889 Athens ........................................... Nelson Rockefeller .............................................................. 127.236 Sitka City and Borough ..................................... 189........................ Nixon.....S... Gerald R........... J.....................912 Hartford* ...................................... Jr...................437 Aurora .970 Waipahu................. 124................... 929..................................................142 Juneau* ..248................................256..........184........................ Gerald R...........251 Delaware: Wilmington .............................................................. Jimmy Carter ........................ 140........................................467 Connecticut: Bridgeport ......229............................... Bush.................................. 83................................................................................................ Danforth Quayle....198...................................................................................................597 Fort Wayne ...........................................726 Springdale......... 34.............901 Springfield* ................................... 8............082 Jonesboro ...........................................................................................................192.....................................137.................................W.........................781 Colorado: Denver* .......... 40.............974 Colorado Springs ............ 447......................................998 Mobile .....................................................................................................278................................................... 168.. 115.................700 Fairbanks ............................014 Middletown.737 Wasilla .................041 Sacramento*............ 566...................513 Kaneohe ........... Ford .....................738 .........366 Columbus ..............................................3.735 Newark .........................786 Illinois: Chicago ......................849............................................... 68.....001 Stamford .138 Naperville ............................................................ 83.........759 Kailua ...........7......512 New Haven .................... Bush ................................W.........................................................108 Idaho: Boise*.......53.....................................372....248.........................................012 Georgia: Atlanta* .......512.. Johnson...........920 Arizona: Phoenix* ..... 155...........................159......................................098 Tallahassee* ...........................357 Hilo ................................132 Tuscaloosa ...........................322 Chapter 17 U......... 518....33. Cheney ...................................................660 Savannah ........................................................582 Lakewood ........ 10..............................................................................052 Alaska: Anchorage ...................................................303.......... 36............. 63..................124........986 Tucson ......................................................... 76.......................................................................2............................................................................................. 129...................... 60...........107.. Cities by State 1 [2006 Census estimates] Alabama: Birmingham ...........1......30............................ 201.........................

.................176 Frankfort* ............... 124.................................................553 New Orleans ................114.................295 Missouri: Kansas City ........059 Rochester ..........385 Nevada: Las Vegas.........................554.... 29......................................614 Reno ...........478 Raleigh*..........372.................................975 Duluth ..30................................................ 447..........................57............................................................................................................................229 Cambridge...................504....................................963 North Carolina: Charlotte ...................... 35.......................422 New Jersey: Newark ..............009 Winston-Salem .871.......734 Bangor ........................................................................ 150..179 Trenton* ...........................113 Olathe ..236................................365 Michigan: Detroit .......763 Worcester.......................................................................................114 Frederick ....797 Independence .............................882 Gaithersburg .................................................................................63.............................................................................012 Mississippi—Continued Biloxi.................722 Kansas City ..........................................................306 St.567 Carson City* .. 276............ 193........................................................................................ 590...............47...........008 South Portland ......... 70.........................................................................................223................................ 83...789 Owensboro ......366 Rockville .....................214 Lake Charles .....................607 Roswell ..................... 175........... 631...................99.............................................................53.....789 Paterson ................97..................................698 Overland Park ...................87............................................................525 Bowling Green...........................................................934 Annapolis* ... 630..............................276 Minnesota: Minneapolis .................................316 Hattiesburg ....083 Warren ......................................949 Las Cruces ......................................342 Southaven ...................................... 109..............................................................................................123 Yonkers ............................................................................784 Augusta* ................................................................................061 Helena* ..................................................869 Mississippi: Jackson* .....104. 71.......................................833 St... 58....408 Massachusetts: Boston* ......402 Jersey City.....................274 Montana: Billings .........998 Kansas: Wichita .........905 Gary ...... 50....................... 229......................................176.............................. 45...........................................196.........................................715 Iowa: Des Moines* ................. 270............................ 109.............................632 Kearney ................................................255 North Las Vegas ....................................................................708 Elizabeth ....................................... 356.............991 Lansing*............................. 55.....................................224 Maine: Portland ...........58...........241...................................056 Bismarck* ...............400 Jefferson City* ..................... 126.....................514 Sioux City .......321 Greensboro.............................................................................................................209..199 Lafayette........39................................................................................................454 Springfield ........081 Great Falls.........268 Santa Fe* ...........28............................................ 241............................200........................................................................................... 100...................................... 18.......................................... 166......... 93..........27........................801 Topeka* ........................378 Rochester .......................... 101.................... 31....560 Maryland: Baltimore ................................011 Lewiston................................................... 72.............................................535 Rochester ..........................59.134..... 148....582 New York: New York ................................................86............214........................ Paul* ............662 Kentucky: Louisville .208........193....................................................................................127........... 103.................262 Waterloo ....................886 Cedar Rapids ..............................215 Bozeman ............................................................8...........................................................594 Grand Island .........................................333 Grand Forks ....................................................148 Missoula........................................................ 210...................................................................... Cities by State 1—Continued [2006 Census estimates] Indiana—Continued South Bend ............Useful Tables 323 Most Populous U.........................................................................44............................... 41........................................... 281..........................................................539 Henderson ........................................................388 Shreveport ..................................................................121 Grand Rapids .........................................................................................................................................................................056 Rio Rancho ... 273...........885 Nebraska: Omaha...............................................289 New Hampshire: Manchester....................................................................................................865 Durham............................................. 122......114.....151............347.................................80............................... 114...............077 Louisiana: Baton Rouge* ......................................497 Nashua...................................... 42................................ 56......................................... 64....................... 419.......589 Sterling Heights..............167 Bloomington ..............990 North Dakota: Fargo ........... 197............. 65............ 35................ 143.............................................................................................167 Bellevue ....... 23...........................................372 ............................. 240.......................................... 357......................545 Lincoln* .........614 Gulfport .................................................................. 552............................................................36......27................. 83.......157 Concord* ............... 84............................................. 44.........176 Lowell ..........................................................................923 New Mexico: Albuquerque .................S.............................417 Davenport.....117 Dover ............................ Louis........197...........................................181 Springfield .....426 Buffalo ... 96......852 Albany* .......................................................................................................................... 64........................... 90...............................................496 Lexington ........................ 55...... 48......................................

.................................142.324 Chapter 17 Most Populous U.......................81.....................358 Madison* ..313 Cincinnati...152.................................................................................................................................913 Newport News................ 21.......................................................654 Wisconsin: Milwaukee ...252 Toledo ..954 Virginia: Virginia Beach...255 Warwick.............................. 17..59.....................................................................................................................7.......................... 175............................................87.......50.....................846 Huntington ........88.................560 Richmond* ................................ 61..................................... 113....................................715 Aberdeen.................................120 Knoxville ....................................................105 Beaverton..081 Salem*..........113 South Dakota: Sioux Falls .827 Broken Arrow ............203 Cleveland ........................................... 733.. 19.................................................482 Rock Hill ......................................................223........................... 25..............................704 Oklahoma: Oklahoma City* .....................925 Cranston .........................229......................................... 24.................................... * State capital........................................................................................ Census Bureau...353 Kenosha...............................592 Wyoming: Cheyenne* ... Source: Information courtesy of the U.................203 Vermont: Burlington ................582...................................................320 Utah: Salt Lake City* .............................1.... 20............382.............94...899 Rock Springs .....................190 Tennessee—Continued Clarksville .................................................358 South Burlington ...........396 Rapid City ....................... 182.491 San Antonio ................. 107.............175 Texas: Houston ..281 Washington: Seattle .......755 Wheeling ....................................................................841 Provo............389 Green Bay ...........................................................961 Charleston .............940 Austin* .. 14.....688 Gillette.........078 Montpelier* ....................................................................................................119....113.......................537...394 Pittsburgh ....164 Rhode Island: Providence* ...49.................314 Lawton...... 100.....................................................112 Chesapeake .............. 332.508 Ohio: Columbus* .......220...................619 Norfolk ..............................819 Allentown .............036 Harrisburg*.......................................................................................................................................................................................44................................... 435....102..........................240 Racine ............................................................................532 Vancouver........................... 119.........324 1 The five most populous cities of each state are listed except where the capital city did not fall into the top five.............. in which case the fift h most populous city was replaced by the capital city................................................620 Mount Pleasant .....................................................................................734 Tulsa.... 49......146............1........................ 89..............123 South Carolina: Columbia* .........................158..........................................................................984 West Jordan................................964 Barre .........................................232.. 85.............................. 573...........239 Eugene .................................................................................................................................... 552.......................................................................................................014 Rutland....................314 Casper.................................089 Laramie .....................................998 East Providence ...356 Gresham.... 178...............................................................................................446 Akron ...................................1.....296.................9.................................. 709........94.....................................................96.........................................540 Oregon: Portland ............................ 192......................................745 West Fargo...........902 Nashville* ...............................................31................................................................................845 North Charleston............................................643 Pennsylvania: Philadelphia ..........................................007 Parkersburg ....................2...454 Spokane........... 34..855 Olympia*.....................858 West Valley................................................................................... 72...........526 Pierre*....................................337 Chattanooga ......298....095 Tennessee: Memphis .................................................................. 312....................................... ..... 29.............444..............................S... 23.........................S...................................537........294 Erie ..................... 198........... 653........330 Morgantown ..........................................................................97..............................................144........28..............................682 Dallas ........670............................................................448..................... Cities by State 1—Continued [2006 Census estimates] North Dakota—Continued Minot ........ 38.................................. 155...............................102............................................309 Sandy ...............................................47....... 107....................................... 178.................................................................................... 79....................................... 52.................209........................................... 16........081 Tacoma ..... 196...................55.............479 Pawtucket ........................................................... 62.........................................................893 Fort Worth ............................................................071 Watertown.................................................. 87..........................................................872 Norman.................645 West Virginia: Charleston* ..................

..... ……do .. ……do .......... ……do ... Executive Council President ..... ……do ............................................................................................. Council of Nations....................................................... ……do ............................................................. Emerging Democracy.............. ……do ............ Baky)..................... Baku (Baki.. Bahamas.............................................................. ……do ... Belarus .... Bangladesh ..................... General)........... Algiers....................... ……do .................. Tirana (Tirane) ... General). Yerevan ....................................................... Parliamentary Democracy............ Botswana . Useful Tables UN Capital Chief of state Legislative body member Afghanistan . National Congress (bicameral)...... Do..... ……do ............................................. General)... Federal Republic......... Republic....... Andorra .................. Federal Republic. ……do .... Assembly (unicameral) .. Constitutional Parliamentary Democracy.... Albania ............. King.............. ……do ...... Do....... National Parliament (unicameral) ......................... Angola ............................. In transition to Constitutional Monarchy.. National Assembly (Parliament) .............................. President .............. Federal Parliamentary Democracy under a Constitutional Monarchy..................................................... Bhutan ............................................... La Paz .......... ……do .................. ……do ... Barbados ................ The ........................ Republic............. Republic in name....................................... ……do .. Queen (represented by Governor National Assembly (bicameral) ............ ……do ..................................................................................... Republic......... Belize .............. President ............. Queen (represented by Governor Parliament (bicameral)............ Benin ................ National Assembly (bicameral) ...... Thimphu............. Algeria ................... Bridgetown . ……do .......................... ……do ... Armenia ......... special treaty relationship with India............. President ............. ……do ...................................... Azerbaijan ............. Gaborone .................................................................................................................... Porto-Novo . ……do .............................................................. President ...... ……do ......................................... Australia .................................. ……do .. General Council of the Valleys (unicameral).......... National Assembly of House of People........ Federal Parliamentary Democracy.......... Canberra ..................... Austria .......................... Bosnia and Herzegovina..... Parliamentary Democracy.............................................................. ……do ................ Parliamentary Republic........... Parliamentary Assembly (bicameral) ... Chairman of the Presidency........ Emerging Federal Democratic Republic............... Brussels........... Bahrain ................................. ……do .... Legislature (bicameral).......................... Andorra la Vella ........ Luanda ....................... ……do .. ……do ..... Sarajevo ..... National Assembly (unicameral)...................................... Queen (represented by Governor Parliament (bicameral)....... National Congress (bicameral)...... President ..... Buenos Aires ...... President . Vienna ..................... Queen (represented by Governor Federal Parliament (bicameral) ............... Republic: multiparty presidential regime................................................................................................. King...................... Manama .................. Brasilia . Belmopan .. King...... Dhaka.... Constitutional Monarchy........................... National People’s Assembly.......... General)................... Constitutional Monarchy with a parliamentary system of government......... Republic............. Saint John’s ........ ……do .........................................................Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008 Government type Islamic Republic................... Parliament (bicameral)......... President .......... Parliament (bicameral)..... Queen (represented by Governor Parliament (bicameral)............................................... Yes .... although in fact a dictatorship..... ……do .......... ……do ....................................................................................... National Assembly (unicameral)..................................................... Country Belgium ... Legislative Council ..... National Congress (bicameral)............................. Republic........ National Assembly (unicameral).... President .............. Sultan and Prime Minister .......................... House of Elders............. Brunei ....................... .................................... Nassau. Constitutional Sultanate. Parliament (bicameral)... Brazil ... 325 Bolivia ..................... General)............ Argentina ............... Minsk ............ Federal Assembly (bicameral) ... Antigua and Barbuda .................. ……do .............................. Kabul .......... Bandar Seri .... Parliamentary Democracy........................................... President ..

........................ Assembly (unicameral) ......... Djibouti ...................... Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)...... Zagreb ................................ ……do ............ Cyprus ....................... ……do .............. ……do ................................... Denmark .............................................. Colombia ................................ Republic............... Congo............. Costa Rica .................................................... Havana.... National Assembly (unicameral)............ President .................... Chile ....................................................................... Republic of the....... National Assembly of People’s Power Communist State........ 1960)............ ……do ... ……do ....................... ……do ................................................. King...................................... National People’s Congress Communist State......... Republic..... National Assembly (unicameral).............................. Phnom Penh ................... Congo........ ……do ....................... Chamber of Deputies (unicameral) ..................... Do..... (unicameral)............... Presidential/Parliamentary Democracy........ Executive Branch dominates government structure... Dominican Republic ................................... Democratic ……do ............................... Central African Republic.................................................................... ……do ............................................................... Burundi ....... ……do ............... Cuba ........................................................... President ...... N’Djamena ............................... Ouagadougou................. Burkina Faso ... Multiparty Democracy under a Constitutional Monarchy.......... House of Representatives (unicameral) ....................... Cote d’Ivoire ……do ........................................ Republic of the....................................... Bangui............................. Djibouti ......... People’s Assembly (unicameral) .......... Do....... Praia ....... ……do ................................. Prague ..... ……do . ……do .............. Yes ..................... ……do ............... Parliamentary Democracy and a Federation.. ……do ........... Parliament (bicameral).............. ……do ........................................ China ................... ……do ....................... ……do ............. Constitutional Monarchy.......... Dominica ................................................... Burma (Myanmar) 1 ......................... House of Assembly (unicameral) ............................ Cape Verde ....... Roseau.... Canada ................... ……do ................. Brazzaville ....... ……do ........... Bujumbura ..................... Do....................... People’s Assembly (unicameral) ....................... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ........... Parliamentary Democracy........................................ Republic................ ……do ............... Republic................ ……do .......... Rangoon (Yangon) ..... Czech Republic .................................. Beijing ............................. Legislature (bicameral)......... Republic................................................. Copenhagen ..................................................................... Parliamentary Democracy.... ……do ............. ……do ............ National Congress (bicameral).............. ……do ....... Santiago ....... San Jose..... (est..................... ……do .................................... National Congress (bicameral)................................................................... ……do ................................ ……do .......... Congress (bicameral) .......................................................... Queen (represented by Governor Parliament (bicameral)..................... ……do ..... Moroni ..... Kinshasa ...... (unicameral).................................... Do......... President .... Parliamentary Republic......... Chapter 17 ……do ...... Queen ....... Constitutional Monarchy that is also a General)............ Country Cameroon ..... National Assembly (bicameral) ......................... .......... Republic...... President ............... Ottawa ...............................2 Croatia ..... ……do ...................... ……do ..................................... ……do .... ……do ..... Assembly of the Union (unicameral) ..................................................... Democratic Republic.................... Yamoussoukro ............... Cambodia ... Republic....................................... ……do ... Military Junta....... Chad ................................................... ……do ......... President ..... ……do ..... Yaounde........................ ……do ..................................................................... Multiparty Presidential Regime (Ivory Coast)........................ Do................. ……do .......................... Bogota .. Democratic Republic...... ……do ... Multiparty Presidential Regime................................ Sofia .... ……do ..... ……do .... Santo Domingo............ Republic.................................................... Parliament (bicameral).............. National Assembly (unicameral)............................... Parliamentary Democracy.... Government type UN Capital Chief of state member Bulgaria ....... Nicosia (Lefkosia) ..... ……do ........................................ Comoros .326 Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008—Continued Legislative body National Assembly (unicameral).... Parliament (bicameral)................................... ……do ..........................

........................ Berlin............................. ……do ......................... Georgia ............................................ Germany .................. National People’s Asssembly (unicameral)........ Tegucigalpa........................................... ……do .............. ……do ..................... ……do .................. People’s Assembly (bicameral).......... The ........................ Reykjavik.................. Estonia ............................................................... ……do ... Pope........................ Baghdad.... Republic.................. House of Representatives ........... National Congress (unicameral) .................................... Republic......................................... President ........... Parliamentary Republic. Parliamentary Democracy............................. Iran ............. ……do .............. ……do ................................... Transitional Government........ Asmara (Asmera) ............................................ Parliamentary Democracy............................. Budapest .. Bissau .................................... Parliament (bicameral)................. ……do ...................................... Supreme Leader ............. ……do .. France .......... Congress of the Republic (unicameral)................. Malabo ......... ……do ............ ……do ................. ……do . T’bilisi........ ……do . Guyana ....... National Congress (unicameral) ........................................................ Democratic Constitutional Republic.... Honduras ................ National Assembly (unicameral)...... Knesset (unicameral) ............................... Suva (on Viti Levu) ............................ People’s National Assembly (unicameral)...................................... Republic........................................ ……do .. Libreville ............................... ……do ................................ Ethiopia ................ President ....................... Constitutional Democracy................ Republic........................................................ Accra ... ……do ... ……do .......................................... Saint George’s............. ……do ............... ……do ...... Paris....................................................................... Do........ Equatorial Guinea ....................................... National Assembly (unicameral).............................. Parliament (bicameral)... ……do ............ ……do ...... Parliament (unicameral................. New Delhi ....... Do......................... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ..... Legislature (bicameral).... National Assembly (unicameral)......... Guatemala................... Eritrea ......................... ……do ............. Ghana ..................... Vatican City .............................................. ……do .......................................................... Jerusalem 3.... Queen (represented by Governor General)............... Do. Conakry ...................................... ……do ...................................................................Useful Tables Ecuador ..... Parliamentary Republic. Gabon ....................................... Iceland . Parliament (unicameral) ............................ ……do .......................................................................................... ……do ...... ……do ............................................................ ……do ................................ ……do ...... Athens. ……do ............................................................... ……do ....... Tallinn ......................... Parliament (bicameral)....... ……do .............. Do.................................................. Republic......... Islamic Consultative Assembly (unicameral)............................................ Republic.............................. 327 Iraq ...... ......... Cairo .. Parliament (unicameral) ........................... India ........... ……do .. Parliamentary Democracy............................ ……do ................ Republic........................................ Guinea ................ Haiti ... Ecclesiastical................. ……do ....... Egypt ................................................. No .............................. Gambia................. Tehran...................... President .................................. Do.................. ……do ......................................... Rome ......................... Fiji ...... Dublin.......................... Theocratic Republic............................ ……do ............................... National Assembly (bicameral) ...................................... Do.. Parliament (bicameral)..... Yes ........ President ... Federal Republic.................... Jakarta................... ……do ... Parliament (bicameral)........ Do.... Israel ............................................................... Do..................... Italy ................................. ……do ......... Holy See (Vatican City)........ Indonesia ........................................... also known as Supreme Council)........... Hungary ............... Do..... ……do ......................................... ……do ................................................. Parliament (unicameral) .. ……do .............................................. Helsinki ................. ……do ... ……do ... Greece .......................................... ……do ....................... ……do ......................................................................... ……do ............. National Assembly (unicameral).... ……do ...................... ……do ..................................... ……do ....................................................... ……do ............................................................... House of People’s Representatives (unicameral)............. Grenada ..................... Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City (unicameral).............................................................................................. ……do ..... ……do ..... ……do . Quito ............ ……do .............. Yes .. Parliament (unicameral) .... Parliament (bicameral)............................. Multiparty Presidential Regime.......................... Constitutional Republic... Ireland ............ Parliamentary Democracy......... Georgetown ........................................... Guatemala ... Finland ................. ……do .. Banjul .............. San Salvador ............... Parliament (bicameral).................. Parliamentary Democracy...................... ……do .......................................... Guinea-Bissau . ……do ...... Republic...... Addis Ababa ............. Constitutional Democratic Republic............. Port-au-Prince ........................... Federal Republic.................. Council of Representatives ............................................................................................................................... El Salvador ........... Federal Republic............

............. Korea................................................ President ......... ……do ...................................... Kenya ........... Emperor ...... Communist State...... Premier ......328 Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008—Continued Country Chapter 17 UN Capital Chief of state Legislative body Government type member Jamaica .................... ……do .................... ……do ............... Republic............ Tarawa .. Constitutional Parliamentary Democracy..... 5 (unicameral).......... ……do ................ Do.................................... Parliament (bicameral)..................... North ................................................................................................................ Vaduz ........................................................................... Astana .... Supreme Council (unicameral). President ........................................... Lilongwe.............................................................................................. Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy.. Parliamentary Democracy. Do.................. Parliament (unicameral) ......................................................................... ……do ................. ……do .................................. Kingston .................... ……do ....................................... Malawi ..................... President ........................................................................................................... ……do ............. ……do ............ Maseru ............ Parliament or Seimas (unicameral) .......................................................... Legislature (unicameral) .. Parliamentary Democracy.. Male....... Diet (bicameral) ....... ……do ..... Amir......................... Majuro .............................................. Constitutional Government in free association with the U.................. Madagascar ..... National Assembly (unicameral).................................................... Kuwait.. ……do .. Lesotho .............. General People’s Congress Jamahiriya............ Multiparty Democracy..... Republic......... Parliamentary Democracy. ……do ................... Grand Duke ................... Authoritarian Presidential rule................... ……do .. Riga............................ Prince......................... People’s Council (unicameral) ..... Legislature (bicameral).......... Beirut ..... Parliament (bicameral)........ Marshall Islands .... Republic...... ……do ......................................... Chamber of Deputies (unicameral) ............................................... ……do .................................................................... Parliament (bicameral)................... ……do ...................... President ........ Yes ..................... ……do ............................................ ……do ............. Antananarivo ................ Republic..................................... ……do ... King......... Valletta .... ……do ............ Malaysia ...... President ..................... National Assembly (unicameral)............... Constitutional Monarchy with a Parliamentary Government......... Pyongyang ..... ……do ........... Japan ............. National Assembly (unicameral)... National Assembly (bicameral) ....... National Assembly (unicameral)......... Lithuania .................. ……do ........................................... ……do ............................... Constitutional Monarchy............................. Liechtenstein .............. Libya ........................... Government (unicameral)............ Seoul........ ……do ............. Skopje.......... King..... Tokyo ............. ……do .................................. ...................... National Assembly (unicameral)........................ President . Maldives ........................... ……do ........................... Kazakhstan .............................. ……do .................................................. Macedonia..................... ……do ....................... Republic................. Monrovia . Republic........ Nairobi. ……do ................ Yes ........................... Constitutional Monarchy... National Assembly (unicameral)............................................... Republic............ National Assembly (unicameral)..................................................................... Supreme People’s Assembly Communist State one-man dictatorship........................ (unicameral)........ Vilnius ... Yugoslav Republic.... Republic.... Korea.....S................................................................ Kuwait ................................................... Queen (represented by Governor . Bishkek ...... Liberia ....... No ............................................. Do... Parliament or Landtag (unicameral) .... Tripoli .... Revolutionary Leader 4................................................................... Bamako..... Pristina (Prishtine).................. Parliament (bicameral)....... Constitutional Monarchy.............. Jordan ..................... Vientiane ................. House of Representatives (unicameral) ............................................. Mali ........ Kiribati ......................... ……do .......... President ............................................... Kosovo Assembly of the Provisional Do...................... House of Parliament (unicameral)....................... Assembly or Sobranie (unicameral) ................. ……do .... Amman ........................................ Kuala Lumpur............. ……do ..................... General)..... Paramount Ruler ............ with little power outside the Executive Branch........................ Kyrgyzstan .................................................. ……do ................ Latvia .......... South .................. National Assembly (bicameral) ........ ……do . former ……do ............. ……do ........................................................ Laos ...................... Lebanon ............................. Malta .................. Kosovo ........... Luxembourg .... Luxembourg .......... Constitutional Emirate........ Constitutional Monarchy..................

......................... House of Representatives (unicameral) ................. ……do .. ……do ............ Mexico ... ……do .......... Port Moresby ..................... ……do ... Assembly (unicameral) ..................................... Namibia ............................ Peru .... Palau ....... No official capital... Monaco ........................... Chisinau ............ Papua New Guinea ................... President ..................................................S............... National Congress (bicameral)...... President ...........................................................................Useful Tables Mauritania . Netherlands ...... Advisory Council (unicameral)................... Micronesia........ Democratic Republic................. President . Assembly of the Republic (unicameral) ............ Republic........................... Do.............................................. Niger .... ……do ...................... ……do ..................................... Russia . Asuncion ................. ……do ............. Romania ......... ……do ..... Kigali... ……do ..... Parliamentary Democracy..... Warsaw .............. Parliamentary Democracy.. ……do ....................... ……do .................. Port Louis......................................................... Muscat ...................... President ................................................ ……do ... Pakistan ........................... Republic.................................................................. ……do ............................................................................ Saint Kitts and Nevis ............... ……do .......................................... National Assembly (unicameral)................. ……do ................ Panama ......... Parliament (bicameral)................. Congress of the Republic of Peru Do.............. Oman .............................................. New Zealand ................ Doha ................................... Mozambique ................................. Islamabad. ……do ........ Nepal ...... 330 seat Interim Parliament ................. Federal Republic.............................................................. Parliamentary Democracy..................... Queen ..... Kathmandu ............................ ……do ......................................... Nouakchott... Parliament (unicameral) ............... Sultan and Prime Minister ........... ……do ........... Lisbon .............................. Republic...................... ……do ........... 329 Philippines .......... Basseterre ... Lima ....... Queen ......... ……do ... ……do .................................... ……do ..................... Oslo ................................................... Constitutional Government in free association with the U........ ……do ... Panama .... Poland .............. President ................................................. ……do . President .. Mixed Parliamentary/Presidential............................................................................................................. Federation........... National Congress (bicameral)................................................................. ……do ......... Queen . Constitutional Monarchy............. Nauru ... King. Montenegro .............. Federated States of..................... National Council (unicameral)... Nicaragua .............. ……do ............... ……do ...... (unicameral)................... Constitutional Monarchy.......... Maputo ......... Amsterdam....................................................................... ……do ..................................... Federal Assembly (bicameral) .. Emirate. Constitutional Republic..... Legislature (bicameral)........... Ulaanbaatar . Do............................. National Assembly (unicameral)................................................... ……do ........................................ Prime Minister .............................. Windhoek ....... presidential............ Morocco ........ Palikir .................................................. National Assembly (bicameral) ... Parliament (bicameral)................ National Parliament (unicameral) ........................................... Federal Republic........................... ……do ... ……do ...................................... Mauritius ............ Congress (bicameral) ................ ……do ............ ……do ...... Parliament (Storting)...................... Bucharest ........... Wellington .................................................................. Republic......... Assembly of the Republic (unicameral) .... Do............................................ Constitutional Government in free association with the U................. Amir............................................................................................ Legislature (bicameral) .......................... ……do ........................... Niamey .............. Monaco ......... King................................................................. ……do .. Moldova ......... Parliamentary Democracy. Do.......... Rabat ......... Parliament (bicameral)...........S............................................................................................. ……do ..................... ……do ................................ ……do ................ multiparty system......... ……do ..................... Qatar ............ ……do ................. Monarchy....................................... Federal Republic................ ……do ...................... Constitutional Democracy.... (modified ..... Parliament (unicameral) ........... Nigeria .... Constitutional Monarchy... Manila............. Yes ..................................... National Assembly (bicameral) .................... Congress (unicameral)........... unicameral) 6.............. Melekeok ............. Podgorica ......................................................... ……do ............................................................................ National Assembly (unicameral)........ National Assembly (unicameral).............. ……do ........ .. Constitutional Monarchy... ……do ................................................................... ……do ........................................ Do. Republic................................................................................................... government offices in Yaren District............. Managua ...................... Moscow ............................................................. ……do ......................... ……do ........ Parliament (bicameral).............................................. Republic..... State Great Hural (unicameral).................... Mongolia ............ ……do ......................... Majlis Oman (bicameral) . Rwanda ....................... Norway ................. States General (bicameral)....................................................................... Paraguay ............ Portugal ................... Republic...................................... Abuja ................................ Constitutional Parliamentary Democracy... ……do ....... Congress (bicameral) ......... ……do .. ……do ......................... President .................................... ……do .................... Mexico ..................... Prince...............................

...... Constitutional Democracy.................................................................................... Timor-Leste .... Taiwan ................. Monarchy........... Apia .... Saudi Arabia .... ……do ................... Do................. . King...... Victoria ............................... President .................. Republic.................................................................................................... Grand and General Council Republic...................................... ……do ........... General Courts or National Assembly Parliamentary Monarchy............................................. transitional Parliamentary Federal Government... Do.................................................................................... Spain 7 ......... ……do .................................. Singapore ........ Government of National Unity (GNU)................................ Constitutional Monarchy....................... Thailand ................. Parliament (unicameral) .. Republic......... Legislative body Government type UN Capital member Saint Lucia ........................ Mogadishu ................................................... ……do ... Chapter 17 Tajikistan ........................ ……do ................................................................. San Marino ... Seychelles ....... Sudan ..... National Parliament (unicameral) ... Legislative Yuan (unicameral) ........................ Parliament (unicameral) ................................. Castries .... the Grenadines.......................... ……do . ……do ..... ……do ..... Freetown ........................... Suriname ........................... Parliamentary Republic............................................ King.. National Assembly (unicameral)........................................... ……do ........ ……do ........................................................... Riyadh................. Parliament (bicameral)...... (unicameral)... Pretoria ............................... ……do .................. ……do .............................................................. Bern ................................... National Council (unicameral).................... Dili ..................................... Republic......... ……do ......... ……do ................................................................. Sierra Leone ............ Chief of State ................... Multiparty Democracy......... Parliament (bicameral)................ Switzerland ...................................... ……do ......................................... ……do ...................................................... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ............ Saint Vincent and ……do ............................................................ Parliamentary Democracy............. ……do ........... Dushanbe ....................... King and Prime Minister .............................. ……do ............................... Damascus........ ……do .......................... Republic............................................... President ... Dakar ................. Madrid ..... President ..................................... National Assembly (unicameral)........... Supreme Assembly (bicameral) ....................................... Colombo....... Do.. Sri Lanka ..... Bangkok .............................. ……do ............................... Monarchy............................... (bicameral)................................. ……do ............. National Parliament (unicameral) ..... House of Assembly (unicameral) ..... No ........................................ ……do .... National Assembly (bicameral) ................... Parliamentary Democracy.......... ……do ...... National Assembly (unicameral)................................ ……do ............. ……do .......................... Honiara ....................................... Mbabane .... Co-Chiefs of State (Captains Regent)............................. President .... People’s Council (unicameral) ................................ Tanzania .......... Yes ... Bratislava..... ……do .......... National Assembly (unicameral)...... ……do ................... Samoa ............................... King...................................... Consultative Council ......................... Somalia ...................................... ……do .................... Dar es Salaam..330 Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008—Continued Chief of state Queen ........... Yes .. Parliamentary Democracy.............. ……do ... Federal Assembly (bicameral) ............................. Solomon Islands ......... Slovakia ......................................................................... Formally a Confederation but similar in structure to a Federal Republic.......... Swaziland .............. Parliament (bicameral)...................................................... President .. National Assembly (unicameral)........ Serbia ............................................................... No permanent National Government... Transitional Federal President..................... ……do ..... Parliament (bicameral).......................... Sao Tome ..................... Republic......... Ljubljana............. Slovenia . ……do ....................... Taipei ......................... Belgrade......... Kingstown............... Senegal .... Stockholm .................................... ……do ................ San Marino . Parliament (bicameral)............................................................ Parliament (unicameral) ............... King...... Khartoum .................................................. Do.............. Paramaribo... ……do ..... President .......... Constitutional Monarchy... Sweden ........ South Africa .......... ……do ......... Republic............. Do........ ……do ..... Parliamentary Republic............................................ Republic under an authoritarian military-dominated regime....................... ……do ......................................................... Constitutional Democracy. ……do ............... Queen ... ……do .......................... Country Sao Tome and Principe...................... National Legislature (bicameral) ........... ……do .............................................................................. Singapore .................................... ……do ..... Syria .......................

.......... Vanuatu .... Kyiv (Kiev) .... Yes .................... ……do ... (Ashkhabad).............. The United States does not recognize Jerusalem as the capital and the U...................... Zimbabwe ........ Ankara ................. ……do ......... Republic...... United Arab ……do .................................. ……do .............. ……do ....................... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ........................................... National Assembly (unicameral)... London ............................................................... Abu Dhabi.............................. authoritarian presidential rule..................... an authoritarian state..................................................................... Do.......... ……do .................................................... Government did not adopt the name............. Executive President ............ Caracas . Council and a National Assembly.... and the U...................... 3 In 1950.....................S......................... ……do ............. Do..... the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state................................... governed by the populace through local councils.............Useful Tables Togo .............. Authoritarian Presidential rule..... Port-Vila (on Efate) ......................... Ashgabat ……do ....... ……do .... http://www.................................. Funafuti........ Tuvalu ......... ……do .............................. Source: World Factbook 2008................ Turkey ............ July 27............................. Vietnam ............. General Assembly (bicameral) ................. Parliament (unicameral) ................................... 5 In theory................................................ ……do .......... ……do ............... 331 1 Since 1989............ Supreme Council (unicameral).... Parliament (also called House of Constitutional Monarchy with a Assembly.......... Hanoi . Federal National Council (FNC) Federation with specified powers Emirates.. President .. 6 No accurate English equivalents................................ Parliament (bicameral).......... Chamber of Deputies and the Republic.................... Republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule............... Parliament (bicameral)........... President ........... with little power outside the executive branch... Chamber of Advisors (bicameral)........................ which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw........ this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma.................. National Assembly (unicameral)................................. Tunis ...... Legislature (bicameral).................. National Assembly (unicameral)....................... Uzbekistan ...........................gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.......... Montevideo .... Grand National Assembly of Turkey Republican Parliamentary Democracy (unicameral).......... ……do ... Parliament (bicameral). Two Parliamentary Bodies: People’s Republic.......... ……do ....... Uganda ..... with little power outside the executive branch............ 4 Holds no official title.................. ……do ..... Uruguay ..... Parliamentary Democracy................................. Communist State............ Kampala ........... Lusaka........................cia........... Parliamentary Republic...... ……do ................. ……do .................................................................................. Tunisia .. Parliamentary Democracy............................ ……do ............ Nuku’alofa..................S............................ President ...................................... Queen ................... Embassy continues to be located in Tel Aviv......................... Supreme Assembly (bicameral) ................... (unicameral)................ Federal Republic......... ……do ................................... Parliamentary Democracy.. Republic...... 7 The Law of Succession........ 1947.... Trinidad and Tobago .................... Constitutional Republic... Ukraine ........... ……do ............... but is de facto Chief of State.. United Kingdom ... delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates.......................................................... Tashkent ....... Lome ............ Constitutional Monarchy.......................... Central Intelligence Agency................................................ Yemen . unicameral)........... the Israel Parliament proclaimed Jerusalem as the capital...................................................html.. Tonga ................. President .................. National Assembly (unicameral)... Port-of-Spain. ……do ....... Venezuela ....... in practice...... ……do ................ declared that Spain was constituted a Kingdom....................... Zambia .. Constitutional Monarchy.............. ……do .......... ……do .. Queen . Republic............. ……do ........................................................... ……do . Turkmenistan .......... Harare . ……do .......... ……do .. King.............. ……do ................................... ……do ........................... Sanaa . ..................... 2 Government currently under power sharing agreement mandated by international mediators............

. Ghana . Finn................. Honduras ............... Gabonese (singular and plural). Austria... Comoros ..................... ........... Bermuda .... Czech Republic.................. Burmese (singular and plural).......... Motswana (singular)... Guernsey....... Cambodia ........... Bahamian.......................... Cypriot.. Guamanian........ Cook Islander....... Barbadian or Bajan....... Anguilla . Gabon ................ Cocos (Keeling) Islands .. Congolese (singular and plural)........... Ethiopia................................................................................... Czech............ Estonia..... Israeli........ Iraqi......... Burkinabe (singular and plural)............332 Chapter 17 Demonyms: Names of Nationalities [Demonym is a name given to a people or inhabitants of a place.............. Andorran................ Cape Verde ............ French Polynesian...... Albania.............................................. Dominican...... Hungary ... Denmark.. Central African.. Chadian............ Bolivian................ Finland ........... Congo..... Ecuadorian.......... The Bahamas.............. Cote d’Ivoire .... India........................ Demonym* Afghan......... Cape Verdean.. Australian......................... Ecuador ..... Demonym* Costa Rican....... Antigua and Barbuda .... Frenchman (men) or Frenchwoman (women)........... British Virgin Islands ................................................... Djibouti ... Christmas Islander.... Irishwoman (women).......... Bosnia and Herzegovina . Brunei ..................... Belize ... Grenadian.... Gambian........ Bosnian... Chad............... Cuban........................... Herzegovinian.......... Colombia .......................... Haitian..... Guam ..................... Iceland .............................. Congo.. The Gambia ... Indian................................. Ireland ............................ French Polynesia ...................... Estonian........... Ivorian............ Dominica .. Burundi. Haiti .......................................... Faroe Islands. Comoran............. Canada ..... Gibraltarian.......... Guyana ..................................................................................................... Beninese (singular and plural)...... Colombian........ Cameroon........ Cuba.............. Icelander.... Cameroonian........ Aruban........ Bermudian.......... Ethiopian............................................. Chile ............... Greenlander..................... Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean........................ Andorra .............................................. Caymanian. Iranian.................. Croat or Croatian............................. Canadian................ Equatorial Guinea . Indonesia ........................ Angolan................................................... Greenland........................... Aruba................................................... Burkina Faso ............ Bangladesh ...... Fiji........... Austrian.. Iran................................. Argentina...... Egypt ......................................... Bahraini.................................. Algeria ...... Antiguan Barbudan....................... Ghanaian.... Guinean. American Samoa ....... Azerbaijani. Chinese/Hong Konger......... Eritrea..................... Honduran.. Guinea ..................... Australia ................. German............................................. Hong Kong ... Belarusian..... Brazilian........................... Guinea-Bissau .............. Cocos Islander............. Salvadoran.............. Channel Islander....................... Greek............ Belizean........... Bangladeshi............................................. Country Costa Rica........................... Georgia........................ Chilean........... American Samoan.......... Croatia... Iraq .......... Dane........ Bhutanese (singular and plural)............................................................................................................................................................ Dominican Republic............. Gibraltar ................] Country Afghanistan .... Democratic Republic of the. Brazil ....... Christmas Island ........................... Batswana (plural)......... Cambodian.................. Bulgaria......... Burma (Myanmar 1) ........................ Faroese (singular and plural)...... China ....................................... Bolivia ............... Congolese (singular and plural).......... Chinese (singular and plural)..... Cook Islands . Cyprus ............................ Grenada................. Botswana ............. Central African Republic................... Eritrean.... Bruneian.................... Burundian......... Indonesian....... Angola ........... Albanian.... Greece.................... Bhutan ...................................................... Guyanese (singular and plural)..................................... Irishman (men)........................... Israel .................. Egyptian..... Germany ........................... Republic of the .......................................................... Guatemala ....... Argentine.................................... Belgium ................. Belgian................................................................. Anguillan............ Dominican.................... British Virgin Islander............................................ El Salvador..... Benin ..... Azerbaijan ... Armenian..... Armenia ..................... Guatemalan................................. Fijian..... Cayman Islands ............ Georgian...... Falkland Islander. Guinean....................................................................... Belarus ....... Hungarian. Djiboutian...... Falkland Islands.... Barbados ................ France ............................................... Bulgarian.......... Irish (collective plural)............................................. Bahrain ...... Algerian..............

...................... Qatar .. Norfolk Island ...... Moroccan.... Macau .............. Kiribati .. New Caledonian.................................. Vincentian......... Japanese (singular and plural)....... Niuean....... Lithuanian....................... Moldovan.............. Italian.... Sri Lankan.. Filipino..................... Mongolia..... Russian............................................................................. New Zealander...................... Russia........................... Jamaican....... Jordan ...... Dutch (collective)............................ Mali .............................................. Sierra Leonean.............. Papua New Guinea ................ Mexican....... Niue...................................... Korea........ Frenchwoman (women)..................... Luxembourger..... Pakistan ....... Mosotho (singular)........... Micronesia............................................... Lithuania ................. Panama ............ New Caledonia ........... North ................... Pakistani...... Surinamer...... Niger .............................. Dutchman (men).................. New Zealand ................................................. Spaniard.... Pole..... Chinese (singular and plural).............. Mauritius .............................. Macedonia .................. Malagasy (singular and plural)......... Spain ............. ...... Singaporean........ Saudi............. Monaco ........................ Luxembourg ............. South Africa ......... Lesotho......... Sri Lanka............. Nigerien....... Lao or Laotian.......... Serbia .............................. Lebanon .................. Mauritania ............. Slovak.... San Marino ... Kosovar (Albanian)........................ Poland ......... Saint Lucia ....................... Kenya ..... Latvian......... Korean........................ Norway......... Malawi.... Mayotte .............. Latvia .............. Namibia ................................................. Qatari............................... Seychellois (singular and plural)................. Mauritian. Omani. Samoan............. Laos ... Kosovo......... Sudan ................. Mozambique ........ Japan ........ Mahorais (singular and plural)............ Nepal .......... Pitcairn Islander........................ Singapore ...................................................... Kazakhstan ................... Montserratian. Frenchman (men)............ Jamaica ................................... Jordanian.............. Federated Micronesian................ South African................................ Norwegian............ Maltese (singular and plural). Liberia ............................................... Liberian......... Nauru .................... Moldova ............................. Dutch Antillean... Jersey........... Sao Tome and Principe........... Montenegrin.. Mauritanian.... I-Kiribati (singular and plural).................... Samoa ....... Dutchwoman (women)................. Norfolk Islander.. Netherlands Antilles ..... Palauan.............................. Mexico................................................................ Sudanese (singular and plural)....................................... Malta... Suriname ..... Kazakhstani..... Kosovac (Serbian)... Malawian... Montserrat.. Slovenia ................................. Kittian and Nevisian... Kuwaiti......... Korea........ Maldives................ Maldivian...... Pitcairn Islands .................... Oman....... Papua New Guinean.......................... Portugal ........ Philippines .................. Portuguese (singular and plural)..... Montenegro.. Rwandan..... Channel Islander....... Netherlands..... Macedonian.......................... Basotho (plural)...................................... Nicaraguan........... Malian....................................... Senegal ........... Slovakia ............ Sierra Leone ............. States of................... Lebanese (singular and plural)......... Marshallese (singular and plural)................................................. Senegalese (singular and plural)..... Mozambican............. Saint Pierre and Miquelon............... Paraguay .................. Saudi Arabia................................................................................... Sao Tomean.............. Somalia.......... Saint Kitts and Nevis ..... Korean. Libya .................................. Serb.................. Libyan. Romania................. Seychelles. Nigerian..................... Morocco ............. Romanian.... Marshall Islands .............................. Solomon Islands.................................] Country Demonym* Country Demonym* Italy ................... Peruvian........... Kyrgyzstan .................... Namibian................ Slovene............................................... Malaysia . Panamanian.............. Kyrgyzstani....... Saint Helenian..... Sammarinese (singular and plural)...... Kuwait .......... Paraguayan.................................................... Solomon Islander............ Liechtenstein.................... Saint Lucian.. Monegasque or Monacan...................................Useful Tables 333 Demonyms: Names of Nationalities—Continued [Demonym is a name given to a people or inhabitants of a place....... Nigeria............ Peru ........ Nepalese (singular and plural). Madagascar ................. Nauruan............................................................... Malaysian.............. Liechtensteiner...... Kenyan............................................................. Palau ............... Mongolian........ South .............. Saint Helena ................................................................................................. Nicaragua ...... Rwanda ............... Saint Vincent and the Saint Vincentian or Grenadines................ Somali...

.............................................................................................................................................................................. which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw........ Wallis and Futuna .................................................................................................................................................... for more information see www................................................................................... Bahamian dollar . U..................... Tanzania .....] Country Demonym* Country Turkmenistan .......................................................... Trinidadian.................................... Aruban guilder/florin......................................................... *Note....... Timor-Leste .................................. Uganda ................................................ Taiwan (singular and plural).......................... Swaziland. Venezuelan...... Euro .............................................. Azerbaijani manat ........... Sahraoui............................ East Caribbean dollar ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Swiss (singular and plural).................................... Sahrawi........ Source: Information courtesy of World Factbook as of July 24............................................................................................ Taka ........ Taiwan ......... Switzerland ...... Tongan.................................. Algeria .............................................................................................................. Swazi.............. Euro .............. Australian dollar..................................................................................... Zambian.............. Euro .................... Bangladesh ..................... Syrian.. Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)................................... Lek ............ United Kingdom .......... dollar ................................................................................................ Dram ........................................................ Virgin Islands ........................... Bahrain ............. Albania................... and the U........................................ Sweden ................................................ American Samoa . Antigua and Barbuda ............... Benin ..... Bermuda ..................................... Anguilla ..................................................................................... Trinidad and Tobago .......................................... American.............. Uruguayan.. Bermudian dollar ........ Australia .......................... Tokelauan.............. Uzbekistani............................. Emirati.................. 2008............334 Chapter 17 Demonyms: Names of Nationalities—Continued [Demonym is a name given to a people or inhabitants of a place.............. Turk.......... Euro ....... Yemen ......................................................................... Tanzanian... Ukraine .................. Belarusian ruble ............................................ Currency [As of July 2008] Country Afghanistan ........... Ugandan............. Vietnam ........................................................... East Caribbean dollar ....... Swede.......................html.......... Togo ............................................... Wallisian... Belgium ........... Angola ................. Argentine peso .............................................................................................. Azerbaijan .... Zimbabwe . 1 Since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state............... Belarus ............ Syria ......................................................................................................... Thailand ......... (singular Tobagonian. Tuvaluan..... Algerian dinar ........................................................................................ Belizean dollar............................................................................ United Arab Emirates.................................. Tokelau ................ Togolese (singular and plural)............................................... Uzbekistan ..... Government did not adopt the name.......... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc .................................................... Tunisia..... Andorra ........................ Ukrainian............. Barbados ..................................... Austria......... Tonga ........... Tajikistan .................................................................................................. this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma........................... Argentina...............................................................gov/ library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/21110................................... Akrotiri ...................... Futunan...................S...... Tunisian............ Vietnamese (singular and plural)...S............................................. Aruba...................................cia.. Timorese (singular and plural)...... Zimbabwean...............—Plural references add s unless otherwise indicated.................. Tajikistani... Tuvalu........... Bahamas ................................................................. Belize ......... United States ........................................................................................................... Virgin Islander......... Currency Afghani ................................................ Bahraini dinar ............................................................................................. Zambia .. Briton or British (collective plural)..................... Kwanza............................................ Turkey ........... Barbadian dollar .......................... Yemeni......................................... Thai (singular and plural).......... Armenia .................. Demonym* Turkmen.. Venezuela............................................................................................................................................. Western Sahara ....... Uruguay .............................................................................................. Vanuatu.................................. ISO 4217 code* AFA EUR ALL DZD USD EUR AOA XCD XCD ARS AMD AWG AUD EUR AZN BSD BHD BDT BBD BYR EUR BZD XOF 1 BMD ...

......... Republic of the .... Germany ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Ecuador ................................................................ Dhekelia ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Dollar ................. Cook Islands ......... Dominican peso.................... Cuban peso and convertible peso ................................................................................................................................ Cocos (Keeling) Islands ........... Euro ........................... Colombian peso .................................................................... Burma (Myanmar 3) .................................. Caymanian dollar.. Chad............................. Canadian dollar .......................................................................................... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc . Cyprus ................................................ Real ............... Congolese franc .................................................................. Ghana cedi ........................................................................ Croatia............ Costa Rican colon..................... Faroe Islands................................................................................................................................. Kuna ..................................... El Salvador.......... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ........ Birr ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Lev .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Christmas Island ........ Cayman Islands ................................... Danish krone . U................................................... Gambia........................................................................................................................................................................... Egyptian pound .................... Kyat ............... also called yuan ............................................................................... Gibraltar ... Finland ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Djiboutian franc ................................................. Euro .............................. Estonian kroon..................................................................................................................................... France ... Dalasi ....................................................... ISO 4217 code* BTN/INR BOB BAM BWP BRL GBP/USD USD BND BGL XOF 1 MMK BIF KHR XAF 2 CAD CVE KYD XAF 2 XAF 2 CLP RMB/CNY AUD AUD COP KMF CDF XAF 2 NZD CRC XOF 1 HRK CUP/CUC EUR CZK DKK EUR DJF XCD DOP USD EGP USD XAF 2 ERN EEK ETB FKP DKK FJD EUR EUR XPF XAF 2 GMD ILS GEL EUR GHC GIP .......................... Cuba............................................... Georgia................................... Czech Republic............................. Estonia............................................ Renminbi....... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ................................................................................................. Gaza Strip ................................................... Bosnia and Herzegovina .... Costa Rica.......................................................................... Falkland pound............... Convertible mark........................................................................................................................................................................... British Virgin Islands ..................................................................................... Cape Verdean escudo ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Botswana ...................................... dollar ...... Congo................. Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ..................................................................................................... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc .................................................................................................................... Euro ........................ Gibraltar pound ..................................................................................... Eritrea.......... Burkina Faso .................................................................................................................. Cameroon.................. Pula ................... New Israeli shekel ......................................... British Pound and U............................................................................................................................................................................. The................................................S........................................... Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) ................................................................................................S.............................................. Djibouti ................................. Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ................................... Denmark..................................................... Euro .............................. Congo.......... Brazil ......... Gabon .......... Cambodia ............................................... Democratic Republic of the ........ Bolivia ............................................................................ Australian dollar.................. Ghana ................................ Chile ....................................................................................... Burundi franc ............. Danish krone ......................................................... Boliviano ............................ Colombia ................................................................................................. Riel .......... Currency Ngultrum and Indian rupee ....S........... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ........................................................................... Comoros .......................................................................................................................... Nakfa ........................................................................................................... Dominica . Brunei ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... dollar ................................................................ French Polynesia .......................................................... Euro ........................ dollar .......................................................................... Chilean peso ............................................. Canada ......................... Egypt .......................................................... Central African Republic............S........... NZ dollar ................................................................................. Bulgaria..............................................................................................................................................Useful Tables 335 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] Country Bhutan ... Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) .......................................................... Equatorial Guinea ............... Lari ............................................................................ Czech koruna.......................................... Comoran franc .............................. Burundi.................................................................................................................................................................. Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ................................................. Bruneian dollar .......................................... British Indian Ocean Territory ........... Australian dollar... Dominican Republic...... Fiji............................................... Fijian dollar ......... Ethiopia......................................... U...... China ................................................... Cape Verde ................................. East Caribbean dollar ..... Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc ...................................... U.

............................................. Kiribati ..................... Liberia ... Euro ........................... U.................... Liechtenstein....................... Guinea ...................................................................................................................................................... Kyrgyzstan .................. Malawi......................................... Forint ............. Malaysia .......................... Haiti ........................... Jordan ................................. Latvia ............................................................................................................. North Korean won ...................................................... Indonesian rupiah .................................................................. Guernsey pound and British pound......... Lempira ........................................................... Kenyan shilling ..... Macedonian denar .............................................................................................................. Indonesia ... Jordanian dinar............... Kenya .................... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... dollar ...................... dollar .................. Madagascar ...................................................................................................... Isle of Man ........... Federated States of.................... Hong Kong .................................... North ...... ISO 4217 code* EUR DKK XCD USD GTQ/USD **/GBP GNF XOF 1 GYD HTG EUR HNL HKD HUF ISK INR IDR IRR NID EUR IMP ILS EUR JMD JPY **/GBP JOD KZT KES AUD KPW KRW EUR/RSD KWD KGS LAK LVL LBP LSL/ZAR LRD LYD CHF LTL EUR MOP NKD MGA MWK MYR MVR XOF 1 EUR USD MRO MUR EUR MXN USD MDL .................... Mauritius ........................................................................................................ Kip ............................... Mauritania ............................................................... Marshall Islands ................................... Gourde ............................... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc .................................................................. Hong Kong dollar ..336 Chapter 17 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] Country Greece........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Guinea-Bissau ....................................... Danish krone ............................................................................. Iranian rial ........................................ Mauritian rupee ........................ Ireland ..................................................................................................................... Hungary .................. Euro and Serbian Dinar ............... Euro .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Iceland ........................................................................................................... Moldova ............................................................. U............................................................. Lebanese pound .................................................................................. Jersey............................................................................................................................ Euro ............................................. Swiss franc... Korea............................................................................... dollar ..... Ouguiya ........................... Japan ......................................................................... Honduras .....................................................................S......................................................................................................... Euro ........................................................................... East Caribbean dollar ...................... New Israeli shekel .......................................................................... Korea..................... Moldovan leu ....................................................................................................... Kuwait ....................... Liberian dollar....................................................................................................................................................................... Maldives........................... Icelandic krona..................................................................................... Guatemala ............................................................................................................................................................... Guam ......... Israel ............................................................................................................. South Korean won ........................................................ Micronesia... Kuwaiti dinar.... U....................................... Guyanese dollar ............................................................. Grenada.S.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... New Iraqi dinar ....................................... Guernsey... Lithuania ...S............................................................................................ Euro .................................................................... Currency Euro ................................................................................................................................ Laos ..... Som .................... India........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Jamaican dollar ....................................................... Jersey pound and British pound ............................................................................................. Mali ........................................................................................................................................... Ringgit........................................................................................................................ Macedonia .................................................................................................................................................. Litas............................................................................................................. Latvian lat........ South .... Yen.................................. Macau ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Lebanon ............................................................................................................................................ Kazakhstan ................................................ Guinean franc ................................................................ Holy See (Vatican City) . Loti and South African rand............................................................................................................... Kosovo................................................................................................................ Greenland........................................................................................................... Jamaica ................... Libyan dinar ....................................... Ariary ............. Malta................................................................... Isle of Man pound also called manx ................... Libya .................................................................. Tenge...................................................... Mayotte .................................................... Luxembourg ....................................................................... Italy ........................ Malawian kwacha .......................................................................................................................................................... Pataca ................................................................. Euro ..................................... Mexican peso ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Indian rupee .................................. Iran.................................................................................................................................... Australian dollar............S. dollar ................................ Iraq ............................................... Lesotho............................................................... Rufiyaa ........................................... Mexico........................................ Quetzal and U............................................................................................. Guyana .......................................................................

....................................................................................................................... Montenegro...................................................... East Caribbean dollar ............................................Useful Tables 337 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] Country Monaco .............................................................................. Saint Kitts and Nevis ...................... New Zealand dollar........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Russian ruble ............... Portugal ................................ Qatari rial .................................... Euro ......... Seychelles............................................... Palau .............S...................................................... U..... Philippine peso........................... Netherlands.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Solomon Islands............ Pakistan ..................................... Somalia........................S........... Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.. Saudi Arabia................................................................................................................................. Slovak koruna .............. ISO 4217 code* EUR MNT EUR XCD MAD MZM NAD/ZAR AUD NPR EUR ANG XPF NZD NIO XOF 1 NGN NZD AUD USD NOK OMR PKR USD PAB/USD PGK PYG PEN PHP NZD PLN EUR USD QAR RON RUB RWF EUR SHP XCD XCD EUR EUR XCD SAT EUR STD SAR XOF 1 RSD SCR SLL SGD SKK EUR SBD SOS ZAR EUR LKR ................................................................................................................................................. Leone ....................................... Philippines ................ San Marino .. Saint Barthelemy ............................................................. Seychelles rupee .............................................................................................................................. Morocco ....................................................... Somali shilling ...................................... Slovenia ............................................................................. Euro ....................... Metical ..... Niue........................................................................................... Northern Mariana Islands .... Euro ..................................................................................................................................................................... Romanian leu .................................................. Sri Lanka................ Gold cordoba ........... New Zealand dollar........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Sri Lankan rupee ......................................................................... Nuevo sol ......... Australian dollar.................................................. East Caribbean dollar .................. Niger ...................................................... Rwanda ................................................................ Pitcairn Islands ............................................................ Sao Tome and Principe.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Serbian dinar ............................................................................................ Omani rial .................................. Samoa .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Poland ..... Slovakia ...................................................................................... Mongolia............................................................. Nauru .............. Australian dollar.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Singapore ..... Dobra........................................ Namibia .............. Nicaragua ........................................................ Euro ............................................................................. Nigeria...... Balboa and U..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Euro ....................................................................................................................................................................................... Saint Lucia ..................................................................................... Saint Pierre and Miquelon................................... Solomon Islands dollar...................... Qatar ......... Saint Helena ..................... Panama ............................................................................................................................................. South Africa ...... Currency Euro ............ Pakistani rupee .................................................................................................. Oman........................... Serbia ......................................................................... Moroccan dirham ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Euro ......................................................................................... dollar .................................................. Norway....................... Russia...... Saint Martin................................ Netherlands Antilles ............... Kina ................................................................................................................. East Caribbean dollar .................................................... Peru .......... Togrog/tugrik ........... Namibian dollar and South African rand .......................................... dollar ...... Senegal ....... Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc . New Caledonia ....................... New Zealand ........ Puerto Rico ..................................................... New Zealand dollar........................................................................................................................................... Norfolk Island .................................... Guarani ........................ Tala............................................................................................................................................................................................ Nepalese rupee ......................................................................................... Spain ........................................................S....... dollar .............. Communaute Financiere Africaine franc .............................................................................. Netherlands Antillean guilder . Nepal ..... Papua New Guinea .......................................... East Caribbean dollar .... Montserrat......................................................................... Mozambique ......................................................... Rand....................... Euro ...................................................... Euro ................................................... Saudi riyal................................................................................................................................................ U.......................S................................................. dollar ...... Norwegian krone ...................................................................................................................................... Euro ........................... Romania...................................... Saint Helenian pound............ U................................................................. Paraguay ............................................................................................................................... Singapore dollar ..................................................................... Naira ..................................... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ................. Rwandan franc ................................................................................................... Zloty...................................................................... Sierra Leone .........

................S............................... Wallis and Futuna ..........................iso............................................................................................................................................................................ Bolivar ........................................................... Australian dollar......S.................... New Taiwan dollar ......................... Somoni .............. Yemen ....... Vietnam .................................. but not part of the United Kingdom..... Vatu.......... Uruguayan peso ............................ Trinidad and Tobago dollar .. Swiss franc.................. However.................................................................................................................. Swedish krona ......................................................................... Ukraine ................................ Ugandan shilling ............ Sweden ................................................... Lilangeni ........... it is used in place of currency symbols or names........................... United States ........... Zambia .................................................................................................................................................................. Zimbabwean dollar ....................... and the U........................................................ U........................................................................................................... Taiwan ............................................................................. New Zealand dollar......................... Tajikistan .......... 1 2 3 Currency Sudanese pound .................................. U.................................................................................................................. Communaute Financiere Africaine franc .................................... U........................................................ Baht ...... Turkmenistan ........................................................... Syrian pound ............ Virgin Islands ................................................... Timor-Leste ................................................................ Tokelau ........................ Western Sahara ..............................................................................cia........................... Guernsey and Jersey are both British crown dependencies.......... Tunisian dinar .............................. the United Kingdom Government is constitutionally responsible for their international representation................................................................................S............................ * ISO 4217 is the international standard of 3-letter codes used to define names of currencies...................................................... United Arab Emirates.......................................................................... British pound................................ Uzbekistan .......................................................................................................................................... Since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state..... Thailand ................................................................................................... dollar .................................................................................................................................................................S...................................................................................................... dollar ................. Tanzanian shilling ........... For more information see www................... this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma. Venezuela..................................... Syria .......... .......................................................................................... Tonga .....html. Emirati dirham ...........org/iso/support/faqs/faqs_widely_used_standards/ widely_used_standards_other/currency_codes/currency_codes_list-1.............................. Trinidad and Tobago ...htm.............................................................. Yemeni rial ........................................................................................................................................... New Israeli shekel and Jordanian dinar .. Svalbard ............................................................... Suriname ......................................... dollar ... Tanzania ........... U....................................................... Uganda ............................................................................................................................... Moroccan dirham .......................................................................................... Dong .................................................. Vanuatu.................................................... Source: World Factbook: www...........................................................................................................gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2065................................................. which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw............................................................................................................338 Chapter 17 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] Country Sudan ............................................................................................................................................................ dollar ................. ** There is no currency code for Island monies................. ISO 4217 code* SDG SRD NOK SZL SEK CHF SYP TWD TJS TZS THB USD XOF 1 NZD TOP TTD TND TRY TMM USD AUD UGX UAH AED GBP USD UYU UZS VUV VEB VND USD XPF ILS/JOD MAD YER ZMK ZWD Responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States......................................................................... Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc .......................................................................................... Turks and Caicos Islands .. Turkey ................................. Hryvnia......... Soum............................. Surinam dollar .............................. West Bank ................S......................................................................................................................................................... Tuvalu...... Turkish lira.......................................................... Togo ..................................................... Norwegian krone ................................ Zambian kwacha ........................................ Tunisia........................................................................... United Kingdom .......... Uruguay ........ Turkmen manat .................................. Government did not adopt the name....................................................................... Pa’anga .............. Switzerland ...................................................... Responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States................................. Swaziland....................... Zimbabwe ...............

...... 4 quarts......................................S....1 0 1 At this time.........................................3 nautical miles..................................000 mg)...... °F to °C: subtract 32....1 decigram (100 mg).................................1 323........... 10 centigrams .... 20 ...................1 peck.............1 293....... 1......................................1 fluid ounce (fl oz).........................................1 tablespoon.............................. 1 kilometer ......................... 2 cups ........................... –273.. 10 decimeters .1 gram (1............................S.........................1 yard.. .............. then divide by 9.... Temperature Conversion 3 Celsius 100 .......1 223......................000 meters......... 10 dekagrams .......................S... 10 meters ... –50 ...........000 lbs). 50 ............1 pint....................................... as they are not the same.....1 quart........ 4 pecks .......................... or metric system) as their official system of weights and measures.......................1.............1 pound.... 10 centiliters .................1 centimeter......1 233....1....... 10 dekameters .... 20 hundredweight ........... Fahrenheit 212 122 104 86 68 50 Kelvin 373. 1 nautical mile .....1 283..........................1 quarter..............1 mile (5....... Volume Metric unit 10 milliliters ................ 10 decigrams .. then add 32.............1 253.............1 kilogram (1.............................. U.........Useful Tables 339 Metric and U.....1 hectogram (100 g)................................................................1 gallon................. 10 centimeters....000 g)...................... –10 ... Fahrenheit 32 14 –4 –22 –40 –58 –459.........1 Celsius 0.. 10 .............................................. liquid capacity 3 teaspoons ................................1 313.................1 decimeter............... 10 hectometers.................1 chain...........000 kilograms...................... 2 Dry measurements are mainly used for measuring grain or fresh produce...... dry measure 2 2 pints ................................... –40 ..1 liter...................... U........ then divide by 5.................. only three countries—Burma......................................... U.... 2 pints ...1 263.....1 303............. 2 gallons ............................................................................7 Kelvin 273......................................... –30 ..................1 hectometer................. 10 chains ........... 30 ......1 centiliter................................... 1 cup ...................... 1 league............ 10 grams (g) .......... unit 12 inches.1 cubic meter........................1 bushel...1 foot (ft)...... 42 gallons ........000 liters . 3 feet ....................... 8 furlongs .1 meter.....1 hundredweight.....1 metric ton.................. 100 pounds (lbs) ........... 4 quarts.............. Do not confuse dry measure for liquid measure..................................1 kilometer..........1 gallon..........1 dekagram...1 furlong (660 ft).... unit 16 ounces.........1 243.........S.................. Mass Weight Metric unit 10 milligrams (mg).............. 3 The equation for converting temperatures is as follows: °C to °F: multiply by 9. then multiply by 5...................... 10 deciliters ........1 petroleum barrel........S. and the United States—have not adopted the International System of Units (SI.........1 quart...........................1 deciliter...................1 ...... 2 tablespoons.......................... Measures 1 Length Metric unit 10 millimeters...........1 centigram...............280 ft)....................8 fl oz..... 22 yards ............ 8 bushels .......1508 mile.......... 1............................................................................1 ton (2............... 40 .................................. –20 ........ Liberia...1 dekameter........................................ U................................................................. 10 hectograms .

.... ..35 milliliters... Pint (dry) ... Cubic yard ........9144 meter.1..............3.. Do ..........1.... short...... imperial ..........29..12 troy ounces.............240 pounds..... Ton.. Do ............ 3 The troy ounce is used in pricing silver.... Liter ...............7639 square feet....0............... and other precious metals and gemstones.471 acres................0....1..................................... Kilometer ..0...........................340 Chapter 17 Common Measures and Their Metric Equivalents U.. Bushel .54 centimeters.....047 kilograms.......... Cord ... Ton.......3079 cubic yards..0.. League .......91 quart (dry)........31.....016....16...... Cubic meter ......................9... Pint (liquid).. Do .....1135 peck.......... Gram ................... Ton.........032 troy ounce......................6093 kilometers.................. Do...............0929 square meter.....0.. Ounce..473..........946.........4..... Pound 2 ......................... Ounce (liquid) ..................6214 mile....... 1 The grain is used to measure in ballistics and archery... Grain 1.4536 kilogram.......1799 league..........79 liters...............................0283 cubic meter...........1137 milliliters...................35..............1....3048 meter........ Hectare .... Do ..............................3146 cubic feet........................1...........836 square meter.................. Metric to U..............20 pounds...........6.. Do .....574 milliliters............... Mile .... 2 Avoirdupois. Do ......................028 bushel..................................2...................................2......................... long .. avoirdupois is the measure of mass of everyday items. grains were originally used in medicine but have been replaced by milligrams. Quart (dry) .... Nautical mile .000 kilograms..................2808 feet..... Square meter ....0..........550....................5...28............................0.0.............0... Gallon (liquid).......... troy 3..................S..........0...0.. imperial ......................0...... Centimeter..........35 grams. imperial ..................... platinum........... to metric Inch ......64......8.........204....2...0..............128 cubic feet.....10...0..5399 nautical mile.......................1.....7646 cubic meter..3937 inch.........24 liters.......55 liters..810 liters...................... Square yard ....... Square foot ..........0338 ounce (liquid)......23 gallon (dry).......... Do ............61 milliliters.. Square mile .....36........06 quarts (liquid)............2...196 square yards.........0... Kilogram.....907.............0.....0............799 milligrams.............1.........26 gallon (liquid).......092 liters.................. Peck ....0................................1101 milliliters....0............. metric .....39 cubic centimeters......... Ounce 2 ........................176 milliliters.....452 square centimeters..........................................04 ounce. Bushel....35.259 hectares.. Meter....................................... Cubic foot ...... Peck.......000 pounds......4...0.........6 pounds. Foot ..............06 cubic inch..556 kilometers............... troy... Do ...........185 kilograms... Gallon (dry) ........0....................3............. Do.0.......2.... Pound.. Cubic inch .S...40 liters..... gold........852 kilometers........... Do .....0039 square mile................ Gallon....... Quart (liquid) .............. Milliliter .............2............................ Yard...........0.... Square inch ..........155 square inch...................... imperial .. Do ...................... Do ..............0936 yards.....................37 liters.103 grams...........................................4047 hectare.......... Square centimeter ....................................1. Cubic centimeter. Do ... Acre ..... Do.................. Quart.

..5 9 13........25 1.875 17.....4 31..... 7⁄16 ... 2... ¼ ...............5 76.5 2p3 2p7.637 Picas 0p4. 3½ .......1875 ..... 3.5 0p9 1p1.125 ............ 4....9375 1 1......5 50.5 18 22............ 5..5 45 49........... ¾ ..5 Points 4......75 ....5 3p9 4p1..75 38.....35 7......5 36 40.5 3 3p4.........3125 ....Useful Tables 341 Measurement Conversion Fraction 1⁄16 ....4375 ....5 4p6 4p10.............5 3 3........625 ....812 25..... ½ .5 54 58.. 6.. Decimal inches ..............5 4 5 6 Millimeters 22........762 6....7 14.525 11.. 13⁄16............6875 .112 12....5 27 31... 1¼.......8125 Millimeters 1. Decimal inches ..............75 2 2.........5 1..25 .05 20..6 127 152. ⅛ .........937 9... 5⁄16 ... ⅜ ....... 1½......5 Fraction ⅞ ..........1 44......0625 .5 6 7p6 9 10p6 12 15 18 21 24 30 36 Points 63 67..462 19...............5 1p6 1p10...... 9⁄16 ...2 88............587 3......875 ..... 11⁄16.... 2½ ..............225 23.......5625 .375 ...175 4..8 63.. 3⁄16 ......5 ...9 100..4 Picas 5p3 5p7....5 72 90 108 126 144 180 216 252 288 360 432 .........287 15...... 1. ⅝ .. 15⁄16 .. 1¾.

Statherian..usgs. Structural terms such as arch..... Neoarchean... Hadean.. Mesoarchean....... Tonian............... Mississippian).......18.. Cedar Creek Anticline.... Eoarchean... Geological Survey.... Archean. Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions Geologic terms For capitalization....... Calymmian.. Ordovician. Neoproterozoic ...... Formal geologic terms are capitalized: Proterozoic Eon.... Paleoproterozoic...... Devonian. Permian..... Ediacaran..... Rhyacian...... however. for graphic see http://pubs.. Cryogenian... Proterozoic .....gov/fs/2007/3015/ fs2007-3015.. Cambrian Period......... Cretaceous.. Jurassic... Orosirian. Paleoarchean.... compounding.. Ectasian.............. it should be made clear that the usage is that of the original author...... Stenian...... Divisions of Geologic Time [Most recent to oldest] Eon Era Period Phanerozoic... and use of quotations in geologic terms...... anticline... Geologic terms quoted verbatim from published material should be left as the original author used them.. Tertiary (Neogene.. Cambrian. Siderian.. Ozark Uplift.. Triassic. Cenozoic. Mesoproterozoic . or uplift are capitalized when preceded by a name: Cincinnati Arch.. Quarternary.... Paleogene)... Mesozoic........ Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian....S. Silurian.pdf. Paleozoic ....... copy is to be followed.. 343 ......... Source: Information courtesy of the U.... See Chapter 4 geographic terms for more information.

...... Continental Shelf.. Southern.html. Dissected Till Plains... Embayed........ Osage Plains..... Champlain. Lexington Plain.......... Eastern Lake................ Taconic.................... Valley and Ridge ........ Nashville Basin.. Sea Island... Western Lake...... Appalachian Plateaus .. Seaboard Lowland.... East Gulf Coastal Plain...... Blue Ridge ................. Mohawk.... Atlantic Plain ..344 Chapter 18 Physiographic regions Physiographic regions are based on terrain texture.. Floridian.... St...... Cumberland Plateau. Highland Rim... Central Lowland .. Middle. Interior Plains ..... ................ Piedmont Lowlands....... Superior Upland.... Wisconsin Drift less............... Hudson Valley.... Kanawha.... Piedmont Upland......... Physiographic Regions of the Lower 48 United States Division Province Section Laurentian Upland .. Green Mountain.......... rock type... Allegheny Mountain...... which are broken into provinces... All names are capitalized.... Tennessee. Interior Low Plateaus ..... New England ............... Catskill..................... West Gulf Coastal Plain. Northern.......... Piedmont ....... Lawrence Valley ... Southern New York......... Mississippi Alluvial Plain.... Cumberland Mountain.. not the class.......... Coastal Plain..... New England Upland..... and some provinces break further into sections.. Adirondack.............. Northern....... for graphic see http://tapestry..... Appalachian Highlands .... Till Plains........................... The classification system has three tiers: divisions... and geologic structure and history. White Mountain... usgs..gov/physiogr/physio....

....... Wyoming Basin... Pacific Mountain System.. Rocky Mountain System ....... Raton........ Mexican Highland... Navajo...... Los Angeles Ranges.... Grand Canyon. Pecos Valley... Sacramento.. Middle Cascade Mountains............. High Plains..... Basin and Range ................. Intermontane Plateaus . Central Texas.. Datil. Colorado Piedmont. Canyon Lands..... ... Southern Rocky Mountains..... Pacific Border ..... California Coast Ranges..... Lower California... Boston “Mountains................... Blue Mountain............. Payette....... Missouri Plateau....... Oregon Coast Range... Ouachita Mountains... Salton Trough...... Arkansas Valley. Klamath Mountains..... High Plateaus of Utah.S....Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 345 Division Province Section Interior Highlands................. Snake River Plain... Northern Cascade Mountains......... California Trough........ Uinta Basin... Walla Walla Plateau. Missouri Plateau..... Geological Survey........... Middle Rocky Mountains. Southern Cascade Mountains........... Great Basin..... Great Plains... glaciated.. Colorado Plateaus . Springfield-Salem Plateaus.... Northern Rocky Mountains. Olympic Mountains. Sonoran Desert........ Plains Border.... unglaciated.......... Sierra Nevada....... Harney.” Ouachita ... Source: Information courtesy of the U..... Ozark Plateaus............ Puget Trough..... Cascade-Sierra Mountains ... Edwards Plateau...... Black Hills... Columbia Plateau ....

(Arizona) Humboldt Meridian and Base Line. (California) Huntsville Meridian and Base Line. (Illinois-Indiana) Seward Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Wyoming) Information courtesy of the U. (Mississippi-Tennessee) Choctaw Meridian and Base Line. (Alaska) Ute Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Louisiana-Texas) Michigan Meridian and Base Line. (Mississippi) Cimarron Meridian and Base Line. (Oklahoma) Kateel River Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Alaska) Sixth Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Ohio) Principal Meridian and Base Line. Department of the Interior. (Colorado-Kansas-Nebraska-South Dakota-Wyoming) St. and subdivisions of sections are incorporated in the description of land conveyed by the Federal Government and others. (South Dakota) Boise Meridian and Base Line. Helena Meridian and Base Line. (Alabama-Mississippi) Tallahassee Meridian and Base Line. (Illinois) Fourth Principal Meridian and Base Line Wisconsin. sections. (Oregon-Washington) Wind River Meridian and Base Line. (California-Nevada) Second Principal Meridian and Base Line. Principal meridians and base lines and their related townships. Stephens Meridian and Base Line. (Colorado) Washington Meridian and Base Line. (Minnesota-Wisconsin) Gila and Salt River Meridian and Base Line. (ArizonaNew Mexico) 1 New Mexico Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Montana) Salt Lake Meridian and Base Line. (New Mexico-Colorado) Point of Beginning and Geographer’s Line. Bureau of Land Management. (Utah) Umiat Principal Meridian and Base Line.S. The Principal Meridians and Base Lines of the United States 1 Black Hills Meridian and Base Line. (Alabama-Mississippi) Indian Meridian and Base Line. (Alaska) Louisiana Meridian and Base Line. (Alaska) Fift h Principal Meridian and Base Line.346 Chapter 18 Geographic divisions The Public Land Survey System has a hierarchy of lines. (Oklahoma) Copper River Meridian and Base Line. (Michigan-Ohio) Mount Diablo Meridian and Base Line. (Illinois) Uintah Special Meridian and Base Line. (California-Nevada) Navajo Meridian and Base Line. (Alaska) Fairbanks Meridian and Base Line. (Mississippi) Willamette Meridian and Base Line. (Utah) San Bernardino Meridian and Base Line. . (Arkansas-Iowa-Minnesota-MissouriNorth Dakota-South Dakota) First Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Florida) Third Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Idaho) Chickasaw Meridian and Base Line. (Ohio-Indiana) Fourth Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Louisiana) St.

.............. 1996.. GPO............. (Indiana) Ohio River Survey................ Lawrence .....900 1..... Niger (Africa) ....543 2............................. Yenisey (Russia) .................................. Yangtze (China) .. Congo (Africa)............................................635 2.................. Department of the Interior... Length (in miles) 2........ Platte ......... Major Rivers of the United States River Missouri . (Ohio) United States Military Survey.............html.gov/edu/riversofworld.................. America) ....................... see http://ga.......... (Ohio) Information courtesy of the U........ (Ohio) Ohio River Base....water..734 2.......540 2....................................................................................... Colorado .......... Length (in miles) 1............... (Ohio) Twelve-Mile-Square Reserve.............................964 3.. Arkansas ........................362 2...gov/wo/st/en/prog/more/cadastralsurvey............................................. Pecos ...................... Sources: Manual of Instructions for the Survey of the Public Lands of the United States...S.........340 2...... Length (in miles) 2................... references cite different lengths for the same river depending on origin.............................. Amazon (S...................744 2......................718 River MacKenzie (Canada) ...... Atchafalaya..........310 1...................................................040 990 926 906 Source: Information courtesy of the U.............................. north of Symmes Purchase...........................240 1..—Information compiled from numerous public domain Web sites........blm.........................) .................................... Ob-Irtysh (Russia) ......900 1........usgs....... Geological Survey...........html for more information on prinicipal meridians and base lines... Mississippi (U....... Bureau of Land Management....................... (Ohio) Muskingum River Survey........395 3............. Rio Grande .................................... Red ......... Major Rivers of the World River Nile (Africa) .............600 2.) .....................Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 347 Public Land Surveys Having No Initial Point as an Origin for Both Township and Range Numbers 1 Between the Miamis...............310 Note........................ Yukon ..................... ..........450 1... (Ohio) 1 Scioto River Base.................... Snake............ Albert White............. Lena (Russia)...................... St.............. C.........280 1. Brazos ..........540 2................ (Ohio) West of the Great Miami...................................S....................... Parana (S....... Length (in miles) 4.......290 1...... Initial Points of the Rectangular Survey System......... Murray-Darling (Australia) .485 2........... Missouri (U...............S......... See http://www...................................................... Canadian................. Yellow (China) .. Amur (Asia) . Columbia ........000 3............... Bureau of Land Management.....S...................340 1................ Mekong (Vietnam)..980 1...460 1.... America)...160 4............... Mississippi .........420 River Ohio.........590 2.

boroughs.S.org for more information.* 11 census areas) Capital: Juneau Aleutians East* Aleutians West Anchorage* Bethel Bristol Bay* Denali* Dillingham Fairbanks North Star* Haines* Juneau* Kenai Peninsula* Ketchikan Gateway* Kodiak Island* Lake and Peninsula* MatanuskaSusitna* Nome North Slope* Northwest Arctic* Prince of WalesOuter Ketchikan Sitka* Skagway-HoonahAngoon Southeast Fairbanks Valdez-Cordova Wade Hampton WrangellPetersburg Yakutat* Yukon-Koyukuk AMERICAN SAMOA (AS) (5 entities: 2 islands. County totals include city counties as defined by the National Association of Counties. municipalities.naco. districts. See www. and territories. islands.348 Chapter 18 States. census divisions. U. possessions. Clair Shelby Sumter Talladega Tallapoosa Tuscaloosa Walker Washington Wilcox Winston ALASKA (AK) (27 entities: 16 boroughs. ALABAMA (AL) (67 counties) Capital: Montgomery Autauga Baldwin Barbour Bibb Blount Bullock Butler Calhoun Chambers Cherokee Chilton Choctaw Clarke Clay Cleburne Coffee Colbert Conecuh Coosa Covington Crenshaw Cullman Dale Dallas De Kalb Elmore Escambia Etowah Fayette Franklin Geneva Greene Hale Henry Houston Jackson Jefferson Lamar Lauderdale Lawrence Lee Limestone Lowndes Macon Madison Marengo Marion Marshall Mobile Monroe Montgomery Morgan Perry Pickens Pike Randolph Russell St. and “municipios” of the 50 States. and counties The following includes parishes. capitals.* 3 districts) Capital: Pago Pago Eastern Manu’a Rose* Swains* Western .

Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 349 ARIZONA (AZ) (15 counties) Capital: Phoenix Apache Cochise Coconino Gila Graham Greenlee La Paz Maricopa Mohave Navajo Pima Pinal Santa Cruz Yavapai Yuma ARKANSAS (AR) (75 counties) Capital: Little Rock Arkansas Ashley Baxter Benton Boone Bradley Calhoun Carroll Chicot Clark Clay Cleburne Cleveland Columbia Conway Craighead Crawford Crittenden Cross Dallas Desha Drew Faulkner Franklin Fulton Garland Grant Greene Hempstead Hot Spring Howard Independence Izard Jackson Jefferson Johnson Lafayette Lawrence Lee Lincoln Little River Logan Lonoke Madison Marion Miller Mississippi Monroe Montgomery Nevada Newton Ouachita Perry Phillips Pike Poinsett Polk Pope Prairie Pulaski Randolph St. Francis Saline Scott Searcy Sebastian Sevier Sharp Stone Union Van Buren Washington White Woodruff Yell CALIFORNIA (CA) (58 counties) Capital: Sacramento Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba .

350 Chapter 18 COLORADO (CO) (64 counties) Capital: Denver Adams Alamosa Arapahoe Archuleta Baca Bent Boulder Broomfield Chaffee Cheyenne Clear Creek Conejos Costilla Crowley Custer Delta Denver Dolores Douglas Eagle El Paso Elbert Fremont Garfield Gilpin Grand Gunnison Hinsdale Huerfano Jackson Jefferson Kiowa Kit Carson La Plata Lake Larimer Las Animas Lincoln Logan Mesa Mineral Moffat Montezuma Montrose Morgan Otero Ouray Park Phillips Pitkin Prowers Pueblo Rio Blanco Rio Grande Routt Saguache San Juan San Miguel Sedgwick Summit Teller Washington Weld Yuma CONNECTICUT (CT) (8 counties) Capital: Hartford Fairfield Hartford Litchfield Middlesex New Haven New London Tolland Windham DELAWARE (DE) (3 counties) Capital: Dover Kent New Castle Sussex DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA (DC) (single entity) FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA (FM) (4 States) Capital: Palikir Chuuk Kosrae Pohnpei Yap FLORIDA (FL) (67 counties) Capital: Tallahassee Alachua Baker Bay Bradford Brevard Broward Calhoun Charlotte Citrus Clay Collier Columbia De Sota Dixie Duval Escambia Flagler Franklin Gadsden Gilchrist Glades Gulf Hamilton Hardee Hendry Hernando Highlands Hillsborough Holmes Indian River .

Lucie Santa Rosa Sarasota Seminole Sumter Suwannee Taylor Union Volusia Wakulla Walton Washington GEORGIA (GA) (159 counties) Capital: Atlanta Appling Atkinson Bacon Baker Baldwin Banks Barrow Bartow Ben Hill Berrien Bibb Bleckley Brantley Brooks Bryan Bulloch Burke Butts Calhoun Camden Candler Carroll Catoosa Charlton Chatham Chattahoochee Chattooga Cherokee Clarke Clay Clayton Clinch Cobb Coffee Colquitt Columbia Cook Coweta Crawford Crisp Dade Dawson Decatur De Kalb Dodge Dooly Dougherty Douglas Early Echols Effingham Elbert Emanuel Evans Fannin Fayette Floyd Forsyth Franklin Fulton Gilmer Glascock Glynn Gordon Grady Greene Gwinnett Habersham Hall Hancock Haralson Harris Hart Heard Henry Houston Irwin Jackson Jasper Jeff Davis Jefferson Jenkins Johnson Jones Lamar Lanier Laurens Lee Liberty Lincoln Long Lowndes Lumpkin Macon Madison Marion McDuffie McIntosh Meriwether Miller Mitchell Monroe Montgomery Morgan Murray Muscogee Newton Oconee Oglethorpe Paulding Peach Pickens Pierce Pike Polk Pulaski Putnam Quitman Rabun Randolph Richmond Rockdale Schley Screven Seminole Spalding Stephens Stewart Sumter Talbot Taliaferro Tattnall Taylor Telfair Terrell Thomas Tift Toombs Towns Treutlen Troup Turner Twiggs Union Upson Walker Walton Ware Warren Washington Wayne Webster Wheeler White Whitfield Wilcox Wilkes Wilkinson Worth .Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 351 Jackson Jefferson Lafayette Lake Lee Leon Levy Liberty Madison Manatee Marion Martin Miami-Dade Monroe Nassau Okaloosa Okeechobee Orange Osceola Palm Beach Pasco Pinellas Polk Putnam St. Johns St.

Clair Saline Sangamon Schuyler Scott Shelby Stark Stephenson Tazewell Union Vermilion Wabash Warren Washington Wayne White Whiteside Will Williamson Winnebago Woodford .352 Chapter 18 GUAM (GU) (single entity) Capital: Agana HAWAII (HI) (4 counties) Capital: Honolulu Hawaii Honolulu Kauai Maui IDAHO (ID) (44 counties) Capital: Boise Ada Adams Bannock Bear Lake Benewah Bingham Blaine Boise Bonner Bonneville Boundary Butte Camas Canyon Caribou Cassia Clark Clearwater Custer Elmore Franklin Fremont Gem Gooding Idaho Jefferson Jerome Kootenai Latah Lemhi Lewis Lincoln Madison Minidoka Nez Perce Oneida Owyhee Payette Power Shoshone Teton Twin Falls Valley Washington ILLINOIS (IL) (102 counties) Capital: Springfield Adams Alexander Bond Boone Brown Bureau Calhoun Carroll Cass Champaign Christian Clark Clay Clinton Coles Cook Crawford Cumberland De Kalb De Witt Douglas DuPage Edgar Edwards Effingham Fayette Ford Franklin Fulton Gallatin Greene Grundy Hamilton Hancock Hardin Henderson Henry Iroquois Jackson Jasper Jefferson Jersey Jo Daviess Johnson Kane Kankakee Kendall Knox La Salle Lake Lawrence Lee Livingston Logan Macon Macoupin Madison Marion Marshall Mason Massac McDonough McHenry McLean Menard Mercer Monroe Montgomery Morgan Moultrie Ogle Peoria Perry Piatt Pike Pope Pulaski Putnam Randolph Richland Rock Island St.

Joseph Scott Shelby Spencer Starke Steuben Sullivan Switzerland Tippecanoe Tipton Union Vanderburgh Vermillion Vigo Wabash Warren Warrick Washington Wayne Wells White Whitley IOWA (IA) (99 counties) Capital: Des Moines Adair Adams Allamakee Appanoose Audubon Benton Black Hawk Boone Bremer Buchanan Buena Vista Butler Calhoun Carroll Cass Cedar Cerro Gordo Cherokee Chickasaw Clarke Clay Clayton Clinton Crawford Dallas Davis Decatur Delaware Des Moines Dickinson Dubuque Emmet Fayette Floyd Franklin Fremont Greene Grundy Guthrie Hamilton Hancock Hardin Harrison Henry Howard Humboldt Ida Iowa Jackson Jasper Jefferson Johnson Jones Keokuk Kossuth Lee Linn Louisa Lucas Lyon Madison Mahaska Marion Marshall Mills Mitchell Monona Monroe Montgomery Muscatine O’Brien Osceola Page Palo Alto Plymouth Pocahontas Polk Pottawattamie Poweshiek Ringgold Sac Scott Shelby Sioux Story .Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 353 INDIANA (IN) (92 counties) Capital: Indianapolis Adams Allen Bartholomew Benton Blackford Boone Brown Carroll Cass Clark Clay Clinton Crawford Daviess De Kalb Dearborn Decatur Delaware Dubois Elkhart Fayette Floyd Fountain Franklin Fulton Gibson Grant Greene Hamilton Hancock Harrison Hendricks Henry Howard Huntington Jackson Jasper Jay Jefferson Jennings Johnson Knox Kosciusko La Porte LaGrange Lake Lawrence Madison Marion Marshall Martin Miami Monroe Montgomery Morgan Newton Noble Ohio Orange Owen Parke Perry Pike Porter Posey Pulaski Putnam Randolph Ripley Rush St.

354 Chapter 18 Tama Taylor Union Van Buren Wapello Warren Washington Wayne Webster Winnebago Winneshiek Woodbury Worth Wright KANSAS (KS) (105 counties) Capital: Topeka Allen Anderson Atchison Barber Barton Bourbon Brown Butler Chase Chautauqua Cherokee Cheyenne Clark Clay Cloud Coffey Comanche Cowley Crawford Decatur Dickinson Doniphan Douglas Edwards Elk Ellis Ellsworth Finney Ford Franklin Geary Gove Graham Grant Gray Greeley Greenwood Hamilton Harper Harvey Haskell Hodgeman Jackson Jefferson Jewell Johnson Kearny Kingman Kiowa Labette Lane Leavenworth Lincoln Linn Logan Lyon Marion Marshall McPherson Meade Miami Mitchell Montgomery Morris Morton Nemaha Neosho Ness Norton Osage Osborne Ottawa Pawnee Phillips Pottawatomie Pratt Rawlins Reno Republic Rice Riley Rooks Rush Russell Saline Scott Sedgwick Seward Shawnee Sheridan Sherman Smith Stafford Stanton Stevens Sumner Thomas Trego Wabaunsee Wallace Washington Wichita Wilson Woodson Wyandotte KENTUCKY (KY) (120 counties) Capital: Frankfort Adair Allen Anderson Ballard Barren Bath Bell Boone Bourbon Boyd Boyle Bracken Breathitt Breckinridge Bullitt Butler Caldwell Calloway Campbell Carlisle Carroll Carter Casey Christian Clark Clay Clinton Crittenden Cumberland Daviess Edmonson Elliott Estill Fayette Fleming Floyd Franklin Fulton Gallatin Garrard Grant Graves Grayson Green Greenup .

Landry St. Mary St. James St. Charles St. Bernard St.Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 355 Hancock Hardin Harlan Harrison Hart Henderson Henry Hickman Hopkins Jackson Jefferson Jessamine Johnson Kenton Knott Knox Larue Laurel Lawrence Lee Leslie Letcher Lewis Lincoln Livingston Logan Lyon Madison Magoffin Marion Marshall Martin Mason McCracken McCreary McLean Meade Menifee Mercer Metcalfe Monroe Montgomery Morgan Muhlenberg Nelson Nicholas Ohio Oldham Owen Owsley Pendleton Perry Pike Powell Pulaski Robertson Rockcastle Rowan Russell Scott Shelby Simpson Spencer Taylor Todd Trigg Trimble Union Warren Washington Wayne Webster Whitley Wolfe Woodford LOUISIANA (LA) (64 parishes) Capital: Baton Rouge Acadia Allen Ascension Assumption Avoyelles Beauregard Bienville Bossier Caddo Calcasieu Caldwell Cameron Catahoula Claiborne Concordia De Soto East Baton Rouge East Carroll East Feliciana Evangeline Franklin Grant Iberia Iberville Jackson Jefferson Jefferson Davis La Salle Lafayette Lafourche Lincoln Livingston Madison Morehouse Natchitoches Orleans Ouachita Plaquemines Pointe Coupee Rapides Red River Richland Sabine St. John the Baptist St. Tammany Tangipahoa Tensas Terrebonne Union Vermilion Vernon Washington Webster West Baton Rouge West Carroll West Feliciana Winn MAINE (ME) (16 counties) Capital: Augusta Androscoggin Aroostook Cumberland Franklin Hancock Kennebec Knox Lincoln Oxford Penobscot Piscataquis Sagadahoc Somerset Waldo Washington York . Helena St. Martin St.

Mary’s Somerset Talbot Washington Wicomico Worcester MASSACHUSETTS (MA) (14 counties) Capital: Boston Barnstable Berkshire Bristol Dukes Essex Franklin Hampden Hampshire Middlesex Nantucket Norfolk Plymouth Suffolk Worcester MICHIGAN (MI) (83 counties) Capital: Lansing Alcona Alger Allegan Alpena Antrim Arenac Baraga Barry Bay Benzie Berrien Branch Calhoun Cass Charlevoix Cheboygan Chippewa Clare Clinton Crawford Delta Dickinson Eaton Emmet Genesee Gladwin Gogebic Grand Traverse Gratiot Hillsdale Houghton Huron Ingham Ionia Iosco Iron Isabella Jackson Kalamazoo Kalkaska Kent Keweenaw Lake Lapeer Leelanau Lenawee Livingston Luce Mackinac Macomb Manistee Marquette Mason Mecosta Menominee Midland Missaukee Monroe Montcalm Montmorency Muskegon Newaygo Oakland Oceana .356 Chapter 18 MARSHALL ISLANDS (MH) (33 municipalities) Capital: Majuro Ailinginae Ailinglaplap Ailuk Arno Aur Bikar Bikini Bokak Ebon Enewetak Erikub Jabat Jaluit Jemo Kili Kwajalein Lae Lib Likiep Majuro Maloelap Mejit Mili Namorik Namu Rongelap Rongrik Toke Ujae Ujelang Utirik Wotho Wotje MARYLAND (MD) (24 counties) Capital: Annapolis Allegany Anne Arundel Baltimore Baltimore City Calvert Caroline Carroll Cecil Charles Dorchester Frederick Garrett Harford Howard Kent Montgomery Prince George’s Queen Anne’s St.

Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 357 Ogemaw Ontonagon Osceola Oscoda Otsego Ottawa Presque Isle Roscommon Saginaw St. Joseph Sanilac Schoolcraft Shiawassee Tuscola Van Buren Washtenaw Wayne Wexford MINNESOTA (MN) (87 counties) Capital: St. Clair St. Paul Aitkin Anoka Becker Beltrami Benton Big Stone Blue Earth Brown Carlton Carver Cass Chippewa Chisago Clay Clearwater Cook Cottonwood Crow Wing Dakota Dodge Douglas Faribault Fillmore Freeborn Goodhue Grant Hennepin Houston Hubbard Isanti Itasca Jackson Kanabec Kandiyohi Kittson Koochiching Lac qui Parle Lake Lake of the Woods Le Sueur Lincoln Lyon Mahnomen Marshall Martin McLeod Meeker Mille Lacs Morrison Mower Murray Nicollet Nobles Norman Olmsted Otter Tail Pennington Pine Pipestone Polk Pope Ramsey Red Lake Redwood Renville Rice Rock Roseau St. Louis Scott Sherburne Sibley Stearns Steele Stevens Swift Todd Traverse Wabasha Wadena Waseca Washington Watonwan Wilkin Winona Wright Yellow Medicine MISSISSIPPI (MS) (82 counties) Capital: Jackson Adams Alcorn Amite Attala Benton Bolivar Calhoun Carroll Chickasaw Choctaw Claiborne Clarke Clay Coahoma Copiah Covington DeSoto Forrest Franklin George Greene Grenada Hancock Harrison Hinds Holmes Humphreys Issaquena Itawamba Jackson Jasper Jefferson Jefferson Davis Jones Kemper Lafayette Lamar Lauderdale Lawrence Leake Lee Leflore Lincoln Lowndes Madison Marion Marshall Monroe Montgomery Neshoba Newton Noxubee Oktibbeha Panola Pearl River Perry Pike Pontotoc Prentiss Quitman .

Louis St. Charles St. Louis City Ste.358 Chapter 18 Rankin Scott Sharkey Simpson Smith Stone Sunflower Tallahatchie Tate Tippah Tishomingo Tunica Union Walthall Warren Washington Wayne Webster Wilkinson Winston Yalobusha Yazoo MISSOURI (MO) (115 counties) Capital: Jefferson City Adair Andrew Atchison Audrain Barry Barton Bates Benton Bollinger Boone Buchanan Butler Caldwell Callaway Camden Cape Girardeau Carroll Carter Cass Cedar Chariton Christian Clark Clay Clinton Cole Cooper Crawford Dade Dallas Daviess DeKalb Dent Douglas Dunklin Franklin Gasconade Gentry Greene Grundy Harrison Henry Hickory Holt Howard Howell Iron Jackson Jasper Jefferson Johnson Knox Laclede Lafayette Lawrence Lewis Lincoln Linn Livingston Macon Madison Maries Marion McDonald Mercer Miller Mississippi Moniteau Monroe Montgomery Morgan New Madrid Newton Nodaway Oregon Osage Ozark Pemiscot Perry Pettis Phelps Pike Platte Polk Pulaski Putnam Ralls Randolph Ray Reynolds Ripley St. Clair St. Genevieve Saline Schuyler Scotland Scott Shannon Shelby Stoddard Stone Sullivan Taney Texas Vernon Warren Washington Wayne Webster Worth Wright MONTANA (MT) (56 counties) Capital: Helena Beaverhead Big Horn Blaine Broadwater Carbon Carter Cascade Chouteau Custer Daniels Dawson Deer Lodge Fallon Fergus Flathead . Francois St.

Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 359 Gallatin Garfield Glacier Golden Valley Granite Hill Jefferson Judith Basin Lake Lewis and Clark Liberty Lincoln Madison McCone Meagher Mineral Missoula Musselshell Park Petroleum Phillips Pondera Powder River Powell Prairie Ravalli Richland Roosevelt Rosebud Sanders Sheridan Silver Bow Stillwater Sweet Grass Teton Toole Treasure Valley Wheatland Wibaux Yellowstone NEBRASKA (NE) (93 counties) Capital: Lincoln Adams Antelope Arthur Banner Blaine Boone Box Butte Boyd Brown Buffalo Burt Butler Cass Cedar Chase Cherry Cheyenne Clay Colfax Cuming Custer Dakota Dawes Dawson Deuel Dixon Dodge Douglas Dundy Fillmore Franklin Frontier Furnas Gage Garden Garfield Gosper Grant Greeley Hall Hamilton Harlan Hayes Hitchcock Holt Hooker Howard Jefferson Johnson Kearney Keith Keya Paha Kimball Knox Lancaster Lincoln Logan Loup Madison McPherson Merrick Morrill Nance Nemaha Nuckolls Otoe Pawnee Perkins Phelps Pierce Platte Polk Red Willow Richardson Rock Saline Sarpy Saunders Scotts Bluff Seward Sheridan Sherman Sioux Stanton Thayer Thomas Thurston Valley Washington Wayne Webster Wheeler York NEVADA (NV) (17 counties) Capital: Carson City Carson City Churchill Clark Douglas Elko Esmeralda Eureka Humboldt Lander Lincoln Lyon Mineral Nye Pershing Storey Washoe White Pine .

360 Chapter 18 NEW HAMPSHIRE (NH) (10 counties) Capital: Concord Belknap Carroll Cheshire Coos Grafton Hillsborough Merrimack Rockingham Strafford Sullivan NEW JERSEY (NJ) (21 counties) Capital: Trenton Atlantic Bergen Burlington Camden Cape May Cumberland Essex Gloucester Hudson Hunterdon Mercer Middlesex Monmouth Morris Ocean Passaic Salem Somerset Sussex Union Warren NEW MEXICO (NM) (33 counties) Capital: Santa Fe Bernalillo Catron Chaves Cibola Colfax Curry De Baca Dona Ana Eddy Grant Guadalupe Harding Hidalgo Lea Lincoln Los Alamos Luna McKinley Mora Otero Quay Rio Arriba Roosevelt San Juan San Miguel Sandoval Santa Fe Sierra Socorro Taos Torrance Union Valencia NEW YORK (NY) (62 counties) Capital: Albany Albany Allegany Bronx Broome Cattaraugus Cayuga Chautauqua Chemung Chenango Clinton Columbia Cortland Delaware Dutchess Erie Essex Franklin Fulton Genesee Greene Hamilton Herkimer Jefferson Kings Lewis Livingston Madison Monroe Montgomery Nassau New York Niagara Oneida Onondaga Ontario Orange Orleans Oswego Otsego Putnam Queens Rensselaer Richmond Rockland St. Lawrence Saratoga Schenectady Schoharie Schuyler Seneca Steuben Suffolk Sullivan Tioga Tompkins Ulster Warren Washington Wayne Westchester Wyoming Yates .

Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 361 NORTH CAROLINA (NC) (100 counties) Capital: Raleigh Alamance Alexander Alleghany Anson Ashe Avery Beaufort Bertie Bladen Brunswick Buncombe Burke Cabarrus Caldwell Camden Carteret Caswell Catawba Chatham Cherokee Chowan Clay Cleveland Columbus Craven Cumberland Currituck Dare Davidson Davie Duplin Durham Edgecombe Forsyth Franklin Gaston Gates Graham Granville Greene Guilford Halifax Harnett Haywood Henderson Hertford Hoke Hyde Iredell Jackson Johnston Jones Lee Lenoir Lincoln Macon Madison Martin McDowell Mecklenburg Mitchell Montgomery Moore Nash New Hanover Northampton Onslow Orange Pamlico Pasquotank Pender Perquimans Person Pitt Polk Randolph Richmond Robeson Rockingham Rowan Rutherford Sampson Scotland Stanly Stokes Surry Swain Transylvania Tyrrell Union Vance Wake Warren Washington Watauga Wayne Wilkes Wilson Yadkin Yancey NORTH DAKOTA (ND) (53 counties) Capital: Bismarck Adams Barnes Benson Billings Bottineau Bowman Burke Burleigh Cass Cavalier Dickey Divide Dunn Eddy Emmons Foster Golden Valley Grand Forks Grant Griggs Hettinger Kidder LaMoure Logan McHenry McIntosh McKenzie McLean Mercer Morton Mountrail Nelson Oliver Pembina Pierce Ramsey Ransom Renville Richland Rolette Sargent Sheridan Sioux Slope Stark Steele Stutsman Towner Traill Walsh Ward Wells Williams NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS (MP) (4 municipalities) Capital: Saipan Northern Islands Rota Saipan Tinian .

362 Chapter 18 OHIO (OH) (88 counties) Capital: Columbus Adams Allen Ashland Ashtabula Athens Auglaize Belmont Brown Butler Carroll Champaign Clark Clermont Clinton Columbiana Coshocton Crawford Cuyahoga Darke Defiance Delaware Erie Fairfield Fayette Franklin Fulton Gallia Geauga Greene Guernsey Hamilton Hancock Hardin Harrison Henry Highland Hocking Holmes Huron Jackson Jefferson Knox Lake Lawrence Licking Logan Lorain Lucas Madison Mahoning Marion Medina Meigs Mercer Miami Monroe Montgomery Morgan Morrow Muskingum Noble Ottawa Paulding Perry Pickaway Pike Portage Preble Putnam Richland Ross Sandusky Scioto Seneca Shelby Stark Summit Trumbull Tuscarawas Union Van Wert Vinton Warren Washington Wayne Williams Wood Wyandot OKLAHOMA (OK) (77 counties) Capital: Oklahoma City Adair Alfalfa Atoka Beaver Beckham Blaine Bryan Caddo Canadian Carter Cherokee Choctaw Cimarron Cleveland Coal Comanche Cotton Craig Creek Custer Delaware Dewey Ellis Garfield Garvin Grady Grant Greer Harmon Harper Haskell Hughes Jackson Jefferson Johnston Kay Kingfisher Kiowa Latimer Le Flore Lincoln Logan Love Major Marshall Mayes McClain McCurtain McIntosh Murray Muskogee Noble Nowata Okfuskee Oklahoma Okmulgee Osage Ottawa Pawnee Payne Pittsburg Pontotoc Pottawatomie Pushmataha Roger Mills Rogers Seminole Sequoyah Stephens Texas .

Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 363 Tillman Tulsa Wagoner Washington Washita Woods Woodward OREGON (OR) (36 counties) Capital: Salem Baker Benton Clackamas Clatsop Columbia Coos Crook Curry Deschutes Douglas Gilliam Grant Harney Hood River Jackson Jefferson Josephine Klamath Lake Lane Lincoln Linn Malheur Marion Morrow Multnomah Polk Sherman Tillamook Umatilla Union Wallowa Wasco Washington Wheeler Yamhill PALAU (PW) (16 States) Capital: Melekeok Aimeliik Airai Angaur Hatohobei Kayangel Koror Melekeok Ngaraard Ngarchelong Ngardmau Ngatpang Ngchesar Ngeremlengui Ngiwal Peleliu Sonsorol PENNSYLVANIA (PA) (67 counties) Capital: Harrisburg Adams Allegheny Armstrong Beaver Bedford Berks Blair Bradford Bucks Butler Cambria Cameron Carbon Centre Chester Clarion Clearfield Clinton Columbia Crawford Cumberland Dauphin Delaware Elk Erie Fayette Forest Franklin Fulton Greene Huntingdon Indiana Jefferson Juniata Lackawanna Lancaster Lawrence Lebanon Lehigh Luzerne Lycoming McKean Mercer Mifflin Monroe Montgomery Montour Northampton Northumberland Perry Philadelphia Pike Potter Schuylkill Snyder Somerset Sullivan Susquehanna Tioga Union Venango Warren Washington Wayne Westmoreland Wyoming York .

364 Chapter 18 PUERTO RICO (PR) (78 municipios) Capital: San Juan Adjuntas Aguada Aguadilla Aguas Buenas Aibonito Añasco Arecibo Arroyo Barceloneta Barranquitas Bayamón Cabo Rojo Caguas Camuy Canóvanas Carolina Cataño Cayey Ceiba Ciales Cidra Coamo Comerío Corozal Culebra Dorado Fajardo Florida Guánica Guayama Guayanilla Guaynabo Gurabo Hatillo Hormigueros Humacao Isabela Jayuya Juana Díaz Juncos Lajas Lares Las Marías Las Piedras Loíza Luquillo Manatí Maricao Maunabo Mayagüez Moca Morovis Naguabo Naranjito Orocovis Patillas Peñuelas Ponce Quebradillas Rincón Río Grande Sabana Grande Salinas San Germán San Juan San Lorenzo San Sebastián Santa Isabel Toa Alta Toa Baja Trujillo Alto Utuado Vega Alta Vega Baja Vieques Villalba Yabucoa Yauco RHODE ISLAND (RI) (5 counties) Capital: Providence Bristol Kent Newport Providence Washington SOUTH CAROLINA (SC) (46 counties) Capital: Columbia Abbeville Aiken Allendale Anderson Bamberg Barnwell Beaufort Berkeley Calhoun Charleston Cherokee Chester Chesterfield Clarendon Colleton Darlington Dillon Dorchester Edgefield Fairfield Florence Georgetown Greenville Greenwood Hampton Horry Jasper Kershaw Lancaster Laurens Lee Lexington Marion Marlboro McCormick Newberry Oconee Orangeburg Pickens Richland Saluda Spartanburg Sumter Union Williamsburg York SOUTH DAKOTA (SD) (66 counties) Capital: Pierre Aurora Beadle Bennett Bon Homme Brookings Brown Brule Buffalo Butte Campbell .

Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 365 Charles Mix Clark Clay Codington Corson Custer Davison Day Deuel Dewey Douglas Edmunds Fall River Faulk Grant Gregory Haakon Hamlin Hand Hanson Harding Hughes Hutchinson Hyde Jackson Jerauld Jones Kingsbury Lake Lawrence Lincoln Lyman Marshall McCook McPherson Meade Mellette Miner Minnehaha Moody Pennington Perkins Potter Roberts Sanborn Shannon Spink Stanley Sully Todd Tripp Turner Union Walworth Yankton Ziebach TENNESSEE (TN) (95 counties) Capital: Nashville Anderson Bedford Benton Bledsoe Blount Bradley Campbell Cannon Carroll Carter Cheatham Chester Claiborne Clay Cocke Coffee Crockett Cumberland Davidson Decatur DeKalb Dickson Dyer Fayette Fentress Franklin Gibson Giles Grainger Greene Grundy Hamblen Hamilton Hancock Hardeman Hardin Hawkins Haywood Henderson Henry Hickman Houston Humphreys Jackson Jefferson Johnson Knox Lake Lauderdale Lawrence Lewis Lincoln Loudon Macon Madison Marion Marshall Maury McMinn McNairy Meigs Monroe Montgomery Moore Morgan Obion Overton Perry Pickett Polk Putnam Rhea Roane Robertson Rutherford Scott Sequatchie Sevier Shelby Smith Stewart Sullivan Sumner Tipton Trousdale Unicoi Union Van Buren Warren Washington Wayne Weakley White Williamson Wilson TEXAS (TX) (254 counties) Capital: Austin Anderson Andrews Angelina Aransas Archer Armstrong Atascosa Austin Bailey Bandera Bastrop Baylor Bee Bell Bexar Blanco Borden Bosque Bowie Brazoria .

366 Chapter 18 Brazos Brewster Briscoe Brooks Brown Burleson Burnet Caldwell Calhoun Callahan Cameron Camp Carson Cass Castro Chambers Cherokee Childress Clay Cochran Coke Coleman Collin Collingsworth Colorado Comal Comanche Concho Cooke Coryell Cottle Crane Crockett Crosby Culberson Dallam Dallas Dawson Deaf Smith Delta Denton DeWitt Dickens Dimmit Donley Duval Eastland Ector Edwards El Paso Ellis Erath Falls Fannin Fayette Fisher Floyd Foard Fort Bend Franklin Freestone Frio Gaines Galveston Garza Gillespie Glasscock Goliad Gonzales Gray Grayson Gregg Grimes Guadalupe Hale Hall Hamilton Hansford Hardeman Hardin Harris Harrison Hartley Haskell Hays Hemphill Henderson Hidalgo Hill Hockley Hood Hopkins Houston Howard Hudspeth Hunt Hutchinson Irion Jack Jackson Jasper Jeff Davis Jefferson Jim Hogg Jim Wells Johnson Jones Karnes Kaufman Kendall Kenedy Kent Kerr Kimble King Kinney Kleberg Knox La Salle Lamar Lamb Lampasas Lavaca Lee Leon Liberty Limestone Lipscomb Live Oak Llano Loving Lubbock Lynn Madison Marion Martin Mason Matagorda Maverick McCulloch McLennan McMullen Medina Menard Midland Milam Mills Mitchell Montague Montgomery Moore Morris Motley Nacogdoches Navarro Newton Nolan Nueces Ochiltree Oldham Orange Palo Pinto Panola Parker Parmer Pecos Polk Potter Presidio Rains Randall Reagan Real Red River Reeves Refugio Roberts Robertson Rockwall Runnels Rusk Sabine San Augustine San Jacinto San Patricio San Saba Schleicher Scurry Shackelford Shelby Sherman Smith Somervell Starr Stephens Sterling Stonewall Sutton Swisher Tarrant Taylor Terrell Terry Throckmorton Titus Tom Green Travis Trinity Tyler Upshur Upton Uvalde Val Verde Van Zandt Victoria .

Croix St. John St.Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 367 Walker Waller Ward Washington Webb Wharton Wheeler Wichita Wilbarger Willacy Williamson Wilson Winkler Wise Wood Yoakum Young Zapata Zavala UTAH (UT) (29 counties) Capital: Salt Lake City Beaver Box Elder Cache Carbon Daggett Davis Duchesne Emery Garfield Grand Iron Juab Kane Millard Morgan Piute Rich Salt Lake San Juan Sanpete Sevier Summit Tooele Uintah Utah Wasatch Washington Wayne Weber VERMONT (VT) (14 counties) Capital: Montpelier Addison Bennington Caledonia Chittenden Essex Franklin Grand Isle Lamoille Orange Orleans Rutland Washington Windham Windsor VIRGIN ISLANDS (VI) (3 islands) Capital: Charlotte Amalie St. Thomas VIRGINIA (VA) (95 counties) Capital: Richmond Accomack Albemarle Alleghany Amelia Amherst Appomattox Arlington Augusta Bath Bedford Bland Botetourt Brunswick Buchanan Buckingham Campbell Caroline Carroll Charles City Charlotte Chesterfield Clarke Craig Culpeper Cumberland Dickenson Dinwiddie Essex Fairfax Fauquier Floyd Fluvanna Franklin Frederick Giles Gloucester Goochland Grayson Greene Greensville Halifax Hanover Henrico Henry Highland Isle of Wight James City King and Queen King George King William Lancaster Lee Loudoun Louisa Lunenburg Madison Mathews Mecklenburg Middlesex Montgomery Nelson New Kent Northampton Northumberland Nottoway Orange Page Patrick Pittsylvania Powhatan .

368 Chapter 18 Prince Edward Prince George Prince William Pulaski Rappahannock Richmond Roanoke Rockbridge Rockingham Russell Scott Shenandoah Smyth Southampton Spotsylvania Stafford Surry Sussex Tazewell Warren Washington Westmoreland Wise Wythe York WASHINGTON (WA) (39 counties) Capital: Olympia Adams Asotin Benton Chelan Clallam Clark Columbia Cowlitz Douglas Ferry Franklin Garfield Grant Grays Harbor Island Jefferson King Kitsap Kittitas Klickitat Lewis Lincoln Mason Okanogan Pacific Pend Oreille Pierce San Juan Skagit Skamania Snohomish Spokane Stevens Thurston Wahkiakum Walla Walla Whatcom Whitman Yakima WEST VIRGINIA (WV) (55 counties) Capital: Charleston Barbour Berkeley Boone Braxton Brooke Cabell Calhoun Clay Doddridge Fayette Gilmer Grant Greenbrier Hampshire Hancock Hardy Harrison Jackson Jefferson Kanawha Lewis Lincoln Logan Marion Marshall Mason McDowell Mercer Mineral Mingo Monongalia Monroe Morgan Nicholas Ohio Pendleton Pleasants Pocahontas Preston Putnam Raleigh Randolph Ritchie Roane Summers Taylor Tucker Tyler Upshur Wayne Webster Wetzel Wirt Wood Wyoming WISCONSIN (WI) (72 counties) Capital: Madison Adams Ashland Barron Bayfield Brown Buffalo Burnett Calumet Chippewa Clark Columbia Crawford Dane Dodge Door Douglas Dunn Eau Claire Florence Fond du Lac Forest Grant Green Green Lake Iowa Iron Jackson Jefferson Juneau Kenosha Kewaunee La Crosse Lafayette Langlade Lincoln Manitowoc Marathon Marinette Marquette Menominee .

and Tennessee Coffey in Kansas Coal in Oklahoma Cole in Missouri Coles in Illinois Cook in Illinois and Minnesota Cooke in Texas Davidson in North Carolina and Tennessee . The names of the following counties are often misspelled and/or confused: Allegany in Maryland and New York Alleghany in North Carolina and Virginia Allegheny in Pennsylvania Andrew in Missouri Andrews in Texas Aransas in Texas Arkansas in Arkansas Barber in Kansas Barbour in Alabama and West Virginia Brevard in Florida Broward in Florida Brooke in West Virginia Brooks in Georgia and Texas Bulloch in Georgia Bullock in Alabama Burnet in Texas Burnett in Wisconsin Cheboygan in Michigan Sheboygan in Wisconsin Clarke in Alabama. Georgia. Georgia. Iowa. Croix Sauk Sawyer Shawano Sheboygan Taylor Trempealeau Vernon Vilas Walworth Washburn Washington Waukesha Waupaca Waushara Winnebago Wood WYOMING (WY) (23 counties) Capital: Cheyenne Albany Big Horn Campbell Carbon Converse Crook Fremont Goshen Hot Springs Johnson Laramie Lincoln Natrona Niobrara Park Platte Sheridan Sublette Sweetwater Teton Uinta Washakie Weston Common misspellings Geographers and cartographers omit the possessive apostrophe in placenames. Mississippi. however.Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 369 Milwaukee Monroe Oconto Oneida Outagamie Ozaukee Pepin Pierce Polk Portage Price Racine Richland Rock Rusk St. apostrophes appearing in legally constituted names of counties should not be changed. and Virginia Clark in all other States Coffee in Alabama.

Kansas. and Texas Stevens in Kansas. Georgia. Illinois. and Michigan Dickson in Tennessee Forrest in Mississippi Forest in all other States Glascock in Georgia Glasscock in Texas Green in Kentucky and Wisconsin Greene in all other States Harford in Maryland Hartford in Connecticut Huntingdon in Pennsylvania Huntington in Indiana Johnston in North Carolina and Oklahoma Johnson in all other States Kanabec in Minnesota Kennebec in Maine Kearney in Nebraska Kearny in Kansas Kenedy in Texas Linn in Iowa. and Missouri Davis in Iowa and Utah Davison in South Dakota De Kalb in Alabama. and Oregon Lynn in Texas Loudon in Tennessee Loudoun in Virginia Manatee in Florida Manistee in Michigan Merced in California Mercer in all other States Morton in Kansas Norton in Kansas Muscogee in Georgia Muskogee in Oklahoma Park in Colorado and Montana Parke in Indiana Pottawatomie in Kansas and Oklahoma Pottawattamie in Iowa Prince George in Virginia Prince George’s in Maryland Sanders in Montana Saunders in Nebraska Smyth in Virginia Smith in all other States Stafford in Virginia Strafford in New Hampshire Stanley in South Dakota Stanly in North Carolina Stark in Illinois. and Ohio Starke in Indiana Stephens in Georgia.370 Chapter 18 Davie in North Carolina Daviess in Indiana. Missouri. North Dakota. and Washington Storey in Nevada Story in Iowa Terrell in Georgia and Texas Tyrrell in North Carolina Tooele in Utah Toole in Montana Vermillion in Indiana Vermilion in all other States Woods in Oklahoma Wood in all other States Wyandot in Ohio Wyandotte in Kansas . Minnesota. Kentucky. Oklahoma. Kansas. and Indiana DeKalb in Tennessee and Missouri Dickenson in Virginia Dickinson in Iowa.

illustrations. Record style will be followed. and galley output is accomplished without manual intervention. Section 904. It shall provide for the publication of an index of the Congressional Record semimonthly during and at the close of sessions of Congress.—The Joint Committee on Printing shall control the arrangement and style of the Congressional Record. Congressional Record Code of laws of the United States and rules for publication of the Congressional Record Title 44. However. Much of the data printed in the Congressional Record is forwarded to the GPO via fiber optic transmission using the captured keystrokes of the floor reporters. The same general style should be followed in the permanent (bound) Record as is used in the daily Record. It is important to be familiar with the exceptions and the forms peculiar to the Record. style. and it is too time-consuming to update and change the data once it is already in type form. Therefore. Element identifier codes are programmatically inserted. diagrams. Extracts are set in 7-point type on an 8-point body. as stated in the following rules: Daily and permanent Record texts are set in 8-point type on a 9-point body. except as may be noted herein. Congressional Record: Maps. General rules The rules governing document work (FIC & punc. It is not cost-effective to prepare the accompanying manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual.19. diagrams. Because of its volume. An F-dash will be used preceding 8-point cap lines in the proceedings of the Senate and House. contents. Congressional Record: Arrangement.) apply to the Congressional Record. and while providing that it shall be substantially a verbatim report of proceedings. Title 44. shall take all needed action for the reduction of unnecessary bulk. Section 901. it is not necessary to stamp the manuscript FIC & punc. 371 .—Maps. the Record is to be FIC & punc. or illustrations may not be inserted in the Record without the approval of the Joint Committee on Printing. and indexes.

There is no excuse for error in the spelling of names of Senators. . In case of doubt. It will be returned for translation and resubmitted for printing in the next Record. all communications from the President must be set in 8 point. committees of both Houses. the extracts are set in 7 point. and Delegates. The letter is set in 7 point whether the treaty follows or precedes it or is separated from it by intervening matter. If any question arises as to the proper date to be used. and no important change will be made without proper authorization. Except where otherwise directed. Representatives. Extreme caution must be used in making corrections in manuscript. obscene wording. All manuscript submitted in a foreign language will not be printed. Representatives. Datelines should be followed on Extensions of Remarks. A letter from the President to the Senate is set in 7 point when any form of treaty is enclosed that is to be printed in the Record in connection therewith. the style and manuscript as printed in the bill will be followed. An address of the President delivered outside of Congress or referred to as an extract is set in 7 point. Indented matter in leaderwork will be 1 em only. In all quoted amendments and excerpts of bills and in reprinting bills. Changes caused by death. a supervisor must be consulted. the Congressional Directory will be the authority.372 Chapter 19 All 7-point extracts and poetry will carry 2 points of space above and below unless heads appear. or extreme vulgarisms are to be deleted and a 3-em dash substituted. etc. Observe the lists of names of Senators. Except as noted below. profanity. or department officials. but if such communications contain extracts. All extracts are set 7 point unless otherwise ordered by the Joint Committee on Printing. resignation. and duplicate names. which generate their own space. or otherwise must be noted. Do not write queries on proofs..

messengers. services. including those of the Vice President and Speaker. body. Certificates of Senators-elect of a succeeding Congress are usually presented to the current Congress. in the list of standing and select committees. etc. in a speech carrying date when the Member was eulogized. etc. Names of Members of Congress must be set in caps and lowercase in votes. Names of proposed Federal boards. names of secretaries. Observe that the names of all persons not certified Members of Congress are to be set in caps and lowercase. and others. except in extract matter. but Fish’s amendment. Deceased Members’ names will be set in caps and small caps in eulogies only on the first day the House or Senate is in session following the death of a Member. and in all parts of tabular matter (head. as the Hawkins bill. in lists of pairs.. the Fish amendment. The names of Members and Members-elect of both Houses of the Congress. it must be set in caps and small caps and never abbreviated. except in extract matter. The name of a Senator or a Representative used in connection with a bill or other paper—that is. that is. and footnotes). will be printed in caps and small caps if mention is made of them. or on memorial day in the Senate and House. are capitalized. The name of a Senator or a Representative preceding his or her direct remarks is set in caps and is followed by a period with equal spacing to be used. etc. commissions. Eulogy day in one House will be treated the same in the other.Congressional Record 373 Capitalization (See also Chapter 3 “Capitalization Rules”) If the name of the Congressional Record is mentioned. clerks. then cap/lowercase. even when appearing in citations. . in an adjectival sense—is lowercased. and in such cases the names of the Senators-elect must be in caps and small caps. in contested-election cases. in lists set in columns..

theme. . nor shall unusual indentions be used.’’ “Be it enacted. Italic Italic. Dollar amounts in Record manuscript are to be followed. such quotation must be set in 8-point italic.’’ “Resolved. following the word entitled. book. article. caps.’’ “Ordered. boldface. editorial.’’ etc. poem.374 Chapter 19 Capitalize principal words and quote after each of the following terms: Address. ital. song. except in headings. except with reference to bill titles which are treated as follows: “A bill (or an act) transferring certain functions of the Price Administrator to the Petroleum Administrator for War. headline. subheading. This does not apply to literally reproduced quotations from historical. as follows: One-column table: 14 picas (168 points). caption. Footnote(s) will be set 43½ picas. If italic other than restricted herein is desired. If prefaced or followed by a quotation from the Bible. subject. report. chapter heading. Three-column table: 43½ picas (522 points).’’ etc. heading. Do not construe this to apply to “Provided.’’ written on each folio. legal. All short footnotes should be run in with 2 ems between each.’’ “Provided further. paper. the words should be underscored and “Fol. or official documents. or small caps shall not be used for emphasis. where they will be quoted. Names of vessels must be set in italic. Figures Follow the manuscript as to the use of numerals. motion picture or play (including TV or radio program). essay. Tabular matter and leaderwork Record tables may be set either one or three columns in width. etc. The prayer delivered in either House must be set in 8-point roman. Figures appearing in manuscript as “20 billion 428 million 125 thousand dollars’’ should be followed. Extracts from the Bible or other literature contained in the body of the prayer will be set in 8-point roman and quoted. Also.

1748). p. In 7 point. 12 Diamond Rings (124 U.S. In 8 point manuscript. Do not put quotation marks on centerheads in 7-point extracts unless centerheads belong to original matter. Use single punctuation in citations of cases and statutes: United States v. That the committee. as Smith Bros. manuscript is followed. Div. a letter (or other communication) bearing both date and signature that appears within a letter shall be quoted. In the titles of legal cases. Connect date and extract by a period and an em dash. titles of cases are always set in italic if followed by references. but it must not be supplied when not in manuscript. In newspaper extracts. If date and place are credited in a bracket line above extract. and use of figures. it is not abbreviated or set in italic. case (172 App. insert place and date at beginning of paragraph.S. Use caps and small caps for name of place and roman lowercase for spelled-out date. etc. as “airplanes versus battleships. 329. When a specific citation is indicated and reference follows. as United States versus 12 Diamond Rings. Be it will run in with the word Therefore.: Therefore be it Resolved. Each Whereas in a preamble must begin a new paragraph.Congressional Record 375 When general or passing mention is made of a case in 8 point.’’ Miscellaneous Do not quote any communication carrying date and signature. they need not be used again at the beginning of the paragraph. when only the title of a case is given. manuscript is followed as to spelling. R. When versus is used in other than legal phrases and for the purposes of showing contrast. The Therefore be it must be preceded by a colon and be run in with the last Whereas. use italic for title. Note the following: Whereas it has been deemed advisable to. . as Smith Bros. In 8-point matter. etc. set in roman. case. 310. However. 149). sec. the title is set in roman. abbreviations.

In line 11. in the presentment of amendments collectively for a vote. Mr. and Clay. HOYER said: If not paired. etc. The ACTING SECRETARY. AuCoin. I yield to Mr.) On motion by [or of] Mr. Grant Post No.. I would vote “no” on this bill. . WEBB (and others). either the term “in gross’’ or the French equivalent “en gros’’ may be used. And debate it afterward. In gross or en gros When a bill comes to final action. after the word “Provided”. it was. Smith of Texas. vessel. as long as they are consistent throughout. etc. Mr. WEBB. the head Exhibit is set in 7-point caps and small caps. General Ulysses S. The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. WEBB. sections. Let it be read. KENNEDY. ETHERIDGE’s amendment was adopted. The order of subdivision of the Constitution of the United States is as follows: article I. 76. it is proposed. Madam Speaker. If an exhibit appears at the end of a speech. thus. follow the manuscript.] Mr. In extracts containing votes the names must be run in. etc. In text references to Senate and House reports and in executive and miscellaneous documents. as Mr. etc. The VICE PRESIDENT resumed the chair. Use five asterisks. are referred to by number.376 Chapter 19 Indent asterisk lines 2 ems on each side. clause 3. In a Senator’s or a Representative’s remarks. Each will be used as submitted. But: Several Senators addressed the Chair. HOYER. section 2. follow the manuscript. Mr. Examples of Congressional Record USE OF CAPS AND SMALL CAPS [Note the use of parentheses and brackets in the following examples. In headings and text references to resolutions and memorials. etc. Is there objection? The SPEAKER called the House to order. A MEMBER. LEVIN). I object. HARE. Mr. when amendments. SEVERAL SENATORS. If a title is used as part of the name of an organization.. Grand Army of the Republic. Mr. spell. (Name all caps when a Member or visitor addresses Senate or House. follow the manuscript.

for 1 hour.’’ A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. Mr. was read the third time. and the amendment was concurred in. for 1 hour. on Wednesday. [House. CAMPBELL of California and Mr. I think this bill is so well understood that no time will be required for its discussion. LINCOLN DIAZ-BALART of Florida and Mr. LORETTA SANCHEZ of California . The bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. on February 2. was read the third time. today. and passed. and passed. The bill was reported to the Senate without amendment. BACHMANN. and passed. . ENGEL (at the request of Mr. Does this bill come from the Committee on Armed Services? The SPEAKER. [Extracts that consist of colloquies will use caps and small caps for names of persons speaking. H ALL of New York) and to revise and extend their remarks and include therein extraneous matter:) Mrs. His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks. was granted to: The SPEAKER pro tempore.’’ and ask that it be stated. [House. HOYER. full name is used. following the legislative and any special orders heretofore entered. The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time. for 5 minutes. President. read the third time. February 2. INSLEE as conferees. FORTENBERRY addressed the House. . His remarks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks. today. for 5 minutes. MARIO DIAZBALART of Florida rose to a point of order. . DEFAZIO.) (Mr. Mr. 1296. for 60 minutes. The CHAIRMAN appointed Mr. and passed. Mr. and a motion to reconsider was laid on the table. Burman. Mr. The amendments were ordered to be engrossed and the bill to be read a third time. the gentleman from Nebraska (Mr.) PUNCTUATION Mr. (Mr. as shown below:] Mr.Congressional Record 377 Mrs. (The following Members (at the request of Mr. HOYER). On motion of Ms. It does. ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. Mr. SÁNCHEZ of California . . REID. CARDOZA. Mr. permission to address the House. and yielded her time to Mr.] [Use this form when title of bill is not given:] The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read the third time. read the third time. FORTENBERRY) is recognized for 5 minutes. The bill was reported to the Senate as amended. today. INSLEE. HOYER addressed the House. CAPPS was recognized. Under a previous order of the House. and passed. I call up my amendment which is identified as “unprinted amendment No. [Use this form when title of bill is given:] The title was amended so as to read: “A bill for the relief of Maude S. HOYER asked and was given permission to extend his remarks at this point in the RECORD and to include extraneous matter.] ——— The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time. NORTON.] On motion of Ms. . HOLDEN. [When two Members from the same State have the same surname. Ms.) SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent. [Note the following double action:] (Mr. LINDA T.

S. PARENTHESES AND BRACKETS [The use of parentheses and brackets will be followed as submitted for acronyms. BUTTERFIELD asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks in the Record. HOUSE RESOLUTION NO. BACA. The question was taken. the Majority Leader of the United States Senate and the Rhode Island Delegation to the Congress of the United States. The question being taken. . Bolton. POM–376. . .) Ms. Ordered to lie on the table and to be printed. thus permitting the Agency to respond much more quickly to those FOIA requests which are at all likely to result in the release of information. This is the occasion America did not have to consider what other options might guarantee maternal safety while protecting the unborn. The State of Rhode Island is committed to protecting the safety of motorists on its highways and to protecting . That this House of Representatives of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations hereby reaffi rms its opposition to proposals. I move to strike the requisite number of words. or abbreviations. to the Committee on Commerce. by unanimous consent. . 410 U. . Mr. President. the Senate proceeded . Madam Speaker. [“Vote! Vote!’’] . KERRY. That the Secretary of State be and he hereby is authorized and directed to transmit duly certified copies of this resolution to the President and Vice President of the United States.) [Note use of interrogation mark in the following:] taxpayers’ investment in our highway infrastructure. Mr. that would authorize increases in the size and weight of commercial motor vehicles because of the impact that these increases would have on highway infrastructure. at all levels of government. Doe v. 410 U. [Note use of italic in title of cases:] Mr. The General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations resolved jointly to urge the Congress of the United States to . A resolution adopted by the House of Representatives of the State of Rhode Island expressing its opposition to federal proposals to authorize increases in the size or weight of commercial motor vehicles. and Transportation. There is no “may not’’ about it. . Wade. There was no objection. and the bill as amended was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time. Resolved. EDWARDS of Maryland. . I am in hopes we shall be able to secure a vote on the bill tonight. and. . (Mr. and the motion was agreed to. (Ms. granted abortion the elevated status of a fundamental constitutional right and invalidated almost all effective restrictions on abortion throughout the 9 months of pregnancy . 179 (1973). Mr.S. what does this mean?— We have never received a dollar of this amount. Mr. symbols. 8296 Whereas. 113 (1973). and being engrossed. . HARMAN. Chairman. This is our national opportunity to reconsider Roe v. and Whereas. and be it further Resolved.] This legislation would exempt certain defi ned Central Intelligence Agency [CIA] operational files from the search and review process of the Freedom of Information Act [FOIA]. I now yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from Indiana (Mr. it was accordingly read the third time and passed. the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. especially bridges. the motion was agreed to.378 Chapter 19 The amendment was agreed to. Roe against Wade and its companion case. DOYLE. Ms. Here is the form in which they are printed. Science. EDWARDS of Maryland asked and was given permission to revise and extend her remarks. H ILL).

YOUNG. appears in manuscript. So (no further count being called for) the amendment of Mr. as in the following examples:] Mr. The Chair rather gets me on that question. the dash is omitted after the word were or being. [After counting.. I do not desire to press the point that no quorum has voted. [Applause on the Republican side. [Laughter. in explanation of votes under “Pairs.] [See also use of Mr. if I may. no punctuation is to be used. Senators WEBB or MARTINEZ. or 52 ayes and 65 noes. Charles I his Cromwell. Mrs. Then he is endeavoring to restrict the liberty of the individual in the disbursement of his own money. I desire to ask unanimous consent that the time of the gentleman——[Cries of “Regular Order!”] [Laughter. and President Washington. May I say that Senator WHITEHOUSE. ——]. HALL of Texas.” Do not supply name and brackets if name does not appear in manuscript. The gentleman raises the point of no quorum. in his own bearing and substance. MORAN of Virginia. KENNEDY. except in listing of tellers or when some title other than “Mr. let us make the most of it! marks will appear hereafter in the Extensions of Remarks. and the bill was passed. If no gentleman claims the floor. So (two-thirds not having voted in favor thereof) the motion was rejected.) [Names of Senators or Representatives appearing in remarks of other Members of Congress should be enclosed in brackets.] I did not rise.] On the question of ordering the yeas and nays there were 18 ayes and 88 noes. MORAN of Virginia was not agreed to.] Mr. If only the ayes or the noes are given.] . etc. Debate is exhausted. CAPPS [one of the tellers]. Miss. Perhaps I should say I say that as one of the descendants of the Stock of Abraham who is privileged to be a Member of the Senate today.] [Note that brackets are used only when Mr. Ms. Is there objection to the consideration of this bill at this time? [After a pause. RI. Mr.] The SPEAKER. who are going to read documents before I conclude. I thank my friend from Rhode Island [Senator WHITEHOUSE] for that magnificent exchange of correspondence between the Hebrew congregation of Newport. Mr. Treason”] and George III may profit by their example. The Chair will count.” is used.] There is no objection. The CHAIRMAN [rapping with his gavel].. I thank Senator COBURN. Mr. MILLER of Florida addressed the Committee [or House].”] (Mr. to speak for a few minutes while we are waiting for either Senator MURKOWSKI. [Cries of “Vote! Vote!’’] Mrs. The CHAIRMAN [after a pause]. Patrick Henry said Ceasar had his Brutus. lives out the promise of religious freedom that our fi rst President gave to all Americans. The CHAIRMAN. Speaker. President. noes 65. as ayes 52 and noes 65.Congressional Record 379 Mr. So (two-thirds having voted in favor thereof) the rules were suspended. [In Senate manuscript a Senator is referred to as “the Senator from —— [Mr. Mr. and there were— ayes 52. The House divided. and George III—— [here he was interrupted by cries of “Treason. If the word and is used to connect the ayes and noes. I am going to take the liberty. His re- VOTING IN THE HOUSE AND IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE [Note that a dash is used only when a comma is necessary to separate the ayes and noes. the Clerk will proceed with the reading of the bill. I thank Senator WHITEHOUSE.. LIEBERMAN. If this be treason..

further proceedings under the call shall be considered as vacated. RECORDED VOTE Mr. ENGLISH] as a substitute for the amendment offered by the gentlewoman from South Dakota [Ms. The CHAIRMAN. HOYER] there were—ayes 17. it was agreed to (two-thirds voting in favor thereof). I demand a recorded vote. HOYER. Mr. The question was taken by a viva voice vote. noes 5. answered “present” 1. I demand a recorded vote. noes 188. he will vacate proceedings under the call when a quorum of the Committee appears. there being 43 in the affi rmative. A recorded vote was refused. and the Speaker announced that two-thirds appeared to have voted in the affi rmative and [after a pause] that the bill was passed. The pending business is the demand of the gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. more than one-fi fth of the last vote.380 Chapter 19 Two hundred and seventeen present. HOYER to suspend the rules and pass the bill. So the amendment to the amendment offered as a substitute for the amendment was rejected. The question is on the amendment offered by the gentleman from Pennsylvania [Mr. Mr. The call was taken by electronic device. there were—ayes 18. The question was taken. KENNEDY’s motion. The question being taken on the motion of Mr. Chairman. The Chair announces that pursuant to clause 2. 509] AYES—228 Abercrombie Ackerman Allen Altmire Arcuri Baca Baird Baldwin Barrow Bean Becerra Berkley Berman Berry Bishop (GA) Bishop (NY) Blumenauer Boren NOES—188 Aderholt Akin Alexander Bachmann Bachus Barrett (SC) Bartlett (MD) Barton (TX) Biggert Bilbray Bilirakis Bishop (UT) Blackburn Blunt Boehner Bonner Bono Mack Boozman ANSWERED “PRESENT”—1 Andrews NOT VOTING—17 Boswell Cooper Cubin Doolittle Frank (MA) Gilchrest Herger Hunter Inslee Lucas Miller. A recorded vote was ordered. . and on a division [demanded by Mr. not voting 47. rule XXIII. The yeas and nays were ordered. Members will record their presence by electronic device. Mr. OBERSTAR] for a recorded vote. The noes have it. ENGLISH. The question was taken. Chairman. □ 1715 [The above box followed by a four-digit number indicates floor time in the House (5:15 p. The Committee will resume its business. and there were—ayes 228. I make the point of order that a quorum is not present. Gary Paul The CHAIRMAN. The CHAIRMAN. The question being taken on concurring in the amendments of the Senate. and the amendment is rejected. The question being taken on Mr. One hundred Members have appeared. there were—ayes 101. A quorum of the Committee of the Whole is present. clause 2. noes 35. a quorum. and the Chairman announced that the noes appeared to have it.m. The vote was taken by electronic device. as follows [Roll No. and pending that. HERSETH SANDLIN]. Evidently a quorum is not present. So (the affi rmative not being onefifth of the whole vote) the yeas and nays were not ordered.)] QUORUM CALL VACATED Pursuant to rule XXIII. noes 29.

the Senator from Minnesota (Mr. DURBIN. Mr. his name is not used. THE PRESIDING OFFICER. but at the end of the “yeas” or “nays. I move that the Sergeant at Arms be instructed to require the attendance of absent Senators. the Senator from Nevada (Mr. and the Senator from Montana (Mr. WASSERMAN SCHULTZ. The Assistant legislative clerk called the roll.” Ms. the Senator from Illinois (Mr.] YEAS—76 Akaka Alexander Allard Baucus Bayh Bennett Biden Bingaman Bond Boxer Brownback Byrd Cantwell Cardin Carper Casey Chambliss Clinton Cochran Collins Conrad Corker Craig Dodd Dole Domenici Dorgan Durbin Feingold Feinstein Grassley Hagel Harkin Hatch Hutchison Inouye Isakson Johnson Kerry Klobuchar Kohl Landrieu Lautenberg Leahy Levin Lieberman Lincoln Lugar Martinez McCaskill McConnell Menendez Mikulski Murray Nelson (FL) Nelson (NE) Reed Reid Roberts Rockefeller . HOOLEY.” It is never recorded as “not voting. BROWN). nays 10. Mr. the Senator from Louisiana (Mr. 163 Leg. the Senator from South Dakota (Mr. and the clerk will call the roll. and the Senator from Mississippi (Mr. The PRESIDING OFFICER. WEBB]. GREGG). THUNE). GRAHAM). KYL. if present and voting. Ms.” according to his vote. the Senator from Arkansas (Mr. TESTER) are necessarily absent. and the following Senators entered the Chamber and answered to their names: [Quorum No. I announce that the Senator from Ohio (Mr. VITTER). Mr. the Senator from South Carolina (Mr.” The result was announced—yeas 76. the Senator from Arizona (Mr. the Senator from New Hampshire (Mr. ROS-LEHTINEN changed their vote from “no” to “aye. Further.” So the amendment offered as a substitute for the amendment was agreed to. MCCAIN). and Ms. and I ask for the yeas and nays on the motion. 42] Akaka Alexander Allard Barrasso Bacus Bayh Bennett Biden Bingaman Bond Boxer Brown Brownback Bunning Burr Byrd Cantwell Cardin The PRESIDING OFFICER [Mr. the Senator from Massachusetts (Mr. insert: “The Speaker. as follows: [Rollcall Vote No. KENNEDY).Congressional Record 381 □ 1311 Mr. On this question the yeas and nays have been ordered. A quorum is not present. Is there a sufficient second? There is a sufficient second. OBAMA). VOTING BY YEAS AND NAYS Senate QUORUM CALL The clerk will call the roll. REID. President. COLEMAN). The assistant legislative clerk proceeded to call the roll. MURKOWSKI). Mr. the Senator from Alaska (Ms. The question is on agreeing to the motion of the Senator from Nevada. PRYOR). RYAN of Wisconsin changed his vote from “aye” to “no. COLEMAN) would have voted “yea.” [The Speaker’s vote is recorded only in the “Ayes” or “Noes. The following Senators are necessarily absent: the Senator from Minnesota (Mr.”] [If the Speaker votes. ENSIGN). The result of the vote was announced as above recorded. WICKER). The yeas and nays were ordered.

ARTUR DAVIS of Alabama. . BACHMANN. Mr. I should vote “yea. Messrs. . being paired with the gentlelady from Minnesota. and manuscript must be altered to conform thereto. Smith with Mr. would have voted “yea.” CALL OF THE HOUSE Mr.” So the bill was passed. HALL of New York. with Mr. DOMENICI (when his name was called). KENNEDY]. Note use of lowercase for names in list of pairs in House. Mr. RES. Mrs.382 Chapter 19 Salazar Sanders Schumer Sessions Smith Snowe Specter Stabenow Stevens Sununu Voinovich Warner Webb Whitehouse Wyden NOT VOTING—14 Brown Coleman Ensign Graham Gregg Kennedy McCain Murkowski Obama Pryor Tester Thune Vitter Wicker NAYS—10 Barrasso Bunning Burr Coburn Cornyn Crapo DeMint Enzi Inhofe Kyl So the motion was agreed to. Speaker. DRAKE. Speaker.] The Clerk announced the following pairs: On this vote: Mr. LINCOLN DIAZ BALART of Florida.” I voted “nay. Mrs. Lincoln Diaz-Balart of Florida. if present. BACA. Joint resolution authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to issue to . HILL.J. Abercrombie for. If he were here. Ackerman with Mr. I move a call of the House. Ms. but. 41] Abercrombie Ackerman Allen Altmire Arcuri Baca Baird Baldwin Barrow Bean Becerra Berkley Berman Berry Bishop (GA) Bishop (NY) Blumenauer Boren [No reference will be made of the names of those not voting. Mr. if more than two lines.] FORMS OF TITLES [Always in roman lowercase. Mrs. as Mr. I withdraw my vote. and ISRAEL changed their votes from “nay” to “yea. Bachmann. Calvert. I am paired on this question with the senior Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. FOSTER. The result of the vote was announced as above recorded. A call of the House was ordered. Smith and Mr. Young of Alaska. Artur Davis of Alabama with Mr. Mr. Mr.” [In House pairs do not use brackets when members are referred to by name. not and. Mr. flush and hang 1 em. Aderholt against. PAIRS [The word with must always be used in pairs in the House. who. Baca with Mrs. etc. Capps with Mr. Jones. Mr. Jones—not Mr. In Senate pairs observe the following use of brackets:] Mr. MURTHA. Mr.] H. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. The call was taken by electronic device and the following Members responded to their names: [Roll No. 2 the public 2 per centum bonds or certificates. That the . I have a pair with the gentleman from Florida. Speaker.” I withdraw my vote and vote “present. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. I voted. Until further notice: Mr.

4487 A bill to authorize the Rock Island and Southwestern Railway Company to construct a bridge.□□□□□ PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE.□ □I hereby appoint the Honorable RICK LARSEN to act as Speaker pro tempore on this day.□ To the Senate of the United States. To the United States House of Representa□□tives. 2008.□□□ Washington. officers of the Navy of the United States. That it shall be lawful for the Rock Island and Southwestern Railway Company. farmers and prevent the spread of this depression to every part of our country. CEREAL.. —— JANUARY 17. March 25. □We oppose the nomination of John Smith for Secretary of Agriculture because he resists family farms. Hon. DC.S.R. □□DC: □The undersigned.□□□ November 10. to perform the duties of the Chair during my absence. □The President’s farm message of today . U.] The Honorable the SECRETARY OF THE □□NAVY.] To the Honorable Senate and House of □□Representatives of the United States of □□America Now Assembled at Washington. U. BYRD.□ Hon. □□□Sincerely yours. SARBANES. JOHN B. F. —— JANUARY 20. □□□Very sincerely yours.□□□ Member of Congress. AMY KLOBUCHAR.S. President.□ Re resignation from committee. a corporation organized under the general incorporation. H EINKEL. [Two to eight independent signatures. FLOUR. DC. □HONORABLE SIRS: April 7. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. DC. .□ —— □□THE I NTERNATIONAL UNION OF UNITED □□□ □□□BREWERY. DC. 2008. BILL CLINTON. Your proposal seems to be in the best interest of all concerned. etc. respectfully show unto —— ALEXANDRIA. RAYMOND WAGNER. MO.□ Hon.□ —— COLUMBIA. □DEAR MR.Congressional Record 383 H. . Washington.□ □DEAR MR. JOHN P.□ —— U. NANCY PELOSI. etc. etc.□ DESIGNATION OF SPEAKER PRO TEMPORE □The SPEAKER pro tempore laid before the House the following communication from the Speaker: WASHINGTON. Capitol. ROBERT C.□ □BRANDON. Department □□of the Treasury. a Senator from the State of Montana. Cannon House Offi ce Building. street addresses. I KE SKELTON.□□□ January 17. or ZIP Code numbers are to be used in communications in the Record. Washington. 2008. 2008. MN. I would appreciate your comment on the foregoing proposal. CARL ALBERT. are aligned on the left. MAX BAUCUS. □□□Sincerely. Jr.□ To the Senate: □Being temporarily absent from the Senate. SECRETARY: Mindful of the tremendous workload. DC. Senate Offi ce Building. March 17. OH. I appoint Hon. SOFT □□□ □□□DRINKS & DISTILLERY WORKERS OF□□□ □□□AMERICA. 2007. with or without titles. .□□□ Speaker of the House of Representatives. ADDRESSES AND SIGNATURES [No line spacing. CONNALLY. SENATE. 1972. etc.V.S. 2008. □With my best wishes. SPEAKER: Having changed my politics from Republican to Democrat. Washington. Washington. The Speaker. House of Representa□□tives. □DEAR MR. MN.□□□ President pro tempore. DC. DELLAY. The Secretary of the Treasury. MISSOURI FARMERS ASSOCIATION. etc. Cincinnati. being the 60th anniversary of the modification. 2007.□ Hon.□□□ June 17. VINCENT J. SECRETARY: This is in response to your letter. etc.

□□□□□ Lieutenant Governor□□□ (For the Governor of Maine). 2 points of space between stanzas. Lloyd Moosebrugger. 11. critics argued that if the president found FISA inadequate. Poems are flush left. The administration has brought the program under FISA. Lloyd Moosebrugger. WILSON. The lines of the poem should align on the left. and that he had the constitutional power to authorize such surveillance without court orders to defend the country. James Pedersen. And then when Cooney died at fi rst. Instead. SOUTHERLAND. W. K ARL F. The rest clung to that hope which springs eternal in the human breast. ROBERT WHELAN. Gene H.384 Chapter 19 your honorable bodies the following information. Oct. Mrs. Secretary-Treasurer. Philip Archer. Cochairman. FELLER.□ THOMAS RUSCH. and the Senate Intelligence Committee recently reported out a bill with a strong bipartisan majority of 13–2. —— JOHN SMITH. Director of Legislation.□ [More than eight signatures. George Doty. . THOMAS H ARRISON. Thomas McDonough. if only Casey could get but a whack at that— We’d put up even money now.] CASEY AT THE BAT The outlook wasn’t brilliant for the Mudville nine that day: The score stood four to two. Few of those who learned the details of the program have criticized its necessity. and Barrows did the same.F. Mr. —— □Respectfully submitted. Ronald Nemer. run in. JONES. Thomas St.□ A RTHUR GILDEA. This bill is now being considered by the Senate Judiciary Committee. Ray. 2007] SURVEILLANCE SANITY (By Benjamin Civiletti.H. that would make the changes to FISA needed for the program to continue. Dean Potter. with Casey at the bat. CynCREDITS [From the Wall Street Journal. Bush concluded that this was essential for protecting the country. Dick Thornburgh and William Webster) Following the terrorist attacks of Sept. but only the last stanza should end with them. Director of Organization. International President.C. each stanza should start with quotation marks. A pall-like silence fell upon the patrons of the game. with or without titles. Congress has been asserting appropriate oversight. indented 2 and 3 ems. Since the program became public in 2006. 2001. Sam Kaplan. Rosenblum. Martin. Joan O’Neill. BRADY. Cochairman. C. GREEN. that using the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act would not permit the necessary speed and agility. as follows:] thia Asplund. with but one inning more to play. and 2 points of space above and below.□ JOSEPH E. Minnesota Young Democratic Civil Rights Committee. caps and lowercase. That process is now underway. etc. Paul H. F. Secretary. he should have gone to Congress and gotten the changes necessary to allow the program to proceed under court orders. FLETCHER.□ —— TEXARKANA TEXTILE MERCHANTS & MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION. A straggling few got up to go in deep despair. those that rhyme taking the same indention. JOHN L. They thought. are set full measure. JAMES G. POETRY [If poetry is quoted. overs 3 ems. 31. President Bush authorized the National Security Agency to target al Qaeda communications into and out of the country.

“Kill him! Kill the umpire!” shouted someone on the stand. there went up a muffled roar. And Casey stood a-watching it in haughty grandeur there.— On February 29. who is the Air Force’s Assistant Secretary for Acquisition. and once more the dun sphere flew. They saw his face grow stern and cold. The sneer is gone from Casey’s lip. to the wonderment of all. Sue Payton. it rattled in the dell. Like the beating of the storm-waves on a stern and distant shore. And when. as did also Jimmy Blake.Congressional Record 385 But Flynn preceded Casey. For there seemed but little chance of Casey’s getting to the bat. From the benches. And now the pitcher holds the ball. But one scornful look from Casey and the audience was awed. There was Jimmy safe at second and Flynn a-hugging third. For Casey. Close by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped— “That ain’t my style. and the men saw what had occurred. 8-point type following is always a paragraph. responding to the cheers. Defiance gleamed in Casey’s eye. We’ve got it nailed. Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt. she told the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense: The Air Force followed a carefully structured source selection process. tore the cover off the ball. And they knew that Casey wouldn’t let that ball go by again. they saw his muscles strain. and now he lets it go. “Strike two. And when the dust had lifted. he lightly doffed his hat.” “Fraud!” cried the maddened thousands. And it’s likely they’d a-killed him had not Casey raised his hand. And somewhere men are laughing. Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt. and the umpire said.” the umpire said. and somewhere hearts are light. a sneer curled Casey’s lip. No stranger in the crowd could doubt ’twas Casey at the bat. was advancing to the bat. black with people. He signaled to the pitcher. —Ernest Lawrence Thayer. And Blake. There was ease in Casey’s manner as he stepped into his place. and somewhere children shout. The beginning of the 7-point extract must start with a true paragraph. he bade the game go on. the much despised. So upon that stricken multitude grim melancholy sat. and echo answered fraud. his teeth are clenched in hate. A week later. said at a DOD news briefi ng: They what? designed to provide transparency. maintain integrity. He pounds with cruel violence his bat upon the plate. and ensure a fair competition. This does not refer to a casual quotation of a few words or a quotation that would not make more than 3 lines of 7-point type. EXTRACTS [Extracts must be set in 7 point unless ordered otherwise by the Joint Committee on Printing. But Casey still ignored it. And now the air is shattered by the force of Casey’s blow. Then while the writhing pitcher ground the ball into his hip. “Strike one.” said Casey. Then from five thousand throats and more there rose a lusty yell. somewhere in this favored land the sun is shining bright. There was pride in Casey’s bearing and a smile lit Casey’s face. Oh. And now the leather-covered sphere came hurtling through the air. With a smile of Christian charity great Casey’s visage shone. We have had a very thorough review of what we’re doing. But Flynn let drive a single.] We have been extremely open and transparent. He stilled the rising tumult. But there is no joy in Mudville—mighty Casey has struck out. mighty Casey. It rumbled through the valley. The band is playing somewhere. And the former was a hoodoo and the latter was a cake. . It pounded on the mountain and recoiled upon the flat.

the 8 point must begin with a paragraph. . . 2000 ——— SPEECH OF HON.] [An address of the President delivered outside of Congress or referred to as an extract will be set in 7 point. . 1999 Mr. ORRIN G. that following an excerpt. . as above. regardless of any perceived hierarchy. 1999 The House in Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union had under consideration the bill (H. 1194 HON.3 million children disappear each year. heads are 8-point caps. . HATCH. I rise before this distinguished assembly to focus additional attention on the tragedy of missing children. ANALYSIS OF SPECIFIC PROVISIONS OF THE COMMITTEE BILL AMENDMENTS CHANGING THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE PROVISIONS OF THE ACE OF MICHIGAN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Wednesday. . [In 7-point.386 Chapter 19 And throughout the last 4 months. JOHN CONYERS. Air Force officials have insisted that they selected the cheapest plane that best met their criteria and that they made no mistakes. Mr. President. HATCH OF UTAH IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES Wednesday. February 3. A significant number do not leave of their own accord. all sub heads are 7-point small caps. [The words “Speech of” are to be used only when on manuscript and is an indication that that particular Extension of Remarks is to be inserted in the proceedings of the bound Record of the date used in the heading. 7-point italic lowercase.] HEADS USED IN EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT. 7-point small caps.] SCHEME OF TEXT HEADINGS [In 8-point. February 3. 7-point roman caps and lowercase. [Note. 7-point roman lowercase. .R. USE OF DOUBLE HEADS This is something which has been entirely overlooked by the . the progression is as follows (in descending order): 7-point caps and small caps. . EXECUTIVE PROGRAM ——— ESTATE TAX CONVENTION WITH CANADA MISSING CHILDREN ——— AMENDMENTS SUBMITTED ——— RECIPROCAL TRADE AGREEMENTS ——— SPECTER AMENDMENT NO. 1401) to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2000 for the Armed Forces . . The Department of Health and Human Services has estimated that approximately 1. JR. After the cap head. it applies only to an employee who .] As the law stands today. .

Dr. The majority will control the fi rst 30 minutes.. following my remarks and those of Senator MCCONNELL. PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE The Honorable BENJAMIN L. The Chaplain. with liberty and justice for all. I hereby appoint the Honorable BENJAMIN L. as follows: 1 To be used only when the Senate had been in recess. Bless the Members of this body.—Entire prayer set in 8 point. Mr. BYRD). RECOGNITION OF THE MAJORITY LEADER The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. July 14. President pro tempore. The legislative clerk read the following letter: U. its features and colors. We pray in Your holy Name. of the Standing Rules of the Senate. Mr. a Senator from the State of Maryland.S. [Note. between rhetoric and reality. The clerk will please read a communication to the Senate from the President pro tempore (Mr. PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE.Congressional Record 387 CONGRESSIONAL PROCEEDINGS SENATE TUESDAY.m. Free them from personal and partisan preoccupations that would defeat their aspirations and deprive Americans of just and equitable solutions. for its varied shapes and sizes. we thank You for the beautiful differences in the human family. one nation under God. Barry C. CARDIN led the Pledge of Allegiance. with Senators permitted to speak therein for up to 10 minutes each.] I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America. CARDIN thereupon assumed the chair as Acting President pro tempore. BYRD. indivisible. Washington. DC. section 3. on the expiration of the recess. Deliver us from the forces that would destroy our unity by eliminating our diversity. May our lawmakers avoid the works of darkness and put on Your armor of light. ROBERT C. Our Father in heaven. a Senator from the State of Maryland. and was called to order by the Honorable SHELDON WHITEHOUSE. 2008) 1 The Senate met at 9:30 a. SENATE. CARDIN. President. To the Senate: Under the provisions of rule I.] ——— PRAYER APPOINTMENT OF ACTING PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE The PRESIDING OFFICER. its abilities and talents. 2008 (Legislative day of Monday. June 11.m.. Amen. The Senate met at 9:30 a. Help them in their debates to distinguish between substance and semantics. offered the following prayer: Let us pray. a Senator from the State of Rhode Island. and to the Republic for which it stands. CARDIN. there will be a period of morning business for 1 hour. SCHEDULE Mr. 2008. Black. and was called to order by the Honorable BENJAMIN L. JULY 15. . REID. [Above line to be used only when Senate had been in recess. The majority leader is recognized. to perform the duties of the Chair.

The Senator from Maryland is recognized. Mayfield a $4. The fi rst 4 hours of debate will be equally divided and controlled in 30-minute alternating blocks of time. That cloture vote will occur tomorrow morning. Mr. which the clerk will report. BUNNING. Morning business is now closed. yesterday. President. Under the previous order. the Consumer-First Energy Act. Bailee Carroll Mayfield on receiving the American Veterans. the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. Under the previous order.000 scholarship after competing successfully against nearly 200 applicants. They are worried because of the high cost of energy.] ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS ——— CONGRATULATING MS. with the time equally divided and controlled between the two leaders or their designees. Mr. it is so ordered. CARDIN. Senators will be permitted to speak for up to 10 minutes each. The legislative clerk read as follows: Motion to proceed to S. CARDIN. I ask unanimous consent that the order for the quorum call be rescinded. Mr. AMVETS. President. Mayfield as an outstanding high school senior exhibiting academic excellence. I take this time on behalf of Marylanders who are worried. the Senate will proceed to a period of morning business for up to 1 hour. Upon conclusion of the controlled time. CONSUMER-FIRST ENERGY ACT OF 2008—MOTION TO PROCEED— Continued [Note the use of bullets signifying that which was not spoken on the floor. today I congratulate Ms. scholarship award. Without objection. The AMVETS National Scholarship Committee has awarded Ms. and for other purposes. . I filed cloture on the motion to proceed to S. Mr. the Senate will resume consideration of the motion to proceed to S. President. Under the previous order. . CONSUMER-FIRST ENERGY ACT OF 2008—MOTION TO PROCEED The PRESIDING OFFICER. They . with the majority controlling the fi rst 30 minutes and Republicans controlling the next 30 minutes. promise and merit. 3101. As a reminder. 3044. RESERVATION OF LEADER TIME The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. CONCLUSION OF MORNING BUSINESS The PRESIDING OFFICER.388 Chapter 19 the Republicans will control the second 30 minutes. with the majority controlling the fi rst half and the Republicans controlling the fi nal half. the leadership time is reserved. a bill to provide energy price relief and hold oil companies and other entities accountable for their actions with regard to high energy prices. Mr. with Senators permitted to speak therein for up to 10 minutes each. 3044. AMVETS has recognized Ms. . 3044. BAILEE CARROLL MAYFIELD ● Mr. the Senate will resume consideration of the motion to proceed to S. The PRESIDING OFFICER. MORNING BUSINESS The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Following morning business.

[The above to be 8 point.m. a message from the House of Representatives. 1 et seq.R. June 26. 2008. rightfully receiving the AMVETS Scholarship Award. App. delivered by Mrs. and is seeking a postsecondary education. one of his secretaries. I hereby report that I have issued an Executive Order continuing certain restrictions on North Korea and North Korean nationals imposed pursuant to the exercise of authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.) (IEEPA). Ms. .m.) REPORT ON THE ISSUANCE OF AN EXECUTIVE ORDER CONTINUING CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS ON NORTH KOREA AND NORTH KOREAN NATIONALS IMPOSED UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT—PM 55 The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate the following message from the President of the United States.C. Cole..) (TWEA). etc.. as amended (50 U. Thomas. which was referred to the Committee on Banking. announced that the House has agreed to the following concurrent resolution. 1701 et seq. in which it requests the concurrence of the Senate: H. I look forward to seeing all that she will accomplish in the future. 377. ● MESSAGES FROM THE PRESIDENT Messages from the President of the United States were communicated to the Senate by Mr. She is an inspiration to the citizens of Kentucky and to students everywhere.S. Each scholarship is awarded to a high school senior who is the child or grandchild of a United States veteran.. Housing. An act to amend the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 to clarify the authority of the Secretary of the Army to provide reimbursement for travel expenses incurred by members of the Committee on Levee Safety. THE WHITE HOUSE. GEORGE W. Mayfield has proven herself to be an exemplary student. EXECUTIVE MESSAGES REFERRED As in executive session the Presiding Officer laid before the Senate messages from the President of the United States submitting sundry nominations which were referred to the appropriate committees.C. Ms. announced that the Speaker has signed the following enrolled bills: H. Con. one of its reading clerks. 6040.Congressional Record 389 The AMVETS organization awards only six scholarships per year.] [When communications from the President contain extracts. Res. Concurrent resolution authorizing the use of the rotunda of the Capitol for a ceremony commemorating the 60th Anniversary of the beginning of the integration of the United States Armed Forces. together with an accompany- ing report.] MESSAGES FROM THE HOUSE At 12:49 p. ENROLLED BILLS SIGNED At 1:09 p. . . such extracts must be in 7 point. Cole.S. and Urban Affairs: To the Congress of the United States: Pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. a message from the House of Representatives. Mayfield plans to utilize her scholarship at Eastern Kentucky University to pursue a career in psychology. BUSH. (The nominations received today are printed at the end of the Senate proceedings. one of its reading clerks. . I am enclosing a copy of the Executive Order and proclamation I have issued. delivered by Mrs.

to curb immediately the role of excessive speculation in any contract market within the jurisdiction and control of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Technology and Logistics). BYRD). and placed on the calendar: REPORT ON CLASSIFIED INFORMATION (S. NO. or other unlawful activity that is causing major market disturbances that prevent the market from accurately reflecting the forces of supply and demand for energy commodities. A communication from the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition. 2008. and referred as indicated: H. An act to require certain standards and enforcement provisions to prevent child abuse and neglect in residential programs. Labor. 107) Mr. transmitting. and for other purposes. —— At 8:19 p. to the Committee on Armed Services. price distortion. .R. 6275.390 Chapter 19 H. and documents. Mr. the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate has recently requested the Office of Public Relations of the Department of the Navy to submit to it a report on classified information. and for other purposes.R. An act to authorize the Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant Program at fiscal year 2006 levels through 2012. and for other purposes. The Department of the Navy has complied with the request. and were referred as indicated: EC–6746. H. one of its reading clerks. MEASURES READ THE FIRST TIME The following bills were read the fi rst time: H. An act to restore the intent and protections of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. 6358. announced that the House has passed the following bill. 6377. WARNER. to the Committee on Finance. and for other purposes. DOC. and I now present the report and ask that it be published as a Senate document.R. 3546. pursuant to law.R. ENROLLED BILL PRESENTED The Secretary of the Senate reported that on today. 3202. MEASURES PLACED ON THE CALENDAR The following bill was read the fi rst and second times by unanimous consent. 3180. in which it requests the concurrence of the Senate: H. An act to temporarily extend the programs under the Higher Education Act of 1965. reports. President. June 26. An act to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide individuals temporary relief from the alternative minimum tax. 3195. an annual report relative to the conduct of the Defense Acquisition Challenge Program for fiscal year 2007. 6327. EXECUTIVE AND OTHER COMMUNICATIONS The following communications were laid before the Senate. A bill to address record high gas prices at the pump. a message from the House of Representatives. together with accompanying papers. Niland. An act to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to extend the funding and expenditure authority of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. H. MEASURES REFERRED The following bills were read the fi rst and the second times by unanimous consent. including its emergency powers. she had presented to the President of the United States the following enrolled bill: S.. S. and Pensions. and to eliminate excessive speculation.R. The enrolled bills were subsequently signed by the President pro tempore (Mr. sudden or unreasonable fluctuations or unwarranted changes in prices. Education. on or through which energy futures or swaps are traded. An act to direct the Commodity Futures Trading Commission to utilize all its authority.m. to the Committee on Health. delivered by Ms.R.

requested to negotiate on behalf of the United States. so as to make the joint resolution read: Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. I ask for a modification of it so that it will be a Senate resolution instead of a Senate joint resolution. to insert “by further authorization of Congress and”. Mr. was considered. 1881) to amend an act entitled “An act to provide a government for the Territory of Hawaii. and passed. I offer this amendment. I have just had an opportunity to examine this joint resolution. MO. The Secretary will state the amendment offered by the Senator from Arizona.Congressional Record 391 The VICE PRESIDENT. No. on page 4 line 22. MISSOURI RIVER BRIDGE NEAR ST. etc. The fi rst amendment was. 4174 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. INOUYE. It is proposed to strike out “S. as follows: S. — in cases where papers are ordered to be printed as a document. 4174) to extend the times for commencing and completing the construction of a bridge across the Missouri River at or near St. Res. so as to make the paragraph read: (1) by further authorization of Congress and for a period of five years after the fi rst meeting of the Hawaiian Homes Mr. which had been reported from the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs with amendments. 1900. etc. That the President of the United States be.] Commission only those lands situated on the island of Molokaki. as promptly as is practicable. and he is hereby. The bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. on page 6. The PRESIDING OFFICER.” approved April 30. after the figure “(1)”. REID.J. Forms of amendments The joint resolution (S. and passed. Mr. CHARLES. The READING CLERK. MO The bill (S. Res. Third reading and passage of a bill. Res. 4” and insert “S. On page 1. That the times for commencing and completing the construction of the bridge across the Missouri River. to establish a Hawaiian Homes Commission. The amendment was agreed to. The amendment was agreed to. as amended. line 19. 85”. President. 4) requesting the President to negotiate a treaty or treaties for the protection of salmon in retrain parts of the Pacific Ocean was announced as next in order. Would it not be necessary to change the resolving clause also? The resolving clause reads: Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. Without objection. Doc. line 11. Mr. the report will be printed as a document as requested by the Senator from Virginia. to strike out “Keaaupaha” and insert “Keaaukaha”. I observe in the report of the bill by the chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee that it is reported as a Senate joint resolution. Mr. The Amendment was agreed to. Is there objection to the modification? The Chair hears one and it will be so modified. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. The PRESIDING OFFICER. GOVERNMENT OF THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII The Senate proceeded to consider the bill (S. To be inserted only when ordered to be printed or its equivalent is in manuscript. Charles. The next amendment was. President. it is proposed to strike out the words “both within and”. INOUYE.J. read the third time. read the third time. and for other purposes. etc. [Note the insertion of S. ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. .

which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. March 17. Mr. and the Speaker of the House three Members of the House. figures. to strike out “five” and insert “three”.000. 4075) to limit the immigration of aliens into the United States. after the word “clerks” and before the words “of class 3”. I know of no further business to come before the Senate. signed at Washington on March 17. before the word “assistants”. so as to read: EMPLOYEE’S COMPENSATION COMMISSION Salaries: Three Commissioners at $4.C. special agents—two at $1. to strike out “twenty-seven” and insert “twenty”. $3. two at $1.000 each. The motion was agreed to and. consistent with the Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 1998 (12 U. before the words “of class 1”. [Under the heads Nominations.590. $2.000. States. I move.500. together with accompanying report. and in line 18. . to strike out “three” and insert “two”.M. and punctuation in the following example. the Senate recessed until Wednesday. $2. in accordance with the order previously entered. A critical component of our Strategy is to teach young people . The letter is set in 7-point type whether the treaty follows or precedes it or separated from it by intervening matter. .. Withdrawal.m. February 12.] Mr. 2003.m. in line 11. BUSH. in line 10.000. as follows: Add a new section. under the heading “Employees’ Compensation Com mission”.m. to strike out “seven” and insert “five”. TRUMAN. to strike out “twelve” and insert “nine”. President. 1952.000 each.□ THE WHITE HOUSE. which was ordered to lie on the table and to be printed. before the words “of class 2”.800 each. [An executive session usually being open.S.800. Mr.000 each”. $2. two at $1. tomorrow.R. To the Congress of the United States: I am pleased to transmit the 2003 National Drug Control Strategy. in all $102.940” and insert “$102. at 7:34 p. assistant $2. nine of class 2. GEORGE W. 1952. and Rejection. attorney.590”.600 each. □ THE WHITE HOUSE. twenty of class 1. 1705).250. $4. chief statistician. in line 9. to strike out “$124. [After the recess or adjournment the following may appear:] NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL STRATEGY FOR 2003—PM 15 The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate the following message from the President of the United NOMINATIONS Executive Nominations received by the Senate. before the words “at $1. ——— To the Senate of the United States: To the end that I may receive the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification. secretary. the following scheme for subheads is to be followed: . that the Senate stand in recess until the hour of 10:30 a. June 18. three assistants at $1. accountant. on page 34. clerks—five of class 3.] The next amendment was. at 10:30 a. 2008. BAYH submitted an amendment intended to be proposed by him to the sundry civil appropriation bill. I transmit herewith a treaty of arbitration and conciliation between the United States and Switzerland. Confirmations. REID.392 Chapter 19 [Note use of words. H ARRY S. in line 12. [A letter from the President to the Senate is set in 7-point type when any form of treaty is encloses that is to be printed in the Record in connection therewith. as follows: “That the President of the Senate appoint three Members of the Senate.750. in the same line. the following precedes the recess or adjournment heading:] RECESS UNTIL TOMORROW AT 10:30 A.” The Senate resumed the consideration of the bill (H. claim examiners—chief $2. chief of accounts. Follow manuscript.250. assistant $1.600 each.

OF NEW MEXICO.] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BRENT R.. TO BE AN ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF LABOR. JR. BEALE. OLSON. [Note: Nominations will be set first name. precede names as in executive nominations. CROTTY. OF VIRGINIA. [Text is set in 5 point caps. and last name throughout followed by period. OF MICHIGAN. TO BE AMBASSADOR EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO THE UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC.S. Asterisks. HAROLD C. middle name (or first middle initial). A CAREER MEMBER OF THE SENIOR FOREIGN SERVICE. SECTION 12203: To be colonel KENNETH L.C. THOMAS H.Congressional Record 393 [Heads indicating service. . VICE EMILY STOVER DEROCCO. or branch or department of Government and subheads indicating subdivision or type of service—7-point small caps. U. if any. CLASS OF COUNSELOR. IN THE ARMY THE FOLLOWING NAMED OFFICERS FOR APPOINTMENT TO THE GRADE INDICATED IN THE RESERVE OF THE ARMY UNDER TITLE 10. JR.. NROUILLARD Executive nominations received by the Senate: DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONFIRMATIONS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE RICHARD G OLSON.] [Subheads indicating new rank of appointee—7-point italic initial cap. TO BE A MEMBER OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION. JR.

sometimes fearful and tragic. By the wellspring of Your Spirit. The House met at 12:30 and was called to order by the Speaker pro tempore (Mr. In the book of Joshua. Inspire each Member to draw upon his or her best instinct and highest ideal so true goodness overcomes every evil and determined work whittles away at every problem. both old and new. who rules all the world from everlasting to everlasting. water upon the fleece is Joshua’s own test of Your presence in the midst of trouble. always fresh and beautiful. the Reverend Daniel P. June 17. the Journal stands approved. never stable. follow this style. help this Congress to set a great agenda for this Nation and its future.394 Chapter 19 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES TUESDAY. may this week provide a sense of priorities. May the desires of the common good overshadow particular concerns and personal preferences. I hereby appoint the Honorable RICK LARSEN to act as Speaker pro tempore on this day. 1 Head is not used when the Speaker is in the chair. we call upon Your Holy Name to calm the waters of anxiety in mid-America. The Chair has examined the Journal of the last day’s proceedings and announces to the House his approval thereof. during the time given them. Grasping a sense of the urgent needs of Your people. Enable Your people to cross these present waters of disaster and bring them to Your promised land of fruitful plenty. PRAYER 1 The Chaplain. See preceding example. the Reverend Daniel P. rule I. both now and forever. fill us with life.] DESIGNATION OF SPEAKER PRO TEMPORE The SPEAKER pro tempore laid before the House the following communication from the Speaker: WASHINGTON. SEPTEMBER 9. As the Spring of Salvation. O Lord. Pursuant to clause 1. Coughlin. offered the following prayer: O God. 2008 [When the Speaker is in the Chair. mix all our human endeavors with our natural resources in such an outstanding victory that believers and unbelievers alike will be touched again as in Joshua’s day and acclaim: “Their hearts melted and became as water!” This is our prayer now and forever. the symbol of water is complex. Amen. until this great Nation becomes Your living glory for all the world to see. [When the Speaker is not in the Chair. Show us the way. DC. . For Your people of covenant. 2008. THE JOURNAL The SPEAKER pro tempore. water itself ushers in new human life. not only the essential planetary element. later the way his people take water unto themselves becomes their measurement. NANCY PELOSI. The Chaplain. LARSEN of Washington). End this waterboarding of America’s fields and rural towns even if we can no longer defi ne torture ourselves. offered the following prayer: Water. Coughlin.] The House met at 9:30 a. and let truth reign. follow this style. Speaker of the House of Representatives.m. Amen.

1884 (23 Stat. the Honorable DONNA EDWARDS. be permitted to take the oath of office today. Will Representative-elect EDWARDS and the members of the Maryland delegation present themselves in the well. Congratulations. the Chair announces to the House that. foreign and domestic. foreign and domestic. Under clause 5(d) of rule XX. without and mental reservation or purpose of evasion. that you will bear true faith and allegiance to the same. 3331: “I. and Delegates or the House of Representatives. the text of which is carried in 5 U. and to the Republic for which it stands. Mr. in light of the administration of the oath of office to the gentlewoman from Maryland (Mrs. Resident Commissioner. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Maryland? There was no objection. . WELCOMING THE HONORABLE DONNA EDWARDS TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES [Welcoming speeches follow. Her certificate of election has not arrived. OF MARYLAND.C.S. OATH OF OFFICE OF MEMBERS The oath of office required by the sixth article of the Constitution of the United States. and that you will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which you are about to enter. Ms. EDWARDS of Maryland appeared at the bar of the house and took the oath of office. and as provided by section 2 of the act of May 13. do solemnly swear (or affi rm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the united States against all enemies. indivisible. without and mental reservation or purpose of evasion. The SPEAKER. EDWARDS). You are now a Member of the 110th Congress. has been subscribed to in person and filed in duplicate with the Clerk of the House of Representatives by the following Member of the 110th Congress. I ask unanimous consent that the gentlewoman from Maryland. The SPEAKER. pursuant to Public Law 412 of the 80th Congress entitled “An act to amend section 30 of the Revised Statues of SWEARING IN OF THE HONORABLE DONNA EDWARDS. to be administered to Members. with liberty and justice for all. Will the gentleman from Iowa (Mr. that you will bear true faith and allegiance to the same. so help you God. The SPEAKER. HOYER. that you take this obligation freely.] ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE SPEAKER The SPEAKER. the whole number of the House is 435. that you take this obligation freely.] [Initial speech of new Representative follows. as follows: Do you solemnly swear or affi rm that you will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies. one nation under God. 22).Congressional Record 395 PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE The SPEAKER pro tempore. and that you will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which you are about to enter. BOSWELL) come forward and lead the House in the Pledge of Allegiance. BOSWELL led the Pledge of Allegiance as follows: I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America. but there is no contest and no question has been raised with regard to her election. Madam Speaker. AB. AS A MEMBER OF THE HOUSE Mr. so help you God.

4140. 3145. as the “Colonel Charles D. as the “Timothy J. H. S. H. Curtis. 2419. The message also announced that the Senate has passed bills of the following titles in which the concurrence of the House is requested: S. 110–125) The SPEAKER pro tempore laid before the House the following veto message from the President of the United States: To the House of Representatives: I am returning herewith without my approval H. NO. as part of a settlement. S. announced that the Senate concurs in the amendment of the House to the bill (S. as the “Spottswood W. 2008. 5 of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System near Redfield. CONSERVATION. Ohio. 2837. An act to designate the Federal Bureau of Investigation building under construction in Omaha. Arkansas. An act to designate the United States customhouse building located at 31 Gonzalez Clemente Avenue in Mayagüez.” The bill that I vetoed on May 21. terrorist bombing of the Khobar Towers United States military housing compound near Dhahran. EDWARDS. For more than one bill. and place number first. as the “Conrad B. 781. Jr. 2728. An act to designate the new Federal Courthouse.R. Concurrent resolution honoring the members of the United States Air Force who were killed in the June 25. AND ENERGY ACT OF 2008—VETO MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (H.R. California. located in the 700 block of East Broad Street. H. and George F. An act to designate the United States courthouse located at 225 Cadman Plaza East. as the “Theodore L. 3712. If the manuscript should read A bill. as the “James M. FOOD. An act to designate the station of the United States Border Patrol located at 25762 Madison Avenue in Murrieta. Richmond. DOC.396 Chapter 19 the United States’’ (2 U. Federal Courthouse”. 430. 32. 1996.C. James Exon Federal Bureau of Investigation Building”. Anderson Federal Building”. 1948: DONNA F. Robinson III and Robert R. Note also the following forms:] MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE A message from the Senate by Ms. authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Act approved July 24. New York. diesel emission reduction Supplemental Environmental Projects.R. Newton. H. H. Curtis. Saudi Arabia. Merhige. 25. Puerto Rico. Ashley United States Courthouse”. 3009. Maynard Lock and Dam”. New York.S. 2403. H.L. Ashley and Thomas W.R. New York. located in Orchard Park. Con. as the “Richard B. as the “Theodore Roosevelt United States Courthouse”. change to An act in conformity with this rule. An act to designate a portion of United States Route 20A. An act to redesignate Lock and Dam No. use the following style. Duberstein United States Bankruptcy Courthouse”. the “Food. one of its clerks.” [Above usage occurs when there is only one bill referenced. 2146) “An Act to authorize the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to accept. Conservation. Washington. as the “J. Brooklyn. and Energy Act of 2008. S.R. announced that the Senate has passed without amendment bills and a concurrent resolution of the House of the following titles: H.] H.R. approved February 18. 1946. An act to designate the United States courthouse located at 1716 Spielbusch Avenue in Toledo. Jr. An act to designate the Port Angeles Federal Building in Port Angeles. 4th District of Maryland MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE A message from the Senate by Ms.R. Russert Highway”. [Observe that bills from the Senate to the House read An act. Virginia. as the “Rafael Martínez Nadal United States Customhouse Building”.R. one of its clerks. Res. which became Public Law . Nebraska. Azrak Border Patrol Station”. 6124. An act to designate the United States bankruptcy courthouse located at 271 Cadman Plaza East in Brooklyn. 1019. and for other purposes.

by direction of the Committee on House Administration. 583. . today I come to share with you that Iowa is in a lot of trouble.R. Speaker. and H. THE WHITE HOUSE.J. BUSH. BOSWELL. 5765. June 18. Will the House. GOSS. 321) and ask for its immediate consideration. and the veto message and the bill will be printed as a House document. The objections of the President will be spread at large upon the Journal. . even if the manuscript reads A bill. 4209.R. An act to amend section 409 of the Interstate Commerce Act. MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT A message in writing from the President of the United States was communicated to the House by Mr. reported and found truly enrolled bills of the House of the following titles. Joint resolution designating the last full week in July of 1971 as “National Star Route Mail Carriers Week. Thrift. Speaker.Congressional Record 397 110–234. bills of the House of the following titles: H. Thrift. GEORGE W. On June 4. 3331. That there shall be paid out of the contingent fund of the House to Mrs. Leomar. MATSUI. . widow of Chester R. reported that that committee did on this day present to the President. which were thereupon signed by the Speaker: H. Virginia Thrift.” [Observe that bills coming from the President take the form of An act. Ms. For similar reasons. etc.R. Smith. did not include the title III provisions that are in this bill. 1971: H. RES.R. 3366. 1971: H.R. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. from the Committee on Rules. BOSWELL asked and was given permission to address the House for ENROLLED BILLS SIGNED Ms. an amount equal to six months' salary compensation at the rate he was receiving at the time of his death. An act to amend the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands. and an additional amount not to exceed $250 to defray funeral expenses of the said Chester R. 321 Resolved. The SPEAKER pro tempore.] 1 minute and to revise and extend his remarks. Res. IOWANS UNITED IN TIME OF TROUBLE (Mr. who also informed the House that on the following dates the President approved and signed bills and a joint resolution of the House of the following titles: On June 2. An act to designate the United States bankruptcy courthouse located at 271 Cadman Plaza East in Brooklyn. New . The question is. We have had extensive floods. Clerk of the House. 430. An act for the relief of Harry L. [Debate and vote follow. Lorraine C. MRS. 2008. the objections of the President to the contrary notwithstanding? The gentleman from Minnesota (Mr. BILLS PRESENTED TO THE PRESIDENT Ms. relating to joint rates of freight forwarders and common carriers by motor vehicle. Miller. I am vetoing the bill before me today. VIRGINIA THRIFT Mr. and H. pass the bill. An act to extend for 6 months the time for filing the comprehensive report of the Commission on the Organization of the Government of the District of Columbia. Mr. The Clerk read as follows: H. on reconsideration. one of his secretaries. Res. This rule must be followed invariably. PETERSON) is recognized for 1 hour. late an employee of the House. I offer a privileged resolution (H. for his approval.) Mr.] The Resolution was agreed to.

1946. 6052. which the Clerk will report. H. the sum of $5.] THE COMMON CALENDAR The SPEAKER. though there may be several acts referred to the same committee. JOHN SIMS The Clerk called the fi rst bill on the Private Calendar. The SPEAKER.R. An act to designate the Federal Bureau of Investigation building under construction in Omaha. located in the 700 block of East Broad Street.000. The Clerk read as follows: Amendment by Mr. 5 of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System near Redfield. An act to designate the United States customhouse building located at 31 Gonzalez Clemente Avenue in Mayagüez. An act to redesignate Lock and Dam No. Brooklyn. 2403. □ 1408 IN THE COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE Accordingly. New York. to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. S. Maynard Lock and Dam”. 3145. Merhige. STEARNS. H. referred as follows: S.R. for the relief of John Sims. 781. add a comma and the following words: “out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated”. Arkansas. as the “Spottswood W. a motion to reconsider the vote by which the bill was passed was laid on the [not upon] the table. to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. The amendment was agreed to. New York. The question is on agreeing to the amendment. [In the reference of Senate acts to House committees the name of the committee will be repeated after the act. S.R. An act to designate the United States courthouse located at 225 Cadman Plaza East. Nebraska. James Exon Federal Bureau of Investigation Building”.R.R. H. the House resolved itself into the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union for the consideration of the bill (H. The gentleman from Florida offers an amendment. H. Federal Courthouse”. to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. 6052) to promote increased public transportation use. Puerto Rico. as the “Theodore Roosevelt United States Courthouse”. as the “Colonel Charles D. An act to designate a portion of United States Route 20A. Jr. authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Act approved July 24. as the “J. The Clerk will call the fi rst bill on the Private Calendar. the Chair declares the House in the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union for the consideration of the bill. as the “Conrad B. as the “Timothy J. COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE HOUSE ON THE STATE OF THE UNION SAVING ENERGY THROUGH PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ACT OF 2008 The SPEAKER pro tempore. SENATE BILLS REFERRED Bills of the Senate of the following titles were taken from the Speaker's table and. STEARNS: In line 4. Duberstein United States Bankruptcy Courthouse”. 1019. to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. 399 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled.R. located in Orchard Park. An act to designate the new Federal Courthouse. as the “Rafael Martinez Nadal United States Customhouse Building”. 3009. Russert Highway”. The SPEAKER. 2837. 399. S. H. after the word “pay”.398 Chapter 19 York. Pursuant to House Resolution 1304 and rule XVIII. Robinson III and Robert R. to promote increased use of alternative fuels in providing public . Richmond. Mobile. That the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to pay to John Sims. On motion of Mr. under the rule. Alabama. Virginia.

OBERSTAR: Page 3. 1 OFFERED BY MR. The text of the amendment is as follows: Amendment No. by the proponent and an opponent. with Ms. It is now in order to consider amendment No. Madam Chairman. SHORT TITLE. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Minnesota. Madam Chairman. the Committee rose. . Madam Chairman. . reported that that Committee. This bill promotes energy savings for all Americans by increasing public transportation use in the United States. and shall not be subject to a demand for division of the question. The CHAIRMAN. The CHAIRMAN. Mr. insert the following: (9) Public transportation stakeholders should engage and involve local communities in the education and promotion of the importance of utilizing public transportation.R. Each amendment may be offered only in the order printed in the report. AMENDMENT NO. OBERSTAR) and the gentleman from Florida (Mr. The CHAIRMAN. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Minnesota. OBERSTAR. OBERSTAR). I have no further speakers on this amendment. . OBERSTAR The CHAIRMAN. FINDINGS. The gentleman from Minnesota (Mr. shall be considered read. The question is on the amendment offered by the gentleman from Minnesota (Mr. Congress fi nds the following: (1) In 2007. the Committee rises. by a Member designated in the report. the Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008. Mr. people in the United States took more than 10. Pursuant to House Resolution 1304. DEGETTE in the chair. having had under consideration the bill (H. Mr. DEGETTE. 6052. and I yield back the balance of my time. the “Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008”. All time for general debate has expired. I yield back the balance of my time. Chairman of the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union. I rise in support of H. the gentleman from Minnesota (Mr. 6052) to promote increased public transportation use. OBERSTAR. OBERSTAR. . I yield myself such time as I may consume.3 billion trips using public transportation. Pursuant to the rule. The CHAIRMAN. Mr. under the rule. the bill is considered read the fi rst time. 2. Mr. I have an amendment at the desk. There being no other amendments. This Act may be cited as the “Saving Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008”. . OBERSTAR. The CHAIRMAN. The Clerk will designate the amendment. . .Congressional Record 399 transportation. Accordingly. SECTION 1. The text of the bill is as follows: H. . and for other purposes. The CHAIRMAN. to promote . equally divided and controlled The CHAIRMAN. 6052 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. . .R. MICA) each will control 30 minutes. . MICA. 1 offered by Mr. the highest level in 50 years. ROSS) having assumed the chair. the bill shall be considered read for amendment under the 5-minute rule.R.R. OBERSTAR) and a Member opposed each will control 5 minutes. SEC. 1 printed in House Report 110–734. I rise today in strong support of H. Pursuant to the rule. shall not be subject to amendment. and the Speaker pro tempore (Mr. No amendment to the bill shall be in order except those printed in House Report 110–734. The Clerk read the title of the bill. . Ms. . 6052. The amendment was agreed to. after line 23. . shall be debatable for the time specified in the report. .

as follows: . 14. The question is on the engrossment and third reading of the bill. 165. 61. 136. after full and free conference. have agreed to recommend and do recommend to their respective Houses as follows: That the Senate recede from its amendments numbered 7. The SPEAKER pro tempore. 1982. pursuant to House Resolution 1304. 70. she reported the bill back to the House with sundry amendments adopted by the Committee of the Whole. when the amendment is to make an independent paragraph. Observe the form Amendments numbered 1. and for other purposes. and agree to the same with an amendment. 3. 109. 79. 2. having met. 23. and for other purposes. 171. CONFERENCE REPORT (H. 157. 164. 162 163. (Voting occurs) So the bill was passed. 35. 118. 175. 170. 141. Amendment numbered 16: That the House recede from its disagreement to the amendment of the Senate numbered 16. Is a separate vote demanded on any amendment reported from the Committee of the Whole? If not.400 Chapter 19 increased use of alternative fuels in providing public transportation. 168. 142.400. and agree to the same with an amendment. and. That the House recede from its disagreement to the amendments of the Senate numbered 20. 6863) making supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30. 77. 52. 32. 110. or amendment if omitted in manuscript. 678. 76. otherwise it will be run in after the amendment with a semicolon. 28. The SPEAKER pro tempore. the phrase And the Senate [or House] agree to the same will be a paragraph by itself. Amendment numbered 27: That the House recede from its disagreement to the amendment of the Senate numbered 27. REPT. as amendment No. Follow manuscript literally in the report. The result of the vote was announced as above recorded. etc. 1.. Examples of each are given in the report following. 33. 101. 14. 87. 139. 78. 34. 154. 134. 40. and agree to the same. 39. 54. The amendments were agreed to. 26. and 176. 179.. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. 38.000. CONFERENCE REPORT AND STATEMENT Conference reports and statements to be set in 7 point. 31. 53. 46. In the House the names of Members are to be first. as follows: In lieu of the sum proposed by said amendment insert $4.R. 80. 148. 116. The question is on the passage of the bill. 97–747) The committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H. and the Speaker pro tempore announced that the ayes appeared to have it. 99. 155. 111. The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time. 173. Use 3-point space before and after conference report and statement. 174. 30. 133. 129. 94. 56. 167. and was read the third time. the previous question is ordered. and 181. 36. otherwise regular style will prevail. In the statement change numbered to No. 9. 127. 102. the Chair will put them en gros. 152. The question was taken. 106. Under the rule. and the Senate agree to the same. 25. 75. The SPEAKER pro tempore. 48. 105. 125. 81. 156. but do not supply No.

Lenkersdorf shall be held and considered to have been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence as of the date of the enactment of this Act. MYERS (except amendments 54 and 177).] EMANUEL F. DAVID R. TOM H AGEDORN (on all matters except as listed below). for other enumerations. INOUYE. CLARENCE E. dates. insert the following: FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS If the funds available for Nutrition Education and Training grants authorized under section 19 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966. The managers on the part of the Senate will move to concur in the amendment of the House to the amendment of the Senate. PATRICK J. With the following amend ment: committee On page 2. upon payment of the required visa fee. THOMAS S. Amendment No. JOHN T. O’BRIEN. if . There being no objection. PAUL FINDLEY (on all matters except as listed below).R. LAWRENCE COUGHLIN. Upon the granting of permanent residence to such alien as provided for in this Act. as amended. 6863).000”. amendments involving such expressions must be set in figures thus: Strike out “$840” and insert “$1. Amendments [As figures are used in bills to express sums of money. TOM H ARKIN. Managers on the Part of the Senate. BOWEN.700. In lieu of the matter inserted by said amendment. submit the following joint statement to the House and the Senate in explanation of the effect of the action agreed upon by the managers and recommended in the accompanying conference report: TITLE I CHAPTER I—DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS Committee on Agriculture: Solely for consideration of title I of the House bill and title I of the Senate amendment: E DE LA GARZA. JOINT EXPLANATORY STATEMENT OF THE COMMITTEE OF CONFERENCE The managers on the part of the House and the Senate at the conference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H. follow the manuscript as the data is picked up from the bill and used for the Record and then picked up from the Record and used for the report. etc. making supplemental appropriations for the fiscal year 1982. Lenkersdorf.R. strike lines 4 through 6 and insert in lieu thereof: “which are made available to natives of the country of the alien’s birth under section 203(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act or.000. BRYAN. LENKERSDORF The Clerk called the bill (H. require a ratable reduction in those grants. RON WYDEN. STENY H. etc. LEAHY. etc.. Managers on the Part of the House. The managers on the part of the House will offer a motion to recede and concur in the amendment of the Senate which allows the Soil Conservation Service to exchange a parcel of land in Bellingham.000. ERNEST F. DANIEL K. 1: Reported in technical disagreement. FRED RICHMOND. That for the purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act. DALE BUMPERS. MILLER. DIANNE FEINSTEIN.R. J. Emanuel F. rescinding certain budget authority. RICHARD H. 2520) for the relief of Emanuel F. paragraph numbers. BENNETT JOHNSON.. 2520 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. BILL WAMPLER.Congressional Record 401 In lieu of the sum proposed by said amendment insert $53. the minimum grand for each State shall be $50. the Clerk read the bill as follows: H. and the Senate agree to the same. FOLEY. GEORGE M. for other land. and for other purposes. HOYER. the Secretary of State shall instruct the proper officer to deduct one number from the total number of immigrant visas and conditional entries which are made available to natives of the country of the alien’s birth under paragraphs (1) through (8) of section 203(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. HOLLINGS. Washington.

2008. for 5 minutes. today. and also transmit herewith original testimony. □ 1400 AFTER RECESS The recess having expired. BISHOP of Utah. LEAVE OF ABSENCE By unanimous consent. CONYERS (at the request of Mr.).m. Carter against Karl M. MCCOTTER. ADJOURNMENT Mr. HOYER) for today on account of personal business. the House adjourned until tomorrow.m. HOYER) for today on account of a doctor’s appointment. 2008. DEFAZIO. Mr. leave of absence was granted to: Mr. June 18. was granted to: (The following Members (at the request of Ms. The Honorable the SPEAKER. the legislative program and any special orders heretofore entered. KAPTUR. referred to the Committee on House Administration: JULY 29. 23 and 24.m. .m. SMITH of Nebraska) to revise and extend their remarks and include extraneous material:) Mr. Steven V. DOC. CONTESTED ELECTION. the House was called to order by the Speaker pro tempore (Mr. for 5 minutes. (The following Members (at the request of Mr. Mr. SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED By unanimous consent. following RECESS The SPEAKER pro tempore. Mr. The bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time. today. today. for 5 minutes. today. GENE GREEN of Texas (at the request of Mr. and documents relating thereto. LARSEN of Washington) at 2 p. the Chair declares the House in recess until 2 p. The motion was agreed to. Mr. The committee amendment was agreed to. Pursuant to clause 12(a) of rule I. POE. permission to address the House.). JONES of North Carolina.”. I move that the House do now adjourn. the House stood in recess until 2 p. Mr. WOOLSEY) to revise and extend their remarks and include extraneous material:) Ms. House of Representatives. with the accompanying papers. HOYER) for today on account of a codel flight delay. Mr. Wednesday. Speaker. Ms. NO. for 5 minutes. June 20. was read the third time. Accordingly (at 12 o’clock and 50 minutes p. for 5 minutes. at 9:30 a.m. and passed. and a motion to reconsider was laid on the table. today and June 18. SIR: I have the honor to lay before the House of Representatives the contest for a seat in the House of Representatives from the Fourth Congressional District of the State of Iowa. from the total number of such visas which are made available to such natives under section 202(3) of such Act. 235) The SPEAKER laid before the House the following message from the Clerk of the House of Representatives. June 20. for 5 minutes. notice of which has been filed in the offi ce of the Clerk of the House. June 19. FORBES. CARTER AGAINST LECOMPTE—MESSAGE FROM THE CLERK OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (H. Mr.m. SPRATT. accordingly (at 9 o’clock and 56 minutes p. for 5 minutes. today. under its previous order. which was read and. for 5 minutes. LeCompte. ENGEL (at the request of Mr. Mr.402 Chapter 19 applicable. papers. 23 and 24. WOOLSEY.

C. 2).S. and ordered to be printed. to the Committee on Agriculture. pursuant to 5 U. pursuant to 5 U. to the Committee on Agriculture. Regulatory Management Division.” which was referred to said committee March 7. transmitting the Department’s fi nal rule—Consolidation of the Fruit Fly Regulations [Docket No. to the Committee on Agriculture. PERCY J.C. EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS. 7145. 2008.] 2008. (Rept. move to discharge the Committee on Banking and Currency from the consideration of the bill (H. FRL–8345–1] received April 30. Pesticide Tolerance [EPA–HQ–OPP–2007– 0637. 2008. Polk.m. 2887) entitled “A bill transferring certain functions of the Price Administrator. . Under clause 8 of rule XII. in support of which motion the undersigned Members of the House of Representatives affi x their signatures. A letter from the Congressional Review Coordinator. to the petroleum Administrator for War. reports of committees were delivered to the . transmitting the Agency’s fi nal rule—(Z)-7. Regulatory Management Division. Pesticide Tolerances [EPA–HQ–OPP–2007–0535. 2008. 801(a)(1)(A).m. FRL–8366–4] received June 9. pursuant to 5 U. Environ mental Protection Agency. ETC. Hess.S. WAXMAN: Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. transmitting the Agency’s fi nal rule— 1. 217. 2008. executive communications were taken from the Speaker’s table and referred as follows: 7144. 110–624 Pt.S. a letter from the Director.] MOTION TO DISCHARGE COMMITTEE MARCH 17. 801(a)(1)(A). Department of Agriculture. APHIS–2007– 0084] (RIN: 0579–AC57) received June 9. Environmental Protection Agency. and referred to the Calendar of Motions To Discharge Committees. Supplemental report on H. 801(a)(1)(A). 801(a)(1)(A). transmitting the Agency’s fi nal rule— Bifenthrin. . 5781. I. James G. 2008.R. Percy J. A letter from the Director. William E. or 6:25 p. Environmental Protection Agency. This motion was entered upon the Journal.S. [Use the following form if only one communication is submitted—8 point:] 7147. 2. 2008. February 29. 7146.8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure). pursuant to 5 U. Under clause 8 of rule XII. was taken from the Speaker’s table. . House briefs [The briefs follow at end of day’s proceedings. to wit: 1.. referred to the Committee on Agriculture. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES ON PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS Under clause 2 of rule XIII.R. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES ON PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS Under clause 2 of rule XIII. and for other purposes. heads and dashes to be used as shown here. TO THE CLERK OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES: Pursuant to clause 4 of rule XXVII. This data is supplied from the House and is printed as submitted. entered in the CONGRESSIOAL RECORD with signatures thereto. Oren Harris. FRL–8367– 7] received June 9. Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance [EPA–HQ–OPP–2007–0596. A letter from the Director.C. Priest. as follows: Mr. A bill to provide that 8 of the 12 weeks of parental leave made available to a Federal employee shall be paid leave.3-Dichloropropene and metabolites. reports of committees were delivered to the Clerk for printing and reference to the proper calendar.Congressional Record 403 [Follow manuscript as to expressing time of adjournment as 6 o’clock and 25 minutes p. 218. with respect to petroleum and petroleum products. PRIEST.C. Reg ulatory Management Division.

RAHALL: Committee on Natural Resources. Mr. A bill to amend the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 to treat nonhuman primates as prohibited wildlife species under that Act. POMEROY.R.R. FRANK of Massachusetts. H. THOMPSON of Mississippi: Committee on Homeland Security. memorials were presented and referred as follows: [Use the following form when submitted by the Speaker if By the Speaker is not in manuscript:] 327. for a period to be subsequently MEMORIALS Under clause 3 of rule XII. 6276) to repeal section 9(k) of the United States Housing Act of 1937. 110–712). 328. RANGEL (for himself. Referred to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union. Mr. H. jointly to the Committees on Financial Services and the Judiciary. Mr. Colorado. 3702. MCDERMOTT. Mr.] determined by the Speaker. A bill to provide an equivalent to habeas corpus protection for persons held under military authority under that part of Cuba leased to the United States. to the Committee on Financial Services. in accordance with the congressional mandate provided for in the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007. Mr. LEVIN. Mr. [Use above form also when only one report is submitted. [Use the following form when only one memorial is submitted:] . in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned. By the SPEAKER: Memorial of the Legislature of the State of Louisiana. 40 and H. CAPITO) introduced a bill (H. relative to Senate Concurrent Resolution No. BERKLEY. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mrs. acting through the Bureau of Reclamation. [Use the following form when only one bill or resolution is submitted:] Under clause 2 of rule XII: Mr. to make corrections in the provisions relating to captive wildlife offenses under that Act. Ms. LEWIS of Georgia. as follows: Mr. enhance security against terrorist attack and other security threats to our Nation’s rail and mass transit lines. Mr. Bernard Parish. VAN HOLLEN. and for other purposes (Rept. a memorial of the Legislature of the State of Idaho. Referred to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union. A bill to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to convey certain land in the Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest. H. SHADEGG: H. and for other purposes. with an amendment (Rept. A bill to direct the Secretary of the Interior. 110–715). Mr. and for other purposes. with amendments (Rept. 76 memorializing the Congress of the United States to take such actions as are necessary to expedite the reopening of the Arabi branch of the United States Postal Service located in St.R.R. 114 expressing opposition to S. Referred to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union.R. NEAL of Massachusetts. Also. RAHALL: Committee on Natural Resources. 6275. 3200. Mr. Mr. MEEK of Florida. CAZAYOUX (for himself. Ms. to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. and in addition to the Committee on Armed Services. for use as a cemetery (Rept. Mr. Montana. CUELLAR. 6274. CROWLEY. Montana. LARSON of Connecticut): H. to remedy problems caused by a collapsed drainage tunnel in Leadville. JONES of Ohio. WATERS. By Mr.R. and Mr. RAHALL: Committee on Natural Resources. to the Committee on Ways and Means. public bills and resolutions were introduced and severally referred. Referred to the House Calendar. Mr.R. relative to Senate Joint Memorial No. Resolution expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the Transportation Security Administration should. 110–716). 110–713). BLUMENAUER. to the Committee on the Judiciary. CHILDERS. House Resolution 1150. as follows: By Mr. MEMORIALS Under clause 3 of rule XII.404 Chapter 19 Clerk for printing and reference to the proper calendar. Mr. 2964. PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS Under clause 2 of rule XII. A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide individuals temporary relief from the alternative minimum tax. to Jefferson County. T HOMPSON of Mississippi. and Mrs. 5511.

AMENDMENTS Under clause 8 of rule XVIII. proposed amendments were submitted as follows: H. 4088: Timothy V. Michael T.” insert the following: “The Federal Government shall not withhold funding. Robert E. Westmoreland. The SPEAKER presented a petition of the Council of the District of Columbia. TANCREDO on House Resolution 1240. ADDITIONAL SPONSORS Under clause 7 of rule XII. ETC. after “title. Jr. line 11. Charles W.R. Jr. David Davis. and Wally Herger. Tammany. ADERHOLT on H. Orleans. Under clause 1 of rule XXII.. DOYLE. Joseph R. “RANDY” KUHL. Mr. “Randy” Kuhl Jr. 6584.Congressional Record 405 326. and Mr.R. Lynn A. 2008. A bill for the relief of Mohamed Tejpar and Nargis Tejpar. The SPEAKER presented a memorial of the Legislature of the State of Louisiana. on H. which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. 78: Mr. McCaul. 5656. relative to a Resolution regarding the taking of marine mammals and sea turtles incidental to power plant operations of once-through cooling power plants in California. 51 memorializing the Congress of the United States to establish a grant program to assist the seafood industry in St. Bernard. to the Committee of the Judiciary. 6583. Boustany. sponsors were added to public bills and resolutions as follows: H. PENCE on House Resolution 694: Timothy V. ATKINSON: H. [Use the following form when only one bill or resolution is submitted:] DISCHARGE PETITIONS— ADDITIONS OR DELETIONS The following Members added their names to the following discharge petitions: Petition 3 by Mr. The SPEAKER presented a petition of the City Council of Compton. 96: Mr.R. 1328 OFFERED BY: MR. RANGEL. 284. John Kline. [Note. Tancredo and Jean Schmidt.564 supporting the Homeowners and Bank Protection Act of 2007. A bill for the relief of Celia Maarit Halle. to the Committee on Financial Services. and Plaque-mines parishes. TOWNS. 6766) for the relief of Shanna Teresa Millich. CA. was signed by the following Members: John R.. 2008.R. GARRETT of New Jersey.R. Petition 4 by Mr. [Use the following form when only one petition is submitted:] Under clause 1 of rule XXII. relative to the Council-adopted resolution entitled. St.R. to the Committee on Natural Resources. COLE OF OKLAHOMA AMENDMENT NO. Ron Paul. H. June 24. Johnson. . 3584: Trent Franks.—Set sponsors caps and Members caps and lower case. LANTOS introduced a bill (H. by Mr. to the Committee on the Judiciary. H.R. 22. Latta. LARSON of Connecticut.R. Pitts. PRIVATE BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS Under clause 1 of rule XXII. AUCOIN: H. SPACE. Also. Mr. Petition 5 by Mrs. a petition of the California State Lands Commission.R. PETITIONS. DRAKE on H. 154: Mr. Mr. Mr. petitions and papers were laid on the clerk’s desk and referred as follows: 283. by Mr. 4: Page 341. relative to Senate Concurrent Resolution No.] DISCHARGE PETITIONS Under clause 2 of rule XV. Doug Lamborn.”. By Mr. the following discharge petitions were filed: Petition 10. to the Committee on Financial Services.R. THOMAS G. FRELINGHUYSEN. Randy Neugebauer. was signed by the following Members: Thomas G. relative to Resolution No. which was referred to the Committee on the District of Columbia. “National Park Service-Georgetown Branch Rail Rightof-Way Acquisition Resolution of 1990”. June 24. Petition 11. Under clause 3 of rule XII. Johnson. 139. JOHN R. private bills and resolutions were introduced and severally referred as follows: By Mr.

............ of Defense.......... of the Treasury................................... of State ...... Attorney General... of the Treasury........... of Energy............. Sec............................. H (House)................................ Ltd................. Names: Jr... .. Dept............... of Labor .. ................................. (includes all Federal corporations).................................... Pages in bound Record index are entered numerically.. Dept.......................... Dept..... Blvd....13...................... Pages are identified as S (Senate)............... Sec.......... of Health and ............... Corp....... of Energy...... Bill introductions are to be identified as to sponsor or cosponsor. of Veterans Affairs .. . Sec.................... of Transportation ............ of Justice......... of Education .406 Chapter 19 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD INDEX General instructions Set in 7 point on 8 point.... and E (Extensions)......... Sr.... of Transportation.. of the Interior .............................. Inc......... Dept. Rd........................ Dept............ Sec........ of Housing and Urban Development... of Defense ..................... Bullet following page number in index identifies unspoken material................... Dept.. of Health and Human Services ..... Sec........ II (etc........ Dept................. Sec...................... or E prefixes......... Cap lines or italic lines are set flush left................. of Commerce. States: See rule 9...................... Sec.......... of Commerce ......... of State............................... of Homeland Security ..................... Entries are indented 1 em........ of Agriculture.... without S.................................................... Sec..... of Agriculture ..... Ter........ Record measure (168 points.......... of Veterans Affairs................ of Labor......... of Housing and ... Dept... Ct. Dr............... 14 picas)............ Dept............. Dept............................... H.... Sec...... of Education...................... Dept.................. Sec............. Bros............ of Homeland Security Dept.... Abbreviations and acronyms— (for use on notation of content line) Abbreviations Streets: St.. Sec............. Ave........... Sec....... Dept.... with overs 2 ems. ................................. Dept....) Businesses: Co........................................... Sq.... .................. of the Interior............. Dept. Sec.................... Sec............

DAV Drug Enforcement Administration ....... ERISA Environmental Protection Agency..................................................................................................................... DNA Disabled American Veterans ............................ FERS .......... ACLU American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations.................................................................... BBC Bureau of Alcohol............. CNN Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network .......................................................... Eximbank Federal Aviation Administration ...... FCC Federal Crop Insurance Corp.......................................................................................... FDIC Federal Election Commission .................................................................... COBRA Consumer Product Safety Commission................................................................................................... Tobacco........................................................................ FAA Federal Bureau of Investigation ............................................................................................ AIDS American Association of Retired Persons .............................................................................................................................................. CSRS Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services ......................................................................................................................................................... AID Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome............................................................................................................................................................................ AFL–CIO American Medical Association..................................................................................................... EPA Equal Employment Opportunity Commission .................................................................................................................. CBO Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act.................................................... Firearms and Explosives .............................................. AMA British Broadcasting Corp ........ EEOC Export-Import Bank ......................................................................... ABA American Civil Liberties Union ...................... DEA Employee Retirement Income Security Act ................................................. CHAMPUS Commodity Credit Corp.................................................................... BLM Bureau of Labor Statistics.... Compensation and Liability Act............................. FCIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corp....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... FEC Federal Emergency Management Agency .................................................................................... ATF Bureau of Indian Affairs .......................................................................................................................... FEMA Federal Employee Retirement System ........ C–SPAN Central Intelligence Agency ....... CERCLA Congressional Budget Office ...................... AARP American Bar Association ................................................................................................................................................ CPSC Daughters of the American Revolution...................................... CIA Civil Service Retirement System .............................. CFTC Comprehensive Environmental Response...................................................... BLS Cable News Network ................................................................................................................................................................... CCC Commodity Futures Trading Commission.............................................................................. BIA Bureau of Land Management .........Congressional Record 407 Acronyms Agency for International Development................................................................................ FBI Federal Communications Commission ............................................................... DAR Deoxyribonucleic acid ...................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................ MIA(s) National Aeronautics and Space Administration .................................................. GSA Government Accountability Office ............................................................................... NCAA National Institute of Standards and Technology ....... LSC Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program ................................................................................... ... ITC Legal Services Corp.............................. GATT General Services Administration ................... FHA Federal Insurance Contribution Act................................................................................................................................................ NRA National Security Council..................................................................................................................................................................................... GPO Gross national product ................................................ NIST National Institutes of Health ............ IBM International Monetary Fund ............................................. GNP Health maintenance organization(s) .................................................................................................................................................................... OSHA Office of Management and Budget ...................... NIH National Labor Relations Board ..................................................................................... HMO(s) Human immunodeficiency virus ........................................................................................................... OPM Office of Thrift Supervision ............................................................................................................................. NOAA National Railroad Passenger Corp.............................. FRS Federal Trade Commission............................................................................................................................................................................. FERC Federal Housing Administration .............. OTS Organization of American States .................... NBC National Collegiate Athletic Association............................................. FICA Federal National Mortgage Association.................................408 Chapter 19 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission .......................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................. LIHEAP Missing in action......... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... FDA General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ................. FTC Food and Drug Administration.............................................................................................................................. ............ Fannie Mae Federal Reserve System........................ NTSB North American Free Trade Agreement ............................................... OAS Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ................. HIV Internal Revenue Service ... NATO Nuclear Regulatory Commission .............................................................................................................................................................................. IMF International Trade Commission . OMB Office of Personnel Management............................................................................................................................................................... GAO Government Printing Office........................................................................................................... NAFTA North Atlantic Treaty Organization ............................................................................................................................................................................... NAACP National Broadcasting Co...... NASA National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ........................ NRC Occupational Safety and Health Administration .............................................................................. NSC National Science Foundation .............................................................................................................................................................. NSF National Transportation Safety Board ................ Amtrak National Rifle Association ..... OPEC ..... IRS International Business Machines Corp....................... NLRB National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...........................

............................................................................................. YMCA Young Women’s Christian Association....................... United Nations Children’s Fund ... YWCA Spacing Biweekly Record index folioed in upper right and left corner.................... UNESCO Veterans of Foreign Wars .............................. PBS Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization Act........................................ no extra spacing.......................................................................... Bound History of Bills folioed in lower right and left corner........... TVA United Auto Workers ........................ no extra spacing............................................................................................................ no extra spacing.................................................................Congressional Record 409 Overseas Private Investment Corp........................................... SBA Social Security Administration ............. first folio numerically higher than the last folio of index...... ROTC Securities Exchange Commission ...................................................N.............. VFW Voice of America ................ Capitalization Capitalize principal words after these formats: Addresses Analyses Appendices Articles and editorials Biographies Book reviews Booklets Brochures Conference reports Descriptions .................. Bound Record index folioed in upper right and left corner........................... OPIC Palestine Liberation Organization ....................................................................................................................................................................... History of Bills folioed in upper right and left corner using H.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... U....................................... POW Public Broadcasting Service .................. UNICEF United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ........................ UAW United Nations ...................................... RICO Reserve Officers’ Training Corps.................................................................................. PTA Prisoner of war .............................. SEC Small Business Administration ........................................................................B..... and Children Program ....................................... ....... WIC World Health Organization............................................ VOA Women....................... SSI Tennessee Valley Authority ........................................................................................................................................................................................ SSA Supplemental security income ............................. WHO Young Men’s Christian Association ............. Infants............................ numbers............. PLO Parent-Teachers Association ..................... no extra spacing.......................................................................

410 Chapter 19 Documents Essays Essays: Voice of Democracy Eulogies Explanations Factsheets Forewords Histories Homilies Hymns Memorandums Messages Oaths of office Pamphlets Papers Platforms Poems Prayers Prayers by visitors Prefaces Press releases Proclamations Reports Report filed Resolutions of ratification Résumés Sermons Sngs Statements Studies Summaries Surveys Synopses Testimonies Transcripts Treaties Lowercase after these formats: Advertisements Affidavits Agenda Agreements Amendments Announcements Appointments Awards Bills and resolutions Bills and resolutions cosponsored Bills and resolutions introduced Bills and resolutions relative to Briefs Briefings Broadcasts Bulletins Certificates of election Chronologies Citations Civilian Cloture motions Colloquies Commentaries Comments Communications from Communiques Comparisons Cost estimates Court decisions Court documents Declarations Dedications Definitions Descriptions Designated acting Presidents pro tempore Designated acting Speaker pro tempore Digests Dispatches Examples Excerpts Executive orders Financial statements Granted Granted in the House .

or H. do not repeat S. 24. Quotes are used for book titles. If numbers of several bills are given.R. In consecutive numbers (more than two) use an en dash to connect first with last: S46–S48.Congressional Record 411 Granted in the Senate Guidelines Hearings Inscriptions Interviews Introductions Invocations Journals Letters Lists Meetings Military Motions Newsletters Notices Obituaries Opinion polls Orders Outlines Petitions Petitions and memorials Press conferences Privilege of the floor Programs Projects Proposals Questionnaires Questions Questions and answers Quotations Recorded Regulations Remarks Remarks in House Remarks in House relative to Remarks in Senate Remarks in Senate relative to Resignations Resolutions by organizations Results Reviews Rollcalls Rosters Rules Rulings of the chair Schedules Subpoena notices Subpoenas Tables Tests Texts of Transmittals Tributes Voting record Punctuation Comma precedes folio figures. (see H. 218). use this form: (see S. that is.R. 217. 25). etc. 518–520. with each number. A 3-em dash is used as a ditto for word or words leading up to colon: Taxation: capital gains rates ———earned income tax credit ———rates ..

RAHM (a Representative from Illinois) PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (George W. Bush) VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (Richard B. Flush cap lines All cap lines are separate entries. Savannah (vessel). Columbia (space shuttle).S. Names of vessels in italic: Brooklyn (U. Members of Congress. Bureau of Reclamation PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTMENTS VOTES IN HOUSE VOTES IN SENATE .412 Chapter 19 Roman and italic Use italic for Members of Congress descriptive data: CARDIN. (a Senator from Maryland). BENJAMIN (a Senator from Maryland) EMANUEL.). Votes in Senate DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR related term(s) Bureau of Land Management. Legislative Branch of the Government. They are set flush with overs indented 2 ems: CARDIN. EMANUEL. BENJAMIN L. RAHM (a Representative from Illinois). Cheney) COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS (House) COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS (Senate) FARMERS see Agriculture SENATE related term(s) Committees of the Senate.S.

People’s Republic of: mandatory abortion and sterilization policies.S. 6617). civic education. Leadership Against HIV/AIDS. H6773. 1671).R. H7807 [1AU] Motor vehicles: encourage increased production of natural gas vehicles and provide tax incentives for natural gas vehicle infrastructure (see H. 6570). H7116 [24JY] . Muhammad: award Congressional Gold Medal (see H. NEIL (a Representative from Hawaii) Bills and resolutions cosponsored Armed Forces: tribute to the 28th Infantry Division (see H. H7344. E1545 [23JY]. H7308 [29JY] Bulgaria: independence anniversary (see H. H7776 [31JY]. H7785 [31JY] U. Res. Con. H7592 [30JY] Press releases Medicare Trigger Ignores Real Problem-Skyrocketing Health Care Costs.R. 6826). Public Service Academy: establish (see H. H7164 [24JY] Medicare: ensure more timely access to home health services for beneficiaries (see H. 6462). Tuberculosis.R. 4450). Con. 390). Andrea: anniversary of birth (see H.R. H7630 [30JY] Bureau of Prisons: provide stab-resistant personal body armor to all correctional officers and require such officers to wear such armor while on duty (see H. H7283 [29JY]. H6734 [21JY] Diseases: improve and enhance research and programs on cancer survivorship (see H. Res. 6800). H7611 [30JY]. H7630 [30JY] Palladio. H7308 [29JY] Education: strengthen communities through English literacy. curb excessive energy speculation. H7788 [31JY] Power resources: open Outer Continental shelf areas to oil and gas leasing. and immigrant integration programs (see H.R. 407).Congressional Record 413 AARP (ORGANIZATION) Letters Evaluate and extend the basic pilot program for employment eligibility confirmation and ensure protection of Social Security beneficiaries. H7628 [30JY] ———provide a comprehensive plan for greater energy independence (see H. 1801). Res. H7345 [30JY] Supreme Court: anniversary of Roe v. Res. Wade decision. H7808 [1AU] ———replace the prescription drug benefit with a revised and simplified program for all beneficiaries (see H. 6670).R. H6774 [22JY] ABORTION Remarks in House China.R. H7125 [24JY] ABERCROMBIE. 6709).R. and require Strategic Petroleum Reserve sale and acquisitions of certain fuels (see H. H7789 [31JY] Yunus.R.R.S. 1383). and Malaria Act: prohibit use of funds for any organization or program which supports or participates in the management of coerced abortions or involuntary sterilization. 1139). HI: anniversary of the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard (H. H7629 [30JY] Remarks Pearl Harbor. E1701 [1AU] U.

education.R.R. 6539). MI Remarks in House Sand Creek Telephone Co. MICHAEL F. and efficiency. 3413). civil. Con. 6783).414 Chapter 19 Remarks in Senate Dept. Andrea: anniversary of birth (see H. 3297). E1703 [1AU] ADVANCING AMERICA’S PRIORITIES ACT Bills and resolutions Enact (see S. H7809 [1AU] Great Lakes-St. 6758). Res. 672). Durban Review Conference from a review of problems in their own and other countries (see H. and human rights and call for release of prisoners of conscience and other political prisoners (see H. CBO. 1361). cease repression of Tibetan and Uyghur people. National Federation of Regional Associations for Coastal and Ocean Observing. S7548 [28JY] ———Molly McCammon. (a Representative from New York) Bills and resolutions cosponsored Bangladesh: elections (see H. S7509 [26JY] Remarks in Senate Appalachian Regional Development Act: reauthorize and improve. of the Interior: establish oil and gas leasing program for public lands within the Coastal Plain of Alaska (see H. and in the Pope Benedict XVI response (see H. H7806 [1AU] Bills and resolutions introduced Power resources: enhance energy independence through the usage of existing resources and technology (see H. GARY L. CARE. Res.R. Res. 3413). S7509 [26JY]. Res. 407). Res. S7551 [28JY] Letters Provisions: Lynne Zeitlin Hale. E1701 [1AU] ACKERMAN. H7629 [30JY] National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month: support goals and ideals (see H.R. H7629 [30JY] New York. H7809 [1AU] Schools: withhold Federal funds from schools that permit or require the recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance or the National Anthem in a language other than English (see H. Con. H7787 [31JY] House of Representatives: prohibit adjournment until approval of a bill to establish a comprehensive national energy plan addressing energy conservation and expansion of renewable and conventional energy sources (see H. S7854 [31JY] ADERHOLT.R. S7545 [28JY]. S7971–S7973 [31JY] ACHIEVING OUR IDEA ACT Remarks in House Enact (H.R.N. 6566). S8021 [1AU] ACCESS FOR ALL AMERICA ACT Bills and resolutions Enact (see S.R. 1370). H6824 [22JY] ———provide a comprehensive plan for greater energy independence (see H. COURTS see COURTS ADOPTION see FAMILIES AND DOMESTIC R ELATIONS ADRIAN. conservation. People’s Republic of: call for end to human rights abuses of citizens. S7547 [28JY] ———Peter R. Con. 3412. ROBERT B. (a Representative from Alabama) Bills and resolutions cosponsored Crime: provide for the use of information in the National Directory of New Hires in enforcing sex offender registration laws (see H.: anniversary. 401). . of the Treasury: establish a commemorative quarter dollar coin program emblematic of prominent civil rights leaders and important events advancing civil rights (see H. Nature Conservancy (organization). of HHS: proposed regulation to change the definition of abortion. and conservation organizations. S7510 [26JY]. H7059 [23JY] Immigration: modify certain requirements with respect to H–1B nonimmigrants (see H. 374). H7788 [31JY] China. H7630 [30JY] Palladio. and increase energy independence (see H. COMPARISON. and end support for Governments of Sudan and Burma (see H.R. S7905 [31JY] Remarks in Senate Enact (S. S7030 [22JY] Cloture motions Enact (S.R. H7790 [31JY] Power resources: expedite exploration and development of oil and gas from Federal lands (see H. H7309 [29JY] Dept. S7547 [28JY] Motions Enact (S.R. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact: grant congressional consent and approval (see H. 1398). 1896). H7165 [24JY] Bills and resolutions introduced Syria: express concern regarding continued violations of political. 1402). S7888 [31JY] Chesapeake Bay Initiative Act: provide for continuing authorization of the Chesapeake Bay Gateways. 6701). 6788). 6379). Res. U. Res. H7788 [31JY] ADAMS. Res. 1391). AND ETHICS FOR SERIOUSLY ILL PATIENTS (ACCESS) ACT Remarks in Senate Enact (S. 6577). Letters Higher Education Opportunity Act. S7620 [29JY]. 3297): motion to proceed. H7629 [30JY] ———promote alternative and renewable fuels.R. S7141 [23JY] ACCESS.R. H7165 [24JY] Dept. NY: extend and improve protections and services to individuals directly impacted by the terrorist attack (see H. domestic energy production. 6709). S7543 [28JY] ———several ocean and coastal research. H7165 [24JY] Human rights: defeat campaign by some members of the Organization of the Islamic Conference to divert the U. 5630). H7809 [1AU] Religion: support spirit of peace and desire for unity displayed in the letter from leading Muslim scholars. 3046).S. H7806 [1AU] Social Security: extend funding for the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (see H. Res. Orszag. H7787 [31JY] ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE. 6594). 3297).

and for other purposes. Mr. 7. Senate concurrent resolutions. DORGAN (for himself. Con. 17—A joint resolution directing the United States to initiate international discussions and take necessary steps with other Nations to negotiate an agreement for managing migratory and transboundary fish stocks in the Arctic Ocean. Mr. Res. 82—A concurrent resolution supporting the Local Radio Freedom Act. S2947 [10AP]. Mr.J. S4839. SENATE BILLS S. S. Con. S4267 [15MY] Text. H. sequence is: Senate bills. Mr.J. Con. Byrd. Rockefeller. S850 [11FE]. Wicker. Res. S2233 [31MR]. H4067 [19MY] Text. Mr. Kerry. Ms. Res. and House resolutions: S. 110–334). House concurrent resolutions. H. Ms. Passed House. House joint resolutions. Committee on Banking. Res. By Mr. H4067 [19MY] Rules suspended. Webb). Mr. Res. 28—A joint resolution disapproving the rule submitted by the Federal Communications SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTIONS S. and for other purposes. Allard. 5. to the Committee on the Judiciary. Murkowski. S. S1878 [11MR]. Rept. to the Committee on Foreign Relations. Science. Mrs. Debated. Mr. Res. S4793 [22MY] . LINCOLN (for herself. Con. Stevens). Dodd. S4029 [12MY] S. S3700 [1MY] Reported (S. Snowe. Res. Res. Warner. Housing. and Transportation. Ms. S4839 [22MY] Commission with respect to broadcast media ownership. Burr). Cosponsors added. S3081 [16AP]. 16. the last surviving United States veteran of the First World War. Nelson of Nebraska. McCain. Reed. Buckles.Congressional Record 415 In history of bills. Biden. S4621 [21MY] S. Clinton. Sanders. 14. H. and Senate resolutions. 11—A bill to provide liability protection to volunteer pilot nonprofit organizations that fly for public benefit and to the pilots and staff of such nonprofit organizations. 26. Obama. Mrs. Mr. to the Committee on Commerce. S4790 [22MY] S. to the Committee on Indian Affairs. Res. Mr. Mr. S1704 [6MR]. Mr. Mr. S4270 [15MY] Message from the Senate.J. S4844 [22MY] Passed Senate amended. Lieberman. Res. Senate joint resolutions. to the Committee on Commerce.J. 85—A concurrent resolution authorizing the use of the rotunda of the Capitol to honor Frank W. H4065 [19MY] Held at the desk. and Transportation. and Urban Affairs discharged. S1597 [5MR] Cosponsors added. and Mr. and Mr. 980. S814 [8FE] Amendments. Brownback. and Mr. S2348 [2AP]. 50. Mr. Dole. Collins. Ms. then House bills. 9. H4402 [21MY] Message from the House. S. Mr. Cantwell. By Mr. Harkin. Mr. Science. Tester. SPECTER (for himself. and H. H4065 [19MY] SENATE JOINT RESOLUTIONS S. Feinstein. 2062—A bill to amend the Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 to reauthorize that Act. S3975 [8MY] Passed Senate amended. S4836. By Mrs. Mr. S2136 [13MR]. Mrs. Mr.

. Ms. Mr. Van Hollen. H5927 [24MY]. Moran of Virginia. H3279 [28MR]. to the Committee on the Judiciary. Biden. and Mr. Neal of Massachusetts. HOUSE BILLS H. Mr. Israel. 85—Continued Text. Mr. Inouye. Mr. H2821 [21MR]. Thune). H4075 [19MY] Rules suspended. LaTourette. H4821 [22MY] H. or donation of horses and other equines to be slaughtered for human consumption. Crowley. H3108 [6MY]. and for other purposes. Mr. Burton of Indiana. Chandler. Matsui. H1896 [16FE]. H4151 [19MY] Debated. to the Committee on Financial Services. Tierney. Mr. Ms. moving. Tester. S4114. Mr. Cummings. Moran of Virginia. Shea-Porter. Mikulski. Mr. Mr. Welch of Vermont. Walz of Minnesota. Mr. Mr. Mr. Kirk. Berkley. Lautenberg. Mr. Mr. Lee. Mr. Mr. possessing. Mr. 110–649). receiving. Ms. King of New York. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Nelson of Florida. Mr. Mr. H6476 [14JN]. Shays. and confirm the settlement agreement entered into to resolve claims by the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians relating to alleged interences with the water resources of the Tribe. Mr. Jones of Ohio. Serrano. to the Committee on Natural Resources. 4841—A bill to approve. Cleaver. Mr. H10696 [20SE]. Mr. Whitehouse. Doggett). Mr. S4848 [22MY] SENATE RESOLUTIONS S. Rept. 562—A resolution honoring Concerns of Police Survivors as the organization begins its 25th year of service to family members of law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty. Johnson). H670 [17JA] Cosponsors added. Larson of Connecticut. DeLauro. Mr. Ms. S4617 [21MY] Passed Senate. Ms. Mr. Mr. Lincoln. Ms. Boyda of Kansas. Mr. H4401 [21MY] Message from the House.416 Chapter 19 S. Doyle. Mr. Donnelly). Mrs. Mrs. Wolf. Campbell of California. and for other purposes. Ms. By Mr. Agriculture. H6828 [20JN]. Mr. By Ms. Mrs. H1153 [31JA]. H4075 [19MY] Text. and for other purposes. Mr. Meek of Florida. Cosponsors added. Feinstein. MURKOWSKI (for herself. Mr. Pryor. Baucus. McNulty. By Mr. Smith of New Jersey. H11028 [27SE] H. Mr. 6081—A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide benefits for military personnel. Bishop of New York. Mr. S2346 [2AP] Text. Mr. to the Committee on Energy and Commerce. Mr. Ms. H1055 [30JA]. Sherman. Ms. Mr. Craig. Mr. Spratt. Kaptur. Wilson of South Carolina. Lewis of Georgia. S4790 [22MY] Passed Senate. H480 [28JA]. Mrs. McCollum of Minnesota. Arcuri. Cohen. McCotter. Mr. Mr. S4772 [22MY] Message from the Senate. Agreed to in the Senate. delivering. and Mr. to authorize and direct the Secretary of the Interior to execute and perform the Settlement Agreement and related waivers. Mrs. S4810. Pallone. Mr. Mr. Mr. Becerra. Jones of North Carolina. Mrs. Grijalva.R. Eddie Bernice Johnson of Texas. Ms. Mr. Stabenow. Stevens. Mr. Mr. Van Hollen. Berman. H390 [22JA]. Moore of Kansas. H2621 [15MR]. and Mr. Mr. Ruppersberger. Schwartz. Passed House amended. Passed House amended. Mr. Mr. S4848 [22MY] Agreed to in the Senate. Mr. Brown. Wolf. Kildee. Mr. Frank of Massachusetts. Ellsworth. H5054 [15MY]. Ms. Mr. Mr. Res. S2362 [2AP]. H9656 [2AU]. H1565 [13FE]. H8121 [18JY]. Mr. SCHAKOWSKY (for herself. S7197 [23JY] H. Blumenauer. H3724 [20AP]. Gallegly. transporting. Mr. and Mr. Altmire. Mr.R. Nadler. H4061 [15MY] H. WITTMAN of Virginia (for himself. H4160 [20MY] Text. H7202 [26JN]. Ms. Lynch.R. Stark. Mr. Mr. S4120 [13MY] Mr. Mr. Smith. McDermott. Mr. to the Committees on Energy and Commerce. Menendez. Mr. Res. H8821 [27JY]. Ms. Rahall.R. Gerlach. Dodd. Mr. and for other purposes. Emanuel. H6439. H558 [29JA] Reported with amendment (H. H4059 [15MY] Debated. H3363 [29MR]. 503—A bill to amend the Horse Protection Act to prohibit the shipping. Pomeroy. H4160 [20MY] Rules suspended. RANGEL (for himself. Larson of Connecticut. H4553 [7MY]. H1668 [14FE]. Weiner. Mr. 496—A resolution honoring the 60th anniversary of the commencement of the carving of the Crazy Horse Memorial. Mr. Hirono. H4064 [16MY] Cosponsors added. Mr. Res. DeLauro. Dicks. Berkley. Ms. George Miller of California. Mr. Ms. Brown of South Carolina. Markey. Mr. Mr. Mr. Cosponsors added.R. purchasing. Mr. Whitfield. and for other purposes. Ms. Ms. S4427 [20MY] Committee discharged. Bean. H3476 [17AP]. Mr. Ms. Inslee. S4121 [13MY] Agreed to in the Senate. Mr. Woolsey. selling. 158—A bill to direct the Secretary of the Treasury to mint coins in commemoration of the battlefields of the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Tsongas. S4427 [20MY] S. Linder). Mr. Davis of California. to the Committee on Ways and Means. Mr. THUNE (for himself and Mr. Jackson-Lee of Texas. Mr. Ms. Kind. Carson. Mr. Ackerman. Mrs. 6166—A bill to impose certain limitations on the receipt of out-of-State municipal solid waste. Ms. Capps. By Ms. H6181 [7JN]. Mr. Bordallo. S4106 [13MY] Text. ratify. H4187 [20MY] Message from the House. Loebsack. By Mr. H2165 [5MR]. Maloney of New York. Con.

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000 or more. insert “free of tolls”. 271). On page 3. avenues. [Sample of amendment in the nature of a substitute] The amendment is as follows: Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the following: That the second paragraph under the heading “National Park Service” in the Act of July 31. etc. or of more than five years in duration.420 Chapter 20 (A) be included in establishing eligibility for voluntary or involuntary retirement or separation from the service. including renewals thereof. is amended to read as follows: “The Secretary of the Interior shall hereafter report in detail all proposed awards of concessions leases and contracts involving a gross annual business of $100. line 15.” [Sample of letter inserted in report] The Department of Defense recommends enactment of the proposed legislation and the Office of Management and Budget interposes no objection as indicated by the following attached letter. and boulevards. line 12. 1953 (67 Stat. 261. to the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives for transmission to the appropriate committees. change the period to a colon and add the following: Provided. That such approaches shall include only those necessary portions of streets. which is hereby made a part of this report: . under any provision of law. sixty days before such awards are made. [Sample of amendment] The amendments are indicated in the bill as reported and are as follows: On page 2. after “operated”.

............... Hon..................................□□□□□ Assistant Secretary of the Navy□□□ (Financial Management)....Reports and Hearings 421 MARCH 21................... etc.......... no spacing above or below] Under uniform regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned............. * * * * * DOUGLAS A............ .......... MY DEAR MADAM SPEAKER : There is forwarded herewith a draft of legislation to amend section 303 of the Career Compensation Act... in the following types: Forrestal-class aircraft carriers...... or is discharged with severance pay...............................□ [Sample of cut-in for purposes of breakdown............. DC................................ immediately following at least eight years of continuous active duty (no single break therein of more than ninety days).................. may select his home for the purposes of the travel and transportation allowances payable under this subsection................... * * Sincerely yours......... Washington........ or (2) is retired with pay for any other reason................... BROOK........... 2008........... Destroyers............. Speaker of the House of Representatives.... 42 are classified as major combatant ships (aircraft carriers through escort vessels).................... * * * * * * * 1 42 4 10 Guided-missile submarine . a member of the uniformed services who— (1) is retired for physical disability or placed upon the temporary disability retired list................. Total .......... [Sample of leaderwork] Among the 73 vessels mentioned above....... NANCY PELOSI..............

as introduced. changes in existing law made by the bill. . or upon any prior date which the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President may designate. [1956] 1959. existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in roman): EXPORT CONTROL ACT OF 1949 * * * * TERMINATION DATE * * * SEC. are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets. The authority granted herein shall terminate on June 30. new matter is printed in italic. Increase of 1 year in constructive service for promotion purposes The principal purpose of the various subsections of section 1 is to provide a 1-year increase for medical and dental officers in * * * * * * * * * * Subsection 101(a) is in effect a restatement of the existing law This subsection authorizes the President to make regular appointments in the grade of first lieutenant through * * * * * * * * * * [Sample of amendment under Ramseyer rule] CHANGES IN EXISTING LAW In compliance with clause 3 of rule XII of the Rules of the House of Representatives. 12.422 Chapter 20 [Sample of sectional analysis] SECTIONAL ANALYSIS Section 1.

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223–224 Tabular work (13. 110 Information technology (9. 41.114). 224 Senator. 9. 234–235.7).26). 6.43).8). 232 Foreign countries (9. 43 Adjectives (see also Compounding): Capitalization (3. 9.S.4–13. 226.22. 281 Latin (9.44–9. 13.6–11.63. 281 Vessels (9. 281–282 Technology (9.35–9. 221. 100 Advice to Authors and Editors (1. 12.46.7). not abbreviated (9.36). section (9. 334–338 Numerals used with (9.44–9.9). 281 Period used (8. 281 As adjective (9.48. 223–224 Time zones (9. 89–91. 238–258 Measures.61. 232 Calendar divisions (9.29).3). 223 Geographic terms (9. 273 Foreign.10).21).51. 8. etc.7).20–5. 281 Article. 332–334 Administration. 222 College degrees (9.25). U.16–9.12–9. 221. 311–313 Ordinals (12.11). (9.10. 225–226 Not abbreviated (9. 233.40). Representative (9.9. 281 Organized bodies (9.9k).39). 231. 13. 251–255.5).: Before Government or Government organization (9.59).3. 226–230 Money (9. 227–230 433 . lists of names (9. 232–233. 224–225.16).4).30). 222–223. 211–213 Not used (8. 235–237 Metric (9. 85–86 Geographic names (5.14). (9. 223. 255–258 Plurals (8.20).15). 231 Comma before and after (8.20–9.57).59).50–9.38–9. 223. 234 Titles.5.30. 281 Closed up.64). 13.5). 1–5 Air Force.46. 226–230 U.64).37.5. 282 Dates (9. 13. 262 Acronyms and coined words (9.9–16.39).11.Index [Numbers in parentheses refer to rules. 221–258 Addresses: Correspondence (16..13). 235. 16. v Accents: Anglicized and foreign words (5. 236–237 Military titles. 230 States (9. 9.13). 255 Land descriptions (9.61–9. civil and military (9. 265 Lists (9.64).11). (9. 9. etc.60. 93 List (10. 274 Signatures. 13.56–9. 309 Street (9.S.13).53. 27–28 Modifier (7. 9.123). 8.7).1–9. weights.3–5.5–3.29). 13. 200 Company.10). 16. words ending in (5.11.6).4). etc.32. (3.9–9. 195.103–8. 231–232.64). 9. 281 Et al. with periods (9. 204 Figure.15).3).30).41–9.7). 226 Congressional terms (9.12–9.47).14). 222–224 Grammatical (7. 13.6). 44. 265–266 -able.43. 238. 196 Act. 11. 222 Parts of publications (9. 238–247. 309.19. 233. 11. 9. 93.115–8.64).1–1.13. 255–258 Territories and possessions (9. 230. 15 Provinces. (9. 13.18).22).40. 225.27. 230. 13. 109 Nationalities (demonyms). 103 About This Manual. bold indicates chapter heading] A Abbreviations and Letter Symbols (9. 43 Adverbs ending in -ly (6. 213–214 Preparing copy (2. etc.

237 Atomic numbers (10. 195–196 Possessive (8. (8. 309 . 237 Metric equivalents. 281 Capitalization (3. 7–9.56.C.33).58. 12 Base lines and meridians. 232 Assembly: Legislative.69.22). 215 Capacity: Abbreviations (9. 261 B Backstrips.44–9. 45–46. 196 Appendix: Abbreviation (9.150).150).101). 225–226 Index entries (15.55.434 Index Allmark (2. capitalization (3. 197 Equations (8. 2. etc. 237 Metric equivalents.20. 271 Astrophysical abbreviations (9.18). 305 Astronomical: Bodies. 339–341 Army. 236. 195 Spelled-out words (8. 25–26.13). 3.59).49).57). 205 Bill style (2.6). 63 United Nations (3. and signatures (3.8. 227–230 Article: Abbreviation (9. 194 Coined plurals (8.103–2.2).21). 10.41).12.38). 197–198 Dates abbreviated in (9. 194.14). so-called (8.13–15. any one (6. 2. 211 C Calendar divisions: Abbreviations (9. 30–32. 12.128).88–13. 198 Type (8. 10 References (2.30).112.11).9c).82).19).3m). 255 Anyone.14. 292 More than one paragraph (8. 306 Anglicized foreign words (5. 9.2). 15. 93 Boldface: Page numbers. 98 Apostrophes and possessives (8.11–8.22). 9. 339.130. 304. 260 Headnotes (13.20). 236.4). 232 Capitalization (3.3–8.76–8. 15 Blank pages.17). 35 Time (12. salutations. 9.15).58).16). 195–196 Authentic form in names to be followed (8.12.8–8.3–8. 233.2). 193–194 Pronouns (8. 40 Caps and small caps (9. 233 Emphasis added.89).5).1–3. 207–208 Footnote reference (13. 60 B. 198. 10 Plural form (5.117). 303 Part of book (2.71). 203.9). 231 Footnote numbering (15.23).12).9b).3l). 271 Bible. avoid more than two (1.45). 7–9 American Samoa (9.2).13). 16. run down (2. 13.46.56).21. 223. (3. 219 Braces.38. 290. 8. 348 Ampersand (&): Comma omitted before (8. 24 American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 85–86 ANSI (American National Standards Institute) (2.56.12). 224. 34. etc.11–3. 8. 203 Firm names (9.17). 199.11). 22. 47.39). 42. 27–42 Addresses. 88–89 Area: Abbreviations (9. 239.3–5.25). 29–30.104.10). 260 Brackets (8. 75 Association (9. 8.68–13. 231. 225–226 Asterisk(s): Ellipses (8. 8.19–8. 36–37 Bibliography: Footnote numbering (15. 219 Bylines in parentheses (8. 48 Called.58).14). 15. 23. 346–347 Basin. 195–196 Contractions (8.61. (9. 307 Punctuation (8. contents (15.39). 303 Part of book (2.30). equations (10. 340 Capitalization Rules (3. 193–197 Abbreviations (8.10). 2 Board on Geographic Names (5.29. 5.25). 9.27).

43).11–3.3.13). 3. surnames (3. center and side (3.62). 28 Chemical: Elements: Atomic numbers (10. (3. 261 Compounding (6. 232 Capitalization. 247 Centerheads (see Heads. 233 Biblical.33). 36. 384. 40–41. in contents (15. 42 Historic events (3. and signatures (9.54). 87–88 Coast (3. 232.29–9.50).37).46–3.29–13. 27 Derivatives (3.8)..37). 34 Interjections (3.13–3.12. 30–32 Particles (3.30).2). (3.9d). 42 Organized bodies (3.32). addresses. 4–5.22).34). 32–33 Firm names. 37–38 Publications. 12.29). 16. 285–286 Citations: Abbreviations (9.16).3). 50 Ciphers: Leaderwork (14.4). 11.8).43.S.47–3.75). 271 Tabular work (13.34–3. 37–38 Plurals (5.15).51–3. 35. 261 Church (3. etc. 210 Cities. 38–39 Trade names and trademarks (3. 35. foreign. U.48).8).28).24). 50. domains (3.5–3.53. 32.16).25). 416 Vessel names (11. 309 Figure (2. 418 Datelines.22).33–2. 34 Coast Guard.43.38–3.112).37). 275 Symbols: Preparing copy (2.9). 266 Punctuation (8.34–3. 9.16). 36 Holidays. 40–42 Historic and documentary work (3. 239 Article.37. etc. 267.45). 106. 43–77 Capitals. Chair (3.56).42–3.26–3.19–3.19). (8.7).10). 27 Religious terms (3. 322–324 Civil and military titles: Abbreviations (9. 27–28 Continued (13. 231. 286 Countries. 72 Titles: Persons (3.28). 9.19). 267 Use of in hearings (8. section (9.49.41). 261 Symbols (10. 199 Italic (11. 29. 197–198. 49 Chapter: Abbreviation (9.S. 106 Numerals (6.Index 435 Articles.3.16).17–3. U.12). 9. 391.31). 213 Heads spaced with regular justification spaces (2.54). etc. 74 Capitalization Examples (Chapter 4). 325–331 Capitals. 34 Common nouns and adjectives (3.33). in heads (3. 40 Note (13.44. definite (3. 106.38). 37–38. 372. 8.23). 35 Soil orders (3. 8. 30 Proper names (3. 11. 375.20).96. center and side).42.18). 18. 288 Quotation marks in (11.6–11. 41–42 Congressional work.35). 3. 265–266 -cede.71. 91 Celsius (9..7–14. 36–37 Scientific names (3. 300 Numerals (12.39). -ceed. 231 Alignment. 235.46–3.97). 306 Capitalization (3.9). 58 First words (3. 39–40 Heads.36). 16 Names. 14 Set in roman (10. 348–369 Capitol. 30 Calendar divisions (3. 261 Formulas (6. 322–324. 36–37 And state (3. 49 Caps and small caps: Abbreviation (1. 10. 49 Chairman (3.57). 265.37). 227–230 . -sede (5. 226–231 Capitalization (3.45).16).

98 Land description (9. 375–376 Parentheses and brackets. 387–393 Punctuation. 378–379 Poetry.44).25. 371–416 Addresses and signatures.15).59). 16. 106–107 Numerical compounds (6.45).33). 95–107 Chemical terms (6. 225–226 Ampersand with (9. 385–386 Figures.15). 199. 37–38 Compounding (6. 376–405 Speech heads.52). 374 Text headings.38. 8. 199. 400–401 Credits. 96 Scientific and technical terms (6.11).1–6.S. 274–275 Congressional Record (Chapter 19).15–6. 376 Italic.28). 198–200 Affecting use of numerals (12.8).23. 371–372 In gross or en gros. 30–32 Committee. 384 Extensions of Remarks. 386 Tabular matter and leaderwork. 39. 102–104 Comma (8.28. 109–191 Compounding Rules (6. 105 Fractions (6.7).46–6. 13. 394–398 Senate. used with (8.25–9. 198–199 Ratio (8. 51–52 Company: Abbreviation (9.43). 8. 12. 382 Capitalization. 199. 270 Capitalization following (3. 30–32 Ordinals (12. 200 Subentries (8. 398–400 Conference report and statement. 377–378 Samples. 270 After salutations (8. 225–226 List. 14. 235 Capitalization (3.33).10–12. 106 Civil and military titles (6.145).22). 32 Combining forms (6.50).49).8). 95–96 Improvised compounds (6. 383–384 Call of the House. 199.4–6. 230 Commander in Chief (3.436 Index Code (3. suffi xes. 282 Capitalization (3. 225 Compounding Examples (7. 105 Plural (5. 274 Prefixes. 8. 376–377 Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union.8–6. 232–233.29–6.45).35).42– 6. 106 Solid compounds (6.11).27. 301 Colony (3.23–8. 52 Compass directions: Abbreviations (9.32.14). 105. 8.24).28). 12. 202–204 Semicolon.44).14).9o). 106 Compound sentences (8.30).14). 218 Commandant (9.41–9.20–9.35).7). 3. 312 Biblical and bibliographic citations (8. IV.50–8. 87–88 Commission (3.26).21). 12.26–12. U.42. 104–105. 374 Forms of titles.1–7.29.52). 102–104 Short prefixes (6.19).29–6.41). 373–374 Caps and small caps. 386 Title 44. 384–385 Proceedings: House.17). 279 General rules (6.39. 96–98 Unit modifiers (6. 200–202 Chemical formulas (6.17). 374–375 Miscellaneous.C.. 386 Extracts. 371 .43.35).36–6. and combining forms (6. 201 Omitted (8. 98–102 Units of measurement (6.38). 382–383 General rules. 33–34 Compound words (6.7). 106 Congressional: Abbreviations (9. 38–39 Colon (8.42–6.40).34–8.25). 40.40–6.44.

to avoid tripling (6. 428.15). 13. 10 Report sample.44–9. avoid use of (1. 281 A. plainly marked (1.14. 2. 271 Commas with (8. and Signatures (16.20). 5. 15. 206. before (5. 281 . 204–205 En dash (8. 270 Not to be used for and (8. 223.52.12).1–16.30). 369–370 Cover: Kind to be indicated (1. 206. 406–409 Capitalization. an. 12.5).13.32).3).4).111)..12). Addresses. 92 Hyphen. 3 Paragraph.8).11).16). 196 Copy (see also Preparing copy): Blank pages.75).72–8.60–8.11. 1.15).10).5). 92 Doubled (5. 304 Dash (8.29). avoid more than two (1. 290.28). 306–307 Contractions. (8.9c). 1 Position (1. 412 General instructions.49. 1 Separate sheets (1. 2 Footnote references (1.73–8.75). letters (8.28–15.14). 204–206 Em dash (8. 195.8). 37–38. 280 Tabular work (13. 413–416 Spacing. 4–5 Proper names.72–8. 8 Crown (3. 1 Proofreader’s marks (1.39). B.Index 437 Voting: House and Committee of the Whole. 381–382 Congressional Record Index. 406 Punctuation. 2 Trim size (1. 406–416 Abbreviations and acronyms. 11 Type (15. 10. 427 Reports and hearings (2.3). Datelines. 412 Samples. 429. 206 Not to be used for to (8. 13.D.60–8. 2 Typewritten. 2 Proofreading (2. 12.75).79–2.11.3i. 206 Figures.5)..7). 2 Folioing looseleaf or perforated work (1.30).16–5.70). 1 Reprint. 379–381 Pairs. 203. etc. 8. 202.C. 203. 409–411 Flush cap lines.35). in duplicate (1. 2 Corrections marked (1.9c). 15.9c). 431–432 Joint explanatory statement.74. 1 Style sheets furnished (1. 199 Date columns (see Tabular work). 274 Roman numerals (12.80).52. 206.46. 2 Covers to be indicated (1.5).22). 334–338 D Dagger (13.68–13. 271 Ordinals in (12.19). 233. 8.14).12. 411 Roman and italic. signatures. begin with (1. 430 Cover and title pages. 19 Counties and geographic divisions.12). 2.8). 1 Paper stock (1.13). 348–369 Common misspellings. 1 Illustrations: Instructions (1. 271 En dash (8.69. 96 Contents (15.19–1. 2. 9. 309–319 Dates: Abbreviations (9. 295 Proportion (8.19–1. 12. 382 Yeas and nays. 1 Numbering (1. 2 Fold-ins.75. 2.7). apostrophe to indicate (8. 423–426. 1 Legible (1.2). 1 Corrections: Author’s (1. 417–432 Consonants: A. 305–307 Part of book (2.20).17).7).73.20–15. 12. 54 Currency (see also Money).3). 409 Congressional work: Back title. one side only (1.

14–15 Figure (2. 54 Decree: Executive.22).. etc. 231 Deity.33). 231 Closed up (9.32. 27. oversize. 35 Devil.112).41–13. 93. 55 Demonyms (nationalities) (5.42–3.3–3.26–3.33). 2 Footnotes.31).6. 3. 16 Everyone.9f).24).46). (2. 265 Emphasis added.33).34).4. 230 Not used with other titles (9.35–9.32.8).24). 55 Scientific names (3. 252 Et cetera.29–13. 273 Repeated (10.. 238 Leaderwork (14.83–8. 36–37 Diseases and related terms. 288 Dr. 208 Extracts: Footnotes (15. 18. Fol. Indexes.6). (2.13).12. 233 Holidays. 265 Equations (10. (11. 2.438 Index Days: Abbreviations (9.7–14. 57 Royal (3.56).8). 252 Ellipses (8. 12 F Fahrenheit (9. 238.19). 54 Degree mark: Repeated (10.4). 252 Et seq. italic not used (11. 38–39. 223. converted to. 58 First words capitalized (3. (11. 36–37.38). and Outlines (15. abbreviation (9.9k). 202.28).51. every one (6. 224. 10. 12. suggestions (1.49). 9.60). 35 Editorial marks (illustration) (1. 9. 2. 57. 231 Et al. 13. 13.9f). 230. 230. 231 Sequence of (9.g. (9.(6.9d).33).50. lit. etc): Abbreviations (9. 303–304 Quotation marks omitted (2. etc. etc.6).33. 213 Figures (see Numerals). 55 Do.51–13. words denoting (3. 303–308 Footnotes and reference marks (15. 15. 96 Proper names (3. 4–5 Editors and authors. etc.6).76–8.2).85).22).31). 207–208 Email.22).28.53. 12. 235.82).37).38.27.36).8–10. 339 False title (2. 301–305 Comma not used (8. 9. 1–5 E. 222 Capitalization (9.1– 15. 285 Ciphers with (13. 230 E Earth (3.3b). Firm names (see also Company).53). center and side).41). 305 . 271 Decorations.38).71. 259 Spacing (12. 13. 9. 232 Period not used at end (8.33. 34 Decimal inches..14). 341 Decimals: Alignment (2. 272 With figures (9.50–9.35). (3. 103 Exclamation point (8.6). 252. 235. (ditto): Leaderwork (14.30). 259 Tabular work (13. Contents. 350 FIC & punc.7).19).33). 272 Degrees (scholastic. 14.29.45). 98 Ex.16). etc.54). 9. 14–15 Fold-ins. 13.4). 9 Federated States of Micronesia (9. 39–40 Flush heads (see Heads. 286–287 Dollar: Abbreviation (9.12). 268 Emphasis.29). 28 Not abbreviated (9. 300 Mark (9.3).9).15).40). 259. 265 Even space after sentences (2.60. 226. email (11. 332–334 Derivatives: Compounds (6. medals.50). 9. 285 Comma omitted (8.1–15. 299–300 Tabular work (13.1–1. 9.36).. 260 Esq. avoided (1. 203 Used with numerals (12. (2. (3.

32–33. 304 Superior figures (13. Holidays.24).22). 7–26 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions (Chapter 18).22). etc.129).3. words ending in (5. 9 -ful. 25 Frontispiece (2. 3. 279 Tabular work (13. 6.28).7. 62 Hyphen (see also Compounding Rules): Chemical formulas (6.1–15.20).8.54). 24 Part of book (2. 21 Run across (1. 305 Footnote added (2.43. 279 Comma omitted (8. 107 Heads. 279 Numerical compounds (6. 5. 59 Not abbreviated (9. 203.51).13).3a).27). 325–331 Hearings (see Reports and Hearings). 346–347 Geographic terms. (9.54.26).25–13.60). 12. 10 H-bomb.9. 225 State name with (9. 12. etc. 343–370 Geographic divisions. 6. 1. and combining forms (6. 98 Division at end of line (8.11). etc. 103 G General Instructions (2. etc.19).63). 289 Franking privilege (2. 332–334 Rivers.26–12.97). 334–338 Heads of state. 352 H Halftitle: Imprint (2. 36. 290. (3.8. 101 Italic (11.17). 33–34 Gospel. 223 Capital cities.14). center and side: Capitalization (2. 105 Compass directions (6.71). 303–305 Foreign: Countries: Abbreviations (9. 104–105. 110 .27).36–6. 225 Spelled out (6. 230 House. 105. 28.3j). 40–42 Tabular work (13. 325–331 Money. 325–331 Currency. abbreviations (9. H-hour (6. 223. 304 Indexes and tables of contents (15. 274 Prefixes. 9. 30–32 Foreign. 88.35). 325–331 Governor (3.1–2.10–7.85).14). 15. 6. 307–308 Tabular work (13. 291–292 Alignment (13.66–13.33). 85.12). 105 Land descriptions (9.4).11–14.96g).87). suffi xes.38–6. 10 Fort.19).39.30. 223 Fractions (12. ix Gravity terms (9.26.29–6.12. 238 Nationalities (demonyms). 347 Words: Accents (5.86–13. (3. 86 Compounding (6. etc.20– 15.130).87).44).31). 102–104.7. 34 Holy Scriptures. 305–307 Leaderwork (14.67.38. 289–291 Text (15.12).33). capitalization (3. 12. 304 Thin space (15.9e.53). 209 Fractions (12.39).118). 36.3f).31).Index 439 Follow punctuation (15. 3. (3.18). 265 Foreword (2. 279 Hyphen in (6. 13. 62 Honorable. 13. 343 Germany. 12. 290 Sequence (15. West. (3. 301 Outlines (15.41).2). 284 Heads of state. 21 Footnote eliminated (2. 272. 224.28). 7. 96.11).35. 12. 6.46–3.20–9. 235 Guam (9. 60 Government(s) (3. foreign. 61.40–6.24).30). 60 Geologic terms.12). 87–88. 37–38 GPO’s Online Initiatives. 60 Departments.9o). 106 Civil and military titles (5.30).13).

4). 309–319 Do.12). 11.25. 260. 10. (13.28). 293 .73.60–2. 267. 18 Paragraphs (2. 99 I Ibid.11.22). 205 Datelines. 309–319 Emphasis (11.30). 14 Information technology acronyms (9.12). 268 Provided.8. -ize. etc.20–15. 267 To be followed (11. 265 Equations (10. 223 Unit modifiers (6.66). -yze (5. 266 Legends (2. 260 Interjections: Capitalization (3.65–2. 305 Symbols (2.3). 312 Scientific names (11.8).83–8.44).95). 265 Salutations (8. 267 Credit line (8. 261.14).8). (3. 265 Publications.16).2–11.28). 301 v. 286–287 Extracts (2. 11.14). 12 Separate sheets (1. 14–15 Foreign words. 265 Italic supplied.15). addresses. 199. 265–268 Aircraft (11.66).15).50). 268 Nth degree (11.46–6. 267 Paragraphs and sections.27).63).10). 260 Preparing (2. 267 Infra. 268 Legal cases (11.61).15–6. 18.8. 265 Inferior letters (10.12.112). 40. 298.60–2. 17 Heads (2. 42 Exclamation point (8.3).16.42–6.11. 305 Inferior figures and letters: Chemical elements (6. (2. 22–23 Improvised compounds (6. 17 Index (15. 208 Introduction (2.115–2.3f).33).12).45. picas converted to.8).72. 16. 341 Indentions (see also Overruns) (2. 265 Continued from (11.56).2). etc.62–2. 305–307 Entries (15.123. 305 See.15). see also (11.24). 1 Imprints (2. 265 Not abbreviated (9. 267 See.14). 17–18 Datelines. id.5–16. 106 State abbreviations (8.101–2. (11. addresses..e. 267–268 Tabular work (13.3). 15.3n). supra (11. 267. 13. etc.49).64). 255 Infra: Italic (11. 106–107 Inches. (11. lit. 10 Plural form (5. 103 i.5).9–11.12–11. 260.26). 252.96). 252 Illustrations: Makeup (2.12).8. 235 Integral sign (10.3i. titles of (11.13). and signatures (16. 15.85). 275 Equations (10.84). 89–91.43).73. 91 Italic (11. post (11. 260 Italic (10.20). 18. 11.14). 265–266.14). 11. 306 Part of book (2.7.3). etc.38).6).12–11.16). 24 Signature marks (2. 12.41–13. Resolved.6–11. 11. 206. words ending in (5. see also (11. 293 Units of quantity (13. 10 -ise. 267. 2.11.1–11. (11. 9. 14. 267–268 Fol. 106 Chemical formulas (10.20).11).66). and signatures (16.10). 11.2). (11.12).3). 6. 2.120). 12 Footnote tables (13.95–13.52).440 Index Scientific terms (6. 267 Precede superiors (10. indicating (11. 266 Vessels (11. 11.11).12. 265–266 Ante..5–16.18). 98–102 Not used when meaning is clear (6. 291 Hanging (2.30). 265 -ible. 260. 88–89 Roman numerals (15.8).7–10. 11.

300 Footnotes (14.33.9f). 235. 265 Latitude. 215–218 Section mark (10. 9. 282 Tabular work.10).34). 304 Footnotes. 200. 11. and signatures (16.54–2.9). 9.94).22.20). 305 Footnote symbols (13..9b).21).123.12. 8.4). 251–255. over figure columns (15. addresses.124–8.13–3. section. 309 K King (3.1–14.7–14. 15. 231 Ellipses (8. 290.9). 214.12).40).79). personal name (9. 222 Letters or figures in parentheses (2. 299–300 Continued heads (14.32. 214–215 Quotation marks (8.39).144). 259 .32–9. 12.7). 301 Units of quantity (14.20–9.47–3. 16 Initials.3)..28). section (9. 230 Type (9.51. 198–200 Datelines.58).40.34). 272 Latin abbreviations (9.20) (see also Tabular Work). 15. 284 Tabular work. 12. and signatures (16. 12 Heads. 207 Page. 272 Law (3. 301–302 Flush items and subheads (14. Sr.1). 12. longitude: Abbreviated (9.51. 281 Division at end of line (9.9f).Index 441 X dollars (11.39.37.11–14. 13. centerheads (13.13). 235 Spaces omitted (9. -ise.50).: Abbreviation (9. 215 L Land area abbreviations (9.48). two or more (2. 222. 9.33).1). 306 Punctuation (8.97–13.19).15–14.12). academic (9. 235.3).6).4). 230 Index entries (15. 232 Citations (8. 16.2).63. 13. 221 Ampersand (9. space after in small cap heads (3. 302 Examples (14.16.128).8). 207–208 Footnote references (8. 267 -ize.66). 300 Dollar mark and ciphers (14. (14. 17 Line of stars (8. 17 Footnotes (2. 236–237 Land descriptions (9. 15. 309 Degrees.36).126). 300 Double up (14. 17 Legends (2.18). 271 Colon (8. 15. 9. addresses. 293–294 Leaderwork (14.6).13). 199.59). 299 Clears (14.48). 222 Article. 305 Tabular work. 300 Columns (14. 3. etc.59).50.34).48–2.52).127–8.19). 37 Known as (8.69.7. center.7).19). 199 Clock time (8. 91 J Journals (2.3).6). 309 Extracts (2. 259 Names.3–14.5). 39 Leaders: Abbreviation before (8. 40–41 Question mark (8.2).23–8. -yze (5.56).25). boxheads (13.12). footnotes (13. 30. 16–17 Leading: Datelines. 299 Tabular work (13.20). 299 Do.27). 225. 40 Particles (3. 304. 300 Definition (14. 289 Spacing: Abbreviations with points (9. 299–302 Bearoff (14.76). 209 Mathematical signs (10. 301–302 Leading and spacing (2.26.14–14.4).9–14.57).35–9. 230. side (2. 231. 202.101). 282 Leaderwork (14. 7–9 Jr.

112). (9.9k). 10 Looseleaf work.7).59). 100 M M.11). 11. 18. (9.14). 272 Time (12. 2. 238.112. 18.5). 22–23. 2 Avoid over 2 blank pages (1. 264 Measurement: Abbreviations (9. etc.128). 11 Signature marks.26–12.9n). “blue” folios marked (1.24).14). 13.73). converted to. 2.35).96f). 18 Parts of book (2. 334–338 Decimals (12.67–2. 207 Symbols with figures (10. 2 -ly.58). 203. 262.56–9. 271. 271 Installations. 273.. 275 Titles: Abbreviations (9. 271 Money: Abbreviations and symbols (9. 226–228 Units.56–9. 12. 18 Legislative bodies.15). 236–237 Conversion table. 356 Mathematical equations (10.9k).3e). 226 Magnification symbol (10.9f). 237.442 Index Stars (8.12).73. 9.4).13).14). 12. 10.2.29). 10 Widow lines (2.67–2. Mlle. 290 Tabular sample. 259 Legal cases: Capitalization (3. 11. 237 Latitude. 273 Fractions (12.29). 35 Marshall Islands (9.115–2.11). 279 . 12. 268 Leading (2.12).8).52. ordinals used (12.10). 10 Running heads and folios (2.12. 2 Sink (2.: Roman numerals (12. 260 Signs (10.6).70. 273 Astronomical (9. 64.57). 226 Meteorology signs/symbols (10. etc. jobs over 4 pages (1. 266 Legends (2. 339. 12. 301 Tabular work (2. 2 Footnotes: Leaderwork (14. 259 Magnitudes (9. 301 Tabular references repeated (2.29).20).8).19).58). 18.15). 325–331 Letter of transmittal (2.9b). foreign.69). etc. 271. 340 Military: Dates (8. 8. 11 Title pages (2.15). 12. imprints. 341 Million. 272–273 Symbols (9. 17 Makeup (2.62). 9–10 Roman numerals (2.11).3–2. 247–251 Medals (see Decorations). 12 Facing pages (2.60.25). 223 Time (12.28). 227–230 Market grades (3.52.18). 223.3).70). 237 Makeup (2. 259.11–14. 10 Marine Corps.68.101– 2.13). 37–38 Enlisted rank. 9–12 Backstrips.9–15. 29 Italic (11.. Meridians and base lines.98). 11 Fold-ins to be avoided (1. 213 Type (2. 262–264 Metric: Abbreviations (9.13.18).20). 304 Illustrations (2. 12. 339–341 Numerals (12. 226–230 Capitalization (3.9j). 21 Punctuation (2. longitude (9.72. 2.3). 346–347 Messrs. run down (2.8–10. (2. 24–25 Signatures. 18 Italic symbols (2.73).9b. State name with (9.79). 274 Millimeters.3.6). 21 Text (15. 280 Use of figures with (12. 341 Metric equivalents.59).51–9.9b.59.29). 235. 224.10–2.9c). 228–230 Officer rank. 278–279 Minute: Abbreviation (9. 236–237 Equivalents. words ending in (6. 10.

3. 237 Punctuation (8.15). Natives). 294 . 271 Moon (3. 279 Chemical elements (6. 261 Mark (#) (10.19).6). 224. 10. U.Index 443 Months: Abbreviations (9. 12. 278–279 Market quotations (12. 361 Note (8. 288.9b).9f). (3.23).20.21).102).19.24).60. etc. 272 Mathematical expressions (12.18).29). 12.22). 212. 225 Mr.S. 267 Number: Abbreviation (see No.4–12.9h).39). 236. 13. 225 Large numbers (12. 259. 33 Nationalities (see Demonyms).37).6. 311 Italic not used (11.9m). 38–39 Datelines (16. 276 Related numerals (12.75.11).15). 35 Signs (10.16–12. 283 Northern Mariana Islands (9. Chemical elements (10.44–9.110. 269–275 Formal writing (12. 231. 277 Fractions (see Fractions).15).12. Serial (12.9k). (3.45. 8.3). 276–279 Tabular work (13. 9.25).13). 270–274 In relation to other figures (12.8).75).5–5. 96–97 Nationalities. 226 Type (9. 106.44.5). 304 Numerals (12.16). Game scores (12.15).14). 104–105 Dates (see Dates). 27–29.9d). 8.16).20).49).32). 66. 269 Under 10 (12.43. 15. 270 Compound (6. Mrs. 272 Hearings. 273 Punctuation (8. 86–89 States. 309 With other abbreviations (9. 106. Natives: Foreign countries. etc.16).9o).12). 211–212.58). 262–264 Mount. 233. 12. 33 Newspapers: Capitalization (3.25).6).29). 281 mo (9.52. 271 Colon affecting use (12. 32. 270 Single: 10 or more (12.7). (12.17). etc. not abbreviated (9. 276 Indefinite expressions (12.38). 5.10). 347 Nouns: Capitalization (3. 277. 278 Unit of measurement. 261 Chemical formulas (6. 238. Nation. 275 Roman (see Roman numerals).33). 30–32. Nos. 270 Spelled out (12. 12. 10. 40 Compounding (6. foreign. 273 Proportion or ratio (12. 93 Nth degree (11. 270 Money (9. (3. 230 Mr. 262–264. 334.5–3.8–6.).9a–12. Decimals (12. 260 Expressed in figures (12. natives of (5.. 202.21). 332–334 Plural forms (5.2). Naval. 8. 223. 16.38). 290. 13.18. 12. 271 Degrees (12.: Abbreviation. (12. 3.23).48. 231 Not abbreviated (13. 272 Measurement and time (12. 275 Clock time (9. 227–230 Near East (3. 12.36–6..54.10.9g).8). (5.9i). 36 Navy. 270 Beginning a sentence (12. etc.53.30).37. 93–94 Nature (3. etc.17).9a). 38 N Names (see Personal names.19). 13.1–12. 273 Ordinals (see Ordinals).9l).23–5. Percentage (12. 203. 332–334 States. Chairman.107.4). (9. 272 Equations (10.8–10. 277–278 Land descriptions (9. when used (9.24).109–8. 269–280 Age (12.74. 206.22).9c). 265 No.

21. 212 Parentheses (8.43).38). 28 Abbreviation (9.5). and signatures (16.23.102).13).63). 105. 13. (11.22.45). 33–34 Outlines: Indentions (15. 15. 17 Tabular work (13.66). 12. 265 Order (3. side heads (2. 38–39 Page (3. cit.37. 307–308 Overruns (see also Indentions): Addresses. 219 Verifying numbers (8. 281 Tabular work (12. datelines. 209 Closed up (2. 42 Exclamation point (8.10). 209 Paragraph sequence (8. 106 Clauses (8. 30–32. 274–275 Leaderwork (12. longitude (9.9.63).4).444 Index Time (12. 8.59. 13.5. 221. 9–10 .9b). 268 Numbering sequence (8.45. 276 With punctuation (8.61). 274–275.13. 231 Particles (3.16). 210 Column numbers or letters (13.30). etc.3).63).27). 231 Mark (¶) (10.66). 13. 211 Not part of main statement (8.10–12. 28 Abbreviation (9. 305. 233 Congressional (9. 209 Equations (10. 211 Chemical formulas (6. 209. 30 Parts of books: Abbreviations (9. 316–319 Center.44).10).38). 208 -o.15).9). 299–300 Paragraphs (2. (3. 210.102).6).23–15. 6.22).92–13. 223. 292–293 P Pact (3. 15.38).14). 38–39 Ordered (3.11). 17 Overruns (2. 212 Type (8.22). 283 Enclose letters or figures (8. 8.108).12.93). 236.60–2.96–8. 40.98). 231 Steamships. 86 Occident. 8.94). 17 Italic letters indicating (11. 38–39 Makeup (2.9p). 281 O O.9). 13.13. 309–310. 259 Paragraphs: Brackets.16).102). 9.36–6.26). 210–211 Part (3. 254. 231–232 Capitalization (3. 274 In relation to other ordinals or numerals (12.150). 267 Ordinals (12. 18 Hanging indentions (2. 17 Indexes (15.38). 271 Office (3.38). 232–233 Latitude.39).38. more than one paragraph (8.94.9o). 260 Explanatory word (8.40). 3. 307–308 Numbering sequence (15.6). 294 Orient.9n). 275.62–2.13–3.2).23). (3. 226 Alignment in tables (13.101). Oh: Capitalization (3.56). 231 Numbers (2.91–8. and average lines (13.62–2. 289 Byline (8.94). mean.39.21. etc. 274 Vitamins (12. words ending in (5. 209–211 Abbreviations in (9.102). 294 Beginning with 10th (12.90–13.9). 16. 33–34 O’clock (9. 275 Military units (12. 235 Parts of publications (9. 2. 3.84.51).3). 3 Paragraph (3.91). 274 Street address (12. 221 Citations or references (9. 15. 3.18).108).55.38). 28 Abbreviation (9.94). 66–67 Op.31).17). 224. 13.13). 275.13. 104. 273 Unit modifiers (6.95.31).85).60–2. 28.40.102).25). 292–293 Total.5. 6.41–9.38–9. 12. 307 Palau (9.22). 209 More than one paragraph (8. 10.4. 12. 11.4). 3. railroads (9.11). 101. 305–306 Leaderwork (14. 198 Indention (2.65–2.92). 363 Paper stock (1. 274 With abbreviations (9.

converted to.9).24). 212.142).6–5. (8. 344–345 Pica conversion table. 32.110).38–3.28). 8. 282.13.6). 8.115–8. 205 Quotation marks (3.16). 213 Decimals (8.117).11).9d. 213 Letters used as names (8. 12.19). not abbreviated (9.28). 262–264. 306 Plurals: Apostrophe (8. 13. 213 To indicate thousands (8.107).9l). 15.8). 2.6–9. 262–264 Physiographic regions. 221–222 After article.112).39. 16 Place: Abbreviation (9. 30 Variations (8. 213–214 Metric abbreviations (9.16.56–9. 214. 39. U.104). 79 Mark (10.24).14). section. .105).119. 15. 212 Words and incomplete statements (8.118).113). 86 Of words (8. 341 Political parties (3.121).7). 35 Letters and figures (8. 211 Ellipses (8.13–3.23). 214 Run-in sideheads (8. 8. 36 Physics. 211 Inside-outside quotation marks (8. 348–367 Possessives and apostrophes (see Apostrophes and possessives). not abbreviated (9. 213 Omitted (8. 225 Points. 13.6).103–8.19). 9. 214. 214 Periodicals. 9.123. 68 Port.129. titles of: Capitalization (3. 8. 7–10 Personal names: Abbreviations followed (8. 9. 211 In lieu of parentheses (8.109. in indexes (15.13.3. 213 Boxheads (8.66).39.18. 304 Use of figures (12.12–9. 35 Plate (3. 9. 213.119. 30–32. 225 Symbols (8.2). 8.18). 213–214.120).3).123).78). 382–383 Credit line (8.32). 194.S.76. 222 Particles (3.29–13. 13.15).18). 217 Legends (2.45). 225 Initials set without space (9. 38–39 Italic not used (11.8).23). 223–224.114). 281 Planets (3.2). 214 Multiplication (8. 281 Ordinals (12. 13. 215–217 Point. 285 Declarative sentence (8. 88 Nouns ending in -o (5.9).38). 224. 195–196 Nouns ending in -ful (5.30).111. 231 Numbers aligned (15. 216–217 Capitalization of titles (3.122). 28 Abbreviation (9.115).41). 18. 87–88 Irregular (5. 13 Correcting (2. 215–216 Percent (5.141– 8. 225 Personification (3.39).70. 273 Period (8. 211–214 Abbreviations (8.11). 196 Poetry: Alignment and indention (8. signs and symbols (10.23– 9.Index 445 Quotation marks (8.2. 275.17). 265 Makeup (2. 225 Possessions.103).23–9. 305–306 Overruns.31).7). 207 Explanatory matter within parentheses (8. 341 Pickup matter (2.10). 214 Indirect question (8.134). 39 Congressional Record. 305–306 Roman numerals (8.32). 28 Compound words (5. 88–89 Latin names (3.115). 271.11).57).119. 214. 236–237 Middle initial not abbreviation (8.129).134). 9.13). 3.7. etc.5). 221. 211–212 Short name not abbreviation (8.23). 195–196 Coined (8. 68 Adherents (3. (9. 195–196 Common noun as part of proper name (3.

46). 9–10 Roman numerals for (2. 8..45.26). 32 Not abbreviated (9. as part of address.8–8.50–8. 221. 6.1.33–2. 311–313 Datelines (16.9–16. 2.49).34–8.11). 10 Preparing copy: Abbreviations spelled out (2.13).39). 313–319 Decimals (2.34–8. 273 Provided.75). 206 Ellipses (8.: Capitalization following (3.12.27). 13 Extracts (2.3g.41.42). 199. 14–15 Figures (2. 303–305 Heads (2.3–2. 206 Used (8. 96.13).46–3. 14 Type to indicate shape (2. symbols.12.87).85). 265 Post Office. 13. 9.47). etc.20). Number).5–16. 14–15 Sidenotes (2. 224 Public Law.33). 16 Cut-in notes (2.13). 15 Bill style (2.6). 197–198 Colon (8.42). 221 Apostrophe (8.1–15.38). 3 Puerto Rico (9. (3. 16. 13 Plurals (2.150). etc.42. 13 Addresses (16.9).46. 6. 98 Possessive (8.3.45). lit. 223.123. 198–200 Comma (8.83–8. 9. 200 Omitted (8. 206 Not used (8. 14 Prepositions (3.4).22). 15 Capitalization (2.54).13).82). 12.4). 193–219 Abbreviations: Omitted (8.32). 309 Pound mark (see Money. 200. 200–202 Dash (em) (8.22). 13 Footnotes and reference marks: Tabular work (13. 309–311 Signatures (16.24).1–8.72–8. 364 Punctuation (8. 2.60–8.3–8.15). 214. 8. 3.74–2.7. 200–204 Before and after abbreviations (8. 14 Copy kept clean (2. 194.70). 205 Used (8.56).29–6. 38–39 Not abbreviated (9. 9.68). 2.5). 321–322 Pronouns: Compounding (6.43).17–16.76–8. GPO (1. Preface (2.74–8. 193–197 Brackets (8. 267 Province (3.32.75). 16. 289–291 Text (15.18–1.19). 202–204 Used (8.29). 2. 282 When used (8. 2 Proportion (8. 40 Italic (3. and signatures (2.35–2. 18–20 Proofs: Clean (2. 204–205 Not used (8. 68 Directory of Post Offices (5. 207–208 Exclamation point (8..73). 4–5 Proofreading (2.21).3).26.32).43).59).25.38).19–8.34).36. 40 In compound nouns (6.38. 40–42 Instructions to be followed (2. 11. 107 Presidents and Vice Presidents.8).38–2. 14 Signs.72–8. (2. addresses. 15.18). 21 Department (1.37).39.41).59).446 Index Post (11.96a). (2. 177 Italic (2. 9. 13. 102–104 Metric (9. 13 Et cetera. (2.38–2.9m).49).35). 13. 195 Proofreader’s marks (1.60–8. 208 Function (8. 11 Prefixes (6. 203. 14 Datelines. 204–205 Dash (en) (8. 68 Box.31). etc. etc. 12.1).2). 15 Folioing and stamping (2.26). 93 ZIP Code numbers (8.20).12). Fol.40). 10.51. 14.23–8. 236–237 Preliminary pages (2. 196 Punctuation followed (2.66–13.69–8.19).28). 193 . 2.S.70). 11. 14 Pickup (2. 232. 40.16).84). U.35). 233 Publications (see Periodicals). 12 FIC & punc. 224.30.

47. etc. single.10–12. etc. 218 Tabular work (13. alignment (8. 216–218 Used (8. 211–213 Question mark (8.31).127–8.144).7. 215–216 Semicolon (8.19).43). 213–214 Used (8. 3.8). 16 Proofreading (2. 339.35).127–8.10). abbreviated (9.9).47). 419–432 Representative (3.45.143).124). 8.144).1–6. 217 Letters within a letter (8. 8. 215–216 Called. 95–107 Legends (2. 12. 69 Related numbers: Group (12.103–8.123).21).144). 237 Metric equivalent. so-called. 215–218 Addresses. 28 Ordinals (12.126).134). 279 Ordinals (12.125. Quart (9. self. (8. 23 Republic (3. 217 Misnomers. 38–39. (3.126).18). 214–215 Quotation marks (8. 215–218 Not used (8.115–8.149). 214–215 With quotation marks (8.112). 216 More than one paragraph (8. 218 Sentence (2. 215–216 Reports and Hearings (Chapter 20).49). 39 Comma before (8. 218 Quotation marks (8. 69 Report (3. etc. 207–208 R Railroads. 215 Direct query (8. 274–275 Religious terms (3.133).5.70. 30–32. 39. 11. 8.133. (8.128).91–8. (8.141.86–8.27. 216 Poetry. 226.78).42. 38 Queries: Department must answer (1.75–2.25).131).144). 13 Signature marks (2.123).14).148). 298 Thin space (8. 211–214 Omitted (8. 281 Reference marks (see Footnotes and references). 19 Question mark (8.17). 214–215 Closed up (8.20).124.124–8.132).34). 230 Reprint: “All roman (no italic)” exceptions (11. 216. 2 Not to be set (2.129).30). 13.126).114). 217 Punctuation with (8.35).129). 216–217 Precede footnote references (8.141. 3. 8. 8.127–8. 216 Complete letter (8.127). 215 Extracts. 12. 215 Display initial with (8.114).142). 213 Numerals (12.52). 3 Region (3. 217.130). 265 Dates (2.90). 70 With quotation marks (3. 23 Pickup (2.5).144). omitted (2. 208–209 Compounding (6.139).137).38. slang. 32 Not abbreviated (9. marked. 16 Single (8. ex-.(6. 8.133).114). (8.103–8.76–8. 267 Spacing (8. 417–432 Samples.124–8. 37.145–8.144).128). 275 Parentheses (8. 36–37. etc. 340 Quasi-. 8.126). 8. 32 . 216 Vessels (11. double (8. 103 Queen (3. Reference materials.24.102). 217 Double.113–2. 214. 215 Direct quotations (8. 202.82). 217 Scientific names (11.39.138). 200 Ellipses (8. 219 Q Quantity (see Units of quantity). 209–211 Period (8. 269–270. 8. 18.12).140).Index 447 Hyphen (8.8).33). 218 Entitled. etc.58). GPO (1.10). 214 Doubt (8. 266 Quotations: Capitalization (3.39). books. 274 Regular. 8.124).134–8. 217 Indirect quotations (8. 202.

40). 199. 200. 214 Preliminary pages (2. etc. 16. 305 Section mark (§): Footnote reference (15.32. (15. italic (11. 13.14).9). 259 -sede. etc. 274 Figure columns: Indexes and contents (15. 2 Makeup (2.45). 16. -ceed (5.27.25. 37–38 Rules in tables (2. 16. 218 Senate. 232 Italic to indicate (11.23. -cede.21). 35 Compounding (6. 8.3).62). 106 Italic (11.11. 34 2d.145–8.39). supplied (1. 275. over figure column (15. 268 Roman. 13. 293 See footnote. 213 S Sales notices (2.19). 20 Page (2. 281 Ordinals (12.15).38).31).34. (3.26–3. 267 Set in roman (11. 268 Parentheses (8. 71 Abbreviation (9.95).13).120).22). 3. 231. 303 Self-. 24 Salutation: Capitalization (3.32).88–2. 103 Semicolon (8.92–2. 3. 10 Royal titles (3. 319 Seasons (3.94).: Comma omitted before (8.13. 71 Not abbreviated (9.148). 224. 267. 293 Quotation marks with (11.14). ex-. 218 Avoid. (3. 230 Serial: Letter.147).(6.25. 71 No hyphen (6.6). 3d. 267 Reverend.29). etc. 91 See.20). 281 Not abbreviated (9. 11.4).99–2. 281 Roman numerals: Army corps (12. 71 General. 20–22 Galley (2.42–6. 312 Colon after (8. 13. (3. 15.10). etc. 232.10–12.28).9).30). 37–38. punctuation omitted (9.28).3). 16.59.6). (9. 105 Plural form (5. 230 Revising (2.29).3). 305 Roman (13.11).12).10.10–2. 305 Tabular work (13.91).42. 223 Resolution (3.8).96). 209 . 13.11). 38–39 Abbreviation (9. 36–37 Seaboard (3. 22 Rivers. 27–28 State name with (9. 281 Running heads: Copy for. etc.88–2. 230 Ordinals (12. 16. 12. 28. 42.122).10). 11 Period omitted (8. 267 Scriptures. 218 Clauses containing commas (8.4).9–11.23).11). 309 Secretary.6). 267.100).100). 230. 40 Italic (3.45.15). 20–21 Press (2.148). 199.22).35. 13.15). 304 Space after (10. 87–88 Section (3. 280 Not preferred (12.33).38. where comma will suffice (8.3).16.34). 289 List (12. 232 Caps and small caps (9. quasi. 13.98). 40.15).5). etc. 274–275 Type (9.39).11). 33–34 Seal (16. 71 Senator.448 Index Reservation (3.10).115).37).121–2.145). 312 Italic (8. 347 Road: Abbreviation (9. 218 Before summarizing matter (8. see also: Italic (11.55. 269 Period: Aligned in contents (15. 312 Scientific terms: Abbreviations. 204. 9.35). 221 Capitalization (3. 306 Not used after (8.45). 282 Resolved.39.

14). 319 v. 9. (3. 223 . Spelling (5.26). magnification (10.15).12).25). 10. crossed with. 11 Small caps: Etc. 86–89 Transliteration (5. 32.6. 231 Examples (16. (3. 203. 94 Square. 232. 12.50–9.19.1–10.3–5.11. 41 Heads spaced with regular justification spaces (2.2–10.4.115–13. 12.14). 107 Indefinite articles.8.51.33–2. 281 Ordinals (12. 314 Quoted matter (16.4. 304 Foreign money (9. 3.116). 16. 28.22–5.37).6.18).21).26). 270 Parentheses (8. 13. 91 Doubled consonants (5.29). 79–94 Anglicized and foreign words (5. 262 Symbol columns (13.9f). 9. 261 Formulas (6.27). 259.26). 98 Spacing (see Leading and spacing). -ceed. 73 State abbreviation with (9. 14 Standardized (10.44.66.8–10.14). 92 List (5. 40–41 Roman numerals (2.4).27–16. 314–315 Signs and Symbols (10. 32.60). 16 Italic inferior letters (10.16). 304–305 Sequence (15.8). State.112).19). 72 Abbreviation (9. 93 Station (3.11). 8.101–2. 313 Capitalization (3. 93 Idiomatic phrases (6. 295 ×. 267–268 Legends (2.53.21). 235–236.22). in fractions (12. 238 Italic letters (2. 262–264 Mathematical signs (10.50).2). 13.3).7). -sede (5.12–11.2). 12. 206.Index 449 Numbers: Comma omitted (8.34). 10. lowercase in legal cases (11.37). 322–324. 313–319 Preceded by dash (8. 10. 72 Someone. 92 Geographic names (5. 79–85 Nationalities (5. 259–264 Chemical: Elements (6.. 259 Preparing copy (2. 94 Plural forms (5.7–10.53).13). some one (6.13.149). 223–224 Capitals.17).14).54. 260 Proper names (3.128). 209 Session: Abbreviation (9. 3.73). 275 Coined words and symbols (8.48).28).15. 281 Stars (see Ellipses). 266 Soil orders (3. 215 In signatures (16. 305 Seal (16.41. 225. 15.16. 348–370 Counties.12–15. et al.12). 10. 10. etc. 73 Staten Island (9. 260.1–5.10).13).23). 205.72. 193–197 -cede.24). 348–370 Natives of (5. 9. 18. 42.8). 13. 279 Sign (10.52). 234 Degree mark (9.11).19).5–5.15).9).73.24.18). 219 Sink (2. 272 Equations (10. 13.47–3. 85–86 Apostrophes and possessives (8. letters used (2. 262–264 Signature marks (2. 259 Single punctuation (8.16–5.35–2. 275. 232. 22–23 Signatures: Abbreviations (9.12–9. 309 Caps and small caps (9.8). use of (5. 224. 282 Shape. 316 Signed (8.3–8.48).14–5. 28. 9. 11.43.17). 35.41. 14 Shilling mark. 106. 313 Preparation (2.18). 275 Figures used (12. 106. 18 List (10. 16.56.6).24).19). 73 Abbreviations (8. 260 Footnote references (15. 13 Punctuation (16. 260.17–16.94). 93–94 Native American words (5.15).55. 224 States (3.3).25).18).6)..23). 33. 16.20–5. 3. 195.124.19). 214.26). 282 Ordinals (9.

290.88–13. 28. 305 Italic letters (8. 11. flush entries.95–13. 265 Not abbreviated (9. 202. 199.4–13.36. 284 Decimals. etc. T Table (see also Useful Tables) (3. 10.63–13.59). 292. 286.65).15).33).12.96). 296.15).41–13. 13.85).38). 13. 301 Subheads: Indexes and contents (15. 304. 289–291 Fractions (13.104).90–13.51–13.17). 13. 288 Figure columns (13. (13. 295 . 282–283 Horizontal (13. 30–32 Symbols (see Signs and Symbols).17). 292–293 Italic (13.124) (see also Leaderwork). 103 Summation sign (10.92–13. 293 Leaders (13. 297–298 Boxheads (13.109).18–13. 292 Total.109).117.29). 15. 286 To separate nonmoney groups (13.40). 13.94). 275. 282 Leaderwork (14.31).56). 307 Leaderwork (14.23). 260 Follow inferiors (10. 38–39 Abbreviations (9. 281–298 Abbreviations (13. 285.14–13.86–13.39–13.8).18).103–13.29–13. 74 Table of contents (see Contents).26).3).97–13. 284 Ciphers (13.50).37–13. 13. 285–286.114).23).23).90–13. 289 Ditto (Do.13. 216 Supra: Italic (11. 224. 286 Dash instead of colon (13.4).14).28). No. solid in leaded tables (13.22).30–6.64). 13.1–13.66–13.94).102).25–13.20). 285. 293–294 Leading: Boxheads. 281 Ordinals (12. 13.11). 285–286 Column numbers or letters (13. 237 Chemical elements (6. 282 Street.49). 74 Sign (10. 291–292 Hairline rules (2. 13. 13. 260.450 Index Statutes.) (13. and average lines (13. 300 Suffixes (6. 292. 292. 15. 283 Continued heads (13.28).113.124). 202 Equations (10. 284 Dashes or rules (13.91.150). 12 Headnotes (13.10). 289 Footnotes and references (13. 287 Numerals (13. 235 Survey (3.53). 286–287 Closing quotes (13.12). 262–264 Superior figures and letters: Astrophysical matter (9.29–13.85).133). (3. 14 Type (8.101).67. 219 With punctuation (8.19–13.6).103–13.120).57–13.50. 299–300 Tables without rules (13. 233. 294 Parallel tables (13. 282 Centerheads.13).33.43.38). 106 Comma omitted (8.16. 73 Abbreviation (9. 14. 291 Makeup (see Makeup).17). alignment (13. 283 None (13.41).110–13.89. 282 Notes (13.8.35. 13.27.43). 295. 289 Decimals (13.9).30). Tabular Work (13.6).21). 286 Divide tables (13.87). 288 Date column (13. and subentries (13. 298 Reading columns (13. 281 Subentries (8. 294 Quoted tables (13. mean. 267 Preparing (2.91). 13. 294 Dollar mark (13.90–13. 294 Indentions and overruns (13. 260 Footnote references (13.2–14.50).29–13. 260 Sun (3.64). 35.–293 Subentries (13.45).32. 281–282 Bearoff (13.36).

339 Terrace: Abbreviation (9. 7–10 Part of book (2. 16. 348–367 Text footnotes (see Footnotes and references). see also (13. 12.12). 16 .6).23.14). 40 Title. 215–216. 9.9b. 237 Astronomical (12.41). 265 Second person (3.35– 2. 13. 428 Imprints. 292–293 Tracing figures (13. 275 Use of figures (9. 199. 13.14). 273.120). 9 Period omitted at ends of lines (8. 12.9c.115). 3.13.117–13.116). 259 Paragraph mark (10. 28. 12. 12. (3.9n). 8. mean. 30–32. 222–223 Titles: Acts (3.S.6). 40 Number mark. etc.9).3). 296–298 Total.115–13. 28.59.90–13.6).9n).9b. clean (2.28). 9.35).16. 237.69. 12. 213 U.92– 13. 3. 9. 37–38 Publications. 292.59). 219 Brackets (8.38–3.96). abbreviations (9. 13.Index 451 See. 293 Subentries (13. 35.45).28). (9. 74 Clock (12. 295 Symbol columns (13.11–3. and average lines (13.. 38 To. 259 Time: Abbreviations (9.38.107. 75 Treasury.6). 273 Title (3. 14 Composition: Correcting pickup (2.123). not used with (10.111).8). 281 Territory.2. (3. 273 Geologic. 10 Congressional back title samples: Appropriations hearing.25.25). 226–231 Compound (6.40–6. 13. 294 Type (2.6).91. 75 Title page: Back of (2. 9. 325–331 Legal cases (3.121–13. Temperature. Trade names (3. 266 Persons (3.55. 15.129. 39 Heads of state.14).12–9.29–9. 275 Capitalization. 16 Proofs.S. 39 Civil and military: Abbreviations (9.3). 38–39.3d). spacing (13. 9. not abbreviated (9. U. 259 Quotation marks (8.37).58.49). 298 Spacing (13. 284–285 Years. etc. 13. 271.9. 32. 75 Type: Boldface. (2.150). 271. 30–32. en dash for (8. 223–224. 281 Ordinals (12.17). 2. 275. 12. 13.46).37). etc. 271. 225–226. etc.31).113–2. 230 Thin space: Footnotes (13.12.109). 75 Tribunal (3. 12. The: Part of speech (3.14). 11.25.54. part of (3. 105 Plurals (5. 290.3c). 224.2).133). 23–25 Makeup (2. 312 Tracing figures (see Tabular work).47. punctuation in (8.38). 236.37).37). 343 Military (12.19).128).9b. 75 Tunnel. 304 Names (3. 87–88 Common nouns (3.39. 430 Conference report.41). 38–39.94). 206. 38–39. 284–285 Technical terms (see Scientific terms).113).150).9m.48).17). 295 To Whom It May Concern (8.53). papers. 37–38 Foreign books (3.40). (3. 11. 216 Section mark (10.9). 271. 235 Temperature conversion. 29–30. 281 Units of quantity (13. 74 Territories. 75 Treaty (3.34–3. 219 Illustrating shape and form (2.74.8). 295 Tables without rules (see also Leaderwork) (13.

270–274 Tabular work (13.37. 30 Verbs: Adverb compounds (6. 222 Spelled out (9. 13.S. 321–322 V v. 292 Headings (2.: Italic (11.. 325–331 Geologic time.S.20. 346 Military titles.23. 367 Volume (3.7). before (5. 18 Mr.7. 11. 347 Roman numerals.60). 16. capitals. 222–223.120.7). 224 Public land surveys. 12 U Under Secretary (see also Secretary).58).19). 12.3). etc. 266 Virgin Islands (9.6. (9. 32. 28.14). 96 .69).9).27).88–13.8).25). 332–334 Foreign countries. 293 Quotation marks (11. 309 Note (8. 13. capitals. 305. 13.16). 321–341 Chemical elements.27.6–11. to avoid doubling (6. 322–324 Physiographic regions. United Nations (3. 12.38. 266 Van. 217 Footnotes (15. (9. Territories): Abbreviation (9. 309 Extracts (2. metric.30).3). 11. 236–237 Vowels: A. 13. Presidents and Vice Presidents. 12. 293 Roman (11. 281 Text (2. (see Possessions. 9. cities.46–3.7).8).9–9.. 3. 299 Legends (2. 219 Datelines. 13. 22 Special typefaces (1.95).24.16).53). 303 Headnotes (2. 92 Hyphen. 40 Infinitive (3. 75 & in name (9. 203 Unit modifiers (see Compounding).S. 16.121–13. 347 Rivers. 13.23). 237 Metric (9. etc. 15. 3. 265–268 Vessels (11. 40–42 Indexes and contents (15.16–5...3). 76 Abbreviation (9.95). 223. 297. 219 Picas converted to inches. Sr. 301 Numerals (12. 75 Units of quantity: Leaderwork (14.150). 338 Useful Tables (Chapter 17). 265–266 Jr.14. 96 Capitalization (3.8.9).10.6–11. 238.123). 319 Signature marks (2. 226 Italic (11.37.89).101).9–9.12. and signatures (16. 343 Measures. 339 U. 231. 288 Parentheses (8. 3. addresses. 13.19).30. 212. 225–226 Comma omitted between name and number (8. 341 Seal (16.. 307 Italic (11.52).452 Index Dash (8. 261 Currency.10). 321–322 USD (9.150).2–16. 280 Signs and symbols. an. 16. 40 Improvised (6.13). 13. 265–266.49. 30–32.54).11).53). 339–341 Meridians and base lines.14). etc. 3.5). 334–338 Demonyms (nationalities).3). 8.138). 262–264 Temperature conversion. 281 Closed up (9.14. 266. 344–345 Postal abbreviations.48). von (3. U.9).17). 224. 226–230 Most populous U. 231. chief of state.107. 222–223 Presidents and Vice Presidents (14.7.7).56). 75 Union (3.S.28). 107 Vessels: Abbreviations (9.29– 15. 2 Tabular work (2.1)..13. 9.1–11.49). 309 Leaderwork (14. 298 U. 231. Mrs.

28.16).58).5). 340 Numerals (12. 339. 76 Ward (3. 38.1). 3. (3. 9. 79 Word division (8.57). 79. etc.3). 235 Words (see Spelling).56–9. 236–237 Metric equivalents.58).37). 91 Your Honor. 259 Yard (9. 237 Metric (9. 109 Weights: Abbreviations (9.52). crossed with. 209 Land descriptions (9. 339.2). 77.12). 236–237. 268 Webster’s Dictionary (5. 237 Metric equivalent. -ize (5.9j).21.31). 76 Web site (11. -ise. 5.22).6). 7. 340 -yze. 272–273 Widow lines (2. 77 ZIP Code numbers (8. 36. XYZ ×. GPO publication (1. magnification (10.Index 453 W War (3.56.9).1. 76. 309 . 16. 203.51.87). 225 Latitude and longitude (9. 10 Word Division.