You are on page 1of 9

THE ORIGEN OF OUR MUSIC

MIDDLE AGES

Middle Ages is the historic period between the fall of the Roman Empire (5th Century) and the late 14th Century.

In this Unit, we are going to study:


1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

Historical context. Religious vocal music: Gregorian Chant. Profane music. Medieval instruments. New polyphony: simultaneous melodies.

1. HISTORICAL CONTEXT

Social context:
1. 2.

FEUDALISM CHRISTIANITY

1. HISTORICAL CONTEXT

Cultural context:
1.

Early Middle Ages: from 5th to 9th Centuries Barbarian invasions


Late Middle Ages: from 10th to 14th Centuries artistics styles:
a. b.

2.

two

Roman (10th to 12th Centuries) Gothic (from 12th Century): first polyphonic form.

1. 2. 3.

Musical context:

Music is a nobles issue.


Monasteries and Abbeys Pope Gregory The Great Chant Gregorian

2. RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC: GREGORIAN CHANT.

Pope Gregory I

Collects the christian songs GREGORIAN CHANT

Scholae cantorum

Preserve and transmit the songs

It is a complicated music. It still plays in some abbeys and monasteries (recordings).

GREGORIAN CHANT

SCORES:

They use a sign in order to indicate the pitch of the sounds: NEUMES The place where they wrote the figures was the TETRAGRAM. The current notation is going to appear in the 12th Century.
Direct or Solo Responsorial Antiphonal Syllabic Pneumatic Melismatic

THE PERFORMANCE:

According to the intervention of the voices

According to the realation of the text and music

3. PROFANE MUSIC

MINSTREL Showmans Acrobacies To entertain Street

TROUBADOUR South of France Text and music Court, palaces Langue doil Songs of love, war

TROUVRES Similar to troubadours North of France Langue doc

MINNESANGER Germany

PROFANE MUSIC IN SPAIN:


Martn Codax from Vigo: The seven love songs Alfonso X el Sabio: The medieval poems of Saint Mary (417) Collect by Alfonso X The Wise Dedicate to the Virgin

4. MEDIEVAL INSTRUMENTS
STRING INSTRUMENTS:

CLICK HERE!!

lyre, zither, harp, lute, psaltery, tympanon.

WIND INSTRUMENTS:

Flutes: panpipes and fife. With double reed: oboe and bagpipes. Metal instruments: blugle, serpent, sacbut Mixed-wind: organ and portable organs.

PERCUSION INSTRUMENTS:

Cymbals, nqqara, darbuka, bells, and triangle.

5. NEW POLYPHONY: SIMULTANEOUS MELODIES

Polyphony = several voices


1. The

polyphony is born (9th-11th Century)

Organum: parallel movement Discantus: opposite movement

2. The

Ars Antiqua (12th 13th Century)

Composers: Leonin and Perotin. New musical forms: conductus and motet.

3. The

Ars Nova (14th Century)

Main composers: Philippe ode Vitry and Guillaume de Machaut. Ars Nova, by Philippe de Vitry: new measures.