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Third Edition

R P Jain

CHAPTER 1

1.1 (a) Analog. The output of a pressure gauge is proportional to the pressure being measured and can assume any value in the given range. (b) Digital. An electric pulse is produced for every person entering the exhibition using a photoelectric device. These pulses are counted using a digital circuit. (c) Analog. The reading of the thermometer is proportional to the temperature being measured and can assume any value in the given range. (d) Digital. Inputs are given with the help of switches, which are converted into digital signals 1 and 0 corresponding to the switch in the ON or OFF position. These signals are processed using digital circuits and the results are displayed using digital display devices. (e) Analog. It receives modulated signals which are analog in nature. These signals are processed by analog circuits and the output is again in the analog form. (f) Digital. It has only two possible positions (states), ON and OFF. (g) Digital. An electric pulse is produced for every vote cast by pressing of switch of a candidate. The pulses thus produced for each candidate are counted separately and also the total number of votes polled are counted. 1.2 (a)

(i) S1 OFF OFF ON ON (iii) S OFF ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON Bulb ON OFF Bulb OFF OFF OFF ON (iv) (ii) S1 OFF OFF ON ON S1 OFF OFF ON ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON Bulb OFF ON ON ON Bulb OFF ON ON OFF

(b) (i) S1 0 0 1 1 (iii) S 0 1 S2 0 1 0 1 Bulb 1 0 Bulb 0 0 0 1 (iv) (ii) S1 0 0 1 1 S1 0 0 1 1 S2 0 1 0 1 S2 0 1 0 1 Bulb 0 1 1 1 Bulb 0 1 1 0

(c)

(i) AND

(ii) OR

(iii) NOT

(iv) EX-OR

1.3

1 Input A 0 1 Input B 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 t(ms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 t(ms)

1 AND 0

1 OR 0

1 NAND 0

1 NOR 0

1 EX-OR 0

1.4

Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 (a) 1 0 0 0 Outputs of (b) (c) 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 (d) 0 1 1 1

The operations performed are (a) NOR (b) NAND

(c) AND

2

(d) OR

NOR (c) NAND (a) Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 (b) AND (d) OR AB 0 0 1 0 AB 0 1 0 0 Output Y 0 1 1 0 (b) EX–OR (c) A Y B 3 . 1.1.6 (a) A 0 1 Y 1 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 1 1 1 AB 1 1 1 0 Y 0 0 0 1 (c) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 For Fig. 1.7 (a) NAND.8 (a) A 0 1 Y 1 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 0 0 1 A+B Y 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 (c) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 1.5 For Fig.6 1.

On the other hand in the negative logic system. The resulting truth table is same as that of the OR gate. (a) In the truth table of positive logic AND gate replace all zeros by ones and all ones by zeros. the lower of the two voltage is designated as 1 and the higher voltage as 0. if all ones and zeros are interchanged in the truth table of the OR gate. but the results are equally valid for any number of inputs. A Y1 Y Y1 = AB and Y2 = AB B Y2 1. Therefore.(d) \ Y = AB + A B Y = AB + A B = AB ⋅ A B Y = Y = AB ⋅ AB = Y1 ⋅ Y2 where.8 For simplicity. (a) A + A B + A B = (A + A B ) + A B = A (1 + B ) + A B = A × 1 + AB = A + AB = (A + A ) (A + B) = A + B (b) AB + A B + A B = (A + A ) B + A B = B + A B = (B + A ) (B + B ) = A +B (c) A BC + A B C + AB C + ABC = A BC + A B C + AB (C + C ) = A BC + A B C + AB = A BC + A (B + B C) = A BC + A (B + B ) (B + C) 4 1. the higher of the two voltages is designated as 1 and the lower voltage as 0. the resulting truth table will be same as that of the AND gate.9 . we shall consider 2-input gates. if 1s and 0s are interchanged. In the positive logic system. (b) Repeat part (a) for NAND and NOR gates. Similarly. the logic system will change from positive to negative and vice-versa.

two 2-input AND gates. and one 3-input OR gate.= A BC + AB + AC = C (A + A B) + AB = C (A + A ) (A + B) + AB = C (A + B) + AB = AB + BC + CA 1. A A B B (i) 5 (ii) . two inverters.11 (a) The realization of LHS requires. whereas the realization of RHS requires only one two input OR gate.10 (a) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB AB 0 0 1 0 A + A B + AB 0 1 1 1 A+B 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB 0 0 0 1 AB AB AB + A B + A B 1 1 0 1 A +B 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 (c) A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A BC 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 AB C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 AB C 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ABC LHS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 AB 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 BC 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 CA 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 RHS 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1.

A B C (i) A B C (ii) 1. three 2-input AND gates and one 3-input OR gate.12 (a) AB + CD = AB + CD = AB ⋅ CD 6 . whereas the realization of RHS requires only one inverter and one 2-input OR gate.(b) The realization of LHS requires two inverters. four 3-input AND gates and one 4-input OR gate. A A B B (i) (ii) (c) The realization of LHS requires three inverters. whereas the realization of RHS requires only three 2-input AND gates and one 3-input OR gate.

If A × (B × C) = (A × B) × C. then the AND operation is associative. (ii) The left hand side of (b) is realizable by two 2-input OR gates followed by a 2-input AND gate.13 (a) A B A B Y C D (i) (b) A B A B Y C D (i) C D (ii) Y C D (ii) Y 1. 1. This can be proved by making truth table as given below: A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 (A × B) × C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A × (B × C) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 .14 (a) Since A × B = B × A Therefore. Hence an AND-OR configuration is equivalent to a NANDNAND configuration. the AND operation is commutative. while the right hand side is realizable by two 2-input NOR gates followed by another 2-input NOR gate. while the right hand side is realizable by two 2-input NAND gates followed by another 2-input NAND gate.(b) (A + B) (C + D) = ( A + B) ⋅ ( C + D ) = ( A + B) + ( C + D ) (i) The left hand side of (a) can be realized by using two 2-input AND gates followed by one 2-input OR gate. Hence an OR-AND configuration is equivalent to a NOR-NOR configuration.

A Å B = B Å A. . OR operation is commutative. A + B = B + A . = 0 (iii) Similarly. then (1 Å 1) Å 1 Å 0 Å 0 Å . the NOR operation is not associative. A + B = B + A.17 Therefore. The associative property requires A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C which can be proved by making the truth table in a way similar to the truthtable of (a) above (c) Since. = 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å . therefore. . =1 Å0=1 (ii) If only two of the variables are 1 and all others are zero. =0 Å1Å0Å0Å0Å. By making a truth table similar to the truth table of (a) above we can verify that ( A + B) + C ≠ A + ( B + C ) 1. if only three of the variables are 1. therefore. .15 (a) Since = A ⋅ B = B ⋅ A . which means A ⋅ ( B ⋅ C ) ≠ ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C This shows that the NAND operation is not associative. then (1 Å 0) Å 0 Å 0 Å . A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A ⋅ ( B ⋅ C) 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 ( A ⋅ B) C 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 (b) Since. . the NAND operation is commutative.. we prepare the truth table as given below. then (since EXOR operation is commutative and associative) (1 Å 1) Å 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å . Two possible realizations are given on page 9: (i) If only one of the variables is 1 and all others are zero. which means the NOR operation is commutative. . . . = 1 Å 0 Å 0 Å . The associative property requires (A Å B) Å C = A Å (B Å C) This can be proved by making truth table 1. . =1 8 . which means the EX-OR operation is commutative. which proves that the AND operation is associative.16 1.Since the last two columns of the truth table are identical. . (b) Since. . To verify whether the NAND operation is associative or not.. From the Table we observe that the last two columns are not identical.

19 In the same way we can try higher number of ones. The number of pins = 5 ´ 2 + 2 = 12. Two pins are required for the power supply (VCC and GND). (a) 7402 is a quad 2-input NOR gate. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. (f) 7420 is a dual 4-input NAND gate. (g) 7427 is a triple 3-input NOR gate. 000 to 11 . (d) 7410 is a triple 3-input NAND gate.17 Y AÅBÅCÅD 1. (c) 7408 is a quad 2-input AND gate. therefore.18 1. Two pins are left free (NC). . the four gates requires 3 ´ 4 = 12 pins. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. . it is packaged as 14-pin IC. (h) 7432 is a quad 2-input OR gate. Since 12-pin IC package is not used. two for inputs and one for output. (b) 7404 is a hex inverter. 9 . 111 in normal binary ascending order.A B C D AÅB AÅBÅC Y AÅBÅCÅD or A B AÅB C D CÅD Fig. . 1. It is obvious from the above discussion that Z = 1. b2b1b0 and write all combinations from 00 . Hence it is a 14-pin IC. . The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14. (e) 7411 is a triple 3-input AND gate. The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14. if an odd number of variables are 1 and Z = 0 if an even number of variables are 1. Therefore. This means there are four identical 2-input NOR gates. Take an N-bit binary number bN–1 bN–2 . Each gate requires three pins. . . The number of pins = 2 ´ 6 + 2 = 14. Since a logical variable can assume one of the two values (0 or 1) the number of possible combinations is 2N. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14.

The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14.55V = 0 Inputs A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 AND Y1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 OR Y2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Output NAND Y3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 NOR Y4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1. A B C Y or A B C Logic 1 (b) A B C Y or A B C Logic 0 (c) A B C Y or A B C Logic 1 (d) A B C Y or A B C Logic 0 10 Y Y Y Y .75V = 1 –1. (a) (i) 7408 and 7432 (ii) 7400 (b) (i) 7432 and 7408 (ii) 7402 Logic Circuit A 0.22 1.4V = 0 2V = 1 Logic Circuit B –0.1.23 (a) Yes.21 (i) 7486 is a quad EX-OR gate.20 1.

24 1.25 1. AND — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 0 OR — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 1 NAND — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 0 NOR — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 1.26 1. (a) Active-high (b) Active-low (c) Active-high (d) Active-low (a) Active-low (b) Active-high (c) Active-low (d) Active-high (a) A B Y C Y = A × B × C = (A × B) × (C) (b) A B Y C Y = A + B + C = (A + B) + (C) (c) A B AB Y C AB C Y = A ⋅ B ⋅ C = ( A ⋅ B) + C = ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C = A⋅ B⋅C (d) A B C 11 Y .27 Yes.1.

28 (a) A Å B = A B + A B A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB = A Å B (b) A ⊕ B = AB + AB A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB (c) B Å (B Å AC) = B Å B Å AC = 0 Å AC = AC 12 .1.

2 (a) = 0.0011 = 1 ´ 23 + 1 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 + 0 ´ 2–1 + 0 ´ 2–2 + 1 ´ 2–3 + 1 ´ 2–4 = 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 0 + 0.25 + 0.0625 = (13.125 + 0.875)10 Quotient Remainder 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Thus (37)10 = (100101)2 Similarly.625)10 (g) 0.125 = (10.11100 2.5 + 0.1010 = 8 + 2 + 0. (b) (255)10 = (11111111)2 (c) (15)10 = (1111)2 13 37 2 18 2 9 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 18 9 4 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 .1875)10 (f) 1010.125 = (0.CHAPTER 2 2.1 (a) 111001 = 1 ´ 25 + 1 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 0 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 = 32 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (57)10 (b) 101001 = 1 ´ 25 + 0 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 0 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 = 32 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (41)10 (c) 11111110 = 1 ´ 27 + 1 ´ 26 + 1 ´ 25 + 1 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 1 ´ 22 + 1 ´ 21 + 0 ´ 20 = 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 0 = (254)10 (d) 1100100 = 64 + 32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 = (100)10 (e) 1101.5 + 0.

(d) Integer part: (26)10 = (11010)2 Fractional part: 0.25 0.5 ´2 ´2 0.5 1.0 ¯ ¯ 0 1 Therefore, (26.25)10 = (11010.01)2 (e) Integer part: (11)10 = (1011)2 Fractional part: 0.75 0.5 ´2 ´2 1.5 1.0 ¯ ¯ 1 1 Thus (11.75)10 = (1011.11)2 (f) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.8 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1... Thus, (0.1)2 = (0.00011001)2 The process may be terminated at the required number of significant bits. 2.3 (a) 1 1 1 1 0 0 ¬ Carry 1 1 0

1 0 +1 1 1 1 0 Final carry (b) 1 1 + 1 0 Final carry 2.4 (a) 01000 –01001 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

1 0. 1. 0.

1 1 0 0 1 1 0

¬ Carry 0 0 1 1

01000 + 10111 (2’s complement) 11111 Since the MSB of the sum is 1, which means the result is negative and it is in 2’s complement form. 2’s complement of 11111 = 00001 = (1)10 Therefore, the result is –1.

14

(b)

(c)

01100 Þ 01100 –00011 + 11101 (2’s complement) 101001 = + 9 Ignore 0011.1001 Þ 0011.1001 –0001.1110 +1110.0010 (2’s complement) 10001.1011 = + 1.6875 Ignore Quotient

375 8 46 8 5 8

2.5 (a)

Remainder 7 6 5 6 7

46 5 0

5 Therefore, (375)10 = (567)8 = (101110111)2 (b) Quotient Remainder 249 31 1 8 31 3 7 8 3 0 3 8 3

7

1

(c)

2.6 (a)

(b) (c)

Therefore, (249)10 = (371)8 = (011111001)2 Integer part: (27)10 = (33)8 = (011011)2 Fractional part: 0.125 ´8 1.000 ¯ 1 Thus (0.125)10 = (0.1)8 = (0.001)2 Therefore, (27.125)10 = (33.1)8 = (011011.001)2 11 011 100.101 010 = (334.52)8 (334.52)8 = 3 ´ 82 + 3 ´ 81 + 4 ´ 80 + 5 ´ 8–1 + 2 ´ 8–2 = (220.65625)10 01 010 011.010 101 = (123.25)8 = (83.328125)10 10 110 011 = (263)8 = (179)10

15

2.7 (a)

375 16 23 16 1 16

Quotient 23 1 0

Remainder 7 7 1

1 7 7 Therefore, (375)10 = (177)16 (or 177H) = (0001 0111 0111)2 (b) Quotient Remainder 249 15 9 16 15 0 15 16 F 9 Therefore, (249)10 = (F9)16 (or F9H) = (1111 1001)2 (c) Integer part: Quotient Remainder 27 1 11 16 1 0 1 16 1 B Thus (27)10 = 1BH Fractional part: 0.125 ´ 16 2.000 ¯ 2 \ (0.125)10 = 0.2H \ (27.125)10 = (1B.2)16 = 1B.2H = (00011011.0010)2 2.8 (a) 1101 1100.1010 10 = (DC.A8)16 (DC.A8)16 = 13 ´ 161 + 11 ´ 160 + 10 ´ 16–1 + 8 ´ 16–2 = (220.65625)10 (b) 0101 0011.0101 01 = (53.54)16 = (83.328125)10 (c) 1011 0011 = (B3)16 = (179)10 2.9 For each decimal digit write its natural BCD code (a) 46 = 0100 0110 (BCD) (b) 327.89 = 0011 0010 0111.1000 1001 (BCD) (c) 20.305 = 00100000.0011 0000 0101 (BCD) 2.10 For each decimal digit write its 4-bit Excess-3 code. (a) 46 = 0111 1001 (Excess-3) (b) 327.89 = 0110 0101 1010.1011 1100 (Excess-3) (c) 20.305 = 0101 0011.0110 0011 1000 (Excess-3)

16

From Table 2. the code for l is 0101110 which has four ones.11 Starting from 4-bit Gray code given in Table 2.9) R. JAIN = 11011001 01001011 11010111 01001011 11010001 11000001 11001001 11010101 (c) Write the 6-bit internal code for each character (See Table 2. JAIN = 1010010 0101110 1010000 0101110 1001010 1000001 1001001 1001110 (b) Write the 8-bit EBCDIC code for each character (See Table 2. 0 1 2 : : 13 14 15 16 17 18 : : 29 30 31 G4 0 0 0 : : 0 0 0 1 1 1 : : 1 1 1 G3 0 0 0 G2 0 0 0 : : 0 0 0 0 0 0 G1 0 0 1 G0 0 1 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 Decimal No.9) R. Therefore. we obtain 100111 001011 000011 101100 101000 2. form 6-bit Gray Code as given in Table 2.2. Table 1 Decimal No.P.10) R.9). 17 . which has three ones. Therefore. 0 1 2 0 : 17 : 30 31 32 33 : 46 : 62 63 G5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G4 0 0 0 Table 2 G3 0 0 0 G2 0 0 0 G1 0 0 1 G0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Similarly. a 0 is to be attached as MSB and the resulting 8-bit code with even parity will be 00101110.8 formulate 5-bit Gray code as given below in Table 1. For example.12 Writing the 6-bit code for each character (See Table 2. the ASCII code for R is 1010010.14 (a) Count the number of ones for every character from ASCII table and attach a 1 or 0 as the MSB for odd or even number of ones respectively. JAIN = 101001 011011 100111 011011 100001 010001 011001 100101 2. a 1 is to be attached as MSB and the resulting 8-bit code with even parity will be 11010010 Similarly.P.P.13 (a) Write the 7-bit ASCII code for each character (See Table 2. we obtain (46)10 = 111001 (Gray Code) 2.

5.18 Consider the following examples: (i) 7 0111 Þ 0111 –3 –0011 + 1100 (1’s complement) 4 10011 1 End-Around Carry (EAC) 0100 = 4 (ii) 3 0011 Þ 0011 –7 – 0111 + 1000 (1’s complement) –4 1011 = –4 in 1’s complement form From the above examples the rules of subtraction can be summarized as: (a) Add ones complement of the subtrahend to the minuend. R = 11010010 = D2 H and l = 00101110 = 2EH for even parity and R = 01010010 = 52H and l = 10101110 = AEH for odd parity. 2. if binary to hexadecimal conversion is used. 8 bits are required to encode 130 elements of information.5. the result is negative and it is in one’s complement format.3. the minimum number of bits required to encode 56 elements of information is 6. For example. Decimal digit 9 Position BCD odd parity for 1. (b) 27 < 130 < 28 Therefore. 2.19 100 ´ 20 ´ 8 bits.15 (a) Attach 0 or 1 as MSB to make the number of ones odd. 2. 8-bit ASCII code for R with odd parity is 01010010 (b) Repeat part (a) for EBCDIC code.6. (b) Repeat part (a) for EBCDIC code.16 (a) Since. the resulting format will be hexadecimal. 25 = 32 and 26 = 64. the result is positive (d) If the MSB of the sum is 1.7 requires p1 = 1 odd parity for 2. 2.In a similar way parity bit can be attached to every character. (b) If a carry is produced.20 132 ´ 7 bits.3. add end-around carry (EAC) (c) If the MSB of the sum is 0.7 requires p3 = 1 ® 1 p1 : : : 1 : 1 : 1 2 p2 : : : : : 1 : 1 18 Hamming Code 3 4 5 n1 p3 n2 1 : : 1 : 1 : 1 : : : : : : : 0 0 : : 0 : 0 : 0 6 n3 0 : : 0 : 0 : 0 7 n4 1 : : 1 : 1 : 1 . 2. therefore. For example.7 requires p2 = 1 odd parity for 4. 2.17 In the 8 bit ASCII code with the parity bit.21 Let us consider the BCD code for 9 and find out its Hamming code for error correction. 2.6.

Decimal digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Position ® 1 p1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 p2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 Hamming code 3 4 5 n1 p3 n2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 6 n3 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 7 n4 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 19 . Similarly. Hamming code is determined for each BCD digit and the complete sequence is given below. Hamming code for decimal digit 9 is 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.Therefore.

2 (a) Using the V-I relation of the diode.. whereas at room temperature some of the covalent bonds break away resulting in small conductivity.1 (a) The number of covalent bonds breaking away increases with temperature.232 mA Percent change = 5. dQ =0 dt 20 .693 mV » 36 mV Since.73 mV 3. we obtain and » I0 exp (V1/hVT) I2 = 2I1 » I0 exp (V2/hVT) I1 2 = exp (V2 – V1/hVT) (3.5 (a) The circuit will be under steady-state at t = 20ms. we obtain I1 » I0 exp (700/hVT) and \ or (b) I2 » I0 exp (750/hVT) I2/I1 = exp (50/2 ´ 26) = 2. 232 − 2 × 100% 2 = 161.6% 3. (b) All the covalent bonds are intact at 0 K and hence there are no free charge carriers. This results in a decrease in the mobility and hence resistivity increases with temperature.2). V2 – V1 = hVT 1n 2 = 2 ´ 26 ´ 0.1) and (3. (3.3 From the V–I relation of the diode.1) (3.2) From Eqs.14% 3. V1 = 700 mV Therefore.4 I2 = 10 = e {(V2 – V1)/2 ´ 26} I1 or V2 – V1 = 52 1n 10 = 119.CHAPTER 3 3. whereas in a metal an increase in the temperature results in a greater thermal motion of the ions. which decreases the resistivity of the semiconductor material. and hence decreases the mean free path of the free electrons.e.616 I2 = 2.616 ´ 2 = 5. i. V2 = 700 + 36 = 736 mV Percentage change = 736 − 700 × 100% 700 or (b) = 5. 3.

099 ms (c) The various waveforms are given below. The recovery time constant tR = RCO = 10 ´ 103 ´ 10 ´ 10–12 = 0. VR = 5 = 0. we obtain Q = – 0. \ V1 R = 10 = 1mA 10 Q =I t Q = 1 ´ 10–6 ´ 10–3 = 10–9 C (b) The diode will turn off when excess minority charge has been removed.∴ I1 ≈ Since. 5 × 10 −3 dt τ IR ≈ Solving this with initial condition Q(0) = 10–9 C (part (a)).5 ´ 10–9 + 1.7V 0 -5V Id 1 mA 0 -0.5 ´ 10–9 e–t Set Q = 0 for cut-off \ t = 1. 5 mA R 10 The differential equation is dQ Q + = − 0.5 mA Excess Q Minority Charge 0 0 t 1.099 ms 21 t tR t t tR t .1 ms Vi V1 = 0V 0 -V2 = -5V Vd 0.

7kW. sat (= 0. Then the base and collector voltages will be VBE.. the transistor will continue to be operating in the saturation region.1 ≈ 2 mA 3 The current IB remains same as in part (a). 3 £ 127.6 (a) Since the E-B junction is forward-biased. Let us assume that the transistor is operating in the saturation region. now IC < hFEIB which means the transistor is certainly operating in the saturation region.e.7 kW. Therefore.27 kW 22 . Hence it is conducting in the active region. therefore the transistor cannot be in saturation. with VCC = 6V. 8 = 21 µA 200 = hFE IB = 21 ´ 100 = 2. Therefore. 1 = 3.8 V) and VCE.1 mA Since IC>hFE IB.7 kW \ The value of Rc just sufficient for saturation will be 4.3. sat (= 0.1 V) respectively. sat RB = 10 − 0. (b) The value of RC required for the transistor to be in saturation is given by IC = VCC − VCE . sat RB 5 − 0. 1 kW 2. 1 ³ 4. therefore. It may either be operating in the active region or in the saturation region. the collector current IC and the base current IB are given by IC = and IB = VCC − VCE . the transistor is conducting (i. (c) The value of RB required to drive the transistor into saturation is given by IC ≤ h FE × or RB ≤ 100 ⋅ ≤ h FE I B V BB − V BE . IC is flowing). let us again assume that the transistor is operating in the saturation region. ⋅ 6 − 0. sat RC V BB − V BE . 33 mA 3 5 − 0. 8 kW 3. Therefore. If the value of RC used is more than 4. sat RC or RC ≥ 10 − 0.

The value of RB just sufficient to drive the transistor into saturation will be 127.25 V Therefore. sat RB ⋅ h FE R B VCC − V CE. 53 IC + 50 IB = 4. the voltage VBB £VBE.5 V (b) For active region operation VCE − VCE . hFE (min) = R ⋅ V C BB − V BE . sat RB ⋅ h FE or. sat RC ≤ V BB − V BE .3 3. sat or. the range of VBB for active region is 0. 8 = 233. 3.7 (a) For the transistor to be in the cut-off region. the transistor will be driven deeper into saturation. sat 5 − 0. sat + RE (IC + IB) = VBB Substituting the values. 1 = 200 ⋅ 1 5 − 0. we obtain. sat RC h FE 5 − 0.27 kW. Writing KVL equations for the collector and base circuits. 8 2 100 < 3. RCIC + VCE. cut–in £ 0. VBB < R B VCC − VCE . sat RC ≥ V BB − V BE .25 V (c) The range of VBB for saturation region is VBB ³ 3.25 V 3.1 < 100 ⋅ + 0. sat ⋅ + V BE .8 23 . sat + RE (IC + IB) = VCC and RBIB + VBE.5 V < VBB < 3.9 Assume the transistor to be in saturation. If a smaller value of RB than the value calculated above is used.8 For the transistor to be in saturation VCC − VCE .

2 Solving these equations.43 ´ 10–4 mA \ IC = hFE IB = 8.7 V in the active region.sat = 5V = 2. the voltages at B change with the time constant Ci (RB||Ri) If a capacitor C is connected across RB. hence the transistor is not in saturation.43 ´ 10–2 mA and IE » –8. 3.05 V 24 .096 mA and IB = –6. This helps in improving the switching speed of transistor circuit. IB = 8. 5 µA 100 \ The minimum value of Vi required for the load transistors to be in saturation is Vi(min) = 25 ´ 10–3 ´ 10 + 0. IC = 0.8 = 1.11 (a) For the load transistors IC.7 or. KVL for the base circuit will be [RB + (1 + hFE) RE] IB = 5 – 0.and 50 IC + 100 IB = 4. the voltage at B will change as soon as Vi changes because of the capacitive voltage divider.sat = IB. given below: C + Vi – Equivalent circuit at the transistor input B RB Ri Ci When fast changes occur in Vi.10 The equivalent circuit at the input of a transistor consists of input resistance Ri in parallel with the input capacitance Ci as shown in Fig.214 mA Since IB comes out to be negative. 5 mA = 2. Assuming VBE = 0.5 mA 2 kW 2.43 ´ 10–2 mA 3.

(c) Assume T1 to be cut-off and T2 to be in saturation.(b) Assuming the load transistors to be in saturation the equivalent circuit at their input will be as shown in Fig. the transistor is definitely in saturation. IC = 5 = 5 mA. 042 mA 1 100 hFE IB = 150 ´ 0. 5 − 0.3 mA 3. 3. I B = = 0. Now. æ VCC ö the voltage at Y will be 0 V.8 V 10 kW Vi 0.8 V 10 kW 0. if T1 is in saturation and T2 is cut-off then IC1 = I1 + I2 (d) V1 0V 0V 5V 5V V2 0V 5V 0V 5V Y 5V 0V 0V 0V It performs NOR operation. there is no current drawn from the supplies. and the voltage at Y is 5 V. (b). therefore.13 (a) Assume the transistor to be in saturation. 8 Therefore. 8 mA 10 = 0.042 = 6.8 5+2 5+2 (c) The base current IB1 = I B2 = 3. the voltage at Y is 0V. Since T2 is in saturation. which reduces to the circuit shown in Fig. 25 . the voltage Vi = VO can be determined using the principle of superposition and is given by Vi = VO = = 3. The currents I1 and I2 will be same ç = è RC ÷ ø and IC2 = I1 + I2.8 V (a) (b) Vi 5 kW 0.12 (a) When both the transistors are cut-off. Similarly. 8 − 0. (a).3 mA Since IC < hFE IB.8 V 5 2 ´5+ ´ 0. (b) When both the transistors are in saturation.

it is conducting in the active region. total base current will be 25 ´ 100 mA. Therefore. Therefore.16 The effective resistance = RC || RC = 2 26 .075 = 6.075 mA Since IC < hFE ⋅ IB Therefore.15 Now IC <hFE⋅IB Which means the transistor no longer remains in saturation.7/4) = 1.(b) When S1 is closed. Therefore.15 Let T1 be cut-off. This requires the base current to be doubled for the transistor to remain in saturation. the load transistors will not remain in saturation. if we again assume the transistor to be in saturation. the total resistance in the collector circuit of T2 is RC || RC = RC/2 which means its collector current increases. 3. Therefore. Hence. the transistor will be operating in the active region. (c) When both S1 and S2 are closed. the voltage at its collector will be VO = 5 – 2 ´ 103 ´ 25 ´ 100 ´ 10–6 =0 Which shows that it is not possible to have a base current of 25 mA for each of the load transistor. IC = I + I1 = 5 + 1. the transistor continues to remain in saturation.075 mA assuming the transistor to be in saturation.14 The base current required for each transistor to be in saturation is 25mA. I C = I + I1 + I2 = 5 + 2 ´ 1. If this current flows through RC of driver. 3. I1 = (5 – 0.075 = 7. RC 3. the circuit will be as shown below: VCC RC T1 VCC RC T2 Now. Therefore.

the v-i characteristic of the load is that of part (a). the VDS VS ID characteristic will be same as the characteristic for VGS = 0 in Fig. V 27 . 3. therefore. (b) Transistor T2 acts as load for T1. Therefore.41(b).28. the voltage. we get a load curve AB as shown below. and Vi = 5V. 3.RC ⋅ CO 2 3. VO = 5V VO » 0V Therefore. for a given value of ID. Calculate VDS1 and locate a point corresponding to VDS1. mA Load curve 4 3 2 1 0 A 0 5 10 B VGS = 5 V 4 V 3 V 2 V 1 V VDS. From this we see that when Vi = 0. the time constant = VDS1 = VDD – VDS2 Take various values of ID and for each ID determine VDS2 from the curve of (a). Since the current ID is same in both T1 and T2. the circuit functions as an inverter. therefore. Thus. ID.17 (a) Since VGS = 0. ID on the characteristic of Fig.

Alternatively.578 mW = 16. 6 − 1. 844 + 5.1 When the output of the driver gate is high.1 0. 312 = 2 2 = I av = = 4.2 (a) & (b) hFE = 10 N 5 6 7 8 9 10 VO 1. hence Y = Y1 = Y2 = 1 Corresponding to this.04 <1.015 Load gate transistors not in saturation ’’ ’’ VO 1.6 ´ 4.05 0.CHAPTER 4 4.14 1.2V.3 (a) Let us consider all the possible cases: Case I A = B = C = D = 0. and TD are cut-off.997 0. T1 and/or T2 are in saturation and VO = 0. (d) For hFE = 10. The current drawn from the supply I2 = Average current 3. TB. The value of noise margin decreases with increased N. 312 mA 640 I1 + I 2 3. each gate will be able to drive 5 gates. Therefore. 14 = = 3.14V. VO = 1. 844 mA 640 RC when the output of the driver is low.984 hFE = 20 Noise Margin D1 0. I1 = VCC − VO 3. Therefore. the load gates are in saturation and T1 and T2 are cut-off. (c) Fan out and noise margin increases with increase in hFE.09 1. The current drawn from the supply. we can consider 28 . Therefore. 4.055 1.48 mW 4.064 The voltage VO and noise margin D1 are given in Table. the fan-out of this combination will be 10.09 1.077 0.17 0.026 0. 2 = 5.106 0.135 0. TC.22 0. all the transistors TA.04 Noise Margin D1 0.055 <1. the load gate transistors come out of saturation.04 <1. if N > 7.14 1.578 mA Average Power drawn from the supply = VCC ´ Iav = 3. 6 − 0.

for low output IL = 5. Case IV A = B = 0 and at least one of the inputs to gate Q is LOW. With wire-ANDing. RB is the resistance in the base circuit of a load gate.96 mW 4. Ci is the input capacitance of a load gate. N is the number of load gates. the current drawn from the supply is IH = 3. The transistor whose input is HIGH will be driven to saturation forcing the output voltage to LOW. (b) Without load gates. the fan-out is 10.equivalent collector resistance R¢C = RC || RC = RC/2. Therefore. Therefore. The state of transistor T2 29 . This will drive the corresponding transistors into saturation and consequently Y = Y1 = Y2 will be LOW and hence the load transistors will be cut-off.4 (a) This circuit has active pull-up (consisting of T2 and 100 W resistor) instead of passive pull-up RC used in normal RTL gates. 4. Case II At least one of the inputs of each gate P and Q are HIGH. This will lead to a situation similar to that of Case III.1) When the output is high.156 mA Power drawn from the supply = 3. With load gates. Y = Y1 = Y2 will be LOW and this situation is similar to that of Case II. the propagation delay time-constant = RC ⋅ 2C O 2 = RC ⋅ CO which is same as the propagation delay time-constant of a single gate. Case III At least one of the inputs to gate P is HIGH and C = D = 0. the propagation delay time-constant for a single driver (without wired-logic) is RB æ ç RC + N è ö ÷ × ( CO + NCi ) ø where.156 mW = 32. the timeconstant will be æ RC RB ç 2 + N è ö ÷ × (2 CO + NCi ) ø (see Prob. there is no problem of fan-out. which means the base current of 5 + 5 load transistors can flow through R¢C and give same output voltage corresponding to logic 1 as the output voltage of each gate individually while driving 5 load gates.312 ´ 2 mA \ Iav = 9.844 ´ 2 mA Similarly. Consequently.6 ´ 9.

T2 is in saturation (since T1 is cut-off) and vice-versa.6 V) 640 W 450 W IB 100 W T2 IO 450 W/N P VBE.6 ´ç ê2 ÷ ú ³ 100 + 450/ N 1090 ê N è 100 + 450/ N ø ú ë û From the above equation. we obtain VCC – 1090 IB – VBE. Prob. The output voltage VO will be HIGH. 30 .IB ³ IO \ öù 30 é 450 æ 2.6 1 é ê 3. sat » 0. 4. sat − V BE. 6 100 + 450 / N = = Writing KVL for the closed path P. VCC(3. N ³ 3 since N is an integer. while T2 is cut-off and VO = VCE. 4. when the input Vi is HIGH.8 ç 100 + 450/ N ÷ ú 1090 ê N è øú ë û For T2 to be in saturation hFE.5. sat 100 + 450 / N 3.6 . i.8 . 6 − 0.e. Therefore.6 2.sat » 0 V.0.will always be opposite to that of T3. sat − or IB = 450 I – VBE. T3 will be in saturation. (b) If it is driving N load gates. we obtain N ³ 2. Therefore. Prob.4(a).. 2 − 0. the output circuit corresponding to HIGH state will be as shown in Fig. When Vi is LOW. sat = 0 N O öù 450 æ 2. T2 is in saturation and T3 is cut-off.0.4(a) IO = VCC − VCE .8 V Equivalent input circuit of load gates Fig. if T3 is cut-off. 8 100 + 450 / N 2.

5 (a) When all the inputs are HIGH the voltage at the point P will be Vp = 0. ∴ I1 = 31 . IO = 2. (c) The relevant portion of the circuit is shown in Fig.16 = 0.54 mA This will increase the fan-out to 17. 6 − 0. but the noise margin D0 will be reduced from 0.2 V.8 V to 0.7 – 0.4(b). I1 = I2 = . Here T3A and T2B are in saturation. = IN. 4. 2 100 = 32 mA VCC = 3. 4. Neglecting the base currents IE2B = I C 3 A = 3. Prob. .4(b) 4. 7 mA 5 and IB = 0. Therefore. 5 − 1. which means N can be taken as 70.8 + 0.6 V 100 W T2A IC3A A = 1 T3A T3B T2B 100 W IE2B B = 0 Fig. whereas T2A and T3B are cut-off.7 = 1.5 volts. 6 = N ⋅ I1 100 + 450 / N The values of I1 for various values of N are given in Table Table N1 30 40 50 60 70 I1 (mA) 750 585 480 403 349 The base current required for saturation for a normal RTL is about 300 mA.Since. 2 − 0 . . 5 = 0. Prob. which is very large.

IL = 0.4 or hFE » 26 4. but the noise margin D0 will be increased to 1. This collector current must be same as the collector current of the single gate driving N gates which is given by NIL + I¢1 \ NIL + I¢1 = N¢IL + MI¢1 VCC(5 V) I¢1 RC T1 Y1 Y P1 IL VCC(5 V) R VCC RC T2 I¢1 Y2 IL P2 VCC R VCC RC TM I¢1 YM IL VCC R PN¢ M Gates wire-ANDed Fig.82 mA Assuming T1 to be in saturation.7 shows the relevant portion of the circuit.7 The Fig.6 For a fan-out of 10.182 = hFE ´ 0. which means the input diodes of all the load gates driven from this combination are conducting.(b) In this case VP = 0.7 32 N¢ Load gates .4 V. 4. Prob. N¢ is the fan-out with the wire-ANDed connection.sat » 0. the collector current of T1 is given by.82 ´ 10 + 2. and IB = 0. The worst condition corresponds to the situation when the output transistor of one of the driving gates is in saturation and all others are cut-off.7 ´ 3 = 2. Prob.9 V \ I1 = 0.8 + 0. Corresponding to this the output voltage at Y is VCE. 0. 4. 4.2 V.42 mA.26 mA This will reduce the fan-out to 6. N¢ IL + MI¢1 where. Assuming all the other inputs of load gates to be HIGH.

093 N + 2. which keeps T1. (a) When all the inputs are HIGH.sat R1 + R 2 = \ 5 − 0. the assumption that T1 is in saturation is inconsistent. T1 will be in active region and T2 in saturation region.383 mA Standard load = VCC − V D − VCE. and T2 cut-off. 093 mA 1. therefore. VP = 0. the corresponding input diode conducts and therefore. and I1 = 1. 2 = 1.66 (M – 1) 4.7 + 0. Hence Y = 1.7 + 0. If we assume that the transistor T1 is in saturation. D2. 7 − 0. sat = 1. sat = 0. Hence Y = 0.7 + 0.8 + 0.3 V The voltage at the collector of T1 = VCE. This shows that the circuit operates as a NAND gate. sat + VD + VBE. VBE has been assumed to be 0. sat = 0. Therefore.543 mA.7 + 0. 82 = N – 2.543 – 0. 78 µA 1.9 V.7 V Since the voltage at P is higher than the voltage at the collector of T1. 75 + 2 VCC − VCE .182 RC 33 IC2 = N ⋅ I L + . 75 × 31 + 2 V BE 2 . 4. 2 × 10 3 = 49. In fact when T1 is conducting. I2 = IB2 = I1 – I2 = 1.8 When all the inputs are HIGH.8 = 2. the voltage drop across R2 will reverse-bias the C-B junction of T1 and therefore T1 will definitely be operating in active region. 182 0. Hence T1 is in active region. then VP = VBE.2 + 0. sat = 0. the input diodes are non-conducting. If all the inputs are HIGH.16 mA. VP = VBE1 + VD + VBE3.8 = 1.9 If any input is LOW. the input diodes will be nonconducting.16 = 1.7 V in active region. VCC – VP = R1I1 + R2IB1 Also I1 = (1 + hFE) IB1 IB1 = 5 − 2. IB1 cannot exist. sat 5 = 0.8 = 2. sat + VD + VBE.2 V Here.or N¢ = N – (M – 1) I¢1/IL = N – (M – 1) 2.

4 V The 1 level noise margin = D1 = Vg + VZ + Vg – VP = 0. T1 will be conducting in active region. IC2 £ hFE IB2 or. the power P (1) = I1 ´ Vcc = 1.465 mW The average power Pav = = P ( 0 ) + P (1) 2 18.8 = 8.625 mW When the output is HIGH.4 V (c) When the output is LOW.4 – 0. VP = VBE.12.093 N + 2.9 V Corresponding to this T1 and T2 will be nonconducting.182 £ 30 ´ 1. the power P (0) = (I1 + I¢1) VCC = (1. Zener will be in the breakdown region and T2 in saturation. sat = 0.383 or. Writing KVL from VCC to VP.5 + 0. VP = 8.5 – 0. VP = V (0) + VD = 0.For T2 to be in saturation. Therefore. 465 = 12 . 045 mW 2 4. When all the inputs are HIGH. VCC – VP = R1 (1 + hFE) IB1 + R2 IB1 34 . the fan-out of this gate is 35 which is much higher than the fanout of the DTL gate of Fig.5 + 6.9 = 0.6)] = – 7.9 =7V The 0 level noise margin = D0 = – [V (1) – (VP – VDg)] = – [15 – (8.2 + 0.9 + 0.5 – 0. N < 36 Therefore.4 V. 625 + 5.6) = – 3.10 (a) When at least one of the inputs is LOW.2 – 0.9 + 0.7 V D0 = –V(1) + (VP – VDg) = – 5 + (2. active + VZ + VBE. 1.7 + 6. 4.2 V (b) When all the inputs are HIGH.7 = 0.6 + 0.093 ´ 5 = 5.543 + 2.182) ´ 5 = 18. (b) Noise margins D1 = 0.

0489 = 2.004 – 0. 4 = R1 (1 + h FE ) + R 2 3 ( 41) + 12 = 0. 675 mA 4 VC2 = 0. Hence the temperature sensitivity of the HTL gate is significantly better than that of the DTL gate. the temperature sensitivities of these two junctions cancel. 9867 mA 15 The load current IL = 0.95 N £ 40 ´ 1.8 = 2.94 mA. VB1 = 0. I¢1 = 0.11 IL = 0.2 = 1V Current through RC2 = 5 −1 = 2. D2 is replaced by the Zener diode.13 (a) When the output is LOW.16 = 1.94 ´ 15 = 14.004 + 0. the temperature sensitivity of the circuit depends on the temperature sensitivities of D2 and the base-emitter junction of T2. Therefore.7 + 0. therefore.8 + 0. therefore.9867) ´ 15 = 44.0489 mA The current through Zener diode. 4 35 . 4. 8 = 0.9867 mA N¢ = N – (M – 1) I¢1/IL = N – 1.12 The noise margins depend upon temperature because the voltage across a conducting diode and VBE are temperature dependent.48 mW 4.8 + 0. The input diode and the base-emitter junction of T1 are in polarity opposition. Since the temperature sensitivity of a Zener diode is positive whereas for a forwardbiased diode it is negative.844 or. Therefore.95 mA \ IC2 = 0.1 mW \ Pav = 29. (c) N £ 76 P(0) = (I1 + I¢1) ´ VCC = (2. 3 = 0 .03 (M – 1) 4.004 mA \ IB2 = I1 – I2 = 2. In HTL. Base-collector junction of T1 is forward-biased T2 and T3 are in saturation.9867 + 0.or. 857 mA 1. the temperature sensitivities of Z and the base-emitter junction of T2 cancel (their magnitudes are of the same order).3 V Current through RB1 = 5 − 2.86 mW P(1) = I1 ´ VCC = 0.844 mA The current through RC = 14. IB1 = VCC − V P 15 − 8. I1 = 41 ´ 0.

532 mA (b) At least one of the inputs is LOW. therefore. both T3 and T4 will be conducting simultaneously for some time which will cause almost short circuiting of the VCC supply. \ VB1 = 0.857 = 3.36 = 42.675 + 2.11 = 1. 7 = 2.9 T2. This means T4 will be in saturation and its collector current would be IC4 = VCC − VCE 4 .10 and 4. (b) When the output is in LOW state. (ii) When output is in HIGH state. the shorting of output to ground will not have any effect.025 mA (c) The total current will be sum of current through RB1 (as given in (b) part above) and given in Eqs.14 The current I remains same and it does not affect the fan-out of the gate G1. 4.7 = 0. 2 − 0. T4 and D are cut-off. 2 = 46 mA 100 = which is very large and will increase significantly the power dissipation.sat − V D RC 2 5 − 0 . ICC(0) = 0. 9 4 = 1. Since T3 does not turn off (because of storage time) as quickly as T4 turns on. sat 100 5 − 0.385 mA 4.Since. Prob.025 + 41.15. therefore. T3 and T4 are cut-off \ ICC1 = Current through RB1 = 5 − 0. 4. The base current and the collector current of T4 will become IB4 = = VCC − V BE 4 .8 V if the diode D is not present. Moreover. 5 mA 1. 4. sat − VCE 3. 8 − 0.15 (a) If RC4 = 0. it is simply a wastage of power.2 + 0. 4 36 . the change in output from logic 0 to logic 1 will be faster. IC4 = 0 Therefore. VB4 = 1 V which makes VBE4 = 0. the relevant portion of the circuit with output shorted to ground is shown in Fig. (c) (i) When output is in LOW state.

The corresponding current drawn from the power supply will be IC4 + IB4 = 41.17 The circuit is shown in Fig.5 = 43. VCC – (5 IOH + 6 IIH) RC ³ VOH 37 .44kW < RC < 4. which will make the transistor T4 of the gate whose T3 is cut-off to conduct through T3 of the other gate which is in saturation. 4. 4 = = 1.4 kW T4 IB4 C2 E2 C3 D Is IC4 E3 Fig. (i) When the output Y = 1.16 Let the output transistor T3 of one gate is in saturation. the currents drawn from the supply will be same as the currents without this connection. 4. 6 = 4. Prob. RC(max) = VCC − VOH (5 − 2. When both the outputs are HIGH or LOW. 44 kW I OL + 8 I IL 16 − 8 × 1. This will damage the transistor T4 and the diode D. 7 = 41 mA 100 = \ Is = IC4 + IB4 = 41 + 2.5 mA This large current will continuously be drawn from the supply as long as at least one of the inputs is LOW. Prob. while that of the other gate is cut-off. VCC = 5V RC4 = 100 kW RC2 = 1.18.56 kW 4.and IC4 = VCC − VCE 4 . 4.15 4. This continuous current will damage these transistors.4 mA. 2 − 0.17.56 kW RC(min) = Therefore. Prob. 4) × 10 3 kW = I OH + 8 I IH 250 + 8 × 40 VCC − VOL 5 − 0. The voltage at Y will be LOW.sat − V D RC 4 5 − 0. 1.18 The relevant portion of the circuit is given in Fig. 4.

4.17 VCC = 5 V IOL IOH IOH IOH IOH IOH Fig. Prob.which gives RC(max) = VCC − VOH ( 5 − 2 . Prob. 74 kW = 5 I OH + 6 I IH 5 × 250 + 6 × 40 VCC = +5 V RC IIH IOH Output circuit of open-collector gate Fig. 4 ) × 10 3 kW = 1. 4.18 38 RC Load gates IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL Y .

6 and Therefore. Prob. it is assumed that only one of the driving gates has its output transistor in saturation while the output transistors of all the other gates are cut-off.21 Let us take ALS devices driving other devices. VCC − VOL £ IOL + NIIL RC which gives RC(min) = VCC − VOL I OL + NI IL 5 − 0.28 kW 4.19 Let us assume a supply voltage VCC = + 5V and corresponding VOH = 2. 4 ) × 10 3 ≈ 1.20 7407 is an open-collector non-inverting buffer with VOH = 30V (maximum). 4 ≈ 0. 6 = Therefore. 30 A Lamp 7407 Fig.20.74 kW.20 (a) No (b) No (c) No VCC = +5 V A (d) Yes VCC = +10 V 10 V.159kW < RC < 1.4 V \ RC(max) = RC(min) = ( 5 − 2. A value of RC = 1 kW is reasonable. 4.(ii) When the output Y = 0. 0. RC should be between 0. 4. 4 ≈ 0. 72 kW 16 − 6 × 1. 4. which means a lamp load along with the necessary supply voltage may be connected as shown in Fig.72 kW and 1. 4.159 kW 40 − 7 × 1. 28 kW 7 × 250 + 7 × 40 5 − 0. (i) ALS driving standard devices IOH (ALS) = – 400 mA IOL (ALS) = 8 mA (74 series) IIH (Standard) = 40 mA IIL (Standard) = – 1. Prob.6 mA 39 .

P RC2 T4 Vn RE4 Q (a) Fig. if the terminal P is grounded. we obtain (a) VYQ = R E 4 (1 + h FE ) V R C 2 + (1 + h FE ) R E 4 n 1. Then the output circuit will appear as shown in Fig. Therefore.203 Vn 40 .18 Vn = 0. Prob.18 + 0.998 Vn = (b) VYP = – (Vn – VYQ) = – 0.22 Case I Let T2 be cut-off. Prob. 5) n = 0. VYQ = 0. Similarly.22(a). 4.22(b). whereas it is 10 when the output is HIGH. therefore. whose equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4. = 1. 4. 3 + (101) (1. 3 Since T4 is operating as an emitter-follower.Here. the fan-out is 20. the fan-out is 5. the noise voltage present in the output is negligibly small. Case II Let T2 be conducting and T1 be cut-off. 5 (101) V 0. 797 Vn .22 (b) Y Vn RC2 B4 I E4 RE4 Q C4 hFE I Y P From the equivalent circuit. 1. the complete table can be verified. Prob. when the output is LOW. Therefore. the fan-out is 5 (ii) ALS driving ALS IIH (ALS) = 20 mA IIL (ALS) = – 0.797 Vn) = – 0. 4.1 mA Which gives a fan-out of 20 when the output is HIGH and 80 when it is LOW. (a) The noise voltage at the collector of T2 = the noise voltage at the base of T4.797 Vn (b) VYP = – (Vn – 0.002 Vn Therefore. and – IOH (ALS) = 10 ´ IIH (Standard) – IOL (ALS) = 5 ´ IIL (Standard) This means.

Therefore. whereas in the case of ECL the change in current is negligibly small when the output changes from LOW to HIGH and vice-versa.24 In a TTL gate.75 V) T4 RC2 RE4 Fig. and E = 0 Therefore.26 41 –1.25 Let A = B = C = 0.25.e.9V VOH VOH 2V 0.4 mA is produced. 4. the output will be equal to Y1 = Y2. Prob. Consequently T4 goes to cut-off.13V VIH –1.26 The output logic levels of ECL. the voltage at the output terminal will be equal to – 0. when the output changes from V(0) to V(1).5V –0. 4. Prob.2 V 4. 4.2 V Y2 (-0. Prob.2 V supply gets applied to their bases through RC2 and RC1 respectively. (b) The 5. Similarly. 4.55 V) -5.26 2. the voltage across T4 acting as a diode). 4. 4.48V VIL MC10H125 Translator (b) Input/output logic level voltages of Translator Fig. The relevant portions of the circuits are shown in Fig. Similarly. In this when Y1 and Y2 are connected together. a current spike of 41.This again shows that the noise voltage is very small between Y and P and hence the terminal P is grounded. When Y1 and Y2 both are same. This confirms that OR operation is performed when the outputs are connected in wired logic. VCC = 0 VCC = 0 RC2 (-0.23 (a) The 5.75 V (i. input/output logic levels of MC10H125 IC. D = 1.2 V supply voltage will appear across the output transistor T4 or T3.7V VOL ECL (a) Output logic level voltages of ECL TTL (c) Input logic level voltages of TTL . Prob. when Y1 = 1 and Y2 = 0 identical situation will prevail making the output 1.25 -5. Also 5. Y1 = 0 and Y2 = 1..5V VOL –1.8 VIH VIL 0.85 V) T4 Y1 RE4 (-1.2 V supply will appear across RE4 or RE3 and no damage is caused to the supply and the circuit. Corresponding to this T4 of G1 is acting as an emitter follower while that of G2 is acting as a diode. and the input logic levels of TTL are shown in Fig. the output transistor will burn out. it can be proved for all the other cases. 4.

Prob. If the output accidently gets shorted.29 Its operation is given below Inputs A 0 0 VCC VCC B 0 VCC 0 VCC T1 OFF ON OFF ON State of T2 OFF OFF ON ON T3 ON OFF ON OFF T4 ON ON OFF OFF Output Y VCC 0 0 0 42 . The normal current through T1 and T2 is extremely small being the OFF current of either T1 or T2. it does not cause any problem. On the other hand when Vi is LOW. Similarly.From the logic levels.33. 4.27 Y TTL The complete circuit is shown in the above figure. since T2 is not meant to carry such large currents.25. A B ECL Y Y MC10H125 Translator Fig. VIH (TTL) < VOH (Translator) VIL (TTL) > VOL (Translator) which shows that the output of the translator is compatible with TTL. we observe. 4. 4. 4. T1 is cut-off. This will cause a relatively very high current to flow through T2 which may damage it. the output voltage is LOW (» 0V).27 The output Y of ECL NOR gate is Y = A + B The output of the Translator circuit is Y and the output of TTL Inverter will be Y = Y. (b) Consider the CMOS inverter of Fig.28 (a) Consider the NMOS inverters shown in Fig. 3. When T1 is ON. large current from VDD will continuously flow through the load transistor T2 which may damage the load transistor. whole of VCC will appear across T2 which is conducting. Now if the output gets shorted to ground. VIH (Translator) < VOH (ECL) VIL (Translator) > VOL (ECL) which shows that the input of MC10H125 IC is ECL compatible. 4. and if the output gets shorted to ground.

33 The output logic levels of CMOS and the input logic levels of MC10H124 TTL-to-ECL translator are given in Fig. it can drive 20 74AS gates requiring 10 mA of current. Since the output of the translator is compatible with ECL.30 The fan-out is given below. 4. 4. TTL/CMOS 54/74 54H/74H 54L/74L 54S/74S 54LS/74LS 54AS/74AS 54ALS/74ALS 74HC 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74HCT 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74AC 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74ACT 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 4. Prob.37V VIL 2V 0.8V CMOS (a) MC10H124 translator (b) Fig. Therefore. When output is LOW.34.33 From these logic levels. VIH (Translator) < VOH (CMOS) VIL (Translator) > VOL (CMOS) which shows that the input of the translator is compatible with CMOS. therefore.31 54/74 (a) 74HC/74HCT (b) 74 AC/74 ACT 2 15 54H/74H 2 12 54L/ 74L 21 133 54S/ 74S 2 12 54LS/ 74LS 11 66 54AS/ 54ALS/ 74AS 74ALS 8 48 40 240 4. Prob. we observe. it can drive a total of up to 1200 gates.76V VIH VOL 0. 4. 43 . VOH 3.34 The output logic levels of MC10H125 translator and the input logic levels of CMOS (74HCT & 74 ACT) are shown in Fig. The remaining 14 mA of current can drive 140 74ALS gates.32 When output is HIGH. 4. Prob.33.4. 4. maximum possible number of ALS gates which can be driven is 140. CMOS-to-ECL interfacing is possible using TTL-to-ECL translator.

VOH 2.5V VIH = 3. a resistance R and VCC are required to be connected to pull up the voltage at P corresponding to VOH (Translator) VCC R P MC10H125 Translator (c) Fig. Prob.5V For these CMOS ICs. Since the input of the translator is compatible with ECL. 4. ECL-toCMOS interfacing is possible. For CMOS 74 HC. we observe. and 74 AC series VIL = 1.34 From these logic levels. therefore.85V and for CMOS 74 C series VIL = 1. Prob.34 CMOS 44 .8V VIL 0. the output of the translator is compatible with these CMOS devices. VIH (CMOS) < VOH (Translator) VIL (CMOS) > VOL (Translator) Therefore.35V VIH = 3.5V VIH 2V 0. VIL (CMOS) > VOL Translator but VIH (CMOS) < VOH (Translator) Therefore. 4.5V VOL MC10H125 Translator (a) CMOS (74HCT & 74ACT) (b) Fig.

5.1 Let S1 and S2 be the two switches. 5. 5. Prob.1(a) Bulb (a) The truth table is given below: S1 0 0 1 1 S2 0 1 0 1 L 0 1 1 0 (b) The logic equation is L = S 1 S2 + S1 S 2 (c) The AND-OR realization is given in Fig.1(a): 0 S1 1 L 0 S2 ON = 1 OFF = 0 1 Supply Fig. Prob.1(b) (d) Replace each of the AND gates and the OR gate in the above figure by NAND gates.1(b): S1 S2 L Fig.2 (a) A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Inputs C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 45 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Output f 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 (Contd. The circuit diagram of the system is shown in Fig.CHAPTER 5 5.) . 5. Prob. 5. Prob. The resulting circuit will be NAND-NAND realization.

) Inputs A 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output f 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 (b) The K-map is given in Fig. 5. The simplified expression is f = BC + BD CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 (a) Fig. 5.2 1 1 B 1 BC D (b) BD 01 11 10 B C f 5. Prob. Prob. Prob.2. The minimized expressions are: CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 (a) Fig. 5. Prob.3(a) and (b) respectively. 5.3 46 0 01 0 11 0 0 10 0 CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 (b) 0 0 0 01 11 10 .(Contd.3 (a) f1 = (A + B + C + D ) ( A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D ) f2 = (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (b) The K-maps for f1 and f2 are given in Fig.

3 (c) (d) (d) Replace all the AND and OR gates in figures (A) and (B) by NOR gates to obtain realizations using only NOR gates. 5. Prob.3(c) and (d) for f1 and f2 respectively. 5.4(a) 47 .f1 = ( B + C + D) ( A + B + C) ( A + B + D) (A + B + D ) (A + B + C ) f2 = (A + C ) (A + B) ( A + C + D ) (B + D ) (c) The OR-AND realizations are shown in Fig. Prob. 5. B C D A C A B f1 B f2 A B C A B D A B D A B C D A C D Fig. Prob.4 (a) A B C D B C B D A D f A B Fig. 5.

5.5 48 .4(b) (c) Realization for (a) requires 7400 – 1 7420 – 1/2 7430 – 1 a total of three chips. Prob. 5. Realization for (b) requires 7427 – 1 74260 – 1 a total of only two chips.5 (a) A C A C D 7410 Y B (b) A B C A B C B C D Y 1/ 3 7427 7427 Fig. Prob.(b) A B C D A B C f A B D A B D Fig. 5.

Using offset adjacencies shown in the K-map. 8. Prob.6 5. 5.(c) Realization of (a) requires only one chip whereas (b) requires two chips.6 A D 3/4 7402 C D f B Fig. 5.8(i) 49 . 5.7 (a) CD AB 00 01 11 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 A 00 01 11 10 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 Fig. 5. the expression for f1 can be written as f1 = (C ¤ D) (A ¤ B) + (C ⊕ D) (A ⊕ B) = (A ⊕ B) ¤ (C ⊕ D) CD AB C D (A ¤ B) 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 00 01 11 10 C D (A Å B) CD (A ¤ B) C D (A Å B) Fig.7(b) 5. 5. Prob. 15) (c) f = A + C A f B Fig. 5. 14. 11. 10.8 (i) below gives the K-map. Prob. Prob. 7. 12. 6.7(a) (b) f = å m (2. 3. 13. 9.8 (a) Figure Prob.

8(ii). E1.8(iv). This requires one 7410 chip and one gate of 7400 chip.8(ii) f1 Its realization using EX-OR gates is given in Fig. The minimized expressions are: E0 = A 50 .8 f2 (iv) 5. 5. Pro. BCD D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 E2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 Excess-3 E1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 E0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Here only ten out of sixteen combinations are used and the other six are taken as don’t-care conditions. Prob.A B C D Logic 1 Fig. 5.9. 5. Prob. CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 (iii) 1 1 1 A 01 11 1 10 B A B D A C D Fig. This realization requires only one 7486 IC chip. Prob. Prob. (b) Its K-map is given in Fig. 5. Prob. E2 and E3 are given in Fig. The K-maps for the outputs E0. 5.9 Truth table of BCD-to-Excess-3 code converter is given below. 5.8(iii) The minimized expression is f2 = A B + AB D + ACD The realization using NAND gates is given in Fig.

11 (a) The K-map is shown in Fig. f2. The K-maps can then be prepared and minimized. 51 . The minimized expression is f1 = C D = C + D (b) The K-map is shown in Fig. 5. The minimized expression is f 3 = ( A + B + C + D ) ( B + C + D) ( A + B + C ) ( A + C + D ) The circuits for f1. Prob. Prob. Prob. 5. A = E0 B = E1 E 0 + E1 E 0 C = E 2 E 1 + E2 E1 E0 + E3 E1 E 0 D = E3 E2 + E3 E1 E0 The circuit can now be drawn using NAND gates.10 Truth table of Excess-3-to-BCD converter can be prepared using the truthtable of Prob. 5. 5. 5. The minimized expressions are given below. and f3 can be drawn using NOR gates.11(a).9 E1 = BA + B A E2 = CB A + C A + C B E3 = D + CA + CB The circuit can be drawn using NAND gates.11(c).BA DC 00 1 0 0 1 01 11 1 0 0 1 E0 (a) ´ ´ ´ ´ 10 1 0 ´ ´ BA DC 00 1 0 1 0 01 11 1 0 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ E1 (b) 10 1 0 ´ ´ 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 BA DC 00 0 1 1 1 01 11 1 0 0 0 E2 (c) ´ ´ ´ ´ 10 0 1 ´ ´ BA DC 00 0 0 0 0 01 11 0 1 1 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ E3 (d) 10 1 1 ´ ´ 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 Fig. 5. 5.9. Prob.11(b). The minimized expression is f 2 = ( A + B + D) ( B + C + D ) ( A + C ) (c) The K-map is shown in Fig.

12 and the minimized expression is f 1 = A BE + AC E + ABD + BC + AB CD E This can be realized using NAND gates.11 5. Prob.13 (a) Its K-map is given in Fig. Similarly. the minimized expression for f2 is f 2 = C E + ABD + ADE + AD E + B CE + CDE + AB E which can be realized using NAND gates. 52 . A = 0 BC DE 00 00 01 11 10 A BE BC 10 1 DE 00 01 11 10 A = 1 AB CDE 00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 01 11 10 1 AC E 01 11 1 1 1 1 1 ABD BC Fig.12 5. Prob.CD AB 00 01 11 10 CD AB 00 01 11 0 10 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 (a) CD AB 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 (b) 0 0 0 01 11 0 10 0 0 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 (c) Fig. 5. Prob.12 The K-map for f1 is shown in Fig. 5. 513(a). Prob. 5.

18 of the book and Y = C D + CD (c) Realization of part (a) requires 2 IC chips (7410) whereas for part (b) one IC chip (7400) only is required. the minimized expressions are obtained which are given below.13(a) The minimized expression is Y = AC D + B C D + ACD A C D B C D A C D Y Fig. (b) Similar to part (a). Prob. C D Y C D Fig.13(b) (b) The K-map is given in Fig. Prob. f2 = A C D + BC + AB 53 (SOP) .14 (a) Figure Prob.13(c) 5. 5.(a) CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 01 11 0 1 0 0 1 0 10 1 0 0 Fig. 5.14(a) and (b) show the K-maps of f1 for NAND and NOR realizations respectively. Prob. 5. 5. 5. The minimized expressions are f1 = ABC + CD + BD + AD (SOP) and f1 = ( A + B + C ) (C + D) ( B + D) ( A + D) (POS) Circuits using NAND and NOR gates can be designed using the above expressions.

Prob.15 Its K-map and circuit realization are given in Fig. (a) A C (B Å D) AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 A C (B ¤ D) 1 01 11 1 1 D f1 10 1 A B C (b) B 01 11 1 1 1 A 1 1 A(C Å D) A (B Å C) AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 10 C A 1 1 f2 1 C D 54 . AB CD 00 01 11 10 1 1 ´ (a) Fig. 5.15. Prob.and f2 = ( A + B ) ( B + D ) ( B + C ) ( A + C ) (POS) These equations can be used to design circuits with NAND and NOR gates.14 1 ´ 1 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 CD 00 01 11 10 ´ 0 0 (b) 0 0 AB 00 0 01 0 11 0 ´ 10 5. 5.

16 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4-bit word B C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Odd parity bit PO 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Even parity bit PE 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 The K-map for Po is given in Fig.16(a). 5.16(b). from which Po is obtained as Po = AC (B ¤ D) + A C (B Å D) + A C (B Å D) + AC (B ¤ D) = (A Å C) ¤ (B + D) Its realization using EX-OR and EX-NOR gates is given in Fig. Prob. 5.16 55 1 0 1 0 10 0 1 0 B 1 D (b) A C Po . 5.16 Its truth table is given in Table Prob. Prob. Prob.(c) AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 01 11 1 1 10 A C A C (BÅD) B D Fig.16.15 f3 A C(B Å D) 5. Prob. 5. 5. 5. AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 0 1 0 01 11 0 1 0 1 (a) Fig. Table Prob.

Its truth table is given in Table Prob. K-map is prepared and the circuit is designed. and the carry inputs to the full-adder be An. 5.19 Let the augend. and Cn be the sum and carry outputs respectively. Table Prob. Similarly. The minimized expression for f1 is f 1 = ABC D E + ABCD F + CEF + A B C DEF The circuit for f1 can be realized using NAND gates.18(b). (b) The K-map using 0’s is given in Fig. Prob. we can minimize using 0’s which will lead to a circuit realizable by NOR gates. 5. Bn.17 (b) PE 5. The minimized expression for f2 is f2 = (A + B + C + D + E + F ) ( A + B + D + E + F) ( A + B + C + E + F ) (A + C + D + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + D + E) (B + C + D + E) (B + C + D + F ) (A + B + C + D) The circuit for f2 can be realized using NOR gates.17. 5. Its outputs are S1 (Sum) and C1 (Carry). These are given in Fig. Prob. Similarly. PE = A ⊕ B ⊕ C ⊕ D AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 (a) 1 1 1 01 11 1 1 1 10 1 A B C D Fig. addend. 5.5. we can minimize the function using 1s which will lead to a circuit realizable by NAND gates.16.18 (a) The K-map using 1’s is given in Fig.19(a) An 0 0 1 1 Bn 0 1 0 1 56 S1 0 1 1 0 C1 0 0 0 1 .19.17 From the truthtable given in Prob. 5. and Cn – 1 respectively and Sn. 5. 5. Prob.18(a). Prob. (a) An and Bn are applied at the two inputs of first half-adder HA – 1. 5.

5.B A CD 00 00 0 01 11 10 1 0 CD 00 1 EF 01 11 10 EF 01 11 10 00 1 1 01 11 10 1 1 AB CDEF CD 00 00 1 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 1 CEF 01 11 10 EF CD 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 1 1 EF ABC D E ABCDF Fig.18(b) 57 . Prob. 5. Prob.18(a) 0 1 CD 10 0 EF 00 01 11 10 CD 00 0 00 0 0 0 0 01 11 10 0 B A CD 00 00 0 01 11 10 CD 00 00 1 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 EF 01 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 EF 01 11 0 10 EF 01 11 10 00 0 01 11 10 Fig.

19(a) Truth table of the full-adder using input variables S1. C1. 5.1 + S 1 Cn – 1 = C1 + C2 = S1 Å Cn – 1 Sn and Cn are generated using HA –2 and an OR gate as shown in the block diagram.An Bn Cn – 1 HA – 1 C1 S1 HA – 2 C2 S2 = Sn Cn Fig. 58 .19(b) C1 0 0 1 0 0 1 S1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Cn – 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cn 0 0 1 0 1 1 Sn 0 1 0 1 0 1 K-maps for Cn and Sn are shown below: Cn – 1 C 1 S1 00 0 1 0 0 01 0 1 11 ´ ´ 10 1 1 Cn – 1 C1 S1 00 0 1 0 1 01 1 0 11 ´ ´ 10 0 1 K-map for Cn K-map for Sn Cn = C1 + S1 × Cn – 1 Sn = S1 C n . Prob 5. and Cn – 1 is given below: Table Prob.

) 59 0 — — 0 . 7. 10. D) = p M(2. B. therefore. 8.(b) An Bn EX–OR(1) S1 EX–OR(2) S2 = Sn C2 C1 AND-2 AND–1 Cn–1 Fig. A 0 1 4 3 5 6 11 13 14 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Variables B C D 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 Check for inclusion in groups of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Minterm 2 3 4 Table (b) Group 0 Minterms A 0. 6.19(b) OR Cn 5. 15) Table (a) Group 0 1 Grouping of minterms according to number of 1’s. Prob. C. 13. 1 0. 5 0 0 0 0 Grouping of two minterms Variables Check for inclusion B C D in groups of 4 0 — 0 0 — 0 1 1 ü ü ü (Contd. 3.20 Propagation delay time for Sn = tpd [EX-OR(1)] + tpd [EX –OR(2)] = 20 + 20 = 40 ns.21 f (A. 4 1. 14. 5. 9. 1. 3 1. 11. Propagation dealy time for Cn = tpd [EX-OR(1) + tpd (AND-2) + tpd(OR) = 20 + 10 + 10 = 40 ns. Since the propagation delay time (tpd) of AND–1 is less than the tpd of EX-OR(1). it is not counted. 4. 12) = S m (0. 5. 5.

A C is an essential prime-implicant. the minimized function is f (A. 4. 15 ABC 14.13 6. 15 14. therefore.(Contd. 5 0. Therefore. 60 . starting from the prime-implicant A B D. D) = AC + ABD + ABD + B CD + BC D + BCD + ACD There can be other options also. C. 5 0 0 Variables B C — — 0 0 D — — Table (d) PI table PI terms Decimal numbers 0 1 ´ ´ 3 ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Minterms 4 5 6 11 13 14 15 ´ ´ 0.13 BC D ü 6. 11 BC Dü 5. All the other columns contain 2 or more Xs. 15 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü From the PI table. 4. 1. we see that the column for minterms 0 contains only one ´. 15 ABD 13. 6 A B Dü B CDü 3. 15 0 0 — — — 1 1 1 Variables Check for inclusion B C D in group of 4 1 1 0 1 1 — 1 1 0 — 1 0 1 1 — 1 — 0 1 1 0 1 1 — ü 2 3 Table (c) Grouping of 4 minterms Group 0 Minterms A 0. 11 5.5 4. 6 3. 14 ACD ü 11. 4. 1. 5 Ä AC ü 1.) Group 1 Minterms A 4. 14 11. 3 AB Dü 4. we see the minterms that are covered by each prime-implicant and find the minimum number of prime-implicants that will cover all the minterms. 1. B. 15 13. Depending upon the prime-implicants selected above.

13) Table (a) Grouping of minterms/don’t care terms according to number of 1’s. 15) + d(2. 9. Group Minterm/ don’t care term 1 2* 8 3 5 9 11 13* 15 A 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Variables B C 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 D 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Check for inclusion in group of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü 1 2 3 4 Table (b) Group Grouping of 2 minterms/don’t care terms A 0 0 — 0 1 — — 1 1 1 1 Variables B C 0 — 0 0 0 0 1 0 — — 1 — 0 0 1 0 1 0 — 0 1 — D 1 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 1 Check for inclusion in group of 4 ü ü ü Minterms/ don’t care terms 1. 9.22 f (A. D) = Sm (1.5. 15 A — — — — 1 1 Variables B C 0 — 0 — — — — 0 — 0 — — D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 There are a total of 5 prime-implicants BD . 9. 3. 9 3. 13* 1. 3 1. 8. 13* 9. 13*. 11 9. 11 5. 3. 9. 61 . 15 13. C. 13* 9. 5. 3 8. 9. 13*. 11. 11. and AD from Table (c) and AB C and AB C from Table (b). B. 11 1. 5. 9 2*. 13* 11. 5 1. CD. 15 9. 15 1 2 3 ü ü ü ü ü ü Table (c) Group Grouping of 4 minterms/don’t care terms Minterms/ don’t care terms 1. 3. 11 1. 11. 5.

10 0 0 Grouping of 2 minterms B 1 1 Variables C D 0 0 0 — E — 0 Check for inclusion in group of 4 ü ü (Contd. 21. 11. 18 . 9 ü ´ ´ ´ Ä ü ´ ´ ´ ´ Ä ´ ´ ü ´ ü The essential prime. 31) Table (a) Group 1 Grouping of minterms according to number of 1’s A 8 16 9 10 18 24 11 13 21 25 26 15 27 30 31 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 B 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Variables C D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 E 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 Check for inclusion in group of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Minterm 2 3 4 5 Table (b) Group Minterms A 1 8. 3 AB C 8. 27. B D is to be included in the minimized expression. 15 ü ABC 2*. 9 8. B. C. and ABC . E) = Sm (8. Except the minterm 3 all the other minterms have heen covered by the essential prime-implicatns. 3. 25. 26.23 f (A.implicants are: CD. The minimized function is f (A. 5. AD. 13*. 11 ´ CD 1. 24.Table (d) PI Table PI terms Decimal numbers 1 2* Minterms/don’t care terms 3 5 8 9 11 13* ´ Ä 15 BD 1. 13* ü ´ AD 9. 10. C. D.) 62 . 9. 30. 13. 5. Therefore. 15. D) = B D + C D + AD + AB C . 11. 9. B. 16. 9.

26 18. 31 31 31 31 0 — 0 — — — 1 1 0 — 0 — — — 1 1 — — 1 1 B Variables C D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 — 0 — 0 0 0 0 0 — — — — 63 — 0 — — 0 — — — — — — — 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 E — — — 0 — 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 — — — — 1 1 — — Check for inclusion in group of 8 ü ü ü ü ü 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ü ü ü ü ü ü 2 3 . 11. 26. 26 11. 9. 11 8. 11. 30. 25 10. 24. 15 9. 25 8. 27. 10. 26. 11 10. 27 10. 30. 26 16. 25. 27. 15. 11 8. 25 8. 10. 10. 26 9. 30 15. 11. 26 8. 27 9. 9. 15. 27. 11.(Contd. 24. 24 16. 15 9. 27 10. 9. 27 13. 15 25. 26. 26. 11. 24. 10. 31 — 1 1 0 0 — 0 — 1 1 1 0 — 0 1 1 1 — 1 1 B Variables C D 0 0 0 0 — 0 0 0 0 0 0 — 0 1 0 0 — 1 — 1 0 — 0 — 0 0 1 1 1 0 — 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 E 0 0 0 1 1 1 — 0 0 — 0 1 1 1 1 — 0 1 1 — Check for circlusion in group of 4 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü 2 3 4 1 0 — 1 1 1 1 1 — 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table (c) Grouping of 4 minterms Group Minterms A 8. 24. 18. 27 24. 27 24. 18. 25. 26.) Group Minterm A 8. 24. 31 27. 25. 27. 15 11. 13. 24 9. 11 9. 13 9. 25 24. 11. 26 16. 24. 26. 26 24. 18 16. 27 26. 13. 27 11. 11. 27 26. 9. 25.31 30.

9. 31 ü 8. 10. 24. 15. 18. 27.Tabe (d) Group 1 Minterms Grouping of 8 minterms A B 1 Variables C D 0 — E — 8. 10. B. 24. C. 13. 27 — Tabe (e) PI Table PI terms Decimal numbers 8 Minterms 9 10 11 13 15 16 18 21 24 25 26 27 30 31 Ä 21 AB CDE ü ü 16. 30. 27. E) = A B C D E + A C E + A BE + ABD + B C 64 . 31 ABD ü 26. 26. 27 ´ Ä ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Ä ´ ´ ü ´ ´ Ä ´ ´ ü ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Ä ü ü ü ´ ´ The minimized function is f (A. 24. 26. 11. 26 ACE ü 9. ´ BC 25. 11. 15 ABE BDE 11. 11. 9. D. 25.

4. 6. 6. complement of the data input line selected.1.e. the data input lines corresponding to these decimal numbers are to be connected to logic 0 and the data input lines 0. 6.CHAPTER 6 6. B. the inputs A.1(b) A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 65 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 D D 1 D 1 D D . Prob. 8. 7. Prob. and S0 Table Prob..3). In this. 9. 1.1 (a) In the 16:1 multiplexer IC 74150.1 Y (b) To realize a four variable truthtable or logic expression using an 8:1 multiplexer the truth table is partitioned as shown by dotted lines (Table 6. the data output is inverted input. Logic 0 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16:1 8 9 Multiplexer 10 74150 11 12 13 14 15 G S3 S2 S1 S0 Logic 0 (MSB) A B C D (LSB) Fig. i. and 14 are to be connected to logic 1. 12 and 15. 3. S1 . 11. 10. therefore. Since the data output is 1 when the input variables correspond to decimal numbers 2. 5. 13. and C are to be connected to S2. 6. The circuit is shown in Fig.

Prob. and D . we observe the relationship between input D and output Y for each group of two rows. Assuming 74152 IC. 66 . B. say. A. D. If A is connected to the Enable input of one of the 16:1 multiplexers.select inputs respectively. This IC also has the data output which is complement of the data input line selected. 6. (i) A 32:1 multiplexer will have five selection lines. using 8:1 multiplexers requires one multiplexer for Sn and one for Cn output. while the enable input of the other multiplexer is connected to A . Prob. the system will function as a 32:1 multiplexer. Now if the two outputs are ORed together. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. then for A = 0. Thus for the first 16 of the 32 data inputs one multiplexer gives output depending upon the select inputs while for the remaining 16 data inputs the other multiplexer gives the output. B. and C and then make the connections accordingly. 1. 6. we note the output Y for each of the combinations of A.1(b). the first multiplexer is enabled and for A = 1 the second multiplexer is enabled. The implementation of this function using a 74152 IC is shown in Fig. 6. Prob.2(ii).2 A 32:1 multiplexer can be designed using two 16:1 multiplexers following any one of the following approaches. 6.3. C. These are given in Table Prob. The select line of the 2 : 1 multiplexer is driven from input A. From this table. 6. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Logic 1 0 D 1 2 D Logic 0 3 4 5 6 7 S2 S1 S0 74152 Y A B Fig. and E.1(b) C 6.2(i). Prob. This is followed by a 2:1 multiplexer to select one of the two outputs. 6.3 The truth table of a full-adder in given in Table Prob. 6. (ii) Another method can use two 16:1 multiplexers with their select lines connected together. D. 6. where A is the MSB.3. the circuit is shown in Fig. Now. Prob.1(b). To realize this. There are four possible values of Y and these are 0.

B. D. Prob. C. C. 6. E) G3 S3 S2 S1 S0 16 17 18 31 G2 M2 16 : 1 Y2 ì ï Data ï inputsí ï ï î Logic 0 Logic 0 Fig.2(ii) 67 . Prob. D. E) S3 S2 S1 S0 ì ï Data ï í inputs ï ï î A (MSB) 16 17 M2 18 16 : 1 31 G2 Y2 · Fig. 6.2(i) ì ï ï Data í inputs ï ï î G1 Logic 0 B C D E (LSB) 0 1 2 M1 Y1 15 16 : 1 A(MSB) S3 S2 S1 S0 S 0 Output M3 Y 1 2 : 1 F (A. B.ì ï ï Data í inputs ï ï î G1 E (LSB) D C B 0 1 2 M 1 Y1 15 16 : 1 S3 S2 S1 S0 Output F (A.

3 68 74152 IC2 Cn S2 S1 S0 S2 S1 S0 74152 IC1 Sn .Table Prob. 6. 6. Prob.3 An 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs Bn 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Outputs Cn–1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Sn 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Cn 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 The gates required for NAND-NAND realization are: 4-input NAND gate 1 3-input NAND gates 5 2-input NAND gates 3 Inverters 3 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Logic 0 An Bn Cn–1 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Logic 0 Fig.

5 Table Prob 6. 64444 74444 8 4 4 B3 B2 B1 B0 B Input A3 A2 A1 A0 64748 A input 7 4 8 3 4-bit Adder ADD Cin S SUB VCC C0 S3 S2 S1 S0 6.5(i) G3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Gray code G2 G1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 69 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 BCD code B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 . Table Prob. when S is in SUB position. Also Cin = 0. the circuit adds A to the 2’s complement of B and hence functions as a 4-bit subtractor. whereas the B inputs are applied through EX-OR gates. 6.5 (i) gives the truth table of Gray-to-BCD code converter. On the other hand. therefore. 6. the realization using 8:1 multiplexers require only 2 IC packages.4 The A inputs are applied directly to the adder. The complete circuit is shown below. the EX-OR gates function as inverters. the circuit functions as a 4-bit adder. Also Cin = 1. When the switch S is in ADD position the outputs of the EX-OR gates will be same as the B inputs. Therefore.Therefore. the following IC packages will be required: 7420 – 1 7410 – 2 7400 – 1 In contrast to four packages required in NAND-NAND realization.

C. we can obtain the expressions for the D.6 The truth table of BCD-to-7-segment decoder is given in Table Prob.) 70 .5(b). It requires one 74154. 6. 6.5(ii) G3 0 0 1 1 G2 0 1 0 1 D 0 0 X 1 C 0 1 X 0 B G1 G1 X 0 A G1 ⊕ G0 G 1 ¤ G0 X G1 ⊕ G0 The G3 and G2 are used as the select inputs. Prob 6. one 7420. 6. 6. 6. one 7430. Table Prob. Prob. Table Prob. These are given in Table Prob. The complete circuit can be drawn which requires two 74153 packages and one 7486 package.(a) For A output (i) When G3 G2 = 00 G1 0 0 1 1 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 0 1 (ii) When G3G2 = 01 G1 1 1 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 0 1 \ A = G1 ⊕ G0 (iii) When G3 G2 = 10 G1 1 1 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 A X X X X \ A = G1 ¤ G0 (iv) When G3 G2 = 11 G1 0 0 1 1 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 X X \A= X \ A = G1 ⊕ G0 Similarly.5 (ii).6(i) and Fig. (b) The complete circuit is shown in Fig.6(i) D 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 BCD Inputs B A 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 a 0 1 0 0 1 0 b 0 0 0 0 0 1 Seven-Segment Outputs c d e f 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 g 1 1 0 0 0 0 (Contd. and one 7400 IC packages. 6.6(i) shows a common-anode 7-segment display device. and B outputs.

6(i).) D 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 BCD Inputs B A 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 a 1 0 0 0 X X X X X X b 1 0 0 0 X X X X X X Seven-Segment Outputs c d e f 0 0 0 0 X X X X X X 0 1 0 1 X X X X X X 0 1 0 1 X X X X X X 0 1 0 0 X X X X X X g 0 1 0 0 X X X X X X Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 G1 G0 74154 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9 Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 S3 S2 S1 Y15 S0 Aü (LSB)ï ï ï ï ï ï Bï ï ï ï ï BCD ï ýoutputs ï ï Cï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï Dï (MSB) ï þ 0 13 4 444 44 2 2 1 3 G G G G Gray code inputs Fig.6(ii) which gives outputs in terms of A and B inputs for each combination of D and C inputs. 6. 6. The ICs required are: 74153 3 1 packages 2 71 . 6. we can prepare Table Prob.6(i) (Contd. Prob. 6.Table Prob. The circuit for generating data inputs for the multiplexers corresponding to Table Prob.6 (ii) is shown in Fig.6 (ii). Prob.5(b) (a) From Table Prob. 6. 6.

6. The ICs required are: 74154 one package 7420 one package 7410 one package 72 . 6. Prob.6(i) Table Prob. 6. 6.5.6(ii) D 0 0 1 1 Inputs C 0 1 0 1 a BA b 0 B⊕ A 0 X c Outputs d BA e A A+ B A X f A+B AB 0 X g B A 0 X BA 0 0 X B¤A A X AB 0 X B A+ B B BA A+B AB BA BÅA B¤A A A Fig.7408 7432 7404 3/4 package 3/4 package 1/2 package Anode a b c d e f g f e a b g c d · DP DP Fig. Prob.6(ii) (b) The circuit is designed in a way similar to Prob.

7(b) can be obtained from the truth table following the procedure of Prob.7(b) D 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 G3 0 0 1 X G2 0 1 1 X G1 B B 0 X G0 A⊕ B A⊕ B A X (c) Following the approach similar to (b). 6. 6. (b) Table Prob.5 (a).7 Table Prob. and (c).7430 one package 7404 1/6 package (c) The IC 7442 is a BCD-to-decimal decoder circuit with active-low outputs. The D. 6. The circuit can now be designed using two 74153 ICs and two EX-OR (7486) gates. Table Prob. (d) From the IC packages requirements for parts (a). we observe the savings in hardware when demultiplexers/decoders are used for the realization of multiple output systems. (b). Here eight rows of the truth table are grouped together. 6. Table Prob. Table Prob.5(i) can be rearranged suitably to give the truth table of BCD-toGray code converter. The IC packages required are same as in part (b) with 74154 replaced by 7442. and B inputs are to be applied to the S2.7(a) D 0 0 0 0 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 B 0 1 0 1 0 G3 0 0 0 0 1 G2 0 0 1 1 1 G1 0 1 1 0 0 G0 A A A A A The circuit can now be designed using four 74151A ICs (one for each of the outputs).7 (c). 6.7 (a) is obtained following the procedure used in Prob. 6.7(c) D 0 1 G3 0 1 G2 C 1 G1 B⊕ C 0 G0 A ⊕ B A 73 . 6. (a) From the truth table.1(b). C. 6. Table Prob. 6. and S0 select inputs respectively. 6. we obtain Table Prob. These outputs are to be connected exactly in the same way as in the case of part (b) realization. S1.

7404 – 1 74153 – 2. 6.8 The truth table for f1. 6. f2.3. f2. (f) The package count for each part are given in Table Prob 6. 7486 – 1 7442 – 1. f2. of IC packages 74151A – 4. 5-.1.7(d) Part a b c d e No. 7486 – 1 75157 – 1. (c) The circuit can be designed using one demultiplexer and two 8-input and one 6-input NAND gates. 7420 – 1 7400 – 3 6.8(i) D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Inputs C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Outputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 74 f1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 f2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 f3 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 . Table Prob. 6.8(i) (a) The truth table is reduced to Table Prob.7(d) Table Prob. and f3 outputs using multiplexers and inverters. 7430 – 2. The circuits can now be designed for f1. and f3 can be designed following the procedure outlined in Example 6. and 6-input). 4-. (d) Following the procedure used in Example 6.8(ii) for realization using 8 : 1 multiplexers. and f3 outputs is given in Table Prob. the circuit can be designed using one BCD-to-decimal decoder IC 7442 and NAND gates (2-. The realizations will require one 16 : 1 multiplexer for each output. (b) Using the truth table the circuits for f1.The circuit can now be designed using one 74157 (Quad 2:1 multiplexer) IC and two EX-OR gates of 7486. 6. (e) The minimized expressions are G3 = D G2 = C + D G1 = C B + C B G0 = B A + B A The realization will require eleven 2-input NAND gates.

which selects output of one of the multiplexers M1 through M5. and D are used as select inputs S2. S1. Prob. S0 select inputs respectively for 8:1 multiplexers M1 through M5. 6. The lower order three select bits C.9 75 . S1. and S0 for the multiplexer M6. 6. 6 select lines FEDCBA. and A are used as S2. I0 – I7 G M1 S2 S1 S0 C B A I8 – I15 S2 S1 S0 G M2 0 1 2 3 4 M6 5 6 7 G S2 S1 S0 Y I16 – I23 G I24 – I31 M3 S2 S1 S0 C B A S2 S1 S0 M4 G C B A (LSB) F E (MSB) D I32 – I39 Enable S2 S1 S0 G M5 Fig.8(ii) D 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 f1 A A A A A A A A f2 1 1 0 0 0 A A 1 f3 0 A 1 A A 0 A 0 6. B.9 In a 40:1 multiplexer. The higher order three select bits F. E.Table Prob. there are 40 data input lines (I0 through I39).

Prob. The address inputs for demultiplexers D1 through D6 are C. D is active0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D X2 X1 X0 (LSB) C B A D1 7442 D X2 X1 X0 0 1 2 3 D6 4 D 7442 5 6 7 8 C B A9 C B A D2 7442 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 D X2 X1 X0 ( C B A D3 7442 Enable 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 X5 X4 X3 (MSB) X2 X1 X0 D C B A D4 7442 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 D X2 X1 X0 C B A D5 7442 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Fig.10 The BCD-to-decimal decoder is to be used as an 1 : 8 demultiplexer. B. 6.10 76 . 6.For example if the select inputs are 011111. data input 7 of M2 (I15) will appear at the output Y. and A.

10.12 77 C0 S15–S12 S11–S8 S7–S4 S3–S0 . Prob. 6. 6. and A select inputs respectively of D6. which activates decoder D2 and the output 7 of this decoder goes low. this carry has to ripple through all the n adders. X1. Q4 P4 Q3 P3 Q2 P2 Q1 P1 BCD adder #4 C¢¢¢¢ C2 0 BCD adder #3 C¢¢¢ C1 0 BCD adder #2 C¢¢ C0 0 BCD adder #1 C¢0 C–1 144444444444444 2444444444444444 4 3 5-digit output Fig. B. EX–OR(1) An Bn S1 EX–OR(2) S2 = Sn C1 AND-2 AND–1 Cn–1 Fig. The outputs 8 and 9 of D1 through D5 are not used in this configuration. This corresponds to output on line 15 (which is same as the decimal equivalent of 001111). and X3 are applied at the C. A select inputs respectively of each decoder chip D1 through D5.11 For the full-adder circuit designed using half-adder circuits shown in Fig. and X0 are applied at the C. 6. The higher order three bits of the address X5. the propagation delay time for the carry to propagate from C–1 to Cn–1 in the circuit of Fig. The lower order three bits of the address X2.12 (a) will be n ´ 40 = 40 ns. Prob. 6. Prob.low input for demultiplexer function. 6. 6.11 C2 OR Cn The propagation delay time for Cn is tpd = tpd [EX-OR(1)] + tpd (AND-2) + tpd (OR) = 20 + 10 + 10 = 40 ns This is the propagation delay time for carry to travel one full-adder. 6. For an nbit adder.11. For example. Therefore. Prob. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. B.12 Let the four digits BCD numbers be P4P3P2P1 and Q4Q3Q2Q1. if the 6-bit select inputs are 001111. P4 and Q4 are applied at the A and B inputs respectively of adder # 4 and similarly the other inputs are applied as shown below. X4. then output 1 of D6 is activated.

6. and A < B outputs are connected to the corresponding cascading inputs of C2 respectively. 6. A = B. A0 – A3 B0 – B3 C1 7485 A>B A=B A<B A4 – A7 A>B A=B A<B 7485 A>B A=B A<B B4 – B7 C2 A>B A=B A<B Logic 1 Logic 0 Fig. Table Prob.14 The comparator C1 compares the least significant four bits. Using K-maps the minimized expressions given below are obtained.13 Its truth table is given in Table Prob. The complete circuit is shown below. Prob. 6. 6.14 78 . Its A > B.13 Inputs A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A>B 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Outputs A=B 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 A<B 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 A > B = A0 B 1 B0 + A1 A0 B 0 + A1 B 1 A = B = A1 B 1 (A0 ¤ B0) + A1B1 (A0 ¤ B0) = (A0 ¤ B0) (A1 ¤ B1) A < B = A 1 A 0 B0 + A 0 B1B0 + A 1B1 The complete circuit can be drawn using gates. 6.13.

The binary output is obtained at B3B2B1B0 outputs as shown in Fig. and B1) are applied to C. The other three bits (D1. B.16 The least-significant bit (A1) of BCD input is same as the least-significant bit of the output. Inputs CIC 1 A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B = 1001 = 1011 =1 =0 =1 = 0000 = 0000 =1 =0 =1 = 1011 = 1101 =1 =0 =1 = 0010 = 0001 =1 =0 =0 = 0010 = 0011 =0 =1 =0 = 0001 = 1000 =0 =0 =1 Outputs A>B=0 A<B=1 CIC 2 A>B=0 A<B=0 CIC 3 A>B=0 A<B=0 CIC 4 A>B=1 A<B=0 CIC 5 A>B=0 A<B=1 A=B=0 CIC 6 A>B=0 A=B=0 A<B=1 6. C1.16.6. D and E inputs are connected to logic 0. 79 . Prob. and A inputs respectively. 6.15 The operation is given below.

then å ODD output will be 1. If two inputs are given simultaneously. If more than one inputs are given in the same chip. Therefore. 6. The circuit is shown below.18 Apply the 6-bit input to A through F inputs and connect the other two inputs G and H to logic 0.17 The IC 74148 is a priority octal-to-binary encoder. Prob. these seven bits along with the å EVEN output bit will give an 8-bit word with odd parity.19 The 7-bit input is applied at A through G inputs and H = 0.ì A1 ï BCD ï B1 inputs í C ï 1 ïD î 1 B0 A B C D E G 74184 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 B1 ï Binary ï ý outputs B B3 ï þ 2 ü ï (MSB) Fig. 6. if the parity of the 6-bit word is ODD. If the parity of the 6-bit word is even. 6. 6. Prob. which will disable the IC1 chip. A .16 6. the highest numbered input will appear in the binary form at the output. one of which is in IC1 and the other one in IC2. then E0 of IC2 will be HIGH. Connect EVEN and ODD inputs to logic 1 and 0 respectively. If EVEN and ODD inputs are at logic 1 and 0 respectively.19 80 . å EVEN output will be 1. then å EVEN output is 1 if the 7-bit input is even and 0 if the 7-bit input is odd.G SEVEN ü ï 8-bit odd ý parity word ï þ 74180 H EVEN SODD ODD Logic 1 Logic 0 Fig. This shows that the circuit is a priority encoder. whereas.G A .

20 Parity of B0 – B7 åEVEN EVEN ODD 1 0 P1 åODD 0 1 Parity of B8 – B13 EVEN ODD EVEN ODD åEVEN 1 0 0 1 P2 åODD 0 1 1 0 From the table we see that the parity of B0 – B13 and åODD of P2 is even.21 and its operation is explained in the Table Prob. Prob. 6.6.20.21 81 A B C S EVEN D E F 74180 G H EVEN SODD ODD 1 on even parity 15-bit even parity word Logic 1 B14 . 6.20 ODD ü ï ý ï þ Table Prob.20 The circuit is shown in Fig. 6.20 and its operation is given in Table Prob.21 The circuit is shown in Fig. B0 – B7 SEVEN P1 74180 SODD EVEN B8 – B13 Logic 0 SEVEN P2 74180 SODD G H B0 – B13 EVEN ODD Fig. 6.21. 6. 6. Prob. Prob. 6. Prob. 6. B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 7486 B8 B9 Logic 1 Fig.

24 (a and b) 6.26. 82 .Table Prob. 6. 6. Prob. with A as MSD.25 6. 6. Prob. and M4. P2. 6. and P3 are 9-bit parity checkers.25 See Fig. The circuit is given in Fig.23. The select input are fed from the mod-4 counter. The least-significant bits of the BCD digits are applied at the data inputs of M1 and similarly higher order bits are applied to M2.22 b80 6. 6. 6.23 The circuit is given in Fig. Prob.24 See Fig.21 Parity of B0 – B7 EVEN EVEN ODD ODD Parity of B8 – B9 EVEN ODD ODD EVEN Cascading inputs EVEN ODD 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Outputs åEVEN 1 0 1 0 åODD 0 1 0 1 6.26 Let the four BCD digits be ABCD. 6.22 b0 – b 7 SEVEN P1 EVEN ODD b8 b9 – b16 SEVEN P2 EVEN ODD SEVEN P10 EVEN ODD High on EVEN High on ODD b17 b72 – b79 SEVEN P9 EVEN ODD Fig. Here P1. which drives a BCD-to-decimal decoder. M3. Prob. Prob.

23 (a) VCC VCC Current Limiting resistor VCC BCD input (MSB) ìD ïC í ïB îA 7442 GND 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fig.b0 P1 b8 SEVEN b9 P2 b15 SEVEN High on EVEN SODD High on ODD b16 SEVEN P3 b24 Fig. 6. 6. Prob.24(a) 83 . Prob.

6. When the counter output is 00. Prob. The circuit is to be designed in a way similar to that of Prob. thereby displaying the digit A on the left-most 7-segment display.27 For R to glow. C. If the clock frequency is sufficiently high.25 14 15 Detects 0001111 The multiplexer outputs are decoded by the BCD-to-7-segment decoder with active-low outputs. third. and D digits are displayed respectively on second. Seven 5:1 multiplexers and a mod-5 counter will be required for this. when the counter outputs are 01. Similarly. digit A is selected and at the same time anode A1 goes HIGH. and 11 B. and fourth displays in sequence. 6. In this way each display will be ON for onefourth of the total time. the inputs required at the rows for each column are as given in Table Prob. 84 .(b) +170 V R = 10 kW 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Anode NIXIE Tube 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 +5V VCC 74141 D C A 1444 24444 4 B 3 BCD Input (b) Fig.24 0 1 2 3 (LSB) A B C D Enable (logic 0) D1 E F G H D2 0 1 15 Detects 0001 Fig. One column must glow at a time in sequence.26. the display would appear to be continuous. 10. Prob. 6. 6.27. 6.

Prob.27 Row/Column ® ¯ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 85 . 6. 6.26 Table Prob.A0 B0 C0 D0 0 1 M1 2 3 S S 1 0 BCD-to-7-segment decoder a b c d e f g Buffer inverters ··· 0 1 2 3 4 BCD-to-decimal decoder A1 B1 C1 D1 0 1 M2 2 3 S S 1 0 A B C (MSB) D A2 B2 C2 D2 0 1 2 M3 3 S S 1 0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A3 B3 C3 D3 0 1 2 M4 3 S S 1 0 Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Mod-4 counter Clock Fig.

3. 7. the inputs and output of G2 remain unaffected. R. then Sn = 0 and Rn = 1 which will make Qn+1 = 0..4 (a) With Pr = 0. Q1 = 1 and Q = 0 in a manner similar to part (a) and also Q and Q will remain unchanged when S and R both are made 0. then Sn = 1 and Rn = 0 which makes Qn+1 = 1.e. 7. the circuit of fig. Therefore. This means the outputs do not change. Therefore. (b) If Cr = 0.2 (a) With S = 1 and R = 0.3 7.5 (i) When Jn = Kn = 0.CHAPTER 7 7. which makes the lower input of G1 as 0 while the upper one becomes one giving again Q = 1. (iii) If Jn = 0 and Kn = 1 then Sn = 0 and Rn = Qn. 7. (c) If Pr = Cr = 1. then Sn = Q n and Rn = 0. i. Qn+1 = Q n.4 is same as that of Fig. Qn+1 = Qn. Therefore. This makes both the inputs of G2 as 1 giving an output Q = 0. it will go to set state in this condition when a clock pulse is applied. 7. the AND gates G5 and G6 are enabled. when a clock pulse is applied. Since one of the inputs of G1 is 0. That is. we find that the FLIP-FLOP will go to the reset state when a clock pulse is applied. if Qn = 1 then Sn = 0. Following the above discussion. (b) With S = 0 and R = 1. Therefore. 86 . 7. Similarly. Now. Sn = Rn = 0 and the output Qn+1 = Qn = 1. the outputs of G3 and G4 are 0 and 1 respectively. whatever may be the state of the FLIP-FLOP. Now if S = R = 0. 7. if Qn = 1. Prob 7. This results in both the inputs of AND gate G5 to be 1 giving Q = 1. Therefore. the outputs Q and Q will not change. its output Q = 1. then Sn = Q n and Rn = Qn. therefore. and CK inputs. then the FLIP-FLOP is reset following the same logic as discussed in part (a). the outputs of the gates G3 and G4 will be 1.. (ii) When Jn = 1 and Kn = 0. Hence.3 R Q Q S Fig. G1 and G2 will act as inverters.e. Q will be 0 which makes one of the inputs of G3 0. whatever may be the other input of G3. On the other hand if Qn = 0 then Sn = 1 which will make Qn+1 = 1. Now. the FLIP-FLOP is set irrespective of the S. i.5. its output will be 1. making this circuit identical to a normal clocked S – R FLIP-FLOP as shown in Fig.1 When S = R = 0. the AND gates are disabled resulting in Sn = Rn = 0. if Qn = 0. (iv) If Jn = Kn = 1.

8 Clock Input Q2 = Q Output í ìQ îQ 7. Y1 = Y2 7.10 Clock Input Output Q 7.6 Y1 = ( J ⋅ Q ) ⋅ CK = J ⋅ Q ⋅ CK and Y2 = J ⋅ Q ⋅ CK Hence.7 Q1 = Q and 7. When a clock pulse is applied.11 Let Q = 1 and Q = 0.7. R = Q = 0 and S = Q = 1 and on 87 . Now.9 Clock Input Output í ìQ îQ 7. Q and Q will become 0 and 1 respectively. This makes R = Q = 1 and S = Q = 0.

Now Q = D = 1 and the next clock pulse will change the Q output to 1.14(b). From this table we observe that when Tn = 0. when Tn = 1.12 The truth table is given in Table Prob. a clock pulse will make Q and Q 0 and 1 respectively. Table Prob.application of a clock pulse.12 Tn 0 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 Sn 0 1 1 0 Rn 1 0 0 1 Qn+1 0 1 1 0 7.14 The characteristic table and the truth table for decoder are given in Table Prob. Qn+1 = Qn. The K-maps for Y1 and Y2 are shown below. 7. and hence the circuit behaves as a toggle switch. The K-maps can be prepared and minimized. Qn+1 = Q n.14 (a) CK 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Characteristic table K Qn 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Qn + 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Truth table for decoder Y1 Y2 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 1 0 X 0 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 0 1 1 1 0 (b) The excitation table and the truth table for decoder are given in Table Prob. 7.12.13 When Q = D = 0.14 (a). 7. 7. 7. Q and Q become 1 and 0 respectively. Thus. whereas. The minimized expressions are: 88 . This show that Q and Q change with every clock pulse. the outputs change with every clock pulse. 7. which give Y1 = Q + CK + J = Q ⋅ J ⋅ CK and Y2 = CK + K + Q = Q ⋅ K ⋅ CK Table Prob. 7.

The K-maps for S and R outputs are prepared as shown in Fig. 7.KQ CKJ 00 00 1 01 ´ 11 ´ 10 1 01 1 ´ ´ 1 11 0 ´ 1 0 10 1 ´ 1 1 KQ CKJ 00 ´ 1 1 ´ 01 ´ 1 1 ´ 11 1 1 0 1 10 ´ 1 0 ´ 00 01 11 10 Y 1 = Q + CK + J = Q ⋅ J ⋅ CK (a) Y 2 = CK + K + Q = Q ⋅ K ⋅ CK (b) Y1 = CK + D = CK ⋅ D and Y = CK + D = CK ⋅ D Table Prob. 7. 7.15(a). 7. we obtain Y1 = CK ⋅ T ⋅ Q Y2 = CK ⋅ T ⋅ Q Complete circuits can be drawn for each of the above cases.15(i) from which we obtain the minimized expressions for S and R as S = D and R = D and Table Prob.14(b) CK 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Excitation table D 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Qn+1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Truth table for decoder Y1 Y2 1 X 1 X 1 1 0 X X 1 X 1 X 0 1 1 (c) Using the above method. Prob. 7.15 (a) The truth table required for conversion from S-R to D FLIP-FLOP is given in Table Prob.15(a) Data input D 0 1 0 1 Output Q 0 0 1 1 89 S-R FF inputs S R 0 1 0 X X 0 1 0 .

7.15(i) (b) The required truth table is given in Table Prob. 7. 7.15(c) and the minimized expression for D is given by D = JQ + KQ Table Prob. 7.15(b) from which the minimized expressions are obtained as J= D and K= D Table Prob.15 (d) gives the required truth table from which we obtain the minimized expressions for S and R as S = T ⋅Q and R =T⋅Q 90 .15(b) Data input D 0 1 0 1 Output Q 0 0 1 1 J 0 1 X X J-K FF inputs K X X 1 0 (c) The required truth table is given in Table Prob.15(c) Data inputs J 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 K 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Output Q 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 D-FF input D 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 (d) Table Prob. 7.Q D 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 ´ (a) Q D 0 0 1 ´ 1 1 0 0 (b) Fig. 7. Prob.

(i) When the clock is LOW: Y1 = Y2 = 1 independent of D input and the state of the FLIP-FLOP cannot change. Y1 and Y2 will remain unaltered. When the clock comes back to 0 from 1.15(d) Data input T 0 1 1 0 Output Q 0 0 1 1 S S – R FF inputs R X 0 1 0 0 1 0 X (e) The truth table can be prepared and expressions for J and K inputs obtained. (ii) When the clock is HIGH: Y1 and Y2 are complement to each other and for each value of D we find that the values of Y1 and Y2 do not change. Q = 1. Q becomes 0. Case II: Let D = 1. 7.Table Prob. Therefore. 7. all the other conversions can be made. While the clock is HIGH. K = R 7.17. Q will become 0. Now.17 The waveforms obtained are shown in Fig. while the clock is HIGH. Y1 and Y2 will remain unaltered. even if the switch 91 . if there is any change in D. Prob. (iii) When the clock goes from LOW to HIGH: Case I: Let D = 0 Y1 will remain 1 and Y2 changes from 1 to 0. The minimized expressions obtained are given below: (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) T = J Q + KQ T =D⊕Q D = S + RQ D =T⊕Q T = S Q + RQ J = S. Y2 will remain 1 and Y1 changes from 1 to 0. J=K=T Similarly.16 Let the inputs to the latch be Y1 and Y2. as soon as it makes contact for the first time. 7. if there is any change in D. if the switch is changed over to position 0.18 (a) When the switch is in position 1. When the clock goes back to 0. Now. 7. Therefore. This means the state of the FLIP-FLOP cannot change. then Y1 = Y2 = 1 which also does not affect the output Q. then Y1 = Y2 = 1 which will not affect the output Q. Therefore. Now. Q goes to 1. Pr = 0 and Cr = 1.

20. 7. Prob. (b) When the switch is in position 1.20 The waveforms are shown in Fig. the data is loaded into the destination FF. the switch will operate in the reverse switching. Prob 7.17 (a) debounces.19. 7. when the switch debounces. Prob. 7. the output Q will not be affected. at the first contact Q becomes 1. 01 and 10. Prob. the level triggered D-type FF will operate as a positive-edge-triggered FF.21 The waveform at CK will be as shown in Fig. 7. CKs and CKD waveforms are shown in Fig. When CKD goes HIGH. 7.Clock 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 J 0 1 Q 0 1 Q 0 (b) Fig. In fact. Similarly. 7. Now. the clock skew may violate the hold time requirements of the destination FF. the data present at the data input terminal Ds is loaded into the source FF. Clock CKS Dt1 CKD Dt2 Fig. 92 . This difficulty can be overcome by adding additional delay to assure reliable operation. This means. The states of the counter are 00. the operation will not be reliable.19 7. if the delay time Dt2 is more than it takes to change the present output of the source FF. When the switch is thrown to position 0. Now. the outputs Q and Q do not change.21. At the rising edge of the clock CKs. Q = 0 and Q = 1. Prob.19 The clock.

Prob.1 Clock pulses 1 0 1 0 1 Q 0 = J1 Q1 0 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 J 0 = Q1 Fig. 7. 7.21 93 . Prob.20 Fig.

In this case the data will get shifted to the left direction. 8..2(a). all the A AND gates are enabled and all the B AND gates are disabled. 8. 8. Prob. Q4 = Q3 = Q2 = Q1 = Q0 = 0. it functions as a leftshift register. Therefore.CHAPTER 8 8. The circuit effectively reduces to that of Fig. i. The circuit effectively reduces to that of Fig.e. Table Prob. 94 . 8.1(ii) 8.1(ii).e..2 A 5-stage twisted-ring counter is shown in Fig. Its state diagram is shown in Fig. 8. Prob.1(i). 8. Prob. 8. The various outputs when clock pulses are applied are given in Table Prob.2 At the end of clock pulse 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q4 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Outputs Q2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Q1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 At the end of the tenth clock pulse. the circuit comes back to its initial state. Let us assume that all the FLIP-FLOPs are in the clear state.2. Prob. Prob. M = 1. i. it is a mod-10 counter. Serial input D3 FF3 Q3 D2 FF2 Q2 D1 FF1 Q1 D0 Q0 FF0 Fig. all the B AND gates are enabled and all the A AND gates are disabled. Prob.2(b). Q3 FF3 D3 Q2 FF2 D2 Q1 FF1 D1 D0 FF0 Q0 Serial input Fig.1 (i) When the mode control input. 8.1(i) (ii) When M = 0. This is a right-shift register.

The truth table for the decoder is given in Table Prob.D4 Q4 FF4 Clock Clear D3 Q3 FF3 D2 Q2 FF2 D1 Q1 FF1 D0 Q0 FF0 Q0 Fig.3 gives the K-map for Y0 . 8. .3 Q4 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Inputs Q2 Q1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Y0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Outputs Y 4 Y5 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Y6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Y7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Y8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Y9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 95 . . Prob. be the outputs corresponding to pulses 0. 1. Prob.2(a) 00000 10000 11000 11100 11110 00001 00011 00111 01111 11111 Fig.3.2(b) 8. other K-maps can be prepared. the Y outputs are don’t care. 8. The minimized expressions are given by Y0 = Q 4 Q 0 Y1 = Q4 Q 3 Y2 = Q3 Q 2 Y3 = Q2 Q 1 Y4 = Q1 Q 0 Y5 = Q4Q0 Y6 = Q 4Q3 Y7 = Q 3Q2 Y8 = Q 2Q1 Y9 = Q 1Q0 Table Prob. For all the remaining combinations of Q’s. . respectively. Y1. Similarly. Figure Prob. .3 Let Y0. 8. 8. The K-map is to be prepared for each output. 8. . 2.

5.3. 8. 8.3 Q4 = 1 Q3Q2 Q1Q0 00 00 01 11 10 0 ´ ´ ´ 01 ´ ´ ´ ´ 11 0 ´ 0 0 10 0 ´ ´ ´ 8. Prob. From the count sequence we observe that Q0 changes with every clock pulse.4(i). Prob. 8. This can be obtained by using a T-type FLIP-FLOP (FF0) with T0 = 1. which are designed in the same way as Prob.4(i) Q3 Q2 f1 Q1 Q0 f2 Q2 f3 Q0 f4 Q3 Q1 Fig. 8. a 4-stage twisted-ring counter is required. 8. Prob. waveforms can be obtained by using decoders shown in Fig.5 The count sequence is given in Table Prob.The circuit can be drawn using ten 2-input AND gates. The waveforms at the Q outputs are shown in Fig. Prob. 96 . The required.4(ii) 8. 8. Prob. 1 Clock Pulses Q3 Q2 Q1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Q0 Fig. Q3Q2 Q1Q0 00 00 01 11 10 1 0 0 ´ Q4 = 0 01 ´ ´ 0 ´ 11 ´ ´ 0 ´ 10 ´ ´ ´ ´ Fig.4 To generate these waveforms.4(ii). 8.

Prob.Q1 changes whenever Q0 changes from 0 to 1.5 Q2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Q1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Q0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 8.6 97 .6 For a ripple UP counter Q outputs of the preceding stages are to be connected to the clock inputs of the succeeding stages. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. 8. Therefore. The desired changes in Q2 can be obtained by using Q1 as the clock input for FF2 with T2 = 1. T0 = T1 = T2 = 1 T0 Clock Q0 FF0 Q0 T1 Q1 FF1 Q1 T2 FF2 Q2 Q2 Fig. therefore.5 Table Prob. AND-OR gates are used between stages as shown below. whereas the AND gates B are enabled when UP/DOWN input is at logic 0 connecting Q outputs to the clock inputs. Q2 changes whenever Q1 goes from 0 to 1. the desired changes in Q1 will be obtained. T0 = T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 T0 Clock pulses Q0 FF0 A0 T1 Q1 FF1 B0 A1 T2 Q2 FF2 B1 Q2 A2 T3 Q3 FF3 Q0 Q1 B2 Q3 UP/ DOWN Fig. if Q 0 is used as the clock input for FF1 with T1 = 1. Similarly. The AND gates A are enabled when UP/ DOWN input is at logic 1. Prob. 8. 8. whereas for a DOWN counter Q outputs are to be connected to the clock inputs. Prob. connecting Q outputs to clock inputs. 8.5.

D0

D1

D2

D3

Load

Pr Q0 FF0 Q0

Pr Q1 FF1 Q1 Fig. Prob. 8.7

Pr Q2 FF2

Q2

Pr

Q3

FF3 Q3

The preset inputs are used for asynchronous loading. The relevant portion of the circuit is shown on next page. When load input is HIGH, the data at the D inputs will be entered in the FLIP-FLOPs. The other details will be same as in Prob. 8.6. 8.8 At the end of the tenth pulse Q3 = Q1 = 1, the output of G becomes 0. Also CK = 0, therefore, the output of the latch is 0. Now if Q1 or Q3 goes to 0, the output of the latch continues to be 0. When the eleventh clock pulse appears at CK, the output of the latch will go to 1 and normal counting will proceed. 8.9 (a) For the divide-by-5 circuit, the count sequence will be 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 000. Therefore, as soon as the count reaches 101, all the three FLIPFLOPs must be cleared. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.9.

T0 = T1 = T2 = 1 T0 Clock pulses Q0 FF0 Cr Q 0 T1 Q1 FF1 Cr Q 1 Fig. Prob. 8.9 T2 Q2 FF2 Cr Q 2

(b) For the divide-by-7, the resetting of FLIP-FLOPs is required as soon as the count reaches 111. Therefore, a 3-input NAND gate with inputs Q0, Q1, and Q2 will be required to clear the FLIP-FLOPs. 8.10 The waveforms are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.10. It is clear from the waveforms that the frequency divisions by 3, 6, and 12 are obtained at the QC, QD, and QA outputs respectively.

98

Clock 1 pulses 0 1 QD QC 0 1 0 1 QB QA 0 1 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13

Fig. Prob. 8.10

**8.11 The states of the circuit of Prob. 8.10 are given below.
**

QD 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 QC 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 QB 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 QA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

**(a) The ÷ 7 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence when QB = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(a).
**

Output QA QB QC

QD

A input 7 Clock pulses B input R1 R2 4 9 2

Fig. Prob. 8.11(a) 99

**(b) The ÷ 9 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence as soon as QD = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(b).
**

Output QA QB QC QD

A input Clock pulses B input

7

4

9 R1

2 R2

Fig. Prob. 8.11(b)

**(c) The ÷ 11 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence as soon as QD = QC = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(c).
**

Output QA QB QC QD

·

A input Clock pulses B input 7 4 9 R1 2 R2

Fig. Prob. 8.11(c)

8.12 If we use the complements of QD, QC, QB, and QA as outputs, we obtain the DOWN counter. The sequence is given in Table Prob. 8.12.

QD QC QB QA

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 100

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 (Contd.)

14 IC7490 is a decade counter.14 101 . Prob. 8. Q0 QA Q1 QB Q2 QC Q3 QD QA Q4 QB Q5 QC Q6 QD A input Clock pulses B input A input IC1 7493 R1 R2 B input IC2 7493 R1 R2 Logic 0 Fig. Prob. If two such ICs are cascaded.) QD QC QB QA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 8. The complete circuit is shown below. IC 7493 is a 4-bit binary counter.13 Logic 0 8. The resulting circuit is shown in Fig. a divide-by-16 counter followed by a divide-by8 counter will become a divide-by-128 counter. Therefore. therefore.13 Since 128 = 16 ´ 8.13. the counter is reset as soon as it becomes 1001 0110. two IC packages will be required. To get a divide-by-96 counter. 100 101 QA QB QC A input Clock pulses B input QD A input QA QB QC QD IC1 7490 S1 S2 R1 R2 IC2 7490 S1 S2 R1 R2 B input Fig. 8. Prob. it becomes a divideby-100 circuit.(Contd. 8.

8.16 Clock pulses QA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 QB QC QD Fig.8. For the mod-13 counter QD.15.15 Since 78 = 13 ´ 6. and QA outputs of 7493 are ANDed and used to clear the counter when the count reaches 1101.15 8.16 102 . 8. Prob. 8. For the mod-6 counter. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. we have to use 7493 as a mod-13 and 7492 as mod-6 counters. QA QB QC QD QA QB QC QD A input Clock pulses B input 7493 R1 R2 A input B input 7492 R1 R2 Fig. Prob. QA output of 7492 is connected to B input and the QD output of 7493 is connected to A input of 7492. therefore. QC.

Prob.17 8. 8. The waveforms are 1 Clock pulses QA 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 QB QC QD Cr Fig.18 The counter have states from 0000 to 1100. When the count reaches the maximum value (111 in 4-bit binary and 1001 in decade counter) its RC output goes HIGH which makes ENP = ENT of IC2 HIGH for one clock cycle advancing its output by 1 and making Q 103 .8.18 8.17 Clock pulses QA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 QB QC QD RC Fig. 8.19 The counter ICI operates as a counter for counting in the UP direction when Cr = L = 1. Prob. The clearing operation will occur at the rising edge of the next clock.

27. Prob. Prob. There are two possible operations in this circuit. 8. When the output becomes 0.20(b) between QC.outputs of ICI 0 at the next clock cycle.21(a) and waveforms are shown in Fig. This way the counting will continue. Alternative II: Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 8.20(a) between the QC.20 Alternative I: Connect the circuit shown in Fig. Prob. whereas only one type of operation is possible in the circuit of Fig. After this clock cycle ENP = ENT = 0 for IC2 and IC1 will go on counting the pulses. QD outputs and the clear input (with L = 1). The circuit is given in Fig. 8. the counter is loaded with P inputs which must be PA = PB = PC = PD = 0.21(b). As soon as the count becomes 1100. the next clock pulse will be registered in this counter and simultaneously IC1 and IC2 will be cleared. the counter is loaded with preset inputs 0101 and the states will be: 0101. 8. RC outputs of both of these ICs will go HIGH. QD outputs and load (L) input (with Cr = 1). 0010.21(a) 104 . the counter is cleared.20 QC QD (b) Cr L 8. QC QD (a) Fig.21 For the DOWN counter. Prob. and 0001. 8. Prob. Prob. 8. 8. QA +VCC CK-UP CK-DOWN Cr PA PB PC PD L Borrow 74192 QB QC QD Carry Clock pulses +VCC Fig. As soon as the count reaches 1100. 8. When the outputs of IC1 and IC2 both reach the maximum count. 0011. 0100. the clock pulses are applied at CK-DOWN input. This will make ENP = ENT of IC3 HIGH and therefore.

8. Prob.22(ii) X 0 0 Counter State QA QB 0 1 0 1 JA 1 X 105 FLIP-FLOP Inputs KA JB X 0 1 X KB X 1 (Contd. Its state table is given in Table Prob. 8. Prob.22(ii) is obtained to determine the FF inputs. 8. 1 11 1 0 0 10 Fig.22 The modified state diagram is given in Fig. Prob.22(a).22(i) from which Table Prob. 8.22(a) 00 0 0 1 1 01 Table 8.) . 8.Clock 1 pulses 0 1 QA 0 QB 1 0 QC QD 1 0 1 0 Borrow Fig. 8.21(b) 8.22(i) Next State Present State A B 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 X=0 A 1 0 0 1 B 1 0 1 0 A 0 1 1 0 X=1 B 1 0 1 0 Table Prob.

Q3 0 0 Count Sequence Q2 Q1 Q0 0 1 1 0 1 0 J0 X 1 K0 1 X J1 X 0 FF Inputs K1 J2 1 X 1 X K2 X 0 J3 0 0 K3 X X (Contd. The Q2 output will be the required output when the input waveform is used as the clock input. 010. The unused states are taken as don’t care (X) conditions.) Table Prob.(Contd. K0 FF1 : J1. FF0 : J0. Logic 1 JB FFB KB Clock pulses x = 1 UP = 0 DOWN Fig.23 A divide-by-5 circuit will give the required input-output relationship. 8. 8.22(b). K2 J3.22(b) QB QB QB JA FFA KA QA QA 8. The states of this circuit are: 000. 001. therefore.) 106 . K3 The count sequence and the corresponding values of the FF inputs required to get the count sequence are given below.24 Since there are ten states. and 100. 8. it requires four FFs. Prob. 011. K1 FF2 : FF3 : J2.22(ii) X 0 0 1 1 1 1 Counter State QA QB 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 JA X 0 0 1 X X FLIP-FLOP Inputs KA JB 1 X X X 0 1 1 X 1 X 1 X KB X 1 X 1 X 1 This gives and JB = KB = 1 JA = KA = (QB ¤ X) The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. The FFs with their inputs are given as follows. 8.

25 107 .25 The circuit is given in Fig.) Q3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Count Sequence Q2 Q1 Q0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 J0 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 K0 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X J1 1 X X 0 1 X X 1 FF Inputs K1 J2 X 0 1 X X 0 1 X X X X 0 0 0 1 X K2 0 0 1 X X X X 1 J3 0 0 1 X X X X X K3 X X X 0 0 0 0 1 Using K-maps. 8. Prob. the expressions for FF inputs can be minimized and the minimized expressions are: J0 = K0 = 1 J1 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 + Q3 ⋅ Q2 K1 = Q0 J2 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 K2 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 + Q3 ⋅ Q2 J3 = Q2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ Q0 K3 = Q2 Using the FLIP-FLOPs and the above expressions. 8.25. 8. Pulses Logic 1 QA ENT ENP QB QC QD 74163 Load Cr Logic 1 Fig. the circuit can be drawn.(Contd. Prob.

26(b) 1/0 01 0/0 00 1/0 (c) Present State Q1 0 0 Q0 0 0 Input X 0 1 Next state Q1* 0 0 Q0* 0 1 108 Output Y 0 0 J1 0 0 FF FF1 K1 X X J0 0 1 Inputs FF0 K0 X X (Contd. 8.) .26(a) 0/0 1/1 0/0 11 1/0 10 0/0 Fig. Prob. Prob.26 (a) Q1 Q1 Q0 Q1 Q0 D1 Q1 FF1 Q1 Y Q0 Q0 X D0 Q0 FF0 Q0 (b) Clock Fig.8. 8.

26(c) Q0 Q0 8. 8.27 (a) D1 = Q1 ⊕ X D0 = Q0 ⊕ Q1 Z = Q1 ⋅ X + Q0 109 . Prob.) Present State Q1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Q0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next state Q1* 0 1 1 1 1 0 Q0* 1 0 0 1 1 0 Output Y 0 0 0 0 0 1 J1 0 1 X X X X FF FF1 K1 X X 0 0 0 1 J0 X X 0 1 X X Inputs FF0 K0 0 1 X X 0 1 Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 0 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ 0 1 0 0 J1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 1 K1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 Y = Q1 × Q0 × X ´ 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ J0 = X K0 = X X J1 FF1 K1 Q1 Q1 J0 FF0 K0 Clock Fig.(Contd.

state table as shown above is prepared and inputs to FF0 and FF1 are obtained using the excitation table of J-K FF. K-maps are prepared for J1. the initial state has been assumed as Q1 Q0 = 00 and correspondingly the other states have been assigned.28 Present Q1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 State Q0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Q1* 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Q0* 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 FF1 J1 0 0 1 0 X X X X K1 X X X X 0 0 0 1 J0 0 1 X X 0 1 X X FF inputs FF0 K0 X X 1 0 X X 0 1 From the state diagram. X Q1Q0 00 01 11 10 0 0 1 0 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ X Q1Q0 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ 0 1 0 0 J1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 1 K1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 0 ´ 1 ´ 0 1 ´ K0 = Q1 ¤ X J0 = X Fig. K1. and K0 with Q1. Prob. 110 . we obtain the output sequence as 001110.28(a) The circuit can be drawn using the above expressions. 8. Q0. and X as the input variables as given below. J0. From the table. 8.(b) The state table will be Q1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Present State Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Q1* Q0* 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Output Z 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Here.

These are T2 = Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X T1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X T0 = Q 0 + Q1 X and Y = Q0 ⋅ X S2 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X R2 = Q 0 ⋅ X S1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ X R1 = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X S0 = Q 1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X R0 = Q0 and Y = Q0 ⋅ X J2 = Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X K2 = X J1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ X K1 = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X J0 = Q1 ⋅ X K0 = 1 (a) (b) (c) and Y = Q0 ⋅ X The complete circuits can be drawn using the above expressions.J0 FF0 K0 Clock X Q0 J1 FF1 Q1 Q0 K1 Q1 Fig. S-R.28 (b) 8. and J-K FLIPFLOPs are given in the Table. 8. From this the simplified expressions for these inputs are obtained using K-maps.29 The State table along with the inputs required for T. Prob. 111 .

112 .

8. K2.30 Table 8. K1. 8.31 0/0 011 0/0 0/0 100 1/0 113 . J1. Present State Q2 Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Input Next State Output X Q2* Q1* Q0* Y J2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 X X K2 X X X X X X X X 1 0 FF inputs J1 K1 J0 1 0 0 1 X X X X 1 0 X X X X 0 1 1 1 X X 0 1 X X 1 0 X X 1 0 K0 X X 1 1 X X 1 1 X X The simplified expressions are: J2 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X K2 = X J1 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X K1 = Q0 + X J0 = Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X K0 = 1 Y = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 The Complete circuit can be drawn using the above expressions. 1/0 1/0 000 1/0 001 1/1 010 1/0 0/0 1/0 111 1/1 0/1 110 0/0 0/1 101 0/1 Fig.31 The state diagram is given below. J0.17 along with the inputs J2. Prob. and K0 required for the FFS is given below.8.

34(a) (i) by solid arrows. Table Prob.31 (a). This means these two states are identical and one of them can be eliminated. 8. the next states and the outputs are same. 8.27(b) and is given below.31(a) Present State Q2 Q1 Q0 * Q2 Next State X=0 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 * Q2 X=1 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 Output Y X=0X=1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table Prob. Therefore.18 we observe that from the present states 001 and 100. 8. 114 . 8. Therefore. 8. the states 011 and 111 are identical. the state transitions will be 00 ® 11 ® 11 Shown in the Fig.32 (a) The circuit can be designed using the method similar to that of Example 8.34 (a) (i) The circuit is initially in stable total state 0001 (first row. 8. the state 010 can be eliminated and the reduced state table is given in Table Prob. Prob.31 (b).31 (b) Present State Q2 Q1 Q0 * Q2 Next State X=0 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 * Q2 X=1 * * Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Output Y X=0X=1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8. X2 because 11.30. When X1. 8.29(c).15. eliminating the states 100 and 111 we obtain Table Prob. From this we observe that the states 000 and 010 are identical. and 8. Similarly. 01000111010 8.33 The output sequence can be obtained similar to Prob. (b) The circuit can be designed using the method similar to the design of Probs. 8. 8.26(c).From Table 8.28. 8. second column).

8.X1 X2 Q1 Q2 00 00 01 11 10 01 00 11 10 11 10 11 10 Fig. 8. 00 ® 10 ® 10 (ii) The circuit is initially in stable total state 1111 (third row. race condition exists. therefore. state transitions will be 00 ® 01 ® 10 ® 10 Shown in the Fig. both the states are required to change here. 8. 11 ® 10 ® 00 ® 00 or 11 ® 01 ® 00 ® 00 depending upon whether Q1 changes first or Q2 changes first. third column). If it is 10. Prob. 115 . therefore.34(a) (ii) Q1 Q2 X1 X2 00 01 00 00 00 00 Fig. Prob. The circuit will be making transitions. Prob. If it is 01. 8. Both are shown in Fig.34(a) (i) Since. the state transitions will be 11 ® 00 ® 00 It is shown by solid arrows in Fig. When X1 X2 becomes 01. race condition exists and the circuit will either attain 01 or 10 state first. the circuit goes to 10 stable state from 10 unstable state. In (a)-(ii). the circuit goes to stable state 10 which shows that the race is critical.34(a) (ii) Here again both the states are required to change. 8. Prob. Prob. but due to unequal time delays.34 (a) (ii) 11 11 10 00 01 11 10 (b) In (a)-(i) The circuit is required to change from stable state 00 to stable state 11 .34(a) (i) by dotted arrows.

These are shown in Fig. first column will be 00 .35 (a) X1 X2 00 Q 2 Q2 00 01 11 10 00 00 – – 01 – 11 11 – 11 01 01 11 – 10 00 01 01 – Fig. 8. 8. the entry in the first row. squares corresponding to input sequence are filled. therefore. All the remaining squares are unspecified. Similarly. 8. again the next state specified is 00. Prob. When X1 changes to 1 while X2 = 0. 8. These are shown in Fig. X1 X 2 Q1 Q2 00 01 11 10 00 0 0 ´ ´ 01 ´ 1 1 ´ 11 0 0 1 ´ 10 0 0 0 ´ X1 X2 Q1 Q2 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 ´ ´ 01 ´ 1 1 ´ 11 1 1 1 ´ 10 0 1 1 ´ + (i) K-map for Q 1 + (ii) K-map for Q 2 Fig. Prob. the race is non-critical. therefore. the entry in the first row. Prob.35 (b) The next state logic equations are + Q1 = X 1 X2 + X2 Q1 + Q 2 = X2 + X1 Q2 116 .35(a).35 (a) Transition Table For X1 X2 = 00. Prob. + + (b) K-maps are prepared for Q1 and Q 2 from the state transition table.The state change is from 11 to 00 through both the paths and therefore. 8.35(b). fourth column will be 00 . the next state specified is 00.

while transition from e ® b ® b .36 When the circuit is in stable state e inputs can change to 01 or 10. Y = 1. sixth row will be –. since the outputs for stable states f and a are 1 and 0 respectively. therefore. therefore. is not possible when the circuit is in stable state e . When the circuit is in stable state f . X1 X2 = 00. –. Prob. When X1 X2 becomes 11. when X1 X2 = 10.35 (c). –. Similarly. the entries in the second column. therefore. Since for the stable state b . the next-state will be e and since X1 = 1 and X2 is changing state. From f . the next-state will be a and the output may be 0 or 1. X1 X2 X2 Q1 X1 Q2 Q1+ Q2+ Fig. the output Y may be 0 or 1 and the next-state will be b. When X1 X2 = 01. the output may change during unstable b or stable b . it can not go to X1 X2 = 01. X2 has changed while X1 = 1. 8. the next state and the output are unspecified for X1 = X2 = 0 and the entry in the first column. Prob 8. If it changes to 00. the input can change to 00 or 11. fifth row will be –. 117 . Y = 1 and the next state will be f and then f .(c) The logic circuit is shown in Fig. the output is 0 and for the stable state e the output is 1. therefore.35(c) Logic diagram 8.

the output of the inverter goes to V(0).CHAPTER 9 9. This makes the voltage at the non-inverting input terminal as R2 R1 (V Z 1 + V D ) + V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R When the voltage at the input increases and passes through the above voltage. vo = – (VZ2 + VD) This gives voltage at the non-inverting input terminal as − (V Z 2 + V D ) 118 R2 R1 + V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R . Hence R2 R1 (V Z 1 + VD ) + VUT = V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R Now. vo = V(1). Prob..e. and so on. The waveforms of vc and vo are illustrated below. i. vc V(1) t V(0) t vo V(1) t V(0) 0 T1 T2 Fig. when vi > VUT .1 Let us assume that the voltage vc = V(0).2 Let vo be in logic 0 state under steady-state condition. the output voltage vo will change from (VD + VZ1) to – (VZ2 + VD). the voltage corresponding to LOW level. When vc reaches V(1). the output of the AND gate will be V(1) which will charge the capacitor C with the time constant t = RC. Thus. square waveform will be generated at the output. thereby discharging the capacitor with the same time constant through the output transistor of the AND gate. Therefore. the capacitor will get charged to voltage V(1) making the input to the inverter as logic 0 which produces logic 1 at the output.1 t 9. The output of the NAND gate will be logic 1. It will saturate at vo = VD + VZ1.3 When the voltage vi at the input is very low. 9. This shows that it is not possible for vo to be in logic 0 state under steady state. at t = 0. the output voltage will be maximum positive. 9.

3.0042 V VLT = − 0. Now.4(a) with VUT and VLT marked. 9. we obtain VUT = 0. when the increasing input voltage passes through the voltage VUT.2 V and remains at that level as long as the input voltage is higher than VLT. 6) + 100 (1) 100 + 0.1 ( 4. The output waveform is illustrated in Fig.9938 V The input waveform is shown in Fig. Hence VLT = − R2 R1 (V + VD ) + V R1 + R 2 Z 2 R1 + R 2 R 9.4 119 . Prob.2 V. 9.When the voltage at the input decreases and passes through this value. 9.1 » 1. Prob. 1 100 + 0. As soon as the decreasing input voltage passes through VLT. the output comes back to +5.2 V. the output changes from +5.4(b). When the input voltage is zero. the output is + 5. Prob.2 V to –5. 1 » 0.2 V (b) Fig. 1 ( 4. vi 5V VUT VLT 0 t -5V (a) vo 5.4 Using the expressions for VUT and VLT derived in Prob. 6 ) + 100 (1) 100 + 0. 6 + 0.2 V 0 t -5.1 100 + 0. 6 + 0. 9. the output vo changes from – (VZ2 + VD) to + (VZ1 + VD).

Consequently. vc = – Vo′ + ( Vo′ + b V o′′ ) e – t/t at \ or t = T2. R¢¢ in series with the conducting diode will f be effective. During the discharging of the capacitor. the output voltage changes from positive maximum to negative maximum ( Vo′ ). Therefore. The capacitor voltage is given by vc = V o′′ – (Vo′′ + b Vo′ )e – t/t at \ or t = T1. during the interval T2 when the output is negative. at which time the output will swing back from – Vo′ to + Vo′′ . However. vc = b Vo′′ b Vo′′ = Vo′′ – ( Vo′′ + b Vo′ ) e. the capacitor will discharge with the same time constant from b Vo′′ to – Vo′ . The capacitor C will be charging from –b Vo′ to Vo′′ with the time constant t = RfC. Similarly.T1 /t T1 = t 1n Vo′′ + bVo′ Vo′′ (1 − b ) At T1. the output voltage levels will be Vo′ = VZ2 + VD1 – VD » VZ2 and Vo′′ = VZ1 + VD2 – VD » VZ1 120 . vc = b Vo′ b Vo′ = – Vo′ + ( Vo′ + b V o′′ ) e–T2/t T2 = t 1n Vo′ + bVo′′ Vo′ (1 − b ) The charging and discharging will go on in the same way and the time period of the resulting output square waveform will be T = T1 + T2 1 1 and the frequency = f = = T T1 + T2 9. the discharge will be terminated as soon as vc reaches –b Vo′ .6 During the interval T1 when vo is positive.5 The maximum negative output voltage Vo′ and the maximum positive output voltage Vo′′ are given by Vo′ = VZ2 + VD1 and Vo′′ = VZ1 + VD2 Let us assume the output voltage to be maximum positive (V 0′′ ). the feedback resistance R¢f in series with the conducting diode D will be in the circuit. where b = (R2/R1 + R2).9.

t 1 = R′ C f Vo′′(1 − b ) Vo′ + bVo′′ . This shows that the output voltage cannot remain as –Vo under steady-state.5 and are given by T1 = t 1 1n T2 = t 2 1n Vo′′ + bVo′ . The charging gets terminated when vc reaches VUT and the output changes to V(0) = 0 V. Now.8 When the output voltage is in logic 1 state. 9.. t 2 = R ′′ C f Vo′ (1 − b ) and The output voltage waveform is shown in Fig. the capacitor C will get charged with the polarity opposite to that indicated in the figure. 9. The timings T1 and T2 corresponding to the charging and discharging of C respectively are given by T1 = RC 1n T2 = RC 1n V (1) − V LT V (1) − VUT and VUT V LT 121 . the output goes back to V(1). v V ¢¢ o bVO¢¢ vc t2 t vo t1 0 -bV¢¢ O .6 9. and R¢f = R¢¢. Prob. Prob. the capacitor discharges with the same time constant until its voltage becomes VLT. 9.If we assume identical Zeners for convenience. i. the square wave f will be symmetrical. the periods T1 and T2 can be obtained using the relationships derived in Prob. V(1). 9. When the capacitor voltage passes through the voltage bVo. In case R¢f ¹ R¢¢f .7 If vo = –Vo under steady-state.e.6. the capacitor C charges with the time constant t = RC. At this voltage.VO ¢ T1 T2 T3 T4 Fig. the output voltage will go to +Vo.

A circuit using OP AMP Schmit trigger circuit is shown below. we obtain (using the results of Prob. 7 × 1.VLT + 1n T = T1 + T2 = RC ê1n ú VLT û ë V (1) .9 – GREEN and Let \ T2 = τ 2 1n 1+β 1−β R1 = R2 = 100 kW.VUT 9.9 An astable multivibrator with T1 = 30 s and T2 = 60 s can be used for this purpose.5 kW C = 0.3 kW and R¢¢f = 54. the diode D4 will conduct when the output is negative and consequently the GREEN bulb will be ON. 2 × 10 −6 ≈ 200 pF 0.10 (a) The pulse duration is given by . 9. 5 × 10 3 122 9.Hence.6). diode D3 conducts and the RED bulb is ON.7 RC Assuming R = 1. 9. b = 1 2 and C = 1000 mF R¢f = 27. VUT ù é V (1) . On the other hand. T1 = τ 1 1n 1+ β 1− β R¢ f R¢¢ f – + D1 D2 R – R1 + + VZ VZ RED D3 D4 vo C R2 Fig. Prob. In this circuit when the output is positive.6 kW TON » 0. Assuming identical Zener diodes.

Therefore.8. pF Fig. Prob. fmax = 180 Hz 9. Prob. Therefore. 57 µF 0. 5 × 10 −3 5 × 10 −3 ≈ 178. 9. we obtain from the graph C » 35 pF.8 9.1) RA + RB × 100 RA + 2RB 123 (9. T = 5 = 7.12 The frequency and duty cycle are given by 1. Assuming R = 10 kW. 7 × 2 × 10 −3 The duty cycle is 67% with the internal resistor. 7 × 40 × 10 3 (b) C= The duty cycle is 90% with an external resistance of 40 kW.2) .11 (a) Here R = 2 kW \C= 5 × 10 −3 = 3. fmax = 1 ≈ 134 Hz 7. 5 m s 0. the time period. ns R = 50 kW R = 30 kW R = 20 kW R = 10 kW R = 5 kW 1 2 4 10 20 40 100 200 400 1000 CEXT External timing capacitance. 9. 6 nF 0. the maximum frequency.(b) The pulse duration for C < 1000 pF is given by the graph shown in Fig. 4 f= C (RA + 2RB ) and D = (9. 10000 7000 4000 2000 1000 700 400 200 100 70 40 20 10 122 123 TON Output pulse width. 67 and the maximum frequency.

Prob. Prob. we obtain C= 1.From Eq. 9.2) 60 = or RA + RB × 100 RA + 2RB RB = 2RA. 9. Prob. During charging the voltage across the capacitor. 4 ≈ 4. the capacitor gets discharged through RA and RB with the time constant t2 = (RA||RB) C and the output voltage drops to 0 V. is given by vc = 1 VCC + 2 VCC (1 − e − t / τ 1 ) 3 3 t = T1. (9. As soon as this decreasing voltage crosses 1/3 VCC. from Eq.01 mF Fig. vc. vc = 2 VCC 3 124 at .12. vo are illustrated in Fig.13(a).13 (a) When the voltage across the capacitor (vc) is increasing and is less than 2/3 VCC. 9.13(c). When vc reaches 2/3 VCC. 9. Prob. (9. 9.12 9. the output voltage is HIGH and the capacitor charges with the time constant t1 = RAC. Assuming RA = 1 kW Now. 67 nF × 10 3 × 100 × 10 3 3 The circuit is shown in Fig.13(b) and corresponding to the discharging is shown in Fig. Prob.1). VCC RA 4 8 7 2 555 6 + C 5 1 3 – vC vO RB 0. (b) The circuit corresponding to the charging of the capacitor C is shown in Fig. the charging starts again. The waveforms of vc and output voltage.

RB ù C 1n ê ú + RB RA ë RA .T1 /t 1 = 1 2 T1 » 0. 9.7 t1 = 0.vC To VCC 2/3VCC t1 1/3VCC To 0V 0 T1 vo V(1) t T2 t t2 0 T (a) VCC RA RA vC + – vC C + – C RB VCC (b) Fig. vc is given by RB RB é2 ù VCC ú e . Prob. vc = 1 3 VCC R A RB é 2 R A .13 (c) \ or e .2 RB û 125 .t /t 2 + VCC vc = ê VCC R A + RB R A + RB ë3 û at which gives T2 = t = T2.7 RAC During discharging.

9.2 RB û (c) From the expressions for T1 and T2 obtained in part (b). we obtain RB R VCC < 1 VCC . we obtain RA 20 é 2 RA .7 R A RA + 20 ë RA . 9.14 (a) The input pulses and the corresponding output for this monostable circuit of Fig.13 c. or R B < A 3 2 RA + RB 9. 9. Prob. 126 .7 RAC + Duty cycle = T1/T ´ 100% RA RB é 2 RA .\ T = T1 + T2 = 0.RB ù C 1n ê ú RA + RB ë RA . It will remain LOW till the next negative edge (B) appears.e.14. It remains HIGH for a period T = 1.20 ù 1n ê ú = 0.2 RB û RB = 20 kW From part (a).1 RAC and then goes LOW. 50% duty cycle). 9.40 û or RA » 48 kW (e) From Fig. Prob.14 A B The output is in LOW state until the first falling edge (A) appears.35 are given in Fig. T1 Input pulses Output 0 1 T Fig. The condition which must be satisfied to achieve this is 0. then the frequency of the output waveform will be fo = fi æ 1ö ç fi = T ø ÷ n è 1 Thus the circuit functions as a frequency divider.. If (n – 1) T < T < nT1 where n is an integer. we observe that it is possible to make T1 = T2 (i. at which time it goes HIGH. Prob.RB ù 1n ê ú RA + RB ë RA .7RA = (d) If R A RB é 2 R A .

the transistor T1 of the timer is cut-off and the capacitor is therefore getting charged. i. 9. the transistor goes to saturation.1 RC. 127 . it is not possible for the circuit to be in HIGH output state under steady-state.. thereby discharging C and the output goes LOW.35. the output goes to HIGH for a time period T = 1.15 If the output is in HIGH state under steady-state.1 RAC Therefore. the circuit is reset. In this circuit.1 mF then T = 0. if we choose RA = 2.2 ms < T < 0. the output and the discharge terminals go LOW. When the input pulse goes from LOW to HIGH.35 such that Since 0. whenever the trigger pulse goes LOW. Hence.(b) Here T1 = 1 m s 10 Choose RA and C values in Fig.2 kW and C = 0.242 m s 9. 9. When the voltage across the capacitor reaches 2/3 VCC.3 m s T = 1.16 In the circuit of Fig. the circuit becomes a retriggerable monostable multivibrator. Thus. 9.e. if we connect pin-4 (Reset) to pin-2 (Trigger) it becomes a retriggerable monostable multivibrator.

CHAPTER 10 10.5 – 3. The corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.3(b).3(a) (ii) Let b3 = b2 = b0 = 0. The step size or resolution = Digital Input S2 S1 S0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output voltage without offset – 3.2 10 10 S = V. 10. The analog output voltages for each of the digital inputs are given below.5 – 3. As long as DV < .5 + 3. Prob. The equivalent circuit corresponding to the lower order four bits is shown in Fig. i.5 + 2.5 + 3. Prob.5 + 0.5 – 0. From this we observe that this circuit converts digital inputs in one’s complement format to analog output. 10.5 Output due to offset + 3..5 – 1.5 + 3.3 (i) Let b3 = 0.5 + 1. and b1 = 1.5 – 3.5 + 3.3(a).5 – 3. 2 8 − 1 255 2 5/255 V the least-significant bit will be significant.1 10.5 – 2.e. 128 . From this we obtain Iin = VR (8 /11R) × ( r + 8 /11R) r (8 /11R) 2R + ( r + 8 /11R ) VR 2R The current due to b6 is \ or V R (8/ 11R ) VR = 2 R( r + 8 /11R) + r (8/ 11r ) 16 × 2 R r=8R RF b2 2R r Iin + VO VR R| |4R| |8R Fig.5 Net Output Vo 0 1 2 3 –3 –2 –1 0 10. 10. b2 = 1 and b1 = b0 = 0. Prob.

Prob.3 (c) 10.Iin = VR (8 /13 R) ´ r (8 /13 R ) ( r + 8 /13 R) 4R + r + 8 /13 R VR .3(b) (iii) Let b3 = b2 = b1 = 0. we obtain r = 8 R. to satisfy the same condition. 10. we obtain r = 8R RF b0 8R r Iin VR R| |2R| |4R + VO Fig. Prob. The analog output voltages for various digital inputs are given in table The output voltage is given by RF RF æ RF ö Vo + V1 + V2 ÷ Vo = . Therefore. and b0 = 1 The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.3(c) from which we obtain Iin = VR ( 4 / 7 R) × ( r + 4 / 7 R) r ( 4 / 7 R) 8R + ( r + 4 / 7 R) The current due to b4 is VR/8R. 4R The current due to b5 is To satisfy the same condition.4 The modified circuit will be equivalent to the circuit given in Fig.ç R R /2 R /3 ø è 129 . 10. Prob.4. RF b1 4R r Iin + VO VR R| |2R| |8R Fig. 10. 10.

4 where Vn = – =+ 1 2 1 2 if Sn = 1 if Sn = 0. 10. Prob. 10. This circuit without offset gives an analog output of –7.5 V for the digital input 0000 and + 1/2 V1 0 1 0 1 0 R/2 RF = R + VO R 0 1 S2 ROFF 1/2 V + R/4 V (1) = -1/2 V R/8 1 0 V (0) = 1/2 V Fig.4 S2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Digital Inputs S1 S0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Analog Output V 0 +1 +2 +3 –3 –2 –1 0 We observe from the table that this circuit also converts digital input in one’s complement format to analog output. Prob.5 130 . Prob. Table Prob. 10.5.5 The circuit for 4-bit D/A converter is shown in Fig. 10.S0 R RF = R R/2 + S1 VO S2 R/3 Fig. 10.

The circuit is shown in Fig.6.7 Let the analog voltage range be from –V0 to +V0. Prob. 131 . S0 S1 S2 RF = R 10.R + R /4 + R /2 + R ÷ è ø X where. The reference voltages are given below. Prob. There is one more negative number than the positive numbers in 2’s complement representation. the output voltage will be - 1 2 RF RF RF ö æ RF ç . The decoder circuit can be designed in the usual manner. RX is the resistance in the path of switch S 3 .6 When the 4-bit digital input is 0000.6 + VO The resulting circuit is shown in Fig. The step size will be 2/7 V0. Therefore. Reference voltages V0 VR7 = 5/7 V0 VR6 = 3/7 V0 VR5 = 1/7 V0 VR4 = –1/7 V0 VR3 = –3/7 V0 VR2 = –5/7 V0 VR1 = –V0 –9/7 V0 0 2’s complement digital output S 011 010 001 000 111 110 101 100 If we choose to ignore 100 output. the resistor chain will be connected between +V0 and –Vo and only six comparators will be required.5 V for 0000 input and –7. Therefore. This voltage must be 0. R Therefore. the offset required is +7.5 V for the digital input 1111. 10.+7.7. 10. 10. Prob. R RX = 4 + 2 + 1 or RX = R/7 R R/2 R/4 R/7 S3 Fig. ROFF = 15 10.5 V for 1111 input.

when Va = VR t = 2 N ⋅ TC + t = 2 N + 1 ⋅ TC = 2 13 × 10 −5 or. Va is the analog voltage.V R Va Analog voltage VR7 = +5/7 V0 R VR6 = +3/7 V0 R VR5 = +1/7 V0 R VR4 = –1/7 V0 R VR3 = –3/7 V0 R VR2 = –5/7 V0 R VR1 = –V0 R –9/7 Vo Fig. and VR is the reference voltage. Prob. N is the number of bits in the digital output. Therefore. The largest Va can be equal to VR. TC is the time period of the clock.7 – + – + – C5 Two’s complement format + – + – + – + – + C1 C2 C3 C4 L A T C H E S D E C O D E R C6 C7 B2 ü B1 ý B0 þ ï ï 10. f< 10 5 8192 Therefore. 132 . f < 12 per second.8 The conversion time t is given by Va ⋅ 2 N ⋅ TC VR where. 10.

It is obtained by complementing the natural BCD code. For example. (i) Complementary binary input (CBI) Table Prob.10(b).88 1.11 (a) CSB: It is complementary straight binary code.10(a) Analog output range 0 0 0 0 0 to ± 2. 10.10(a) gives the voltage corresponding to LSB for each of the ranges. natural BCD code 133 . Therefore. For example. it will be coded in CTC as 0001.22 2.44 mV mV mV mV mV (ii) Complementary coded decimal code (CCD) input The analog output range for this code is 0 to + 10 V. It is obtained by complementing two’s complement.10. (c) CTC: It is complementary two’s complement code.10 (a) DAC 80 is a 12-bit D/A converter. It is determined by finding out CSB and then offsetting it by –2n – 1. 10. decimal 2 will be coded as 1101 – 1000 = 0101. for example.5 V to ± 5 V to ± 10 V to + 5 V to + 10 V Voltage corresponding to LSB 1. 10. 10.5 V ±5V ± 10 V 0 to 5 V 0 to 10 V Voltage corresponding to LSB 1.9 The voltage step = = 10 V 26 −1 10 V 63 10.44 4.10(b) Analog input voltage range ± 2. The voltages corresponding to LSB for various analog input ranges are given in Table Prob. Where n is the number of bits used to represent the number. For example. the voltage corresponding to LSD = 10/1000 = 10 mV (b) ADC 80 is a 12-bit A/D converter. (b) COB: It is complementary offset binary code. two’s complement representation of – 2 is 1110 and therefore. Decimal 2 will be coded in CSB as complement of 0010. the straight binary code for decimal 2 is 0010. Table Prob. which is 1101.22 2.22 2. (d) CCD: It is complementary coded decimal code.22 2. Table Prob.44 mV mV mV mV mV 10.88 1.44 4.

it will be coded in CCD as 1101. 10.11 Binary CSB 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Equivalent decimal values COB CTC +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 CCD – – – – – – 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 134 . Table Prob.11 gives the decimal number for each of the 4-bit binary numbers in each of the above codes. 10.for decimal 2 is 0010 and therefore. Table Prob.

0000000 to 3777777. 00 to 3F. 11.) 135 . 00 to 77. 0000 to 1777. (b) 0 to 3. 0 to F. 00 to FF. 000 to 377. 0000 to 3777. 0000 to FFFF.CHAPTER 11 11. Memory A B Maximum rate 1 × 10 9 = 666666/s 1500 1 × 10 9 = 1724137/s 580 (Contd. 000000 to 177777.3 The maximum access rate = 1/Cycle time gives the maximum rate for each memory. 000 to 3FF. It is given below for each memory. 000 to 7FF. 00000 to FFFFF. 00 to 17.1 The number of pins P is given by 2P = M (a) P = 2 Address range: A1A0 = 00 to 11 (b) P = 4 Address range: A3A2A1A0 = 0000 to 1111 (c) P = 6 Address range: A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 000000 to 111111 (d) P = 8 Address range: A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 00000000 to 11111111 (e) P = 10 Address range: A9A8A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 0000000000 to 1111111111 (f) P = 11 Address range: A10A9A8A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 00000000000 to 11111111111 (g) P = 16 Address range: A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (h) P = 20 Address range: A19 A18 A17 A16 A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0= 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11.2 (a) 0 to 3.

The address bit A11 is applied at the chip select ( CS 1 ) input of ROM-0 and its complement is applied at 136 . of the 8-bit word. the width of the address bus required is 12. (c) 4 K ´ 16 = 2 ´ 2 ´ (2 K ´ 8) The number of 2716 chips required is four. Prob.5 (b). the address A0 – A9 is applied to both the chips. One 1-out of-16 decoder will be required to select a specific chip pair. A0 – A9 will be same for all the 16 sets. 11. For this purpose a 4-line-to-16-line decoder circuit is to be used in a way similar to that used in Fig. (b) For obtaining 1024 ´ 8. The most significant four bits of the addresses are to be used to select one out of the 16 sets. therefore. (b) 2 chips of 2142. and A10 and A11 are applied to a 2-line-to-4-line decoder. One inverter will be required to select one pair of 2716s. The upper chip.(Contd.5 (a). Prob. Prob.5 (a) which can be understood easily.) Memory C D E F Maximum rate 1 × 10 9 = 2222222/s 450 6 1 × 10 9 = 5 ´ 10 /s 200 1 × 10 9 = 16666666/s 60 1 × 10 9 = 1250000/s 800 11.6 (a) 4 K bytes = 4 K ´ 8 = 2 ´ (2 K ´ 8) Therefore. two 2142 RAM chips are connected as shown in Fig. 11. (b) 2 K ´ 16 = (2 K ´ 8) ´ 2 This also requires two chips of 2716. 16 sets of 1 K ´ 8 circuits as shown in Fig.5 (b) are required.7 (a) For 4 K locations. Let us. 11. The most significant bit A11 of the address is used to select the chip and the other 11 bits A10-A0 are applied to both the chips. Prob. 11.5 (a) Since the total number of locations is 4 K. (c) 16 K bytes = 16 K ´ 8 = (16 ´ 1024) ´ (4 ´ 2) = 32 ´ (1024 ´ 4) Therefore. 11. IC1 has been used for the lower four bits and the lower chip. number these sixteen sets as RAM-0 to RAM-15. The lower ten bits of the address (A0 – A9) are connected to the address bus of each RAM chip. 2-line-to-4-line) decoder IC will be required.. for convenience. 32 chips of 2142 will be required. 11. 11. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. IC2 for the upper four bits. (c) For obtaining 16 K bytes of RAM. Here. This decoder will select one out of the four chips depending upon the values of A10 and A11.4 (a) 4 chips of 2142 and one 1-out of-4 (i. two chips of 2716 and one inverter are required. the width of the address bus required is 12.e.

11.0 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 +VCC A0 – A9 2142 RAM . The lower order eight bits of each of the 16-bit words are stored in IC1 and the higher order eight bits are stored in the corresponding location in IC2. 11. (b) Figure Prob. 11.5(a) CS 2 input. (c) For obtaining 4 K ´ 16 ROM. Prob. when A11 = 0 ROM-0 is selected.3 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 +VCC Fig. 11.7(a) illustrates the relevant portion of the circuit. a one-out-of-N decoder is used to select one of the N memory locations.2 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 A11 WE OD WE WE OD OD 2142 RAM . 11. For example.7(a).7(b) shows 2 K ´ 16 ROM.8 (a) In the linear selection addressing. Figure Prob. 11.A0 – A9 WE OD 2142 RAM . whereas A11 = 1 will select ROM-1. Fig. Prob.7(b)) and connect them as shown in Fig.1 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 2 3 A0 – A9 +VCC S 2142 RAM . use two sets of 2 K ´ 16 memory (Fig. 137 D A0 – A9 A +VCC T A B U (4 A10 2-lineto-4linedecoder 1 OD – 0 B WE I T) . 11. Prob. Therefore.8(a) shows as 4-line-to-16-line decoder used to select one out of sixteen memory locations. Prob.

Prob.7(a) 2716 A0 – A10 IC1 CS CS CS 2716 IC2 A0 – A10 ü ï ï ï 16-bit output ï ý (D – D ) 0 15 ï ï ï ï þ Fig. Prob. 11.A0 – A9 2142 IC1 OD I/O1 – I/O4 WE CS 1 OD CS2 2142 IC2 A0 – A9 I/O1 – I/O4 ï ï ï ï ï ï8-bit output ý (D0 – D7) ï ï ï ï (D4 – D7) ï ï ï þ (D0 – D3) ü Fig. 11.7(b) 138 . Prob. 11.5(b) (8 – B I T) D0 – D7 D A T A O0 – O7 O0 – O7 D8 – D15 B U S CS 2 2716 2716 A0 – A10 ROM-0 CS 1 O0 – O7 A11 A0 – A10 ROM-1 O0 – O7 Fig.

11.8(a) (b) In the coincident selection addressing. the X address is A1A0 which selects a row and the Y address is A3A2 which enables a column. Prob 11. Each memory element is placed at the intersection of a row and a column. 0 1 2 3 Column Row 0 D00 1 of 4 Decoder DL A0 D01 D02 D03 ì ï A1 ï ï ï ï ï ï Row drivers ï í Diode ï matrix ï Column ïA enable 2 ï ï ï ï A3 ï î 1 of 4 Decoder DH D10 D11 D12 D13 1 D20 D21 D 22 D23 2 4-bit address D30 D31 D32 D33 3 Column sense amplifiers Chip select (CS) Data output Fig. The decoder circuitry consists of 1-out-of-X and 1-out-of-Y decoders as shown in Fig. a memory location is selected by applying an X address and a Y address. Here. Prob.8 (b).8(b) 139 . Prob. 11.0 Memory location 0 Memory location 1 Memory location 2 ì 3 ï ï A2 Address ï ï inputs í ï A1 ï ï ï A0 î A 1 4-line-to 16-line decoder 2 14 15 Memory location 14 Memory location 15 Fig.

during f3 and f4 phases. (ii) Associate Operation with Higher Bit Masked: When A1A0 = 01. even if the bit stored on C1 is 1. The data outputs D1 and D0 are both 0. the operation of the circuit will be similar to the operation explained in (i) above except that the output of the AND gate on the I1 side will always be 0. the power is always drawn from the supply throughout the clock cycle. The output will be OR operation performed on all the selected outputs. independently of data input (since f2 = 0. (v) Write Operation: When A1A0 = 00.9(a). which will disable the latches. 11.11. Similarly. Therefore. if the data input bit is same as the bit stored (Q0). The output Y of the wired-OR gate will be 0 if both the data inputs match with the bits stored.11 During the interval when f1 = 1. C2 >> C3. and W = 0. In contrast to this. there is considerable reduction in power dissipation in this circuit. the latches are enabled for the location by making the Y input 0. C charges to logic 1 through T3. the ratio C2/C3 must be very large.10 When the transistor T4 conducts. the output Q0 of the latch appears at the corresponding D output. therefore.e. W = X). C3 charges from C2 forming a capacitive loop. Therefore. The outputs of the NOR gates will be 0. The output of the EX-OR gate will be 0. outputs of the OR gates are 1 irrespective of the logic level at W (i. 11.9 The operation of this circuit is similar to that of the circuit of Fig. Now. match condition will be checked only for I0 bit. the complement of logic level on C will be transferred to output capacitor (between drain of T6 and ground). 11. and W = 1. (iv) Read Operation: When A1A0 = 00.. the latches are disabled. This happens when more than one address input is made 0. In general. The f2 needs to be 1 only long enough to allow C2 to charge from VDD through T3 and T4. otherwise it will be 1. Depending upon which Y is selected by making it 0. T2 is OFF). The AND gate of D1 output is enabled. On the other hand. if the data input is 1. When T3 conducts. T1 and T2 will conduct and C will get discharged to logic 0 level.12 (i) Association Operation: When A1A0 = 11. the logic level of C will be complement of input logic level. T1 will be OFF and C will continue at logic 1 level. The same data also appears at the D outputs following the arguments of (iv) above. the gates of the inverters are not held at VDD but are clocked so that T3 conducts only when f2 = 1 and not when f1 = 1. the output of the AND gate is 1 for mismatch and 0 for match. (iii) Associate Operation with Lower Bit Masked: The operation is similar to the operation of (ii) above. in the circuit of Fig. Therefore. 11. T4 also conducts. otherwise it is 1. 11. if the input is at logic 0. and W = 1. Here. therefore.9a. In order to charge C3 without causing appreciable voltage drop. It is also possible to read more than one location at a time. This logic level remains on C after f1 returns to logic 0. 140 . then during f2 = 1.

I1 I0 A1 A0 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 D0 D1 A0 A1 I0 I1 8´2 CAM IC1 D1 D0 W W W A0 A1 I0 I1 D1 D0 8´2 CAM IC2 Y8 Y9 Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 Y15 Fig. the key is 141 . (b) When A1A0 = 10 and W = 0. i. Prob.16 It is a 16-word. Thus.. 11.14 can be connected as shown in Fig. therefore. the operation will be similar to the operation of part (a) above. The first operation is to interrogate the MSB of all words for a 1 with all other bits masked.14. When there is matching. The data inputs. 11. 11.15 16 ´ 8 = 2 ´ (8 ´ 8) Therefore. Prob. 11. 11.13 Since 16 ´ 2 = 2 ´ (8 ´ 2). Prob. 11.15. data outputs.14 8 ´ 8 = 4 ´ (8 ´ 2) Therefore.(vi) Associate and Write at the Match Addresses: (a) When A1A0 = 01 and W = 0.13 11. the corresponding higher bit (I1) is latched into the latch and it also appears at the D1 output. 11. the number of chips required is four. and mode control inputs of two 8 ´ 2 CAMs are connected as shown in Fig. The circuit of 8 ´ 8 CAM is shown in Fig. the association operation is performed for the lower bit (ii) above. it requires two chips. Prob. it becomes a CAM of sixteen 2-bit words. for designing a 16 ´ 8 CAM. Since the number of words is 8. The resulting system has 16 address inputs (Y0 – Y15).13.e. Y0 – Y7 of each chip are connected to a common bus. The outputs will be 0 for matched conditions and 1 for mismatch conditions. The matching will be performed for higher bits and the lower bit (I0) will be stored in the locations for which I1 match. 11. two 8 ´ 8 CAMs as shown in Fig. therefore. 8-bit word CAM.

If only one word indicates a match. then the maximum valued word search is complete. then the next key has to be 142 . if several words indicate a match. Prob. However. then the CAM is to be interrogated again with key as 11XXXXXX.15 I0 1XXXXXXX. 11.14 I7 8 ´ 8 CAM I0 Y0-Y7 Y0-Y7 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 W D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 8 ´ 8 CAM Y8-Y15 Y0-Y7 I7 Fig. 11. In case no match occurs when the MSB is interrogated.A7 A6 I7 I6 A5 A4 I5 I4 A3 A2 I3 I2 A1 A0 I1 I0 A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM Y0 – Y7 Y0 – Y7 Y0 – Y7 D0 D4 Y0 – Y7 W D1 D7 D0 D6 W D1 D5 W D1 D3 D0 D2 W D1 D1 D0 D0 W Fig. Prob.

11.17 11.18

11.19

11.20

01XXXXXX. This process is to continue till at the most all the bits of the words are interrogated. In any case no more than 8 interrogation cycles will be required to determine the maximum valued word. In the case of RAM, each word is to be compared sequentially. Therefore, the time required for the search will be dependent on the number of words stored which is sixteen in this case. The operation is similar to the operation of Prob. 11.16 with 1’s replaced by 0’s in the search process. A CAM is ideal for this. Because of the parallel search operation in CAM, just in one cycle, we can find out whether the word is already stored or not. If not, it can be stored in the next location available. In contrast to this, the search process is serial in a RAM which is time consuming and hence a RAM is not suitable for this purpose. The inputs and the outputs of all the CCDs are to be connected in parallel. The additional address bits are decoded and used to select one of the CCDs for read/write operation. The clock and write enable are also connected in parallel. For expanding word length, the address, chip select, write enable, and clock inputs of all the devices are connected in parallel. The number of data inputs and outputs are used independently. The number of inputs/outputs will be equal to the number of CCDs.

143

CHAPTER 12

12.1 The BCD-to-Excess-3 code converter’s truth table is given below.

BCD A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Excess-3 E2 E1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 E0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

(a) For the design using PROM, a PROM of size 10 ´ 4 is required, but since PROM of this size does not exist, therefore, a PROM of size 16 ´ 4 is to be used. Data is to be stored in the PROM at the addresses corresponding to the BCD code, the data is Excess-3 code. For example at the address 0000, the data stored is 0011 and at the address 1001 the data stored is 1100. (b) Logical expressions can be written for E3, E2, E1, and E0 outputs in terms of A,B,C, and D inputs. To reduce the hardware requirements, these expressions can be minimized using K-maps.

A B C D

E3 E2 E1 E0 Fig. Prob. 12.1 (b)

**The simplified expressions are: E3 = A + BC + BD E2 = B C D + B C + B D E1 = C D + CD E0 = D
**

144

The size of PLA required is No. of inputs =4 No. of outputs =4 No. of product terms =9 The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 12.1(b). (c) The required size of PAL is No. of inputs =4 No. of outputs =4 Minimum number of =3 AND gates for each output The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 12.1(c).

A E3 B E2 C E1 D E0

Fig. Prob. 12.1 (c)

12.2 Follow similar procedure as given in Prob. 12.1. 12.3 Prepare truth table and follow similar procedure as given in Prob. 12.1. 12.4 The inputs of two 82S100 devices are to be connected in parallel. This will result in 8 + 8 = 16 outputs. 12.5 The inputs I0 to IM-1 are common for all the PLAs. Depending on the values of IM to IM+Q-1, one of the output lines of the decoder will go LOW activating the corresponding PLA and disabling all the other PLAs. Hence, the number of inputs increases. 12.6 Architecture of a PLD refers to the attributes of the device significant to the logic of a design to be implemented. It includes. · Configuration of pins. · The size and the arrangement of the programmable array(s). · Configuration of the input and output interface logic.

145

8 Input I1 I1 I2 I2 I3 I3 I4 I4 Column 0 1 4 5 8 9 12 13 16 17 20 21 24 25 28 29 Input/output IO1 IO 1 IO8 IO 8 O2 Column 2 3 30 31 6 7 10 11 14 15 18 19 22 23 26 27 O2 O3 O3 O4 O4 O5 O5 O6 O6 O7 O7 I5 I5 I6 I6 I7 I7 I8 I8 146 .7 Input I1 I1 I2 I2 I3 I3 I4 I4 I5 I5 I6 I6 I7 I7 I8 I8 I9 I9 I10 I 10 Column 2 3 0 1 4 5 8 9 12 13 16 17 20 21 24 25 28 29 30 31 Input/output IO2 IO 2 IO3 IO 3 IO4 IO 4 IO5 IO 5 IO6 IO 6 IO7 IO 7 Column 6 7 10 11 14 15 18 19 22 23 26 27 12.12.

0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Comb. Comb. 12. For x2 = 0. comb.10 These are given in Fig. Reg. (b) Keep all the inputs intact (connected) to the controlling AND gate. Each one may be programmed to be in 0 or 1.12 When x1 = 0. Reg. Comb. Reg.12. MUX – 1 MUX – 2 MUX – 3 MUX – 4 No. (c) Keep the connections corresponding to the inputs A. Prob. 12. the cell second from the top will get selected and f = 0. Comb. Reg. 12. Comb. f = 0 x2 = 1. B. Reg. Comb. which means its output will be either same as input 0 or input 1. topmost cell will be selected and f will be 1. of product Terms 8 8 8 Output Enable pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled Output Output pin/FF output feedback input feedback 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Reg.11 Here the output of an AND gate controls the output. Reg. (a) Open all the inputs to the controlling AND gate. whereas for x2 = 1. Table below gives all the possible conditions. for x1 =1 when and when x2 = 1. Reg.9 It has four multiplexers. f = 1 147 . D. E . Comb. MUX–3 and MUX–4. C. G and H intact to the controlling AND gate and open all other connections. MUX–2.10. f will be obtained from the upper multiplexer. input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input 12. F . MUX–1. Similarly.

Prob.10 148 REGISTER FEEDBACK CD = 00 COMBINATIONAL FEEDBACK CD = 10 BI-DIRECTIONAL I/O CD = 11 A=1 . 12.Registered output B = 1 Combinational output B = 0 AR D Q SP A=0 AR D Q SP A=1 AR D Q SP AR D Q A=0 SP AR D Q AR D Q SP A=1 SP Q A=0 AR D Q SP AR D Q SP Q Fig.

The bits to be stored will be 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 149 . the output will be obtained from the top-most multiplexer and when x2 = 1.Therefore. f will be obtained from output of bottom multiplexers’ structure. Similarly. the output will be from the top-most cell. the truth table will be as given below. when x1 = 1. x1 0 0 1 1 x2 0 1 0 1 f 1 0 0 1 12. f will be obtained from output of top multiplexers’ structure. and when x3 = 1 it will be from be next cell. the complete circuit can be analyzed. it will be obtained from the next multiplexer.13 The truth table of the given function f is x1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 f 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 when x1 = 0. Now. when x2 = 0. When x3 = 0.

A8 – A15 8085 A WR RD AD0 – AD7 ALE A0 – A7 8212 CLR DS2 MD DS 1 +VCC Fig. the total number of instruction codes. 13.CHAPTER 13 13.1 The memory address space is given by M = 2P where. The relevant connections are shown below. only one 2716 chip is required.3(a) 150 . The memory address space for the mPs are given below. The total number of instruction codes in 8085A mP is 246. assuming single byte op code = 256. Prob. 13. (b) Let the first 2 K bytes be in EPROM and next 4 K bytes be in the RAMs.2 The number of distinct combinations of 8-bit words = 28 = 256 Therefore. Microprocessor 8080A 6800 8086 9900 Z8000 Memory address space 64 K bytes 64 K bytes 1 M bytes 64 K bytes 8 M bytes 13.3 (a) 2142 is a 1024 ´ 4 bits RAM Therefore. 4 K bytes = 4 K ´ 8 bits = 4 ´ 2 ´ (1 K ´ 8) bits = 8 chips 2716 is a 2 K ´ 8 bits EPRPM. Therefore. P is the address bus width.

Other connections are indicated below: A0 – A10 from mP to A0 – A10 of 2716 A0 – A9 from mP to A0 – A9 of each of 2142 CS2 of each 2142 to Vcc

WR from mP to WE of each 2142

**RD from mP to OD of each 2142
**

A10 A11 A12 (from mP) A13 A14 A15 (from mP) A0 A1 A2 8205

E1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

To CS of 2716 To CS 1 of RAM set 1 To CS 1 of RAM set 2 To CS 1 of RAM set 3 To CS 1 of RAM set 4

E2 E3

Fig. Prob. 13.3(b)

**(c) The address of various chips are given below.
**

Memory chips EPROM RAM pair RAM pair RAM pair RAM pair Starting address in hex. 1 2 3 4 0000 0800 0C00 1000 1400 Last address in hex. 07FF 0BFF 0FFF 13FF 17FF

13.4

(i) MVI A, 00H ; Load accumulator with zero (ii) SUB A ; Subtract A from A (iii) ANI 00H ; AND A with zero (iv) XRA A ; A EX-OR A Note that the information beyond semicolon (;) are comments. 13.5 Let D-E and H-L pairs be pointers to source and destination memory locations respectively. The program is given below: LXI D, 0F00 H ; Initialize source pointer LXI H, 1F00 H ; Initialize destination pointer LXI B, 100H ; Initialize counter LOOP: LDAX D ; Load A with contents of source memory CMA ; Complement A MOV M, A ; Store in destination memory INX D ; Increment pointers INX H

151

DCX B MOV A, C ORA B JNZ LOOP

; Decrement counter ; Check counter for zero

NEXT: 13.6 The program is given below: LXI H, 0A02H ; Store destination address in H-L pair LDA 0A00H ; Load A with first number MOV B, A ; Transfer to B LDA 0A01H ; Load A with second number CMP B ; Compare A and B JZ FINIS ; Go to FINIS if the two numbers are equal JC GREAT ; If CY = 1, (A) < (B) MOV M, A ; Otherwise (A) > (B) JMP FINIS GREAT: MOV M, B FINIS : 13.7 The following instructions will clear the memory location. LXI H, 01A0H MVI M, 00H 13.8 LXI H, A001H ; Initialize pointer MOV C, M ; Get the number of bytes in C INX H ; Increase pointer by 1 START : MOV A, M ; Get a byte of data in A REP : DCR C JZ STOP ; Stop at end of data INX H CMP M ; Compare JC REP ; If (A) < (M), try next number JMP START STOP: STA FF00H ; Store the smallest element END 13.9 ANI 0FH 13.10 LOOP: DCR 0 JZ FINIS IN DATA MOV M, A INX H JMP LOOP FINIS: MOV B, A

152

SOLUTION The operation performed by each instruction is given below: START: LXI H, BUFR ; Initialize H-L pair with address BUFR MOV C, 0BH ; Initialize counter with decimal 11 LOOP: DCR C ; Decrease counter by one JZ FINIS ; Go to FINIS if counter = 0 IN DATA ; Input a byte from DATA port MOV M, A ; Move the byte to memory ; location pointed to by H-L pair INX H ; Advance the pointer by one JMP LOOP ; Go to loop FINIS: MOV B, A ; Move the contents of A to B The operation performed by this program is to input ten bytes from input port DATA and store them in memory locations starting from BUFR. 13.11 N=3+3+1+1+1+1+1+1 = 12 bytes 13.12 (A) 0000 1000 (B) 1001 0011 ADD B 1001 1011 The result is not a valid BCD number. ADD B instruction must be followed by DAA instruction. The effect of this is given below: 1001 1011 0000 0110 Add 6 because the least-significant four bits do not represent a valid BCD digit 1010 0001 0110 0000 Add 60 because the most-significant four bits do not represent a valid BCD digit 10000 0001 = (101)10 13.13 Assume a set of ten keys for entering BCD number and a 7-segment display for displaying this number. It is also assumed that BCD-to-7-segment codes are stored in memory from the starting address 00XXH. The block diagrams for the input and output devices are shown in Fig. Prob. 13.13(a) and (b) respectively. Assume 01H and 02H as the port addresses of the input device and output device respectively. The addresses are decoded and proper signals are generated for Enable and Device Select terminals for reading and writing. The program can be written as MVI B, XXH LXI H, 0000H IN 01H ADD B MOV L, A MOV A, M OUT 02H

153

13 13.VCC D (MSB) Decimal-toBCD Encoder (Inputs & outputs active-low) C B Inverting Tristate Buffer D3 D2 D1 Data bus of mP b c d A D0 Enable (a) Current limiting resistors VCC Common anode a b c f d e e f g a g Data bus D-type Latch Device Select (b) Fig. Prob.14 The last six instructions will be POP PSW POP H POP D POP B EI RET 154 . 13.

CL DX: DH. Actual physical 20-bit address is this 20-bit data plus the contents of the pointer register. BL CX: CH.18 Four zeros at the least-significant four bit positions are appended to the 16bit segment register.16 Refer to Table 13. A JMP STOP QUE : MVI M. AL BX: BH.15 The ASCII code for decimal 0 is 0110000 and for? is 0111111.20 20-bit current address of the stack will be 24000 + A000 2E000 H 155 . 13.19 CS = 2000H IP = 1A00H 20-bit address of the next instruction byte will be fetched from 20000 + 1A00 21A00 H 13.17 Eight 8-bit or four 16-bit AX: AH. making it 20-bit address. 00F1H LDA 00F0H CPI 0AH JNC QUE ADI 00110000 B MOV M.3 mP 8086 80186 80286 80386SL 80386 DX 80486 DX Pentium Address bus width 20 20 24 25 32 32 32 13. DL 13. The program is given below: LXI H. 13. 00111111 B STOP: END 13.Here it is assumed that the interrupts are kept disabled during the execution of the sub-routine.

Upper and lower case characters can be mixed. 14. Yes. C : IN BIT. -. USE IEEE. B. Two consecutive underscores are not allowed. I1. Y: OUT STD-LOGIC).4 (a) For 2-input NAND gate ARCHITECTURE df_nand 2 OF NAND 2 IS BEGIN Z Ü NOT (X AND Y) AFTER 10 ns. B . I2. character ‘ ’ is not permitted. Hyphen (–) is not allowed. Y : IN BIT. ENTITY NAND 2 IS PORT (X. END NAND 2. No. 14.CHAPTER 14 14. 1164 ALL. Prob. ALL. (b) ENTITY NAND 3 IS PORT (A. There is one output Y. END NAND 3. No. STD_LOGIC_1164.3 A 4:1 multiplexer is shown in Fig.5 LIBRARY IEEE. END df-nand 2. END df_nand 3. 14. and I3 and two select inputs A and B. No. END MULTI_4. I0 I1 I2 I3 AB Fig. 14.2 (a) Yes. ENTITY MULTI-4 IS PORT (IO. Prob.1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 14. Z : OUT BIT). Y : OUT BIT). I1.Name of entity chosen is F_A 156 .3. It has four data inputs I0. A. No. starting character can not be a numeral. USE IEEE STD-LOGIC. 14. I2. I3. IN STD-LOGIC. (b) For 3-input NAND gate ARCHITECTURE df_nand 3 OF NAND 3 IS BEGIN Y Ü NOT (A AND B AND C) AFTER 10 ns.3 Y The entity declaration is LIBARY IEEE. It contains all the allowed characters.

BEGIN S Ü ((NOT A) AND B AND (NOT CIN)) OR ((NOT A) AND (NOT B) AND CIN) OR (A AND (NOT B) AND (NOT CIN)) OR (A AND B AND CIN) AFTER 15 ns. S7). I3 : INV PORT MAP (CIN. I2 : INV PORT MAP (B. N8 : NAND2 PORT MAP (A. B. ENTITY F-A IS PORT (A. S3. COMPONENT INV PORT (P : IN STD_LOGIC. X9 : IN STD_LOGIC. S2). 157 . COMPONENT NAND2 PORT (X8. N5 : NAND4 PORT MAP (S1. N7 : NAND2 PORT MAP (B. S3). ARCHITECTURE FULL_ADDER OF F_A IS. S2. S6). END COMPONENT. S5). N4 : NAND3 PORT MAP (A. S). USE IEEE. S6. S1). B. S COUT: OUT STD_LOGIC). S6. B. N2 : NAND3 PORT MAP (AB. N1 : NAND3 PORT MAP (AB. N3 : NAND3 PORT MAP (A. N9 : NAND3 PORT MAP (S5. X7 : IN STD-LOGIC. B. N6 : NAND2 PORT MAP (A. CINB. SIGNAL AB. X3 : IN STD-LOGIC. S4. STD_LOGIC-1164. BB. ALL. CIN. S5. S. Q : OUT STD_LOGIC).6 LIBARY IEEE. END FA_STR. S7 : STD_LOGIC. X5. Z: OUT STD_LOGIC). BB. S3. END F_A. END FULL_ADDER. END COMPONENT. CINB. B. S4. ARCHITECTURE FA_STR OF F_4 IS COMPONENT NAND 3 PORT (X1. CINB. COUT: OUT STD_LOGIC) END F-A. BEGIN I1 : INV PORT MAP (A. CIN. X2. CIN. S7 COUT). 14.ENTITY F-A IS PORT (A. CIN: IN STD_LOGIC. S1. BB). COMPONENT NAND 4 PORT (X4. CIN: IN STD_LOGIC. C OUT Ü (A AND B) OR (B AND CIN) OR (A AND CIN) AFTER 10 ns. S4). X6. Y: OUT STD_LOGIC). CINB). BB. CIN. S2. AB). END COMPONENT. END COMPONENT. R : OUT STD_LOGIC).

14. Prob.A I1 AB B I2 CIN I3 N 1 BB CINB N2 S2 S1 N5 N3 S3 S N4 A B B CIN A CIN N6 S5 S4 N7 S6 N9 COUT N8 S7 Fig.5 158 .

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