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Third Edition

R P Jain

CHAPTER 1

1.1 (a) Analog. The output of a pressure gauge is proportional to the pressure being measured and can assume any value in the given range. (b) Digital. An electric pulse is produced for every person entering the exhibition using a photoelectric device. These pulses are counted using a digital circuit. (c) Analog. The reading of the thermometer is proportional to the temperature being measured and can assume any value in the given range. (d) Digital. Inputs are given with the help of switches, which are converted into digital signals 1 and 0 corresponding to the switch in the ON or OFF position. These signals are processed using digital circuits and the results are displayed using digital display devices. (e) Analog. It receives modulated signals which are analog in nature. These signals are processed by analog circuits and the output is again in the analog form. (f) Digital. It has only two possible positions (states), ON and OFF. (g) Digital. An electric pulse is produced for every vote cast by pressing of switch of a candidate. The pulses thus produced for each candidate are counted separately and also the total number of votes polled are counted. 1.2 (a)

(i) S1 OFF OFF ON ON (iii) S OFF ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON Bulb ON OFF Bulb OFF OFF OFF ON (iv) (ii) S1 OFF OFF ON ON S1 OFF OFF ON ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON S2 OFF ON OFF ON Bulb OFF ON ON ON Bulb OFF ON ON OFF

(b) (i) S1 0 0 1 1 (iii) S 0 1 S2 0 1 0 1 Bulb 1 0 Bulb 0 0 0 1 (iv) (ii) S1 0 0 1 1 S1 0 0 1 1 S2 0 1 0 1 S2 0 1 0 1 Bulb 0 1 1 1 Bulb 0 1 1 0

(c)

(i) AND

(ii) OR

(iii) NOT

(iv) EX-OR

1.3

1 Input A 0 1 Input B 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 t(ms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 t(ms)

1 AND 0

1 OR 0

1 NAND 0

1 NOR 0

1 EX-OR 0

1.4

Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 (a) 1 0 0 0 Outputs of (b) (c) 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 (d) 0 1 1 1

The operations performed are (a) NOR (b) NAND

(c) AND

2

(d) OR

6 1.6 (a) A 0 1 Y 1 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 1 1 1 AB 1 1 1 0 Y 0 0 0 1 (c) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 For Fig. NOR (c) NAND (a) Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 (b) AND (d) OR AB 0 0 1 0 AB 0 1 0 0 Output Y 0 1 1 0 (b) EX–OR (c) A Y B 3 .1. 1.8 (a) A 0 1 Y 1 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 0 0 1 A+B Y 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 (c) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 1.5 For Fig. 1.7 (a) NAND.

In the positive logic system. the resulting truth table will be same as that of the AND gate. the higher of the two voltages is designated as 1 and the lower voltage as 0. On the other hand in the negative logic system. but the results are equally valid for any number of inputs. The resulting truth table is same as that of the OR gate. if 1s and 0s are interchanged.9 . the lower of the two voltage is designated as 1 and the higher voltage as 0. if all ones and zeros are interchanged in the truth table of the OR gate. Therefore. (a) A + A B + A B = (A + A B ) + A B = A (1 + B ) + A B = A × 1 + AB = A + AB = (A + A ) (A + B) = A + B (b) AB + A B + A B = (A + A ) B + A B = B + A B = (B + A ) (B + B ) = A +B (c) A BC + A B C + AB C + ABC = A BC + A B C + AB (C + C ) = A BC + A B C + AB = A BC + A (B + B C) = A BC + A (B + B ) (B + C) 4 1. (a) In the truth table of positive logic AND gate replace all zeros by ones and all ones by zeros.8 For simplicity. we shall consider 2-input gates. Similarly. (b) Repeat part (a) for NAND and NOR gates. the logic system will change from positive to negative and vice-versa.(d) \ Y = AB + A B Y = AB + A B = AB ⋅ A B Y = Y = AB ⋅ AB = Y1 ⋅ Y2 where. A Y1 Y Y1 = AB and Y2 = AB B Y2 1.

and one 3-input OR gate.= A BC + AB + AC = C (A + A B) + AB = C (A + A ) (A + B) + AB = C (A + B) + AB = AB + BC + CA 1.10 (a) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB AB 0 0 1 0 A + A B + AB 0 1 1 1 A+B 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 (b) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB 0 0 0 1 AB AB AB + A B + A B 1 1 0 1 A +B 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 (c) A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A BC 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 AB C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 AB C 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ABC LHS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 AB 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 BC 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 CA 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 RHS 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1. two inverters.11 (a) The realization of LHS requires. whereas the realization of RHS requires only one two input OR gate. A A B B (i) 5 (ii) . two 2-input AND gates.

A A B B (i) (ii) (c) The realization of LHS requires three inverters.12 (a) AB + CD = AB + CD = AB ⋅ CD 6 . four 3-input AND gates and one 4-input OR gate. three 2-input AND gates and one 3-input OR gate. whereas the realization of RHS requires only one inverter and one 2-input OR gate.(b) The realization of LHS requires two inverters. A B C (i) A B C (ii) 1. whereas the realization of RHS requires only three 2-input AND gates and one 3-input OR gate.

1. then the AND operation is associative. the AND operation is commutative.(b) (A + B) (C + D) = ( A + B) ⋅ ( C + D ) = ( A + B) + ( C + D ) (i) The left hand side of (a) can be realized by using two 2-input AND gates followed by one 2-input OR gate. Hence an OR-AND configuration is equivalent to a NOR-NOR configuration. while the right hand side is realizable by two 2-input NOR gates followed by another 2-input NOR gate. Hence an AND-OR configuration is equivalent to a NANDNAND configuration. while the right hand side is realizable by two 2-input NAND gates followed by another 2-input NAND gate. If A × (B × C) = (A × B) × C. (ii) The left hand side of (b) is realizable by two 2-input OR gates followed by a 2-input AND gate.14 (a) Since A × B = B × A Therefore.13 (a) A B A B Y C D (i) (b) A B A B Y C D (i) C D (ii) Y C D (ii) Y 1. This can be proved by making truth table as given below: A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 (A × B) × C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A × (B × C) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 .

Two possible realizations are given on page 9: (i) If only one of the variables is 1 and all others are zero. By making a truth table similar to the truth table of (a) above we can verify that ( A + B) + C ≠ A + ( B + C ) 1.16 1. The associative property requires A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C which can be proved by making the truth table in a way similar to the truthtable of (a) above (c) Since. From the Table we observe that the last two columns are not identical. which means A ⋅ ( B ⋅ C ) ≠ ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C This shows that the NAND operation is not associative. OR operation is commutative. which means the EX-OR operation is commutative. . A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A ⋅ ( B ⋅ C) 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 ( A ⋅ B) C 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 (b) Since. the NOR operation is not associative. To verify whether the NAND operation is associative or not. then (1 Å 1) Å 1 Å 0 Å 0 Å . the NAND operation is commutative. A Å B = B Å A. . A + B = B + A . =1 Å0=1 (ii) If only two of the variables are 1 and all others are zero. . therefore.17 Therefore. =0 Å1Å0Å0Å0Å. therefore. . = 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å . then (1 Å 0) Å 0 Å 0 Å . . = 0 (iii) Similarly. . =1 8 . A + B = B + A. then (since EXOR operation is commutative and associative) (1 Å 1) Å 0 Å 0 Å 0 Å .15 (a) Since = A ⋅ B = B ⋅ A .Since the last two columns of the truth table are identical. which proves that the AND operation is associative.. (b) Since.. . . we prepare the truth table as given below. . which means the NOR operation is commutative. The associative property requires (A Å B) Å C = A Å (B Å C) This can be proved by making truth table 1. = 1 Å 0 Å 0 Å . . if only three of the variables are 1.

it is packaged as 14-pin IC. The number of pins = 5 ´ 2 + 2 = 12. It is obvious from the above discussion that Z = 1. Each gate requires three pins. (f) 7420 is a dual 4-input NAND gate. The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14. Therefore. Since 12-pin IC package is not used. The number of pins = 2 ´ 6 + 2 = 14. Two pins are left free (NC). (a) 7402 is a quad 2-input NOR gate.18 1. Take an N-bit binary number bN–1 bN–2 . The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. therefore.17 Y AÅBÅCÅD 1. the four gates requires 3 ´ 4 = 12 pins. The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14. (h) 7432 is a quad 2-input OR gate. . This means there are four identical 2-input NOR gates. . two for inputs and one for output. (c) 7408 is a quad 2-input AND gate. (d) 7410 is a triple 3-input NAND gate. 1. 000 to 11 . b2b1b0 and write all combinations from 00 . . Hence it is a 14-pin IC. (e) 7411 is a triple 3-input AND gate. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. Two pins are required for the power supply (VCC and GND).A B C D AÅB AÅBÅC Y AÅBÅCÅD or A B AÅB C D CÅD Fig. . . (b) 7404 is a hex inverter. 9 . Since a logical variable can assume one of the two values (0 or 1) the number of possible combinations is 2N. The number of pins = 4 ´ 3 + 2 = 14. . 111 in normal binary ascending order. if an odd number of variables are 1 and Z = 0 if an even number of variables are 1.19 In the same way we can try higher number of ones. (g) 7427 is a triple 3-input NOR gate.

21 (i) 7486 is a quad EX-OR gate. The number of pins = 3 ´ 4 + 2 = 14.23 (a) Yes.4V = 0 2V = 1 Logic Circuit B –0.20 1.55V = 0 Inputs A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 AND Y1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 OR Y2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Output NAND Y3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 NOR Y4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1.75V = 1 –1. (a) (i) 7408 and 7432 (ii) 7400 (b) (i) 7432 and 7408 (ii) 7402 Logic Circuit A 0. A B C Y or A B C Logic 1 (b) A B C Y or A B C Logic 0 (c) A B C Y or A B C Logic 1 (d) A B C Y or A B C Logic 0 10 Y Y Y Y .22 1.

1. AND — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 0 OR — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 1 NAND — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 0 NOR — by connecting one of the inputs to logic 1.25 1.26 1.24 1.27 Yes. (a) Active-high (b) Active-low (c) Active-high (d) Active-low (a) Active-low (b) Active-high (c) Active-low (d) Active-high (a) A B Y C Y = A × B × C = (A × B) × (C) (b) A B Y C Y = A + B + C = (A + B) + (C) (c) A B AB Y C AB C Y = A ⋅ B ⋅ C = ( A ⋅ B) + C = ( A ⋅ B) ⋅ C = A⋅ B⋅C (d) A B C 11 Y .

28 (a) A Å B = A B + A B A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB = A Å B (b) A ⊕ B = AB + AB A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB A Å B = AB + A B = AB + AB (c) B Å (B Å AC) = B Å B Å AC = 0 Å AC = AC 12 .1.

0011 = 1 ´ 23 + 1 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 + 0 ´ 2–1 + 0 ´ 2–2 + 1 ´ 2–3 + 1 ´ 2–4 = 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 0 + 0.5 + 0.0625 = (13. (b) (255)10 = (11111111)2 (c) (15)10 = (1111)2 13 37 2 18 2 9 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 18 9 4 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 .875)10 Quotient Remainder 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Thus (37)10 = (100101)2 Similarly.125 = (10.125 + 0.625)10 (g) 0.125 = (0.5 + 0.11100 2.1010 = 8 + 2 + 0.1 (a) 111001 = 1 ´ 25 + 1 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 0 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 = 32 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (57)10 (b) 101001 = 1 ´ 25 + 0 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 0 ´ 22 + 0 ´ 21 + 1 ´ 20 = 32 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (41)10 (c) 11111110 = 1 ´ 27 + 1 ´ 26 + 1 ´ 25 + 1 ´ 24 + 1 ´ 23 + 1 ´ 22 + 1 ´ 21 + 0 ´ 20 = 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 0 = (254)10 (d) 1100100 = 64 + 32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 0 = (100)10 (e) 1101.2 (a) = 0.CHAPTER 2 2.25 + 0.1875)10 (f) 1010.

(d) Integer part: (26)10 = (11010)2 Fractional part: 0.25 0.5 ´2 ´2 0.5 1.0 ¯ ¯ 0 1 Therefore, (26.25)10 = (11010.01)2 (e) Integer part: (11)10 = (1011)2 Fractional part: 0.75 0.5 ´2 ´2 1.5 1.0 ¯ ¯ 1 1 Thus (11.75)10 = (1011.11)2 (f) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.8 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 ´2 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1... Thus, (0.1)2 = (0.00011001)2 The process may be terminated at the required number of significant bits. 2.3 (a) 1 1 1 1 0 0 ¬ Carry 1 1 0

1 0 +1 1 1 1 0 Final carry (b) 1 1 + 1 0 Final carry 2.4 (a) 01000 –01001 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

1 0. 1. 0.

1 1 0 0 1 1 0

¬ Carry 0 0 1 1

01000 + 10111 (2’s complement) 11111 Since the MSB of the sum is 1, which means the result is negative and it is in 2’s complement form. 2’s complement of 11111 = 00001 = (1)10 Therefore, the result is –1.

14

(b)

(c)

01100 Þ 01100 –00011 + 11101 (2’s complement) 101001 = + 9 Ignore 0011.1001 Þ 0011.1001 –0001.1110 +1110.0010 (2’s complement) 10001.1011 = + 1.6875 Ignore Quotient

375 8 46 8 5 8

2.5 (a)

Remainder 7 6 5 6 7

46 5 0

5 Therefore, (375)10 = (567)8 = (101110111)2 (b) Quotient Remainder 249 31 1 8 31 3 7 8 3 0 3 8 3

7

1

(c)

2.6 (a)

(b) (c)

Therefore, (249)10 = (371)8 = (011111001)2 Integer part: (27)10 = (33)8 = (011011)2 Fractional part: 0.125 ´8 1.000 ¯ 1 Thus (0.125)10 = (0.1)8 = (0.001)2 Therefore, (27.125)10 = (33.1)8 = (011011.001)2 11 011 100.101 010 = (334.52)8 (334.52)8 = 3 ´ 82 + 3 ´ 81 + 4 ´ 80 + 5 ´ 8–1 + 2 ´ 8–2 = (220.65625)10 01 010 011.010 101 = (123.25)8 = (83.328125)10 10 110 011 = (263)8 = (179)10

15

2.7 (a)

375 16 23 16 1 16

Quotient 23 1 0

Remainder 7 7 1

1 7 7 Therefore, (375)10 = (177)16 (or 177H) = (0001 0111 0111)2 (b) Quotient Remainder 249 15 9 16 15 0 15 16 F 9 Therefore, (249)10 = (F9)16 (or F9H) = (1111 1001)2 (c) Integer part: Quotient Remainder 27 1 11 16 1 0 1 16 1 B Thus (27)10 = 1BH Fractional part: 0.125 ´ 16 2.000 ¯ 2 \ (0.125)10 = 0.2H \ (27.125)10 = (1B.2)16 = 1B.2H = (00011011.0010)2 2.8 (a) 1101 1100.1010 10 = (DC.A8)16 (DC.A8)16 = 13 ´ 161 + 11 ´ 160 + 10 ´ 16–1 + 8 ´ 16–2 = (220.65625)10 (b) 0101 0011.0101 01 = (53.54)16 = (83.328125)10 (c) 1011 0011 = (B3)16 = (179)10 2.9 For each decimal digit write its natural BCD code (a) 46 = 0100 0110 (BCD) (b) 327.89 = 0011 0010 0111.1000 1001 (BCD) (c) 20.305 = 00100000.0011 0000 0101 (BCD) 2.10 For each decimal digit write its 4-bit Excess-3 code. (a) 46 = 0111 1001 (Excess-3) (b) 327.89 = 0110 0101 1010.1011 1100 (Excess-3) (c) 20.305 = 0101 0011.0110 0011 1000 (Excess-3)

16

form 6-bit Gray Code as given in Table 2. a 0 is to be attached as MSB and the resulting 8-bit code with even parity will be 00101110. we obtain (46)10 = 111001 (Gray Code) 2. For example.14 (a) Count the number of ones for every character from ASCII table and attach a 1 or 0 as the MSB for odd or even number of ones respectively.P. JAIN = 101001 011011 100111 011011 100001 010001 011001 100101 2. a 1 is to be attached as MSB and the resulting 8-bit code with even parity will be 11010010 Similarly. 17 . we obtain 100111 001011 000011 101100 101000 2. 0 1 2 0 : 17 : 30 31 32 33 : 46 : 62 63 G5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 G4 0 0 0 Table 2 G3 0 0 0 G2 0 0 0 G1 0 0 1 G0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Similarly.2. Table 1 Decimal No.8 formulate 5-bit Gray code as given below in Table 1.9). the code for l is 0101110 which has four ones. Therefore. the ASCII code for R is 1010010.9) R. 0 1 2 : : 13 14 15 16 17 18 : : 29 30 31 G4 0 0 0 : : 0 0 0 1 1 1 : : 1 1 1 G3 0 0 0 G2 0 0 0 : : 0 0 0 0 0 0 G1 0 0 1 G0 0 1 1 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 Decimal No.12 Writing the 6-bit code for each character (See Table 2.10) R.P. From Table 2.P. JAIN = 1010010 0101110 1010000 0101110 1001010 1000001 1001001 1001110 (b) Write the 8-bit EBCDIC code for each character (See Table 2.13 (a) Write the 7-bit ASCII code for each character (See Table 2. which has three ones.11 Starting from 4-bit Gray code given in Table 2. JAIN = 11011001 01001011 11010111 01001011 11010001 11000001 11001001 11010101 (c) Write the 6-bit internal code for each character (See Table 2.9) R. Therefore.

(b) Repeat part (a) for EBCDIC code. 2.7 requires p2 = 1 odd parity for 4.5. therefore. 2. the result is negative and it is in one’s complement format. 2. the result is positive (d) If the MSB of the sum is 1. 2. R = 11010010 = D2 H and l = 00101110 = 2EH for even parity and R = 01010010 = 52H and l = 10101110 = AEH for odd parity. For example.15 (a) Attach 0 or 1 as MSB to make the number of ones odd.6. add end-around carry (EAC) (c) If the MSB of the sum is 0.In a similar way parity bit can be attached to every character.3.16 (a) Since. if binary to hexadecimal conversion is used.18 Consider the following examples: (i) 7 0111 Þ 0111 –3 –0011 + 1100 (1’s complement) 4 10011 1 End-Around Carry (EAC) 0100 = 4 (ii) 3 0011 Þ 0011 –7 – 0111 + 1000 (1’s complement) –4 1011 = –4 in 1’s complement form From the above examples the rules of subtraction can be summarized as: (a) Add ones complement of the subtrahend to the minuend.17 In the 8 bit ASCII code with the parity bit.21 Let us consider the BCD code for 9 and find out its Hamming code for error correction. 2. 25 = 32 and 26 = 64. 8 bits are required to encode 130 elements of information.20 132 ´ 7 bits.19 100 ´ 20 ´ 8 bits.7 requires p3 = 1 ® 1 p1 : : : 1 : 1 : 1 2 p2 : : : : : 1 : 1 18 Hamming Code 3 4 5 n1 p3 n2 1 : : 1 : 1 : 1 : : : : : : : 0 0 : : 0 : 0 : 0 6 n3 0 : : 0 : 0 : 0 7 n4 1 : : 1 : 1 : 1 . 2. (b) 27 < 130 < 28 Therefore. Decimal digit 9 Position BCD odd parity for 1. 2. 8-bit ASCII code for R with odd parity is 01010010 (b) Repeat part (a) for EBCDIC code. (b) If a carry is produced.6. the minimum number of bits required to encode 56 elements of information is 6.7 requires p1 = 1 odd parity for 2.3. For example. the resulting format will be hexadecimal.5.

Hamming code is determined for each BCD digit and the complete sequence is given below. Hamming code for decimal digit 9 is 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. Similarly. Decimal digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Position ® 1 p1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 p2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 Hamming code 3 4 5 n1 p3 n2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 6 n3 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 7 n4 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 19 .Therefore.

14% 3.1) and (3.232 mA Percent change = 5. (b) All the covalent bonds are intact at 0 K and hence there are no free charge carriers. which decreases the resistivity of the semiconductor material.e. dQ =0 dt 20 .. This results in a decrease in the mobility and hence resistivity increases with temperature. we obtain I1 » I0 exp (700/hVT) and \ or (b) I2 » I0 exp (750/hVT) I2/I1 = exp (50/2 ´ 26) = 2.2) From Eqs. whereas at room temperature some of the covalent bonds break away resulting in small conductivity.1) (3. whereas in a metal an increase in the temperature results in a greater thermal motion of the ions.3 From the V–I relation of the diode.6% 3.616 I2 = 2. we obtain and » I0 exp (V1/hVT) I2 = 2I1 » I0 exp (V2/hVT) I1 2 = exp (V2 – V1/hVT) (3. (3.2). 3. i.1 (a) The number of covalent bonds breaking away increases with temperature. and hence decreases the mean free path of the free electrons. V2 – V1 = hVT 1n 2 = 2 ´ 26 ´ 0.73 mV 3. V1 = 700 mV Therefore.4 I2 = 10 = e {(V2 – V1)/2 ´ 26} I1 or V2 – V1 = 52 1n 10 = 119. 232 − 2 × 100% 2 = 161.693 mV » 36 mV Since.616 ´ 2 = 5.5 (a) The circuit will be under steady-state at t = 20ms. V2 = 700 + 36 = 736 mV Percentage change = 736 − 700 × 100% 700 or (b) = 5.2 (a) Using the V-I relation of the diode.CHAPTER 3 3.

5 mA Excess Q Minority Charge 0 0 t 1. VR = 5 = 0.7V 0 -5V Id 1 mA 0 -0.099 ms 21 t tR t t tR t . 5 mA R 10 The differential equation is dQ Q + = − 0. The recovery time constant tR = RCO = 10 ´ 103 ´ 10 ´ 10–12 = 0. \ V1 R = 10 = 1mA 10 Q =I t Q = 1 ´ 10–6 ´ 10–3 = 10–9 C (b) The diode will turn off when excess minority charge has been removed.099 ms (c) The various waveforms are given below.5 ´ 10–9 e–t Set Q = 0 for cut-off \ t = 1.5 ´ 10–9 + 1.1 ms Vi V1 = 0V 0 -V2 = -5V Vd 0. we obtain Q = – 0. 5 × 10 −3 dt τ IR ≈ Solving this with initial condition Q(0) = 10–9 C (part (a)).∴ I1 ≈ Since.

1 kW 2.1 mA Since IC>hFE IB. ⋅ 6 − 0. the collector current IC and the base current IB are given by IC = and IB = VCC − VCE . with VCC = 6V. therefore. Hence it is conducting in the active region. 8 = 21 µA 200 = hFE IB = 21 ´ 100 = 2. sat RB = 10 − 0. sat RC or RC ≥ 10 − 0. 1 ³ 4. (c) The value of RB required to drive the transistor into saturation is given by IC ≤ h FE × or RB ≤ 100 ⋅ ≤ h FE I B V BB − V BE . Therefore. Therefore.7kW. It may either be operating in the active region or in the saturation region. IC is flowing). 8 kW 3.7 kW \ The value of Rc just sufficient for saturation will be 4. Therefore. sat RC V BB − V BE . let us again assume that the transistor is operating in the saturation region.27 kW 22 . the transistor will continue to be operating in the saturation region. 1 = 3. sat RB 5 − 0. now IC < hFEIB which means the transistor is certainly operating in the saturation region. sat (= 0.e. 33 mA 3 5 − 0.3.6 (a) Since the E-B junction is forward-biased.7 kW. therefore the transistor cannot be in saturation. Then the base and collector voltages will be VBE.1 V) respectively.1 ≈ 2 mA 3 The current IB remains same as in part (a). (b) The value of RC required for the transistor to be in saturation is given by IC = VCC − VCE .8 V) and VCE. Let us assume that the transistor is operating in the saturation region. If the value of RC used is more than 4. 3 £ 127. sat (= 0. the transistor is conducting (i..

sat RC ≤ V BB − V BE .8 23 . Writing KVL equations for the collector and base circuits. we obtain.25 V (c) The range of VBB for saturation region is VBB ³ 3. the voltage VBB £VBE.5 V < VBB < 3. the range of VBB for active region is 0. sat RB ⋅ h FE or. If a smaller value of RB than the value calculated above is used. cut–in £ 0. sat + RE (IC + IB) = VCC and RBIB + VBE. sat 5 − 0. sat ⋅ + V BE . sat RC h FE 5 − 0.25 V 3.27 kW. VBB < R B VCC − VCE .25 V Therefore. sat RC ≥ V BB − V BE .5 V (b) For active region operation VCE − VCE .9 Assume the transistor to be in saturation. 3. sat or. sat RB ⋅ h FE R B VCC − V CE. hFE (min) = R ⋅ V C BB − V BE . RCIC + VCE. sat + RE (IC + IB) = VBB Substituting the values.1 < 100 ⋅ + 0. 8 = 233.The value of RB just sufficient to drive the transistor into saturation will be 127.3 3.8 For the transistor to be in saturation VCC − VCE . the transistor will be driven deeper into saturation.7 (a) For the transistor to be in the cut-off region. 8 2 100 < 3. 53 IC + 50 IB = 4. 1 = 200 ⋅ 1 5 − 0.

43 ´ 10–2 mA and IE » –8. This helps in improving the switching speed of transistor circuit. IB = 8.and 50 IC + 100 IB = 4. Assuming VBE = 0.43 ´ 10–2 mA 3.sat = 5V = 2.096 mA and IB = –6.05 V 24 .8 = 1.7 V in the active region. the voltages at B change with the time constant Ci (RB||Ri) If a capacitor C is connected across RB.214 mA Since IB comes out to be negative. 5 mA = 2. hence the transistor is not in saturation. the voltage at B will change as soon as Vi changes because of the capacitive voltage divider. 3. KVL for the base circuit will be [RB + (1 + hFE) RE] IB = 5 – 0. 5 µA 100 \ The minimum value of Vi required for the load transistors to be in saturation is Vi(min) = 25 ´ 10–3 ´ 10 + 0. IC = 0. given below: C + Vi – Equivalent circuit at the transistor input B RB Ri Ci When fast changes occur in Vi.sat = IB.7 or.5 mA 2 kW 2.2 Solving these equations.10 The equivalent circuit at the input of a transistor consists of input resistance Ri in parallel with the input capacitance Ci as shown in Fig.11 (a) For the load transistors IC.43 ´ 10–4 mA \ IC = hFE IB = 8.

I B = = 0.12 (a) When both the transistors are cut-off.3 mA Since IC < hFE IB. the voltage Vi = VO can be determined using the principle of superposition and is given by Vi = VO = = 3. the voltage at Y is 0V. (b) When both the transistors are in saturation.8 V 5 2 ´5+ ´ 0. Similarly.8 5+2 5+2 (c) The base current IB1 = I B2 = 3. (a). æ VCC ö the voltage at Y will be 0 V. if T1 is in saturation and T2 is cut-off then IC1 = I1 + I2 (d) V1 0V 0V 5V 5V V2 0V 5V 0V 5V Y 5V 0V 0V 0V It performs NOR operation. 3. 25 . Now. The currents I1 and I2 will be same ç = è RC ÷ ø and IC2 = I1 + I2.3 mA 3. which reduces to the circuit shown in Fig. (b). there is no current drawn from the supplies. 042 mA 1 100 hFE IB = 150 ´ 0. 8 mA 10 = 0.8 V (a) (b) Vi 5 kW 0. therefore. Since T2 is in saturation.042 = 6. IC = 5 = 5 mA. 8 − 0. and the voltage at Y is 5 V. (c) Assume T1 to be cut-off and T2 to be in saturation.(b) Assuming the load transistors to be in saturation the equivalent circuit at their input will be as shown in Fig. 5 − 0.8 V 10 kW 0.13 (a) Assume the transistor to be in saturation.8 V 10 kW Vi 0. 8 Therefore. the transistor is definitely in saturation.

IC = I + I1 = 5 + 1.(b) When S1 is closed.14 The base current required for each transistor to be in saturation is 25mA. Therefore.15 Now IC <hFE⋅IB Which means the transistor no longer remains in saturation. if we again assume the transistor to be in saturation. it is conducting in the active region.7/4) = 1. the voltage at its collector will be VO = 5 – 2 ´ 103 ´ 25 ´ 100 ´ 10–6 =0 Which shows that it is not possible to have a base current of 25 mA for each of the load transistor.075 mA assuming the transistor to be in saturation. the transistor will be operating in the active region. the transistor continues to remain in saturation. the load transistors will not remain in saturation.075 = 7. the total resistance in the collector circuit of T2 is RC || RC = RC/2 which means its collector current increases. I C = I + I1 + I2 = 5 + 2 ´ 1. 3. Therefore. Therefore. If this current flows through RC of driver. total base current will be 25 ´ 100 mA. Therefore. (c) When both S1 and S2 are closed. Therefore. RC 3. I1 = (5 – 0. This requires the base current to be doubled for the transistor to remain in saturation.16 The effective resistance = RC || RC = 2 26 .15 Let T1 be cut-off. Hence.075 = 6.075 mA Since IC < hFE ⋅ IB Therefore. the circuit will be as shown below: VCC RC T1 VCC RC T2 Now. 3.

From this we see that when Vi = 0. the v-i characteristic of the load is that of part (a). (b) Transistor T2 acts as load for T1. Since the current ID is same in both T1 and T2. the time constant = VDS1 = VDD – VDS2 Take various values of ID and for each ID determine VDS2 from the curve of (a). mA Load curve 4 3 2 1 0 A 0 5 10 B VGS = 5 V 4 V 3 V 2 V 1 V VDS. ID on the characteristic of Fig. therefore. for a given value of ID. the circuit functions as an inverter.28. the VDS VS ID characteristic will be same as the characteristic for VGS = 0 in Fig. and Vi = 5V. Therefore. Calculate VDS1 and locate a point corresponding to VDS1. Thus. the voltage.41(b). V 27 .17 (a) Since VGS = 0. we get a load curve AB as shown below. 3. VO = 5V VO » 0V Therefore. ID.RC ⋅ CO 2 3. therefore. 3.

6 − 1.015 Load gate transistors not in saturation ’’ ’’ VO 1. 4. 844 + 5.17 0.05 0. 312 = 2 2 = I av = = 4. each gate will be able to drive 5 gates. 14 = = 3.14V. 312 mA 640 I1 + I 2 3.2 (a) & (b) hFE = 10 N 5 6 7 8 9 10 VO 1. 844 mA 640 RC when the output of the driver is low.CHAPTER 4 4. hence Y = Y1 = Y2 = 1 Corresponding to this.04 Noise Margin D1 0.026 0. The current drawn from the supply I2 = Average current 3. T1 and/or T2 are in saturation and VO = 0. 6 − 0.055 1. 2 = 5. (c) Fan out and noise margin increases with increase in hFE.2V.578 mA Average Power drawn from the supply = VCC ´ Iav = 3. The value of noise margin decreases with increased N.984 hFE = 20 Noise Margin D1 0.48 mW 4. TC.1 0.135 0.1 When the output of the driver gate is high. I1 = VCC − VO 3.578 mW = 16.064 The voltage VO and noise margin D1 are given in Table.6 ´ 4.09 1. The current drawn from the supply.055 <1. and TD are cut-off. the load gate transistors come out of saturation. the fan-out of this combination will be 10.04 <1.22 0. if N > 7.106 0. Therefore.077 0.09 1. Alternatively.04 <1. VO = 1. the load gates are in saturation and T1 and T2 are cut-off.3 (a) Let us consider all the possible cases: Case I A = B = C = D = 0. all the transistors TA. Therefore. Therefore. we can consider 28 .14 1. (d) For hFE = 10.997 0. TB.14 1.

Case III At least one of the inputs to gate P is HIGH and C = D = 0. 4.1) When the output is high. The transistor whose input is HIGH will be driven to saturation forcing the output voltage to LOW.312 ´ 2 mA \ Iav = 9. This will lead to a situation similar to that of Case III.6 ´ 9. Case II At least one of the inputs of each gate P and Q are HIGH.equivalent collector resistance R¢C = RC || RC = RC/2. The state of transistor T2 29 . RB is the resistance in the base circuit of a load gate. the current drawn from the supply is IH = 3. Case IV A = B = 0 and at least one of the inputs to gate Q is LOW. This will drive the corresponding transistors into saturation and consequently Y = Y1 = Y2 will be LOW and hence the load transistors will be cut-off.156 mW = 32. Therefore. which means the base current of 5 + 5 load transistors can flow through R¢C and give same output voltage corresponding to logic 1 as the output voltage of each gate individually while driving 5 load gates. (b) Without load gates. Ci is the input capacitance of a load gate. the fan-out is 10. there is no problem of fan-out. for low output IL = 5. With wire-ANDing. Therefore.156 mA Power drawn from the supply = 3. Consequently. the propagation delay time-constant for a single driver (without wired-logic) is RB æ ç RC + N è ö ÷ × ( CO + NCi ) ø where.844 ´ 2 mA Similarly. the timeconstant will be æ RC RB ç 2 + N è ö ÷ × (2 CO + NCi ) ø (see Prob. N is the number of load gates. the propagation delay time-constant = RC ⋅ 2C O 2 = RC ⋅ CO which is same as the propagation delay time-constant of a single gate.96 mW 4. Y = Y1 = Y2 will be LOW and this situation is similar to that of Case II. With load gates.4 (a) This circuit has active pull-up (consisting of T2 and 100 W resistor) instead of passive pull-up RC used in normal RTL gates.

4(a) IO = VCC − VCE . if T3 is cut-off. (b) If it is driving N load gates.e.8 . The output voltage VO will be HIGH. when the input Vi is HIGH.0.IB ³ IO \ öù 30 é 450 æ 2. Prob. VCC(3.6 2. sat − or IB = 450 I – VBE. 6 100 + 450 / N = = Writing KVL for the closed path P. 8 100 + 450 / N 2. 4. 30 .. the output circuit corresponding to HIGH state will be as shown in Fig. When Vi is LOW.5.sat » 0 V. i.6 1 é ê 3.will always be opposite to that of T3. T2 is in saturation and T3 is cut-off.6 ´ç ê2 ÷ ú ³ 100 + 450/ N 1090 ê N è 100 + 450/ N ø ú ë û From the above equation.6 .8 V Equivalent input circuit of load gates Fig. T3 will be in saturation.4(a).8 ç 100 + 450/ N ÷ ú 1090 ê N è øú ë û For T2 to be in saturation hFE. sat 100 + 450 / N 3. 2 − 0.6 V) 640 W 450 W IB 100 W T2 IO 450 W/N P VBE. N ³ 3 since N is an integer. while T2 is cut-off and VO = VCE. Therefore. sat = 0 N O öù 450 æ 2. we obtain VCC – 1090 IB – VBE. 6 − 0. Therefore. Prob.0. 4. sat − V BE. we obtain N ³ 2. sat » 0. T2 is in saturation (since T1 is cut-off) and vice-versa.

5 (a) When all the inputs are HIGH the voltage at the point P will be Vp = 0. 6 = N ⋅ I1 100 + 450 / N The values of I1 for various values of N are given in Table Table N1 30 40 50 60 70 I1 (mA) 750 585 480 403 349 The base current required for saturation for a normal RTL is about 300 mA.8 + 0.8 V to 0. whereas T2A and T3B are cut-off. 2 − 0 .16 = 0. IO = 2. 5 = 0. = IN. . Prob. 4. Here T3A and T2B are in saturation. . which is very large.2 V. 7 mA 5 and IB = 0.54 mA This will increase the fan-out to 17. ∴ I1 = 31 . (c) The relevant portion of the circuit is shown in Fig. Therefore.7 = 1. but the noise margin D0 will be reduced from 0. 5 − 1. I1 = I2 = . Prob.6 V 100 W T2A IC3A A = 1 T3A T3B T2B 100 W IE2B B = 0 Fig. Neglecting the base currents IE2B = I C 3 A = 3.Since.4(b) 4. 6 − 0.7 – 0. 2 100 = 32 mA VCC = 3. 4.5 volts.4(b). which means N can be taken as 70.

sat » 0. Assuming all the other inputs of load gates to be HIGH. 4. N¢ is the fan-out with the wire-ANDed connection.82 mA Assuming T1 to be in saturation.(b) In this case VP = 0.6 For a fan-out of 10. 4.42 mA. 4. IL = 0.82 ´ 10 + 2. which means the input diodes of all the load gates driven from this combination are conducting. but the noise margin D0 will be increased to 1. the collector current of T1 is given by.4 or hFE » 26 4. 0.7 32 N¢ Load gates .8 + 0. Prob.9 V \ I1 = 0. Corresponding to this the output voltage at Y is VCE. Prob.4 V. This collector current must be same as the collector current of the single gate driving N gates which is given by NIL + I¢1 \ NIL + I¢1 = N¢IL + MI¢1 VCC(5 V) I¢1 RC T1 Y1 Y P1 IL VCC(5 V) R VCC RC T2 I¢1 Y2 IL P2 VCC R VCC RC TM I¢1 YM IL VCC R PN¢ M Gates wire-ANDed Fig.7 ´ 3 = 2.2 V. The worst condition corresponds to the situation when the output transistor of one of the driving gates is in saturation and all others are cut-off. N¢ IL + MI¢1 where.7 shows the relevant portion of the circuit.7 The Fig.182 = hFE ´ 0.26 mA This will reduce the fan-out to 6. and IB = 0.

9 If any input is LOW. sat + VD + VBE.7 + 0. sat = 0. 78 µA 1.or N¢ = N – (M – 1) I¢1/IL = N – (M – 1) 2.7 V in active region.9 V. sat + VD + VBE. the input diodes are non-conducting. VP = VBE1 + VD + VBE3. 82 = N – 2.2 V Here. 7 − 0. IB1 cannot exist. 093 N + 2.8 = 2.7 + 0. VBE has been assumed to be 0.66 (M – 1) 4. Hence T1 is in active region. Hence Y = 0. therefore. sat = 0. If all the inputs are HIGH.543 mA.383 mA Standard load = VCC − V D − VCE.8 + 0. 4. the input diodes will be nonconducting. sat = 0. VCC – VP = R1I1 + R2IB1 Also I1 = (1 + hFE) IB1 IB1 = 5 − 2. 182 0.2 + 0. This shows that the circuit operates as a NAND gate.182 RC 33 IC2 = N ⋅ I L + .sat R1 + R 2 = \ 5 − 0. then VP = VBE. VP = 0.3 V The voltage at the collector of T1 = VCE. D2. the voltage drop across R2 will reverse-bias the C-B junction of T1 and therefore T1 will definitely be operating in active region. If we assume that the transistor T1 is in saturation.7 V Since the voltage at P is higher than the voltage at the collector of T1.8 = 2.8 = 1.16 = 1. (a) When all the inputs are HIGH.543 – 0. T1 will be in active region and T2 in saturation region. 093 mA 1. I2 = IB2 = I1 – I2 = 1. 2 = 1. sat 5 = 0. sat = 1.7 + 0. the assumption that T1 is in saturation is inconsistent.16 mA. 75 × 31 + 2 V BE 2 . 2 × 10 3 = 49. the corresponding input diode conducts and therefore. In fact when T1 is conducting. Hence Y = 1.8 When all the inputs are HIGH. 75 + 2 VCC − VCE . which keeps T1. and I1 = 1. and T2 cut-off.7 + 0. Therefore.

7 + 6.6) = – 3.9 + 0.383 or. the power P (1) = I1 ´ Vcc = 1.5 – 0.2 – 0.5 + 6. VP = V (0) + VD = 0. VCC – VP = R1 (1 + hFE) IB1 + R2 IB1 34 .6 + 0.093 ´ 5 = 5.6)] = – 7. 1.4 – 0. 625 + 5. N < 36 Therefore.9 + 0. 045 mW 2 4. (b) Noise margins D1 = 0. VP = 8. sat = 0.12.2 V (b) When all the inputs are HIGH.For T2 to be in saturation. Therefore.7 = 0.093 N + 2. Writing KVL from VCC to VP.10 (a) When at least one of the inputs is LOW. the fan-out of this gate is 35 which is much higher than the fanout of the DTL gate of Fig.4 V (c) When the output is LOW.5 + 0. active + VZ + VBE.9 =7V The 0 level noise margin = D0 = – [V (1) – (VP – VDg)] = – [15 – (8. the power P (0) = (I1 + I¢1) VCC = (1.9 = 0.625 mW When the output is HIGH. T1 will be conducting in active region.2 + 0.182) ´ 5 = 18.182 £ 30 ´ 1. 4.543 + 2.5 – 0.4 V The 1 level noise margin = D1 = Vg + VZ + Vg – VP = 0.465 mW The average power Pav = = P ( 0 ) + P (1) 2 18. VP = VBE. Zener will be in the breakdown region and T2 in saturation. When all the inputs are HIGH. IC2 £ hFE IB2 or.7 V D0 = –V(1) + (VP – VDg) = – 5 + (2.9 V Corresponding to this T1 and T2 will be nonconducting. 465 = 12 .4 V.8 = 8.

IB1 = VCC − V P 15 − 8.844 or.004 + 0. I¢1 = 0. 4.12 The noise margins depend upon temperature because the voltage across a conducting diode and VBE are temperature dependent.16 = 1. the temperature sensitivities of Z and the base-emitter junction of T2 cancel (their magnitudes are of the same order).95 mA \ IC2 = 0.95 N £ 40 ´ 1. 4 35 .94 ´ 15 = 14.1 mW \ Pav = 29.8 + 0. 675 mA 4 VC2 = 0. therefore.8 + 0.844 mA The current through RC = 14.03 (M – 1) 4.94 mA.0489 mA The current through Zener diode. Therefore. (c) N £ 76 P(0) = (I1 + I¢1) ´ VCC = (2. 857 mA 1. 3 = 0 .13 (a) When the output is LOW.or.004 mA \ IB2 = I1 – I2 = 2.9867) ´ 15 = 44.7 + 0. The input diode and the base-emitter junction of T1 are in polarity opposition.48 mW 4. D2 is replaced by the Zener diode. Hence the temperature sensitivity of the HTL gate is significantly better than that of the DTL gate. Base-collector junction of T1 is forward-biased T2 and T3 are in saturation. Since the temperature sensitivity of a Zener diode is positive whereas for a forwardbiased diode it is negative. I1 = 41 ´ 0.9867 + 0. 8 = 0. 9867 mA 15 The load current IL = 0.0489 = 2.8 = 2. therefore.9867 mA N¢ = N – (M – 1) I¢1/IL = N – 1. the temperature sensitivities of these two junctions cancel.86 mW P(1) = I1 ´ VCC = 0. In HTL.11 IL = 0. Therefore.004 – 0. VB1 = 0. the temperature sensitivity of the circuit depends on the temperature sensitivities of D2 and the base-emitter junction of T2.3 V Current through RB1 = 5 − 2.2 = 1V Current through RC2 = 5 −1 = 2. 4 = R1 (1 + h FE ) + R 2 3 ( 41) + 12 = 0.

11 = 1. (c) (i) When output is in LOW state.025 + 41.385 mA 4. the relevant portion of the circuit with output shorted to ground is shown in Fig.8 V if the diode D is not present. sat 100 5 − 0. (b) When the output is in LOW state.sat − V D RC 2 5 − 0 . therefore. the shorting of output to ground will not have any effect.15 (a) If RC4 = 0. ICC(0) = 0. both T3 and T4 will be conducting simultaneously for some time which will cause almost short circuiting of the VCC supply. therefore.10 and 4. \ VB1 = 0.532 mA (b) At least one of the inputs is LOW. sat − VCE 3. Since T3 does not turn off (because of storage time) as quickly as T4 turns on. 5 mA 1.675 + 2. (ii) When output is in HIGH state. 4 36 . 4. 9 4 = 1.857 = 3. VB4 = 1 V which makes VBE4 = 0. 8 − 0. This means T4 will be in saturation and its collector current would be IC4 = VCC − VCE 4 .9 T2. Prob.15. IC4 = 0 Therefore.2 + 0. T4 and D are cut-off.36 = 42. the change in output from logic 0 to logic 1 will be faster. 4. Moreover.025 mA (c) The total current will be sum of current through RB1 (as given in (b) part above) and given in Eqs. 2 − 0. 2 = 46 mA 100 = which is very large and will increase significantly the power dissipation. The base current and the collector current of T4 will become IB4 = = VCC − V BE 4 .14 The current I remains same and it does not affect the fan-out of the gate G1. T3 and T4 are cut-off \ ICC1 = Current through RB1 = 5 − 0. 7 = 2.Since.7 = 0. 4. it is simply a wastage of power.

5 mA This large current will continuously be drawn from the supply as long as at least one of the inputs is LOW. 4) × 10 3 kW = I OH + 8 I IH 250 + 8 × 40 VCC − VOL 5 − 0. Prob.4 kW T4 IB4 C2 E2 C3 D Is IC4 E3 Fig. 4. 4. 4 = = 1.18.16 Let the output transistor T3 of one gate is in saturation. VCC – (5 IOH + 6 IIH) RC ³ VOH 37 . the currents drawn from the supply will be same as the currents without this connection.and IC4 = VCC − VCE 4 . This will damage the transistor T4 and the diode D.sat − V D RC 4 5 − 0. 4.17 The circuit is shown in Fig. 6 = 4. 4.5 = 43. VCC = 5V RC4 = 100 kW RC2 = 1. RC(max) = VCC − VOH (5 − 2. (i) When the output Y = 1. which will make the transistor T4 of the gate whose T3 is cut-off to conduct through T3 of the other gate which is in saturation.4 mA. Prob.18 The relevant portion of the circuit is given in Fig. 7 = 41 mA 100 = \ Is = IC4 + IB4 = 41 + 2.56 kW 4. 1. This continuous current will damage these transistors. The voltage at Y will be LOW. Prob. 44 kW I OL + 8 I IL 16 − 8 × 1. The corresponding current drawn from the power supply will be IC4 + IB4 = 41.15 4.17. When both the outputs are HIGH or LOW. while that of the other gate is cut-off.56 kW RC(min) = Therefore.44kW < RC < 4. 2 − 0.

Prob.which gives RC(max) = VCC − VOH ( 5 − 2 .18 38 RC Load gates IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL IIH IIL Y .17 VCC = 5 V IOL IOH IOH IOH IOH IOH Fig. 4. 4 ) × 10 3 kW = 1. 4. 74 kW = 5 I OH + 6 I IH 5 × 250 + 6 × 40 VCC = +5 V RC IIH IOH Output circuit of open-collector gate Fig. Prob.

30 A Lamp 7407 Fig.4 V \ RC(max) = RC(min) = ( 5 − 2. 4 ) × 10 3 ≈ 1. VCC − VOL £ IOL + NIIL RC which gives RC(min) = VCC − VOL I OL + NI IL 5 − 0.72 kW and 1. 4 ≈ 0. 4.28 kW 4. Prob. 6 = Therefore. 6 and Therefore. 4.(ii) When the output Y = 0.6 mA 39 . Prob. it is assumed that only one of the driving gates has its output transistor in saturation while the output transistors of all the other gates are cut-off. (i) ALS driving standard devices IOH (ALS) = – 400 mA IOL (ALS) = 8 mA (74 series) IIH (Standard) = 40 mA IIL (Standard) = – 1. 4 ≈ 0. RC should be between 0. A value of RC = 1 kW is reasonable. which means a lamp load along with the necessary supply voltage may be connected as shown in Fig.19 Let us assume a supply voltage VCC = + 5V and corresponding VOH = 2.74 kW. 72 kW 16 − 6 × 1.20. 4.159 kW 40 − 7 × 1. 4.159kW < RC < 1.20 7407 is an open-collector non-inverting buffer with VOH = 30V (maximum).21 Let us take ALS devices driving other devices. 0. 28 kW 7 × 250 + 7 × 40 5 − 0.20 (a) No (b) No (c) No VCC = +5 V A (d) Yes VCC = +10 V 10 V.

1 mA Which gives a fan-out of 20 when the output is HIGH and 80 when it is LOW. = 1. 3 Since T4 is operating as an emitter-follower. if the terminal P is grounded. Therefore. P RC2 T4 Vn RE4 Q (a) Fig. the fan-out is 5 (ii) ALS driving ALS IIH (ALS) = 20 mA IIL (ALS) = – 0. 4. 3 + (101) (1.002 Vn Therefore. Therefore. the noise voltage present in the output is negligibly small. Prob.797 Vn (b) VYP = – (Vn – 0.18 + 0. 5) n = 0. Similarly. 4. Then the output circuit will appear as shown in Fig. Prob. whose equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 5 (101) V 0. Prob.797 Vn) = – 0. 4. when the output is LOW. we obtain (a) VYQ = R E 4 (1 + h FE ) V R C 2 + (1 + h FE ) R E 4 n 1.203 Vn 40 .22 Case I Let T2 be cut-off. the complete table can be verified.998 Vn = (b) VYP = – (Vn – VYQ) = – 0.18 Vn = 0. (a) The noise voltage at the collector of T2 = the noise voltage at the base of T4.22(a). the fan-out is 20. and – IOH (ALS) = 10 ´ IIH (Standard) – IOL (ALS) = 5 ´ IIL (Standard) This means.22(b). 1. 797 Vn . therefore. whereas it is 10 when the output is HIGH. Case II Let T2 be conducting and T1 be cut-off. VYQ = 0. the fan-out is 5.Here. 4.22 (b) Y Vn RC2 B4 I E4 RE4 Q C4 hFE I Y P From the equivalent circuit.

75 V) T4 RC2 RE4 Fig.85 V) T4 Y1 RE4 (-1. when Y1 = 1 and Y2 = 0 identical situation will prevail making the output 1. 4. Similarly. Prob. 4.e.26 2. Y1 = 0 and Y2 = 1. Consequently T4 goes to cut-off.25 Let A = B = C = 0. a current spike of 41. when the output changes from V(0) to V(1). Prob.7V VOL ECL (a) Output logic level voltages of ECL TTL (c) Input logic level voltages of TTL .24 In a TTL gate. Also 5. When Y1 and Y2 both are same. This confirms that OR operation is performed when the outputs are connected in wired logic.2 V Y2 (-0.26 The output logic levels of ECL. Prob. 4. 4. VCC = 0 VCC = 0 RC2 (-0. (b) The 5. Therefore.13V VIH –1. The relevant portions of the circuits are shown in Fig. D = 1. the output transistor will burn out.48V VIL MC10H125 Translator (b) Input/output logic level voltages of Translator Fig. the output will be equal to Y1 = Y2. 4.2 V supply voltage will appear across the output transistor T4 or T3. 4.This again shows that the noise voltage is very small between Y and P and hence the terminal P is grounded. 4. whereas in the case of ECL the change in current is negligibly small when the output changes from LOW to HIGH and vice-versa.26 41 –1.5V VOL –1.25. In this when Y1 and Y2 are connected together. Similarly.5V –0. and the input logic levels of TTL are shown in Fig.9V VOH VOH 2V 0. input/output logic levels of MC10H125 IC. it can be proved for all the other cases.2 V supply gets applied to their bases through RC2 and RC1 respectively.2 V 4.25 -5..23 (a) The 5.55 V) -5. the voltage at the output terminal will be equal to – 0.4 mA is produced.75 V (i. Prob.8 VIH VIL 0.2 V supply will appear across RE4 or RE3 and no damage is caused to the supply and the circuit. Corresponding to this T4 of G1 is acting as an emitter follower while that of G2 is acting as a diode. the voltage across T4 acting as a diode). and E = 0 Therefore.

we observe. 4.25. This will cause a relatively very high current to flow through T2 which may damage it.27 Y TTL The complete circuit is shown in the above figure. the output voltage is LOW (» 0V). 4. Prob.From the logic levels. The normal current through T1 and T2 is extremely small being the OFF current of either T1 or T2. it does not cause any problem. 3. large current from VDD will continuously flow through the load transistor T2 which may damage the load transistor.33.29 Its operation is given below Inputs A 0 0 VCC VCC B 0 VCC 0 VCC T1 OFF ON OFF ON State of T2 OFF OFF ON ON T3 ON OFF ON OFF T4 ON ON OFF OFF Output Y VCC 0 0 0 42 .28 (a) Consider the NMOS inverters shown in Fig. 4. Similarly. Now if the output gets shorted to ground. On the other hand when Vi is LOW. since T2 is not meant to carry such large currents. 4. 4. When T1 is ON. VIH (Translator) < VOH (ECL) VIL (Translator) > VOL (ECL) which shows that the input of MC10H125 IC is ECL compatible.27 The output Y of ECL NOR gate is Y = A + B The output of the Translator circuit is Y and the output of TTL Inverter will be Y = Y. If the output accidently gets shorted. whole of VCC will appear across T2 which is conducting. T1 is cut-off. and if the output gets shorted to ground. VIH (TTL) < VOH (Translator) VIL (TTL) > VOL (Translator) which shows that the output of the translator is compatible with TTL. A B ECL Y Y MC10H125 Translator Fig. (b) Consider the CMOS inverter of Fig.

4.31 54/74 (a) 74HC/74HCT (b) 74 AC/74 ACT 2 15 54H/74H 2 12 54L/ 74L 21 133 54S/ 74S 2 12 54LS/ 74LS 11 66 54AS/ 54ALS/ 74AS 74ALS 8 48 40 240 4.34 The output logic levels of MC10H125 translator and the input logic levels of CMOS (74HCT & 74 ACT) are shown in Fig. Prob.34. When output is LOW. 4. 4. Prob. 4.33 From these logic levels. it can drive a total of up to 1200 gates.30 The fan-out is given below.33. Prob.33 The output logic levels of CMOS and the input logic levels of MC10H124 TTL-to-ECL translator are given in Fig.76V VIH VOL 0.37V VIL 2V 0. we observe.32 When output is HIGH. 4. it can drive 20 74AS gates requiring 10 mA of current. 43 . therefore. Therefore. CMOS-to-ECL interfacing is possible using TTL-to-ECL translator.4. Since the output of the translator is compatible with ECL. maximum possible number of ALS gates which can be driven is 140. VOH 3. VIH (Translator) < VOH (CMOS) VIL (Translator) > VOL (CMOS) which shows that the input of the translator is compatible with CMOS. The remaining 14 mA of current can drive 140 74ALS gates. TTL/CMOS 54/74 54H/74H 54L/74L 54S/74S 54LS/74LS 54AS/74AS 54ALS/74ALS 74HC 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74HCT 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74AC 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 74ACT 400 500 200 1000 4000 2000 400 4.8V CMOS (a) MC10H124 translator (b) Fig.

ECL-toCMOS interfacing is possible. For CMOS 74 HC.85V and for CMOS 74 C series VIL = 1. Prob. Prob.34 CMOS 44 . therefore. a resistance R and VCC are required to be connected to pull up the voltage at P corresponding to VOH (Translator) VCC R P MC10H125 Translator (c) Fig.5V VOL MC10H125 Translator (a) CMOS (74HCT & 74ACT) (b) Fig.VOH 2.5V For these CMOS ICs. the output of the translator is compatible with these CMOS devices. and 74 AC series VIL = 1. Since the input of the translator is compatible with ECL.8V VIL 0. we observe.34 From these logic levels.5V VIH 2V 0. 4. VIL (CMOS) > VOL Translator but VIH (CMOS) < VOH (Translator) Therefore. 4. VIH (CMOS) < VOH (Translator) VIL (CMOS) > VOL (Translator) Therefore.35V VIH = 3.5V VIH = 3.

5. Prob. The resulting circuit will be NAND-NAND realization.1(b): S1 S2 L Fig. Prob.1(a): 0 S1 1 L 0 S2 ON = 1 OFF = 0 1 Supply Fig.1(b) (d) Replace each of the AND gates and the OR gate in the above figure by NAND gates. Prob.CHAPTER 5 5.1 Let S1 and S2 be the two switches. Prob. 5. 5. 5. The circuit diagram of the system is shown in Fig.) .1(a) Bulb (a) The truth table is given below: S1 0 0 1 1 S2 0 1 0 1 L 0 1 1 0 (b) The logic equation is L = S 1 S2 + S1 S 2 (c) The AND-OR realization is given in Fig.2 (a) A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Inputs C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 45 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Output f 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 (Contd. 5.

3 46 0 01 0 11 0 0 10 0 CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 (b) 0 0 0 01 11 10 . Prob. 5.3 (a) f1 = (A + B + C + D ) ( A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D) ( A + B + C + D ) f2 = (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (A + B + C + D) (b) The K-maps for f1 and f2 are given in Fig. Prob.2.2 1 1 B 1 BC D (b) BD 01 11 10 B C f 5. The simplified expression is f = BC + BD CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 (a) Fig.) Inputs A 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output f 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 (b) The K-map is given in Fig. 5. The minimized expressions are: CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 (a) Fig.(Contd. 5. Prob. Prob.3(a) and (b) respectively. 5.

3(c) and (d) for f1 and f2 respectively. 5.3 (c) (d) (d) Replace all the AND and OR gates in figures (A) and (B) by NOR gates to obtain realizations using only NOR gates. 5. 5. Prob. B C D A C A B f1 B f2 A B C A B D A B D A B C D A C D Fig.4 (a) A B C D B C B D A D f A B Fig.f1 = ( B + C + D) ( A + B + C) ( A + B + D) (A + B + D ) (A + B + C ) f2 = (A + C ) (A + B) ( A + C + D ) (B + D ) (c) The OR-AND realizations are shown in Fig. Prob.4(a) 47 . Prob. 5.

Prob. Prob. 5. 5.(b) A B C D A B C f A B D A B D Fig. Realization for (b) requires 7427 – 1 74260 – 1 a total of only two chips. 5.5 (a) A C A C D 7410 Y B (b) A B C A B C B C D Y 1/ 3 7427 7427 Fig.4(b) (c) Realization for (a) requires 7400 – 1 7420 – 1/2 7430 – 1 a total of three chips.5 48 .

15) (c) f = A + C A f B Fig.8(i) 49 . Using offset adjacencies shown in the K-map. Prob. 5.6 A D 3/4 7402 C D f B Fig.8 (i) below gives the K-map. the expression for f1 can be written as f1 = (C ¤ D) (A ¤ B) + (C ⊕ D) (A ⊕ B) = (A ⊕ B) ¤ (C ⊕ D) CD AB C D (A ¤ B) 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 00 01 11 10 C D (A Å B) CD (A ¤ B) C D (A Å B) Fig. 9. 11. 14. 5. 7. 13. 12.6 5.7(b) 5. 5.(c) Realization of (a) requires only one chip whereas (b) requires two chips.7 (a) CD AB 00 01 11 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 A 00 01 11 10 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 Fig.8 (a) Figure Prob. Prob. 5. 10. Prob.7(a) (b) f = å m (2. 8. 6. Prob. 5. 5. 3.

This requires one 7410 chip and one gate of 7400 chip.A B C D Logic 1 Fig.8(iii) The minimized expression is f2 = A B + AB D + ACD The realization using NAND gates is given in Fig.8 f2 (iv) 5. 5. 5.9. E1. 5. Prob. This realization requires only one 7486 IC chip. Prob. 5. (b) Its K-map is given in Fig.8(iv).9 Truth table of BCD-to-Excess-3 code converter is given below. The minimized expressions are: E0 = A 50 . 5. Prob.8(ii) f1 Its realization using EX-OR gates is given in Fig. CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 (iii) 1 1 1 A 01 11 1 10 B A B D A C D Fig. Pro. E2 and E3 are given in Fig. 5. Prob. The K-maps for the outputs E0. BCD D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 E2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 Excess-3 E1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 E0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 Here only ten out of sixteen combinations are used and the other six are taken as don’t-care conditions. Prob.8(ii).

f2. A = E0 B = E1 E 0 + E1 E 0 C = E 2 E 1 + E2 E1 E0 + E3 E1 E 0 D = E3 E2 + E3 E1 E0 The circuit can now be drawn using NAND gates.10 Truth table of Excess-3-to-BCD converter can be prepared using the truthtable of Prob.BA DC 00 1 0 0 1 01 11 1 0 0 1 E0 (a) ´ ´ ´ ´ 10 1 0 ´ ´ BA DC 00 1 0 1 0 01 11 1 0 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ E1 (b) 10 1 0 ´ ´ 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 BA DC 00 0 1 1 1 01 11 1 0 0 0 E2 (c) ´ ´ ´ ´ 10 0 1 ´ ´ BA DC 00 0 0 0 0 01 11 0 1 1 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ E3 (d) 10 1 1 ´ ´ 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 Fig. The minimized expression is f1 = C D = C + D (b) The K-map is shown in Fig. The minimized expressions are given below.11(c). 5. Prob.11(b). 5. 5. 5. The minimized expression is f 3 = ( A + B + C + D ) ( B + C + D) ( A + B + C ) ( A + C + D ) The circuits for f1. Prob. 5. Prob.9 E1 = BA + B A E2 = CB A + C A + C B E3 = D + CA + CB The circuit can be drawn using NAND gates.11(a). 51 .9. 5. The K-maps can then be prepared and minimized. The minimized expression is f 2 = ( A + B + D) ( B + C + D ) ( A + C ) (c) The K-map is shown in Fig. Prob. and f3 can be drawn using NOR gates. 5.11 (a) The K-map is shown in Fig.

Prob.12 The K-map for f1 is shown in Fig. 5. Similarly.11 5. the minimized expression for f2 is f 2 = C E + ABD + ADE + AD E + B CE + CDE + AB E which can be realized using NAND gates.CD AB 00 01 11 10 CD AB 00 01 11 0 10 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 (a) CD AB 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 (b) 0 0 0 01 11 0 10 0 0 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 (c) Fig. 5.12 and the minimized expression is f 1 = A BE + AC E + ABD + BC + AB CD E This can be realized using NAND gates. 5. Prob. Prob. 52 .12 5.13 (a) Its K-map is given in Fig. 513(a). Prob. A = 0 BC DE 00 00 01 11 10 A BE BC 10 1 DE 00 01 11 10 A = 1 AB CDE 00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 01 11 10 1 AC E 01 11 1 1 1 1 1 ABD BC Fig.

13(c) 5. Prob. C D Y C D Fig. 5. 5. 5. The minimized expressions are f1 = ABC + CD + BD + AD (SOP) and f1 = ( A + B + C ) (C + D) ( B + D) ( A + D) (POS) Circuits using NAND and NOR gates can be designed using the above expressions.(a) CD AB 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 01 11 0 1 0 0 1 0 10 1 0 0 Fig.14(a) and (b) show the K-maps of f1 for NAND and NOR realizations respectively. Prob.18 of the book and Y = C D + CD (c) Realization of part (a) requires 2 IC chips (7410) whereas for part (b) one IC chip (7400) only is required. the minimized expressions are obtained which are given below. (b) Similar to part (a). 5.13(a) The minimized expression is Y = AC D + B C D + ACD A C D B C D A C D Y Fig. 5. Prob. f2 = A C D + BC + AB 53 (SOP) .14 (a) Figure Prob.13(b) (b) The K-map is given in Fig.

5. Prob. (a) A C (B Å D) AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 A C (B ¤ D) 1 01 11 1 1 D f1 10 1 A B C (b) B 01 11 1 1 1 A 1 1 A(C Å D) A (B Å C) AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 10 C A 1 1 f2 1 C D 54 .15 Its K-map and circuit realization are given in Fig. 5.14 1 ´ 1 00 01 11 10 1 1 1 CD 00 01 11 10 ´ 0 0 (b) 0 0 AB 00 0 01 0 11 0 ´ 10 5. Prob. AB CD 00 01 11 10 1 1 ´ (a) Fig.15.and f2 = ( A + B ) ( B + D ) ( B + C ) ( A + C ) (POS) These equations can be used to design circuits with NAND and NOR gates.

AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 0 1 0 01 11 0 1 0 1 (a) Fig. Prob.15 f3 A C(B Å D) 5. 5. Prob. Prob. 5. 5.16(b).16 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4-bit word B C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Odd parity bit PO 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Even parity bit PE 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 The K-map for Po is given in Fig.16(a). Table Prob. 5.16 55 1 0 1 0 10 0 1 0 B 1 D (b) A C Po . Prob. from which Po is obtained as Po = AC (B ¤ D) + A C (B Å D) + A C (B Å D) + AC (B ¤ D) = (A Å C) ¤ (B + D) Its realization using EX-OR and EX-NOR gates is given in Fig.16. 5.(c) AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 1 01 11 1 1 10 A C A C (BÅD) B D Fig.16 Its truth table is given in Table Prob. 5.

5. we can minimize using 0’s which will lead to a circuit realizable by NOR gates. (a) An and Bn are applied at the two inputs of first half-adder HA – 1. Its outputs are S1 (Sum) and C1 (Carry).19 Let the augend. The minimized expression for f1 is f 1 = ABC D E + ABCD F + CEF + A B C DEF The circuit for f1 can be realized using NAND gates. PE = A ⊕ B ⊕ C ⊕ D AB CD 00 00 01 11 10 1 (a) 1 1 1 01 11 1 1 1 10 1 A B C D Fig. and the carry inputs to the full-adder be An. Bn. Similarly. Table Prob. 5.5.18(a).17.17 From the truthtable given in Prob. The minimized expression for f2 is f2 = (A + B + C + D + E + F ) ( A + B + D + E + F) ( A + B + C + E + F ) (A + C + D + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + E + F) (A + B + C + D ) (A + B + D + E) (B + C + D + E) (B + C + D + F ) (A + B + C + D) The circuit for f2 can be realized using NOR gates.19. 5. 5. 5. K-map is prepared and the circuit is designed. and Cn – 1 respectively and Sn. Similarly. 5. (b) The K-map using 0’s is given in Fig. Prob. 5. Prob.17 (b) PE 5. addend.18(b).18 (a) The K-map using 1’s is given in Fig.19(a) An 0 0 1 1 Bn 0 1 0 1 56 S1 0 1 1 0 C1 0 0 0 1 . Its truth table is given in Table Prob. we can minimize the function using 1s which will lead to a circuit realizable by NAND gates. Prob. These are given in Fig. Prob. and Cn be the sum and carry outputs respectively.16. 5.

5. Prob.18(a) 0 1 CD 10 0 EF 00 01 11 10 CD 00 0 00 0 0 0 0 01 11 10 0 B A CD 00 00 0 01 11 10 CD 00 00 1 01 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 EF 01 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 EF 01 11 0 10 EF 01 11 10 00 0 01 11 10 Fig. 5. Prob.B A CD 00 00 0 01 11 10 1 0 CD 00 1 EF 01 11 10 EF 01 11 10 00 1 1 01 11 10 1 1 AB CDEF CD 00 00 1 01 11 10 1 1 1 1 1 CEF 01 11 10 EF CD 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 1 1 EF ABC D E ABCDF Fig.18(b) 57 .

58 . and Cn – 1 is given below: Table Prob.19(b) C1 0 0 1 0 0 1 S1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Cn – 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cn 0 0 1 0 1 1 Sn 0 1 0 1 0 1 K-maps for Cn and Sn are shown below: Cn – 1 C 1 S1 00 0 1 0 0 01 0 1 11 ´ ´ 10 1 1 Cn – 1 C1 S1 00 0 1 0 1 01 1 0 11 ´ ´ 10 0 1 K-map for Cn K-map for Sn Cn = C1 + S1 × Cn – 1 Sn = S1 C n . 5.1 + S 1 Cn – 1 = C1 + C2 = S1 Å Cn – 1 Sn and Cn are generated using HA –2 and an OR gate as shown in the block diagram. C1. Prob 5.An Bn Cn – 1 HA – 1 C1 S1 HA – 2 C2 S2 = Sn Cn Fig.19(a) Truth table of the full-adder using input variables S1.

D) = p M(2.(b) An Bn EX–OR(1) S1 EX–OR(2) S2 = Sn C2 C1 AND-2 AND–1 Cn–1 Fig. 6. 5 0 0 0 0 Grouping of two minterms Variables Check for inclusion B C D in groups of 4 0 — 0 0 — 0 1 1 ü ü ü (Contd. 11. 4.) 59 0 — — 0 . A 0 1 4 3 5 6 11 13 14 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Variables B C D 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 Check for inclusion in groups of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Minterm 2 3 4 Table (b) Group 0 Minterms A 0. therefore. 15) Table (a) Group 0 1 Grouping of minterms according to number of 1’s. 7. 10. 5. 5. 14. 1. B. 4 1.20 Propagation delay time for Sn = tpd [EX-OR(1)] + tpd [EX –OR(2)] = 20 + 20 = 40 ns. Since the propagation delay time (tpd) of AND–1 is less than the tpd of EX-OR(1). 3. 8.19(b) OR Cn 5. Propagation dealy time for Cn = tpd [EX-OR(1) + tpd (AND-2) + tpd(OR) = 20 + 10 + 10 = 40 ns. 3 1. 12) = S m (0. 13. 9.21 f (A. 1 0. it is not counted. Prob. 5. C.

15 13. All the other columns contain 2 or more Xs. D) = AC + ABD + ABD + B CD + BC D + BCD + ACD There can be other options also.) Group 1 Minterms A 4.(Contd. 6 3. we see that the column for minterms 0 contains only one ´. 6 A B Dü B CDü 3.13 BC D ü 6. 15 ABD 13. 4. 1. A C is an essential prime-implicant. B. 15 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü From the PI table. 60 . 11 BC Dü 5. 4. we see the minterms that are covered by each prime-implicant and find the minimum number of prime-implicants that will cover all the minterms. the minimized function is f (A. 1. 14 ACD ü 11. 5 0. 11 5. Depending upon the prime-implicants selected above. 15 14. C. 15 0 0 — — — 1 1 1 Variables Check for inclusion B C D in group of 4 1 1 0 1 1 — 1 1 0 — 1 0 1 1 — 1 — 0 1 1 0 1 1 — ü 2 3 Table (c) Grouping of 4 minterms Group 0 Minterms A 0.5 4. 5 Ä AC ü 1. Therefore.13 6. 15 ABC 14. 3 AB Dü 4. 1. 5 0 0 Variables B C — — 0 0 D — — Table (d) PI table PI terms Decimal numbers 0 1 ´ ´ 3 ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Minterms 4 5 6 11 13 14 15 ´ ´ 0. 4. starting from the prime-implicant A B D. 14 11. therefore.

11. 11. D) = Sm (1. 15) + d(2. 13*. 11. 8. and AD from Table (c) and AB C and AB C from Table (b). C.22 f (A. 11 9. 5 1. 13* 11. 11 1. B. 9 3. 15 1 2 3 ü ü ü ü ü ü Table (c) Group Grouping of 4 minterms/don’t care terms Minterms/ don’t care terms 1. 13* 9. 5. 13*. 9. 15 9. 15 A — — — — 1 1 Variables B C 0 — 0 — — — — 0 — 0 — — D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 There are a total of 5 prime-implicants BD . 13) Table (a) Grouping of minterms/don’t care terms according to number of 1’s. 3.5. 13* 9. 13* 1. 5. 11 1. Group Minterm/ don’t care term 1 2* 8 3 5 9 11 13* 15 A 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Variables B C 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 D 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Check for inclusion in group of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü 1 2 3 4 Table (b) Group Grouping of 2 minterms/don’t care terms A 0 0 — 0 1 — — 1 1 1 1 Variables B C 0 — 0 0 0 0 1 0 — — 1 — 0 0 1 0 1 0 — 0 1 — D 1 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 1 Check for inclusion in group of 4 ü ü ü Minterms/ don’t care terms 1. 3. 9. 9. 61 . 11 5. 9 2*. 9. 5. 3 8. 3. CD. 15 13. 9. 3 1.

15. AD. Therefore. 9. 11. B. 21. D) = B D + C D + AD + AB C . The minimized function is f (A. E) = Sm (8. 5.23 f (A. D. 5. 26. Except the minterm 3 all the other minterms have heen covered by the essential prime-implicatns. 10 0 0 Grouping of 2 minterms B 1 1 Variables C D 0 0 0 — E — 0 Check for inclusion in group of 4 ü ü (Contd. 25. C. 9. 30. 9 ü ´ ´ ´ Ä ü ´ ´ ´ ´ Ä ´ ´ ü ´ ü The essential prime. 13. 3.) 62 . 24. 16. 13*.Table (d) PI Table PI terms Decimal numbers 1 2* Minterms/don’t care terms 3 5 8 9 11 13* ´ Ä 15 BD 1. C. B D is to be included in the minimized expression. 9. 9 8. B. 31) Table (a) Group 1 Grouping of minterms according to number of 1’s A 8 16 9 10 18 24 11 13 21 25 26 15 27 30 31 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 B 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Variables C D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 E 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 Check for inclusion in group of 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Minterm 2 3 4 5 Table (b) Group Minterms A 1 8. and ABC . 27. 11. 13* ü ´ AD 9. 11 ´ CD 1.implicants are: CD. 10. 3 AB C 8. 15 ü ABC 2*. 18 .

25. 31 31 31 31 0 — 0 — — — 1 1 0 — 0 — — — 1 1 — — 1 1 B Variables C D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 — 0 — 0 0 0 0 0 — — — — 63 — 0 — — 0 — — — — — — — 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 E — — — 0 — 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 — — — — 1 1 — — Check for inclusion in group of 8 ü ü ü ü ü 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ü ü ü ü ü ü 2 3 . 24. 27 26. 27 24. 24. 11. 26. 25 8. 11. 9. 25 24. 27 10. 27 9. 27. 11. 25. 10. 26. 30 15. 26 8. 30. 27. 15 9. 11 9. 26 16.) Group Minterm A 8. 9. 25 8. 24. 26 11. 25. 11 10. 11 8. 24. 11 8. 18 16. 26 9. 11. 26 24. 9. 11. 24. 26. 27 24. 15. 26. 25 10. 11. 27 26. 18. 24 9. 15. 24. 11. 25. 27 13.(Contd. 13 9. 27 10. 27. 10. 10. 18. 15 11. 26 18. 10. 26 16. 9.31 30. 26. 15 25. 13. 26. 27 11. 31 — 1 1 0 0 — 0 — 1 1 1 0 — 0 1 1 1 — 1 1 B Variables C D 0 0 0 0 — 0 0 0 0 0 0 — 0 1 0 0 — 1 — 1 0 — 0 — 0 0 1 1 1 0 — 1 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 E 0 0 0 1 1 1 — 0 0 — 0 1 1 1 1 — 0 1 1 — Check for circlusion in group of 4 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü 2 3 4 1 0 — 1 1 1 1 1 — 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table (c) Grouping of 4 minterms Group Minterms A 8. 30. 27. 15 9. 24 16. 13. 31 27.

18. 27.Tabe (d) Group 1 Minterms Grouping of 8 minterms A B 1 Variables C D 0 — E — 8. 26. 24. 10. 24. 31 ü 8. 27 — Tabe (e) PI Table PI terms Decimal numbers 8 Minterms 9 10 11 13 15 16 18 21 24 25 26 27 30 31 Ä 21 AB CDE ü ü 16. 9. 9. B. 10. 26. 11. 11. ´ BC 25. 31 ABD ü 26. 30. 13. 24. 11. 27. E) = A B C D E + A C E + A BE + ABD + B C 64 . 15 ABE BDE 11. D. 27 ´ Ä ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Ä ´ ´ ü ´ ´ Ä ´ ´ ü ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Ä ü ü ü ´ ´ The minimized function is f (A. C. 26 ACE ü 9. 15. 25.

S1 . 7. Prob.CHAPTER 6 6.e. and S0 Table Prob. Since the data output is 1 when the input variables correspond to decimal numbers 2. 10. 3. 1.3). 6. 4.1(b) A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 65 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 D D 1 D 1 D D . B.. 9.1 (a) In the 16:1 multiplexer IC 74150. 6. and C are to be connected to S2. the data input lines corresponding to these decimal numbers are to be connected to logic 0 and the data input lines 0. complement of the data input line selected. 6. 8. 6. In this. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob.1 Y (b) To realize a four variable truthtable or logic expression using an 8:1 multiplexer the truth table is partitioned as shown by dotted lines (Table 6. Logic 0 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16:1 8 9 Multiplexer 10 74150 11 12 13 14 15 G S3 S2 S1 S0 Logic 0 (MSB) A B C D (LSB) Fig. therefore. the inputs A. and 14 are to be connected to logic 1. i. 5. 11. 13. 12 and 15. the data output is inverted input.1.

say. Prob. and E. (i) A 32:1 multiplexer will have five selection lines. Assuming 74152 IC. we observe the relationship between input D and output Y for each group of two rows. 6. 1. and D . D. 6. 6. and C and then make the connections accordingly.2(i). B.2 A 32:1 multiplexer can be designed using two 16:1 multiplexers following any one of the following approaches. Prob. then for A = 0.3. To realize this. Prob. (ii) Another method can use two 16:1 multiplexers with their select lines connected together.1(b). The implementation of this function using a 74152 IC is shown in Fig. the first multiplexer is enabled and for A = 1 the second multiplexer is enabled.1(b) C 6. D.2(ii).select inputs respectively. using 8:1 multiplexers requires one multiplexer for Sn and one for Cn output. These are given in Table Prob. B. Thus for the first 16 of the 32 data inputs one multiplexer gives output depending upon the select inputs while for the remaining 16 data inputs the other multiplexer gives the output. Logic 1 0 D 1 2 D Logic 0 3 4 5 6 7 S2 S1 S0 74152 Y A B Fig. Now. There are four possible values of Y and these are 0. Prob. From this table. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Now if the two outputs are ORed together. where A is the MSB. we note the output Y for each of the combinations of A. 6. 6.1(b). 6. Prob. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. A. 66 . The select line of the 2 : 1 multiplexer is driven from input A. C. while the enable input of the other multiplexer is connected to A . 6.3. 6. the system will function as a 32:1 multiplexer. If A is connected to the Enable input of one of the 16:1 multiplexers. the circuit is shown in Fig.3 The truth table of a full-adder in given in Table Prob. This IC also has the data output which is complement of the data input line selected. This is followed by a 2:1 multiplexer to select one of the two outputs.

C. B. 6.2(ii) 67 . E) G3 S3 S2 S1 S0 16 17 18 31 G2 M2 16 : 1 Y2 ì ï Data ï inputsí ï ï î Logic 0 Logic 0 Fig. Prob. D. 6.2(i) ì ï ï Data í inputs ï ï î G1 Logic 0 B C D E (LSB) 0 1 2 M1 Y1 15 16 : 1 A(MSB) S3 S2 S1 S0 S 0 Output M3 Y 1 2 : 1 F (A. C. E) S3 S2 S1 S0 ì ï Data ï í inputs ï ï î A (MSB) 16 17 M2 18 16 : 1 31 G2 Y2 · Fig. B. Prob.ì ï ï Data í inputs ï ï î G1 E (LSB) D C B 0 1 2 M 1 Y1 15 16 : 1 S3 S2 S1 S0 Output F (A. D.

Prob.Table Prob.3 68 74152 IC2 Cn S2 S1 S0 S2 S1 S0 74152 IC1 Sn .3 An 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs Bn 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Outputs Cn–1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Sn 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Cn 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 The gates required for NAND-NAND realization are: 4-input NAND gate 1 3-input NAND gates 5 2-input NAND gates 3 Inverters 3 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Logic 0 An Bn Cn–1 Logic 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Logic 0 Fig. 6. 6.

when S is in SUB position.5(i) G3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Gray code G2 G1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 69 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 BCD code B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 . Therefore.5 Table Prob 6.Therefore. the circuit functions as a 4-bit adder. 6. the following IC packages will be required: 7420 – 1 7410 – 2 7400 – 1 In contrast to four packages required in NAND-NAND realization. the EX-OR gates function as inverters. 6. When the switch S is in ADD position the outputs of the EX-OR gates will be same as the B inputs. On the other hand. the realization using 8:1 multiplexers require only 2 IC packages. Also Cin = 1.5 (i) gives the truth table of Gray-to-BCD code converter.4 The A inputs are applied directly to the adder. 64444 74444 8 4 4 B3 B2 B1 B0 B Input A3 A2 A1 A0 64748 A input 7 4 8 3 4-bit Adder ADD Cin S SUB VCC C0 S3 S2 S1 S0 6. the circuit adds A to the 2’s complement of B and hence functions as a 4-bit subtractor. therefore. Table Prob. The complete circuit is shown below. Also Cin = 0. whereas the B inputs are applied through EX-OR gates.

6.5 (ii).(a) For A output (i) When G3 G2 = 00 G1 0 0 1 1 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 0 1 (ii) When G3G2 = 01 G1 1 1 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 0 1 \ A = G1 ⊕ G0 (iii) When G3 G2 = 10 G1 1 1 0 0 G0 0 1 1 0 A X X X X \ A = G1 ¤ G0 (iv) When G3 G2 = 11 G1 0 0 1 1 G0 0 1 1 0 A 0 1 X X \A= X \ A = G1 ⊕ G0 Similarly. and one 7400 IC packages. 6.6 The truth table of BCD-to-7-segment decoder is given in Table Prob.6(i) and Fig. C. Prob 6. Table Prob. 6. 6. The complete circuit can be drawn which requires two 74153 packages and one 7486 package. Prob. It requires one 74154. These are given in Table Prob. one 7420.6(i) D 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 BCD Inputs B A 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 a 0 1 0 0 1 0 b 0 0 0 0 0 1 Seven-Segment Outputs c d e f 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 g 1 1 0 0 0 0 (Contd.5(ii) G3 0 0 1 1 G2 0 1 0 1 D 0 0 X 1 C 0 1 X 0 B G1 G1 X 0 A G1 ⊕ G0 G 1 ¤ G0 X G1 ⊕ G0 The G3 and G2 are used as the select inputs.) 70 .5(b). we can obtain the expressions for the D. and B outputs. 6. (b) The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Table Prob. 6.6(i) shows a common-anode 7-segment display device. one 7430.

The ICs required are: 74153 3 1 packages 2 71 . Prob.6(i) (Contd. 6.Table Prob. The circuit for generating data inputs for the multiplexers corresponding to Table Prob. 6.5(b) (a) From Table Prob.) D 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 BCD Inputs B A 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 a 1 0 0 0 X X X X X X b 1 0 0 0 X X X X X X Seven-Segment Outputs c d e f 0 0 0 0 X X X X X X 0 1 0 1 X X X X X X 0 1 0 1 X X X X X X 0 1 0 0 X X X X X X g 0 1 0 0 X X X X X X Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 G1 G0 74154 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9 Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 S3 S2 S1 Y15 S0 Aü (LSB)ï ï ï ï ï ï Bï ï ï ï ï BCD ï ýoutputs ï ï Cï ï ï ï ï ï ï ï Dï (MSB) ï þ 0 13 4 444 44 2 2 1 3 G G G G Gray code inputs Fig.6 (ii). 6.6(ii) which gives outputs in terms of A and B inputs for each combination of D and C inputs.6(i). Prob. 6. 6. we can prepare Table Prob.6 (ii) is shown in Fig. 6.

Prob. Prob. 6.6(ii) D 0 0 1 1 Inputs C 0 1 0 1 a BA b 0 B⊕ A 0 X c Outputs d BA e A A+ B A X f A+B AB 0 X g B A 0 X BA 0 0 X B¤A A X AB 0 X B A+ B B BA A+B AB BA BÅA B¤A A A Fig. 6.6(i) Table Prob. 6. The ICs required are: 74154 one package 7420 one package 7410 one package 72 .7408 7432 7404 3/4 package 3/4 package 1/2 package Anode a b c d e f g f e a b g c d · DP DP Fig. 6.6(ii) (b) The circuit is designed in a way similar to Prob.5.

6. (b).7430 one package 7404 1/6 package (c) The IC 7442 is a BCD-to-decimal decoder circuit with active-low outputs.7(b) D 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 G3 0 0 1 X G2 0 1 1 X G1 B B 0 X G0 A⊕ B A⊕ B A X (c) Following the approach similar to (b).7 (c). 6. Table Prob.7(a) D 0 0 0 0 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 B 0 1 0 1 0 G3 0 0 0 0 1 G2 0 0 1 1 1 G1 0 1 1 0 0 G0 A A A A A The circuit can now be designed using four 74151A ICs (one for each of the outputs). 6.7 Table Prob.5 (a). (b) Table Prob. Table Prob. we obtain Table Prob. The circuit can now be designed using two 74153 ICs and two EX-OR (7486) gates. 6. C. (d) From the IC packages requirements for parts (a).7 (a) is obtained following the procedure used in Prob. 6. These outputs are to be connected exactly in the same way as in the case of part (b) realization. (a) From the truth table. Table Prob. The D.5(i) can be rearranged suitably to give the truth table of BCD-toGray code converter. Here eight rows of the truth table are grouped together.7(c) D 0 1 G3 0 1 G2 C 1 G1 B⊕ C 0 G0 A ⊕ B A 73 . we observe the savings in hardware when demultiplexers/decoders are used for the realization of multiple output systems. 6. 6. Table Prob. and S0 select inputs respectively. S1. 6. 6.1(b). The IC packages required are same as in part (b) with 74154 replaced by 7442. and (c). 6. and B inputs are to be applied to the S2.7(b) can be obtained from the truth table following the procedure of Prob.

and f3 outputs using multiplexers and inverters.7(d) Table Prob. of IC packages 74151A – 4. and f3 can be designed following the procedure outlined in Example 6.8 The truth table for f1. The circuits can now be designed for f1. 7486 – 1 75157 – 1. Table Prob. 7420 – 1 7400 – 3 6. 7486 – 1 7442 – 1.The circuit can now be designed using one 74157 (Quad 2:1 multiplexer) IC and two EX-OR gates of 7486. the circuit can be designed using one BCD-to-decimal decoder IC 7442 and NAND gates (2-. (d) Following the procedure used in Example 6.8(i) D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Inputs C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Outputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 74 f1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 f2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 f3 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 . (c) The circuit can be designed using one demultiplexer and two 8-input and one 6-input NAND gates. and f3 outputs is given in Table Prob. 4-. 6. f2. 5-. 6. 6. 7404 – 1 74153 – 2. f2. f2.8(ii) for realization using 8 : 1 multiplexers. (b) Using the truth table the circuits for f1.1. 6. The realizations will require one 16 : 1 multiplexer for each output. and 6-input).3. (e) The minimized expressions are G3 = D G2 = C + D G1 = C B + C B G0 = B A + B A The realization will require eleven 2-input NAND gates. 7430 – 2.7(d) Part a b c d e No.8(i) (a) The truth table is reduced to Table Prob. (f) The package count for each part are given in Table Prob 6.

The higher order three select bits F. E.8(ii) D 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 f1 A A A A A A A A f2 1 1 0 0 0 A A 1 f3 0 A 1 A A 0 A 0 6.Table Prob. and A are used as S2. and D are used as select inputs S2.9 75 . 6 select lines FEDCBA. there are 40 data input lines (I0 through I39). S1. 6. 6.9 In a 40:1 multiplexer. Prob. The lower order three select bits C. B. and S0 for the multiplexer M6. I0 – I7 G M1 S2 S1 S0 C B A I8 – I15 S2 S1 S0 G M2 0 1 2 3 4 M6 5 6 7 G S2 S1 S0 Y I16 – I23 G I24 – I31 M3 S2 S1 S0 C B A S2 S1 S0 M4 G C B A (LSB) F E (MSB) D I32 – I39 Enable S2 S1 S0 G M5 Fig. which selects output of one of the multiplexers M1 through M5. S0 select inputs respectively for 8:1 multiplexers M1 through M5. S1.

10 The BCD-to-decimal decoder is to be used as an 1 : 8 demultiplexer. Prob. D is active0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D X2 X1 X0 (LSB) C B A D1 7442 D X2 X1 X0 0 1 2 3 D6 4 D 7442 5 6 7 8 C B A9 C B A D2 7442 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 D X2 X1 X0 ( C B A D3 7442 Enable 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 X5 X4 X3 (MSB) X2 X1 X0 D C B A D4 7442 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 D X2 X1 X0 C B A D5 7442 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Fig. The address inputs for demultiplexers D1 through D6 are C. and A. 6.10 76 . data input 7 of M2 (I15) will appear at the output Y. B. 6.For example if the select inputs are 011111.

low input for demultiplexer function. B. Prob. X4. Prob. and X3 are applied at the C. Q4 P4 Q3 P3 Q2 P2 Q1 P1 BCD adder #4 C¢¢¢¢ C2 0 BCD adder #3 C¢¢¢ C1 0 BCD adder #2 C¢¢ C0 0 BCD adder #1 C¢0 C–1 144444444444444 2444444444444444 4 3 5-digit output Fig. EX–OR(1) An Bn S1 EX–OR(2) S2 = Sn C1 AND-2 AND–1 Cn–1 Fig. For an nbit adder. 6. 6. X1. 6.11. the propagation delay time for the carry to propagate from C–1 to Cn–1 in the circuit of Fig. For example. A select inputs respectively of each decoder chip D1 through D5. The lower order three bits of the address X2. and A select inputs respectively of D6. 6. B. The complete circuit is shown in Fig.11 For the full-adder circuit designed using half-adder circuits shown in Fig. Prob. if the 6-bit select inputs are 001111.12 (a) will be n ´ 40 = 40 ns. 6. 6. which activates decoder D2 and the output 7 of this decoder goes low. and X0 are applied at the C. The outputs 8 and 9 of D1 through D5 are not used in this configuration. 6. Therefore. P4 and Q4 are applied at the A and B inputs respectively of adder # 4 and similarly the other inputs are applied as shown below. then output 1 of D6 is activated.11 C2 OR Cn The propagation delay time for Cn is tpd = tpd [EX-OR(1)] + tpd (AND-2) + tpd (OR) = 20 + 10 + 10 = 40 ns This is the propagation delay time for carry to travel one full-adder. This corresponds to output on line 15 (which is same as the decimal equivalent of 001111).12 Let the four digits BCD numbers be P4P3P2P1 and Q4Q3Q2Q1. The higher order three bits of the address X5.10.12 77 C0 S15–S12 S11–S8 S7–S4 S3–S0 . this carry has to ripple through all the n adders. Prob.

A = B. and A < B outputs are connected to the corresponding cascading inputs of C2 respectively.6. 6.14 78 . Using K-maps the minimized expressions given below are obtained. A0 – A3 B0 – B3 C1 7485 A>B A=B A<B A4 – A7 A>B A=B A<B 7485 A>B A=B A<B B4 – B7 C2 A>B A=B A<B Logic 1 Logic 0 Fig. The complete circuit is shown below. 6.14 The comparator C1 compares the least significant four bits.13 Inputs A1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 B0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 A>B 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Outputs A=B 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 A<B 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 A > B = A0 B 1 B0 + A1 A0 B 0 + A1 B 1 A = B = A1 B 1 (A0 ¤ B0) + A1B1 (A0 ¤ B0) = (A0 ¤ B0) (A1 ¤ B1) A < B = A 1 A 0 B0 + A 0 B1B0 + A 1B1 The complete circuit can be drawn using gates. Table Prob. 6.13 Its truth table is given in Table Prob.13. Its A > B. Prob. 6.

The binary output is obtained at B3B2B1B0 outputs as shown in Fig.16 The least-significant bit (A1) of BCD input is same as the least-significant bit of the output. C1. The other three bits (D1. and B1) are applied to C. Prob. and A inputs respectively.16.15 The operation is given below. Inputs CIC 1 A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B A B A>B A=B A<B = 1001 = 1011 =1 =0 =1 = 0000 = 0000 =1 =0 =1 = 1011 = 1101 =1 =0 =1 = 0010 = 0001 =1 =0 =0 = 0010 = 0011 =0 =1 =0 = 0001 = 1000 =0 =0 =1 Outputs A>B=0 A<B=1 CIC 2 A>B=0 A<B=0 CIC 3 A>B=0 A<B=0 CIC 4 A>B=1 A<B=0 CIC 5 A>B=0 A<B=1 A=B=0 CIC 6 A>B=0 A=B=0 A<B=1 6. D and E inputs are connected to logic 0. 79 .6. B. 6.

Prob. If two inputs are given simultaneously. Connect EVEN and ODD inputs to logic 1 and 0 respectively.16 6. 6. one of which is in IC1 and the other one in IC2. which will disable the IC1 chip.17 The IC 74148 is a priority octal-to-binary encoder. å EVEN output will be 1. then å ODD output will be 1. A .G SEVEN ü ï 8-bit odd ý parity word ï þ 74180 H EVEN SODD ODD Logic 1 Logic 0 Fig. If more than one inputs are given in the same chip. then E0 of IC2 will be HIGH. 6.18 Apply the 6-bit input to A through F inputs and connect the other two inputs G and H to logic 0. 6. Therefore. Prob. If EVEN and ODD inputs are at logic 1 and 0 respectively. these seven bits along with the å EVEN output bit will give an 8-bit word with odd parity. 6. whereas.G A .19 80 . If the parity of the 6-bit word is even.ì A1 ï BCD ï B1 inputs í C ï 1 ïD î 1 B0 A B C D E G 74184 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 B1 ï Binary ï ý outputs B B3 ï þ 2 ü ï (MSB) Fig. if the parity of the 6-bit word is ODD.19 The 7-bit input is applied at A through G inputs and H = 0. then å EVEN output is 1 if the 7-bit input is even and 0 if the 7-bit input is odd. the highest numbered input will appear in the binary form at the output. This shows that the circuit is a priority encoder. The circuit is shown below.

21 81 A B C S EVEN D E F 74180 G H EVEN SODD ODD 1 on even parity 15-bit even parity word Logic 1 B14 .21 and its operation is explained in the Table Prob.20 and its operation is given in Table Prob. 6.21. Prob. 6. Prob. 6. 6.21 The circuit is shown in Fig.20. Prob. 6.20 Parity of B0 – B7 åEVEN EVEN ODD 1 0 P1 åODD 0 1 Parity of B8 – B13 EVEN ODD EVEN ODD åEVEN 1 0 0 1 P2 åODD 0 1 1 0 From the table we see that the parity of B0 – B13 and åODD of P2 is even.20 ODD ü ï ý ï þ Table Prob. 6. B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 7486 B8 B9 Logic 1 Fig. 6. 6.20 The circuit is shown in Fig.6. B0 – B7 SEVEN P1 74180 SODD EVEN B8 – B13 Logic 0 SEVEN P2 74180 SODD G H B0 – B13 EVEN ODD Fig. Prob.

24 See Fig.24 (a and b) 6. 6. 6. Prob.Table Prob. 6. Prob. Here P1. Prob. M3. The least-significant bits of the BCD digits are applied at the data inputs of M1 and similarly higher order bits are applied to M2. The select input are fed from the mod-4 counter. 6.22 b80 6.21 Parity of B0 – B7 EVEN EVEN ODD ODD Parity of B8 – B9 EVEN ODD ODD EVEN Cascading inputs EVEN ODD 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Outputs åEVEN 1 0 1 0 åODD 0 1 0 1 6.26 Let the four BCD digits be ABCD. 6. Prob. and P3 are 9-bit parity checkers. which drives a BCD-to-decimal decoder. with A as MSD.23. The circuit is given in Fig.22 b0 – b 7 SEVEN P1 EVEN ODD b8 b9 – b16 SEVEN P2 EVEN ODD SEVEN P10 EVEN ODD High on EVEN High on ODD b17 b72 – b79 SEVEN P9 EVEN ODD Fig.25 6.26.23 The circuit is given in Fig. 6.25 See Fig. Prob. and M4. 6. P2. 82 .

b0 P1 b8 SEVEN b9 P2 b15 SEVEN High on EVEN SODD High on ODD b16 SEVEN P3 b24 Fig. Prob. 6.24(a) 83 .23 (a) VCC VCC Current Limiting resistor VCC BCD input (MSB) ìD ïC í ïB îA 7442 GND 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fig. 6. Prob.

Seven 5:1 multiplexers and a mod-5 counter will be required for this. Similarly. When the counter output is 00. In this way each display will be ON for onefourth of the total time. digit A is selected and at the same time anode A1 goes HIGH. and 11 B. 6. 84 . If the clock frequency is sufficiently high. The circuit is to be designed in a way similar to that of Prob.27. and fourth displays in sequence. when the counter outputs are 01. Prob. 6. C.25 14 15 Detects 0001111 The multiplexer outputs are decoded by the BCD-to-7-segment decoder with active-low outputs. 6. third.24 0 1 2 3 (LSB) A B C D Enable (logic 0) D1 E F G H D2 0 1 15 Detects 0001 Fig. One column must glow at a time in sequence.(b) +170 V R = 10 kW 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Anode NIXIE Tube 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 +5V VCC 74141 D C A 1444 24444 4 B 3 BCD Input (b) Fig. 6. and D digits are displayed respectively on second. Prob. 6. the inputs required at the rows for each column are as given in Table Prob.26. 10.27 For R to glow. the display would appear to be continuous. thereby displaying the digit A on the left-most 7-segment display.

26 Table Prob.A0 B0 C0 D0 0 1 M1 2 3 S S 1 0 BCD-to-7-segment decoder a b c d e f g Buffer inverters ··· 0 1 2 3 4 BCD-to-decimal decoder A1 B1 C1 D1 0 1 M2 2 3 S S 1 0 A B C (MSB) D A2 B2 C2 D2 0 1 2 M3 3 S S 1 0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A3 B3 C3 D3 0 1 2 M4 3 S S 1 0 Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Mod-4 counter Clock Fig.27 Row/Column ® ¯ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 85 . 6. Prob. 6.

then Sn = 0 and Rn = 1 which will make Qn+1 = 0.3 7. (b) With S = 0 and R = 1. the AND gates are disabled resulting in Sn = Rn = 0. making this circuit identical to a normal clocked S – R FLIP-FLOP as shown in Fig. (iii) If Jn = 0 and Kn = 1 then Sn = 0 and Rn = Qn. if Qn = 1. Therefore. 7.2 (a) With S = 1 and R = 0.. we find that the FLIP-FLOP will go to the reset state when a clock pulse is applied. and CK inputs.e.e. its output will be 1. Q will be 0 which makes one of the inputs of G3 0. then Sn = 1 and Rn = 0 which makes Qn+1 = 1. 7. Now.5.3. its output Q = 1. Therefore. Qn+1 = Qn. That is. whatever may be the other input of G3. i. it will go to set state in this condition when a clock pulse is applied. 7. This makes both the inputs of G2 as 1 giving an output Q = 0. i. then Sn = Q n and Rn = Qn. the AND gates G5 and G6 are enabled. Sn = Rn = 0 and the output Qn+1 = Qn = 1. the circuit of fig. Therefore. G1 and G2 will act as inverters. whatever may be the state of the FLIP-FLOP. R. On the other hand if Qn = 0 then Sn = 1 which will make Qn+1 = 1..4 is same as that of Fig. Now if S = R = 0. Since one of the inputs of G1 is 0.1 When S = R = 0. which makes the lower input of G1 as 0 while the upper one becomes one giving again Q = 1. Similarly. the FLIP-FLOP is set irrespective of the S. This results in both the inputs of AND gate G5 to be 1 giving Q = 1. (iv) If Jn = Kn = 1. the outputs of the gates G3 and G4 will be 1. therefore. Therefore. if Qn = 1 then Sn = 0. 7. the outputs of G3 and G4 are 0 and 1 respectively. 86 . Prob 7. (b) If Cr = 0. Q1 = 1 and Q = 0 in a manner similar to part (a) and also Q and Q will remain unchanged when S and R both are made 0.4 (a) With Pr = 0. (c) If Pr = Cr = 1. Hence. then Sn = Q n and Rn = 0.3 R Q Q S Fig. Now. Qn+1 = Q n. the outputs Q and Q will not change. if Qn = 0. 7.5 (i) When Jn = Kn = 0. Following the above discussion. the inputs and output of G2 remain unaffected. (ii) When Jn = 1 and Kn = 0.CHAPTER 7 7. then the FLIP-FLOP is reset following the same logic as discussed in part (a). Therefore. 7. when a clock pulse is applied. This means the outputs do not change.

7.9 Clock Input Output í ìQ îQ 7.6 Y1 = ( J ⋅ Q ) ⋅ CK = J ⋅ Q ⋅ CK and Y2 = J ⋅ Q ⋅ CK Hence. When a clock pulse is applied. Q and Q will become 0 and 1 respectively.11 Let Q = 1 and Q = 0.8 Clock Input Q2 = Q Output í ìQ îQ 7.7 Q1 = Q and 7.10 Clock Input Output Q 7. Y1 = Y2 7. R = Q = 0 and S = Q = 1 and on 87 . Now. This makes R = Q = 1 and S = Q = 0.

The K-maps can be prepared and minimized. when Tn = 1.14(b). From this table we observe that when Tn = 0. 7.application of a clock pulse. Qn+1 = Q n. Thus. which give Y1 = Q + CK + J = Q ⋅ J ⋅ CK and Y2 = CK + K + Q = Q ⋅ K ⋅ CK Table Prob. 7. This show that Q and Q change with every clock pulse. 7. Now Q = D = 1 and the next clock pulse will change the Q output to 1. whereas.14 (a) CK 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Characteristic table K Qn 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Qn + 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Truth table for decoder Y1 Y2 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 1 0 X 0 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 0 1 1 1 0 (b) The excitation table and the truth table for decoder are given in Table Prob. a clock pulse will make Q and Q 0 and 1 respectively. 7. 7. Q and Q become 1 and 0 respectively.12 Tn 0 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 Sn 0 1 1 0 Rn 1 0 0 1 Qn+1 0 1 1 0 7.12 The truth table is given in Table Prob.13 When Q = D = 0.14 (a). 7. and hence the circuit behaves as a toggle switch.12. Table Prob. the outputs change with every clock pulse. The K-maps for Y1 and Y2 are shown below. Qn+1 = Qn. The minimized expressions are: 88 . 7.14 The characteristic table and the truth table for decoder are given in Table Prob.

7. The K-maps for S and R outputs are prepared as shown in Fig.15(a). 7. 7.15(i) from which we obtain the minimized expressions for S and R as S = D and R = D and Table Prob. Prob.14(b) CK 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Excitation table D 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Qn 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Qn+1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Truth table for decoder Y1 Y2 1 X 1 X 1 1 0 X X 1 X 1 X 0 1 1 (c) Using the above method.KQ CKJ 00 00 1 01 ´ 11 ´ 10 1 01 1 ´ ´ 1 11 0 ´ 1 0 10 1 ´ 1 1 KQ CKJ 00 ´ 1 1 ´ 01 ´ 1 1 ´ 11 1 1 0 1 10 ´ 1 0 ´ 00 01 11 10 Y 1 = Q + CK + J = Q ⋅ J ⋅ CK (a) Y 2 = CK + K + Q = Q ⋅ K ⋅ CK (b) Y1 = CK + D = CK ⋅ D and Y = CK + D = CK ⋅ D Table Prob.15 (a) The truth table required for conversion from S-R to D FLIP-FLOP is given in Table Prob. we obtain Y1 = CK ⋅ T ⋅ Q Y2 = CK ⋅ T ⋅ Q Complete circuits can be drawn for each of the above cases. 7.15(a) Data input D 0 1 0 1 Output Q 0 0 1 1 89 S-R FF inputs S R 0 1 0 X X 0 1 0 . 7.

15(i) (b) The required truth table is given in Table Prob. 7.15(b) from which the minimized expressions are obtained as J= D and K= D Table Prob.15(c) Data inputs J 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 K 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Output Q 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 D-FF input D 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 (d) Table Prob. 7.15(c) and the minimized expression for D is given by D = JQ + KQ Table Prob.15(b) Data input D 0 1 0 1 Output Q 0 0 1 1 J 0 1 X X J-K FF inputs K X X 1 0 (c) The required truth table is given in Table Prob.Q D 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 ´ (a) Q D 0 0 1 ´ 1 1 0 0 (b) Fig. 7. 7. 7.15 (d) gives the required truth table from which we obtain the minimized expressions for S and R as S = T ⋅Q and R =T⋅Q 90 . Prob. 7.

if there is any change in D. all the other conversions can be made. Therefore. Q becomes 0. 7.17. even if the switch 91 . Pr = 0 and Cr = 1. (ii) When the clock is HIGH: Y1 and Y2 are complement to each other and for each value of D we find that the values of Y1 and Y2 do not change. Prob.16 Let the inputs to the latch be Y1 and Y2. When the clock goes back to 0. Q = 1. This means the state of the FLIP-FLOP cannot change. Therefore. if there is any change in D. Now. The minimized expressions obtained are given below: (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) T = J Q + KQ T =D⊕Q D = S + RQ D =T⊕Q T = S Q + RQ J = S. Y2 will remain 1 and Y1 changes from 1 to 0. Now. 7. Y1 and Y2 will remain unaltered. Case II: Let D = 1. While the clock is HIGH. J=K=T Similarly. Now. Q will become 0. (i) When the clock is LOW: Y1 = Y2 = 1 independent of D input and the state of the FLIP-FLOP cannot change. When the clock comes back to 0 from 1. if the switch is changed over to position 0.18 (a) When the switch is in position 1. Q goes to 1.15(d) Data input T 0 1 1 0 Output Q 0 0 1 1 S S – R FF inputs R X 0 1 0 0 1 0 X (e) The truth table can be prepared and expressions for J and K inputs obtained. 7. while the clock is HIGH. Therefore. as soon as it makes contact for the first time. K = R 7. (iii) When the clock goes from LOW to HIGH: Case I: Let D = 0 Y1 will remain 1 and Y2 changes from 1 to 0. 7. then Y1 = Y2 = 1 which also does not affect the output Q. then Y1 = Y2 = 1 which will not affect the output Q.17 The waveforms obtained are shown in Fig. Y1 and Y2 will remain unaltered.Table Prob.

In fact. the output Q will not be affected. the clock skew may violate the hold time requirements of the destination FF. 92 . This difficulty can be overcome by adding additional delay to assure reliable operation.19 The clock. the data is loaded into the destination FF. when the switch debounces. This means. Prob. 7. Now. When the switch is thrown to position 0. the switch will operate in the reverse switching. 01 and 10. (b) When the switch is in position 1. Prob. the level triggered D-type FF will operate as a positive-edge-triggered FF. At the rising edge of the clock CKs.21 The waveform at CK will be as shown in Fig. The states of the counter are 00. 7. 7. 7.Clock 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 J 0 1 Q 0 1 Q 0 (b) Fig.20. the outputs Q and Q do not change.20 The waveforms are shown in Fig. 7. CKs and CKD waveforms are shown in Fig.19. at the first contact Q becomes 1.19 7. the data present at the data input terminal Ds is loaded into the source FF. Now. the operation will not be reliable. if the delay time Dt2 is more than it takes to change the present output of the source FF. 7. Prob 7. Clock CKS Dt1 CKD Dt2 Fig. Prob.21. Q = 0 and Q = 1. Prob.17 (a) debounces. Similarly. When CKD goes HIGH.

Prob. Prob.20 Fig. 7.1 Clock pulses 1 0 1 0 1 Q 0 = J1 Q1 0 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 J 0 = Q1 Fig. 7.21 93 .

1(ii).2 At the end of clock pulse 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Q4 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Outputs Q2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Q1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 At the end of the tenth clock pulse. Q3 FF3 D3 Q2 FF2 D2 Q1 FF1 D1 D0 FF0 Q0 Serial input Fig. the circuit comes back to its initial state. This is a right-shift register. 94 . The various outputs when clock pulses are applied are given in Table Prob.2. The circuit effectively reduces to that of Fig. 8. 8. 8. Prob. Prob.CHAPTER 8 8. 8. 8.2(b)..1(i). The circuit effectively reduces to that of Fig. 8. Therefore.e. Prob.2(a). 8. Its state diagram is shown in Fig.2 A 5-stage twisted-ring counter is shown in Fig. all the B AND gates are enabled and all the A AND gates are disabled. 8.1 (i) When the mode control input. i. Table Prob. it functions as a leftshift register.e. In this case the data will get shifted to the left direction. M = 1.1(i) (ii) When M = 0. Prob.. Let us assume that all the FLIP-FLOPs are in the clear state. Serial input D3 FF3 Q3 D2 FF2 Q2 D1 FF1 Q1 D0 Q0 FF0 Fig. it is a mod-10 counter. Prob.1(ii) 8. i. all the A AND gates are enabled and all the B AND gates are disabled. Q4 = Q3 = Q2 = Q1 = Q0 = 0. Prob.

3. .2(b) 8. 8. 8.3 Q4 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Q3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Inputs Q2 Q1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Y0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Outputs Y 4 Y5 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Y6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Y7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Y8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Y9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 95 . . .2(a) 00000 10000 11000 11100 11110 00001 00011 00111 01111 11111 Fig. 8. The minimized expressions are given by Y0 = Q 4 Q 0 Y1 = Q4 Q 3 Y2 = Q3 Q 2 Y3 = Q2 Q 1 Y4 = Q1 Q 0 Y5 = Q4Q0 Y6 = Q 4Q3 Y7 = Q 3Q2 Y8 = Q 2Q1 Y9 = Q 1Q0 Table Prob. the Y outputs are don’t care. Prob. Y1. Figure Prob. 8. 1. The truth table for the decoder is given in Table Prob. Prob.3 Let Y0. .3 gives the K-map for Y0 . Similarly. For all the remaining combinations of Q’s. . The K-map is to be prepared for each output. 2. be the outputs corresponding to pulses 0. respectively. 8.D4 Q4 FF4 Clock Clear D3 Q3 FF3 D2 Q2 FF2 D1 Q1 FF1 D0 Q0 FF0 Q0 Fig. other K-maps can be prepared.

3.4(ii) 8. which are designed in the same way as Prob.4(i). Q3Q2 Q1Q0 00 00 01 11 10 1 0 0 ´ Q4 = 0 01 ´ ´ 0 ´ 11 ´ ´ 0 ´ 10 ´ ´ ´ ´ Fig. 8. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. 8. This can be obtained by using a T-type FLIP-FLOP (FF0) with T0 = 1. waveforms can be obtained by using decoders shown in Fig.3 Q4 = 1 Q3Q2 Q1Q0 00 00 01 11 10 0 ´ ´ ´ 01 ´ ´ ´ ´ 11 0 ´ 0 0 10 0 ´ ´ ´ 8. 8. 8.5 The count sequence is given in Table Prob.4(i) Q3 Q2 f1 Q1 Q0 f2 Q2 f3 Q0 f4 Q3 Q1 Fig. From the count sequence we observe that Q0 changes with every clock pulse.4(ii). 8. 8.The circuit can be drawn using ten 2-input AND gates. a 4-stage twisted-ring counter is required. 1 Clock Pulses Q3 Q2 Q1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Q0 Fig. Prob. 8. 96 .5. The waveforms at the Q outputs are shown in Fig.4 To generate these waveforms. The required.

8. The AND gates A are enabled when UP/ DOWN input is at logic 1.5 Table Prob. whereas for a DOWN counter Q outputs are to be connected to the clock inputs. Prob. 8. Similarly.5. The desired changes in Q2 can be obtained by using Q1 as the clock input for FF2 with T2 = 1.6 97 . 8. AND-OR gates are used between stages as shown below. Prob. whereas the AND gates B are enabled when UP/DOWN input is at logic 0 connecting Q outputs to the clock inputs. therefore. The complete circuit is shown in Fig. Q2 changes whenever Q1 goes from 0 to 1. Prob.Q1 changes whenever Q0 changes from 0 to 1.6 For a ripple UP counter Q outputs of the preceding stages are to be connected to the clock inputs of the succeeding stages. connecting Q outputs to clock inputs.5 Q2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Q1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Q0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 8. Therefore. T0 = T1 = T2 = 1 T0 Clock Q0 FF0 Q0 T1 Q1 FF1 Q1 T2 FF2 Q2 Q2 Fig. if Q 0 is used as the clock input for FF1 with T1 = 1. 8. T0 = T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 T0 Clock pulses Q0 FF0 A0 T1 Q1 FF1 B0 A1 T2 Q2 FF2 B1 Q2 A2 T3 Q3 FF3 Q0 Q1 B2 Q3 UP/ DOWN Fig. the desired changes in Q1 will be obtained.

D0

D1

D2

D3

Load

Pr Q0 FF0 Q0

Pr Q1 FF1 Q1 Fig. Prob. 8.7

Pr Q2 FF2

Q2

Pr

Q3

FF3 Q3

The preset inputs are used for asynchronous loading. The relevant portion of the circuit is shown on next page. When load input is HIGH, the data at the D inputs will be entered in the FLIP-FLOPs. The other details will be same as in Prob. 8.6. 8.8 At the end of the tenth pulse Q3 = Q1 = 1, the output of G becomes 0. Also CK = 0, therefore, the output of the latch is 0. Now if Q1 or Q3 goes to 0, the output of the latch continues to be 0. When the eleventh clock pulse appears at CK, the output of the latch will go to 1 and normal counting will proceed. 8.9 (a) For the divide-by-5 circuit, the count sequence will be 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 000. Therefore, as soon as the count reaches 101, all the three FLIPFLOPs must be cleared. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.9.

T0 = T1 = T2 = 1 T0 Clock pulses Q0 FF0 Cr Q 0 T1 Q1 FF1 Cr Q 1 Fig. Prob. 8.9 T2 Q2 FF2 Cr Q 2

(b) For the divide-by-7, the resetting of FLIP-FLOPs is required as soon as the count reaches 111. Therefore, a 3-input NAND gate with inputs Q0, Q1, and Q2 will be required to clear the FLIP-FLOPs. 8.10 The waveforms are shown in Fig. Prob. 8.10. It is clear from the waveforms that the frequency divisions by 3, 6, and 12 are obtained at the QC, QD, and QA outputs respectively.

98

Clock 1 pulses 0 1 QD QC 0 1 0 1 QB QA 0 1 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13

Fig. Prob. 8.10

**8.11 The states of the circuit of Prob. 8.10 are given below.
**

QD 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 QC 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 QB 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 QA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

**(a) The ÷ 7 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence when QB = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(a).
**

Output QA QB QC

QD

A input 7 Clock pulses B input R1 R2 4 9 2

Fig. Prob. 8.11(a) 99

**(b) The ÷ 9 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence as soon as QD = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(b).
**

Output QA QB QC QD

A input Clock pulses B input

7

4

9 R1

2 R2

Fig. Prob. 8.11(b)

**(c) The ÷ 11 counter is obtained by terminating the count sequence as soon as QD = QC = QA = 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. 8.11(c).
**

Output QA QB QC QD

·

A input Clock pulses B input 7 4 9 R1 2 R2

Fig. Prob. 8.11(c)

8.12 If we use the complements of QD, QC, QB, and QA as outputs, we obtain the DOWN counter. The sequence is given in Table Prob. 8.12.

QD QC QB QA

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 100

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 (Contd.)

The resulting circuit is shown in Fig. IC 7493 is a 4-bit binary counter. 100 101 QA QB QC A input Clock pulses B input QD A input QA QB QC QD IC1 7490 S1 S2 R1 R2 IC2 7490 S1 S2 R1 R2 B input Fig. 8.) QD QC QB QA 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 8.14 101 .14 IC7490 is a decade counter.13 Since 128 = 16 ´ 8. Prob. 8. Prob. two IC packages will be required. the counter is reset as soon as it becomes 1001 0110. The complete circuit is shown below. Q0 QA Q1 QB Q2 QC Q3 QD QA Q4 QB Q5 QC Q6 QD A input Clock pulses B input A input IC1 7493 R1 R2 B input IC2 7493 R1 R2 Logic 0 Fig.13 Logic 0 8. it becomes a divideby-100 circuit. 8. To get a divide-by-96 counter. Therefore.(Contd. Prob. therefore. If two such ICs are cascaded. a divide-by-16 counter followed by a divide-by8 counter will become a divide-by-128 counter.13.

16 Clock pulses QA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 QB QC QD Fig. 8. therefore.8. QA output of 7492 is connected to B input and the QD output of 7493 is connected to A input of 7492. Prob. Prob. 8.16 102 . The complete circuit is shown in Fig. we have to use 7493 as a mod-13 and 7492 as mod-6 counters.15 8. Prob. and QA outputs of 7493 are ANDed and used to clear the counter when the count reaches 1101. 8.15. For the mod-6 counter.15 Since 78 = 13 ´ 6. For the mod-13 counter QD. QC. QA QB QC QD QA QB QC QD A input Clock pulses B input 7493 R1 R2 A input B input 7492 R1 R2 Fig.

8. The waveforms are 1 Clock pulses QA 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 QB QC QD Cr Fig. When the count reaches the maximum value (111 in 4-bit binary and 1001 in decade counter) its RC output goes HIGH which makes ENP = ENT of IC2 HIGH for one clock cycle advancing its output by 1 and making Q 103 . 8. Prob.18 The counter have states from 0000 to 1100.8. Prob.17 Clock pulses QA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 QB QC QD RC Fig.17 8.19 The counter ICI operates as a counter for counting in the UP direction when Cr = L = 1.18 8. The clearing operation will occur at the rising edge of the next clock.

Prob.outputs of ICI 0 at the next clock cycle.27.21(b). whereas only one type of operation is possible in the circuit of Fig. QA +VCC CK-UP CK-DOWN Cr PA PB PC PD L Borrow 74192 QB QC QD Carry Clock pulses +VCC Fig. As soon as the count becomes 1100. Prob.20 QC QD (b) Cr L 8. 0011. Prob. This way the counting will continue. 0100. the counter is cleared. As soon as the count reaches 1100. the counter is loaded with preset inputs 0101 and the states will be: 0101. QD outputs and load (L) input (with Cr = 1). After this clock cycle ENP = ENT = 0 for IC2 and IC1 will go on counting the pulses. QD outputs and the clear input (with L = 1). 0010.20(a) between the QC. 8.21(a) and waveforms are shown in Fig. 8.21 For the DOWN counter.21(a) 104 . the clock pulses are applied at CK-DOWN input. the next clock pulse will be registered in this counter and simultaneously IC1 and IC2 will be cleared. Prob. 8.20 Alternative I: Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 8. Alternative II: Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 8. RC outputs of both of these ICs will go HIGH. This will make ENP = ENT of IC3 HIGH and therefore. the counter is loaded with P inputs which must be PA = PB = PC = PD = 0.20(b) between QC. 8. Prob. The circuit is given in Fig. There are two possible operations in this circuit. When the outputs of IC1 and IC2 both reach the maximum count. 8. QC QD (a) Fig. Prob. and 0001. When the output becomes 0. 8.

) . 8.22 The modified state diagram is given in Fig. Prob. Prob. 1 11 1 0 0 10 Fig. 8. 8. Its state table is given in Table Prob.22(ii) X 0 0 Counter State QA QB 0 1 0 1 JA 1 X 105 FLIP-FLOP Inputs KA JB X 0 1 X KB X 1 (Contd.21(b) 8. 8.Clock 1 pulses 0 1 QA 0 QB 1 0 QC QD 1 0 1 0 Borrow Fig. 8.22(i) Next State Present State A B 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 X=0 A 1 0 0 1 B 1 0 1 0 A 0 1 1 0 X=1 B 1 0 1 0 Table Prob.22(a) 00 0 0 1 1 01 Table 8.22(i) from which Table Prob. Prob. 8.22(a).22(ii) is obtained to determine the FF inputs.

The Q2 output will be the required output when the input waveform is used as the clock input.22(ii) X 0 0 1 1 1 1 Counter State QA QB 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 JA X 0 0 1 X X FLIP-FLOP Inputs KA JB 1 X X X 0 1 1 X 1 X 1 X KB X 1 X 1 X 1 This gives and JB = KB = 1 JA = KA = (QB ¤ X) The circuit is shown in Fig. FF0 : J0. K1 FF2 : FF3 : J2. Logic 1 JB FFB KB Clock pulses x = 1 UP = 0 DOWN Fig. The unused states are taken as don’t care (X) conditions. 8.) 106 . The states of this circuit are: 000. K3 The count sequence and the corresponding values of the FF inputs required to get the count sequence are given below.) Table Prob.(Contd. therefore. 010.24 Since there are ten states. 011. 8.22(b). K2 J3. Q3 0 0 Count Sequence Q2 Q1 Q0 0 1 1 0 1 0 J0 X 1 K0 1 X J1 X 0 FF Inputs K1 J2 1 X 1 X K2 X 0 J3 0 0 K3 X X (Contd.23 A divide-by-5 circuit will give the required input-output relationship. it requires four FFs. 8. Prob. K0 FF1 : J1. 001. and 100.22(b) QB QB QB JA FFA KA QA QA 8. Prob. The FFs with their inputs are given as follows. 8.

the expressions for FF inputs can be minimized and the minimized expressions are: J0 = K0 = 1 J1 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 + Q3 ⋅ Q2 K1 = Q0 J2 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 K2 = Q1 ⋅ Q0 + Q3 ⋅ Q2 J3 = Q2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ Q0 K3 = Q2 Using the FLIP-FLOPs and the above expressions.25.(Contd.25 107 . Pulses Logic 1 QA ENT ENP QB QC QD 74163 Load Cr Logic 1 Fig. the circuit can be drawn. 8. 8. 8.) Q3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Count Sequence Q2 Q1 Q0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 J0 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 K0 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X J1 1 X X 0 1 X X 1 FF Inputs K1 J2 X 0 1 X X 0 1 X X X X 0 0 0 1 X K2 0 0 1 X X X X 1 J3 0 0 1 X X X X X K3 X X X 0 0 0 0 1 Using K-maps. Prob.25 The circuit is given in Fig. Prob.

26(b) 1/0 01 0/0 00 1/0 (c) Present State Q1 0 0 Q0 0 0 Input X 0 1 Next state Q1* 0 0 Q0* 0 1 108 Output Y 0 0 J1 0 0 FF FF1 K1 X X J0 0 1 Inputs FF0 K0 X X (Contd.26 (a) Q1 Q1 Q0 Q1 Q0 D1 Q1 FF1 Q1 Y Q0 Q0 X D0 Q0 FF0 Q0 (b) Clock Fig. 8. Prob.26(a) 0/0 1/1 0/0 11 1/0 10 0/0 Fig.) . Prob. 8.8.

26(c) Q0 Q0 8.(Contd. 8.) Present State Q1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Q0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next state Q1* 0 1 1 1 1 0 Q0* 1 0 0 1 1 0 Output Y 0 0 0 0 0 1 J1 0 1 X X X X FF FF1 K1 X X 0 0 0 1 J0 X X 0 1 X X Inputs FF0 K0 0 1 X X 0 1 Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 0 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ 0 1 0 0 J1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 1 K1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 Y = Q1 × Q0 × X ´ 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ J0 = X K0 = X X J1 FF1 K1 Q1 Q1 J0 FF0 K0 Clock Fig.27 (a) D1 = Q1 ⊕ X D0 = Q0 ⊕ Q1 Z = Q1 ⋅ X + Q0 109 . Prob.

28 Present Q1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 State Q0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Q1* 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 Q0* 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 FF1 J1 0 0 1 0 X X X X K1 X X X X 0 0 0 1 J0 0 1 X X 0 1 X X FF inputs FF0 K0 X X 1 0 X X 0 1 From the state diagram. From the table. Q0. the initial state has been assumed as Q1 Q0 = 00 and correspondingly the other states have been assigned. 8. 110 . and X as the input variables as given below. J0. K-maps are prepared for J1.(b) The state table will be Q1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Present State Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Input X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Next State Q1* Q0* 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Output Z 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Here. X Q1Q0 00 01 11 10 0 0 1 0 1 0 ´ ´ ´ ´ X Q1Q0 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 ´ ´ ´ 0 1 0 0 J1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 1 0 1 ´ ´ ´ ´ 0 1 K1 = Q0× X Q1Q0 X 00 01 11 10 0 ´ 1 0 ´ 1 ´ 0 1 ´ K0 = Q1 ¤ X J0 = X Fig. we obtain the output sequence as 001110. Prob. and K0 with Q1. 8. state table as shown above is prepared and inputs to FF0 and FF1 are obtained using the excitation table of J-K FF.28(a) The circuit can be drawn using the above expressions. K1.

J0 FF0 K0 Clock X Q0 J1 FF1 Q1 Q0 K1 Q1 Fig. 111 .28 (b) 8. 8. These are T2 = Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X T1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X T0 = Q 0 + Q1 X and Y = Q0 ⋅ X S2 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X R2 = Q 0 ⋅ X S1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ X R1 = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X S0 = Q 1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X R0 = Q0 and Y = Q0 ⋅ X J2 = Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X K2 = X J1 = Q 0 + Q 2 ⋅ X K1 = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X J0 = Q1 ⋅ X K0 = 1 (a) (b) (c) and Y = Q0 ⋅ X The complete circuits can be drawn using the above expressions. S-R. Prob. and J-K FLIPFLOPs are given in the Table.29 The State table along with the inputs required for T. From this the simplified expressions for these inputs are obtained using K-maps.

112 .

J1. Prob. 8.8. 1/0 1/0 000 1/0 001 1/1 010 1/0 0/0 1/0 111 1/1 0/1 110 0/0 0/1 101 0/1 Fig.30 Table 8. Present State Q2 Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Input Next State Output X Q2* Q1* Q0* Y J2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 X X K2 X X X X X X X X 1 0 FF inputs J1 K1 J0 1 0 0 1 X X X X 1 0 X X X X 0 1 1 1 X X 0 1 X X 1 0 X X 1 0 K0 X X 1 1 X X 1 1 X X The simplified expressions are: J2 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 ⋅ X K2 = X J1 = Q 0 ⋅ X + Q 0 ⋅ X K1 = Q0 + X J0 = Q 2 ⋅ Q1 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ X + Q 2 ⋅ X K0 = 1 Y = Q 2 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ X + Q1 ⋅ Q 0 The Complete circuit can be drawn using the above expressions. K1.17 along with the inputs J2. K2.31 The state diagram is given below. and K0 required for the FFS is given below. J0. 8.31 0/0 011 0/0 0/0 100 1/0 113 .

8. 8. Therefore. the states 011 and 111 are identical. 8. Prob. Therefore.26(c).32 (a) The circuit can be designed using the method similar to that of Example 8.33 The output sequence can be obtained similar to Prob. the state transitions will be 00 ® 11 ® 11 Shown in the Fig. the next states and the outputs are same.31 (a). X2 because 11.29(c). the state 010 can be eliminated and the reduced state table is given in Table Prob. 8. second column).30.31(a) Present State Q2 Q1 Q0 * Q2 Next State X=0 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 * Q2 X=1 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 Output Y X=0X=1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table Prob. 114 .18 we observe that from the present states 001 and 100. Table Prob.27(b) and is given below. This means these two states are identical and one of them can be eliminated. 8. 8.28. 8. Similarly.15.31 (b) Present State Q2 Q1 Q0 * Q2 Next State X=0 * * Q1 Q0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 * Q2 X=1 * * Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Output Y X=0X=1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8. 8.From Table 8.31 (b). 8. When X1. and 8. 01000111010 8. 8. eliminating the states 100 and 111 we obtain Table Prob.34 (a) (i) The circuit is initially in stable total state 0001 (first row. (b) The circuit can be designed using the method similar to the design of Probs. From this we observe that the states 000 and 010 are identical.34(a) (i) by solid arrows.

115 . the circuit goes to 10 stable state from 10 unstable state. Both are shown in Fig.34 (a) (ii) 11 11 10 00 01 11 10 (b) In (a)-(i) The circuit is required to change from stable state 00 to stable state 11 . In (a)-(ii). 8. Prob. therefore. the state transitions will be 11 ® 00 ® 00 It is shown by solid arrows in Fig. Prob. 11 ® 10 ® 00 ® 00 or 11 ® 01 ® 00 ® 00 depending upon whether Q1 changes first or Q2 changes first.34(a) (ii) Here again both the states are required to change. The circuit will be making transitions. Prob. the circuit goes to stable state 10 which shows that the race is critical. Prob. Prob. 8. If it is 01.34(a) (i) Since. but due to unequal time delays. state transitions will be 00 ® 01 ® 10 ® 10 Shown in the Fig. race condition exists. 8. race condition exists and the circuit will either attain 01 or 10 state first. therefore.X1 X2 Q1 Q2 00 00 01 11 10 01 00 11 10 11 10 11 10 Fig. both the states are required to change here. 8. 8. 00 ® 10 ® 10 (ii) The circuit is initially in stable total state 1111 (third row.34(a) (ii) Q1 Q2 X1 X2 00 01 00 00 00 00 Fig.34(a) (i) by dotted arrows. third column). When X1 X2 becomes 01. If it is 10.

Prob.35 (b) The next state logic equations are + Q1 = X 1 X2 + X2 Q1 + Q 2 = X2 + X1 Q2 116 . therefore. fourth column will be 00 . first column will be 00 . X1 X 2 Q1 Q2 00 01 11 10 00 0 0 ´ ´ 01 ´ 1 1 ´ 11 0 0 1 ´ 10 0 0 0 ´ X1 X2 Q1 Q2 00 00 01 11 10 0 0 ´ ´ 01 ´ 1 1 ´ 11 1 1 1 ´ 10 0 1 1 ´ + (i) K-map for Q 1 + (ii) K-map for Q 2 Fig. 8.35(b). the next state specified is 00. 8. 8. Prob. Prob. Similarly. the entry in the first row. 8. squares corresponding to input sequence are filled. therefore. These are shown in Fig. 8. the entry in the first row. + + (b) K-maps are prepared for Q1 and Q 2 from the state transition table. again the next state specified is 00.35 (a) X1 X2 00 Q 2 Q2 00 01 11 10 00 00 – – 01 – 11 11 – 11 01 01 11 – 10 00 01 01 – Fig. These are shown in Fig. the race is non-critical.The state change is from 11 to 00 through both the paths and therefore.35(a).35 (a) Transition Table For X1 X2 = 00. Prob. All the remaining squares are unspecified. When X1 changes to 1 while X2 = 0.

while transition from e ® b ® b . the next-state will be a and the output may be 0 or 1. the next-state will be e and since X1 = 1 and X2 is changing state. fifth row will be –. since the outputs for stable states f and a are 1 and 0 respectively. 117 . therefore.35 (c).35(c) Logic diagram 8. the next state and the output are unspecified for X1 = X2 = 0 and the entry in the first column. it can not go to X1 X2 = 01. Y = 1 and the next state will be f and then f . the input can change to 00 or 11. X1 X2 X2 Q1 X1 Q2 Q1+ Q2+ Fig. 8. sixth row will be –. is not possible when the circuit is in stable state e . X2 has changed while X1 = 1. Prob 8. If it changes to 00. therefore. the output may change during unstable b or stable b . –. Since for the stable state b . therefore. When X1 X2 = 01. Similarly.36 When the circuit is in stable state e inputs can change to 01 or 10. when X1 X2 = 10. the entries in the second column.(c) The logic circuit is shown in Fig. Prob. X1 X2 = 00. –. From f . the output is 0 and for the stable state e the output is 1. the output Y may be 0 or 1 and the next-state will be b. When the circuit is in stable state f . When X1 X2 becomes 11. Y = 1. therefore.

the output of the inverter goes to V(0).CHAPTER 9 9. the voltage corresponding to LOW level. at t = 0.3 When the voltage vi at the input is very low.2 Let vo be in logic 0 state under steady-state condition. and so on. When vc reaches V(1). the output of the AND gate will be V(1) which will charge the capacitor C with the time constant t = RC. vo = V(1). Hence R2 R1 (V Z 1 + VD ) + VUT = V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R Now. 9. The output of the NAND gate will be logic 1.1 Let us assume that the voltage vc = V(0). i. This shows that it is not possible for vo to be in logic 0 state under steady state. Prob. 9. The waveforms of vc and vo are illustrated below.e.. This makes the voltage at the non-inverting input terminal as R2 R1 (V Z 1 + V D ) + V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R When the voltage at the input increases and passes through the above voltage. square waveform will be generated at the output. vo = – (VZ2 + VD) This gives voltage at the non-inverting input terminal as − (V Z 2 + V D ) 118 R2 R1 + V R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2 R .1 t 9. thereby discharging the capacitor with the same time constant through the output transistor of the AND gate. vc V(1) t V(0) t vo V(1) t V(0) 0 T1 T2 Fig. It will saturate at vo = VD + VZ1. when vi > VUT . Thus. the output voltage will be maximum positive. the capacitor will get charged to voltage V(1) making the input to the inverter as logic 0 which produces logic 1 at the output. the output voltage vo will change from (VD + VZ1) to – (VZ2 + VD). Therefore.

Prob.4(b).2 V to –5.0042 V VLT = − 0.1 ( 4. 1 100 + 0. The output waveform is illustrated in Fig. Prob. 6 + 0. we obtain VUT = 0. When the input voltage is zero. the output vo changes from – (VZ2 + VD) to + (VZ1 + VD).2 V. the output is + 5. the output comes back to +5.2 V. Prob. 9.1 » 1.2 V and remains at that level as long as the input voltage is higher than VLT. when the increasing input voltage passes through the voltage VUT. 9.9938 V The input waveform is shown in Fig.4(a) with VUT and VLT marked. 6) + 100 (1) 100 + 0. the output changes from +5.2 V 0 t -5. 1 » 0. As soon as the decreasing input voltage passes through VLT. vi 5V VUT VLT 0 t -5V (a) vo 5. 9. Now. 6 + 0.4 Using the expressions for VUT and VLT derived in Prob. 1 ( 4.1 100 + 0. 6 ) + 100 (1) 100 + 0.3. 9.2 V (b) Fig.4 119 .When the voltage at the input decreases and passes through this value. Hence VLT = − R2 R1 (V + VD ) + V R1 + R 2 Z 2 R1 + R 2 R 9.

During the discharging of the capacitor.6 During the interval T1 when vo is positive. Similarly. The capacitor voltage is given by vc = V o′′ – (Vo′′ + b Vo′ )e – t/t at \ or t = T1. at which time the output will swing back from – Vo′ to + Vo′′ . Consequently. Therefore. The capacitor C will be charging from –b Vo′ to Vo′′ with the time constant t = RfC. the feedback resistance R¢f in series with the conducting diode D will be in the circuit. R¢¢ in series with the conducting diode will f be effective. the discharge will be terminated as soon as vc reaches –b Vo′ . the output voltage changes from positive maximum to negative maximum ( Vo′ ). the capacitor will discharge with the same time constant from b Vo′′ to – Vo′ . vc = b Vo′ b Vo′ = – Vo′ + ( Vo′ + b V o′′ ) e–T2/t T2 = t 1n Vo′ + bVo′′ Vo′ (1 − b ) The charging and discharging will go on in the same way and the time period of the resulting output square waveform will be T = T1 + T2 1 1 and the frequency = f = = T T1 + T2 9. where b = (R2/R1 + R2).T1 /t T1 = t 1n Vo′′ + bVo′ Vo′′ (1 − b ) At T1. However.9. vc = b Vo′′ b Vo′′ = Vo′′ – ( Vo′′ + b Vo′ ) e. the output voltage levels will be Vo′ = VZ2 + VD1 – VD » VZ2 and Vo′′ = VZ1 + VD2 – VD » VZ1 120 . during the interval T2 when the output is negative.5 The maximum negative output voltage Vo′ and the maximum positive output voltage Vo′′ are given by Vo′ = VZ2 + VD1 and Vo′′ = VZ1 + VD2 Let us assume the output voltage to be maximum positive (V 0′′ ). vc = – Vo′ + ( Vo′ + b V o′′ ) e – t/t at \ or t = T2.

the output goes back to V(1). 9.6 9.If we assume identical Zeners for convenience. 9. 9. the capacitor discharges with the same time constant until its voltage becomes VLT. 9.6. In case R¢f ¹ R¢¢f .5 and are given by T1 = t 1 1n T2 = t 2 1n Vo′′ + bVo′ .7 If vo = –Vo under steady-state. the capacitor C charges with the time constant t = RC. At this voltage. V(1). Prob.8 When the output voltage is in logic 1 state. the output voltage will go to +Vo.e.VO ¢ T1 T2 T3 T4 Fig. The charging gets terminated when vc reaches VUT and the output changes to V(0) = 0 V. Now. and R¢f = R¢¢. When the capacitor voltage passes through the voltage bVo. The timings T1 and T2 corresponding to the charging and discharging of C respectively are given by T1 = RC 1n T2 = RC 1n V (1) − V LT V (1) − VUT and VUT V LT 121 .. t 2 = R ′′ C f Vo′ (1 − b ) and The output voltage waveform is shown in Fig. the square wave f will be symmetrical. This shows that the output voltage cannot remain as –Vo under steady-state. the capacitor C will get charged with the polarity opposite to that indicated in the figure. Prob. the periods T1 and T2 can be obtained using the relationships derived in Prob. t 1 = R′ C f Vo′′(1 − b ) Vo′ + bVo′′ . i. v V ¢¢ o bVO¢¢ vc t2 t vo t1 0 -bV¢¢ O .

5 kW C = 0. we obtain (using the results of Prob. 9. b = 1 2 and C = 1000 mF R¢f = 27. VUT ù é V (1) .VUT 9. On the other hand. 7 × 1. In this circuit when the output is positive.Hence. 5 × 10 3 122 9.VLT + 1n T = T1 + T2 = RC ê1n ú VLT û ë V (1) .9 An astable multivibrator with T1 = 30 s and T2 = 60 s can be used for this purpose. 2 × 10 −6 ≈ 200 pF 0. the diode D4 will conduct when the output is negative and consequently the GREEN bulb will be ON. diode D3 conducts and the RED bulb is ON. Assuming identical Zener diodes.6 kW TON » 0. A circuit using OP AMP Schmit trigger circuit is shown below.9 – GREEN and Let \ T2 = τ 2 1n 1+β 1−β R1 = R2 = 100 kW. T1 = τ 1 1n 1+ β 1− β R¢ f R¢¢ f – + D1 D2 R – R1 + + VZ VZ RED D3 D4 vo C R2 Fig.7 RC Assuming R = 1. 9. Prob.10 (a) The pulse duration is given by .3 kW and R¢¢f = 54.6).

T = 5 = 7. 9. Therefore. 57 µF 0. 7 × 2 × 10 −3 The duty cycle is 67% with the internal resistor. we obtain from the graph C » 35 pF. Assuming R = 10 kW.2) . 4 f= C (RA + 2RB ) and D = (9. Therefore. 5 m s 0.1) RA + RB × 100 RA + 2RB 123 (9. fmax = 1 ≈ 134 Hz 7.(b) The pulse duration for C < 1000 pF is given by the graph shown in Fig. 9. ns R = 50 kW R = 30 kW R = 20 kW R = 10 kW R = 5 kW 1 2 4 10 20 40 100 200 400 1000 CEXT External timing capacitance.8. pF Fig. the maximum frequency.11 (a) Here R = 2 kW \C= 5 × 10 −3 = 3. 5 × 10 −3 5 × 10 −3 ≈ 178. 10000 7000 4000 2000 1000 700 400 200 100 70 40 20 10 122 123 TON Output pulse width. 7 × 40 × 10 3 (b) C= The duty cycle is 90% with an external resistance of 40 kW. Prob. 67 and the maximum frequency. fmax = 180 Hz 9. Prob.8 9. the time period.12 The frequency and duty cycle are given by 1. 6 nF 0.

the capacitor gets discharged through RA and RB with the time constant t2 = (RA||RB) C and the output voltage drops to 0 V. Prob.13(a). Prob. the charging starts again. (9. 9. Prob.12. (9. 9. 9. Assuming RA = 1 kW Now. VCC RA 4 8 7 2 555 6 + C 5 1 3 – vC vO RB 0.2) 60 = or RA + RB × 100 RA + 2RB RB = 2RA. The waveforms of vc and output voltage. 9. 4 ≈ 4.12 9. As soon as this decreasing voltage crosses 1/3 VCC. from Eq. vc = 2 VCC 3 124 at . 9.From Eq. vc.01 mF Fig. we obtain C= 1. the output voltage is HIGH and the capacitor charges with the time constant t1 = RAC. vo are illustrated in Fig.1).13 (a) When the voltage across the capacitor (vc) is increasing and is less than 2/3 VCC. During charging the voltage across the capacitor. Prob.13(c). is given by vc = 1 VCC + 2 VCC (1 − e − t / τ 1 ) 3 3 t = T1. When vc reaches 2/3 VCC. Prob.13(b) and corresponding to the discharging is shown in Fig. (b) The circuit corresponding to the charging of the capacitor C is shown in Fig. 67 nF × 10 3 × 100 × 10 3 3 The circuit is shown in Fig.

vc is given by RB RB é2 ù VCC ú e . 9.7 RAC During discharging.2 RB û 125 .vC To VCC 2/3VCC t1 1/3VCC To 0V 0 T1 vo V(1) t T2 t t2 0 T (a) VCC RA RA vC + – vC C + – C RB VCC (b) Fig.7 t1 = 0.t /t 2 + VCC vc = ê VCC R A + RB R A + RB ë3 û at which gives T2 = t = T2.T1 /t 1 = 1 2 T1 » 0.13 (c) \ or e .RB ù C 1n ê ú + RB RA ë RA . vc = 1 3 VCC R A RB é 2 R A . Prob.

It remains HIGH for a period T = 1.35 are given in Fig.1 RAC and then goes LOW.2 RB û (c) From the expressions for T1 and T2 obtained in part (b). we observe that it is possible to make T1 = T2 (i.e.RB ù C 1n ê ú RA + RB ë RA . 50% duty cycle). If (n – 1) T < T < nT1 where n is an integer. at which time it goes HIGH.14 A B The output is in LOW state until the first falling edge (A) appears. Prob. 9.20 ù 1n ê ú = 0. 126 . 9. T1 Input pulses Output 0 1 T Fig. Prob.7 RAC + Duty cycle = T1/T ´ 100% RA RB é 2 RA . It will remain LOW till the next negative edge (B) appears.14 (a) The input pulses and the corresponding output for this monostable circuit of Fig.13 c.RB ù 1n ê ú RA + RB ë RA . or R B < A 3 2 RA + RB 9.14.\ T = T1 + T2 = 0.7RA = (d) If R A RB é 2 R A ..40 û or RA » 48 kW (e) From Fig. then the frequency of the output waveform will be fo = fi æ 1ö ç fi = T ø ÷ n è 1 Thus the circuit functions as a frequency divider. we obtain RB R VCC < 1 VCC .7 R A RA + 20 ë RA . The condition which must be satisfied to achieve this is 0. 9.2 RB û RB = 20 kW From part (a). Prob. 9. we obtain RA 20 é 2 RA .

When the input pulse goes from LOW to HIGH.242 m s 9. the output goes to HIGH for a time period T = 1. the output and the discharge terminals go LOW. if we choose RA = 2. if we connect pin-4 (Reset) to pin-2 (Trigger) it becomes a retriggerable monostable multivibrator.3 m s T = 1.35. Thus.2 ms < T < 0. the transistor goes to saturation. i. the circuit becomes a retriggerable monostable multivibrator. whenever the trigger pulse goes LOW. it is not possible for the circuit to be in HIGH output state under steady-state.35 such that Since 0.2 kW and C = 0. 9.1 mF then T = 0.1 RC. the transistor T1 of the timer is cut-off and the capacitor is therefore getting charged. Hence. thereby discharging C and the output goes LOW. In this circuit. 9.15 If the output is in HIGH state under steady-state. When the voltage across the capacitor reaches 2/3 VCC.e..16 In the circuit of Fig. the circuit is reset. 9. 127 .1 RAC Therefore.(b) Here T1 = 1 m s 10 Choose RA and C values in Fig.

10. 10.3(a) (ii) Let b3 = b2 = b0 = 0. b2 = 1 and b1 = b0 = 0.3 (i) Let b3 = 0. 10.5 – 0.3(a).5 Net Output Vo 0 1 2 3 –3 –2 –1 0 10. The corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.1 10.5 + 2. 128 .5 – 2.5 + 3. and b1 = 1.5 Output due to offset + 3.e.5 – 1.5 + 3.5 – 3.5 + 0. 2 8 − 1 255 2 5/255 V the least-significant bit will be significant. Prob.5 + 1.3(b). i. The equivalent circuit corresponding to the lower order four bits is shown in Fig..5 + 3.2 10 10 S = V. From this we observe that this circuit converts digital inputs in one’s complement format to analog output. The analog output voltages for each of the digital inputs are given below. The step size or resolution = Digital Input S2 S1 S0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output voltage without offset – 3.5 + 3.CHAPTER 10 10.5 – 3. From this we obtain Iin = VR (8 /11R) × ( r + 8 /11R) r (8 /11R) 2R + ( r + 8 /11R ) VR 2R The current due to b6 is \ or V R (8/ 11R ) VR = 2 R( r + 8 /11R) + r (8/ 11r ) 16 × 2 R r=8R RF b2 2R r Iin + VO VR R| |4R| |8R Fig.5 – 3. As long as DV < .5 – 3. Prob. Prob.

we obtain r = 8R RF b0 8R r Iin VR R| |2R| |4R + VO Fig. and b0 = 1 The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.4 The modified circuit will be equivalent to the circuit given in Fig. Therefore.ç R R /2 R /3 ø è 129 .Iin = VR (8 /13 R) ´ r (8 /13 R ) ( r + 8 /13 R) 4R + r + 8 /13 R VR . 10. 4R The current due to b5 is To satisfy the same condition. The analog output voltages for various digital inputs are given in table The output voltage is given by RF RF æ RF ö Vo + V1 + V2 ÷ Vo = .3 (c) 10. Prob. RF b1 4R r Iin + VO VR R| |2R| |8R Fig. we obtain r = 8 R. 10.4. Prob. 10. to satisfy the same condition.3(c) from which we obtain Iin = VR ( 4 / 7 R) × ( r + 4 / 7 R) r ( 4 / 7 R) 8R + ( r + 4 / 7 R) The current due to b4 is VR/8R. Prob.3(b) (iii) Let b3 = b2 = b1 = 0. 10.

4 where Vn = – =+ 1 2 1 2 if Sn = 1 if Sn = 0.5 V for the digital input 0000 and + 1/2 V1 0 1 0 1 0 R/2 RF = R + VO R 0 1 S2 ROFF 1/2 V + R/4 V (1) = -1/2 V R/8 1 0 V (0) = 1/2 V Fig. 10.4 S2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Digital Inputs S1 S0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Analog Output V 0 +1 +2 +3 –3 –2 –1 0 We observe from the table that this circuit also converts digital input in one’s complement format to analog output. This circuit without offset gives an analog output of –7.S0 R RF = R R/2 + S1 VO S2 R/3 Fig. 10. Table Prob. Prob.5 130 . 10.5. 10. Prob.5 The circuit for 4-bit D/A converter is shown in Fig. 10. Prob.

There is one more negative number than the positive numbers in 2’s complement representation. R RX = 4 + 2 + 1 or RX = R/7 R R/2 R/4 R/7 S3 Fig. ROFF = 15 10.7 Let the analog voltage range be from –V0 to +V0. Reference voltages V0 VR7 = 5/7 V0 VR6 = 3/7 V0 VR5 = 1/7 V0 VR4 = –1/7 V0 VR3 = –3/7 V0 VR2 = –5/7 V0 VR1 = –V0 –9/7 V0 0 2’s complement digital output S 011 010 001 000 111 110 101 100 If we choose to ignore 100 output. S0 S1 S2 RF = R 10.7. The decoder circuit can be designed in the usual manner. Therefore. 10. Prob. 131 .5 V for 0000 input and –7. The reference voltages are given below. the resistor chain will be connected between +V0 and –Vo and only six comparators will be required.5 V for 1111 input. 10.6 When the 4-bit digital input is 0000. Prob. The circuit is shown in Fig. the offset required is +7. the output voltage will be - 1 2 RF RF RF ö æ RF ç . Prob.R + R /4 + R /2 + R ÷ è ø X where.5 V for the digital input 1111. The step size will be 2/7 V0. RX is the resistance in the path of switch S 3 . This voltage must be 0.+7. R Therefore. Therefore. 10.6 + VO The resulting circuit is shown in Fig.6.

V R Va Analog voltage VR7 = +5/7 V0 R VR6 = +3/7 V0 R VR5 = +1/7 V0 R VR4 = –1/7 V0 R VR3 = –3/7 V0 R VR2 = –5/7 V0 R VR1 = –V0 R –9/7 Vo Fig. The largest Va can be equal to VR.8 The conversion time t is given by Va ⋅ 2 N ⋅ TC VR where. TC is the time period of the clock. and VR is the reference voltage. f < 12 per second. when Va = VR t = 2 N ⋅ TC + t = 2 N + 1 ⋅ TC = 2 13 × 10 −5 or.7 – + – + – C5 Two’s complement format + – + – + – + – + C1 C2 C3 C4 L A T C H E S D E C O D E R C6 C7 B2 ü B1 ý B0 þ ï ï 10. f< 10 5 8192 Therefore. N is the number of bits in the digital output. 132 . Va is the analog voltage. Therefore. 10. Prob.

10.9 The voltage step = = 10 V 26 −1 10 V 63 10. decimal 2 will be coded as 1101 – 1000 = 0101.10 (a) DAC 80 is a 12-bit D/A converter. the straight binary code for decimal 2 is 0010.22 2. (d) CCD: It is complementary coded decimal code.10(a) gives the voltage corresponding to LSB for each of the ranges. (i) Complementary binary input (CBI) Table Prob. Where n is the number of bits used to represent the number. Therefore.10(b) Analog input voltage range ± 2.44 4.10(a) Analog output range 0 0 0 0 0 to ± 2. 10. the voltage corresponding to LSD = 10/1000 = 10 mV (b) ADC 80 is a 12-bit A/D converter. natural BCD code 133 . it will be coded in CTC as 0001. 10. (c) CTC: It is complementary two’s complement code.88 1. (b) COB: It is complementary offset binary code. It is obtained by complementing the natural BCD code.44 mV mV mV mV mV 10.88 1. Table Prob. For example. It is obtained by complementing two’s complement. For example. two’s complement representation of – 2 is 1110 and therefore. Table Prob. For example. for example. 10.44 mV mV mV mV mV (ii) Complementary coded decimal code (CCD) input The analog output range for this code is 0 to + 10 V.10(b).22 2.22 2. It is determined by finding out CSB and then offsetting it by –2n – 1.22 2. The voltages corresponding to LSB for various analog input ranges are given in Table Prob.5 V to ± 5 V to ± 10 V to + 5 V to + 10 V Voltage corresponding to LSB 1.11 (a) CSB: It is complementary straight binary code. which is 1101.10.5 V ±5V ± 10 V 0 to 5 V 0 to 10 V Voltage corresponding to LSB 1. Decimal 2 will be coded in CSB as complement of 0010.44 4.

10.for decimal 2 is 0010 and therefore. Table Prob. Table Prob. it will be coded in CCD as 1101. 10.11 gives the decimal number for each of the 4-bit binary numbers in each of the above codes.11 Binary CSB 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Equivalent decimal values COB CTC +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 +7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 CCD – – – – – – 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 134 .

000000 to 177777. 00000 to FFFFF. Memory A B Maximum rate 1 × 10 9 = 666666/s 1500 1 × 10 9 = 1724137/s 580 (Contd.1 The number of pins P is given by 2P = M (a) P = 2 Address range: A1A0 = 00 to 11 (b) P = 4 Address range: A3A2A1A0 = 0000 to 1111 (c) P = 6 Address range: A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 000000 to 111111 (d) P = 8 Address range: A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 00000000 to 11111111 (e) P = 10 Address range: A9A8A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 0000000000 to 1111111111 (f) P = 11 Address range: A10A9A8A7A6A5A4A3A2A1A0 = 00000000000 to 11111111111 (g) P = 16 Address range: A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (h) P = 20 Address range: A19 A18 A17 A16 A15 A14 A13 A12 A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0= 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 to 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11. 000 to 7FF. 00 to 17. (b) 0 to 3. 0000 to 3777. 11. 00 to 3F. 000 to 3FF.2 (a) 0 to 3. 000 to 377.) 135 . 0 to F.CHAPTER 11 11. It is given below for each memory. 0000000 to 3777777. 00 to FF. 0000 to FFFF.3 The maximum access rate = 1/Cycle time gives the maximum rate for each memory. 0000 to 1777. 00 to 77.

IC1 has been used for the lower four bits and the lower chip. (c) For obtaining 16 K bytes of RAM. (b) 2 K ´ 16 = (2 K ´ 8) ´ 2 This also requires two chips of 2716. (c) 4 K ´ 16 = 2 ´ 2 ´ (2 K ´ 8) The number of 2716 chips required is four. the address A0 – A9 is applied to both the chips. and A10 and A11 are applied to a 2-line-to-4-line decoder.e. The upper chip. Prob. The most significant bit A11 of the address is used to select the chip and the other 11 bits A10-A0 are applied to both the chips. One 1-out of-16 decoder will be required to select a specific chip pair. the width of the address bus required is 12. Here.) Memory C D E F Maximum rate 1 × 10 9 = 2222222/s 450 6 1 × 10 9 = 5 ´ 10 /s 200 1 × 10 9 = 16666666/s 60 1 × 10 9 = 1250000/s 800 11. two chips of 2716 and one inverter are required. 11.6 (a) 4 K bytes = 4 K ´ 8 = 2 ´ (2 K ´ 8) Therefore.. the width of the address bus required is 12. 16 sets of 1 K ´ 8 circuits as shown in Fig. for convenience. The lower ten bits of the address (A0 – A9) are connected to the address bus of each RAM chip.5 (b). 2-line-to-4-line) decoder IC will be required. (b) 2 chips of 2142. 11. Let us. One inverter will be required to select one pair of 2716s. The most significant four bits of the addresses are to be used to select one out of the 16 sets. 11. 11. IC2 for the upper four bits. Prob. 11. (c) 16 K bytes = 16 K ´ 8 = (16 ´ 1024) ´ (4 ´ 2) = 32 ´ (1024 ´ 4) Therefore. A0 – A9 will be same for all the 16 sets. The address bit A11 is applied at the chip select ( CS 1 ) input of ROM-0 and its complement is applied at 136 .5 (a) which can be understood easily. This decoder will select one out of the four chips depending upon the values of A10 and A11. two 2142 RAM chips are connected as shown in Fig. number these sixteen sets as RAM-0 to RAM-15.7 (a) For 4 K locations. (b) For obtaining 1024 ´ 8. therefore.5 (b) are required. Prob.5 (a). The complete circuit is shown in Fig. 11. For this purpose a 4-line-to-16-line decoder circuit is to be used in a way similar to that used in Fig.(Contd. 32 chips of 2142 will be required. Prob. 11. of the 8-bit word.5 (a) Since the total number of locations is 4 K.4 (a) 4 chips of 2142 and one 1-out of-4 (i.

5(a) CS 2 input. Fig. Prob. For example. 11.3 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 +VCC Fig.7(b) shows 2 K ´ 16 ROM. (c) For obtaining 4 K ´ 16 ROM.A0 – A9 WE OD 2142 RAM . Therefore.2 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 A11 WE OD WE WE OD OD 2142 RAM . Figure Prob. 11. when A11 = 0 ROM-0 is selected.7(a) illustrates the relevant portion of the circuit. (b) Figure Prob.8(a) shows as 4-line-to-16-line decoder used to select one out of sixteen memory locations.7(b)) and connect them as shown in Fig.7(a).0 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 +VCC A0 – A9 2142 RAM .8 (a) In the linear selection addressing. Prob. Prob. 11. 137 D A0 – A9 A +VCC T A B U (4 A10 2-lineto-4linedecoder 1 OD – 0 B WE I T) . a one-out-of-N decoder is used to select one of the N memory locations.1 I/O1 – I/O4 CS 1 CS2 2 3 A0 – A9 +VCC S 2142 RAM . 11. 11. Prob. The lower order eight bits of each of the 16-bit words are stored in IC1 and the higher order eight bits are stored in the corresponding location in IC2. 11. 11. whereas A11 = 1 will select ROM-1. use two sets of 2 K ´ 16 memory (Fig.

5(b) (8 – B I T) D0 – D7 D A T A O0 – O7 O0 – O7 D8 – D15 B U S CS 2 2716 2716 A0 – A10 ROM-0 CS 1 O0 – O7 A11 A0 – A10 ROM-1 O0 – O7 Fig. Prob. 11. 11. 11. Prob. Prob.A0 – A9 2142 IC1 OD I/O1 – I/O4 WE CS 1 OD CS2 2142 IC2 A0 – A9 I/O1 – I/O4 ï ï ï ï ï ï8-bit output ý (D0 – D7) ï ï ï ï (D4 – D7) ï ï ï þ (D0 – D3) ü Fig.7(b) 138 .7(a) 2716 A0 – A10 IC1 CS CS CS 2716 IC2 A0 – A10 ü ï ï ï 16-bit output ï ý (D – D ) 0 15 ï ï ï ï þ Fig.

8 (b). Each memory element is placed at the intersection of a row and a column.8(a) (b) In the coincident selection addressing. Prob. the X address is A1A0 which selects a row and the Y address is A3A2 which enables a column. 0 1 2 3 Column Row 0 D00 1 of 4 Decoder DL A0 D01 D02 D03 ì ï A1 ï ï ï ï ï ï Row drivers ï í Diode ï matrix ï Column ïA enable 2 ï ï ï ï A3 ï î 1 of 4 Decoder DH D10 D11 D12 D13 1 D20 D21 D 22 D23 2 4-bit address D30 D31 D32 D33 3 Column sense amplifiers Chip select (CS) Data output Fig.0 Memory location 0 Memory location 1 Memory location 2 ì 3 ï ï A2 Address ï ï inputs í ï A1 ï ï ï A0 î A 1 4-line-to 16-line decoder 2 14 15 Memory location 14 Memory location 15 Fig. a memory location is selected by applying an X address and a Y address. Prob. The decoder circuitry consists of 1-out-of-X and 1-out-of-Y decoders as shown in Fig. 11. 11. Here. Prob 11.8(b) 139 .

It is also possible to read more than one location at a time. the gates of the inverters are not held at VDD but are clocked so that T3 conducts only when f2 = 1 and not when f1 = 1. the latches are disabled. match condition will be checked only for I0 bit. Here. C charges to logic 1 through T3. (iv) Read Operation: When A1A0 = 00. there is considerable reduction in power dissipation in this circuit.12 (i) Association Operation: When A1A0 = 11. 11. if the input is at logic 0. otherwise it will be 1. C3 charges from C2 forming a capacitive loop.9a. On the other hand. Therefore.9(a). (ii) Associate Operation with Higher Bit Masked: When A1A0 = 01. independently of data input (since f2 = 0. if the data input is 1. outputs of the OR gates are 1 irrespective of the logic level at W (i. The f2 needs to be 1 only long enough to allow C2 to charge from VDD through T3 and T4. In general. The output will be OR operation performed on all the selected outputs.e. 11. otherwise it is 1. and W = 0. the latches are enabled for the location by making the Y input 0. This logic level remains on C after f1 returns to logic 0. therefore. the logic level of C will be complement of input logic level. C2 >> C3. The output Y of the wired-OR gate will be 0 if both the data inputs match with the bits stored. In order to charge C3 without causing appreciable voltage drop. 11. T4 also conducts. the ratio C2/C3 must be very large. which will disable the latches. The outputs of the NOR gates will be 0. T2 is OFF). The same data also appears at the D outputs following the arguments of (iv) above. The AND gate of D1 output is enabled. even if the bit stored on C1 is 1. the complement of logic level on C will be transferred to output capacitor (between drain of T6 and ground). in the circuit of Fig. then during f2 = 1. T1 and T2 will conduct and C will get discharged to logic 0 level. Depending upon which Y is selected by making it 0.10 When the transistor T4 conducts.11 During the interval when f1 = 1.9 The operation of this circuit is similar to that of the circuit of Fig. In contrast to this. therefore. the output Q0 of the latch appears at the corresponding D output. The data outputs D1 and D0 are both 0. T1 will be OFF and C will continue at logic 1 level. The output of the EX-OR gate will be 0. 11. This happens when more than one address input is made 0. (v) Write Operation: When A1A0 = 00. the output of the AND gate is 1 for mismatch and 0 for match.11. during f3 and f4 phases. (iii) Associate Operation with Lower Bit Masked: The operation is similar to the operation of (ii) above. 140 . 11. Similarly. and W = 1. the operation of the circuit will be similar to the operation explained in (i) above except that the output of the AND gate on the I1 side will always be 0. and W = 1. if the data input bit is same as the bit stored (Q0). Now. Therefore. W = X). the power is always drawn from the supply throughout the clock cycle. When T3 conducts.. Therefore.

The first operation is to interrogate the MSB of all words for a 1 with all other bits masked. Y0 – Y7 of each chip are connected to a common bus.15 16 ´ 8 = 2 ´ (8 ´ 8) Therefore. the corresponding higher bit (I1) is latched into the latch and it also appears at the D1 output.(vi) Associate and Write at the Match Addresses: (a) When A1A0 = 01 and W = 0. the key is 141 . Prob. data outputs.14 can be connected as shown in Fig. The circuit of 8 ´ 8 CAM is shown in Fig.13. i. 11.15.13 Since 16 ´ 2 = 2 ´ (8 ´ 2).14 8 ´ 8 = 4 ´ (8 ´ 2) Therefore. I1 I0 A1 A0 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 D0 D1 A0 A1 I0 I1 8´2 CAM IC1 D1 D0 W W W A0 A1 I0 I1 D1 D0 8´2 CAM IC2 Y8 Y9 Y10 Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 Y15 Fig.16 It is a 16-word. therefore.13 11. and mode control inputs of two 8 ´ 2 CAMs are connected as shown in Fig. (b) When A1A0 = 10 and W = 0. 11. the operation will be similar to the operation of part (a) above. 11. 11. Thus. for designing a 16 ´ 8 CAM. 11. it requires two chips. When there is matching.14. two 8 ´ 8 CAMs as shown in Fig. 8-bit word CAM. The matching will be performed for higher bits and the lower bit (I0) will be stored in the locations for which I1 match. the association operation is performed for the lower bit (ii) above. therefore. Since the number of words is 8. it becomes a CAM of sixteen 2-bit words. Prob. the number of chips required is four. 11. 11. Prob. The data inputs.e. Prob. The resulting system has 16 address inputs (Y0 – Y15).. 11. The outputs will be 0 for matched conditions and 1 for mismatch conditions.

11.15 I0 1XXXXXXX. Prob. then the CAM is to be interrogated again with key as 11XXXXXX.A7 A6 I7 I6 A5 A4 I5 I4 A3 A2 I3 I2 A1 A0 I1 I0 A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM A1 A0 I1 I0 8´2 CAM Y0 – Y7 Y0 – Y7 Y0 – Y7 D0 D4 Y0 – Y7 W D1 D7 D0 D6 W D1 D5 W D1 D3 D0 D2 W D1 D1 D0 D0 W Fig. If only one word indicates a match. However. In case no match occurs when the MSB is interrogated.14 I7 8 ´ 8 CAM I0 Y0-Y7 Y0-Y7 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 W D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 8 ´ 8 CAM Y8-Y15 Y0-Y7 I7 Fig. then the maximum valued word search is complete. then the next key has to be 142 . 11. Prob. if several words indicate a match.

11.17 11.18

11.19

11.20

01XXXXXX. This process is to continue till at the most all the bits of the words are interrogated. In any case no more than 8 interrogation cycles will be required to determine the maximum valued word. In the case of RAM, each word is to be compared sequentially. Therefore, the time required for the search will be dependent on the number of words stored which is sixteen in this case. The operation is similar to the operation of Prob. 11.16 with 1’s replaced by 0’s in the search process. A CAM is ideal for this. Because of the parallel search operation in CAM, just in one cycle, we can find out whether the word is already stored or not. If not, it can be stored in the next location available. In contrast to this, the search process is serial in a RAM which is time consuming and hence a RAM is not suitable for this purpose. The inputs and the outputs of all the CCDs are to be connected in parallel. The additional address bits are decoded and used to select one of the CCDs for read/write operation. The clock and write enable are also connected in parallel. For expanding word length, the address, chip select, write enable, and clock inputs of all the devices are connected in parallel. The number of data inputs and outputs are used independently. The number of inputs/outputs will be equal to the number of CCDs.

143

CHAPTER 12

12.1 The BCD-to-Excess-3 code converter’s truth table is given below.

BCD A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 E3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Excess-3 E2 E1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 E0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

(a) For the design using PROM, a PROM of size 10 ´ 4 is required, but since PROM of this size does not exist, therefore, a PROM of size 16 ´ 4 is to be used. Data is to be stored in the PROM at the addresses corresponding to the BCD code, the data is Excess-3 code. For example at the address 0000, the data stored is 0011 and at the address 1001 the data stored is 1100. (b) Logical expressions can be written for E3, E2, E1, and E0 outputs in terms of A,B,C, and D inputs. To reduce the hardware requirements, these expressions can be minimized using K-maps.

A B C D

E3 E2 E1 E0 Fig. Prob. 12.1 (b)

**The simplified expressions are: E3 = A + BC + BD E2 = B C D + B C + B D E1 = C D + CD E0 = D
**

144

The size of PLA required is No. of inputs =4 No. of outputs =4 No. of product terms =9 The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 12.1(b). (c) The required size of PAL is No. of inputs =4 No. of outputs =4 Minimum number of =3 AND gates for each output The circuit is given in Fig. Prob. 12.1(c).

A E3 B E2 C E1 D E0

Fig. Prob. 12.1 (c)

12.2 Follow similar procedure as given in Prob. 12.1. 12.3 Prepare truth table and follow similar procedure as given in Prob. 12.1. 12.4 The inputs of two 82S100 devices are to be connected in parallel. This will result in 8 + 8 = 16 outputs. 12.5 The inputs I0 to IM-1 are common for all the PLAs. Depending on the values of IM to IM+Q-1, one of the output lines of the decoder will go LOW activating the corresponding PLA and disabling all the other PLAs. Hence, the number of inputs increases. 12.6 Architecture of a PLD refers to the attributes of the device significant to the logic of a design to be implemented. It includes. · Configuration of pins. · The size and the arrangement of the programmable array(s). · Configuration of the input and output interface logic.

145

7 Input I1 I1 I2 I2 I3 I3 I4 I4 I5 I5 I6 I6 I7 I7 I8 I8 I9 I9 I10 I 10 Column 2 3 0 1 4 5 8 9 12 13 16 17 20 21 24 25 28 29 30 31 Input/output IO2 IO 2 IO3 IO 3 IO4 IO 4 IO5 IO 5 IO6 IO 6 IO7 IO 7 Column 6 7 10 11 14 15 18 19 22 23 26 27 12.12.8 Input I1 I1 I2 I2 I3 I3 I4 I4 Column 0 1 4 5 8 9 12 13 16 17 20 21 24 25 28 29 Input/output IO1 IO 1 IO8 IO 8 O2 Column 2 3 30 31 6 7 10 11 14 15 18 19 22 23 26 27 O2 O3 O3 O4 O4 O5 O5 O6 O6 O7 O7 I5 I5 I6 I6 I7 I7 I8 I8 146 .

Comb. MUX–3 and MUX–4. Reg. (b) Keep all the inputs intact (connected) to the controlling AND gate. Reg. Each one may be programmed to be in 0 or 1. Reg. Comb. which means its output will be either same as input 0 or input 1. 12. whereas for x2 = 1. for x1 =1 when and when x2 = 1. Reg. topmost cell will be selected and f will be 1. G and H intact to the controlling AND gate and open all other connections. f = 1 147 . 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Comb. Reg. (a) Open all the inputs to the controlling AND gate. Table below gives all the possible conditions. Reg. MUX – 1 MUX – 2 MUX – 3 MUX – 4 No. f will be obtained from the upper multiplexer. Prob. Comb. 12. the cell second from the top will get selected and f = 0. F . Comb. MUX–1. f = 0 x2 = 1. Reg.10. (c) Keep the connections corresponding to the inputs A.11 Here the output of an AND gate controls the output. E .10 These are given in Fig. MUX–2. input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input feedback input 12. Similarly. B. For x2 = 0. comb.9 It has four multiplexers. C. Comb. D. Comb. of product Terms 8 8 8 Output Enable pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled pin-11 pin-11 Term Controlled Term Controlled Output Output pin/FF output feedback input feedback 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 Reg.12.12 When x1 = 0. 12.

Registered output B = 1 Combinational output B = 0 AR D Q SP A=0 AR D Q SP A=1 AR D Q SP AR D Q A=0 SP AR D Q AR D Q SP A=1 SP Q A=0 AR D Q SP AR D Q SP Q Fig.10 148 REGISTER FEEDBACK CD = 00 COMBINATIONAL FEEDBACK CD = 10 BI-DIRECTIONAL I/O CD = 11 A=1 . Prob. 12.

f will be obtained from output of bottom multiplexers’ structure. the truth table will be as given below. Similarly. the complete circuit can be analyzed. Now. The bits to be stored will be 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 149 . x1 0 0 1 1 x2 0 1 0 1 f 1 0 0 1 12. f will be obtained from output of top multiplexers’ structure. when x2 = 0. it will be obtained from the next multiplexer. the output will be from the top-most cell. the output will be obtained from the top-most multiplexer and when x2 = 1.Therefore.13 The truth table of the given function f is x1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 f 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 when x1 = 0. when x1 = 1. When x3 = 0. and when x3 = 1 it will be from be next cell.

assuming single byte op code = 256. only one 2716 chip is required. Prob. The relevant connections are shown below.2 The number of distinct combinations of 8-bit words = 28 = 256 Therefore. The total number of instruction codes in 8085A mP is 246. the total number of instruction codes. (b) Let the first 2 K bytes be in EPROM and next 4 K bytes be in the RAMs.1 The memory address space is given by M = 2P where. 4 K bytes = 4 K ´ 8 bits = 4 ´ 2 ´ (1 K ´ 8) bits = 8 chips 2716 is a 2 K ´ 8 bits EPRPM. P is the address bus width.3(a) 150 . Therefore. 13.3 (a) 2142 is a 1024 ´ 4 bits RAM Therefore.CHAPTER 13 13. 13. A8 – A15 8085 A WR RD AD0 – AD7 ALE A0 – A7 8212 CLR DS2 MD DS 1 +VCC Fig. The memory address space for the mPs are given below. Microprocessor 8080A 6800 8086 9900 Z8000 Memory address space 64 K bytes 64 K bytes 1 M bytes 64 K bytes 8 M bytes 13.

Other connections are indicated below: A0 – A10 from mP to A0 – A10 of 2716 A0 – A9 from mP to A0 – A9 of each of 2142 CS2 of each 2142 to Vcc

WR from mP to WE of each 2142

**RD from mP to OD of each 2142
**

A10 A11 A12 (from mP) A13 A14 A15 (from mP) A0 A1 A2 8205

E1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

To CS of 2716 To CS 1 of RAM set 1 To CS 1 of RAM set 2 To CS 1 of RAM set 3 To CS 1 of RAM set 4

E2 E3

Fig. Prob. 13.3(b)

**(c) The address of various chips are given below.
**

Memory chips EPROM RAM pair RAM pair RAM pair RAM pair Starting address in hex. 1 2 3 4 0000 0800 0C00 1000 1400 Last address in hex. 07FF 0BFF 0FFF 13FF 17FF

13.4

(i) MVI A, 00H ; Load accumulator with zero (ii) SUB A ; Subtract A from A (iii) ANI 00H ; AND A with zero (iv) XRA A ; A EX-OR A Note that the information beyond semicolon (;) are comments. 13.5 Let D-E and H-L pairs be pointers to source and destination memory locations respectively. The program is given below: LXI D, 0F00 H ; Initialize source pointer LXI H, 1F00 H ; Initialize destination pointer LXI B, 100H ; Initialize counter LOOP: LDAX D ; Load A with contents of source memory CMA ; Complement A MOV M, A ; Store in destination memory INX D ; Increment pointers INX H

151

DCX B MOV A, C ORA B JNZ LOOP

; Decrement counter ; Check counter for zero

NEXT: 13.6 The program is given below: LXI H, 0A02H ; Store destination address in H-L pair LDA 0A00H ; Load A with first number MOV B, A ; Transfer to B LDA 0A01H ; Load A with second number CMP B ; Compare A and B JZ FINIS ; Go to FINIS if the two numbers are equal JC GREAT ; If CY = 1, (A) < (B) MOV M, A ; Otherwise (A) > (B) JMP FINIS GREAT: MOV M, B FINIS : 13.7 The following instructions will clear the memory location. LXI H, 01A0H MVI M, 00H 13.8 LXI H, A001H ; Initialize pointer MOV C, M ; Get the number of bytes in C INX H ; Increase pointer by 1 START : MOV A, M ; Get a byte of data in A REP : DCR C JZ STOP ; Stop at end of data INX H CMP M ; Compare JC REP ; If (A) < (M), try next number JMP START STOP: STA FF00H ; Store the smallest element END 13.9 ANI 0FH 13.10 LOOP: DCR 0 JZ FINIS IN DATA MOV M, A INX H JMP LOOP FINIS: MOV B, A

152

SOLUTION The operation performed by each instruction is given below: START: LXI H, BUFR ; Initialize H-L pair with address BUFR MOV C, 0BH ; Initialize counter with decimal 11 LOOP: DCR C ; Decrease counter by one JZ FINIS ; Go to FINIS if counter = 0 IN DATA ; Input a byte from DATA port MOV M, A ; Move the byte to memory ; location pointed to by H-L pair INX H ; Advance the pointer by one JMP LOOP ; Go to loop FINIS: MOV B, A ; Move the contents of A to B The operation performed by this program is to input ten bytes from input port DATA and store them in memory locations starting from BUFR. 13.11 N=3+3+1+1+1+1+1+1 = 12 bytes 13.12 (A) 0000 1000 (B) 1001 0011 ADD B 1001 1011 The result is not a valid BCD number. ADD B instruction must be followed by DAA instruction. The effect of this is given below: 1001 1011 0000 0110 Add 6 because the least-significant four bits do not represent a valid BCD digit 1010 0001 0110 0000 Add 60 because the most-significant four bits do not represent a valid BCD digit 10000 0001 = (101)10 13.13 Assume a set of ten keys for entering BCD number and a 7-segment display for displaying this number. It is also assumed that BCD-to-7-segment codes are stored in memory from the starting address 00XXH. The block diagrams for the input and output devices are shown in Fig. Prob. 13.13(a) and (b) respectively. Assume 01H and 02H as the port addresses of the input device and output device respectively. The addresses are decoded and proper signals are generated for Enable and Device Select terminals for reading and writing. The program can be written as MVI B, XXH LXI H, 0000H IN 01H ADD B MOV L, A MOV A, M OUT 02H

153

13 13.14 The last six instructions will be POP PSW POP H POP D POP B EI RET 154 . Prob. 13.VCC D (MSB) Decimal-toBCD Encoder (Inputs & outputs active-low) C B Inverting Tristate Buffer D3 D2 D1 Data bus of mP b c d A D0 Enable (a) Current limiting resistors VCC Common anode a b c f d e e f g a g Data bus D-type Latch Device Select (b) Fig.

17 Eight 8-bit or four 16-bit AX: AH.Here it is assumed that the interrupts are kept disabled during the execution of the sub-routine. AL BX: BH. DL 13. 00F1H LDA 00F0H CPI 0AH JNC QUE ADI 00110000 B MOV M.19 CS = 2000H IP = 1A00H 20-bit address of the next instruction byte will be fetched from 20000 + 1A00 21A00 H 13.15 The ASCII code for decimal 0 is 0110000 and for? is 0111111.3 mP 8086 80186 80286 80386SL 80386 DX 80486 DX Pentium Address bus width 20 20 24 25 32 32 32 13.18 Four zeros at the least-significant four bit positions are appended to the 16bit segment register. BL CX: CH. 00111111 B STOP: END 13. CL DX: DH. Actual physical 20-bit address is this 20-bit data plus the contents of the pointer register. 13. The program is given below: LXI H. 13. making it 20-bit address.20 20-bit current address of the stack will be 24000 + A000 2E000 H 155 .16 Refer to Table 13. A JMP STOP QUE : MVI M.

I0 I1 I2 I3 AB Fig. (b) For 3-input NAND gate ARCHITECTURE df_nand 3 OF NAND 3 IS BEGIN Y Ü NOT (A AND B AND C) AFTER 10 ns. It contains all the allowed characters. ALL. C : IN BIT. and I3 and two select inputs A and B. Y : IN BIT. No. 14. USE IEEE STD-LOGIC.5 LIBRARY IEEE.2 (a) Yes. Upper and lower case characters can be mixed. 14.4 (a) For 2-input NAND gate ARCHITECTURE df_nand 2 OF NAND 2 IS BEGIN Z Ü NOT (X AND Y) AFTER 10 ns. Prob. 14. I2. I1. A. -. I2. Z : OUT BIT). No. END NAND 3. ENTITY MULTI-4 IS PORT (IO. Prob.Name of entity chosen is F_A 156 . Y : OUT BIT). Hyphen (–) is not allowed.3 A 4:1 multiplexer is shown in Fig. character ‘ ’ is not permitted.CHAPTER 14 14. No. B .1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 14. 14. END NAND 2. Y: OUT STD-LOGIC). IN STD-LOGIC. END MULTI_4. Two consecutive underscores are not allowed. B. I1. No. END df_nand 3. (b) ENTITY NAND 3 IS PORT (A.3.3 Y The entity declaration is LIBARY IEEE. It has four data inputs I0. I3. 1164 ALL. starting character can not be a numeral. Yes. USE IEEE. END df-nand 2. 14. ENTITY NAND 2 IS PORT (X. STD_LOGIC_1164. There is one output Y.

ENTITY F-A IS PORT (A. S4. CINB). S1. END FULL_ADDER. B. N1 : NAND3 PORT MAP (AB. S7). S2. CIN. N3 : NAND3 PORT MAP (A. END COMPONENT. S3. COMPONENT NAND 4 PORT (X4. S). S7 COUT). B. CINB. ARCHITECTURE FULL_ADDER OF F_A IS. CIN: IN STD_LOGIC. END F_A. S3). ENTITY F-A IS PORT (A. S4). X5. ALL. N5 : NAND4 PORT MAP (S1. S6). R : OUT STD_LOGIC). Y: OUT STD_LOGIC). CIN. S6. END COMPONENT. I3 : INV PORT MAP (CIN. CIN: IN STD_LOGIC. X7 : IN STD-LOGIC. S4. END COMPONENT. COMPONENT INV PORT (P : IN STD_LOGIC. B. S. 14. S2). CIN.6 LIBARY IEEE. N9 : NAND3 PORT MAP (S5. B. S3. S7 : STD_LOGIC. S5. N7 : NAND2 PORT MAP (B. X9 : IN STD_LOGIC. BEGIN S Ü ((NOT A) AND B AND (NOT CIN)) OR ((NOT A) AND (NOT B) AND CIN) OR (A AND (NOT B) AND (NOT CIN)) OR (A AND B AND CIN) AFTER 15 ns. C OUT Ü (A AND B) OR (B AND CIN) OR (A AND CIN) AFTER 10 ns. S5). X2. COMPONENT NAND2 PORT (X8. BB. BB). BB. S2. END FA_STR. AB). ARCHITECTURE FA_STR OF F_4 IS COMPONENT NAND 3 PORT (X1. CINB. I2 : INV PORT MAP (B. S1). COUT: OUT STD_LOGIC) END F-A. X3 : IN STD-LOGIC. S6. END COMPONENT. N4 : NAND3 PORT MAP (A. CINB. S COUT: OUT STD_LOGIC). Q : OUT STD_LOGIC). N2 : NAND3 PORT MAP (AB. B. BEGIN I1 : INV PORT MAP (A. N8 : NAND2 PORT MAP (A. STD_LOGIC-1164. CIN. X6. N6 : NAND2 PORT MAP (A. SIGNAL AB. BB. Z: OUT STD_LOGIC). USE IEEE. 157 .

14.5 158 . Prob.A I1 AB B I2 CIN I3 N 1 BB CINB N2 S2 S1 N5 N3 S3 S N4 A B B CIN A CIN N6 S5 S4 N7 S6 N9 COUT N8 S7 Fig.

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