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APR Tropical Architecture Rev1

APR Tropical Architecture Rev1

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Published by Yuanne San

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Published by: Yuanne San on Mar 08, 2012
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10/16/2015

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Stack / Chimney effect is the movement of air into and out of buildings,
chimneys, flue gas stacks, or other containers, and is driven by buoyancy.

Buoyancy occurs due to a difference in indoor-to-outdoor air density resulting
from temperature and moisture differences.
•The result is either a positive or negative buoyancy force.
•The greater the thermal difference and the height of the structure, the
greater the buoyancy force, and thus the stack effect.
•The stack effect is also referred to as the "chimney effect", and it helps
drive natural ventilation and infiltration.
•Since buildings are not totally sealed (at the very minimum, there is
always a ground level entrance), the stack effect will cause air infiltration.
oDuring the heating season, the warmer indoor air rises up through
the building and escapes at the top either through open windows,
ventilation openings, or other forms of leakage.

oThe rising warm air reduces the pressure in the base of the
building, drawing cold air in through either open doors, windows, or
other openings and leakage.

oDuring the cooling season, the stack effect is reversed, but is
typically weaker due to lower temperature differences.

In a modern high-rise building with a well-sealed envelope, the stack effect can
create significant pressure differences that must be given design consideration
and may need to be addressed with mechanical ventilation.
oStairwells

54

TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE

oShafts
oElevators

•Tend to contribute to the stack effect,

•Whereas interior partitions, floors, and fire separations can mitigate it.

oEspecially in case of fire, the stack effect needs to be controlled to
prevent the spread of smoke.
The stack effect in industrial flue gas stacks is similar to that in buildings, except
that it involves hot flue gases having large temperature differences with the
ambient outside air.

Furthermore, an industrial flue gas stack typically provides little obstruction for
the flue gas along its length and is, in fact, normally optimized to enhance the
stack effect to reduce fan energy requirements.

Large temperature differences between the outside air and the flue gases can
create a strong stack effect in chimneys for buildings using a fireplace for
heating.

Fireplace chimneys can sometimes draw in more cold outside air than can be
heated by the fireplace, resulting in a net heat loss.

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