The Solid State

Class XII Chapter – 1:

CHEMISTRY The Solid State

CHEMISTRY

Key features of Drill Exercises:
• It is a document that focuses on extensive and exhaustive practice of Questions as per latest CBSE Board Curriculum. • Drill Exercises are Class wise/ Subject wise/ Chapter wise format. • It contains four sections, namely: (A) Practice Questions: Questions covering all the categories along with their difficulty level; viz. Very Short Answer (V.S.A.) Type, Short Answer (S.A.) Type, Long Answer (L.A.) Type. (B) Previous Year Questions: Questions asked in the previous years of CBSE Examination on this chapter. (C) Must Do Questions: Questions from topics/ sub-topics regularly asked in the Board Examination. (D) HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills): Questions to assess the students’ understanding, analytical ability and interpretation.

NOTE: Detailed answers to all the questions are also provided for the student’s self assessment.

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The Solid State

CHEMISTRY

DRILL EXERCISES
A. Practice Questions

The questions in this section indicate weightage and their difficulty level. Answers will be provided at the end of each section given below:

1 Mark: Very Short Answer Type

Difficulty level: Easy and Average

Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5.

What is the cause of rigidity of solids? Give the three examples of amorphous solids. What are the pseudo solids? Which kind of attractive forces are found in solid ?

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Naphthalene, PVC, Teflon, fiber glass, Cellophane, silver, polyurethane.

Q6.

Electrical resistance of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of solid.

Q7.

Classify the following into molecular, ionic, metallic and covalent crystals: Brass, Ice, Diamond, and NaCl.

Q8. Q9.

Are metallic crystalline solids electrical conductor or insulator? Give the reason. “Ionic solids are electrical insulator in solid state”. State whether true or false.

Q10. Solid A is very hard insulator in solid as well as in molten state and have extremely high melting point. What type of solid is it?

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The Solid State

CHEMISTRY

Q11. Define a unit cell. Q12. What is the significance of a lattice point? Q13. How many atoms are present per unit cell in a bcc? Q14. What is total number of atoms per unit cell in an hcp structure? Q15. Define a void. Q16. What is the coordination number of an octahedral void? Q17. Which type of crystalline structure shows lowest packing efficiency? Q18. Name one solid in which both Frankel and Schottky defects occur. Q19. What are F-centers? Q20. What is doping? Q21. Why does ZnO appear yellow on heating? Q22. Which type of point defect lowers the density of ionic crystals? Q23. What is the effect of temperature on the conductivity of semiconductor? Q24. Why does the glass object turn milky in appearance with time? Q25. What type of substances would make better permanent magnet, Ferromagnetic or Ferrimagnetic?

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– molecular. diamond. Electrical conductor. Void is an unoccupied space present among the touching spheres. A3. polyurethane. Crystalline: Naphthalene. Some amorphous solids have a tendency to flow. 4 . Six A15. fiberglass. they bring out the geometry of lattice. Teflon. A12. A4. Inability of the molecules to move about their position due to strong intermolecular attraction forces. generate the entire lattice. A2. A5. Ice.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers A1. when repeated in different directions. Amorphous Brass – metallic. A lattice point represents a constituent particle in a crystal lattice and when lattice points are joined by straight lines. A10. silver. NaCl. A9. Two A14. glass. A6. plastic. Dipole.dipole interaction and H-bonding. cellophane. Rubber. though very slowly are called pseudo solids. A7. Covalent solid A11. A13.ionic. A8. Amorphous: PVC. The smallest portion of a crystal lattice which. due to the presence of free electron. True.covalent.

centres. It is a process of adding impurities in a crystal lattice. The free electrons trapped in the anions vacancies are called F.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A16. Six A17. Simple cubic lattice (52. A24. Silver bromide (AgBr) A19. Schottky defect A23. A22. A25. A21. The conductivity of semiconductor increases with increase in temperature. Ferromagnetic 5 . Due to the crystallization of glass. A20.4%) A18. On heating. free electrons occupy spaces created by loss of oxygen from ZnO and turn yellow.

What is the two dimensions coordination number of a molecule in square closed packed layer? Q3. why? 6 . What other element may be added to germanium to make electrons available for conduction of current? Q9. in potassium vapours. crystals of colour. Name a salt that can add to Q11. AgI crystallizes in ccp zinc sulphide structure. What fraction of tetrahedral sites is occupied by ions? so as to produce cation vacancies. What type of defect can arise when a solid is heated? Which physical property is affected by it and in what way? Q4. the crystal start exhibit violet Q10. A unit cell of solid has cations What is the formula of solid? at the corners and anions in the centre. How many effected crystal? ions are located at centers of faces of unit cell in a NaCl Q5. Q6. Q7. Why are the solids containing F-centres paramagnetic? What happens when ferrimagnetic substance is heated at high temperature and why? Q8.The Solid State CHEMISTRY 1 Mark: Very Short Answer Type Difficulty level: Difficult Q1. What is the side of the unit edge if the radius of the atom of an element is 80 pm and it crystallizes in hcp? Q2. On heating.

gold crystallizes in cubic structure occupying the corners and cadmium fits into face centred void. Write the composition of alloy. In an alloy of gold and cadmium. Classify each of the following as being either a p-type or n-type semiconductor: (a) Ge doped with In (b) Al doped with Ge Q14. To which group should this impurity belong? 7 .The Solid State CHEMISTRY Q12. A group 14 element is to be converted into p-type semiconductor by doping it with a suitable impurity. Q13.

A2. A11. A10. A7. Because there are excess of site of the anions are forming . A4. A9. 6× AB Because the electrons occupying vacant sites are unpaired. the density of solid becomes decrease since some of the lattice sites are unoccupied.3 pm centres. A8. this is due to randomization of spins at high temperature. A5. Ferrimagnetic becomes paramagnetic. A12. Impurity should belong to group14. A6. It absorbs colour from visible region and radiates complementary colour. which attract and electrons are trapped at Arsenic 50% =3 = = 226. A3.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers: A1. = Four Vacancy defect. A13. 8 . (a) p-type (b) n-type A14.

Which of these two changes of the density of the solid? Q8. What makes a glass different from a solid such as quartz? Under what conditions quartz could be converted into glass? Q4. State the difference between Schottky and Frenkel defects. A. Q2. Q5.The Solid State CHEMISTRY 2 Marks: Short Answer Type Difficulty level: Easy and Average Q1. B and C atoms are present at the corners. tin. If three elements A. solid sulphur dioxide. (b) Silicon act as an insulator but silicon doped with phosphorous act as semiconductor. Classify the following eight solids in different categories based on the nature of intermolecular forces operating in them: Potassium chloride. zinc sulphate. urea. A compound formed by elements A and B has a cubic structure in which A atoms are at corners of the cube and B atoms are face centres. B and C crystallize in a cubic lattice. tungsten. Q6. silicon carbide. Account for following: (a) Ionic solids conduct electricity in molten state but not in solid state. Distinguish between (a) Hexagonal and monoclinic unit cell (b) Face. Derive the formula of the compound.centred and end centred unit cell 9 . What is the formula of the compound? Q7. Distinguish between amorphous and crystalline solids. graphite. Q3. centre and centre of faces of cube respectively.

g. silicon carbide Molecular solids-: urea. zinc sulphate Covalent solids-: graphite. Ionic solids-: potassium chloride. diamond 2 Anisotropy Rigidity and compressibility Isotropic in nature. 3 5 6 Melting point Heat of fusion A2.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers: A1. they cut into two pieces with irregular surfaces Melt over a wide range of temperature Not definite When cut with a sharp edge tool. Properties Amorphous solids Crystalline solids Definite characteristic 1 Geometry Irregular shape e.g. Usually rigid and can not be compressed to any appreciable extent. When cut with a sharp edge 4 Cleavage tool. glass geometrical shape e.. Melt at a sharp and characteristics temperature Definite Rigid and Incompressible Anisotropic in nature.. tungsten 10 . they split into two pieces and newly generates surfaces are plain and smooth. solids sulphur dioxide Metallic solids-: tin.

and act as a charge carriers. the formula of compound is AB 3 . A4. tetrahedral) arranged in short rang order as well as long rang order. But they conduct electricity in molten state in which ions are free to move under the influence the electric field. No. A5. Glass is an amorphous solid in which the constituent particles ( . A6. No. Hence Silicon doped with Phosphorous act as a semiconductor. are used in the formation of covalent bonds with four neighboring Si atoms. the formula is ABC 3 . On melting quartz and then cooling it rapidly converted into glass. The fifth electron can not be contained in lower band and is extra and becomes delocalized. of atoms B per unit cell =1 No. of atoms C per unit cell = 6 × 1/2 = 3 Hence. (six faces are present in a cube) 11 . Atoms are present at the 8 corners of the cube. These delocalized electrons can migrate in an electric field. of atoms of A in the unit cell = 1/8 × 8 = 1 B atoms are present at the face centres of the cube. of atoms A per unit cell = 1/8 × 8 = 1 No.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A3. tetrahedral) arranged in short range order while quartz is a crystalline solid in which the constituent particles ( . (a) Ionic solids are poor conductor of electricity because the ions are fixed and the applied electrified can not make them move. four out of outermost five electrons of Phosphorous. (b) When Silicon is doped with Phosphorous. of atoms of B in the unit cell = 1/2 × 6 = 3 Hence. No.

(a) Hexagonal and monoclinic unit cell System No. γ=120° Graphite (b) Face centered and End centered unit cell Unit cell Face -centred At the corners as well as at the centre of each face. End. β ≠ 90° CaSO 4 . in which there is large difference in size of ions and have low coordination number.e. of atoms per unit cell 12 . It is shown by ionic compounds. Frenkel defect: It is due to missing of ions from the lattice site and these occupy interstitial sites. It is shown by ionic compounds in which cations and anions are of almost similar sizes and have high coordination number. 4 End centred At the corners and at the centre of two end faces 2 Position of lattice point No. It results in decrease in density of the crystal.centered a≠b≠c α = γ = 90°.g. Schottky defect: It is due to equal number of cations and anions are missing from the lattice site.g.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A7.e. of space lattice Possible variation Axial distances Axial angles Examples Monoclinic 2 Primitive. It does not change the density of crystal. . . . A8.2H 2 O Hexagonal 1 Primitive a=b≠c α = β= 90°.

3 g cm–3. the number of atoms per unit cell and density of chromium. spinal having the formula cubic close packing. what is concentration of cation 13 . the octahedral voids. oxide ions are arranged in the ions occupy ions occupy tetrahedral voids while (a) What percentage of tetrahedral voids occupied by (b) What percentage of octahedral voids occupied by Q3. How many atoms of the elements does 100 g of the element contain? Q6. .023 × ] Q5. [ At. oxide ions are arranged in hexagonal close packing and aluminum ions occupy two third of the octahedral voids. The density of the element is 5. mass of Au = 197 amu.The Solid State CHEMISTRY 2Marks: Short Answer Type Difficulty level: Difficult Q1. Calculate atomic radius. Mass of Cr = 52 g mol–1 and = 6. An element occur in BCC lattice with cell edge of 300 pm. What is the formula? Q2. N A = 6. In corundum. In mineral. [At. If NaCl is doped with 10–3 mol% of vacancies? . ions? ions? Metallic gold crystallizes in FCC lattice and has a density of 19.023 × 1023] Q4.2 g cm–3. Calculate the radius of gold atom. Chromium metal crystallizes with BCC lattice. The unit cell edge length is 287 pm.

Examine the illustration of a position of the defective crystal given below and answer the following questions that follow: (a) What are these types of vacancy defects called? (b) How is the density of a crystal affected by these defect? (c) Name one ionic compound which can show this type of defect in crystalline defect.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Q7. (d) How is the stoichiometric of the compound affected? 14 .

M = 52g mol–1 . of atoms per unit cell = 1 + 8 × = 287pm. one present in one of the eight tetrahedral voids. = . Density. there will be one ions are ccp arrangement. = × 100 = 50%. d = = N A = 6.8pm = A4. = = 67. For bcc lattice. there ion is =2:3 Hence. formula is A2.5% ions are present in two octahedral voids out of four available. = 4.78 × 10–24 = 407. if there are four oxide ions. (a) According to formula ion and two ions.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers: A1.27pm =2 No. Percentage of octahedral voids occupied by A3. Percentage of tetrahedral voids occupied by Mg2+ = (b) Two × 100 = 12. But if the four will be four octahedral voids and eight tetrahedral voids.2 pm × edge length = × 287 = 124. Thus. = = = 144. Atomic radius. Given.023 × 1023 . Suppose oxide ions = 90. Then octahedral voids = 90 ions = Ratio : × 90 = 60 = . 15 . .

Therefore.2g cm–3 d= = = 42. No.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A5.28 g of element contains 6. ions.023 × Hence. (a) Frenkel defect (b) Not affected (c) ZnS (d) Not affected 16 . Introduction of one replace two introduces one cation vacancy because one moles of . = 300 pm. d = 5. A7. introduction of per 100 moles of NaCl would introduce mole cation vacancies.023 × 1023 atoms 100 g of element would contain = A6. / 100 = = 6. Z = 2.28 42. of vacancies per mole of NaCl = vacancies.

(a) Define the coordination number.The Solid State CHEMISTRY 3 Marks: Short Answer Type Difficulty level: Easy and Average Q1. (b) 13-15 compounds. Q2. (a) Ferromagnetism (b) p-type semiconductor (c) Forbidden zone Q4. Explain each of the following with example. Explain the following (a) Diamond has a very high melting point. Its atomic radius is (a) How many atoms are present per unit cell? (b) What is the edge length of the unit cell? (c) How many such unit cells are there in a piece of aluminum? m. 17 . (b) What is the coordination number of atoms (i) in a hexagonal packed structure? (ii) In a body centred cubic structure? Q3. (c) Schottky defect lowers the density of a solid. Aluminum crystallizes in a FCC structure.

(b) (i) 12 (ii) 8 A3. (b) p-type semiconductor: when a tetravalent crystal of Si or Ge is doped with trivalent impurity atoms of a group – 13 elements. (c) Forbidden zone: In case of insulators. e. The semiconductor obtained is called p-type semiconductor.g. (a) In diamond. Co. Fe.. GaAs. the density is lowered. e. (a) Ferromagnetism: It is a permanent magnetism even in the absence of magnetic field. Ni.g. it creates holes and increases the electrical conductivity. carbon atoms are held by strongly covalent bonding and formed network structure. (b) A semiconductor formed by the combination of group 13 and group 15 elements. (a) The number of nearest neighbors with which a given sphere is in contact is known as coordination number. the energy gap between the fully filled valence band and conduction band is so large that electrons can not be easily 18 . (c) It is due to a missing positive ion as well as a negative ion in a crystal i. When they are placed in a magnetic field all the domains get oriented in the direction of magnetic field and produced a strong magnetic effect. Example: a pure Si crystal doped with an aluminum atoms form p-type semiconductor. InSb. A2.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers: A1. volume being the same.e.

The Solid State CHEMISTRY excited from valence band to the conduction band and hence. practically no conductivity is observed. The large gap is called forbidden zone. of unit cell in = 19 . A4. For fcc structure. (a) four (b) Radius of atom = Edge length = (c) Volume of unit cell = a3 = No.

Calculate the value of Avogadro constant. What is the coordination number of zinc? 20 . if density of NaCl is have distance between and in NaCl is 281pm. An element has a FCC structure with a cell edge of in . calculate the numbers of (Molar mass of iron oxide = and . zinc occupied tetrahedral voids. Q4. (c) The packing efficiency of the unit cell. If the ions present ) (b) In the crystal of ZnS. Q2. . Li crystallizes in BCC structure. (b) Radius of a Li atom. if of this element contains . Calculate its density atoms. (Molar mass of NaCl = ) and Q3.The Solid State CHEMISTRY 3 Marks: Short Answer Type Difficulty level: Difficult Q1. If the edge length of unit cell is 352 pm. calculate the followings: (a) Number of atoms per unit cell. (a) Iron (II) oxide has a cubic structure and each unit cell has edge density of oxide is in each unit cell.

of atoms per unit cell × no.5 g mol–1 For FCC structure of NaCl. Avogadro number. N A = Where. (a) Number of atoms per unit cell = 1/8 × 8 + 1 = 2 (b) = 352 pm. of unit cell × volume of unit cell = 6 × = 4.165 g cm–1 . For bcc. of unit cells = = =6× Volume of element = no. molecular mass of NaCl = 58. A2. of units cells No. =2× = 2 × 281 = 562 pm = 562 × cm ×8× d = 2.089 × 1023 21 .8cm3 = 41.8 cm3 Density = mass/ volume = 200 g/4. of atoms = no. 3 = = 8 × 10–24 =4 Total no. NA = A3.67g cm–3. Edge length = 200 pm = 2 × 10–8 cm Volume of unit cell = For fcc structure.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers: A1. =4 = 6.

Volume of spheres = Volume occupied spheres = x2= 4r = .416 pm (c) Packing efficiency of bcc. = = = 152. V= = = Packing efficiency = % %= % = 68% = 22 .The Solid State CHEMISTRY Radius.

z = = Each unit cell has four units of FeO. four Fe2+ and four O2– ions are present in each unit cell. = 4.18 Hence.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A4. (b) Four 23 . (a) Number of atoms per unit cell.

Q6. What is the coordination number of each of ions in a rock. Which point defect in crystals of solid decreases the density of solid? [CBSE 2010] 24 . [CBSE 2010] Q8. Which point defect in its crystal units alters the density of a solid? Which point defect in its crystal units increases the density of solid? [CBSE 2009] [CBSE 2009] Q7. Q4. [CBSE 2008] Q2.The Solid State CHEMISTRY B. Write a feature which will distinguish a metallic solid from an ionic solid. What type of substances exhibits antiferromagnetism? Which point defect in crystals does not alter the density of relevant solid? [CBSE 2009. Find out the number of atoms per unit cell in a face centred cubic structure having only single atoms at its lattice point. Previous Year Questions 1 Mark: Very Short Answer Type Q1.salt type crystal structure? [CBSE 2008] [CBSE 2008] Q3. 10] Q5.

A7. MnO. through electrons in solid metal and though ions in molten state or in solution in ionic solid/ metals are malleable and ductile whereas ionic solids are hard and brittle A8. but their domains are oppositely oriented and cancel out each other’s magnetic moments. Four 6:6 The substances like MnO showing antiferromagnetism have domain structure similar to ferromagnetic substances. A3.g. Frenkel defect Schottky defect Interstitial defect Mode of conduction. Schottky defect 25 . A5.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers A1. A4. A6. e. A2.

(i) Ferromagnetism (ii) Paramagnetism (iii) Ferrimagnetism Q4. Q3.The Solid State CHEMISTRY 3 Marks: –Short Answer Type Q1. Q2. [CBSE 2007] (iii) Some of very old glass objects appear slightly milky instead of being transparent. What is semiconductor? Describes the two main types of semiconductors and explain mechanism of their conduction. Iron has a bcc unit cell with cell edge of 286. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number (Atomic mass of Fe = 56 g mol–1) Q5.08 g mol–1) [CBSE 2010] 26 . [CBSE 2009] [CBSE 2008] [CBSE 2008] The well known mineral fluorite is chemically calcium fluoride. Explain the following properties giving suitable examples.18 g cm–3. (ii) Schottky defect lower the density of a solid. Use this information to calculate Avogadro’s number. the density of iron is 7. (Molar mass of CaF 2 = 78. The density of a solid is 3. The ions and that Ca2+ ions fill all the tetrahedral holes in the face centered cubic lattice of Ca2+ ions. It is known that in one unit cell of this mineral there are 4 Ca2+ ions and ions are arranged in a fcc lattice. The edge of the unit cell is 5. Assign reasons for the followings: (i) Phosphorus doped silicon is a semiconductor.65 pm.46 × 10–8 cm in length.87 g cm-3.

02 × 1023 mol–1) [CBSE 2010] 27 .54 g mol–1 and N A = 6.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Q6. a body centered cubic or face centered structure? (Given: At. Mass of Cu = 63. If the radius of copper atom is 127.95 g cm–3. is the copper unit cell a simple cubic.8 pm. The density of copper metal is 8.

The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers A1. because some covalent bonds break. 28 . mainly caused by the movement of electrons. The conductivity varies from 10–6 to 104 ohm–1m–1. A vacancy is left which can be filled by transfer of a valence electron from a neighbouring Si atom. n-type semiconductor: it is obtained by doping Si (an element of group -15) and phosphorus (which has 5 valence electrons). The conduction is. Semiconductor: A semiconductor is a solid that has a conductivity intermediate between that of a conductor and an insulator. Out of 5 valence electrons. (ii) Due to presence of holes or vacancies in the solid. They are two types: n type semiconductor and p type semiconductor. So. due to the presence of the negative charge such type of semiconductor is called n-type semiconductor. Due to absence of free electrons solids behave as insulators but at high temperature it can conduct electric current. Therefore. such type of semiconductor is called p-type semiconductor. 5th electron is not bound anywhere and can be easily promoted to the conduction band. The movement of positively charged hole is responsible for the conduction of charge. A2. (iii) Due to crystallisation in old glass objects. (i) Due to presence of free electrons on doping phosphorus. only 4 valence electrons are involved in bond formation. thus. these 3 valence electrons form three bonds with neighbouring Si atoms. The movement of the one electron into the vacancy leaves behind a hole which carries a positive charge. p-type semiconductor: it is obtained by doping Si (an element of group -13) and gallium (which has 3 valence electrons).

Fe+3. = 286. Ferrites.g. = 2 (for bcc) = 56 g mol–1 . When they are placed in a magnetic field all the domains get oriented in the direction of magnetic field and produced a strong magnetic effect. Fe. e. Co (ii) Paramagnetism: It is weakly attracted by magnetic field due to the presence of unpaired electrons which are magnetized in magnetic field in the same direction.04 × 1023 mol–1 29 . Given.g. (i) Ferromagnetism: It is permanent magnetism even in the absence of magnetic field.O 2. A4. e.g. It is observed when magnetic moments of domains are aligned in parallel and anti parallel directions in unequal number. Fe 3 O 4 .87 g cm-3 = = 6. (iii) Ferrimagnetism: It is weakly attracted by magnetic field as compared to ferromagnetic.e. Ni.87 g cm–3 .65 pm 7.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A3. Cu+2. = 7.

Given.18 g cm–3 = = 6.95 g cm–3 = =4 Hence unit cell is fcc. = 4 (for fcc) 3. =2 = =8× 8. = 4.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A5.723 × 10–23 cm3 30 .033 × 1023 mol–1 A6.

PVC. Q7. polyurethane. Must Do Questions Q1. Calculate atomic radius. What are the pseudo solids? Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Naphthalene. The unit cell edge length is 287 pm. Q5.023 × 1023] 31 . Solid A is very hard insulator in solid as well as in molten state and have extremely high melting point. Cellophane. Q6. Q2. What are F-centers? What is doping? Why does ZnO appear yellow on heating? State the difference between Schottky and Frenkel defects. Q8. [at. Q3. fiber glass. Which of these two changes of the density of the solid? Q9.centred and end centred unit cell Q10.The Solid State CHEMISTRY C. Distinguish between (a) Hexagonal and monoclinic unit cell (b) Face. mass of Cr = 52 g mol–1 and N A = 6. Chromium metal crystallizes with BCC lattice. Name one solid in which both Frankel and Schottky defects occur. the number of atoms per unit cell and density of chromium. silver. Teflon. What type of solid is it? Q4.

(Molar mass of iron oxide = 72 g mol–1. having the formula MgAl 2 O 4 . calculate the numbers of Fe2+ and O2– ions present in each unit cell. Mg2+ ions occupy tetrahedral voids while Al3+ ions occupy the tetrahedral voids. (b) Radius of a Li atom. 32 . Iron (II) oxide has a cubic structure and each unit cell has edge 5 . If the edge length of unit cell is 352 pm. Li crystallizes in BCC structure. (c) The packing efficiency of the unit cell. calculate the followings: (a) Number of atoms per unit cell.02 × 1023) Q13. (a) What percentage of tetrahedral voids occupied by Mg2+ ions? (b) What percentage of octahedral voids occupied by Al3+ ions? Q12. N A = 6. In mineral. If the density of oxide is 4 g cm–3.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Q11. spinel. oxide ions are arranged in the cubic close packing.

most of the metals become super conductors? The energy required to vaporize one mol of copper is smaller than that of energy required to vaporize one mol of diamond. Q5. Q4. HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills) Q1. How many unit cells are present in a cube shaped ideal crystal of 1g of NaCl? Assign reasons for the following: (a) Sodium metal is soft whereas sodium chloride is hard. Q6. Why? 33 . CsCl is quite stable. (b) Among NaCl and CsCl. What causes the conduction of electricity in semiconductor? At what temperature range. Q2. Analysis shows that nickel oxide has the formula Ni. Q7. Name a liquefied metal which expands on solidification.The Solid State CHEMISTRY D.98O1.00. What fractions of nickel exist as Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions? Q3.

liquefied at room temperature.57 × 1021 34 . Ni.023 × 1023 / 58. Mass of 1 unit cell = volume × density = ³×d = = No.5 × 4 = 2. Gallium (Ga) is a silvery white metal.The Solid State CHEMISTRY Answers: A1.1% on solidification.98 Ni3+ = (100 – 96) % = 4% A3.94 × 100 = 96% Therefore Ni2+ % = 0.94 0. It expands by 3. of unit cells in 1 gm = 1/Mass of 1 unit cell = 6. [2 (Ni2+) + 3 (Ni3+) – 2 (O2–)] = 0 2 + 3 (0.98 – Total charge on compound is equal to zero.98 – ) – 2 = 0 = 0.98O1. A2.00 Let Ni2+ be and Ni3+ be 0.

A7. A5. Metallic bonds are weaker than covalent bonds and thus less amount of energy is required to break metallic bonds than covalent bonds.The Solid State CHEMISTRY A4. Metallic bonds are weaker than ionic bonds. 35 . (a) Sodium metal is metallic solid whereas sodium chloride is ionic solid. Electrons and holes cause the conduction of electricity in semiconductor. Copper is a metallic solid having metallic bonds while diamond is a covalent solid having covalent bonds. 2 to 5 K (at very low temperature). A6. (b) Higher coordination number of Cs is 8 in CsCl.

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