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96 Dodge Ram Truck SM

96 Dodge Ram Truck SM

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9

SERVICE MANUAL
RAM TRUCK
1500 - 3500

2 WHEEL 4 WHEEL

DRIVE DRIVE
VOL.1 00-08

9

SERVICE MANUAL
RAM TRUCK
1500 - 3500

2 WHEEL 4 WHEEL

DRIVE DRIVE
VOL.2 09-25

CHRYSLER CORPORATION
SERVICE MANUAL 1996 RAM T R U C K 1500 - 3500
To order the special service tools used and illustrated, please refer to the instructions on inside back cover.

^CHRYSLER
mSf C O R P O R A T I O N

NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED, STORED IN A RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, OR TRANSMITTED, IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC, MECHANICAL, PHOTOCOPYING, RECORDING, OR OTHERWISE, WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF CHRYSLER CORPORATION.

Chrysler Corporation reserves the right to m k changes in design or to ae m k additions to or improvements in its products without imposing any obli­ ae gations upon itself to install them on its products previously manufactured.

Litho in U.S.A. Copyright © 1995 Chrysler Corporation 20M0995

FOREWORD

The information contained in this service manual has been prepared for the professional automotive tech­ nician involved in daily repair operations. This manual does not cover theory of operation, which is addressed in service training material. Information describing the operation and use of standard and optional equipment is included in the Owner's Manual provided with the vehicle. Information in this manual is divided into groups. These groups contain general information, diagnosis, testing, adjustments, removal, installation, disassembly, and assembly procedures for the systems and compo­ nents. To assist in locating a group title page, use the Group Tab Locator on the following page. The solid bar after the group title is aligned to a solid tab on the first page of each group. The first page of the group has a contents section that lists major topics within the group. I f you are not sure which Group contains the infor­ mation you need, look up the Component/System in the alphabetical index located in the rear of this manual. A Service Manual Comment form is included at the rear of this manual. Use the form to provide Chrysler Corporation with your comments and suggestions. Tightening torques are provided as a specific value throughout this manual. This value represents the midpoint of the acceptable engineering torque range for a given fastener application. These torque values are intended for use in service assembly and installation procedures using the correct OEM fasteners. When replacing fasteners, always use the same type (part number) fastener as removed. Chrysler Corporation reserves the right to change testing procedures, specifications, diagnosis, repair methods, or vehicle wiring at any time without prior notice or incurring obligation.

GROUP TAB LOCATOR
Introduction Lubrication and Maintenance 2 Suspension Differential and Driveline Brakes Clutch 7 8A 8B 8C 8D 8E 8F 8G 8H 8J 8K 8L 8M Cooling System Battery Starting Systems Charging System Ignition System Instrument Panel Systems Audio Systems Horn Systems Vehicle Speed Control System Turn Signal and Hazard Warning Systems Wiper and Washer Systems Lamps Passive Restraint Systems Power Door Locks Power Seat Systems Power Window Systems Power Mirror Systems Chime/Buzzer Warning Systems Overhead Console Systems Wiring Diagrams Engine Exhaust System and Intake Manifold Frame and Bumpers Fuel System Steering Transmission and Transfer Case Tires and Wheels Body Heating and Air Conditioning Emission Control Systems Component and System Index life!

8P
8R 8S 8T 8U 8V 8W Q j 1 j 3 14 j 9

21
22 23 24 25

Hi

Service Manual Comment Forms

(Rear of Manual)

BR

INTRODUCTION

1

INTRODUCTION
CONTENTS
page page

GENERAL INFORMATION BODY CODE PLATE . 2 EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION PLATE . . . . . . . . . 3 FASTENER IDENTIFICATION 7 INTERNATIONAL VEHICLE CONTROL AND GENERAL INFORMATION

DISPLAY SYMBOLS METRIC SYSTEM VEHICLE DIMENSIONS VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER . . . . . . . . . VEHICLE SAFETY CERTIFICATION LABEL . . . . .

3 10 3 1 2

VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) plate is located on the lower windshield fence near the left A-pillar (Fig. 1). The V I N contains 17 characters that provide data concerning the vehicle. Refer to the V I N decoding chart to determine the identification of a vehicle. The Vehicle Identification Number is also imprinted on the: • Body Code Plate. ® Equipment Identification Plate. • Vehicle Safety Certification Label. • Frame rail.

To protect the consumer from theft and possible fraud the manufacturer is required to include a Check Digit at the ninth position of the Vehicle Iden­ tification Number. The check digit is used by the manufacturer and government agencies to verify the authenticity of the vehicle and official documenta­ tion. The formula to use the check digit is not released to the general public.

Fig. 1 Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)

Location

INTRODUCTION G E N E R A L INFORMATION
POSITION 1 2 3

BR (Continued)
INTERPRETATION Country of Origin Make Vehicle Type 4 5 6 7 = = = = CODE = D E S C R I P T I O N 1 = United States 3 = Mexico B = ^odge Multipurpose Passenger Bus Incomplete Truck

4

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating

H = 6001-7000 J = 7001-8000 K = 8001-9000 L = 9001-10,000 M = 10,001-14,000 W = Hydraulic Brakes C = Ram Cab Chassis/Ram Pick Up (4x2) F = Ram Cab Chassis/Ram Pick Up (4x4) 1 = 1500 2 = 2500 3 = 3500 3 = Club Cab 6 = Conventional Cab Cab Chassis C = 5.9L 6cyl. Diesel

5 6

Vehicle Line Series

7 8

Body Style Engine

W = 8.0L 10 cyl. MPI
X Y Z 5 9 10 11 Check Digit Model Year Plant Location T = 1996 J = St. Louis North S = Dodge City G = Saltillo M = Lago Alberto Assembly = = = = 3.9L 5.2L 5.9L 5.9L 6 cyl. MPI 8 cyl. MPI 8 cyl. MPI-LDC 8cyl. MPI-HDC

12 thru 17

Vehicle Build Sequence

VEHICLE SAFETY CERTIFICATION LABEL A certification label is attached to the left side B-pillar (Fig. 2). The label certifies that the vehicle conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). The label also lists the: • Month and year of vehicle manufacture. • Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The gross front and rear axle weight ratings (GAWR's) are based on a minimum rim size and maximum cold tire inflation pressure. • Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). • Type of vehicle. • Type of rear wheels. • Bar code. • Paint Code. • Month, Day and Hour (MDH) of final assembly.

BODY CODE PLATE The Body Code Plate is located on the floor pan under the passenger seat (Fig. 3). There can be a maximum of seven rows of vehicle information imprinted on the plate. The information should be read from left to right, starting with line 1 at the bottom of the plate up through line 7 (as applicable) at the top of the code plate. Refer to the decoding chart to decode lines 1 up through 3. Lines 4 through 7 (if used) on the vehicle code plate are imprinted on the plate (in sequence) accord­ ing to the following: • 3-character sales code.

BR G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued)
flFD B Y
C R SE H YLR DT O m AE F

INTRODUCTION

3

C R O AI N O P RT O MM 88488 L 2903 K B G RS M I ft? PI CO S O GR FOT P RN t f UI T E 1H R S I 3309 L 149? K B G P235/75R15KL 1 X GiHD 5 35 MS ft! PSI CL O D m m WH !!KS T I 3850 L 1747 K B G P235/75R15XL 1 X BiHD 5 41 T O L T I U H L C HOS !0 AL A PC BE FDRL UH J CE WW H E CE O F P S I lt L P L A L E E AR E I I E F C O TE DT O I F E I H H AE F y ABOVE. n SINGLE X D H OL VE R C II II!I I I I I T P : T U K

xxx xxx

)H:

l i U l i HI PtH : U UH I L HD IN f T S E CE AE I P

TIM«

4G4B<* 8020cd69

5

Fig. 2 Vehicle Safety Certification
PRIMARY SECONDARY

Label—Typical
VINYL ROOF

I f there is not enough space left in the row for all of the 6-digit SEC code (if used): • The unused space will remain blank. • The code will be listed in the next row. The last nine positions of row 7 will contain a 2-digit code, when applicable, and a 6-digit gateline serial number (same as the last 6 numbers of the VIN). The last code imprinted on a vehicle code plate will be followed by the imprinted word END. When two vehicle code plates are required, the last available spaces on the first plate will be imprinted with the letters CTD (for continued). When a second vehicle code plate is necessary, the first four spaces on each row will not be used because of the plate overlap. EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION PLATE The Equipment Identification Plate (Fig. 4) is located at the left, front of the inner hood panel. The plate lists information concerning the vehicle as fol­ lows: • The model. • The wheelbase. • The VIN (Vehicle Identification Number). • The T.O.N, (order number). • The optional and special equipment installed on the vehicle. Refer to the information listed on the plate when ordering replacement parts.
r

PAINT

PAINT
I

CODE

VEHICLE ORDERNUMBER X XX) X X (3) X X > X X X X X xxxxxx PAINTX X PROCEDURE (2) X X xxxx xxxx xxxx X X

VEHICLE

MODEL -NUMBER ENGINE -CODE -INTERIOR TRIM CODE

0) XXX X

XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX

TRANSMISSION VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION CODE J NUMBER MARKET U-C-B-M CODE 90IN-3 Fig. 3 Body Code Plate

Qmmsi
MODELS

EQUIPMENT

!Dem¥iE^
\ ^ . \ . DESCRIPTION

BODY CODE
Line #1 D i g i t Digit Digit Digit Digit Line #2 D i g i t Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit Digit 1-3 4 5 6 7-23 1-3 4 5-8 9 10-13 14 15-18 19 20-22 23

DECODING

V.I.N. DESCRIPTION CODE N O .

CODE N O .

Transmission Sales Code Open Space Market Code - U-C-B-M Open Space Vehicle I d e n t i f i c a t i o n No. Paint Procedure Open Space Primary Paint Open Space Secondary Paint Open Space Trim Code Open Space Engine Sales Code Open Space —u Fig. 4 Equipment Identification Plate

VEHICLE DIMENSIONS The Vehicle Dimension charts provides the dimen­ sions for each type of Ram truck. INTERNATIONAL VEHICLE CONTROL AND DISPLAY SYMBOLS The graphic symbols illustrated in the following chart are used to identify various instrument con­ trols. The symbols correspond to the controls and dis­ plays that are located on the instrument panel.

Line #3 D i g i t 1-12 Vehicle Order Number D i g i t 13 Open Space D i g i t 14-16 Vinyl Roof Code CDoor Combo Code - P i l l e t t e ) D i g i t 17 Open Space D i g i t 18-23 Model
J901N-20

• 3-digit numerical code. • 6-digit SEC code.

4

INTRODUCTION (Continued)
exterior dimensions—STD cab

G E N E R A L INFORMATION

vehicle

2500/

1500/ A

e € D
1
¥

8

H

i
J

Wheelbase Box Length (feet) Ground Clearance (Empty) —Front —Rear Overall Length —Without rear bumper —With rear bumper Overall Height (Empty) Overall Width —At Front Wheel Lip Track —Front —Rear Tailgate Load Height Overhang—Front Overhang—Rear
—Without Rear Bumper

1500 1 19" 4x4135" 6.5 8.0

135"

3500/ 3500 4x4 135"
8.0

9.7/8.1 10.0/8.1 10.1/9.8 ! 1 0 . 1 7 9 J ! 199.9 204.1
1

10.1/8.1

10.1/9.3 220.1 224.3 73.7/78.0 79.4 68.6 68.0 31.5/35.6 37.9 47.6
51.7

7 7/'. 1 2 7 1 ..77

220.1 224.3

7 2 . 1 / 7 5 . 9 72.1/75.9

220.1 224.3 7777:7
79.5
1

70.4 68.5

79.4

68,5 68.0 3 7 2 / 3 5 . 6 31.5/35.6 3 ^ 37.9 47.6 47.6 51.7 107.4

63.6 73.0

31.4/35.6 37.9 47.6
5 77

f€

I

—With Rear Bumper Back Of Cab To Rear Bumper Front Bumper To
Back O f Cab

r

51.7

87.2

107.4

77,-

1

Approach M Breakover 0 Departure 93.5 at cargo

116.9 116.9 116.9 " \ \v Angle (Degrees} 25.3/29 7 25.3/29.7 25.3/29.7 "25.3/29.7 1 : 7.8/2 7 0 I 17.8/21.0 7-' •; : Angle (Degrees] Angle (Degrees) 1 0 7 6 / 3 5 . 2 ^ 3 0 ^ 5 6 . 2 3 0 . 6 / 3 o . 2 ~ 30.6/36.2 box.
1 1

J941N-25

G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued)
VEHICLE EXTERIOR DIMENSIONS—CLUE CAB

1500/ 15004x4 A 1 C Wheelbase Box Length (Feet) Ground Clearance—(Empty) —Front —Rear D Overall Length —Without rear bumper —With rear bumper E f G Overall Height (Empty) Overall Width Of Cab Track —?rorii —Rear H I J Tailgate Load Height Overhang—Front Overhang;—Rear —Without rear bumper —With rear bumper K Back of Cab To Rear Bumper Front Bumper To Back Of Cab Approach Angle (Degrees) Breakover Angle (Degrees) Depariure Angle (Degrees) .a.s 475 87.1 136.9 47.5 51.5 220.1 224.0 240.1 244.0 87/8.5 7.5/7.7 8.6/8.5 7.5/7.7 139" 6.5 155" 8.0

2500/ 25004x4 139" 8.0 155" 6.5 9.8/9.1 8.6 240.1 244.0

3500/ 3500 4x4 155" 8.0 9.8/8.1 8.6

9.9/9.0 8.6 220.1 224.0

240.1 244.0

71.6/74.6 7).5/74.5 72.9/77.2 72.8/77.1 72.8/77.2 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4 79.4 69.8 73.0

66.9/68.5 66.9/68.5 68.6/68.9 68.6/68.9 66.9 667 68 0 68.0

31.3/33.9 31 3/34.4 34.4/37.3 33.3/37.2 33.8/37.8 37.9 37.9 37.9 37.9 37.9 5 51.5 ' 107.1 136/'

A7.5 51.5

43.5 47.5 87.1 136.9

107.1 ! 107.1 136.9 • 36.9 ;

L M
N 0

25.1/30.6 25.2/30.6 .267/33.7 26.8/33.8 26.3/33/ 16.7/18.4 15.8/17.1 19.2/23.0 18.1/21.3 18.0/2i/i 23.8/26.9 21.8/247 26.0/31.0 24.1/28.4 24.6/28.9

(1) 93.3 at cargo box with dual-rear wheels. Note: All dimensions in inches unless otherwise noted.

J95IN-26

6

INTRODUCTION

BR

G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued)
VEHICLE EXTERIOR DIMENSIONS—CHASSIS C A B

EXTERIOR
4x2 Model HD 135 55.7 216.7 72.4 . 79.4 Models

4x4
2500 HD 135 55.7 216.7 75.9 79.4 68.9 68.0 58.0 78.0 37.9

models
3500 DRW 139 59.7 220.7 77.2 3500

mm mw
139 59.7 220.7 77.3

35§§ mw
163 83.7 244.7 77.1

mw
163 83.7 244.7 77.1 94.6 69.8 73.0 51.4 94.6 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.2 31.7

A i C D E
F

Wheelbase

Cab To Axle Overall Length
Overall Height (Empty) Overall Width

94.6
69.8 73.0 51.4

94.6
69.8 73.0 51.4 94.6 37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.1 31.7

94.6
69.8 73.0 51.4

Track —Front —Rear
Rear Track, Inside Rear Track, Outside
Overhang—Front

68.6
68.0 58.0 78.0 37.9

G H 1

94.6
37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.3 31.7

94.6
37.9 44.1 79.0 52.9 34.3 31.7

J
K L M N O

Axle To End Of Frame Center Of Front Wheel To Back Of Cab Frame To Top Of Cab Top Of Frame To Ground Inside Width Between Frame Rails Outside Width Between Frame Rails
Front Bumper To Back

44.1
79.0 52.9

44.1
79.0 52.9 34.0 31.7

29.6
31.7

/ n n anr/3HD

n n \

37.6 116.9
NA 10.1 8.5

37.6
116.9

37.6
116.9

37.6
116.9 NA 8.1 8.4

37.6
116.9

37.6
116.9 NA 8.6 9.0

P
Q R

Of Cab Front Of Dash To lack Of Cab
Ground Clearance

NA
15.2
9.0

NA
15.2
9.0

NA 8.6
9.0

—Front —Rear

NOTE: A l l dimensions are ininches unless noted. DRW = Dual-rear wheel. N A = N o t available at time of printing. J94IN-27

BR — — —

INTRODUCTION

7

G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued)
I N T E R N A T I O N A L C O N T R O L A N D DISPLAY SYMBOLS

10
HIGH BEAM

$0
FOG UGHTS

HEADLIGHTS, PARKING LIGHTS, PANEL LIGHTS

*

A
TURN SIGNAL HAZARD WARNING WINDSHIELD WASHER

WINDSHIELD WIPER

WINDSHIELD WIPER AND WASHER

WINDSCREEN DEMISTING AND DEFROSTING

<W
VENTILATING FAN REAR WINDOW DEFOGGER REAR WINDOW WIPER

tD
i REAR WINDOW WASHER

B
FUEL ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE

£3
BATTERY CHARGING CONDITION ENGINE OIL SEAT BELT

(©)
BRAKE FAILURE PARKING BRAKE FRONT HOOD REAR HOOD (TRUNK)

ky
HORN INCH 5/16-18 THREAD MAJOR DIAMETER IN INCHES NUMBER OF THREADS PER INCH

> i

... i

UGHTtR J95IN-23

FASTENER IDENTIFICATION
THREAD IDENTIFICATION

METRIC M8 X 1.25 THREAD MAJOR DIAMETER IN MILLIMETERS DISTANCE BETWEEN THREADS IN MILLIMETERS

SAE and metric bolt/nut threads are not the same. The difference is described in the Thread Notation chart (Fig. 5).
GRADE/CLASS IDENTIFICATION

The SAE bolt strength grades range from grade 2 to grade 8. The higher the grade number, the greater the bolt strength. Identification is determined by the line marks on the top of each bolt head. The actual bolt strength grade corresponds to the number of line marks plus 2. The most commonly used metric bolt strength classes are 9.8 and 12.9. The metric strength class identification number is imprinted on the head of the bolt. The higher the class number,

PR606B Fig. 5 Thread Notation—SAE and Metric

the greater the bolt strength. Some metric nuts are imprinted with a single-digit strength class on the nut face. Refer to the Fastener Identification and Fastener Strength Charts.

8

INTRODUCTION

_ (Continued) FASTENER IDENTIFICATION

GENERAL

INFORMATION

bolt Markings and Torque - Metric Commercial Steel Class 8.8

10.9

12.9

Body Size Diam. mm 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 Cast Iron N»m 9 14 25 40 70 115 180 230

Torque Aluminum ft-lb 7 11 18 30 55 90 140 180 4 7 14 25 40 65 100 135 14 18 32 60 105 160 240 320 Cast Iron ft-lb 5 9 18 30 55 85 130 170

Torque Aluminum N®m 11 14 25 45 80 125 190 250 ft-lb 7 11 18 35 60 95 135 185 14 23 36 70 125 195 290 400 ft-lb 9 14 23 45 75 120 175 240

Torque Cast Iron ft-lb 9 18 27 50 95 145 210 290 Aluminum N»m 11 18 28 55 100 150 220 310 ft-lb 7 14 21 40 75 110 165 230

Bolt Markings and Torque Values - U.S. Customary SAE Grade Number Bolt Head Markings These are all SAE Grade 5 (3) line 5 8

Bolt Torque - Grade 5 Bolt Body Size 1/4 -20 - 28 5/16 - 18 - 24 3/8 - 16 - 24 7/16 - 14 -20 1/2 - 13 -20 9/16 - 12 - 18 5/8-11 - 18 3/4 - 10 - 16 7/8 -9 - 14 1 -8 - 14 9 12 20 23 40 40 60 65 95 100 135 150 180 210 325 365 490 530 720 800 Cast Iron ft-lb 7 9 15 17 30 30 45 50 70 75 100 110 135 155 240 270 360 390 530 590 Al uminum N®m 8 9 16 19 25 35 45 55 75 80 110 115 150 160 255 285 380 420 570 650 1Mb 6 7 12 14 20 25 35 40 55 60 80 85 no 120 190 210 280 310 420 480

Bolt Torque - Grade 8 Bolt Cast Iron 15 18 30 33 55 60 90 95 130 150 190 210 255 290 460 515 745 825 1100 1200 ft-lb 11 13 22 24 40 45 65 70 95 110 140 155 190 215 340 380 550 610 820 890 Aluminum 12 14 24 25 40 45 65 75 100 120 150 170 205 230 365 410 600 660 890 960 ft-lb 9 10 18 19 30 35 50 55 75 90 110 125 150 170 270 300 440 490 660 710

95IN-6

BR G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued)
FASTENER
HOW TO DETERMINE BOLT STRENGTH Mark Hexagon head bolt / \ Bolt Class Mark Stud bolt

INTRODUCTION

9

STRENGTH

Class

A— 5—
6 —

4T

5T

6T
7T

jfY^^headNo.

7—

8T
9T

lOll —

10T

y

No mark 4T

1 IT

j^^^^j
Hexagon flange bolt w / washer hexagon bolt

No mark

4T

((^^j)

No mark

4T

Grooved

61
Hexagon head bolt j 1

TWO

51

protruding lines

Hexagon flange bolt
T w o

j.

61

Welded bolt

w / washer hexagon bolt

1

J

protruding lines

Hexagon head bolt

f^f%
IL? ^ j j

T h r e e

protruding lines

71 41

Hexagon head bolt

f f ^ l |L> J J

° protruding lines

F

U r

8T

95IN-4

10

INTRODUCTION

BR

G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) METRIC SYSTEM
Mega (M) Million (K) Thousand Milli

Deci
Centi (m) Thousandth

(D) Tenth (C) Hundreth

WARNING; USE OF AN INCORRECT FASTENER MAY RESULT IN COMPONENT DAMAGE OR PER­ SONAL INJURY.

Kilo

Figure art, specifications and torque references in this Service Manual are identified in metric and SAE format. During any maintenance or repair procedures, it is important to salvage metric fasteners (nuts, bolts, etc.) for reassembly. I f the fastener is not salvage­ able, a fastener of equivalent specification should be used. The metric system is based on quantities of one, ten, one hundred, one thousand and one million (Fig. 6). The following chart will assist in converting metric units to equivalent English and SAE units, or vise versa.

J901N-2

Fig, 6 Metric Prefixes

Refer to the Conversion Chart to convert torque values listed in metric Newton- meters (N-m). Also, use the chart to convert between millimeters (mm) and inches (in.)

CONVERSION Multiply
in-lbs ft-lbs Inches Hg (60°F) psi Inches Feet Yards Miles

FORMULAS

AND EQUIVALENT Multiply
N*m
kPa kPa

VALUES By
x 8.851 x 0.7376 x 0.2961 x 0.145 x x x x 0.03937 3.281 1.0936 0.6214

By
x 0.11298 x 1.3558 x 3.377 x 6.895

ToGaf
Newton-Meters (N*m) Newton-Meters (N*m) Kilopascafs (kPa) = Kilopascals (kPa) Millimeters (mm) Meters (M) Meters (M) = Kilometers (Km) ss ss S B = Kilometers/Hr. (Km/h) Meters/Sec. (M/S) Meters/Sec. (M/S) Meters/Sec. (M/S)

To Get
= in-lbs = ft-lbs = Inches Hg - psi = = = = = = = s Inches Feet Yards Miles mph Feet/Sec. Kilometers/Hr. mph

x 25.4
x 0.3048 x 0.9144 x 1.6093 x x x x 1.6093 0.3048 0.27778 0.4470

mm
M M

Km
Km/h M/S M/S M/S

mph
Feet/Sec. Kilometers/Hr. mph

x 0.6214 x 3.281 x 3.600

x 2.237

COMMON METRIC EQUIVALENTS
1 1 1 1 Inch = 25 Millimeters Foot = 0.3 Meter Yard = 0.9 Meter Mile =1.6 Kilometers 1 Cubic Inch 1 Cubic Foot 1 Cubic Yard = 16 Cubic Centimeters = 0.03 Cubic Meter = 0.8 Cubic Meter

J91IN-1

BR —

— — _ _ _ _ _

INTRODUCTION

11

G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) METRIC in-lbs to N»m
i n - lb 2 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 N«m .2260 .4519 .6779 .9039 1.1298 1.3558 1.5818 1.8077 2.0337 2.2597 2.4856 2.7116 2.9376 3.1635 3.3895 3.6155 3.8414 4.0674 4.2934 4.5193 in-lb 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 N®m 4.7453 4.9713 5.1972 5.4232 5.6492 5.8751 6.1011 6.3270 6.5530 6.7790 7.0049 7.2309 7.4569 7.6828 7.9088 8.1348 8.3607 8.5867 8.8127 9.0386 in-lb 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 N»m 9.2646 9.4906 9.7165 9.9425 10.1685 10.3944 10.6204 10.8464 11.0723 11.2983 11.5243 11.7502 11.9762 12.2022 12.4281 12.6541 12.8801 13.1060 13.3320 13.5580 in-lb 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 N®m 13.7839 14.0099 14.2359 14.4618 14.6878 14.9138 15.1397 15.3657 15.5917 15.8176 16.0436 16.2696 16.4955 16.7215 16.9475 17.1734 17.3994 17.6253 17.8513 18.0773 in-lb 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 N®m 18.3032 18.5292 18.7552 18.9811 19.2071 19.4331 19.6590 19.8850 20.1110 20.3369 20.5629 20.7889 21.0148 21.2408 21.4668 21.6927 21.9187 22.1447 22.3706 22.5966 N m .2 .4 .6 .8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4
0

CONVERSION N»m to in-lbs
in-lb 1.7702 3.5404 5.3107 7.0809 8.8511 10.6213 12.3916 14.1618 15.9320 17.7022 19.4725 21.2427 23.0129 24.7831 26.5534 28.3236 30.0938 31.8640 33.6342 35.4045 N©m 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8 in-lb 37.1747 38.9449 40.7152 42.4854 44.2556 46.0258 47.7961 49.5663 51.3365 53.1067 54.8770 56.6472 58.4174 60.1876 61.9579 63.7281 65.4983 67.2685 69.0388 70.80% N®m 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 10 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11 11.2 11.4 11.6 11.8 12 in-lb 72.5792 74.3494 76.1197 77.8899 79.6601 81.4303 83.2006 84.9708 86.7410 88.5112 90.2815 92.0517 93.8219 95.5921 97.3624 99.1326 100.9028 102.6730 104.4433 106.2135 N®m 12.2 12.4 12.6 12.8 13 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.8 14 14.2 14.4 14.6 14.8 15 15.2 15.4 15.6 15.8 16 in-lb 107.9837 109.7539 111.5242 113.2944 115.0646 116.8348 118.6051 120.3753 122.1455 123.9157 125.6860 127.4562 129.2264 130.9966 132.7669 134.5371 136.3073 138.0775 139.8478 141.6180 N°m 16.2 16.4 16.6 16.8 17 17.2 17.4 17.6 17.8 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 22 23 24 25 in-lb 143.3882 145.1584 146.9287 148.6989 150.4691 152.2393 154.0096 155.7798 157.5500 159.3202 163.7458 168.1714 172.5970 177.0225 181.4480 185.8736 194.7247 203.5759 212.4270 221.2781

4

ft-lbs to N®m
ft-lb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 N©m 1.3558 2.7116 4.0675 5.4233 6.7791 8.1349 9.4907 10.8465 12.2024 13.5582 14.9140 16.2698 17.6256 18.9815 20.3373 21.6931 23.0489 24.4047 25.7605 27.1164 ft-lb 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 N«m 28.4722 29.8280 31.1838 32.5396 33.8954 35.2513 36.6071 37.9629 39.3187 40.6745 42.0304 43.3862 44.7420 46.0978 47.4536 48.8094 50.1653 51.5211 52.8769 54.2327

N®m to ft-lbs
N m
e

ft-lb
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

N«m 55.5885 56.9444 58.3002 59.6560 61.0118 62.3676 63.7234 65.0793 66.4351 67.7909 69.1467 70.5025 71.8583 73.2142 74.5700 75.9258 77.2816 78.6374 79.9933 81.3491

ft-lb 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

ft-lb

N®m 109.8212 111.1770 112.5328 113.8888 115.2446 116.6004 117.9562 119.3120 120.6678 122.0236 123.3794 124.7352 126.0910 127.4468 128.8026 130.1586 131.5144 132.8702 134.2260 135.5820

N»m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 .13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

ft-lb .7376 1.4751 2.2127 2.9502 3.6878 4.4254 5.1629 5.9005 6.6381 7.3756 8.1132 8.8507 9.5883 10.3259 11.0634 11.8010 12.5386 13.2761 14.0137 14.7512

N®m 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

ft-lb 15.9888 16.2264 16.9639 17.7015 18.4391 19.1766 19.9142 20.6517 21.3893 22.1269 22.8644 23.6020 24.3395 25.0771 25.8147 26.5522 27.2898 28.0274 28.7649 29.5025

N®m 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

ft-lb
30.2400 30.9776 31.7152 32.4527 33.1903 33.9279 34.6654 35.4030 36.1405 36.8781 37.6157 38.3532 39.0908 39.8284 40.5659 41.3035 42.0410 42.7786 43.5162 44.2537

N«m 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

ft-lb 44.9913 45.7289 46.4664 47.2040 47.9415 48.6791 49.4167 50.1542 50.8918 51.6293 52.3669 53.1045 53.8420 54.5720 55.3172 56.0547 56.7923 57.5298 58.2674 59.0050

N®m 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

ft-lb 59.7425 60.4801 61.2177 61.9552 62.6928 63.4303 64.1679 64.9545 65.6430 65.38% 67.1181 67.8557 68.5933 69.3308 70.0684 70.8060 71.5435 72.2811 73.0187 73.7562

82.7049 81 84.0607 82 85.4165 83 86.7723 84 88.1281 85 89.4840 86 90.8398 87 92.1956 88 93.5514 89 94.9073 90 96.2631 91 97.6189 92 98.9747 93 100.3316 94 101.6862 95 103.0422 96 104.3980 97 105.7538 98 107.1196 99 106.4654 100

in. to m m
in. .01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .18 .19 .20 mm .254 .508 .762 1.016 1.270 1.524 1.778 2.032 2.286 2.540 2.794 3.048 3.302 3.556 3.810 4.064 3.318 4.572 4.826 5.080 in. .21 .22 .23 .24 .25 .26 .27 .28 .29 .30 .31 .32 .33 .34 .35 .36 .37 .38 .39 .40 mm 5.334 5.588 5.842 6.096 6.350 6.604 6.858 7.112 7.366 7.620 7.874 8.128 8.382 8.636 8.890 9.144 9.3% 9.652 9.906 10.160 in. .41 .42 .43 .44 .45 .46 .47 .48 .49 .50 .51 .52 .53 .54 .55 .56 .57 .58 .59 .60 mm 10.414 10.668 10.922 11.176 11.430 11.684 11.938 12.192 12.446 12.700 12.954 13.208 13.462 13.716 13.970 14.224 14.478 14.732 14.986 15.240 in. .61 .62 .63 .64 .65 .66 .67 .68 .69 .70 .71 .72 .73 .74 .75 .76 .77 .78 .79 .80 mm 15.494 16.002 16.256 16.510 16.764 17.018 17.272 17.526 17.780 18.034 18.288 18.542 18.796 19.050 19.304 19.558 19.812 20.066 20.320 in. .81 .82 .83 .84 .85 .86 .87 .88 .89 .90 .91 .92 .93 .94 .95 .96 .97 .98 mm 20.574 20.828 21.082 21.336 21.590 21.844 22.098 22.352 22.606 22.860 23.114 23.368 23.622 23.876 24.130 24.384 24.638 24.892 25.146 25.400 mm .01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .18 .19 .20 in. .00039 .00079 .00118 .00157 .00197 .00236 .00276 .00315 .00354 .00394 .00433 .00472 .00512 .00551 .00591 .00630 .00669 .00709 .0)748 .00787 mm .21 .22 .23 .24 .25 .26 .27 .28 .29 .30 .31 .32 .33 .34 .35 .36 .37 .38 .39 .40 in. .00827 .00866 .00906 .00945 .00984 .01024 .01063 .01102 .01142 .01181 .01220 .01260 .01299 .01339 .01378 .01417 .01457 .01496 .01535 .01575

mm to in.
mm .41 .42 .43 .44 .45 .46 .47 .48 .49 .50 .51 .52 .53 .54 .55 .56 .57 .58 .59 .60 in. .01614 .01654 .01693 .01732 .01772 .01811 .01850 .01890 .01929 .01969 .02008 .02047 .02087 .02126 .02165 .02205 .02244 .02283 .02323 .02362 mm .61 .62 .63 .64 .65 .66 .67 .68 .69 .70 .71 .72 .73 .74 .75 .76 .77 .78 .79 .80 in. .02402 .02441 .02480 .02520 .02559 .02598 .02638 .02677 .02717 .02756 .02795 .02835 .02874 .02913 .02953 .02992 .03032 .03071 .03110 .03150 mm .81 .82 .83 .84 .85 .86 .87 .88 .89 .90 .91 .92 .93 .94 .95 .96 .97 .98 .99 1.00 in. .03189 .03228 .03268 .03307 .03346 .03386 .03425 .03465 .03504 .03543 .03583 .03622 .03661 .03701 .03740 .03780 .03819 .03858 .03898 .03937

15.748

.99
1.00

J901N-10

BR

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 -1

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE
CONTENTS
page page

GENERAL INFORMATION 1 JUMP STARTING, TOWING AND HOISTING . . . 2 1 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES—DIESEL ENGINE VEHICLES 17 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES—HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES 12

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES—LIGHT DUTY VEHICLES MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES—MEDIUM DUTY VEHICLES

4 8

G E N E R A L INFORMATION
INDEX
page page INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 PARTS AND LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS . . . 1

GENERAL INFORMATION
CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS FLUID CAPACITIES 2 2

GENERAL INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION Service and maintenance procedures for compo­ nents and systems listed in Schedule—A or B can be found by using the Group Tab Locator index at the front of this manual. I f it is not clear which group contains the information needed, refer to the index at the back of this manual. There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service based on the conditions that the vehi­ cle is subjected to. Schedule—A, lists scheduled maintenance to be performed when the vehicle is used for general trans­ portation. Schedule—B, lists maintenance intervals for vehi­ cles that are operated under the conditions listed at the beginning of the Maintenance Schedule section. Use the schedule that best describes your driving conditions. Where time and mileage are listed, follow the interval that occurs first. PARTS AND LUBRICANT RECOMMENDATIONS When service is required, Chrysler Corporation recommends that only Mopar* brand parts, lubri­ cants and chemicals be used. Mopar provides the

best engineered products for servicing Chrysler Cor­ poration vehicles. INTERNATIONAL SYMBOLS Chrysler Corporation uses international symbols to identify engine compartment lubricant and fluid inspection and fill locations (Fig. 1).

^
€ » C H R Y S L E R CORPORATION
ENGINE OIL

\

o

BRAKE FLUID

G b

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID ENGINE COOLANT

©

POWER STEERING FLUID WINDSHIELD WASHER F L U I D y 9500-1

Fig. 1 international

Symbols

0-2

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR

G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) CLASSIFICATION OF LUBRICANTS Only lubricants that are endorsed by the following organization should be used to service a Chrysler Corporation vehicle. • Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) • American Petroleum Institute (API) (Fig. 2) • National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) (Fig. 3 ) progress to guttering and valve burning. A maximum sulfated ash content of 1.85 mass % is recommended for all oil used in the engine. Refer to Group 9, Engine for diesel engine oil spec­ ification.
GEAR LUBRICANTS

SAE ratings also apply to multiple grade gear lubricants. In addition, API classification defines the lubricants usage. LUBRICANTS AND GREASES Lubricating grease is rated for quality and usage by the NLGI. All approved products have the NLGI symbol (Fig. 3) on the label. At the bottom NLGI symbol is the usage and quality identification letters. Wheel bearing lubricant is identified by the letter "G". Chassis lubricant is identified by the latter "L". The letter following the usage letter indicates the quality of the lubricant. The following symbols indi­ cate the highest quality.
t NTNL L BC TG AO A U R AN I I I G E S I SIUE RAE N T T T

9400-9

Fig. 2 API Symbol GASOLINE ENGINE OIL

SAE GRADE RATING INDICATES ENGINE OIL VISCOSITY An SAE viscosity grade is used to specify the vis­ cosity of engine oil. SAE 30 specifies a single viscos­ ity engine oil. Engine oils also have multiple viscosities. These are specified with a dual SAE vis­ cosity grade which indicates the cold-to-hot tempera­ ture viscosity range. • SAE 30 = single grade engine oil. • SAE 10W-30 = multiple grade engine oil. API QUALITY CLASSIFICATION The API Service Grade specifies the type of perfor­ mance the engine oil is intended to provide. The API Service Grade specifications also apply to energy con­ serving engine oils. Use engine oil that is API Service Grade Certified or an oil that conforms to the API Service Grade SH or SH/CD. MOPAR engine oils conform to all of these service grades. Refer to Group 9, Engine for gasoline engine oil specification.
DIESEL ENGINE OIL

NLGI
A T M TE UO OV I W EL B A N & C A S HE E R G I H SS I L BC N U RA T I

NLGI
A T M TE UO OV I W EL B A N & C A S HE E R G I H SS I L BC N U RA T I

NLGI
A T M TE UO OV I W EL B A N & C A S HE E R G I H SS I L BC N U RA T I

GC
WHEEL BEARINGS

Li
CHASSIS LUBRICATION

GC-LB
CHASSIS AND WHEEL BEARINGS 9200-7

Fig. 3 NLGI

Symbol

FLUID CAPACITIES
FUEL TANK

119 inch wheel base 135 inch wheel base All others
ENGINE OIL W/FILTER CHANGE

. .98 L (26 gal.) . .98 L (26 gal.) 132 L (35 gal.)

3.9L 5.2L & 5.9L Gasoline 5.9L Diesel 8.0 L
ENGINE
3.9L.

3.8 L (4.0 qts.) 4.7 L (5.0 qts.) 9.5 L (10.0 qts.) 6.6 L (7.0 qts.)
CHANGE

ENGINE OIL QUALITY Use only oils conforming to API Quality CE, or CE/SG. A sulfated ash limit is specified for lubrica­ tion oil used in Cummins engines. Oils with a high ash content may produce deposits on valves that can

OIL W/O FILTER

5.2L & 5.9L Gasoline 5.9L Diesel* .
8.0L*

. .3.3 L (3.5 qts.) .4.3 L (4.5 qts.)

*Oil filter must be changed with every oil change.

BR G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued)
COOLING SYSTEM

- LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0-3

POWER

TAKE

OFF

ADAPTER

3.9L. 5.2L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9L Gas . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9L Diesel 8.0L
AUTOMATIC

.

19 L (20 qts.) .19 L (20 qts.) . . . .19 L (20 qts.) .24.5 L (26.0 qts.) . . .22.7 L (24.0 qts.)

N V 0 2 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 L (4.6 pts.)
FRONT AXLE

Dana 44. Dana 60
REAR AXLE

.3.2 L (6.8 pts.) 3.6 L (7.6 pts.)

TRANSMISSION

Dry fill capacity* 42RE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0-10.4 L (17-22 pts.) 46RE .8.2-12.3L (17.5-26 pts.) 47RE .8.2-15.6 L (17.5-33 pts.) *Depending on type and size of internal cooler, length and inside diameter of cooler lines, or use of an auxiliary cooler, these figures may vary. Refer to Group 21, Transmission for proper fluid fill proce­ dure.
MANUAL TRANSMISSION

9-1/4 inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3 L (4.8 pts.) Dana 60 (2WD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.0 L (6.3 pts.) Dana 60 (4WD) .3.4 L (7.3 pts.) Dana 70 (2WD) 3.3 L (7.0 pts.) Dana 70 (4WD) .3.6 L (7.8 pts.) Dana 80 (2WD) .3.2 L (6.8 pts.) Dana 80 (4WD) .4.8 L (10.1 pts.)
REAR AXLE—LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL

NV3500 NV4500
TRANSFER CASE

.2.0 L (4.2 pts.) .3.8 L (8.0 pts.)

NV231 HD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2 L (2.5 NV241...... 2.7 L (5.0 NV241 HD .3.5 L (6.5 NV241 HD W/PTO .4.9 L (9.0

pts.) pts.) pts.) pts.)

Dana 60 (2WD) 3.0 L (6.3 pts.*) Dana 60 (4WD) 3.4 L (7.3 pts.*) Dana 70 (2WD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3 L (7.0 pts.*) Dana 70 (4WD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.6 L (7.8 pts.*) Dana 80 (2WD) .3.2 L (6.8 pts.*) Dana 80 (4WD). . . . . . . . . . . .4.8 L (10.1 pts.**) * Include 0.2 L (0.4 pts.) friction modifier. ** Include 0.3 L (0.6 pts.) friction modifier.
POWER STEERING

All

1.3 L (2.7 pts.)

0

4

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

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MAINTENANCE S C H E D U L E S — L I G H T DUTY V E H I C L E S
INDEX
page page LIGHT DUTY SCHEDULE—B 4 4
UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION

GENERAL INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION LIGHT DUTY SCHEDULE—A

5
4

G E N E R A L INFORMATION INTRODUCTION The following is a list of Maintenance Schedules for Light Duty Cycle vehicles (1500 and 2500 Models Except 8.0L). There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service based on the conditions that the vehi­ cle is subjected to. Use the schedule that best describes these conditions. Schedule—A, lists all the scheduled maintenance to be performed under "normal" operating conditions for Light Duty vehicles. Schedule—B, lists maintenance recommended for Light Duty vehicles operated under the following conditions: • Frequent short trip driving less than 5 miles (8 km) • Frequent driving in dusty conditions • Frequent trailer towing • Extensive idling •, More than 50% of your driving is at sustained high speeds during hot weather, above 90°F (32°C) Where time and mileage are listed, follow the interval that occurs first. EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE The scheduled emission maintenance listed in bold type on the Maintenance Schedules, must be done at the mileage specified to assure the continued proper functioning of the emission control system. These, and all other maintenance services included in this manual, should be done to provide the best vehicle performance and reliability. More frequent maintenance may be needed for vehicles in severe operating conditions such as dusty areas and very short trip driving.

Once A Month

• Check tire pressure and look for unusual wear or damage. • Inspect battery and clean and tighten terminals as required. • Check fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake master cylinder, power steering, and transmission and add as needed. • Check all lights and all other electrical items for correct operation.
At Each Oil Change

• Inspect exhaust system. • Inspect brake hoses. • Rotate the tires at each oil change interval shown on Schedule—A (7,500 Miles) or every other interval shown on Schedule—B (6,000 Miles). • Check engine coolant level, hoses, and clamps. • If your mileage is less than 7,500 miles (12 000 km) yearly, replace the engine oil filter at each oil change. • Lubricate steering linkage. LIGHT DUTY SCHEDULE—A
7,500 Miles (12 000 km) or at 6 months

© Change engine oil.
15,000 Miles (24 000 km) or at 12 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
22,500 Miles (36 000 km) or at 18 months

• Change engine oil. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
30,000 Miles (48 000 km) or at 24 months

UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION
At Each Stop For Fuel

• Check engine oil level and add as required. • Check windshield washer solvent and add as required.

• • • •

Change engine oil. Change engine oil filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Replace spark plugs.

37,500 Miles (60 000 km) or at 30 months

® Change engine oil.

BR G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) • Drain and, refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid.
45,000 Miles (72 000 km) or at 36 months

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

I -5

97,500 Miles (156 000 km) or at 78 months

• Change engine oil.
105,000 Miles (168 000 km) or at 84 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant at 36 months regardless of mileage.
52,500 Miles (84 000 km) or at 42 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
112,500 Miles (180 000 km) or at 90 months

• Change engine oil. • Flush and replace engine coolant, i f not done at 36 months.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km) or at 48 months

• Change engine oil. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
120,000 Miles (192 000 km) or at 96 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace ignition cables. • Check PCV valve and replace as necessary.* • Replace spark plugs. - *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to the customer but i t is not required to maintain the warranty on the PCV valve.
67,500 Miles (108 000 km) or at 54 months

• Change engine oil. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
75,000 Miles (120 000 km) or at 60 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace ignition cables. • Check P C V valve and replace as neces­ sary.* • Replace spark plugs. *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to the customer but i t is not required to maintain war­ ranty on the PCV valve. LIGHT DUTY SCHEDULE—B
3,000 Miles (5 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
6,000 Miles (10 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
82,500 Miles (132 000 km) or at 66 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
9,000 Miles (14 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
12,000 Miles (19 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Flush and replace engine coolant if it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
90,000 Miles (144 000 km) or at 72 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace spark plugs. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2 ). • Inspect brake linings.

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
15,000 Miles (24 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace as necessary.

0 -1

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR

G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued)
18,000 Mites (29 000 km) 48,000 Miles (77 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
21,000 Miles (34 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2)
24,000 Miles (38 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
51,000 Miles (82 000 km)

• Change engine oil. . • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
27,000 Miles (43 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Flush and replace engine coolant.
54,000 Miles (86 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
57,000 Miles (91 000 km)

• . Change engine oil.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
30,000 Miles (48 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element. • Inspect P C V valve, replace as necessary.* • Replace spark plugs. *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to the customer but it is not required to maintain war­ ranty on the PCV.
33,000 Miles (53 000 km)

® Change engine oil.
36,000 Miles (58 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. © Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
39,000 Miles (62 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. ® Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace ignition cables. • Inspect P C V valve and replace as neces­ sary.* • Replace spark plugs. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to the customer but i t is not required to maintain war­ ranty on the PCV valve.
63,000 Miles (101 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2)
66,000 Miles (106 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
69,000 Miles (110 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
42,000 Miles (67 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
72,000 Miles (115 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect front wheel bearing. Clean and repack, i f required (4x2).
45,000 Miles (72 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace as necessary.

® Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4).

BR G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) • Inspect brake linings.
75,000 Miles (120 000 km)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 7

105,000 Miles (168 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Inspect engine a i r cleaner element, replace as necessary.
78,000 Miles (125 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Inspect engine air cleaner element, replace as necessary. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2).
108,000 Miles (173 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
81,000 Miles (130 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Flush and replace engine coolant.
84,000 Miles (134 000 km)

© Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
87,000 Miles (139 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
111,000 Miles (178 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Flush and replace engine coolant.
114,000 Miles (182 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
117,000 Miles (187 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
120,000 Miles (192 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
90,000 Miles (144 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element. © Inspect P C V valve, replace as necessary.* • Replace spark plugs. *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to the customer but i t is not required to maintain war­ ranty on the PCV valve.
93,000 Miles (149 000 km)

'

• Change engine oil.
96,000 Miles (154 000 km)

• Change engine oil • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
99,000 Miles (158 000 km)

• Change engine oil.
102,000 Miles (163 000 km)

• Check engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. ® Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace ignitions cables. ® Check P C V valve and replace as neces­ sary.* • Replace spark plugs. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. © Change rear axle fluid. ® Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. *This maintenance is recommended by Chrysler to the customer but i t is not required to maintain war­ ranty on the PCV valve. **Off-the-highway operation, trailer towing, snow plowing, or prolonged operation with heavy loading, especially in hot weather require the more frequent transmission service indicated with a ** in Sched­ ule—B. Perform these services i f the vehicle is oper­ ated under these conditions. *. * Inspection and service should also be performed anytime a malfunction is observed or suspected.

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.

0 -8

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

MAINTENANCE

S C H E D U L E S — M E P i y H P U T Y

WEHICLE5

INDE1 page GENERAL INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION MEDIUM DUTY SCHEDULE—A 8 . . . . 8 MEDIUM DUTY SCHEDULE—B UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION . . . .

page
9 . 8

. .

GENERAL IMFORl^-L'^M INTRODUCTION The following is a list of Maintenance Schedules for Medium Duty Cycle vehicles (8.0L 2500 and 3500 Models •— California Only). There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service based on the conditions that the vehi­ cle is subjected to. Use the schedule that best describes these conditions. Schedule—A, lists all the scheduled maintenance to be performed under normal operating conditions for Medium Duty vehicles. Schedule—B, lists maintenance recommended for Medium Duty vehicles operated under the following conditions: • Frequent short trip driving less than 5 miles (8 km) • Frequent driving in dusty conditions • Frequent trailer towing • Extensive idling • More than 50% of your driving is at sustained high speeds during hot weather, above 90°F (32°C) Where time and mileage are listed, follow the interval that occurs first.
EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE

Once A Month

© Check tire pressure and look for unusual wear or damage. • Inspect battery and clean and tighten terminals as required. • Check fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake master cylinder, power steering, and transmission and add as needed. • Check all lights and all other electrical Items for correct operation.
At Each Oil Change

• Inspect exhaust system. • Inspect brake hoses. • Rotate the tires at each oil change Interval shown on Schedule—A (7,500 Miles) or every other Interval shown on Schedule—B (6,000 Miles). • Check engine coolant level, hoses, and clamps. • Lubricate steering linkage. MEDIUM DUTY SCHEDULE—A
6,000 miles (10 000 km) or at 6 months

• Replace engine oil and filter.
12,000 Miles (19 000 km) or at 12 months

• Replace engine oil and filter.
18,000 Miles (29 000 km) or at 18 months

The scheduled emission maintenance listed in bold type on the Maintenance Schedules, must be done at the mileage specified to assure the continued proper functioning of the emission control system. These, and all other maintenance services included in this manual, should be done to provide the best vehicle performance and reliability. More frequent mainte­ nance may be needed for vehicles in severe operating conditions such as dusty areas and very short trip driving. UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION

® Replace engine oil and filter. • Inspect brake linings.
24,000 Miles (38 000 km) or at 24 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
30,000 Miles (48 000 km) or at 30 months

At Each Stop For Fuel

• Check engine oil level and add as required. • Check windshield washer solvent and add as required.

© Replace engine oil and filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace spark plugs.

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued)
90,000 Miles (144 000 km) or at 90 months

0-9

36,000 Miles (58 000 km) or at 36 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. « Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect brake linings < Flush and replace engine coolant at 36 months, ? regardless of mileage.
42,000 Miles (67 000 km) or at 42 months

• • • •

Replace engine oil and filter. Replace engine air cleaner element. Replace spark plugs. Inspect brake linings.

96,000 Miles (154 000 km) or at 96 months

• Replace engine oil and filter.
48,000 Miles (77 000 km) or at 48 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Flush and replace engine coolant i f not done at 36 months.
54,000 Miles (86 000 km) or at 54 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
102,000 Miles (163 000 km) or at 102 months

• Replace engine oil and filter.
108,000 Miles (173 000 km) or at 108 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Inspect brake linings.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km) or at 60 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
114,000 Miles (183 000 km) or at 114 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. ® Replace engine air cleaner element. ® Replace ignition cables. • Replace spark plugs. • Replace battery. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
66,000 Miles (106 000 km) or at 66 months

• Replace engine oil and filter.
120,000 Miles (192 000 km) or at 120 months

• Replace engine oil and filter. © Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace ignition cables. • Replace spark plugs. © Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. MEDIUM DUTY SCHEDULE—B

• Replace engine oil and filter.
72,000 Miles (115 000 km) or at 72 months 3,000 Miles (5 000 km)

© Replace engine oil and filter, c Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
78,000 Miles (125 000 km) or at 78 months

• Replace engine oil and filter.
6,000 Miles (10 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
9,000 Miles (14 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. © Replace engine oil and filter. © Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
84,000 Miles (134 000 km) or at 84 months 12,000 Miles (19 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.* • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
15,000 Miles (24 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.

0 - 10

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued)
18,000 Miles'(29 000 km) 51,000 Miles (82 000 km)

9 Replace engine oil and filter.
21,000 Miles (29 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
54,000 Miles (86 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
24,000 Mites (88 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
57,000 Miles (91 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). © Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
27,000 Miles (43 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
30,000 Miles (48 000 km)

® Replace engine oil and filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element. » Replace ignition cables. ® Replace spark plugs. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.* • Change rear axle fluid. © Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. • Replace battery.
63,000 Miles (101 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. » Replace engine air cleaner element. • Replace spark plugs.
33,000 Miles (53 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
66,000 Miles (106 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
36,000 Miles (58 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
69,000 Miles (110 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.* • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Change rear axle fluid. © Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
39,000 Miles (62 000 km)

® Replace engine oil and filter.
72,000 Mites (115 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
42,000 Miles (67 000 km)

© Replace engine oil and filter. ® Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
75,000 Miles (120 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
45,000 Miles (72 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
78,000 Miles (125 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
48,000 Miles (77 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant.

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant.
81,000 Miles (130 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
84,000 Miles (134 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.* © Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4).

BR G E N E R A L INFORMATION • Inspect brake linings.
87,000 Miles (139 000 km)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE (Continued)

0 - 11

• Replace engine oil and filter.
90,000 Miles (144 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Replace engine a i r cleaner element. ® Replace spark plugs,
93,000 Miles (149 000 km)

• Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.* • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant.
111,000 Miles (178 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Replace engine oil and filter.
96,000 Miles (154 000 km) 114,000 Miles (183 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Replace engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Change rear axle fluid. ® Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
99,000 Miles (156 000 km) 117,000 Miles (187 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
120,000 Miles (192 000 km)

® Replace engine oil and filter.
102,000 Miles (168 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
105,000 Miles (168 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter.
108,000 Miles (178 000 km)

• Replace engine oil and filter. • Replace engine a i r cleaner element. • Replace i g n i t i o n cables. • Replace spark plugs. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid. © Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. *Off-the-highway operation, trailer towing snow plowing, prolonged operation with heavy.. loading, especially i n hot weather require the more frequent transmission service indicated with a * in Sched­ ule—B. Perform these services i f the vehicle is oper­ ated under these conditions.

• Replace engine oil and filter.

0 -12

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR

MAINTENANCE S C H E D U L E S — H E A V Y DUTY V E H I C L E S
INDEX
page page INTRODUCTION UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION . . . . . 12 12

GENERAL INFORMATION
HEAVY DUTY SCHEDULE—A HEAVY DUTY SCHEDULE—B 12 14

..

GENERAL INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION The following is a list of Maintenance Schedules for Heavy Duty Cycle vehicles (Federal Only - 2500 8.0L HD and 3500 5.0L & 8.0L Models). There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service based on the conditions that the vehi­ cle is subjected to. Use the schedule that best describes these conditions. Schedule—A, lists all the scheduled maintenance to be performed under normal operating conditions for Heavy Duty vehicles. Schedule—B, lists maintenance recommended for Heavy Duty vehicles operated under the following conditions: • Frequent short trip driving less than 5 miles (8 km) • Frequent driving in dusty conditions • Frequent trailer towing • Extensive idling • More than 50% of your driving is at sustained high speeds during hot weather, above 90°F (32°C) Where time and mileage are listed, follow the interval that occurs first.
emission control system maintenance

Once A Month

• Check tire pressure and look for unusual wear or damage. » Inspect battery and clean and tighten terminals as required. • Check fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake master cylinder, power steering, and transmission and add as needed. • Check all lights and all other electrical items for correct operation.
At Each Oil Change

• Inspect exhaust system. • Inspect brake hoses. • Rotate the tires at each oil change interval shown on Schedule—A (7,500 Miles) or every other interval shown on Schedule—B (6,000 Miles). • Check engine coolant level, hoses, and clamps. • I f your mileage is less than 7,500 miles (12 000 km) yearly, replace the engine oil filter at each oil change. • Lubricate steering linkage. • Replace engine oil filter at every oil change (8.0L only). HEAVY DUTY SCHEDULE—A

The schedule emission maintenance listed in bold type on the following schedules, must be done at the mileage specified to assure the continued proper functioning of the emission control system. These, and all other maintenance services included in this manual, should be done to provide the best vehicle performance and reliability. More frequent mainte­ nance may be needed for vehicles in severe operating conditions such as dusty areas and very short trip driving. UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION
At Each Stop For Fuel

6,000 miles (10 000 km) or at 6 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
12,000 Miles (19 000 km) or at 12 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
18,000 Miles (29 000 km) or at 18 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). • Inspect brake linings
24,000 Miles (38 000 km) or at 24 months

• Check engine oil level and add as required. • Check windshield washer solvent and add as required.

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter.

BR G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 - 13

• Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, If required (4x2).
30,000 Miles (48 000 km) or at 80 months

66,000 Miles (106 000 km) or at 66 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
72,000 Miles (115 000 km) or at 72 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). • Replace spark plugs.
36,000 Miles (58 000 km) or at 36 months

• Change engine oil. ® Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant at 36 months, regardless of mileage.
42,000 Miles (67 000 km) or at 42 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
78,000 Miles (125 000 km) or at 78 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
48,000 Miles (77 000 km) or at 48 months)

• Change engine oil. © Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
82,500 Miles (132 000 km) or at 82 months

• Replace oxygen sensor (5.9L only).*
84,000 Miles (134 000 km) or at 84 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Flush and replace engine coolant i f not done at 36 months.
54,000 Miles (86 000 km) or at 54 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
90,000 Miles (144 000 km) or at 90 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). • Inspect brake linings.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km) or at 60 months

• • • •

Change engine oil. Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only). Replace spark plugs. Inspect brake linings.

96,000 Miles (154 000 km) or at 96 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace ignition cables. • Replace P C V valve (5.9L).* • Replace distributor cap and rotor (5.9L only). • Replace spark plugs. • Clean EGR air passages (5.9L i f equipped).* • Replace EGR valve (5.9L i f equipped).* • Replace battery. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). •
102,000 Miles (163 000 km) or at 102 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
108,000 Miles (173 000 km) or at 108 months

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid.

0 -14

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR

GENERAL INFORMATION (Continued) • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant If it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change. ^Requires Service Reminder Indicator Light. I f so equipped, these parts are to be replaced at the indi­ cated mileage or when the service reminder indicator light remains on continuously with the key in the "ON" position, whichever occurs first. HEAVY DUTY SCHEDULE—B
3,000 Miles (5 000 km)

• Change front axle fluid (4x4). ® Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
27,000 Miles (43 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
30,000 Miles (48 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
6,000 Miles (10 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect P C V valve, replace as necessary (5.9L). • Replace spark plugs.
33,000 Miles (53 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
9,000 Miles (14 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
36,000 Miles (58 000 km)

© Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
12,000 Miles (19 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect engine air cleaner element and air pump filter, replace as necessary. • Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Change rear axle fluid. o Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
15,000 Miles (24 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect engine air cleaner element and air pump filter, replace as necessary. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Drain and refill transfer case. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
39,000 Miles (62 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
42,000 Miles (67 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
18,000 Miles (29 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
45,000 Miles (72 000 km)

® Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
21,000 Miles (34 000 km)

• Change engine oil. © Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
48,000 Miles (77 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
24,000 Miles (38 000 km)

• Change engine oil • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter. ® Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid.

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant.

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE G E N E R A L INFORMATION
51,000 Miles (82 000 km)

0 -15

(Continued)
75,000 Miles (120 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
54,000 Miles (86 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
78,000 Miles (125 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
57,000 Miles (91 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. © Flush and replace engine coolant.
81,000 Miles (130 000 km)

• Change engine oil. © Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
60,000 Miles (96 000 km)

© Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
82,500 Miles (132 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect engine air cleaner element and air pump filter, replace as necessary. • Replace PCV valve (5.9L).* • Replace distributor cap and rotor (5.9L). • Replace ignition cables. © Replace spark plugs. • Clean EGR passages (5.9L i f equipped).* • Replace EGR valve (5.9L i f equipped).* • Replace battery. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
63,000 Miles (101 000 km)

• Replace oxygen sensor (5.9L only).*
84,000 Miles (134 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. © Inspect engine air cleaner element and air pump filter, replace as necessary. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands.** • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
87,000 Miles (139 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
90,000 Miles (144 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
66,000 Miles (106 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
69,000 Miles (110 000 km)

® Change engine oil. o Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect P C V valve, replace as necessary (5.9L). © Replace spark plugs.
93,000 Miles (149 000 km)

© Change engine oil. © Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
72, 000 Miles (115 000 km)

© Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
96,000 Miles (154 000 km)

© Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter. • Clean and relubricate crankcase inlet air filter (5.9L). • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. © Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.

• Change engine oil. ® Replace engine oil filter. • Replace engine air cleaner element and air pump filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. © Change rear axle fluid. © Change front axle fluid (4x4). © Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.

0 -16

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR

G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued)
99,000 Miles (156 000 km)

9 Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
102,000 Miles (163 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter.
105,000 Miles (168 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter (8.0L only).
108,000 Miles (173 000 km)

• Change engine oil. • Replace engine oil filter. • Inspect engine air cleaner element and air pump filter, replace as necessary. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands,**

• Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant. "^Requires Service Reminder Indicator Light. I f so equipped, these parts are to be replaced at the indi­ cated mileage or when the service reminder indicator light remains on continuously with the key in the ON position, whichever occurs first. **Off-the-highway operation, trailer towing, snow plowing, prolonged operation with heavy loading, especially in hot weather require the more frequent transmission service indicated with a ** in Sched­ ule—B. Perform these services i f the vehicle is oper­ ated under these conditions. Inspection and service should also be performed anytime a malfunction is observed or suspected.

BR

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 -17

M A I N T E N A N C E SCHEDULES—DIESEL ENGINE V E H I C L E S
INDEI
page page SCHEDULE—B . UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION . . . . . . 18 . . . . 17

GENERAL INFORMATION
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCHEDULE—A . 17 17

G E N E R A L INFORMATION INTRODUCTION The following is a list of Maintenance Schedules for Diesel Engine equipped vehicles. There are two maintenance schedules that show proper service based on the conditions that the vehi­ cle Is subjected to. Use the schedule that best describes these conditions. Schedule—A, lists all the scheduled maintenance to be performed under normal operating conditions for Diesel Engine equipped vehicles. Schedule—B, lists maintenance recommended for Diesel Engine equipped vehicles operated under the following conditions: • Frequent short trip driving less than 5 miles (8 km) • Frequent driving in dusty conditions • Frequent trailer towing • Extensive Idling • More than 50% of your driving is at sustained high speeds during hot weather, above 90°F (32°C) Where time and .mileage are listed, follow the interval that occurs first. UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION
At Each Stop For Fuel

At Each Oil Change

• Inspect exhaust system. • Inspect brake hoses. • Rotate the tires at each oil change interval shown, 6,000 miles (9 600 km) on Schedule —A or every other interval shown on Schedule—B. • Check engine coolant level, hoses, and clamps. • Lubricate steering linkage. SCHEDULE—A
6,000 Miles (10 000 km) or at 6 months

• Change engine oil and filter.
12,000 Miles (19 000 km) or at 12 months

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter.
18,000 Miles (29 000 km) or at 18 months

• Change engine oil and filter. • inspect drive belts, replace as necessary. • Inspect brake linings.
24,000 Miles (38 000 km) or at 24 months

• Check engine oil level, add as required. • Check windshield washer solvent and add i f required.
Once A Month

• Check tire pressure and look for unusual wear or damage. • Inspect battery and clean and tighten terminals as required. • Check fluid levels of coolant reservoir, brake master cylinder, power steering, and transmission. Add fluid as required. • Check all lights and all other electrical items for correct operation. • Drain water from fuel filter. • Check Filter Minder®. Replace filter if nec­ essary.

• Change engine oil and filter. • Adjust valve lash clearance. • Inspect fan hub. • Inspect damper. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2).
30,000 Miles (48 000 km) or at 30 months

• Change engine oil and filter.
36,000 Miles (58 000 km) or at 36 months

® • • • •

Change engine oil and filter. Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary. Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. Replace fuel filter. Drain and refill transfer case fluid.

0 -18

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

BR

G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued) • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant at 86 months, regardless of mileage.
42,000 Miles (67 000 km) or at 42 months 84,000 Miles (134 000 km) or at 84 months

• Change engine oil and filter.
48,000 Miles (77 000 km) or at 48 months

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. ® Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
90,000 Miles (144 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Adjust valve lash clearance. • Inspect fan hub. • Inspect damper. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f not done at 36 months.
54,000 Miles (86 000 km) or at 54 months

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace i f necessary. • Inspect brake linings.
96,000 Miles (154 000 km) or at 96 months

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary. • Inspect brake linings.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km) or at 60 months

• Change engine oil and filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Adjust valve lash clearance. • Inspect fan hub. • Inspect damper. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter.
102,000 Miles (163 000 km) or at 102 months

• Change engine oil and filter.
108,000 Miles (173 000 km) or at 108 months

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f it has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.
66,000 Miles (106 000 km) or at 66 months

© Change engine oil. and filter.
72,000 Miles (115 000 km) or at 72 months

• Change engine oil and filter. © Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary. ® Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. © Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change. SCHEDULE—B
3,000 Miles (5 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace as required. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Adjust valve lash clearance. • Inspect fan hub. • Inspect damper. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
78,000 Miles (125 000 km) or at 78 months

• Change engine oil and filter.
6,000 Miles (10 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
9,000 Miles (14 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
12,000 Miles (19 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant i f i t has been 30,000 miles (48 000 km) or 24 months since last change.

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid.

BR G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued) • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
15,000 Miles (24 000 km)

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 - 19

48,000 Miles (77 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
18,000 Miles (29 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary.
21,000 Miles (34 000 km)

© Change engine oil and filter.
24,000 Miles (38 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Adjust valve lash clearance. • Inspect fan hub. • Inspect damper. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. © Change rear axle fluid. © Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack, if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
27,000 Miles (43 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Adjust valve lash clearance. • Inspect fan hub. • Inspect damper. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. ® Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). . • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant.
51,000 Miles (82 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
54,000 Miles (86 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary.
57,000 Miles (91 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
60,000 Miles (96 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
30,000 Miles (48 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
33,000 Miles (53 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. 9 Replace fuel filter. ® Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
63,000 Miles (101 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
36,000 Miles (58 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
66,000 Miles (106 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
39,000 Miles (62,000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
69,000 Miles (110 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
72,000 Miles (115 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
42,000 Miles (67 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
45,000 Miles (72 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary. ® Adjust valve lash clearance. • Inspect fan hub. • Inspect damper. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. © Replace fuel filter. ® Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. © Change rear axle fluid.

I - 20

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

mm

G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) © Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
75,000 Miles (120 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
78,000 Miles (125 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Flush and replace engine coolant.
81,000 Miles (130 000 km)

© Inspect fan hub. 9 Inspect damper. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. © Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect front wheel bearings. Clean and repack if required (4x2). • Inspect brake linings.
99,000 Miles (158 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
84,000 Miles (134 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
102,000 Miles (163 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. © Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings.
87,000 Miles (139 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
105,000 Miles (168 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
108,000 Miles (173 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
90,000 Miles (144 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary.
93,000 Miles (149 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter.
96,000 Miles (154 000 km)

• Change engine oil and filter. • Clean engine air filter canister. • Inspect drive belts, replace as necessary. • Inspect water pump weep hole for blockage. • Replace fuel filter. • Drain and refill automatic transmission fluid. Replace filter and adjust bands. • Drain and refill transfer case fluid. • Change rear axle fluid. • Change front axle fluid (4x4). • Inspect brake linings. • Flush and replace engine coolant.

• Change engine oil and filter. ® Adjust valve lash clearance.

m

LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE

0 - 21

J U M P STARTING, TOWING AND HOISTING
INDEX
page page
J U M P STARTING PROCEDURE . . . . . 23 23 ... ...... ...... 21 23

SERVICE PROCEDURES
FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING HOISTING RECOMMENDATIONS

TOWING RECOMMENDATIONS
TWO-WHEEL-DRIVE

. . . . . . . . . 22

VEHICLE TOWING

SERVICE PROCEDURES JUMP STARTING PROCEDURE WARNING: REVIEW ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND WARNINGS IN GROUP 8A, BATTERY/START­ ING/CHARGING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS. DO NOT JUMP START A FROZEN BATTERY, PERSONAL INJURY CAN RESULT DO NOT JUMP START WHEN MAINTENANCE FREE BATTERY INDICATOR DOT IS YELLOW OR BRIGHT COLOR. DO NOT JUMP START A VEHICLE WHEN THE BATTERY FLUID IS BELOW THE TOP OF LEAD PLATES. DO NOT ALLOW JUMPER CABLE CLAMPS TO TOUCH EACH OTHER WHEN CONNECTED TO A BOOSTER SOURCE. DO NOT USE OPEN FLAME NEAR BAT­ TERY. REMOVE METALLIC JEWELRY WORN ON HANDS OR WRISTS TO AVOID INJURY BY ACCI­ DENTAL ARCING OF BATTERY CURRENT. WHEN USING A HIGH OUTPUT BOOSTING DEVICE, DO NOT ALLOW BATTERY VOLTAGE TO EXCEED 16 VOLTS. REFER TO INSTRUCTIONS PROVIDED WITH DEVICE BEING USED. CAUTION: When using another vehicle as a booster, do not allow vehicles to touch. Electrical systems can be damaged on either vehicle.
TO JUMP START A DISABLED VEHICLE:

park or neutral, set park brake and operate engine at 1200 rpm. (3) On disabled vehicle, place gear selector in park or neutral and set park brake. Turn off all accesso­ ries. (4) Connect jumper cables to booster battery. RED clamp to positive terminal (+). BLACK clamp to neg­ ative terminal (-). DO NOT allow clamps at opposite end of cables to touch, electrical arc will result. Review all warnings in this procedure. (5) On disabled vehicle, connect RED jumper cable clamp to positive (+) terminal. Connect BLACK jumper cable clamp to engine ground as close to the ground cable attaching point as possible (Fig. 1) and (Fig. 2). CAUTION: Do not crank starter motor on disabled vehicle for more than 15 seconds, starter will over­ heat and could fail. (6) Allow battery in disabled vehicle to charge to at least 12.4 volts (75% charge) before attempting to start engine. I f engine does not start within 15 sec­ onds, stop cranking engine and allow starter to cool (15 min.), before cranking again.
NEGATIVE O R - — G R O U N D CABLE ™ POSITIVE

(1) Raise hood on disabled vehicle and visually inspect engine compartment for: • Battery cable clamp condition, clean i f necessary. • Frozen battery. • Yellow or bright color test indicator, i f equipped. • Low battery fluid level. © Generator drive belt condition and tension. • Fuel fumes or leakage, correct i f necessary. CAUTION: If the cause of starting problem on dis­ abled vehicle is severe, damage to booster vehicle charging system can result. (2) When using another vehicle as a booster source, turn off all accessories, place gear selector in

Fig. 1 Jumper Cable Clamp Engine

Connections—Gas

. disconnect BLACK cable clamp from battery negative terminal. front-end tow­ ing method. TOWING RECOMMENDATIONS A vehicle equipped with SAE approved sling-type towing equipment can be used to tow all vehicles. • When using a Booster vehicle. • Do not allow passengers to ride In a vehicle being towed. drive shafts or a non-reinforced frame hole. J-hooks. . pedestrians or other motorists. 3 Tow Vehicles With Approved Equipment • Do not tow a vehicle in a manner that could jeopardize the safety of the operator. • Do not allow anyone under the disabled vehicle while It is lifted by the towing device. Install lug nuts on wheel attaching studs to retain brake drums or rotors. the. A towed vehicle should be raised until lifted wheels are a minimum 100 mm (4 in) from the ground. RAMP ANGLE CAUTION: The following safety precautions must be observed when towing a vehicle. Be sure there is adequate ground clearance at the oppo­ site end of the vehicle. • Always observe state and local laws regarding towing regulations. Disconnect RED cable clamp from battery positive terminal. I f necessary. approach ramp angle should not exceed 15 degrees. • Do not tow a heavily loaded vehicle. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FLAT BED ™ " J9500-6 Fig. • Disconnect RED cable clamp from battery posi­ tive terminal on disabled vehicle. use a tow dolly under the opposite end of the vehicle. I f a vehicle with flat-bed towing equipment is used. A wooden crossbeam may be required for proper connection when using the sling-type. GROUND CLEARANCE CAUTION: If vehicle is towed with wheels removed. • Always use a safety chain system that is inde­ pendent of the lifting and towing equipment. A vehicle with flat-bed device can also be used to transport a disabled vehicle (Fig. 3). to increase the ground clearance at the opposite end of the vehicle. • Do not attach tow chains. T-hooks. or a tow sling to a bumper. especially when towing over rough terrain or steep rises in the road. . • Do not allow towing equipment to contact the disabled vehicle's fuel tank. • Secure loose and protruding parts. steering linkage. cargo box or frame may result. 2 Jumper Cable Clamp Engine Connections—Diesel DiSCONIECT CA1LE CHIPS AS FOLLOWS: • Disconnect BLACK cable clamp from engine ground on disabled vehicle. remove the wheels from the lifted end of the vehicle and lower the vehicle closer to the ground. install lug nuts to retain brake drums or rotors.22 LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) W H E E L LIFT Fig. Use a flatbed device to transport a loaded vehicle. Damage to the cab. When towing a 4WD vehicle using a wheel-lift towing device.0 .

4 Vehicle Lifting Locations . THE CENTER OF GRAVITY IS ALTERED MAKING SOME HOISTING CONDITIONS UNSTABLE. NOTE: Use the correct frame rail lifting locations only (Fig. A twin-post. If a two-wheel-drive vehicle cannot be towed with the rear wheels lifted. use a flat bed hauler. A Wheel-lift or Sling-type device can be used provided all the wheels are lifted off the ground using tow dollies. drive-on hoist. it can be towed with the front wheels lifted with the transmission in the neutral position. The fuel tank. FLOOR JACK J9500-5 When properly positioned. whenever possible. WHEN A CHASSIS OR DRIVETRAIN COMPO­ NENT IS REMOVED FROM A VEHICLE. TOWING-FRONT END LIFTED A • • • vehicle can be lifted with: A single-post. A steering linkage component. frame-contact hoist. Support the vehicle in the raised position with jack stands at the front and rear ends of the frame rails. NOTE: When a frame-contact type hoist is used.BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) TOWING WHEN KEYS ARE MOT AVAILABLE When the vehicle is locked and keys are not avail­ able. chassis hoist. • Unlock steering column and secure steering wheel in straight ahead position with a clamp device designed for towing.23 • • • • • • © An axle tube. CAUTION: Do not use steering column lock to secure steering wheel during towing operation. A Wheel-lift or Sling-type device can be used on 4WD vehicles provided a l l the wheels are lifted off the ground using tow dol­ lies. A drive shaft. • Verify that steering components are in good con­ dition. 4). PROPERLY SUPPORT OR SECURE VEHICLE TO HOISTING DEVICE WHEN THESE CONDITIONS EXIST. A ramp-type. TWO-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING Chrysler Corporation recommends that a vehicle be towed with the rear end lifted. CAUTION: Do not lift vehicle with a floor jack posi­ tioned under: Fig. A front suspension arm. A body side sill. FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLE TOWING Chrysler Corporation recommends that a vehicle be transported on a flat-bed device. 4). The engine or transmission oil pan. WARNING: THE HOISTING AND JACK LIFTING POINTS PROVIDED ARE FOR A COMPLETE VEHI­ CLE. verify that the lifting pads are positioned properly (Fig. 4 ) . HOISTING RECOMMENDATIONS Refer to the Owner's Manual for emergency vehicle lifting procedures. a floor jack can be used to lift a vehicle (Fig. TOWING-RBAR END LIFTED HOIST LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE 0 .

.

The most important measurements of front end alignment are caster. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION WHEEL ALIGNMENT Front wheel alignment involves the correct posi­ tioning of the wheels in relation to the vehicle. Refer to the Torque Specifications Chart at the end of each group to determine the correct torque value. • WHEEL TOE POSITION is the difference between the leading inside edges and trailing inside edges of the front tires.1 SUSPENSION CONTENTS page FRONT SUSPENSION (IFS) FRONT SUSPENSION LINK/COIL 8 15 REAR SUSPENSION WHEEL ALIGNMENT page 21 1 WHEEL ALIGNMENT INDEX page GENERAL INFORMATION FRAME COATINGS INFORMATION 1 1 4 ALIGNMENT LINK/COIL SUSPENSION CAB-CHASSIS CASTER CORRECTION MEASURMENT PRE-ALIGNMENT INSPECTION page 4 5 2 7 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION WHEEL ALIGNMENT SERVICE PROCEDURES ALIGNMENT IFS SUSPENSION SPECIFICATIONS ALIGNMENT SPECIFICATION GENERAL INFORMATION FRAME COATINGS INFORMATION CAUTION: Depending on the vehicle build location. there are two different coatings applied to BR frames: VEHICLE BUILD LOCATION St. 11th POSITION VIN CHARACTER J S G M FRAME COATING E-Coat Wax Coat Wax Coat Wax Coat Replacement fasteners and torque values for frame attached components may vary depending on frame coatings. camber and toe position (Fig. Inspection also helps to ensure safe operation of the vehicle. NOTE: Routine inspection of the front suspension and steering components is a good preventative maintenance practice. 1) and (Fig. Ensure the replacement fastener is designed for the specific frame coating. • CAMBER is the inward or outward tilt of the wheel relative to the center of the vehicle. Tilting the top of the knuckle rearward provides positive caster. good direc­ tional stability and to maximize tire wear. 2). • CASTER is the forward or rearward tilt of the steering knuckle from vertical. Louis North Dodge City Saltillo Mexico Lago Alberto Mexico positioning is accomplished through suspension and steering linkage adjustments.SUSPENSION 2 . An alignment is con­ sidered essential for efficient steering. The wheel toe position is the final front wheel alignment adjustment. Tilting the top of the wheel inward provides negative camber. The . Incorrect wheel toe position is the most common cause of unstable steering and uneven tire wear. Caster is a directional stability angle which enables the front wheels to return to a straight ahead posi­ tion after turns. Incorrect camber will cause wear on the inside or outside edge of the tire. Tilting the top of the wheel outward provides positive camber. Tilting the top of the knuckle forward provides negative caster.

Refer to Suspension and Steering System Diagnosis Chart for additional information. 1 Aiignment Angles IFS (4) Inspect ball studs.2 -2 SUSPENSION BR D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N {Continued) • STEERING AXIS INCLINATION ANGLE is measured in degrees. 2 Alignment Angles Link/Coil . CAMBER TRUE VERTICAL WHEEL CENTERLINE NEGATIVE CAMBER ANGLE J9402-56 POSITIVE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE STEERING AXIS INCLINATION Fig. Wheels and Tires for diagnosis information. the following inspection and necessary corrections must be com­ pleted. binding or a sticking condition. Refer to Group 19. (3) Inspect front wheels for excessive radial. roughness. linkage pivot points and steering gear for looseness. PIVOT CENTERLINE SCRUB . I t will not change except when a spindle or bail stud is dam­ aged or bent. Check components for correct torque. size. Wheels and Tires for diagnosis information. (2) Inspect front wheel bearings for wear or adjust­ ment. lat­ eral runout and unbalance. I t is the angle that the steering knuckles are tilted (Fig. Steering for additional information. Refer to Group 22. SERVICE PROCEDURES PRE-AUGNMENT INSPECTION Before starting wheel alignment.RADIUS POSITIVE CAMBER (NOT SHOWN) TOP OF WHEEL OUTBOARD CASTER POSITIVE CASTER*i FRONT OF VEHICLE — B — NEGATIVE TOE (TOE OUT) B > A POSITIVE TOE (TOE IN) B < A THRUST ANGLE KING PIN h OF VEHICLE f V VERTICAL ANGLE OF REAR AXLE RE RELATIVE TO VEHICLE CENTERLINE IE ( + ) AXLE POINTS LEFT (-) AXLE POINTS RIGHT J9402-57 Fig. (5) Inspect suspension components for wear and noise. The angle is not adjustable and the damaged component(s) must be replaced to correct mis-alignment. Refer to Group 22. and tread wear. The inclination angle has a fixed relationship with the camber angle. CAUTION. (1) Tires with the same recommended air pressure. 1). Do not attempt to modify any suspension or steering components by heating and bending.

Adjust or replace wheel bearings. Align front end. Alignment. Adjust or replace wheel bearings. Loose or worn steering gear. 2 . 2 . Loose or worn front wheel bearings. Align front end. 2 . Weak or broken spring. Align front end. 1. . Correct tire pressure. 1. Loose or worn front wheel bearings. EXCESSIVE PLAY IN 1. 4 . Test and repair pump as needed. 4 . 2 . 3.BR • • . 3. Alignment. Loose or worn front wheel bearings. 4 . Tire pressure. 4 . 2 . 1. 1. Adjust or replace steering gear. Loose or worn front wheel bearings. Adjust or replace wheel bearings. 3. 2 . 5. 2 . Brake pull. — . Loose or worn steering components. Correct tire pressure. Align front end. Replace worn bushings or suspension components. Replace worn bushings or suspension components. 3 . Tire pressure. 1. Loose or worn suspension bushings or components. . 3. 5. Correct tire pressure. Replace worn bushings or suspension components. SUSPENSION 2 . Steering gear or pump. Replace loose or worn steering components. 2 . Replace weak or broken spring. 3 . Replace or balance tires as needed.3 SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued) AND STEERING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS CORRECTION SUSPENSION CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES FRONT END NOISE 1. 1. 3 . 3 . 5. Replace weak or broken spring. 2 . 2 . Tire pressure. Adjust or replace wheel bearings. Tires worn or out of balance. 1. 2 . 1. Replace worn bushings or suspension components. 3. Adjust or replace steering gear. 1. J9502-5 . Loose or worn suspension bushings or components. 2 . STEERING FRONT WHEELS SHIMMY VEHICLE INSTABILITY DIFFICULT STEERING VEHICLE PULLS TO ONE SIDE 1. Loose or worn suspension bushings or components. Alignment. Repair brakes. 3 . 4 . Alignment. Loose or worn suspension bushings or components. 5 . 4 . . Weak or broken spring.

(1) Start the engine and turn wheels both ways before straightening the wheels. Always release the bumper in the down position. 3). (2) Loosen the adjustment sleeve clamp bolts. move the rear pivot bar in or out. 4 Cam Adjuster T O E POSITION: The wheel toe position adjust­ ment should be the final adjustment. . to increase a positive caster angle. Caster can be adjusted by rotating the cams on the lower suspension arm (Fig. The camber angle should be adjusted as close as possible to the preferred service specification. Center and secure the steering wheel and turn off engine. (2) Loosen the tie rod adjustment sleeve clamp bolts/nuts. Low caster will cause poor steering wheel returnability. This will change the camber angle significantly and caster angle only slightly. (3) Adjust the wheel toe position by turning the tie rod adjustment sleeves as necessary. Center and Secure the steering wheel and turn off engine. CAMBER: The wheel camber angle is preset and is not adjustable. then front). 4). For example. Observe the steering wheel return-to-center position. to the Alignment Specifica­ tion Chart for the correct setting. Set the front end alignment to specifications while the vehicle is i n its NOR­ MALLY LOADED CONDITION. Refer to the Align­ ment Specification for the correct setting. move the rear position of the pivot bar inward (toward the engine). Howe the front of pivot bar outward (away from the engine) slightly until the original camber angle is obtained. 3 Caster Camber Adjustment Location CASTER: Move only the rear position of the pivot bar i n or out. This will ensure the steering wheel will be centered when the wheels are positioned straight-ahead. CASTER: Check the caster of the front axle for correct angle. (1) Start the engine and turn wheels both ways before straightening the wheels. After adjustment is made tighten pivot bar nuts to specifi­ cations. To retain the camber while adjusting caster. Always release the bumper in the down position. Camber and caster angle' adjustments involve changing the position of the upper suspension arm pivot bar (Fig. Refer. Road test the vehicle and make left and right turn. T O E POSITION: The wheel toe position adjust­ ment should be the final adjustment. CAMBER: Move only the forward position of the pivot bar in or out. Fig.2 . ALIGNMENT LINK/COIL SUSPENSION Before each alignment reading the vehicle should be jounced (rear first. Grasp each bumper at the center and jounce the vehicle up and down several times. Grasp each bumper at the center and jounce the vehicle up and down several times. NOTE. Move the forward pivot very slightly in the opposite direction. NOTE: Each front wheel should be adjusted for one-half of the total toe position specification. then front).4 SUSPENSION BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) ALIGNMENT IFS SUSPENSION Before each alignment reading the vehicle should be jounced (rear first. This will change the caster angle sig­ nificantly and camber angle only slightly. Set the front end alignment to specifications while the vehicle is in its NOR­ MALLY LOADED CONDITION. J9302-59 Fig. Be sure the axle is not bent or twisted.

6). Make sure the toe setting does not change dur­ ing clamp tightening. 803f5895 Fig. (5) Verify the right toe setting. Take these measurements on both sides of the vehicle.S their original position and tighten to specifications. CAB-CHASSIS CASTER CORRECTION MEASURMENT To determine the correct caster alignment angle for Cab. Make sure the toe setting does not change during clamp tightening. S T E E R I N G DAMPENER SUSPENSION 2. Take another meansurement to the center of the rear spring hanger bolt (Fig. (1) Take a height measurement to the center of the front gauge hole in the frame. Turn the sleeve until the right wheel is at the correct TOE-IN position. 5).BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) (3) Adjust the right wheel toe position with the drag link (Fig. Turn the sleeve until the left wheel is at the correct TOE-IN position.Chassis vehicles the following procedure must be performed. Position clamp bolts to their original position and tighten to specifications. Position clamp bolts to 4x2 GAUGE HOLE HANGER BOLT 4x4 J9502-14 Fig. 6 Cab-Chassis Measurement . 5 Drag Link Adjustment (4) Adjust left wheel toe position with tie rod at left knuckle.

Use this number with the Caster Cor­ rection Chart to obtain the correct caster angle (Fig.11 1.62 0.91 1.85 1.41 0.25 -2.19 -0.00 -1.21 0.00 -0.23 -0.00 -0.75 -0.09 0.25 0.50 -0.21 -5.11 0.11 1.75 -0.09 2.25 -1.01 0.25 -2.99 1.75 -4.26 0.75 -2. 7 Caster Correction Chart .50 -3.50 -2.41 1.75 -1.50 -1.2 -6 SUSPENSION BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) (2) Subtract the front measurement from the rear measurement and use the average between the right and left side.31 1.73 1.50 -0.75 -4.60 1.01 0.71 1.25 -3. 134.14 0.25 -3.00 -3.25 -1.00 -4.00 -3.25 0.81 J9502-15 Fig.36 1.25 -4.75 -1.51 0.7" o r 138.81 0.50 0.61 0.25 -4.00 -2.51 1.00 -0.00 -2.50 -1.21 1.75 -2.75 -3.00 -4.24 1.01 1.00 -1. 7).50 -2.71 0.61 1.97 2.75 -3.50 -4.87 0.00 -0.75 0.50 -3.7" WHEELBASE WHEELBASE Caster H a n g e r BofitH a n g e r BoltCoster G a u g e Hole Correction G a u g e Hole Correction (degrees) (inches) (degrees) pitches! -5.31 0.48 1.11 0.50 -4.38 0.

7 138.00 not set not set not set not set not set not set not set not set not set 4x2/4x4 •4x2/4x4 •4x2/4x4 8800 11000 11000 134.7 154.65 3.50 0.7 134.0.7 154.50 0. J9502-16 .50 0.7 154.7 134.50 0.7 3.7 134.85 3.25 > ( + / .90 3.7 134.7 138.00) 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 4x2 6010 6400 6010 6400 6400 6400 7500 8800 8800 10500 10500 118.7 138.10 3.7 154.65 3.00 3.7 134.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.45 3.50 0.0.55 3.25 3.7 not set USE CAB-CHASSIS PROCEDURE not set not set 162.7 134.1.45 3.80 3.50 0.7 154.80 3.7 3.40 3.BR SUSPENSION 2-7 SPECIFICATIONS ALIGNMENT SPECIFICATION PREFERRED CASTER (degrees) PREFERRED CAMBER (degrees) ( + / .50 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 4x4 6400 6400 6400 6400 7500 8800 8800 10500 10500 118.7 118.7 134.7 154.25 2.35 3.70 3.55 3.7 134.25) c * 4x2 11000# G V W has a solid front axle link coil suspension system.45 0.65 3.7 134.50) 4x214x4 ©WW WHEEL BASE (inches) (lbs) ( + / .7 Preferred Total Toe-in 0.

2). • Shock absorbers • Coil springs • Upper and lower suspension arms J9402-13 Fig. there are two different coatings applied to BR frames: VEHICLE BUILD LOCATION St. 1) and (Fig. 1 independent Front Suspension SUSPENSION ARM J9402-12 Replacement fasteners and torque values for frame attached components may wary depending on frame coatings. Refer to the Torque Specifications Chart at the end of each group to determine the correct torque value. SHOCK DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION INDEPENDENT FRONT SUSPENSION (IFS) The IFS suspension is comprised of (Fig.8 SUSPENSION BR FRONT SUSPENSION (IFS) INDEX page page UPPER SUSPENSION ARM WHEEL BEARINGS WHEEL STUDS 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 GENERAL INFORMATION FRAME COATINGS INFORMATION 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 9 11 10 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION INDEPENDENT FRONT SUSPENSION (IFS) DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY LOWER BALL STUD UPPER BALL STUD DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING LOWER BALL STUD SHOCK DIAGNOSIS UPPER BALL STUD CLEANING AND INSPECTION WHEEL BEARINGS REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION COIL SPRINGS LOWER SUSPENSION ARM SHOCK ABSORBER STABILIZER BAR . Louis North Dodge City Saltillo Mexico Lago Alberto Mexico Stabilizer bar SUSPENSION ARM COIL SPRING STABILIZER BAR KNUCKLE 11th POSITION VIN CHARACTER J S G M FRAME COATING E-Coat Wax Coat Wax Coat Wax Coat Fig. 2 independent Front Suspension . Ensure the replacement fastener is designed for the specific frame coating.2 . STEERING KNUCKLE SPECIFICATIONS IFS SUSPENSION (E-COAT FRAME) IFS SUSPENSION (WAX COAT FRAME) SPECIAL TOOLS IFS FRONT SUSPENSION GENERAL INFORMATION FRAME COATINGS INFORMATION CAUTION: Depending on the vehicle build location.

The upper suspension arms must not contact the rebound bumpers. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING LOWER BALL STUD (1) Raise the front of the vehicle. Position the indicator plunger against the upper ball stud boss of the steering knuckle. Measure the axial movement of the knuckle with respect to the suspension arm. THE SHOCK HOLDS THE LOWER SUSPENSION ARM AND SPRING IN POSITION.BR D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N (Continued) Shock Absorbers: The shock absorbers dampen jounce and rebound of the vehicle over various road conditions. The bracket has slotted holes this allows the arm to be adjusted for caster and camber. Bushings located inboard are not replaceable. (1) Raise and support vehicle.030 in. Coil Springs: The coil springs control ride quality and maintain proper ride height. The bar extends across the front under­ side of the chassis and mounts on the frame rails. and attaching components. The shock absorber bushings do not require any type of lubrication. To test a shock absorber. hold i t in an upright position and force the piston in and out of the cylinder four or five times. Stabi­ lizer bar mounts are isolated by rubber bushings. (4) Raise and lower the wheel with a pry bar under the center of the tire. inspect for damaged and worn bushings. The suspension arm travel (jounce or rebound) is lim­ ited through the use of urethane bumpers.8 mm (0. (3) Grasp the top of the tire and apply force in and out. Install safety floor stands under both lower suspension arms as far outboard as possible. If the noise persists. The top of the shock mounts on frame brackets using grommets. A rubber isolator seats on top off the spring to help prevent noise. Links are isolated with rubber grommet. (3) Position indicator plunger against knuckle arm and zero indicator. 3). The upper arm has a pivot bar which mounts on a frame bracket. Suspension Arms: The suspension arms have replaceable ball studs which are pressed into the arms. Stabilizer Bar: The stabilizer bar is used to mini­ mize vehicle front sway during turns. (2) Mount a dial indicator on the upper suspension arm. (3) Remove lower mounting bolt from suspension arm and remove shock (Fig. replace the ball joint. The shock absorbers are not refillable or adjust­ able. Do not attempt to stop bushing noise by lubricating them. The springs mount between the lower suspension arm and the front cross member spring seat. I f a malfunction occurs. The spring steel bar helps to control the vehicle body in relationship to the suspension. Shocks are mounted on the bottom to the lower suspension arms. REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION SHOCK ABSORBER WARNING: DO MOT REMOVE SHOCK UNTIL LOWER SUSPENSION ARM IS SUPPORTED. Look for movement at the ball joint between the upper suspension arm and steering knuckle. Repair as nec­ essary i f any of these conditions exist. replace the ball joint.030 inch (0. UPPER BALL STUD (1) Position a floor jack under the lower suspension arm. The action throughout each stroke should be smooth and even. (4) I f lateral movement is greater than 0. Grease and mineral oilbase lubricants will deteriorate the bushing rubber. (5) I f the travel of the suspension arm is 0. 3 Shock Absorber . Raise the wheel and allow the tire to lightly contact the floor (vehicle weight relieved from the tire). Fig. This noise can usually be stopped by tightening the attaching nuts.8 mm) or more. (2) Remove shock upper nut and remove retainer and grommet. (2) Install a dial indicator and clamp assembly to the lower suspension arm. Links connected the bar to the lower suspension arms. REMOVAL SUSPENSION 2-9 SHOCK DIAGNOSIS A noise from a shock absorber may be caused by movement between mounting bushings and metal brackets or attaching components.). the shock absorber must be replaced.

(8) Remove lower shock bolt from suspension arm. COIL SPilNOS WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE SHOCK UNTIL LOWER SUSPENSION ARM IS SUPPORTED. (5) Install tie rod on steering knuckle and tighten nut to specifications. Separate ball stud with remover C-4150A. Install top grommet. Place jack under arm in front of shock mount. install retainer and grom­ met on top of shock absorber. INSTALLATION (1) Install rubber isolator on top of spring. 4 Coil Spring . (4) Remove the cotter pin and nut from the tie-rod end and disconnect tie rod. (5) Remove support and lower vehicle. (6) Support lower suspension arm outboard end with jack. refer to Group 5 Brakes. (3) Install steering knuckle on lower ball stud. Install grommet. (5) Remove the cotter pins and nuts from the upper and lower ball studs. (5) Disconnect stabilizer bar link from lower sus­ pension arm. SfEEFtINi KNUCKLE REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. (4) Install wheel and tire assembly. retainer and nut and tighten to specifications. REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. (3) Remove the wheel hub and bearing assembly from the spindle. Separate lower ball stud with remover C-4150A and remove knuckle. (3) Install the brake caliper. THE SHOCK HOLDS THE LOWER SUSPENSION ARM AND SPRING IN POSITION. (4) Install stabilizer bar link on lower suspension arm.2 . (2) Guide shock up through upper suspension arm bracket. Install shock bolt and tighten to specifications. Replace cotter pin and remove jack. (4) Remove support and lower vehicle. Refer to Wheel Hub and Bearings service removal. (2) Install the brake rotor hub and bearing assem­ bly on spindle. LOWER SUSPENSION ARM WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE SHOCK UNTIL LOWER SUSPENSION ARM IS SUPPORTED. THE S H O C K HOLDS THE LOWER SUSPENSION ARM AND SPRING IN POSITION. Tighten nuts to specifications and install cotter pins. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. Install lower ball stud nut and tighten to specifica­ tions. (9) Lower jack and suspension arm until spring tension is relieved. Remove the brake caliper. (2) Remove tire and wheel assembly. Separate upper ball stud from knuckle with remover MD-990635. (7) Remove cotter pin and nut from lower ball stud. Check grommets and retainer for wear. 4). (8) Remove support and lower vehicle. (6) Install brake caliper assembly and rotor. Remove spring and rubber isola­ tor (Fig. (4) Disconnect tie rod from steering knuckle.10 SUSPENSION BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) INSTALLATION (1) Extend shock fully. refer to Group 5 Brakes. (7) Install tire and wheel assembly. Position spring into upper spring seat and lower suspension arm. Tighten nut to specifications. (3) Remove brake caliper assembly and rotor refer to Group 5 Brakes. Fig. Tighten bolt to specifications. retainer and nut. Refer to Wheel Hub and Bearings ser­ vice installation. INSTALLATION (1) Position knuckle on ball stud and install ball stud nuts. (3) Align bottom end of shock into lower suspen­ sion arm and install mounting bolt. refer to Group 5 Brakes. (2) Raise suspension arm with jack and position shock into suspension arm mount.

(2) Install links on stabilizer bar and lower sus­ pension arm. (4) Tighten suspension arm crossmember bolts to specifications. (6) Remove pivot bar bolts from upper suspension arm bracket and remove arm from vehicle (Fig. (3) Remove bolts mounting suspension arm to crossmember and remove arm. cotter pin. Tighten nuts to specifications.BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) REMOVAL SUSPENSION 2 -11 STABILIZER BAR REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. Refer to Group 5 Brakes. 5). WHEEL BEARINtS Fig. (4) Install tire and wheel assembly. INSTALLATION (1) Position suspension arm on crossmember and install bolts snug. 6 STABILIZER INSTALLATION BAR (1) Position the stabilizer bar on the frame rail and install the clamps and bolts. (3) Remove support and lower vehicle. (2) Remove tire and wheel assembly. . (6) Align front suspension. REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Install ball stud in knuckle. (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (3) Remove jack from lower suspension arm. (5) Carefully slide the hub/rotor from spindle. Install replacement cotter pin. CAUTION: Use care to prevent inner wheel bearing and seal from contacting spindle threads during removal. Ensure the bar is centered with equal spacing on both sides. 5 Upper Suspension INSTALLATION Arm (1) Position upper suspension arm on bracket and install pivot bar bolts. (2) Follow procedure under Coil Spring Removal. Tighten to specifications. (4) Remove the dust cap. (2) Remove the wheel and tire assembly. (3) Support lower suspension arm at outboard end with jack stand. (6) Remove the seal and inner wheel bearing from the hub/rotor. (5) Remove support and lower vehicle. Tighten the bolts to specifications. retainers and nuts. and hub nut from spindle. (2) Disconnect the link from lower suspension arm and stabilizer bar (Fig. (3) Remove disc brake caliper from steering knuckle. (4) Remove upper ball stud cotter pin and nut. ' (3) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. 6). UPPER SUSPENSION ARM REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. Fig. (5) Separate ball stud from knuckle with remover MB-990635. Remove the stabilizer bar. (2) Follow procedure under Coil Spring Installa­ tion. Install grommet s. (3) Disconnect the stabilizer bar clamps from the frame rails. Install nut and tighten to specifications.

washer and retaining nut. 7 Lower Bail Stud ASSEMBLY Removal (1) Press replacement ball stud into the lower sus­ pension arm bore with special tools (Fig. CAUTION: Use care to prevent inner wheel bearing and seal from contacting spindle threads during installation. (2) Remove disc brake rotor.254 to 0. Do not f i l l the dust cap with lubricant. (2) Install lower suspension arm. (5) Carefully slide the hub/rotor onto spindle. (4) Remove all rough contact surfaces from spin­ dle. Install the cap. (7) The adjustment (above) should have 0. refer to Group 5 Brakes. (1) Remove wheel and tire assembly. 8 Lower Ball Stud Installation . (4) Install wheel and tire assembly. (3) Place rotor on flat surface and drive studs out of the with a hammer and punch. Fig.2 -12 SUSPENSION BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) (7) Remove inner bearing races from hub/rotor with a pin punch if bearings are going to be replaced.003 inch (0. INSTALLATION' (2) Position special tool on lower suspension arm and press out ball stud (Fig.) torque to preload bearing while rotating the hub/rotor. WHEEL STUDS REMOVAL SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F Fig. (3) Install rotor. Install outer wheel bearing. Apply a coating of lubricant. lbs. Install a new cotter pin. (2) Drive new studs into the rotor with hammer and punch. INSTALLATION SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F (1) Turn the rotor over and place in a vise. (6) Tighten the nut'to 41-54 N-m (30-40 ft. (2) Apply a coating of MOPAR Wheel Bearing Grease or equivalent lubricant to inner surface area of hub/rotor. (3) Inspect bearing and seal contact surfaces on spindle for burrs and/or roughness. Install inner wheel bearing and seal in the hub/rotor. (10) Install the wheel and tire assembly. (9) Install disc brake caliper. refer Group 5 Brakes. Stop hub/rotor and loosen nut to completely release bearing preload torque.0762 mm) end play.001 to 0. Tighten the nut finger-tight and install the nut lock. 8). (1) Install the new bearing cup(s) with an appro­ priate installation tool. refer to Group 5 Brakes. 7). (8) Clean the dust cap and apply a coating lubri­ cant to the internal surface. DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY LOWER BALL STUD DISASSEMBLY 6761 J9402-34 (1) Remove lower suspension arm.

. lbs. . NOTE: Ensure that lubricant is forced into all the cavities between the bearing cage and rollers. lbs. lbs. grade 2. . 75 N-m (55 ft.) Ball Stud Nut 75 N-m (55 ft. (5) Remove the engine oil from each bearing. lbs. lbs. . Pack each bearing with multi-purpose NLGI. lbs. 10 Upper Ball Stud Installation SPECIFICATIONS IFS SUSPENSION (WAX COAT FRAME) SPECIAL TOOL 6289-3 J9402-36 Fig. Lower Suspension Arm Frame Nuts Ball Stud Nut Upper Suspension Arm Pivot Bar Nuts Ball Stud Nut Stabilizer Bar Clamp Bolt Link Nuts TORQUE 41 N-m (30 ft.) 75 N-m (55 ft. . . lbs. (2) Position special tools on upper suspension arm and press ball stud out of arm (Fig. 10). lbs. (2) Install the upper suspension arm.) 34 N-m (25 ft.) IFS SUSPENSION (E-C0AT FRAME) DESCRIPTION Shock Absorber Upper Nut Lower Bolt. .) . 9). C L E A N I N G AND INSPECTION WHEEL BEAR1NSS NOTE: Bearing and races must be replaced as a set if worn or damaged. Examine the rollers for pitting and roughness. . .) Ball Stud Nut . (3) After cleaning. lbs. lbs.) Lower Bolt. replace bearing i f worn or defective.271 N-m (200 ft.) Stabilizer Bar • Clamp Bolt . .41 N-m (30 ft.BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y ( C o n t i n u e d ) UPPER 1ALL STUD DISASSEMBLY SUSPENSION 2 -13 (1) Remove the upper suspension arm.) Upper Suspension Arm Pivot Bar Nuts .) .) Lower Suspension Arm Frame Nuts 149 N-m (110 ft.) Link Nuts 34 N-m (25 ft. . .) 271 N-m (200 ft. . . . . lbs. EPtype lubricant (or an equivalent lubricant). 9 Upper Bail Stud ASSEMBLY Removal (1) Press ball stud into upper suspension arm with special tools (Fig. lbs. (4) Rotate each bearing slowly while applying downward force. . .61 N-m (45 ft.) 75 N-m (55 ft. (2) Clean the bearings with solvent and towel dry. lbs. lbs. . . apply engine oil to each bear­ ing. .) . DESCRIPTION TORQUE Shock Absorber Upper Nut. SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F SPECIAL TOOL C4212F J9402-35 Fig.) 135 N-m (100 ft. . lbs.203 N-m (150 ft. .47 N-m (35 ft.135 N-m (100 ft. . lbs. (1) Thoroughly clean the interior of hub/rotor. .

14 SUSPENSION SPECIAL TOOLS Installer.2 . Ball Stud 6761 .

1 Link/Coil Suspension Lago Alberto Mexico Replacement fasteners and torque values for frame attached components may vary depending on frame coatings. 1). Louis North © Stabilizer bar • Track bar 11th POSITION VIN CHARACTER J S G M FRAME COATINC E-Coat Wax Coat Dodge City Saltillo Mexico Wax Coat Wax Coat Fig. © Shock absorbers © Coil springs • Upper and lower suspension arms Shock Absorbers: The shock absorbers dampen the jounce and rebound of the vehicle over various road conditions. 19 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION COIL SPRING LOWER SUSPENSION ARM SHOCK ABSORBER STABILIZER BAR SPECIAL TOOLS LINK/COIL SUSPENSION 20 G E N E R A L INFORMATION FRAME COATINGS INFORMATION CAUTION: Depending on the vehicle build location. .BR SUSPENSION 2 . there are two different coatings applied to BR frames: VEHICLE BUILD LOCATION St. These brackets are bolted on the frame with three studs on a ring. The isolators help prevent road noise. The suspension arms are bolted to the frame and axle through the rubber bushings. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION FRONT SUSPENSION LINK/COIL The Ram Truck Link/coil suspension allows each wheel to adapt to different road surfaces. The springs use a rubber isolators between the frame bracket and spring. Suspension Arms: The upper and lower suspen­ sion arms use bushings to isolate road noise. Refer to the Torque Specifications Chart at the end of each group to determine the correct torque value. Coil Springs: The coil springs control ride quality and maintain proper ride height.* SPECIFICATIONS LINK/COIL SUSPENSION (E-COAT FRAME) 19 LINK/COIL SUSPENSION (WAX COAT FRAME) . Shocks are mounted inside the springs and attached at the top to brackets with grommets. The sus­ pension is comprized of (Fig.15 FRONT SUSPENSION L I N K / C O I L INDEX page page STEERING KNUCKLE TRACK BAR UPPER SUSPENSION ARM WHEEL HUB/BEARING WHEEL MOUNTING STUDS 17 18 17 18 19 GENERAL INFORMATION FRAME COATINGS INFORMATION 15 15 16 17 17 16 18 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION FRONT SUSPENSION LINK/COIL DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING SHOCK DIAGNOSIS . Ensure the replacement fastener is designed for the specific frame coating. The bottom of the spring sits on a seat mounted to the axle. The lower suspension arm uses cam bolts at the axle to allow for caster . The shock is mounted at the bottom of the axle below the spring seat.

(1) Position the lower retainer and grommet on the upper stud. 3). NOTE: Suspension components which use rubber bushings should be tightened at vehicle ride height. I f a malfunction occurs. Do not attempt to stop bushing noise by lubricating them. The shock absorbers are not refillable or adjust­ able. Track Bar: The track bar is used to minimize front axle side-to-side movement. The bar is attached to a frame rail bracket with a ball stud and is iso­ lated with a bushing at the axle bracket. Insert the shock absorber through the spring from engine compartment. The action throughout each stroke should be smooth and even. Stabilizer bar mounts are isolated by teflon lined rubber bushings. inspect for damaged and worn bushings. the shock absorber must be replaced. The suspension arm travel (jounce or rebound) is limited through the use of urethane bumpers. 2). The spring steel bar helps to control the vehicle body in relation­ ship to the suspension.2 . If the noise persists. To test a shock absorber. . Repair as nec­ essary i f any of these conditions exist. REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION SHOCK ABSORBER REMOVAL SHOCK BOLT J9402-47 Fig. hold it in an upright position and force the piston in and out of the cylinder four or five times. retainer and grommet from the upper stud in the engine compartment. 3 Shock Absorber Axle Mount INSTALLATION (1) Remove the nut. Links are connected from the bar to the axle brackets. This noise can usually be stopped by tightening the attaching nuts. (2) Install the lower bolt and tighten bolt to speci­ fications. (2) Remove three nuts from the upper shock bracket (Fig. J9402-46 Fig. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING SHOCI DIAGNOSIS A noise from a shock absorber may be caused by movement between mounting bushings and metal brackets or attaching components. and attaching components. 2 Shock Absorber and Bracket (3) Remove the lower bolt from the axle bracket (Fig. Steering Knuckles: The steering knuckles pivot on replaceable ball studs attached to the axle tube yokes. The bar extends across the front underside of the chassis and connects to the frame rails.16 SUSPENSION BR D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N (Continued) and pinion angle adjustment. Remove the shock absorber from engine com­ partment. This will prevent premature failure of the bushing and maintain ride comfort. Stabilizer Bar: The stabilizer bar is used to min­ imize vehicle front sway during turns. Bushings must never be lubricated. Grease and mineral oilbase lubricants will deteriorate the bushing rubber. The shock absorber bushings do not require any type of lubrication.

(5) Disconnect the track bar from the frame rail bracket. (2) Paint or scribe alignment marks on lower sus­ pension arm cam adjusters and axle bracket for installation reference. (3) Remove the upper suspension arm and loosen lower suspension arm bolts. • Align lower suspension arm reference marks and tighten cam nut. Position a hydraulic jack under the axle to support it. (4) Install upper grommet and retainer. cam and cam bolt from the axle. COIL SPRING REMOVAL SUSPENSION 2 -17 LOWER SUSPENSION A R 1 REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Raise the axle into position until the spring seats in the upper mount. (2) Install the rear bolt and finger tighten the nut. INSTALLATION ADJUSTMENT i (1) Position the coil spring on the axle pad. (5) Install the front propeller shaft to the axle 4x4 model. • Lower shock bolt. . 5). J9302-59 Fig.BR R E M O V A L A H P I N S T A L L A T I O N {Continued) (3) Install the upper shock bracket and three nuts. (7) Disconnect the stabilizer bar link and shock absorber from the axle. ® Upper suspension nut at frame bracket. Tighten rear nut to specifications. (3) Install the cam bolt. 4 Cam Adjuster (3) Remove the lower suspension arm nut. INSTALLATION (1) Position the lower suspension arm at the axle bracket and frame rail bracket. Re-align the reference marks. y t (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (6) Install drag link to pitman arm and tighten nut to specifications. Install new cotter pin. • Lower suspension nut at frame bracket. • Track bar bolt at axle shaft tube bracket. Connect the track bar to the frame rail bracket. 5). Tighten nuts to specifications. (4) Mark and disconnect the front propeller shaft from the axle 4x4 models. (4) Remove support and lower the vehicle. 4). cam and nut in the axle. (3) Connect the stabilizer bar links and shock absorbers to the axle bracket. (5) Tighten cam nut to specifications. Remove the coil spring. (4) Remove the nut and bolt from the frame rail bracket and remove the lower suspension arm (Fig. (2) Paint or scribe alignment marks on the cam adjusters and suspension arm for installation refer­ ence (Fig. (2) Remove the upper suspension arm nut and bolt at the axle bracket (Fig. (8) Tighten the following suspension components to specifications: • Link to stabilizer bar nut. (3) Remove the nut and bolt at the frame rail and remove the upper suspension arm. UPPER SUSPENSION ARWI REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (8) Lower the axle until the spring is free from the upper mount. STEERING KNUCKLE For service procedures on the steering knuckle and ball studs refer to Group 3 Differentials And Driveline. (4) Install the upper suspension arm. Install upper shock nut and tighten to specifications. ® Upper suspension arm nut at axle bracket. (6) Disconnect the drag link from pitman arm. (7) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle.

(3) Remove brake caliper and rotor. 5 Upper and Lower Suspension INSTALLATION Arm (1) Position the upper suspension arm at the axle and frame rail. (3) Install the retaining nut on the stud. WHEEL HUB/BEARING REMOVAL J9402-52 Fig. (4) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. Tighten nut at frame bracket to specifications. (3) Install link on stabilizer bar and tighten nut to specifications. Ensure the bar is (1) Raise and support the vehicle. refer to Group 5 Brakes. TRACK BAR REMOVAL TRACK BAR LOWER < SUSPENSION ARM J9402-54 Fig. (4) Remove cotter pin and axle hub nut. Tighten the ball stud nut to specifications. (4) Tighten nut at the axle bracket to specifica­ tions. 6 Stabilizer Bar INSTALLATION (1) Position the stabilizer bar on the frame rail and install the clamps and bolts. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. Loosely install the retaining bolt and flag nut.2 -18 SUSPENSION BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) STABILIZER BAR SHOCK ABSORBER COIL SPRING UPPER SUSPENSION ARM centered with equal spacing on both sides. STABILIZER BAR RETAINER fify FRAME BRACKET TRACK BAR FLAG NUT J9402-53 Fig. 6). (1) Raise and support the vehicle. . Install a new cot­ ter pin. (3) Remove ball stud from bracket with Puller C-3894-A (4) Remove the bolt and flag nut from the axle bracket and remove the track bar (Fig. (2) Disconnect the stabilizer bar links from the axle brackets. 7). (2) Pry the axle assembly over to install the track bar at the frame rail bracket. Tighten the nuts to specifica­ tions. grommets retainers and nuts onto the axle brackets. (2) Remove the cotter pin and nut from the ball stud end at the frame rail bracket (Fig. (4) Disconnect the stabilizer bar clamps from the frame rails and remove the stabilizer bar (Fig. (5) Tighten the bolt at the axle shaft tube bracket to specifications. AXLE BRACKET STABILIZER BAR REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Install the links. 7). 7 Track Bar GROMMET GROMMET RETAINER LINK INSTALLATION (1) Install the track bar at axle tube bracket. Tighten the bolts to specifications. (2) Install the bolts and finger tighten the nuts. (3) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. (4) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. (3) Disconnect the stabilizer bar from the links.

) Frame Nut . . lbs. (3) Tighten lug nut until the stud is pulled into the hub flange. . lbs.) Bracket . . . . ..61 N-m (45 ft. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. .122 N-m (90 ft. lbs.) Suspension Arm Lower Axle Nut . .SUSPENSION 2 -19 (1) Install new stud into hub flange.) Track Bar Ball Stud Nut . lbs.) Lower Bolt. 9 Wheel Stud Removal .121 N-m (89 ft. Verify that the stud is properly seated into the flange. 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs. .) Axle Bracket Bolt . . 8 Hub/Bearing INSTALLATION & Knuckle (1) Install hub/bearing and tighten mounting bolts to specifications. (3) Remove brake caliper and rotor. .84 N-m (62 ft. . (5) Remove support and lower vehicle. 8) and remove hub/bearing from knuckle. . . . . .37 N-m (27 ft. lbs. HUB F L A N G E REMOVER Fig.149 N-m (110 ft. (6) Install wheel and tire assembly. lbs. lbs. refer to Group 5 Brakes for procedure. . use new lug nut on stud or studs that were replaced. .) Stabilizer Bar Clamp Bolt .) Track Bar Ball Stud Nut . (4) Remove stud from hub with Remover C-4150A (Fig.84 N-m (62 ft.) Suspension Arm Upper Axle Nut . Install cotter pin. . INSTALLATION . . .) Bracket 75 N-m (55 ft. lbs.) Frame Nut. 135 N-m (100 ft. (3) Install brake rotor and caliper. . .) Lower Bolt. lbs. lbs. . WHEEL MOUNTING STUDS REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. . . .) Frame Nut . .. .) Link Upper Nut. . lbs. . lbs.176 N-m (130 ft. SPECIFICATIONS BEARING J9402-58 LINK/COIL SUSPENSION (WAX COAT FRAME) DESCRIPTION TORQUE • Shock Absorber Upper Nut 41 N-m (30 ft. . .149 N-m (110 ft.) Suspension Arm Lower Axle Nut .217 N-m (150 ft. .) Link Lower Nut.) Stabilizer Bar Clamp Bolt 47 N-m (35 ft.) Link Upper Nut .BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) ( 5 ) Remove hub/bearing mounting bolts (Fig.) Axle Bracket Bolt . . . (5) Install the brake rotor and caliper. then install lug nut with the flat side of the nut against the washers. . lbs. lbs. lbs. (2) Install three washer onto stud. . lbs. . . . lbs. . lbs.) LINK/COIL SUSPENSION (E-C0AT FRAME) DESCRIPTION TORQUE Shock Absorber Upper Nut 41 N-m (30 ft. 118 N-m (87 ft. .149 N-m (110 ft. . . 9). . . . .135 N-m (100 ft. . . (2) Install axle hub nut and tighten to specifica­ tions. .) Frame Nut. lbs. lbs.37 N-m (27 ft. (4) Remove lug nut and washers. . 84 N-m (62 ft. lbs. . . refer to Group 5 Brakes. lbs. . . . 118 N-m (87 ft. . (7) Remove support and lower vehicle. . (4) Install wheel and tire assembly. . .) Suspension Arm Upper Axle Nut .176 N-m (130 ft. refer to Group 5 Brakes for procedure.) Fig.) Link Lower Nut. lbs. .121 N-m (89 ft. . . . .

2 .20 SUSPENSION SPECIAL TOOLS LINK/COIL SUSPENSION Remover C-4150A .

The spring eye and shock absorber bushings do not require any type of lubrication. The shock absorbers are not refillable or adjust­ able. The spring steel bar helps to control the vehicle body in relationship to the sus­ pension. inspect for damaged and worn bushings. The top of the shock absorbers are bolted to the body crossmember. Check for broken and shifted leafs. I f a malfunction occurs. The shocks dampen the jounce and rebound as the vehicle travels over various road conditions. loose and missing clips. Do not attempt to stop spring bushing noise by lubricating them. and broken center bolts. The spring and shackles use rubber bush­ ings. To test a shock absorber. hold it in an upright position and force the piston in and out of the cylinder four or five times. the springs should be examined periodically. Incorrect vehi­ cle weight distribution can cause excessive tire tread wear. . and erratic steering. The shackles allow the springs to change their length as the vehicle moves over various road conditions. NOTE. The action throughout each stroke should be smooth and even. . I f the vehicle is used for severe. Correct vehicle loading provides proper front tire-to-road contact. the shock absorber must be replaced. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION SUSPENSION COMPONENT The rear suspension is comprised of: ® Drive Axle © Leaf Springs • Dual-Action Shock Absorbers • Stabilizer Bar • Jounce Bumpers Leaf Springs: The rear suspension system uses a multi-leaf springs and a solid drive axle. 22 22 23 23 GENERAL INFORMATION WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION 21 21 21 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION SUSPENSION COMPONENT DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING SPRING AND SHOCK DIAGNOSIS GENERAL INFORMATION WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION A vehicle should always be loaded so the vehicle weight center-line is located immediately forward of the rear axle. The bottom of the shocks are bolted to the axle bracket. The forward end of the springs are mounted to the body rail hang­ ers through rubber bushings. Refer to Spring and Shock Absorber Diagnosis chart for additional information. I f the noise persists. Rubber bushings must never be lubricated. The bar extends across the underside of the body and is attached to the body rails with grommets. Repair as nec­ essary i f any of these conditions exist. Grease and mineral oil-base lubricants will deterio­ rate the bushing rubber. This results in maximum vehicle handling stability and safety. Suspension components that use rubber bushings should be tightened with the vehicle at the normal height.21 REAR SUSPENSION INDEX page page REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION LEAF SPRING .BR SUSPENSION 2 . spring fatigue or failure. and attaching components. . Jounce Bumpers: The'jounce bumpers are used to limit the spring and axle travel.. Links at the end of the bar are attached to the leaf spring brackets. . Stabilizer Bar: The stabilizer bar is used to min­ imize vehicle body roll. off-road operation. SHOCK ABSORBER SPECIFICATIONS REAR SUSPENSION (E-COAT FRAME) REAR SUSPENSION (WAX COAT FRAME) . DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING SPRING AND SHOCK OJAONOSIS A noise from a shock absorber may be caused by movement between mounting bushings and metal bracket or attaching components. They are bolted to the body rail above the axle.. This noise can usu­ ally be stopped by tightening the attaching nuts. Shock Absorbers: Ride control is accomplished through the use of dual-action shock absorbers. The bushing help to isolate road noise. The rearward end of the springs are attached to the body by the use of shackles..

Replace leaf liners SHOCK ABSORBERS NOISY 1. Loose mounting bolt or nut 2. refer to Group 14 for fuel tank proce­ dure. Worn or missing leaf liners 1. Replace shock absorber 3. (5) Remove shackle from spring. (2) Remove the nuts and spring clamp bolts that attach the spring to the axle (Fig. (3) Remove the bolt and nut from the axle bracket. Broken leaves 2. (3) Tighten upper and lower bolts to specifications (4) Remove the support and lower vehicle. Tighten U-bolts to specified torque 2. 1) and (Fig. Tighten bolt or nut to specified torque 2. (2) Install bolts through the brackets and shock. Install flag nut on top bolt and nut on lower bolt. (2) Remove the bolt and flag nut from the frame crossmember bracket. Replace broken leaves 2.22 SUSPENSION BR SPRING AND SHOCK CONDITION nttSUHBER DIAGNOSIS CORRECTION POSSIBLE CAUSES SPRING SAGS 1. Leaking shock 1. 3). Worn bushings 3.2 . (1) Position shock absorber in brackets. 2) and (Fig. Replace shock J9503-2 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION SHOCK ABSORBER REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle and support axle. 1 Rear Spring—4X2 . LEAF SPRING REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle and support axle to remove all weight from springs. Replace spring SPRING NOISE 1. (4) Remove the rear shock absorber from the vehi­ cle. (4) Remove spring from vehicle. Fig. Replace bushings 3. Loose U-bolts 2 Worn bushings 3. INSTALLATION (3) Remove the nuts and bolts from the spring front and rear shackle eyes. Note: To remove front eye bolt on left side spring fuel tank must be removed. Spring fatigue 1.

. . . (2) Position spring on axle shaft tube so spring center bolt is inserted into the locating hole in the axle tube spring pad or spacer.) 11. .203 N-m (150 ft. lbs. . . 2 Rear SPRING CLAMP BOLT Spring—4X4 SPRING SEAT AUXILIARY SPRING SPRING SPACER SPRING PLATE SHACKLE' J9403-62 Fig. . .) Upper Nut .) Bolt/Nut 8. lbs. .BR SUSPENSION 2 . .) Spring Front and Rear Eye Bolt/Nut 6. lbs.) Bolt/Nut 8. (9) Tighten the spring clamp retaining nuts to specifications (10) Tighten spring front and rear eye pivot bolt nuts and shackle eye to specifications. . Tighten the nuts. lbs. (5) Tighten the spring front and rear eye pivot bolt snug do not torque. . .010-10.) Jounce Bumper Bolts 45 N-m (33 ft.) Spring Front and Rear Eye Bolt/Nut 6. Install bolt and nut.500 GVW. 136 N-m (100 ft. . 3 Rear Spring—Cab-Chassis INSTALLATION 11000 GVW (1) Install shackle on rear spring eye and install bolt and nut. (4) Align shackle eye with bolt hole i n rear bracket. .) 11. . .95 N-m (70 ft.100 GVW. . .) . .800-1. . .000 GVW Cab-Chassis . .149 N-m (110 ft. lbs. . lbs. .) Upper N u t . . until they force the plate flush against the axle tube.149 N-m (110 ft. .163 N-m (120 ft. .136 N-m (100 ft.2271 N-m (200 ft. .000 GVW Cab-Chassis . . .) Spring Clamp Nuts 6. .010-7.800-1.) Spring Clamp Nuts 6. lbs. . . .285 N-m (210 ft. lbs. . . lbs. lbs.100 GVW.500 GVW. DESCRIPTION TORQUE Shock Absorber Lower N u t .163 N-m (120 ft. lbs. .23 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued! SPRING CLAMP BOLT SPRING SEAT SPRING SPACER (6) Install spring clamp bolts and the retaining nuts. . .500 GVW .500 GVW . . . . (3) Align spring front eye with bolt hole in the front bracket. . . (8) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle so that the weight is being supported by the tires. lbs. lbs.) Jounce Bumper Bolts 61 N-m (45 ft. Install the eye pivot bolt and nut.010-10. . .) REAR SUSPENSION (E-C0AT FRAME) Fig. . . . .203 N-m (150 ft. .149 N-m (110 ft. SPECIFICATIONS SPRING PLATE SHACKLE' J9403-61 REAR SUSPENSION (WAX COAT FRAME) DESCRIPTION TORQUE Shock Absorber Lower Nut . lbs. . . (7) Align the auxiliary spring with the primary spring i f equipped.010-7. .

.

This will ensure safe oper­ ation. This is accomplished through universal joints. . . . . . . . The specified torque must always be applied when tightening the fasteners. . . . 14 SPECIAL TOOLS PROPELLER SHAFT . .DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 -1 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE CONTENTS I t i page page FRONT AXLE—MODEL 44/60 MODEL 60/70/80 AXLES 15 79 PROPELLER SHAFTS REAR AXLE—MODEL 9 1/4 1 51 PROPELLER SHAFTS INDEX page G E N E R A L INFORMATION CENTER BEARING LUBRICATION PRECAUTIONS PROPELLER SHAFTS UNIVERSAL JOINTS DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING RUNOUT UNBALANCE VIBRATION SERVICE PROCEDURES INSPECTION MEASUREMENT—TWO-PIECE SHAFT PROPELLER SHAFT ANGLE MEASUREMENT . Tubular propeller shafts are balanced by the man­ ufacturer with weights spot welded to the tube. . The propeller shaft must operate through con­ stantly changing relative angles between the trans­ mission and axle. . 8 DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY CENTER BEARING 8 DOUBLE CARDAN (CV) 10 SINGLE CARDAN . . . This design produces the smoothest running condition. The axle rides sus­ pended by springs in a floating motion. . . . the propeller shaft and the U-joints should be covered. . . . . . . . . . . . The slip joints (or yokes) permit contraction or expansion. This means the propeller shaft must be able to change angles when going over various roads. 13 ADJUSTMENTS ADJUSTMENT AT AXLE W I T H LEAF SPRINGS . . . . I t must also be capable of changing length while transmitting torque. . . . . . . UNIVERSAL JOINT ANGLE REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION FRONT PROPELLER SHAFT page 2 2 2 1 2 4 3 3 5 6 5 4 7 REAR PROPELLER SHAFT . . . . This will prevent the undercoating from causing an out of balance condition and vibration. 9 CLEANING AND INSPECTION SINGLE AND DOUBLE CARDAN JOINT . . . . . CAUTION: Use exact replacement parts for attach­ ing the propeller shafts. Before undercoating a vehicle. . . . . The propeller shaft is designed and built with the yoke lugs in line with each other which is called phasing. 1 4 CENTER BEARING ADJUSTMENT—TWO PIECE SHAFT 14 SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE . which permit the propeller shaft to operate at different angles. . . The shaft is designed to send torque through an angle from the transmission (transfer case on 4WD vehicles) to the axle. . An out of phase shaft can cause a vibra­ tion. . . 7 T W O PIECE PROPELLER SHAFT—REAR . 14 GENERAL INFORMATION PROPELLER SHAFTS The function of a propeller shaft is to transmit power from one point to another in a smooth action. .

The rear prop shaft uses a 7290 series univer­ sal joint with a 9 1/4 axle. 2 Single Cardan Universal J9416-2 S Joint—Typical — Fig. The specified torque must always be applied when tightening the fasteners. 1). Type 1 is used with the 9 1/4 axle. 1 Center Bearing LINK YOKE UNIVERSAL JOINTS The front prop shaft uses a 7290 series universal joints. This will assure correct phasing and eliminate possible vibration. Type 2 is used with the Dana axles (Fig. A 1410 series universal joint is used with the Dana 60. RETAINER J9416-11 TYPE 2 TYPE 1 Fig. the U-joint should be replaced. Two types of center bearings are used. Shaft with 7290 series universal joints use external snap rings. PRECAUTIONS Use exact replacement hardware for attaching the propeller shafts. 3) LUliiCATlON The slip yoke on the Type 1 front shaft is equipped with a lubrication fitting. Use a multi-purpose NLGI Grade 2 EP lubricant. Exact replacement will ensure safe operation.3 -2 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) CENTER BEARING The two-piece propeller shaft uses a center bearing to support the shafts. All U-joints should be inspected for leakage and damage each time the vehicle is ser­ viced. Shafts with 1410 series universal joints use internal snap rings. J9316-2 Fig. 4). Two different types of universal joints systems are used: ® Single cardan universal joint (Fig. I f seal leakage or damage exists. 70 and 80 rear axles. 2) • Double cardan universal joint (Fig. Put reference marks on the propshaft yoke and axle or transmission yoke before service (Fig.The factory installed U-joints are lubricated for the life of the vehicle and do not need lubrication. Both types are mounted in the same location. 4 Reference Marks on Yokes .

• Inspect the propeller shaft for missing balance weights. and are correctly aligned with the shaft. Clean exterior of shaft and wash with solvent. Refer to Group 5. it must be replaced. Install the wheel lug nuts to retain the brake drums. the transmission extension seal could be damaged and cause a leak. (3) Mark and number the shaft six inches from the yoke end at four positions 90° apart. the vibration may not be propeller shaft unbalance. g. h. d. (5) Install a screw clamp at position 1 (Fig. Tighten screws properly. e. (8) I f the vibration decreased. If the pro­ peller shaft is bent. Install replacement propeller shaft. mi 6-7 UNIVERSAL JOINT NOISE a. move the clamp to one of the other three positions. Propeller shaft damaged (bent tube) or out of balance. Worn U-joint bearings. Excessive runout or unbalanced condition. (4) Run and accelerate the vehicle until vibration occurs. Incorrect drive line angularity. h. test and correct as necessary. Reindex propeller shaft 180° and evaluate. if damaged. c. Driveline vibration can also result from loose or damaged engine mounts. Repeat the vibration test. j . broken welds. Reindex propeller shaft 180°. Excessive drive pinion gear shaft yoke runout. A vibration that occurs within a specific speed range is not caused by propeller shaft unbalance. Loose or bent U-joint yoke or excessive runout. • Check the universal joint clamp screws torque (1) Raise the vehicle. low frequency vibration. 3-3 UNBALANCE If propeller shaft unbalance is suspected.protect the machined. Trans­ missions for additional information. b. Correct angularity e. a. Undercoating or other foreign material on shaft.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) CAUTION: Do not allow the propeller shaft to drop or hang from either universal joint during removal Attach it to the vehicle underside with wire to pre­ vent damage to the universal joints. I f there is little or no change in vibration. Brake drums that are unbalanced will cause a harsh. b. • Ensure the universal joints are not worn. Refer to Group 22. . Note the intensity and speed the vibration occurred. CAUTION: It is very important to . Install replacement yoke. Propeller shaft vibration will increase as the vehi­ cle speed is increased. (6) Start the engine and re-check for vibration. external surface of the slip yoke from damage after propeller shaft removal. Replace U-joint. Loose U-joint clamp screws. Lack of lubrication. i t can be verified with the following procedure: Removing and re-indexing the propeller shaft 180° may eliminate some vibrations. U-joint clamp screws loose. are properly installed. i. Tighten screws with specified torque. Broken rear spring. VIBRATION Correction DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G VIBRATION Tires that are out-of-round or wheels that are unbalanced will cause a low frequency vibration. g. Rear spring center bolt not in seat. i. Replace rear spring. f. and bent areas. a. (2) Remove the wheel and tires assembly. Brakes for additional information. 5). Refer to Group 21. DRIVELINE D r i v e Condition PROPELLER SHAFT Possible Cause a. Replace U-joint. Stop the engine. (7) I f there is no difference in vibration at the other positions. j. install a second clamp (Fig. d. f. Defective universal joints or an incorrect propeller shaft angle are usually the cause. b. c. Loosen spring U-bolts and seat center bolts. b. 6) and repeat the test. • Clean all the foreign material from the propeller shaft and the universal joints. Wheels and Tires for additional information.

On 4WD vehicles. (0. The larger the angle.010 in. : Fig. the larger the amount of acceleration and deceleration of the joint. 7). Repeat the vibration test (Fig.20 inch for full length of the tube. This speed­ ing up and slowing down of the joint must be can­ celled to produce a smooth power flow. When taking universal joint angle measurements or checking phasing with two piece shafts. .25 mm) 0. RF488 J9116-15 Fig. 6 Two Clamp Screws At The Same Position (9) I f the clamps cause an additional unbalance. Ideally the driveline system should have. the bend that is formed is called the operating angle. (4) Refer to Runout Specifications chart. A twisted shaft will throw the yokes out of phase and cause a notice­ able vibration. separate the clamps (1/4 inch above and below the mark). rust. (12) I f the amount of vibration remains unaccept­ able. . .25 mm) NOTE: Measure front/rear runout approximately 3 inches (76 mm) from the weld seam at each end of the shaft tube for tube lengths over 30 inches.". . (0. . . Lower the vehicle. . Areas where the dial indicator will contact the shaft must be clean. This is done through phasing and proper universal joint working angles. . Under 30 inches the max. . SERVICE PROCEDURES UNIVERSAL JOINT ANGLE INFORMATION 1 Fig.010 in. (0. paint. (5) Replace the propeller shaft i f the runout exceeds the limit.38 mm) 0. and undercoating from the propeller shaft surface. apply procedures at the front end of the propel­ ler shaft. Bend the slack end of the clamps so the screws will not loosen. . (2) The dial indicator must be installed perpendic­ ular to the shaft surface. consider each shaft separately. . Rear of shaft .3 -4 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE — ——^ —^ BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) (10) Increase distance between the clamp screws and repeat the test until the amount of vibration is at the lowest level. . (3) Measure runout at the center and ends away from welds.015 in.. . RUNOUT Front of shaft Center of shaft . . A propeller shaft is properly phased when the yoke ends are on the same plane or in line. the front shaft input (pinion shaft) angle has priority over the caster angle. 5 Clamp Screw At Position 1 RUNOUT (1) Remove dirt. . 7 Clamp Screws Separated When two shafts come together at any common joint. runout is 0. SPECIFICATIONS 0. (11) Install the wheel and tires.

Always check angles in loaded and unloaded conditions. 10 Propeller Shaft Angle Measurement (C) (4) Subtract smaller figure from larger (C minus A) to obtain Transmission Output Operating Angle. PROPELLER SHAFT ANGLE MEASUREMENT To accurately check driveline alignment. 9 Front (Output) Angle Measurement (A) INSPECTION Before measuring universal joint angles. Propeller shaft angles will change according to the amount of load in the vehicle. 8 Maximum Angles And Engine Speed Fig. 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 M A X « NORMAL OPERATING ANGLES 3° 3° 4° 5° 5° 7° 8° 11° J9316-4 (J-23498A) J9216-13 Fig. 8). This measurement will give you the Propeller Shaft Angle (C).P.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3-5 SERVICE PROCEDURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) • Angles that are in equal or opposite within 1 degree of each other • Have a 3 degree maximum operating angle • Have at least a 1/2 degree continuous operating (propeller shaft) angle Engine speed (rpm) is the main factor though in determining maximum allowable operating angles. Remove any external bearing snap rings (if equipped) from universal joint so protractor base sits flat. (1) Rotate the shaft until transmission/transfer case output yoke bearing is facing downward. This measurement will give you the pinion shaft or Input Yoke Angle (B). This measurement will give you the transmis­ sion or Output Yoke Angle (A). 10). Center bubble in sight glass and record measurement. PROPELLER SHAFT R. • * Check the condition of all suspension compo­ nents and verify all fasteners are torqued to specifi­ cations. 11). Center bubble in sight glass and record measurement. . (5) Rotate propeller shaft 90 degrees and place Inclinometer on pinion yoke bearing parallel to the shaft (Fig. (2) Place Inclinometer on yoke bearing (A) parallel to the shaft (Fig. Always make measurements from front to rear.M. As a guide to maximum normal operating angles refer to the chart listed (Fig. J9216-9 Fig. • Inflate all tires to correct pressure • Check angles in the same loaded or unloaded condition as when the vibration occurred. raise and support the vehicle at the axles as level as possible. Allow the wheels and propeller shaft to turn. 9). the following must be done. This measurement can also be taken at the rear end of the shaft. • Check the condition of the engine and transmis­ sion mounts and verify all fasteners are torqued to specifications. Center bubble in sight glass and record measurement. (3) Rotate propeller shaft 90 degrees and place Inclinometer on yoke bearing parallel to the shaft (Fig.

7° = 4.i DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) • Operating angles less than 3° © At least 1/2 of one degree continuous operating (propeller shaft) angle MEASUREMENT—TWO-PIECE SHAFT A rear propeller shaft U-joint angle can be easily measured with Special Tool 7663.7° Amount of U-J6int Cancellation 0. Refer to rules given below and the example in (Fig. • Good cancellation of U-joint operating angles (within 1°) Output Yoke Horizontal Level (A) Output Yoke = 3.9° (B) Axle Input Yoke (C) Prop.2° 4.9° or 4. (4) Excessive variation in measurement angles of A. (3) Repeat measurement procedure on bearing cap B and C. 13).2° 3. Output Operating Angle 1.9° -3. Allow the wheels and propeller shaft to turn. Shaft Axle Input Operating Angle Trans.9° ° . 12) for additional information. B or C indicate propeller mis-alignment. raise and support the vehicle at the axles as level as possible. The front half-shaft must be parallel to the rear axle pinion gear shaft.3 . (1) Rotate the shaft until transmission/transfer case output yoke bearing is facing downward.a degree. From the transmission/transfer case output shaft and from each other. (2) Place Inclinometer on yoke bearing (A) parallel to the shaft (Fig. Vertical alignment of a two-piece shaft at the yokes should be greater t h a n one-half degree and as close to one degree as possible. Remove any external bearing snap rings (if equipped) from universal joint so protractor base sits flat. 0 ° 1 9° Transmission Output Operating Angle J9316-3 Fig. To accurately check driveline alignment.3 .0° (C) Prop. PINION YOKE BEARING CAP SPECIAL TOOL 7663 (J-23498A) J9216-12 Fig. The front and rear half-shafts must be offset by a minimum of 1/2 of . 12 Universal Joint Angle Example .2° 1. Shaft r 4. Record these measurements. 11 Rear (input) Angle Measurement (B) (6) Subtract smaller figure from larger (C minus B) to obtain axle Input Operating Angle.9° Axle Input Operating Angle -1. Center bubble i n sight glass and record measurement.

14). INSTALLATION (1) Shift the transmission and transfer case to their neutral positions.) torque. 15). lbs. (4) Slide the slip yoke off of the transmission/ transfer case output shaft and remove the propeller shaft (Fig. (2) Scribe alignment mark on transfer case and propeller shaft flanges. refer to Group 13. Raise and sup­ port vehicle. Raise and support vehicle. refer. Replacement U-joint straps and bolts must be installed. 14). (4) Remove bolts from transfer case yoke flange and remove the propeller shaft. Replacement U-joint straps and bolts must be installed. Remove skid plates (if equipped). 14 Front Propeller Shaft (1) Slide the slip yoke on the transmission/transfer case output shaft. (2) Scribe alignment marks on the pinion yoke. (2) Tighten the U-joint strap bolts at the pinion shaft to 19 N-m (14 ft. lbs. 15). Scribe mark on pinion shaft yoke and propeller shaft.BR — — — DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 -7 YOKES MUST BE IN SAME PLANE J9016-26 Fig. These marks will be used for installation reference (Fig. Tighten the transfer case bolts to 88 N-m (65 ft. (3) Remove the U-joint strap bolts at pinion shaft yoke. Install the propeller shaft (Fig. Remove support and lower the vehicle. (3) Install skid plates (if equipped). Frames. . INSTALLATION SLIP YOKE BOOT AXLE YOKE J9416-1 Fig. to Group 13 Frames. TRANSFER CASE (1) Position the propeller shaft with the yoke ref­ erence marks aligned.) torque. Align the installation reference marks at the axle yoke and install the propeller shaft (Fig. 13 Universal Joint Angle—Two-Piece Shaft REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION FRONT PROPELLER SHAFT REMOVAL (3) Remove the U-joint strap bolts at the pinion shaft yoke. REAR PROPELLER SHAFT REMOVAL STRAP (1) Shift the transmission and transfer case (if applicable) to their Neutral positions.

(5) Slide the slip yoke off transmission output shaft and remove the propeller shaft. Type 2 is used with the Dana axles. (2) Remove slip joint boot clamp and separate the two shafts. Refer to two-piece removal. 16 Center REMOVAL Bearing (1) Shift the transmission/transfer case to their Neutral positions. Both types are mounted in the same location and service the same. (3) Remove support and lower the vehicle. (4) Lower the vehicle. • 9 1/4 Axle: 19 N-m (14 ft. • 9 1/4 Axle: 19 N-m (14 ft. lbs. .) torque. (4) Position Bearing Splitter Tool 1130 between slinger and shaft. Align the installation reference marks at the axle yoke. Raise and support vehicle. lbs. (1) Install new slinger on shaft and drive into posi­ tion with 2 1/2 in. The bearing supports the shafts where they join together. The two-piece propeller shaft uses two types of cen­ ter bearings. (3) Use hammer and punch to tap slinger away from shaft to provide room for bearing splitter. • Dana Axle: 29 N-m (22 ft. (1) Remove rear two-piece shaft. lbs.) torque. ID pipe to install slinger.) torque. REMOVAL (2) Tighten the U-joint strap bolts to.) torque. (1) Slide the slip yoke on transmission output shaft. (5) Set shaft in press and press bearing off the shaft. Remove bolts that attach the center bearing to the support bracket (Fig. INSTALLATION SCREW 19 N-m (14 ft-lbs). (3) Remove the universal joint strap bolts at the pinion shaft yoke. • Dana Axle: 29 N-m (22 ft. 16). ID pipe for type 1 center bearing. (3) Tighten the U-joint strap bolts to. TWO PIECE PROPELLER SHAFT—REAR The two piece shaft has a center bearing which supports the shafts where they are joined together (Fig. (2) Install new center bearing on shaft with Bear­ ing Installer Tool 6052. lbs. For type 2 center bearing use 2 1/4 in. Replacement U-joint straps and bolts must be installed. lbs. CAUTION: Do not damage shaft spline during removal of center bearing. The slip joints are master splined. J9416-2 TYPE 2 TYPE 1 INSTALLATION Fig.) torque.3 -8 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE en R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) SLIDING (4) Scribe alignment marks on the frame crossmember for center bearing reference. 15 Rear Propeller Shaft DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY CENTER BEARING Vehicles equipped with a two-piece rear propeller shaft have a rubber insulated center bearing. Drive on shaft with hammer until bearing is seated. Type 1 is used with the 9 1/4 axle. (2) Align and install the center bearing to the sup­ port bracket. CLAMP J9216-6 Fig. 16). (2) Scribe alignment marks on the pinion yoke. Install the bolts and tighten to 68 N-m (50 ft.

Then carefully press the end of the cross until the remain­ ing bearing can be removed (Fig. turn the yoke over and straighten the cross in the open hole. tap the base of the lug near it to dislodge. SINGLE CARDAN REMOVAL DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3. 19). Refer to installation two-piece shaft. Place a smaller socket on the upper bearing assembly and press it through to release the lower bearing assem­ bly (Fig. (4) Align master splines and slide front and rear shafts together. 17 Remove Snap Ring BEARING (5) Set the yoke in an arbor press or vise with a large socket beneath it. J9316-24 Fig. (7) To remove the opposite bearing. (6) I f the bearing assembly will not pull out by hand after pressing. If worn or leaking.I Single cardan universal joints are not serviceable. Position the yoke with the grease fitting pointing up (if equipped).mm D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y (Continued) (3) Clean shaft splines and apply a coat of multi-purpose grease. (3) Using a soft drift. Refer to Propeller Shaft Replacement in this Group. they must be replaced as a unit. Reposition slip yoke boot and install new clamp. the bearing assembly will score the walls of the yoke bore and ruin the yoke. (1) Remove the propeller shaft. (5) Install two-piece shaft in vehicle. 18). Fig. 17). (2) Paint or score alignment marks on the yokes and propeller shaft for installation refer­ ence. J9316-19 Fig. (4) Remove snap rings from both sides of yoke (Fig. 18 Press Out Bearing J9316-2V CAUTION: If the cross or bearing assembly are cocked when being pressed. 19 Press Out Remaining Bearing . tap the outside of the bear­ ing assembly to loosen snap ring.

3 . Install a snap ring.G. Grade 1 or 2 grease to aid in installation. 21 install Bearing On Trunnion . (3) Remove all the bearing assembly snap rings (Fig. strike the yoke with a soft hammer to seat the needle bearings. 22). A needle roller.10 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I S A S S E M B L Y A N D A S S E M B L Y {Continued) ASSEMBLY (1) Apply extreme pressure (EP) N. 20). lying at the bottom will prevent proper assembly. (7) Install the propeller shaft. 20 install Cross in Yoke (3) Place a bearing assembly over the trunnion and align i t with the cross hole (Fig. J9316-22 Fig. (1) Remove the propeller shaft. CROSS (4) Press the bearing assembly into the cross hole enough to install a snap ring. they must be replaced as a unit.L.I. I f worn or leaking. DOUBLE CARDAN (CV) REMOVAL Cardan universal joints are not serviceable. Keep the needle bearings upright in the bearing assembly. 22 Remove Snap Rings Fig. Install a snap ring. (2) Paint or score alignment marks on the yokes and propeller shaft for installation refer­ ence. (5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 to install the opposite bearing assembly. J9316-5 Fig. I f the joint is stiff. (6) Add grease to lube fitting (if equipped). Refer to Propeller Shaft Replacement in this Group. 21). (2) Position the cross in the yoke with its lube fit­ ting (if equipped) pointing up (Fig.

Be sure to remove grease fittings that interfere with removal. 26).BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y {Continued) (4) Press the bearing assembly partially from the outboard side of the center yoke. 25 Remove Centering Kit Fig. enough to grasp by vise jaws (Fig. 25). 24). (6) Flip assembly and repeat steps 4 and 5 for removing the opposite side bearing. J9316-8 J9316-6 Fig. This will then allow removal of the cross centering kit assembly and spring (Fig. DIFFERENTIAL ANU UKIVCLHU. (1) Fit a cross into the tube yoke (Fig. INSTALLATION During installation. 23 Press Out Bearing (5) Grasp the protruding bearing by vise jaws. (7) Press the remaining bearing assemblies out the other cross as described above to complete the disas­ sembly. 24 Remove Bearing From Yoke Fig. J9316-7 J9316-9 Fig. 23). Tap the tube yoke with a mallet and drift to dislodge from the yoke (Fig. 26 install Cross In Yoke . ensure that the spiders and yokes are aligned to the reference marks.

28 Press In Bearing Assembly . Keep the needle bearings upright in the bearing assembly (Fig. b o t h (3) Press the bearing assembly in place and install a snap ring (Fig. (4) Flip the tube yoke and bearing assembly instal­ lation on the opposite trunnion. Fig..1MHML ANU DRIVELINE ^ ^ • ^ • ^ BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y {Continued) • (2) Place a bearing assembly in a tube yoke hole and over a trunnion. 27). Be sure to remove any lube fittings that may interfere with removal. 30). Install a snap ring. 27 Install Bearing Assembly (5) Fit the center yoke on the remaining two trunn i o n s a n d p r e s s b e a r i n g a s s e m b l i e s i n p l a c e . . Fig. 28). sides (Fig.1L. Install a snap ring (Fig. A needle roller lying at the bottom will prevent proper assem­ bly. 29)._ .

84 Seat Snap Rings In Groove CLEANING AND INSPECTION J9316-15 Fig. . SINGLE AND DOUBLE CARDAN JOINT (1) Clean all the universal joint yoke bores with cleaning solvent and a wire brush. (9) Tap the snap rings to allow them to seat into the grooves (Fig. (11) Install the propeller shaft. (10) Check for proper assembly. Fit the open trunnions into the center yoke holes and the bearing assemblies into the centering kit (Fig. 35). 31).BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y (Continue (6) Install the centering kit assembly inside the center yoke making sure the spring is i n place (Fig. 32). cracks and worn bearing assembly bores. 32 instaii Remaining Cross (8) Press the remaining two bearing assemblies into place and install snap rings (Fig. J9316-17 Fig. 34). 33 Press in Bearing J9316-14 Assembly Fig. 33). DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 -13 Fig. (2) Inspect the yokes for distortion. 31 instail Centering Kit (7) Place two bearing assemblies on the remaining cross (opposite sides). Flex the CV joint beyond center. it should snap over-center in both directions when correctly assembled (Fig.

flange yoke 88 N-m (65 ft. . . 36 Adjustment at Leaf Springs—Typical PROPELLER SHAFT CENTER BEARING ADJUSTMENT—TWO PIECE SHAFT Drive away shudder is the vibration that occurs at first acceleration from a stop. lbs. lbs. ... Use shim stock or fabricated plates (Fig. lbs. 35 Check Assembly ADJUSTMENTS ADJUSTMENT AT AXLE WITH LEAF SPRINGS Adjust the pinion shaft angle at the springs with tapered shims (Fig. . J9316-18 Fig. Shudder is a symp­ tom associated on vehicles using a two-piece prop shaft. axle yoke .) REAR SHAFT AXLE YOKE BOLTS 9 1/4 Axle .) CENTER BEARING BRACKET Frame Bolts ..68 N-m (50 ft. Replace the original bolts with the appropriate increased length bolts. Install tapered shims between the springs and axle pad to correct the angle. .19 N-m (14 ft. lbs. . J9316-25 Fig. 30 N-m (22 ft.. .) Bearing Bolts .68 N-m (50 ft.) Bolts.. Plate stock must be used to maintain compression of the rubber insulator around the bearing. Shudder vibration usually peaks at the engines highest torque output. . 37 Angle Adjustment at Center Bearing SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE DESCRIPTION TORQUE FRONT SHAFT Bolts. Do not use Inclinometer—7663 .) SPECIAL TOOLS Fig.19 N-m (14 ft. lbs. Refer to Rear Suspension for additional information. . . 37). .) Dana Axle.3 -14 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE — — • — — BR washers. . . 36). . To decreased shudder lowering the center bearing in 1/8 inch increments. lbs. . .

. 45 TORQUE . . . . . 38 STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL 39 LEANING AND INSPECTION AXLE COMPONENTS 39 ADJUSTMENTS DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR LASH 42 PINION GEAR DEPTH . The differential case is a one-piece design. The axle has a vent used to relieve internal pres­ sure caused by lubricant vaporization and internal expansion.S. The hub bearings are serviced as an assembly. Pinion bearing preload is set and maintained by the use of a collapsible spacer. . . . The dif­ ferential pinion mate shaft is retained with a roll pin. . . . 26 VACUUM SHIFT MOTOR 24 ISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY AXLE SHAFT—CARDAN U-JOINT . The shims are located between the differential bearing cones and case. Brakes. tone rings are pressed onto the axle shaft near the hub and knuckle. has the centerline of the pinion set below the centerline of the ring gear.S. meaning that loads are supported by the hub bearings. . . The stamped steel cover provides a means for inspection and servicing the differential. . . The tag is . . The axle shafts are retained by nuts at the hub bearings. 28 RING GEAR 34 STEERING KNUCKLE 44 AXLE . 26 STEERING KNUCKLE 60 AXLE . Build date identification codes are stamped on the axle shaft tube cover side. Differential bearing preload and ring gear back­ lash is adjusted by the use of shims.B. 32 PINION GEAR 34 PINION SHAFT SEAL REPLACEMENT .B. . .BR — DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 -15 FRONT AXLE—MODEL 44/80 INDEX page page GENERAL INFORMATION FRONT DRIVE AXLE GENERAL INFORMATION LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL OPERATION VACUUM DISCONNECT 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 19 18 18 21 18 24 32 27 27 32 30 25 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING DIAGNOSIS INFORMATION DRIVELINE SNAP FRONT DRIVE AXLE GEAR AND BEARING NOISE LOW SPEED KNOCK VACUUM DISCONNECT AXLE/SHIFT MOTOR DIAGNOSIS VIBRATION SERVICE PROCEDURES LUBRICANT CHANGE REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL BALL STUDS 44 AXLE BALL STUDS 60 AXLE DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY REPLACEMENT FINAL ASSEMBLY 38 HUB BEARING AND AXLE SHAFT 26 INTERMEDIATE AXLE SHAFT . For additional information on the A. . . system refer to Group 5. The integral type housing. The tubes are pressed into and welded to the differential housing. hypoid gear design has the centerline of the pinion set below the centerline of the ring gear. . . The tag is attached to the housing cover. . . . . 40 SPECIFICATIONS FRONT AXLE . 45 SPECIAL TOOLS FRONT AXLE 46 GENERAL INFORMATION GENERAL INFORMATION The housing for Model 44/60 front axles consists of an iron center casting with tubes on each side. . . . . The Dana 44 and 60 axle has the assembly part number and gear ratio listed on a tag. . The A. The Model 44/60 axle has the assembly part num­ ber and gear ratio listed on a tag. . The axles are equipped with semi-floating axle shafts. . . . . .B. . FRONT DRIVE AXLE The integral type housing. The sensors are attached to the knuckle assemblies and tone rings are pressed on the axle shaft. . . . . The axles are equipped with optional A. Use care when removing axle shafts as NOT to dam­ age the tone wheel or the sensor. . The axles are equipped with ABS brake sensors. The hub bearings are bolted to the steering knuckle at the outboard end of the axle tube yoke. .S. . brake system.

the .16 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE mm Refer to Group 0. the outside wheel must travel a greater distance than the inside wheel in order to complete a turn. 3). The pinion gears are mounted on a pinion mate shaft and are free to rotate on the shaft. Each differential side gear is splined to' an axle shaft. • The factory fill for the Model 44/60 axle is SAE 80W-90 gear lubricant When turning corners. 1 Model 44 Differential Cower DIFFERENTIAL COVER FILL PLUG STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL OPERATION The differential gear system divides the torque between the axle shafts. DIFFERENTIAL COVER IDENTIFICATION TAG J9202-23 Fig. As a result. 4). The pinion gear is fitted in a bore in the differential case and is positioned at a right angle to the axle shafts. The lubricant should have API GL 5 quality specifications. Mopar. Ther­ mal Stable Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant conforms to these specifications. power flow occurs as follows: • Pinion gear rotates the ring gear • Ring gear (bolted to the differential case) rotates the case • Differential pinion gears (mounted on the pinion mate shaft in the case) rotate the side gears • Side gears (splined to the axle shafts) rotate the shafts During straight-ahead driving. CAUTION: If axle is submerged in water. 8 Differential Operation—Straight Ahead Driving LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS Thermal Stable Multi-Purpose Gear Lubricant is used for Model 44/60 axles. In operation. 2). Lubrication and Maintenance for additional information. This occurs because input torque applied to the gears is divided and distributed equally between the two side gears. To accom­ plish this the differential allows the axle shafts to turn at unequal speeds (Fig. 1) or (Fig. the differential pin­ ion gears do not rotate on the pinion mate shaft. I t allows the axle shafts to rotate at different speeds when turning corners. the pinion gears revolve with the pinion mate shaft but do not rotate around i t (Fig.3 . Build date identification codes are stamped on the axle shaft tube cover side. 2 Model 60 Differential Cower Fig. I N STRAIGHT A H E A D DRIVING EACH WHEEL ROTATES AT 100% OF CASE SPEED MODEL NUMBER J9202-97 P I N I O N GEARS ROTATE WITH CASE J9303-13 Fig. In this instance. the lubri­ cant must be replaced immediately to avoid con­ tamination. This difference must be compensated for in order to prevent the wheels from scuffing and skidding through the turn. FILL PLUG G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) attached to the housing cover (Fig.

Mis-ad­ justment will produce noise. I f a mis-adjustment condition is not corrected. Axle component breakage is most often the result of: • Severe overloading • Insufficient lubricant • Incorrect lubricant • Improperly tightened components Common causes of overloading is from full throttle acceleration. Gear tooth cracking and bearing spalling are indicators of this. The pinion gears now rotate around the pinion mate shaft in opposite directions. I t can also be from worn axle shaft or pinion gear seals.BR G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N fContinued) input torque applied to the pinion gears is not divided equally. 5) CHECK VALVE SHIFT MOTOR Axle bearing problem conditions are usually caused by: • Insufficient or incorrect lubricant • Foreign matter/water contamination • Incorrect bearing preload torque adjustment • Incorrect backlash (to tight) When serviced. Component break­ age can occur when the wheels are spun excessively. Incorrect bearing preload or gear backlash will not result in component breakage. the bearings must be cleaned thor­ oughly. Excessive bearing preload may not be noisy. Axle gear problem conditions are usually the result of: • Insufficient lubrication • Incorrect or contaminated lubricant • Overloading (excessive engine torque) » Exceeding vehicle weight capacity • Incorrect clearance or backlash adjustment Insufficient lubrication is usually the result of a housing cover leak. Using the * wrong lubricant will cause overheating and gear failure. They should be dried with lint-free shop tow­ els. 4 Differential Operation—On Turns VACUUM DISCONNECT VACUUM CONTROL SYSTEM The disconnect axle control system consists of. 5 Vacuum Control System Refer to Group 21 Transmissions for addi­ tional information. This condition will cause high temperature which can result in bearing failure. • Shift motor • Indicator switch • Vacuum switch • Vacuum harness (Fig. Loose differential components can also cause breakage. . This allows the side gear and axle shaft attached to the outside wheel to rotate at a faster speed. Never dry bearings with compressed air. j OUTER WHEEL 1 1 0 % CASE SPEED AXLE f 1 0 0 % DIFFERENTIAL CASE SPEED j INNER WHEEL 9 0 % CASE SPEED DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Check for cracks or porous areas in the housing or tubes. J9202-55 Fig. Insufficient or incorrect lubricants contribute to breakage through overheating. Overloading happens when towing heavier than recommended loads. This will cause accel­ erated wear and contribute to early failure. This will overheat them and brinell the bearing surfaces.17 P i ^ Q U Q S I S Mm TESTING DIAGNOSES INFORMATION PINION G E A R S ROTATE O N PINION SHAFT J9303-14 Fig. . component failure can result. This will result in noisy operation after repair.

or above 50 mph. Where axle bearing damage is slight. out-of-balance wheels • Loose wheel lug nuts • Worn U-joint • Loose spring U-bolts • Loose/broken springs • Damaged axle shaft bearings • Loose pinion gear nut • Excessive pinion yoke run out • Bent axle shaft Check for loose or damaged front-end components or engine/transmission mounts. If bearing noise occurs the pinion rear bearing is the source of the noise. Tires And Wheels for additional information involving vibration diagnosis. Pinion gear bearings have a constant-pitch noise. deceleration. Shift out-of-gear and coast through the peak-noise range. They usually do not cause noise in straight-ahead driving. Bearing noise can be either a whining. damaged differential bearings usually pro­ duce a low pitch noise. A worn pinion gear shaft bore will also cause low speed knock. This noise changes only with vehicle speed. a mechanics stethoscope is helpful in isolating the source of a noise. Incorrect ring gear backlash. All driveline components should be examined before starting any repair. VIBRATION Vibration at the rear of the vehicle is usually caused by: • Damaged drive shaft • Missing drive shaft balance weight • Worn. The pitch of differential bearing noise is also constant and varies only with vehicle speed. Refer to Group 22. When road testing. I f the noise stops or changes greatly. A worn pinion gear mate shaft can also cause a snapping or a knocking noise. I f the bearing noise is heard during a coast. Turn the vehicle sharply to the left and to the right. Instruct the helper to shift the transmission into gear. check for insuf­ ficient lubricant. front bearing is the source. The axle shaft. Gear noise usually happens • at a specific speed range. The range is 30 to 40 mph. These conditions are acceleration. The noise generally changes when the bearings are loaded. differential and pinion gear bear­ ings can all produce noise when worn or damaged. Worn. or constant load. accelerate the vehicle to the speed range where the noise is the greatest. the noise is usually not noticeable at speeds above 30 mph. Road test the vehicle. or a growling sound. Axle shaft bearings produce noise and vibration when worn or damaged. Do not overlook engine accessories. The side gears are loaded during vehicle turns.18 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G (Continued) GEAR AND BEARING NOISE GEAR NOISE Axle gear noise can be caused by insufficient lubri­ cant.3 . brack­ ets and drive belts. Listen for the noise. or worn/dam­ aged gears can cause noise. Incorrect backlash. Raise the vehi­ cle on a hoist with the wheels free to rotate. Drive the vehicle and load the differen­ tial. This will load the bearings and change the noise level. tooth contact. BEARING NOISE LOW SPEED KNOCK Low speed knock is generally caused by a worn U-joint or by worn side-gear thrust washers. I f noise does occur dur­ ing vehicle turns. or gear damage can cause noise changes. These components can contribute to what appears to be a rear-end vibration. Differential side and pinion gears can be checked by turning the vehicle. DRIVELINE SNAP A snap or clunk noise when the vehicle is shifted into gear (or the clutch engaged). . Differential bearing noise is similar to pinion bearing. the side or pinion gears could be worn or damaged. The noise can also occur during a specific type of driving condition. coast. can be caused by: • High engine idle speed • Loose engine/transmission/transfer case mounts • Worn U-joints ® Loose spring mounts • Loose pinion gear nut and yoke • Excessive ring gear backlash • Excessive side gear/case clearance The source of a snap or a clunk noise can be deter­ mined with the assistance of a helper. Pinion bearing noise will be higher because it rotates at a faster rate.

brinelled wheel bearing. 3. Clean and refill differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. Faulty or brinelled bearings must be replaced. Readjust as necessary. Fill rear differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. 7. adjust differential bearings properly. Replace cracked case. 4. Insufficient lubrication. Replace bent or sprung axle shaft. Drain excess lubricant by removing fill plug and allow lubricant to level at lower edge of fill plug hole. Faulty. Inspect all gears. Excessive ring gear backlash. Refer to Specifications. 8. AXLE SHAFT N O I S E 1. If necessary. 6. adjust ring gear backlash properly. 2. replace scuffed gears. 1. At reassembly. Scored gears should be replaced. Scoring marks on the drive face of gear teeth or in the bore are caused by instantaneous fusing of the mating surfaces. 5. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Tighten drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut with' specified torque. 2. Replace broken axle shaft after correcting axle shaft tube alignment. 1. 8. Improper adjustment of drive pinion gear shaft bearings. 1.BR — _____—_____ DIAGNOSIS POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. LOSS O F LUBRICANT 1. Replace broken axle shaft. Vehicle overloaded. pinion bores and shaft for damage. Inspect all gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid erratic use of clutch. 2. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. Inspect clutch and make necessary repairs or adjustments. Lubricant level too high. Erratic clutch operation. Service as necessary. 1. 3. Excessive spinning of one wheel/tire. J9503-3 . examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Improper grade of lubricant. DIFFERENTIAL CASE CRACKED 1. 3. 1. 4 . Replace cracked case. 4 . Correct as necessary. 3. AXLE SHAFT BROKE 1. Replace cracked case. 2.19 D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) FRONT DRIVE AXLE CONDITION WHEEL NOISE CORRECTION 1. Inspect axle shaft tube alignment. 4. 2. Tighten loose nuts. 2. Replace broken axle shaft after inspecting for other possible causes. Improper adjustment of differential bearings. 3. Misaligned axle shaft tube. Correct as necessary. Wheel loose. Replace cracked case. After inspecting for other possible causes. Loose drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut. Check adjustment of ring gear backlash and pinion gear. 4. 3. Scuffed gear tooth contact surfaces. 2. examine gears and bearings for possible \ damage. 4. Refer to Drive Pinion Bearing Pre-Load Adjustment. Avoid erratic use of clutch. Replace scored gears. 2. Excessive gear backlash between ring gear and pinion gear. Replace scored gears. 5. 2. Erratic clutch operation. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. Adjust drive pinion shaft bearings. Replace scored gears. End play in drive pinion bearings. 6. DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Vehicle overloaded. 3. Bent or sprung axle shaft. 2. DIFFERENTIAL G E A R S SCORED 1. Replace broken axle shaft. At reassembly. 3. Misaligned axle shaft tube. 7. Improper wheel bearing adjustment. Grabbing clutch.

Incorrect grade of lubricant. Readjust bearings. Replace worn or scored yoke and seal. 4. 5. Remove cover and clean flange and reseal. 7. 1. replace with new matched set. 6. Examine other gears and bearings for possible damage. Worn axle shaft seals. Measure ring gear runout. Loose differential bearing cap bolts J9503-4 . Insufficient ring gear backlash. 6. 2. Replace worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. Examine the remaining parts for possible damage. Inspect gears for excessive wear or scoring. Replace parts as required. Readjust ring gear backlash and inspect gears for possible scoring. 5. Ice-spotted pavements. Refill differential housing. j j CORRECTION GEAR TEETH BROKE (RING GEAR A N D PINION) 1. Axle cover not properly sealed. Also inspect for leaks and correct as necessary. Overloading. Replace gears and examine the remaining parts for possible damage. Replace with matched gear and drive pinion gear set. 5. Refill axle with correct amount of the proper lubricant. Unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. 5. Cracked differential housing. 8. Replace gears. Improper adjustments. 4. 8. If necessary. 2. Worn teeth on ring gear or drive pinion gear. Bearings adjusted too tight. 3. 3. Adjust drive pinion gearshaft bearing preload torque. Drain. 4. 5. Insufficient lubricant. Lubricant level too low. Examine other parts for possible damage. 2. 6. Loose differential bearings. Tighten with specified torque . 3. Replace worn seals. AXLE OVERHEATING 1.20 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE _ _ _ _ _ BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) CONTINUED CONDITION LOSS OF LUBRICANT P O S S I B L E CAUSES 2. 3. Check ring gear and pinion gear teeth contact pattern. Loose drive pinion gear shaft bearings. 4. 3. 2. 3. Erratic clutch operation. Replace gears. Avoid erratic clutch operation. 5. Ensure ring gear backlash is correct. Excessive gear wear. flush and refill with correct amount of the correct lubricant. 2. 3. 4. Check teeth on ring gear and drive pinion gear for correct contact. Worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. Improper ring gear and drive pinion gear adjustment. Remove unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. 3. Replace as necessary. Adjust differential bearing preload torque. 2. 1. 7. AXLE NOISE 1. Replace gears. 4.3 . Scored and worn yoke. 1.. 2. 4. 6. Repair or replace housing as necessary. 4. Misaligned or sprung ring gear.

CHECK VALVE 3 . • Shift motor • Indicator switch • Vacuum switch • Vacuum harness (Fig.21 SHIFT MOTOR J9202-55 Fig.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRlfELlNE D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) VACUUM DISCONNECT AXLE/SHIFT MOTOR DIAGNOSIS VACUUM CONTROL SYSTEM The disconnect axle control system consists of. 6) Refer to Group 21 Transmissions for addi­ tional information. 6 Vacuum Control System .

FRONT AXLE WILL NOT DISCONNECT. REPAIR AS NECESSARY. COLLAR.) DICONNECT THE SHIFT MOTOR VACUUM HOSES. REPLACE SHIFT MOTOR IF ARMATURE D O E S NOT MOVE IN A N D O U T FREELY. HG.22 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) DISCONNECT AXLE/SHIFT MOTOR DIAGNOSIS TWO-WHEEL DRIVE OPERATION FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT WILL NOT G O OUT W H E N TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IS MOVED FROM 4H TO 2H POSITION. INSPECT TRANSFER CASE LINKAGE. . PLACE TRANSMISSION IN NEUTRAL. VACUUM OK z x z STOP ENGINE INSPECT INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM SUPPLY HOSE C O N N E C T I O N . FRONT DRIVE SHAFT DOES NOT ROTATE. PLACE TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IN 2H POSITION AND TRANSMISSION IN DRIVE (AUTOMATIC) OR FIRST GEAR (MANUAL). J9G02-95 REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G COVER. (VACUUM SHOULD BE BETWEEN 10-20 IN. C O N N E C T VACUUM PUMP TO SHIFT MOTOR PORT. AND AXLE SHAFTS. FRONT AXLE D O E S NOT DISCONNECT. CHECK TRANSFER CASE. FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT REMAINS O N . REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G COVER. AIR LEAKS. KAISE VEHICLE S O ALL FOUR WHEELS ARE FREE TO ROTATE. REPAIR AS NECESSARY. DIAGNOSIS YES ' START ENGINE DEPRESS BRAKE PEDAL. FRONT AXLE DISCONNECTS. ± CONNECT A VACUUM PUMP TO THE INBOARD SHIFT MOTOR PORT. AND SHIFT SYSTEM VACUUM HOSES FOR PROPER C O N N E C T I O N . TRANSFER CASE VACUUM SWITCH C O N N E C T I O N . ETC. REPAIR AS NECESSARY. REPAIR OR REPLACE AS NECESSARY. REPAIR OR REPLACE AS NECESSARY. AND DAMAGE. 1 N O VACUUM OR LOW VACUUM. KINKS. RESTRICTION. INSPECT SHIFT FORK. H G VACUUM AND ROTATE RIGHT WHEEL. FRONT DRIVE SHAFT ROTATES.3 . VACUUM RESERVOIR. TEST FOR VACUUM IN VACUUM HOSE THAT CONNECTS TO INBOARD SHIFT MOTOR PORT. EASE OFF FROM BRAKE AND LET WHEELS ROTATE SLOWLY. APPLY 15 IN. INSPECT INDICATOR SWITCH AND W I R I N G O N SHIFT MOTOR H O U S I N G FOR DAMAGE AND SHORT-CIRCUIT. INSPECT VACUUM HOSES FOR AIR LEAKS.

SHOULD BE BETWEEN 10-20 IN HG. AND LAMP FOR DAMAGE. NO VACUUM OR LOW VACUUM. STOP ENGINE K VACUUM OK INSPECT INTAKE MANIFOLD VACUUM SUPPLY HOSE CONNECTION. FRONT AXLE WILL NOT CONNECT. FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT DOES NOT LIGHT. PLACE TRANSMISSION LEVER IN NEUTRAL POSITION. KINKS. REPAIR OR REPLACE AS NECESSARY. FRONT AXLE DOES NOT CONNECT. CONNECT VACUUM PUMP TO SHIFT MOTOR PORT. TEST FOR VACUUM AT HOSE REMOVED FROM OUT­ BOARD PORT O N SHIFT MOTOR. DEPRESS BRAKE PEDAL.23 MOTOR DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSIS (CONT'D) FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE OPERATION FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LIGHT DOES NOT LIGHT WHEN TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IN 4H OR4L POSITION. FRONT AXLE CONNECTS. LEAKS. REPAIR AS NECESSARY. AND SHIFT SYSTEM VACUUM HOSES FOR PROPER CONNECTION. PLACE TRANSFER CASE SELECTOR IN 4H POSITION AND TRANSMISSION LEVER IN DRIVE (AUTOMATIC) OR IN FIRST GEAR (MANUAL) TO CONFIRM TRANSFER CASE ENGAGEMENT IN 4H. RAISE VEHICLE SO ALL FOUR WHEELS ARE FREE TO ROTATE. FRONT AXLE DOES NOT CONNECT. INSPECT VACUUM HOSES FOR LEAKS. REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING COVER. REMOVE SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING COVER. LET WHEELS ROTATE SLOWLY. AND DAMAGE. FRONT DRIVE SHAFT DOES NOT ROTATE. REPLACE OR REPAIR IF SWITCH PLUNGER IS DIFFICULT TO MOVE OR BINDS. FRONT DRIVE SHAFT TURNS. TRANSFER CASE VACUUM SWITCH CONNECTION. INSPECT TRANSFER CASE LINKAGE. J9002-96 . ETC. REPAIR AS NECESSARY. VACUUM RESERVOIR. VACUUM AND ROTATE LEFT WHEEL. REPAIR OR REPLACE AS NECESSARY. REMOVE VACUUM HOSES FROM AXLE SHIFT MOTOR PORTS. CONNECT A VACUUM PUMP TO THE OUTBOARD SHIFT MOTOR PORT. RESTRICTION. AND AXLE SHAFTS. INSPECT FWD INDICATOR SWITCH. REPLACE SHIFT MOTOR IF ARMATURE DOES NOT MOVE IN AND OUT FREELY. NO VACUUM FRONT AXLE CONNECTED. RECOMMENDATION: CHECK VACUUM SHIFT SYSTEM FOR PROPER OPERATION. APPLY 15 INCHES HG. START ENGINE. START ENGINE. REPAIR AS NECESSARY. INSPECT SHIFT FORK. COLLAR. CHECK TRANSFER CASE. WIRING.BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G DISCONNECT DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIWEL1NE (Continued) AXLE/SHIFT '3 . CHECK TRANSFER CASE VACUUM SWITCH. _ _ _ i: .

3 .) torque. SEALING SURFACE CONTOUR OF BEAD REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION VACUUM SHIFT MOTOR R E M O V E AND DISASSEMBLE (1) Disconnect the vacuum and wiring connector from the shift housing. 8). (5) Remove the sealant from the housing and cover surfaces. 9 Shift Motor Components (5) Remove the O-ring seal from the shift motor shaft. 7 Typicai Housing Cover With Sealant Install the housing cover within 5 minutes after applying the sealant. 9). (8) Refill differential with the specified quantity of Mopar. Hypoid Gear Lubricant. light engine oil or lint free cloth. • Model 44: 41 N-m (30 ft. VACUUM PORTS J9202-54 Fig. INDICATOR SWITCH BEAD THICKNESS 6. (2) Remove indicator switch. lbs. (3) Remove the shift motor housing cover. INDICATOR LAMP SWITCH DISCONNECT HOUSING VACUUM SHIFT MOTOR / INTERMEDIATE AXLE SHAFT BEARING SHIFT FORK SHIFT COLLAR SEAL J9402-63 Fig. (6) Clean and inspect all components. (2) Remove the lubricant fill hole plug from the differential housing cover.) torque. gasket and shield from the housing (Fig. Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes. Do not use water. CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in lubricant foaming and overheating. (7) Install the cover and any identification tag. (4) Clean the housing cavity with a flushing oil.24 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR SERVICE PROCEDURES LUBRICANT CHANGE The gear lubricant will drain quicker i f the vehicle has been recently driven. lbs. • Model 60: 47 N-m (35 ft. Silicone Rubber Sealant to the housing cover (Fig. (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (9) Install the fill hole plug and lower the vehicle. I f any com­ ponent is excessively worn or damaged. (6) Apply a bead of Mopar. 7). If not installed the sealant must be removed and another bead applied. it should be replaced. steam. Tighten the cover bolts in a criss-cross pattern to. 8 Shift Motor Housing (4) Remove the E-clips from the shift motor hous­ ing and shaft. Remove shift motor and shift fork from the housing (Fig. .35mm (1/4") J9302-30 Fig. kerosene or gasoline for cleaning. Use solvent to clean the mating surfaces. (3) Remove the differential housing cover and drain the lubricant from the housing.

Tighten the upper suspension arm nuts at frame to 84 N-m (62 ft. (11) On 4WD vehicles. (6) Add 148 ml (5 ounces) of API grade GL 5 hypoid gear lubricant to the shift motor housing.25 (1) Install a new O-ring seal on the shift motor shaft. Do not tighten at this time. (3) Raise the axle with a floor jack and align it with the spring pads. (6) Install the shock absorber and tighten bolts to 121 N-m (89 ft. The coil springs will drop with the axle. Connect vacuum hose and electrical con­ nector to disconnect housing. lbs. (13) Remove the coil springs from the axle bracket. at normal height. INSTALLATION CAUTION: Suspension components with rubber bushings should be tightened with the weight of the vehicle on the suspension. Tighten flange bolts to 88 N-m (65 ft. (9) Install the brake components and ABS brake sensor (if equipped). lbs. (3) Install the E-clips on the shift motor shaft and housing. If the springs are not at normal ride height. lbs. Mark cams for instal­ lation reference. (10) Support the axle with a hydraulic jack under the differential. (4) On 4WD vehicles. lbs. (12) Lower the jack enough to remove the axle. Tighten the nut to 37 N-m (27 ft.) torque. (13) Install the wheel and tire assemblies. electrical connector and vacuum harness. (5) Connect the track bar to the axle bracket and install the bolt. (16) Tighten the lower suspension arm nuts at axle to 84 N-m (62 ft. Install bolts. The shift fork offset should be toward the differential. Disconnect vacuum hose and electrical connec­ tor at disconnect housing. lbs. (11) Disconnect the upper and lower suspension arms from the axle bracket. disconnect the axle vent hose. lbs. It is important that the springs support the weight of the vehicle when the track bar is con­ nected.) torque. (9) Disconnect the tie rod and drag link from the steering knuckle. (14) Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. retainer clip and bolts. Tighten the lower suspension arm nuts at frame to 119 N-m (88 ft. align the reference marks and connect the drive shaft to the axle yoke and transfer case flange. connect the vent hose to the tube fitting. lbs. Refer to Group 5. Disconnect the drive shaft from the axle and transfer case. Refer to Group 5. (7) Disconnect the shock absorbers from axle bracket. Tighten the bolts to 11 N-m (96 in. Position the axle under the vehicle.) torque. Add lubricant through indicator switch mounting hole.) torque. (15) Tighten the upper suspension arm nuts at axle to 121 N-m (89 ft. (4) Position the upper and lower suspension arm at the axle bracket. (5) On 4WD vehicles. (5) Install the shift motor housing shield and attaching bolts. vehicle ride comfort could be affected and premature bush­ ing wear may occur. (7) Install indicator switch. mark the drive shaft yoke. (2) Insert the shift motor shaft through the hole in the housing and shift fork. Ensure the shift fork is correctly guided into the shift collar groove. (1) Raise vehicle and position support stands under the frame rails behind the lower suspension arm brackets. (3) Remove the brake components and ABS brake sensor (if equipped). nuts and align cams to reference marks. (17) Tighten the track bar bolt at the axle bracket to 176 N-m (130 ft. (12) Check differential lubricant and add i f neces­ sary. (6) Disconnect the stabilizer bar link at the axle bracket.) torque.) torque. Rubber bushings must never be lubricated. (2) Remove the front wheels assemblies. (7) Install the stabilizer bar link to the axle bracket. (10) On 4WD vehicles. lbs.BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) ASSEMBLY AMD INSTALL DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . (1) Install the springs. Tighten the U-joint clamp bolts to 19 N-m (14 ft. the vehicle ride comfort could be affected. (18) Check the front wheel alignment. (2) Support the axle on a hydraulic jack under the differential.) torque. Do not tighten at this time.) torque. lbs. (8) Install the drag link and tie rod to the steering knuckles and tighten the nuts to 88 N-m (65 ft. lbs. axle pinion yoke and transfer case flange for align­ ment reference.) torque. (4) Install the shift motor housing gasket and cover.) torque. If springs are not at their normal ride position. Brakes. It is . Brakes. lbs. (8) Disconnect the track bar from the axle bracket. DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY REPLACEMENT REMOVAL important to have the springs supporting the weight of the vehicle when the fasteners are tightened.) torque.

lbs. (3) Remove the cotter pin from the upper ball stud nut. (5) Install the Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft. lbs. KNUCKLE INSTALLATION (1) Position the steering knuckle on the ball studs. Remove the hub bearing from the steering knuckle and axle shaft.) torque. Do not install cotter pin at this time. . (4) Strike the steering knuckle with a brass ham­ mer to loosen.) torque. (2) Remove tie-rod or drag link end from the steer­ ing knuckle arm. Brakes. lbs. tighten nut to 237 N-m (175 ft. Remove the upper and lower ball stud nuts. refer to Group 5. lbs. (4) Remove the cotter pin and axle hub nut. (5) Install tie-rod or drag link end onto the steer­ ing knuckle arm. Refer to the Removal procedures in this Group. (7) Remove the axle shaft from the housing.160 ft. (7) Remove support and lower the vehicle. lbs. (6) Install the wheel and tire assembly. (1) Remove hub bearing and axle shaft. Install the ABS sensor wire and bracket to the knuckle. (4) Retorque lower ball stud nut to 190 . Brakes for proper set-up. seal contact surface. (5) Install the brake components. (3) Install and tighten upper ball stud nut to 94 N-m (70 ft. Remove the ABS sensor wire and bracket from knuckle. (2) Install and tighten lower ball stud nut to 108 N-m (80 ft. Refer to the installation procedure. (3) Install the hub bearing to knuckle bolts and tighten to 170 N-m (125 ft.) torque. (4) Install the axle washer and nut. Install the ABS sensor wire and bracket to the knuckle. Brakes.) torque. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin. Align nut to next cotter pin hole and install new cotter pin. (3) Remove the brake components from the axle. refer to Group 5. . (2) Remove tie-rod or drag link end from the steering knuckle arm. (2) Install and tighten lower ball stud nut to 47 N-m (35 ft. (5) Remove the hub to knuckle bolts (Fig. (2) Install dust shield and hub bearing on knuckle. (4) Install the Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft. Refer to the Removal procedures in this Group. refer to Group 5. (6) Install tie-rod or drag link end onto the steer­ ing knuckle arm.) torque. 10). Install the axle shaft into the housing and differential side gears. 10 Hub and Knuckle (6) Remove the brake dust shield. Brakes for proper set-up.26 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) HUB BEARING AND AXLE SHAFT REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin. lbs.) torque. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin.217 N-m (140 . KNUCKLE INSTALLATION Fig. Avoid damaging the axle shaft oil seals in the differential. Remove the upper and lower ball stud nuts. STEERING KNUCKLE 44 AXLE KNUCKLE REMOVAL (1) Position the steering knuckle on the ball studs. Refer to the installation procedure. Remove knuckle from axle tube yokes. STEERING KNUCKLE 60 AXLE K N U C K L E REMOVAL (1) Remove hub bearing and axle shaft.3 . Remove the ABS sensor wire and bracket from knuckle. lbs. (2) Remove the wheel and tire assembly. INSTALLATION (1) Clean the axle shaft and apply a thin film of Mopar Wheel Bearing Grease to the shaft splines. Remove knuckle from axle tube yokes. hub bore. Advance nut to next slot to line up hole and install new cotter pin. (3) Remove the cotter pin from the upper ball stud nut. (3) Install and tighten upper ball stud nut to 101 N-m (75 ft. (4) Strike the steering knuckle with a brass ham­ mer to loosen.) torque. refer to Group 5. Avoid damaging the axle shaft oil seal.

L O W E R B A L L STUD REPLACEMENT (1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig. 13). 13 Lower Ball Stud Remove . SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F J9402-51 Fig. 11 Upper Ball Stud Remove (2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig. 15). (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . BALL STUDS 60 AXLE UPPER BALL STUD REPLACEMENT (1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig.27 J9402-48 Fig. 12). 12 Upper Ball Stud Install J9402-49 Fig. 16). (2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig. 14).BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION BALL STUDS 44 AXLE UPPER BALL STUD REPLACEMENT (1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig. 11). (2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig.

3 . 17 Lower Ball Stud Remove (2) Position tools as shown to install ball stud (Fig. . (1) Raise and support the vehicle. PINION SHAFT SEAL REPLACEMENT Jf402-38 REMOVAL Fig. 18). (3) Mark the drive shaft yoke and pinion yoke for installation alignment reference. 15 Upper Ball Stud LOWER BALL STUD Remove REPLACEMENT (1) Position tools as shown to remove ball stud (Fig.28 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE ^ — ^ ^ — BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) KNUCKLE Fig. (2) Remove wheel and tire assemblies. 17).

(8) Mark the positions of the yoke and pinion gear for installation alignment reference. SPECIAL TOOL C-3281 (1) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. (5) Rotate the pinion gear three or four times. DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . 21 Pinion Seal Installation SPECIAL TOOL C-452 J9102-31 (2) Align the installation reference marks and install yoke on the pinion gear with Installer W-162D. (3) Install a new nut on the pinion gear. Install seal with Installer D-163 and Handle C-4171 (Fig. 19). It must be known to prop­ erly adjust the pinion gear bearing preload torque after seal installation. SPECIAL TOOL 7794A SPECIAL TOOL 6759 SLIDE HAMMER SPECIAL TOOL 6760 PINION SEAL J9402-59X Fig. Tighten the nut only enough to remove the shaft end Play. 20 Seal Removal SPECIAL TOOL C-4212F J9402-41 INSTALLATION Fig. Note the torque for installation reference. (7) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. 21).BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) KNUCKLE. 18 Lower Bali Stud Install (4) Remove the drive shaft from the yoke. Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig. HANDLE INSTALLER J9502-1 Fig.29 (9) Use Remover 7794A and slide hammer to remove the pinion gear seal (Fig. 19 Pinion Yoke Removal . (6) Measure the amount of torque (in Newton-me­ ters or inch-pounds) necessary to rotate the pinion gear with a torque wrench. Fig. Make sure brakes are not dragging during this procedure. 20).

(4) Install a socket and inch-pound torque wrench on the pinion nut. 23).56 N-m (5 i n .). or loosen and then re-tighten the nut. (5) Rotate the shaft with the torque wrench and note the torque (Fig. (7) Continue tightening the shaft nut in small increments until the correct bearing rotation preload torque is attained. (10) Install wheel and tire assemblies. Do not exceed the bearing preload torque. (4) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the differ­ ential housing. (11) Lower the vehicle. INSTALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS J9303-10 Fig. (9) Add API grade GL 5 hypoid gear lubricant to the differential housing. . (8) Align the installation reference marks and attach the drive shaft to the yoke. (3) Position Spreader W-129-B with the tool dowel pins seated i n the locating holes (Fig. The collapsible preload spacer on the shaft will have to be replaced. The bearing preload torque will be re-adjusted after­ ward. Tighten the shaft nut in very small increments. 22 Check Pinion Rotation Torque (6) Use Flange Wrench 6719 to retain the yoke and shaft (Fig. 24 Bearing Cap identification (2) Remove the differential bearing caps. i f necessary. lbs. 25). 23 Tightening Pinion Shaft Nut PINION FLANGE HOLDING TOOL 6719 DIFFERENTIAL REMOVAL To service the differential the axle shafts must be removed. Do not over-tighten. The required preload torque is equal to the amount recorded d u r i n g removal plus a n addi­ tional 0. (1) Note the installation reference letters stamped on the bearing caps and housing machined sealing surface (Fig. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot stud.30 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) CAUTION: Exercise care during the bearing preload torque adjustment.3 . Refer to the removal procedures in this Group. 22). Load the indicator plunger against the opposite side of the housing (Fig. Fig. 24). 25) and zero the indicator. Install the hold down clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle linger-tight. J9G03-92 Fig.

31 (8) Remove the case from housing. 26 Differential Removal . 25). Fig. lbs. Fig. 28). (5) Install differential and outboard shim/spacer (selected thickness) in housing. Measure the distance with the dial indicator (Fig. pivot on housing with the end of the pry bar against spreader (Fig. 25).015 in). (7) Pry the differential case loose from the hous­ ing. 27). (3) Separate the housing enough to install the case in the housing. (5) Separate the housing enough to remove the ease from the housing.38 mm (0.015 In). CAUTION: Do not spread over 0. DIFFERENTIAL PRY BAR J9302-19 Fig. (4) Remove the dial indicator. Tap the differential case to ensure the bearings are fully seated (Fig. 25 Spread Differential Housing CAUTION.38 mm (0. If the housing is over-separated. Install the hold down clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle finger-tight. (6) Remove the dial indicator.) torque. 25). 27 Differential Installation (7) Install the bearing caps at their original loca­ tions (Fig. 26). DIFFERENTIAL INSTALLATION (1) Position Spreader W-129-B with the tool dowel pins seated in the locating holes (Fig. Mark or tag bearing cups and outboard shim/spacer (selected thickness) indicating which side they were removed. Load the indicator plunger against the opposite side of the housing (Fig. Do not spread over 0. If the housing is over-separated. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot stud. (2) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the differ­ ential housing. it could be distorted or damaged. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to 77 N-m (57 ft. 25) and zero the indicator. (6) Install case in the housing.BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL A I D DRIVELINE 3 . To prevent damage. it could be distorted or damaged. Remove the spreader. Measure the distance with the dial indicator (Fig.

Be careful not to damage housing. (3) Apply a light film of oil to the inside lip of the new axle shaft seal. install differential side bearings (Fig. 31) or (Fig. (2) Clean the inside perimeter of the differential housing with fine crocus cloth. (1) Using tool C-4340 with handle C-4171. Fig. Fig. and Adapter 1130 (Fig. . axle housing. DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING POSITION FOR OPEN-END WRENCH SPECIAL TOOL DIFFERENTIAL' SPECIAL TOOL 5041-3 5041-2 Fig. 31 Axle Seal installation—44 Axle INTERMEDIATE AXLE SHAFT REMOVAL/DISASSEMBLY Service to the Disconnect axle seals and bearing require the use of Tool Set 5041 (J34659) and Seal Installer D-354.32 REMOVAL DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE — — en AMB I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) STALLATION REFERENCE LETTERS HANDLE C-4171 J9003-92 Fig. 29). (4) Install the inner axle seal (Fig. (2) Install differential in axle housing. 30 Install Differential Side Bearings BRIDGE 938 TOOL '1130 AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL (1) Remove the axle shaft seal from the differential housing with a long drift or punch. 30). verify differential side bearing preload and gear mesh back­ lash. 32).3 . (2) Remove the bearings from the differential case with Press 938. 29 Differential Bearing Removal DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARING INSTALLATION SPECIAL TOOL 5041-7 J9402-21 If ring and pinion gears have been replaced. 28 Differential Bearing Cap Reference Letters DIFFERENTIAL BEARING DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS REMOVAL (1) Remove Differential case from.

35 Inner Axle Seal Installation—44 SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING O P E N I N G SPECIAL TOOL Axle LOCATION FOR OPEN-END WRENCH 5041-2 SPECIAL TOOL D-354-2 NUT J9402-18 Fig. (3) Apply a light film of oil to the inside lip of the new axle shaft seal. (3) Remove shift collar and intermediate axle shaft. The inner axle seal position is different on a 44 then a 60 axle. . SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING O P E N I N G AXLE TUBE LOCATION FOR OPEN-END WRENCH SEAL NUT SPECIAL TOOL 504144 SPECIAL TOOL 5041-3 SPECIAL TOOL 5041-2 J9402-22 Fig. 33 Bearing Removal Tool Installed ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION (1) Position the bearing on installation tool. 33). Be careful not to damage housing. Refer to Shift Motor Removal in this section.BR — — — — — DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . SHIFT MOTOR HOUSING O P E N I N G BEARING AXLE TUBE LOCATION FOR OPEN-END WRENCH installer. (5) Remove the intermediate axle shaft bearing (Fig. 36). 35) or (Fig. 36 Inner Axle Seal Installation—60 Axle (5) Insert the intermediate axle shaft into the dif­ ferential side gear. 34). Refer to Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft in this section. Be sure to use the correct SPECIAL TOOL SPECIAL TOOL 5041-2 SPECIAL TOOL 5041-3 J9402-23 5041-60F Fig. if wrong installer is use axle will not seal. 32 Axle Seal Installation—60 Axle Fig. (2) Clean the inside perimeter of the axle shaft tube with fine crocus cloth. (4) Install the inner axle seal (Fig. 34 Intermediate Shaft Bearing Installation (1) Remove the vacuum motor housing. (2) Remove the outer axle shaft. Seat the bearing in the housing bore (Fig.33 R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING POSITION SHIFT MOTOR Fig. (4) Remove the inner axle shaft seal from the shift motor housing with a long drift or punch.

TORQUE Fig. 37). (Fig. 37 Ring Gear RING GEAR INSTALLATION Removai CAUTION: Do not reuse the bolts that held the ring gear to the differential case. (2) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. RING GEAR The ring and pinion gears are service in a matched set. Engage the splined end of the shaft with the shift collar. Refer to Pinion Gear removal and installation paragraph in this section for proper pro­ cedure.34 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) (6) Install the shift collar on the splined end of the intermediate axle shaft. G452 J9102-31 Fig. Fig. Refer to Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft in this section. (1) Invert the differential case and start two ring gear bolts. Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig. (2) Install new ring gear bolts and alternately tighten to 95-122 N-m (70-90 ft. REMOVAL (1) Remove differential from axle housing. 39). (4) Using a soft hammer. (7) Lubricate the splined end of the intermediate axle shaft with multi-purpose lubricant. This will provide case-to-ring gear bolt hole alignment. CAUTION: Apply all-purpose lubricant to the axle shaft splines to prevent damage to the seal during axle shaft installation. The bolts can fracture causing extensive damage. 38). (2) Place differential case in a suitable vise with soft metal jaw protectors. (3) Install differential in axle housing and verify gear mesh and contact pattern. drive ring gear from dif­ ferential case (Fig. (9) Install the vacuum motor housing. Refer to Shift Motor Installation i n this section. 38 Ring Gear Boit installation PINION GEAR REMOVAL (1) Remove differential assembly from axle hous­ ing.) torque (Fig. Do not replace the ring gear without replacing the pinion gear. lbs.3 . 37) (3) Remove bolts holding ring gear to differential case. (8) Insert the axle shaft into the tube. 39 Pinion Yoke Removal .

35 (7) Remove the rear bearing cup from housing (Fig. (6) Remove the front pinion bearing cup and seal with Remover D-147 for model 44 or D-158 for model 60 and Handle C-4171 (Fig. 41). Use Remover D-14S for model 44 or D-162 for model 60 and Handle C-4171. 44). Fig. 42). (10) Remove the depth shims from the pinion gear shaft. RAWHIDE HAMMER DRIVER DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . 43). COLLAPSIBLE SPACER SHOULDER REAR BEARING OIL SLINGER PINION GEAR J9302-66 Fig. Catch the pinion with your hand to prevent it from falling and being damaged.BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) (3) Remove the pinion gear from housing (Fig. 40). 43 Collapsible HANDLE Spacer REMOVER"'" J9302-22 (9) Remove the inner bearing from the pinion with Splitter 1130 and Bridge 938 (Fig. Record the thickness of the depth shims. (4) Remove the pinion gear seal with a slide ham­ mer or pry out with bar. 40 Remove Pinion Gear (8) Remove the collapsible preload spacer (Fig. (5) Remove oil slinger. HANDLE J9302-25 Fig. front bearing. 42 Rear Bearing Cup Removal Fig. 41 Front Bearing Cup Removal .

Install seal with Installer D-163 and Handle C-4171 (Fig. 45). (4) Place the proper thickness depth shim on the pinion gear and install the rear bearing. the pin­ ion depth shim should not require replacement. 46). Refer to . Refer to Pinion Gear Depth paragraph in this sec­ tion to select the proper thickness shim before installing rear pinion bearing cone. Fig.36 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE — B R REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) INSTALLER HANDLE Fig. 45 Pinion Rear Bearing Cup Installation (2) Install the pinion front bearing cup with Installer D-144 for model 44 or C-4203 for model 60 and Handle C-4171 (Fig.3 . oil slinger. Ensure cup is correctly seated. If the factory installed ring and pinion gears are reused. Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. NOTE: Pinion depth shims are placed between the rear pinion bearing cone and pinion gear to achieve proper ring and pinion gear mesh. 47 Pinion Seal Installation HANDLE J9402-66 Fig.l l l for model 60 and Driver Handle C-4171 (Fig. 44 inner Bearing Removal *INION GEAR INSTALLATION (1) Install the pinion rear bearing cup with Installer D-145 for model 44 or D . INSTALLER INSTALLER J9502-1 Fig. 47). 46 Pinion Front Bearing Cup Installation (3) Install pinion front bearing.

37 R E M O V A L AND I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) Pinion Gear Depth paragraph in Adjustments section of this group.) for model 60 minimum. Do not over-tighten. 48 Shaft Rear Bearing tnstaliation (6) Install a new collapsible preload spacer on pin­ ion shaft and install pinion gear in housing (Fig.) for model 44 or 291 N-m (215 ft. . 51). Tighten the nut to 258 N-m (190 ft. PINION G E A R Fig. 49). • New Bearings — 2 to 5 N-m (15 to 35 in. 50)..). 48). (9) Use Flange Wrench 6719 to retain the yoke (Fig. lbs. Fig. Measure the preload torque frequently. lbs. (10) Check bearing preload torque with an inch pound torque wrench (Fig. lbs. 51 Tightening Pinion Nut Fig. CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to decrease pinion gear bearing preload torque and never exceed specified preload torque. The torque necessary to rotate the pinion gear should be: • Original Bearings — 1 to 3 N-m (10 to 20 in. to avoid over-tightening the nut.). If preload torque is exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be installed. The torque sequence will have to be repeated. Slowly tighten the nut in small increments until the rotating torque is achieved.). 52). 50 Pinion Yoke Installation—Typical (8) Install the yoke washer and a new nut on the pinion gear. 49 Collapsible Preload Spacer (7) Install yoke with Installer W-162D for model 44 or C-3716A for model 60 and Wrench 6719 (Fig. 80a0c4f5 Fig. lbs. lbs.BR — — DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Maximum torque is 380 N-m (280 ft. (5) Install the rear bearing (and slinger i f used) on the pinion gear with Installer W-262 for model 44 or C-3095A for model 60 and an arbor press (Fig.

) torque. I f defec­ tive. Place the socket (receiver) against the yoke and around the perimeter of the bearing cap . 52 Check Pinion Gear Rotation Torque Single cardan U-joints are not serviceable. (2) Locate a socket that is larger in diameter than the bearing cap. (3) Install the cover on the differential with the attaching bolts. 54 Axle Shaft Outer U-Joint Fig. they must be replaced as a unit. 53 Typical Housing Cover With Sealant It can be helpful to saturate the bearing caps with penetrating oil prior to removal. (4) Refill the differential housing with the speci­ fied quantity of Mopar Hypoid Gear Lubricant. SEALING CONTOUR OF BEAD SNAP RINGS CAP J8902-15 Fig. seals.3 . Also.38 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) Install the housing cover within 5 minutes after applying the sealant. Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes. Refer to Axle Shaft Installation within this group. CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in lubricant foaming and overheating.) torque. (2) Scrape the residual sealant from the housing and cover mating surfaces. DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY AXLE SHAFT—CARDAN U-JOINT DISASSEMBLY Fig. do not over tighten the vise jaws. Apply a bead of Mopar Silicone Rubber Sealant on the housing cover (Fig. Tighten the cover bolts to 41 N-m (30 ft. (5) Install the fill hole plug and tighten to 34 N-m (25 ft. lbs. (1) Remove the bearing cap retaining snap rings (Fig. to avoid distorting the yoke. Clean the mating surfaces with mineral spirits. spider or bearing caps are damaged or worn. replace the complete U-joint. 54). I f the bearings. BEARING FINAL ASSEMBLY (1) Install the axle shafts. lbs. Install the identification tag. 53). CAUTION: Clamp only the forged portion of the yoke in the vise.

(4) Release the vise jaws. 56 Pinion Mate Gear Removal Fig. Position the yoke with the sockets in a vise (Fig. Place the socket (driver) against the opposite bearing cap. Wash bearings with solvent and towel dry. Insert the seals and bearings.31 (2) Rotate the differential side gears and remove the pinion mate gears and thrust washers (Fig. STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL DISASSEMBLE (3) Remove the differential side gears and thrust washers. bearings. THRUST WASHER MATE'GEAR J8902-16 SIDE GEAR J9203-61 Fig. (5) Install differential case in axle housing. (2) Position the spider in the yoke. seals and spider from the propeller shaft yoke. ASSEMBLY (1) Pack the bearing caps 1/3 full of wheel bearing lubricant. (5) Repeat the above procedure for the remaining bearing cap. or dry with compressed air. refer to Hub Bearing and Axle Shaft installation. 56). (6) Remove the remaining bearing cap.cap into the larger socket (receiver).BR D I S A S S E M B L Y A N D A S S E M B L Y (Continued) to be removed. (4) Compress the vise to force the bearing caps into the yoke. Apply extreme pressure (EP). Do not steam clean the differential components. Tap the bearing caps into the yoke bores far enough to hold the spider In position. . Clean axle shaft tubes and oil channels i n housing. Locate a socket that is smaller In diameter than the bearing cap. lithium-base lubricant to aid i n installation. LARGEDIAMETER SOCKET WRENCH DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Inspect for. DO NOT spin bearings with compressed air. Cup and bearing must be replaced as matched sets only. CLEANING AND INSPECTION AXLE COMPONENTS Wash differential components with cleaning solvent and dry with compressed air. 55 Yoke Bearing Cap Removal (3) Compress the vise jaws to force the bearing. (5) Install the bearing cap retaining clips. Position the yoke with the socket wrench in a vise. (6) Install the axle shaft. Refer to Differential removal and installation procedure. 55). • Smooth appearance with no broken/dented sur­ faces on the bearing rollers or the roller contact sur­ faces • Bearing cups must not be distorted or cracked (1) Remove pinion gear mate shaft. DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLE (1) Differential side gears and thrust washers (2) Pinion gears and thrust washers (3) Pinion gear mate shaft (align holes in shaft and case) (4) Lubricate all differential components with hypoid gear lubricant. (3) Place the socket (driver) against one bearing cap. Remove the sockets and bearing cap that was partially forced out of the yoke. Force the caps enough to Install the retaining clips.

59). 59 Shim Locations SHIM GEAR MATCHING NUMBER (SAME AS RING GEAR NUMBER) J9003-100 Fig.5 mm (4. A plus (+) number. Repair or replace as necessary. PRODUCTION NUMBERS DRIVE PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE Compensation for pinion depth variance is achieved with select shims. side gears and thrust washers. note the depth variance etched into both the original and replacement pinion gear. • Preload shims for damage and distortion. Note where Old and New Pinion Marking columns intersect.004 in. i f old pinion is plus (+) 1 and the new pinion is minus (-) 3. 57). Do If a new gear set is being installed.40 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE C L E A N I N G A N D I N S P E C T I O N (Continued) • Machined surfaces should be smooth and with­ out any raised edges • Raised metal on shoulders of cup bores should be removed with a hand stone • Wear and damage to pinion gear mate shaft. pinion gears. minus (-) number or zero (0) is etched into the face of the pinion gear. The standard setting from the center line of the ring gear to the back face of the pinion is 109. Refer to Backlash and Contact Pattern Analysis Paragraph in this section for additional information. • Pinion yoke for cracks. intersecting figure is (+) 0.) for Model 60 axles. The shims are placed under the inner pinion bearing cone (Fig. Refer to the Depth Variance charts.001 in. • Ring and pinion gear for worn and chipped teeth • Ring gear for damaged bolt threads. 57 Pinion Gear ID Numbers NOTE: The button end on the pinion gear head is no longer a rnachined-to-specifications surface. (0. . pitted areas. and a rough/corroded seal contact surface.3 . Refer to the Pinion Gear Depth Variance Chart. This num­ ber is the amount (in thousandths of an inch) the depth varies from the standard depth setting of a pinion etched with a (0). ADJUSTMENTS PINION GEAR DEPTH GENERAL INFORMATION Fig. intersecting figure is (-) 0.312 inches) for Model 44 axles and 127 mm (5 in.10 mm). Add or subtract the thickness of the original depth shims to compensate for the difference in the depth vari­ ances. worn splines. For example. Intersecting figure represents plus or minus amount needed. AXLE HOUSINC COLLAPSIBLE SPACER BEARING CUP\ NION BEARING PINION DEPTH PINION GEAR Fig. Or i f the old pinion is (-) 3 and the new pinion is (-) 2. 58 Pinion Gear Head not use this surface for pinion depth setup or checking (Fig. Add this amount to the original shim. Replaced as a matched set only. Sub­ tract this amount from original shim. 58). NNER PINION BEARING STANDARD DEPTH BUTTON END CENTERUNE OF RING GEAR J9403-56 Ring and pinion gears are supplied as matched sets only.025 mm). (0. The standard depth provides the best teeth contact pattern. The identifying numbers for the ring and pinion gear are etched into the face of each gear (Fig. Replace as a matched set only. Install new shims i f necessary.

(3) Firmly place Scooter Block D-115-2 and Dial Indicator on pinion height block tool and zero the dial indicator pointer. Pinion Block and pinion bearings.001 -0.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE A D J U S T M E N T S (Continued) PINION GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE 3 .003 -0. 60).002 -0.002 + 0.002 -1 + 0.004 +1 + 0.003 + 0.007 + 2 + 1 § + 0.003 -0.006 + 0.006 + 0.004 + 0.001 -0.005 -0.001 -0. (4) Slide the Scooter Block across the arbor while observing indicator (Fig. Use Pinion Block 6734 for Model 44 and 6736 for model 60 axle. Record the longest travel distance.005 +2 + 0.002 + 0.004 + 0.004 -0. whether inward (-) or outward (+).004 + 0. • (1) Assemble Pinion Gauge Set.004 -0. 60 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge Toois—Typical The plunger travel distance indicated.006 + 0. Pick correct size step for axle being serviced.005 + 0.006 -0.001 PINION DEPTH ADJUSTMENT MEASUREMENT AMD DIAL INDICATOR Pinion gear depth measurement is necessary when. 62).001 -0. Use Dial Indicator C-3339 dial indicator to measure dif­ ference in height of the arbor and the pinion block. (Fig.003 0 + 0.001 -0.004 -0.4 + 0. Take measure­ ments with Pinion Gauge Set 6730.005 + 0.002 -0.004 -0.001 0 -0.41 Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance Gear Depth ] Variance + 4 I -.003 + 0.001 0 -0. plus or minus the variance etched in the gear is the required thickness for the depth shims. Install assembly into differential pinion gear bore and hand tighten cone (Fig.006 -0.007 +4 0 -0.001 0 -0.002 + 0. • Axle housing or differential case is replaced • Pinion select shim pack is unknown • Ring and pinion gears are replaced Measurements are taken with pinion cups and pin­ ion bearings installed in housing. PINION HEIGHT BLOCK CONE SCREW PINION BLOCK SCOOTER BLOCK ARBOR DISC J9403-45 Fig.001 0 -2 + 0.001 0 -0.003 -0. (5) Measure the thickness of each depth shim with a micrometer and combine the shims necessary for total required shim pack thickness.007 + 0.003 -0.008 J8902-46 -1 -2 -3 +0.001 -0.001 0 -0.002 + 0.003 + 0.002 -0. 63).005 -0.002 + 0.002 -0.005 -0.004 + 0.003 + 0.003 -0.003 + 0.002 + 0.007 -0.004 + 0.005 + 0.002 -0.005 + 0. Arbor Discs have different steps to fit other axle sizes.002 + 0.006 + 0. Install dif­ ferential bearing caps on Arbor Discs and tighten caps snug only.001 0 -0. (2) Place Arbor Disc 6732 on Arbor D-115-3 and position in the bearing cradles (Fig.Include oil slinger or baffle thickness with the total shim pack thickness.002 -0. 61). .003 1 -3 + 0.006 + 3 + 0.001 ^4 0 -0. indicated by the pointer.001 -0.

Position the indicator plunger so that it contacts the ring gear mating surface (Fig.004-in. 62 Gauge Toois in ARBOR Housing—Typicai SCOOTER BLOCK ® DIFFERENTIALCASE J9003-27 Fig.6 mm) as a start­ ing point. 64). Install and snug the bolts. Use 0. (4) Install the marked bearing caps i n their correct positions. (0. an additional 0.142-IN. INSTALL 0. (3. For exam­ ple. (8) Install zero end-play shims on each side of case. shim/spacers are available i n various thick­ nesses. (7) Pry the differential case to the opposite side and record indicator reading. (3) Install the outboard shim/spacer (selected thickness) on each side between bearing cup and housing (Fig.142 in.20 mm).42 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR LASH DIFFERENTIAL SHIM PACK MEASUREMENT A D J U S T M E N T S (Continued) PINION BLOCK NOTE: It is recommended whenever bearings are removed that they be replaced. i f reading was 0.6-AAM) THICK SHIM EACH SIDE PINION HEIGHT BLOCK Fig. (2) Install the differential case in the axle housing. 64 Differential Bearing Shim Installation J9403-38 Fig.008 in. (0. o PINION HEIGHT BLOCK J9403-39 (1) Install dummy side bearings D-345 for model 44 or D-343 for model 60 axles on differential.3 . (3. (5) Attach a dial indicator to the housing. . (6) Pry the differential case to one side and zero the dial indicator pointer. 65).10 mm) thick shim will be needed at each side zero end play. 63 Pinion Gear Depth Measurement—Typical (6) Remove the measurement tools from the differ­ ential housing. The differential bearings must be preloaded to compensate for heat and load during opera­ tion. Reading is additional shim thickness needed for zero end play.

It cannot vary more than 0. (1) Rotate assembly several revolutions to seat bearings. to the drive and coast side of the ring gear teeth. (10) Remove differential from axle housing. Measure backlash at three equally spaced locations around the perimeter of the ring gear with a dial indicator (Fig. (2) Apply a thin coat of hydrated ferric oxide. 68) for interpretation of contact patterns and adjust accordingly.005 . 67). (12) Install new side bearing cones and cups. (11) Remove dummy bearings. excessive bearing preload and damage will occur. The ring gear teeth contact patterns will show i f the pinion gear depth shim(s) have the correct thick­ ness.1 mm) to each. . (3) Rotate the ring gear one complete revolution i n both directions while a load is being applied. Insert a pry bar between the differential housing and the case flange.20 mm (0. 66 Ring Gear Backlash r Measurement n — FOR MORE BACKLASH DECREASE SHIM INCREASE SHIM Fig. (15) Proceed to Final Assembly paragraph in this section. (14) Install differential and verify gear lash and contact pattern. If backlash must be adjusted.004-in.002 in. I t will also show i f the ring gear backlash has been adjusted correctly. (13) install ring gear. 65 Shim Measurement (9) Add an additional 0. GEAR BACKLASH ANALYSIS MMD CONTACT PATTERN After installing new side bearings or ring and pin­ ion set adjusting the bearing perload and gear mash backlash will be necessary.). (4) Note patterns i n compound.05 mm (0. or equivalent. The backlash must be main- J9302-28 Fig. spacers are available in various thicknesses. (0.0.43 Fig. 66). The r i n g gear backlash must be w i t h i n §. Refer to (Fig.12 0. 67 Backlash Shim Adjustment tained within the specified limits until the correct tooth contact patterns are obtained. Do not increase the total shim pack thickness.008 in. outboard shim/spacer for bearing preload. Adjust the backlash accord­ ingly (Fig.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . This will produce distinct contact patterns on both the drive side and coast side of the ring gear teeth.) between the points checked.

3 . T H I C K E R PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED. PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT. PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE DRIVE SIDE O F T O O T H . RING GEAR BACKLASH C O R R E C T T H I N N E R PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED. BUT MAY BE SLIGHTLY TOWARD THE TOE. PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT I N C R E A S E RING GEAR BACKLASH. 68 Gear Tooth Contact Patterns . PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE COAST SIDE O F T O O T H .44 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR DRIVE SIDE OF RING GEAR TEETH COAST SIDE OF RING GEAR TEETH HEEL TOE TOE HEEL DESIRABLE CONTACT PATTERN. J9003-24 Fig. D E C R E A S E RING GEAR BACKLASH. THERE SHOULD ALWAYS BE SOME CLEARANCE BETWEEN CONTACT PATTERN AND TOP O F THE T O O T H .

3. Pinion 258-393 N-m (190-290 ft. Fill Hole 34 N-m (25 ft.) Bolt.09 Ring Gear Diameter 215. lbs.) Bolt. lbs.) MODEL 60 F R O N T AXLE DESCRIPTION TORQUE Plug.) Nut.) Bolt.lbs. Ring Gear 95-122 N-m (70-90 ft.28 L (4. lbs. lbs. lbs.) New Bearing 2. lbs. lbs. Ring Gear 95-122 N-m (70-90 ft.5 N-m (20-40 in. lbs. Bearing Cap 108 N-m (80 ft. Wheel Brg 170 N-m (125 ft. lbs.55. Axle Type Hypoid Lubricant Thermal Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 3. lbs.11 N-m (8 ft. lbs. Upper Ball Stud 101 N-m (75 ft. Fill Hole 34 N-m (25 ft.10 Ring Gear Diameter 247. Cover 47 N-m (35 ft.) Bolt.) Bolt. Upper Ball Stud 101 N-m (75 ft.) Nut.6 mm (9. Axle 237 N-m (175 ft.) Nut.5 mm (4.8 pts.) Axle Ratio 3. Axle Type Hypoid Lubricant Thermal Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 2.312 in.) Nut.5 N-m (20-40 in.54. lbs. RWAL/ABS Sensor 11 N-m (96 in. Lower Ball Stud 108 N-m (80 ft. RWAL/ABS Sensor 11 N-m (96 in.) Bolt.000 in.) Axle Ratio 3. 4.61 L (122 oz. Pinion 292-427 N-m (215-315 ft.) Bolt. Shift Motor 11 N-m (8 ft.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing 1-2 N-m (10-20 in.) Pinion Standard Setting 127 mm (5.) Bolt.3-4.) Nut.50 in. 3.) Nut.9 mm (8. lbs. Axle 237 N-m (175 ft.) Bolt.) Bolt. lbs.) Pinion Standard Setting 109.) Bolt. Wheel Brg 170 N-m (125 ft. lbs.) DESCRIPTION TORQUE Plug.92.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 .3-4.45 SPECIFICATIONS FRONT AXLE MODEL 44 TORQUE MODEL 44 AXLE DESCRIPTION SPEC. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.) Nut. Bearing Cap 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs. lbs.) Nut.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing 1-2 N-m (10-20 in.75 in. Shift Motor .) . Diff. Diff. Cover 42 N-m (31 ft.) New Bearing 2.) Bolt. lbs.54 4. Lower Ball Stud 108 N-m (80 ft. lbs. lbs.lbs.) MODEL 6 0 A X L E DESCRIPTION SPEC.

Driver—C-3716-A .

47 Press.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Ball Joint Remover/Installer—G-4212-F .

3 .48 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE S P E C I A L T O O L S (Continued) Remover/Installer Set—D-354 Puller Head—938 .

Ball Stud—6289-8 Set. Bearing—1130 Receiver. Pinion Depth Setting—6730 .BR ___ DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Bail Stud—6289-1 Holder—6719 6730 PINION HEIGHT SET 6733 $734 6735 6736 6737 6738 Remover. Bail Joint—€289-6 Adapter.49 SPECIAL TOOLS (Continued) Splitter. Bail Stud installer—6289-12 Receiver.

50 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE S P E C I A L T O O L S (Continued) Remover—7794-A Installer.3 . Ball Joint—6758 .

The RWAL brake exciter ring is press-fitted onto the differential case against the flange. They should be dried with lint-free shop tow­ els. It can also be from worn axle shaft or pinion gear seals. The seal must be in place when the wire connector is connected to the sensor. plus two clutch disc packs. . A seal is located between the sensor and the wire harness connector. Axle gear problem conditions are usually the result of: • Insufficient lubrication • Incorrect or contaminated lubricant • Overloading (excessive engine torque) or exceed­ ing vehicle weight capacity • Incorrect clearance or backlash adjustment Insufficient lubrication is usually the result of a housing cover leak. forward exterior of the dif­ ferential housing. A small. SEAL AND BEARING DIFFERENTIAL EXCITER RING PINION GEAR AND BEARINGS PINION SEAL SPECIFICATIONS 9 1/4 INCH AXLE TORQUE 75 75 76 SPECIAL TOOLS 9 1/4 AXLE GENERAL INFORMATION DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G GENERAL INFORMATION Axle bearing problem conditions are usually caused by: • Insufficient or incorrect lubricant • Foreign matter/water contamination • Incorrect bearing preload torque adjustment © Incorrect backlash (to tight) When serviced. and the same internal components as a standard differential. The removable. They also have two steel axle shaft tubes that are pressed into and welded to the differ­ ential housing (Fig. 1). Never spin dry bearings with compressed air. the bearings must be cleaned thor­ oughly.51 INDEX page page RING GEAR 51 53 53 51 54 53 54 55 57 53 57 58 58 62 63 63 60 62 65 66 69 70 70 GENERAL INFORMATION AXLES DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING DRIVELINE SNAP GEAR AND BEARING NOISE GENERAL INFORMATION LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL LOW SPEED KNOCK REAR AXLE ALIGNMENT SERVICE DIAGNOSIS TRAC-LOK NOISE DIAGNOSIS VIBRATION CLEANING AND INSPECTION AXLE COMPONENTS DIFFERENTIAL CASE RUNOUT TRAC-LOK ADJUSTMENTS DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR LASH 72 PINION DEPTH MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT 70 SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT 75 SERVICE PROCEDURES DRAIN AND REFILL REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION AXLE ASSEMBLY AXLE SHAFT. The Rear Wheel Anti-lock (RWAL) brake speed sen­ sor is attached to the top. This will result in noisy oper­ ation after repair. Both axle types are equipped with a remote vent fitting. Check for cracks or porous areas in the housing or tubes.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . This will overheat them and brinell the bearing surfaces. stamped metal axle gear ratio identifica­ tion tag is attached to the housing cover. AXLES The 9 1/4-Inch axle housings consist of a cast iron center section. A Trac-Lok differential has a one-piece dif­ ferential case. Axles equipped with a Trac-Lok® differential are optional. stamped steel cover provides a means for inspection and service without removing the complete axle from the vehicle.

3 . 1 9 1/4 Axle .52 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) HUB / AXLE SHAFT DIFFERENTIAL HOUSING Fig.

I f a mis-adjustment condition is not corrected. or a growling sound. The noise can also occur during a specific type of driving condition. Incorrect ring. The range Is 30 to 40 mph. Where axle bearing damage is slight. Incorrect bearing preload or gear backlash will not result In component breakage. Bearing noise can be either a whining. These gears are loaded during vehicle turns. Incorrect lubricant quantity contributes to breakage.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . brack­ ets and drive belts. or above 50 mph. deceleration. Do not overlook engine accessories. the side or pinion gears could be worn or damaged. or worn/dam­ aged gears can cause noise. damaged differential bearings usually pro­ duce a low pitch noise. Axle component breakage is most often the result of: • Severe overloading © Insufficient lubricant ® Incorrect lubricant • Improperly tightened components Overloading occurs when towing heavier than rec­ ommended loads. or gear damage can cause noise changes. This condition will cause high temperature which can result In bearing failure. differential and pinion gear bear­ ings can all produce noise when worn or damaged. Axle shaft bearings produce noise and vibration when worn or damaged. When road testing. out-of-balance wheels • Loose wheel lug nuts • Worn U-joint • Loose spring U-bolts • Loose/broken springs • Damaged axle shaft bearings • Loose pinion gear nut • Excessive pinion yoke run out • Bent axle shaft Check for loose or damaged front-end components or engine/transmission mounts. The pitch of differential bearing noise Is also constant and varies only with vehicle speed. Shift 'out-of-gear and coast through the peak-noise range. Excessive bearing preload may not be noisy. coast. I f noise does occur dur­ ing vehicle turns. These conditions are acceleration. Wheels and Tires for additional information. accelerate the vehicle to the speed range where the noise is the greatest. tooth contact. The noise generally changes when the bearings are loaded. LOW SPEED KNOCK Low speed knock is generally caused by a worn U-joint or by worn side-gear thrust washers. These components can contribute to what appears to be a rear-end vibration. GEAR AND BEARING NOISE GEAR NOISE Axle gear noise can be caused by insufficient lubri­ cant. Worn. Incorrect backlash. Road test the vehicle. I f the bearing noise is heard during a coast. check for insuf­ ficient lubricant. All driveline components should be examined before starting any repair. or constant lo. Loose dif­ ferential components can also cause breakage. Pinion bearing noise will be higher because It rotates at a faster rate. This noise changes only with vehicle speed. VIBRATION Vibration at the rear of the vehicle is usually caused by a: • • Damaged drive shaft • Missing drive shaft balance weight • Worn. Drive the vehicle and load the differen­ tial. A worn pinion gear mate shaft can also cause a snapping or a knocking noise. Pinion gear bearings have a constant-pitch noise. I f the noise stops or changes greatly. Differential side and pinion gears can be checked by turning the vehicle. gear backlash. I f bearing noise occurs the pinion rear bearing is the source of the noise. Refer to Group 22. Mis-adjustment will produce enough noise to cause service repair before a failure occurs. Turn the vehicle sharply to the left and to the right. component failure can result. A worn pinion gear shaft bore will also cause low speed knock. Gear tooth cracking and bearing spalling are indicators of this. BEARING NOISE The axle shaft.ad.53 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING {Continued! Using the wrong lubricant will cause overheating and gear failure. Differential bearing noise Is similar to pinion bearing. Gear noise usually happens at a specific speed range. the noise Is usually not noticeable at speeds above 30 mph. can be caused by: ® High engine idle speed • Loose engine/transmission/transfer case mounts • Worn U-joints • Loose spring mounts • Loose pinion gear nut and yoke • Excessive ring gear backlash • Excessive side gear/case clearance . front bearing is the source. DRIVELINE SNAP A snap or clunk noise when the vehicle is shifted into gear (or the clutch engaged). This will load the bearings and change the noise level. Component breakage can occur when the wheels are spun excessively. They usually do not cause noise In straight-ahead driving.

54 DIFFERENTIAL H i DRIVELINE DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued} (7) Average the FTR and the RTR distance mea­ surements. (4) Rotate the rear wheels until both reference marks face the rear of the vehicle. two pieces of tape.6 mm) to 3/16 in. After changing the lubricant. I f the BTR distance measurement is greater than the average FTR and RTR distance. (1) Raise both rear wheels off the surface with a frame contact hoist.3 . (1. the camber will be positive ( + ). LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL Under normal traction conditions. figure-eight turns. . a bent or deformed rear axle shaft is most likely the cause. Instruct the helper to shift the transmission into gear. • With Trac-Lok® differentials add a container of Mopar Trac-Lok Lubricant. a mechanics stethoscope is helpful in isolating the source of a noise. NOTE. FTR + RTR Divided By two Minos BTR Equals Camber I f the BTR distance measurement Is less than the average FTR and RTR distance measurement.6 to 2.8 mm) toe-out. the camber will be negative ( . I f the toe position or camber Is not acceptable.). Subtract the BTR measurement from this average distance to obtain the camber. Record this measurement as the Bottom Of Tire (BTR) measurement. Measure the distance between the outside edges of the. clutch damage could have occurred. REAR AXLE ALIGNMENT MEASUREMENT The following procedure can be used to determine if abnormal rear tire tread wear is the result of a bent or deformed rear axle shaft. With low-traction surfaces. (3) Rotate the rear wheels until both reference marks face the front of the vehicle. (5) Subtract the RTR measurement from the FTR measurement to obtain the amount of wheel toe. Record this measurement as the Rear Of Tire (RTR) measurement. engine torque Is transferred to the wheel with the most tire traction. Measure the dis­ tance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape. The accept­ able amount of camber is 1/16 inch to 3/32 inch (1. Record this measurement as the Front Of Tire (FTR) measurement. Replace the gear lubricant i f necessary. engine torque is divided evenly. drive the vehicle and make 10 to 12 slow. This maneu­ ver will pump lubricant through the clutches. (4. Raise the vehi­ cle on a hoist with the wheels free to rotate. The acceptable rear wheel toe-in position is 1/18 in. This will correct the condition in most instances. Listen for the noise. (6) Rotate the rear wheels until the reference marks are facing downward.4 mm). The most common problem is a chatter noise when turning corners. I f the chatter persists. When diagnosing a limited-slip differential the wheel with the least traction can continue spin­ ning. Check for Incorrect or contaminated lubricant. The source of a snap or a clunk noise can be deter­ mined with the assistance of' a helper. (2) Attach a one-inch long piece of masking tape at the center of each tire tread for use as reference marks. Measure the dis­ tance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape.

Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. 2. AXLE SHAFT N O I S E 1. Excessive spinning of one wheel/tire. Vehicle overloaded. 1. 2. Fill rear differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant.BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) SERVICE DIAGNOSIS COMDSTION WHEEL NOISE — ~ . Misaligned axle shaft tube. Misaligned axle shaft tube. DIAGNOSIS CORRECTION 1. 4 Replace broken axle shaft. Inspect all gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid erratic use of clutch. 2. Refer to Drive Pinion Bearing Pre-Load Adjustment. 3. AXLE SHAFT BROKE 1. Service as necessary. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. DIFFERENTIAL G E A R S SCORED 1. 6. Loose drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut. Replace broken axle shaft after inspecting for other possible causes. 4. 4. adjust differential bearings properly. DIFFERENTIAL C A S E CRACKED 1. 3. replace scuffed gears. 7. Faulty or brinelled bearings must be replaced. Replace broken axle shaft after correcting axle shaft tube alignment. Grabbing clutch. Replace scored gears. Replace cracked case. Replace cracked case. Faulty. At reassembly. 2. Excessive ring gear backlash. Bent or sprung axle shaft. Correct as necessary. Scuffed gear tooth contact surfaces. 2. At reassembly. Erratic clutch operation. Erratic clutch operation. Avoid erratic use of clutch. Correct as necessary. Refer to Specifications. Replace bent or sprung axle shaft. 6. 4. Readjust as necessary. Excessive gear backlash between ring gear and pinion gear. Scored gears should be replaced. Replace cracked case. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Replace cracked case. Inspect all gears. pinion bores and shaft for damage. Drain excess lubricant by removing fill plug and allow lubricant to level at lower edge of fill plug hole. Tighten drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut with' specified torque.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Improper grade of lubricant. 3. Inspect axle shaft tube alignment. 3. 2. 3. 3. 2. adjust ring gear backlash properly. Vehicle overloaded. Tighten loose nuts. Check adjustment of ring gear backlash and pinion gear. Replace scored gears. Replace broken axle shaft. 4. Scoring marks on the drive face of gear teeth or in the bore are caused by instantaneous fusing of the mating surfaces. Improper adjustment of drive pinion gear shaft bearings. 1. 7. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. 3. Adjust drive pinion shaft bearings. 3. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Clean and refill differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. brinelled wheel bearing. Improper wheel bearing adjustment. 5. Wheel loose. After inspecting for other possible causes. Replace scored gears. 8. If necessary. 2. 1. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Lubricant level too high. Inspect clutch and make necessary repairs or adjustments. 5. 2. LOSS O F LUBRICANT 1. Insufficient lubrication. Improper adjustment of differential bearings.55 SERVICE POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. 1. 1. End play in drive pinion bearings. 2. 4. J9503-3 . 8.

3. 5. Bearings adjusted too tight. Examine other parts for possible damage. Loose drive pinion gear shaft bearings. Adjust differential bearing preload torque. Refill axle with correct amount of the proper lubricant. Improper adjustments. Overloading. 6. Replace gears. 3.56 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE ^ — BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G ( C o n t i n u e d . Misaligned or sprung ring gear. 3. flush and refill with correct amount of the correct lubricant. 4. Avoid erratic clutch operation. AXLE N O I S E 1. 8. Worn teeth on ring gear or drive pinion gear. Insufficient ring gear backlash. Ice-spotted pavements. 5. Cracked differential housing. Replace gears and examine the remaining parts for possible damage. 2. 3. Incorrect grade of lubricant. Replace worn seals. S E R V I C E DIAGNOSIS CONDITION LOSS O F LUBRICANT (CONT'D) CORRECTION POSSIBLE CAUSES 2. Replace parts as required. 2. 2. Unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. Lubricant level too low. 6. Readjust ring gear backlash and inspect gears for possible scoring. 5. replace with new matched set. 2. Improper ring gear and drive pinion gear adjustment. 4. 3. If necessary. Worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. 4. 1. Excessive gear wear. 1. Replace gears. Drain. Replace worn or scored yoke and seal. 2. 8. Ensure ring gear backlash is correct. 2.3 . Replace as necessary. Replace with matched gear and drive pinion gear set. 4. Insufficient lubricant. Axle cover not properly sealed. 4 Replace worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. 5. 4. 5. Repair or replace housing as necessary. Remove unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. Tighten with specified torque AXLE O V E R H E A T I N G 1. Examine the remaining parts for possible damage. 4. Adjust drive pinion gearshaft bearing preload torque. Erratic clutch operation. 3. Replace gears. Examine other gears and bearings for possible damage. 3. Loose differential bearing cap bolts J9503-4 . Check ring gear and pinion gear teeth contact pattern. 6. 4. Inspect gears for excessive wear or scoring. Scored and worn yoke. Readjust bearings. Loose differential bearings. G E A R TEETH BROKE (RING G E A R A N D PINION) 1. Worn axle shaft seals. 7. 1. Check teeth on ring gear and drive pinion gear for correct contact. 3. Also inspect for leaks and correct as necessary. 2. 6. 7. Measure ring gear runout. Refill differential housing. 5. Remove cover and clean flange and reseal.

) or more than 271 N-m (200 ft. Make sure brakes are not dragging during this measure­ ment. LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL DO NOT USE THE kerosene or gasoline for flushing. (3) Remove the lubricant fill hole plug from the differential housing cover. This will remove the residual lubri­ WARNING: WHEN SERVICING VEHICLES WITH A cant and foreign matter. Clean the mating surfaces CLE SUPPORTED. 3 Typical Housing Cover SEALING CONTOUR OF BEAD NOTE: Install the housing cover within 5 minutes after applying the sealant. Lubrication and Maintenance for additional information. 2). lbs. A LIMITED SLIP AXLE CAN with mineral spirits. CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE) TO CAUSE THE Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes. Tighten the cover bolts to 47 N-m (35 ft. . the seal­ ant must be removed and another bead applied. 2 Trzc-loc Test (5) With standard differential. VEHICLE TO MOVE. DIFFERENTIAL TEST DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . drain. the most probable cause is incorrect or contaminated lubri­ cant. (2) Raise and support the vehicle. A container of Trac-lok Lubricant (friction modifier) should be added after repair service or a lubricant change. (4) Remove wheel and bolt Special Tool 6790 to studs. flush and refill the axle with the specified lubricant. The differential can be tested without removing the differential case by measuring rotating torque. (7) Install the cover on the differential. Refer to Lubricant change in this Group. (6) I f rotating torque is less than 22 N-m (30 ft. Install the identification tag. 3). and park­ ing brake off. Fig. BOTH (6) Scrape the residual sealant from the housing REAR WHEELS MUST BE RAISED AND THE VEHI­ and cover mating surfaces. SERVICE PROCEDURES DRAIN AID REFILL (1) Drive the vehicle until the gear lubricant reaches normal operating temperature. clean the differen­ tial and the housing cavity with a flushing oil (or light engine oil).). (2) Place blocks in front and rear of both front wheels. lbs.57 Fig. Vehicles with a limited slip differential should be road tested by making 10 to 12 slow figure eight turns. transmission in neutral. ENGINE TO TURN THE AXLE AND WHEELS. If not installed. Refer to Group 0.Do not use water. Apply a bead of MOPAR Sili­ EXERT ENOUGH FORCE (IF ONE WHEEL IS IN cone Rubber Sealant on the housing cover (Fig. Before removing the Trac-lok unit for repair. lbs. (5) Use torque wrench on special tool to rotate wheel and read rotating torque (Fig. (4) Remove the differential housing cover and drain lubricant from the housing and axle shaft tubes. (1) Engine off.) on either wheel the unit should be service. This maneuver will pump the lubricant through the clutch discs to eliminate a possible chat­ ter or pop noise complaint. (3) Raise one rear wheel until i t is completely off the ground. steam.BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G ( C o n t i n u e d ) TRAC-LOK NOSSE DIAGNOSIS If a noise occurs when turning corners.

With Trac-Lok differentials. I f the differential housing. Use an appropriate cleaning solution and dry the surface with compressed air. Remove the housing cover. Bleed and adjust brakes refer to Group 5 Brakes for procedure. REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION AXLE ASSEMBLY It is not necessary to remove the complete axle from the vehicle for routine differential inspection and service. (11) Remove the axle assembly from the vehicle. REMOVAL (3) Connect the parking brake cables. (8) Refill the differential with the specified. (2) Block the brake pedal in the up (non-de­ pressed) position with a wooden block. 4 Pinion Mate Shaft Lock Screw . quan­ tity of Mopar Hypoid gear Lubricant. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. (6) Remove the brake tee bolt. (5) Align the installation reference marks and con­ nect the drive shaft yoke to the pinion yoke. (7) Remove support and lower vehicle. PINION ENSURE AXLE IS SECURED ON SUPPORT. add a container of friction modifier. AXLE SHAFT.) torque. (7) Disconnect the parking brake cables and unbolt backing plates. Tighten the nuts to the specified torque.58 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued) CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in lubricant foaming and overheating. pinion yoke. (9) Remove the shock absorber lower attaching nuts and bolts. Carefully detach the brake fluid tubes from the clips. and shock absorber lower bolts. Mark the U-joint. (9) Install the fill hole plug. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. (8) Disconnect the drive shaft from the pinion yoke. 4). (10) Road test the vehicle. case or axle shaft tubes are damaged the complete axle can be removed and replaced. Be cautious when the tires are being rotated by the engine or by other means. (4) Clean all the foreign material from housing cover area. Cap the fittings to prevent loss of brake fluid. (12) Wash and clean the outer surface of the hous­ ing and tubes. Remove the lock screw and the pinion mate gear shaft from the case (Fig. INSTALLATION (1) Position the rear axle spring pads over the spring center bolts. (5) Remove the vent hose from the brake tee nip­ ple. lbs. (6) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (3) Remove the brake drum. (3) Remove the rear wheels and brake drums. W A R N I N G : AXLE MAY R O T A T E O N S U P P O R T WHEN S P R I N G CLAMP BOLTS A R E R E M O V E D (1) Raise and support the vehicle. (2) Install the spring clamp bolts and nuts. (10) Support axle and remove rear spring U-bolts and the spring brackets. AXLE SHAFT REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. SEAL AND BEARING CAUTION: When rear axle service is necessary. Drain the lubri­ cant from the housing. (4) Disconnect the brake fluid tube fittings from the wheel cylinders. Fig. (5) Loosen the housing cover bolts.3 . and pinion shaft for reference. (6) Rotate the differential case so the pinion mate gear shaft lock screw is accessible. Tighten the U-joint clamp bolts to 19-23 N-m (170-200 in. (4) Connect the brake fluid tube fittings to the wheel cylinders. both rear wheels must be raised off the surface so that they are free to rotate.

(10) I f any of these conditions exist. Fig. Polish each axle shaft w i t h No. the axle shaft and bearing should be replaced. Fig. Do not reduce the diameter of the axle shaft seal contact sur­ face. 8) Fig.59 SEAL AND BEARING REMOVAL (1) Remove the axle shaft seal with a small pry bar (Fig.BR ™ ~ ™ — — — HEllOWAL A M P INSTALLATION ( C o n t i n u e d ! (7) Push the axle shaft in toward the center of the vehicle. Normal bearing contact on the shaft will be a dull gray and it could appear to be lightly dented. 7). 5 Axle Shaft C-Clip Lock (8) Remove the axle shaft. 8 Bearing Removal Fig. 6). 7 Axle Seal Removal (2) Remove the axle bearing with Remover 0-4828 (Fig. . the axle shaft and bearing must be replaced. 5 ) . Remove the axle shaft C-clip lock from the axle shaft (Fig. (9) Inspect the axle shaft bearing contact surface area for indications of wear (Fig. 600 crocus cloth. DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . the crocus cloth should be moved around the circumference of the shaft (not in-line w i t h the shaft). NOTE: If wear exists. When polishing. This w i l l remove slight surface damage. Use care to prevent damage to the axle shaft bearing. 6 Axle Shaft Bearing (3) Inspect the axle shaft seal surface and tube bore for roughness and burrs.

(2) Scribe a mark on the U-joint. A X L E SHAFT INSTALLATION (1) Lubricate the bearing bore and seal lip. (1) Wipe the axle shaft tube bore clean. (2) Insert C-clip lock in the recessed groove of the axle shaft. If not followed completely. C452 Fig. Insert the axle shaft and engage the splines with the side gear. PINION SEAL CAUTION: The following procedures must be used so the correct pinion bearing preload torque is retained. (8) Remove the fill hole plug and fill the differen­ tial housing with lubricant. Note the indicated torque as the wrench is moved through several revolutions. Tighten the screw to 11 N-m (8 ft. Fig. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. and pinion shaft for reference. 9) with Installer C-4826 and Handle C-4171. Rotate the pinion shaft several times with the torque wrench. 10). lbs. (6) Hold the yoke with Wrench 6719. (5) Use a Newton-meter or an inch-pound torque wrench to measure the pinion bearing preload.3 • 60 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REMOVAL AND I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) BEARING AND SEAL INSTALLATION NOTE. (7) Raise or lower the hoist until the vehicle is level. CAUTION: DO NOT use the new axle shaft seal to position or seat the bearing in the axle shaft bore. (3) Insert pinion gear mate shaft in the case through the thrust washers and pinion gears. (4) Remove the wheel and tire assemblies and remove the brake drums to prevent any drag. (3) Disconnect the drive shaft from the pinion yoke. 9 Axle Shaft Seal installation (5) When the tool contacts the tube end (face). NOTE: This measurement is critical for bearing pre­ load torque which must b e re-adjusted after the new seal is installed. Always install a new seal. Install the fill hole plug. 10 Yoke Removal . the seal is position to the correct depth. (7) Remove the yoke with Remover C-452 (Fig. Align the hole in the shaft with the lock screw hole. failure of the rear axle can result. (2) Install a new bearing with Installer 0-4826 with Handle C-4171 (3) Ensure that the bearing is not cocked and Is seated firmly against the tube shoulder. Remove the pinion shaft nut and Belleville washer. pinion yoke. REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. Refer to the Specifica­ tions chart for the type and the quantity. The drag may cause a false bearing preload torque mea­ surement. (5) Install the brake drum. Install the lock screw with Loctite® on the threads. (4) Clean the cover and apply a bead of sealant and install cover. Use care to prevent the shaft splines from damaging the axle shaft seal l i p . (6) Install wheel and tire assembly and lower the vehicle.) torque. Push the axle shaft outward to seat the C-clip lock. (4) Install the new axle shaft seal (Fig.

lbs. replace yoke i f necessary. NOTE: The outer perimeter of the seal is pre-coated with a special sealant. This condition must be corrected before installation of the drive shaft. (13) Install the drive shaft with the installation reference marks aligned. NOTE: The bearing preload torque should be con­ stant during a complete revolution of the pinion.lR . (14) Install the brake drums. CAUTION: Never loosen pinion gear nut to decrease pinion gear bearing preload torque and never exceed specified preload torque. (9) Use a Newton-meter or an inch-pound torque wrench to measure the pinion bearing preload torque. Rotate pinion shaft several revolutions to ensure the bearing rollers are seated. lbs. (15) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower the vehicle. tighten the nut in small increments until the preload torque is obtained. If the preload torque varies.). (12) The seal replacement is unacceptable i f the final nut torque is less than 285 N-m (210 ft. (10) Continue tightening and measuring the bear­ ing preload torque until the torque is the same as the original. DIFFERENTIAL C-748 J9403-20 . (6) Seat yoke on pinion shaft with Installer W-162D and Wrench 6719 (7) Remove the tools and Install the Belleville washer. (16) Check the differential housing lubricant level. Tighten the U-joint yoke clamp screws to 19 N-m (14 ft. 12). (8) Hold pinion yoke with Yoke Holder 6719 and tighten shaft nut to 285 N-m (210 ft.) more than the recorded value. If preload torque is exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be installed. Remove any burrs and clean the shaft. (11) I f the specified torque is not obtained. An additional application of sealant is not required. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . (2) Examine the splines on the pinion shaft for burrs or wear. The bearing preload torque should never be greater than 1 N«m (10 in. Fig. The convex side of the washer must face out­ ward. this indicates a binding condition. 11). worn splines and worn seal contact surface. The torque sequence will have to be repeated.) (Fig. (3) Inspect pinion yoke for cracks. (5) Position the pinion yoke on the end of the shaft with the reference marks aligned. lbs. Fig.61 E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (8) Remove the pinion shaft seal with Puller 0-748 (Fig. 11 Pinion Seal INSTALLATION Removal (1) Clean the seal contact surface in the housing bore. lbs. . 12 Tightening Pinion Shaft Nut .). (4) Install'the new pinion shaft seal with Installer C-3980A or C-4109A and Handle C-4735 NOTE: The seal is correctly installed when the seal flange contacts the face of the differential housing flange.

The ring gear runout should not exceed 0. 15 Threaded Adjuster DIFFERENTIAL INSTALLATION Tool J9403-3 (3) Measure runout by turning the ring gear sev­ eral complete revolutions. 14). 16). Loosen the bolts. bearing cups and threaded adjusters. refer to Axle Shaft Removal. (2) Attach Dial Indicator to Pilot stud C-3288B. Place the indicator plunger at a right angle (90°) to the ring gear (Fig. lbs. Fig.005 Inch (0.62 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REFERENCE MARKS REFERENCE MARK REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL It is not necessary to remove the complete axle to service the differential. (6) Remove bearing threaded adjuster lock from each bearing cap.13 mm). (7) Loosen the threaded adjusters with Wrench C-4164 (Fig. 15). . use threaded adjuster to remove the side play before measur­ ing the r i n g gear runout. a damaged differential case could be the cause. Refer to Pinion Gear removal and installation paragraph in this section for proper pro­ cedure. 18 Ring Gear Runout Measurement Fig. 16). (4) Remove RWAL/ABS sensor from housing. I f runout exceeds 0.13 mm). Him GEAR The ring and pinion gears are service in a matched set. Carefully position the assem­ bled differential case in the housing. The m a r k i n g on the differential case w i l l be very useful later d u r i n g the differential case runout. (5) Mark the differential housing and the differen­ tial bearing caps for installation reference (Fig. (8) Hold the differential case while removing bear­ ing caps and adjusters. (1) Apply a coating of hypoid gear lubricant to the differential bearings. REMOVAL (1) Remove the axle shafts. (3) Install the bearing cap bolts (Fig. 14 Mark For instaiiation J9403-11 Reference AXLE TUBE DIAL INDICATOR 19403-12 Fig. 13). Tighten the upper bolts to 14 N-m (10 ft. (2) Observe the reference marks and install the differential bearing caps at their original locations (Fig. Do not replace the ring gear without replacing the pinion gear. Side play resulting from bearing races being loose on case hubs requires replacement of the differential case. Tighten the lower bolts finger-tight until the bolt head is lightly seated.3 . Each differential bearing cup and threaded adjuster must be kept with their original bear­ ing cone.005 inch (0. (9) Remove the differential case. Otherwise. A dab of grease can be used to keep the adjusters in position.) torque. but do not remove the bearing caps. Observe dial indicator and mark the ring gear and differential case at maximum runout areas.

(1) Using a suitable solvent.) torque. (4) Using a heat lamp or paint stripping heat gun. (8) Alternately tighten bolt holding ring gear to differential to 102 N-m (75 ft. PILOT REMOVAL (1) Remove differential from axle housing. (2) Place differential case In a suitable vise with soft metal jaw protectors. 18). (2) Using a suitable file. 17 EXCITER RING PINION GEAR AND BEARINGS Before removing the pinion flange. (7) Place differential case i n a suitable vise with soft metal jaw protectors. Use this measurement when installing the pinion gear using the original bearings. REMOVAL (1) Remove pinion gear nut and washer. RING GEAR INSTALLATION CAUTION: Do not reuse the bolts that held the ring gear to the differential case. (3) Remove the collapsible preload spacer (4) Remove the pinion seal with Puller C-748. measure and record the rotation resistance of the pinion gear using a torque wrench. (4) Using a soft hammer. EXCITER RING REMOVAL The ring gear must be removed before the RWAL/ ABS brake exciter ring can be replaced. pinion depth. lbs. . This will provide case-to-ring gear bolt hole alignment. The tempera­ ture should not exceed 149°C (300°F). warm ring gear to no greater than 150° C (300° F). 16 Bearing Caps & Bolts (1) Heat the replacement exciter ring with a heat lamp or by immersing in a hot fluid. remove rear pinion bearing cups from axle housing. side Fig. Use Puller C-452 and Wrench C. (6) Remove rear bearing from pinion shaft (Fig. and gear lash will require adjust­ ment. INSTALLATION Fig. damage to ring gear can result. drive ring gear from dif­ ferential case. The front bearing and cup must be replaced. CAUTION: Do not use open flame to heat ring gear. quickly position the exciter ring on the differential case adjacent to the flange. (3) Remove bolts holding ring gear to differential case. wash oil residue from differential case and ring gear. (2) After heating. (2) Drive pinion gear out of housing with plastic or rawhide hammer. (5) Invert the differential case and start two ring gear bolts. The bolts can fracture causing extensive damage. (5) Remove the front and rear bearing cups with Remover Set C-4306 and Handle C-4171.63 bearing preload. (6) Install new ring gear bolts and draw ring gear to exciter ring. (3) Thread two pilot studs C-3288-B in ring gear 180° across from each other to aid alignment. Do not use a torch to heat the ring. (7) Using remover C-4306 and handle C-4171. When installing differential in axle housing after ring and pinion gear replacement. Remove and record the pinion gear depth shims.3281 to remove the pin­ ion yoke.BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . (1) Remove exciter ring with a hammer and drift. remove burrs or sharp edges that may cause ring gear to not mate flush with differential and exciter ring. This will damage the front bearing rollers and bearing cup.

3 . 19). YOKE HOLDER J9402-61 Fig. rotate the pinion shaft to ensure the bearing rollers are cor­ rectly seated. (10) Retain pinion yoke with Holder 6719. (4) Install front pinion bearing and install pinion shaft seal with Installer C-4109A and Handle C-4735. (5) Lubricate the pinion gear front and rear bear­ ings with gear lubricant. lbs. (11) Tighten the pinion nut to (Fig. remove front bearing cups from axle housing. (3) Position depth shim(s) on pinion gear shaft and install rear bearing with Installer C-3095A (Fig. install rear pinion bearing cup in axle housing. install front pinion bearing cup in axle housing. (7) Install the pinion yoke with Installer W-162D and Holder 6719 (Fig. Install the pinion nut. NOTE: The outer perimeter of the seal is pre-coated with a special sealant. CAUTION: Use care to prevent over collapsing pre­ load spacer during installation of the yoke and seat­ ing the front bearing. (1) Using installer D-129 and handle C-4171. 21) 285 N-m (210 ft. The convex side of the washer must face outward. Install pinion gear in housing. (6) Install new collapsible spacer on pinion gear shaft. . (8) Remove tools from the pinion gear. 20 Pinion Yoke Installation (9) Install the Belleville washer. An additional appli­ cation of sealant is not required.64 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REMOVAL AN© INSTALLATION (Continued) (8) Using remover D-103. Initially tighten the drive pinion gear shaft nut enough to remove the bearing end play While tightening. 20). (2) Using installer tool C-4306 and handle C-4171. 19 Shaft Rear Bearing Installation YOKE INSTALLER Fig. pinion PRESS SPECIAL TOOL 938 SPECIAL TOOL C-3095A PINION BEARING PINION SPECIAL TOOL 1130 J9403-5O J9403-44 Fig.) torque (minimum). 18 inner Bearing Removai PINION GEAR INSTALLATION Determine the proper pinion depth shim thickness using Pinion Depth Measurement paragraph in the Adjustment section of this group.

tighten the nut in small increments until preload torque is obtained. 21 Tightening Pinion Gear Nut (12) Remove the tools from the shaft. DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY Fig. (14) I f specified torque is not obtained. If preload torque is not within the specified range this is also unacceptable.) torque (Fig.) torque. 23 Pinion Mate Gear Removai (3) Remove the differential side gears and thrust washers.65 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL Fig. (13) Measure the pinion bearing preload torque by rotating pinion shaft with a torque wrench. The differential will be unacceptable for use if the final nut torque is less than 285 N«m (210 STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL DISASSEMBLE (1) Remove pinion gear mate shaft. 22 Bearing Preload Torque Measurement ft. THRUST WASHER MATE G E A R SIDE G E A R J9203-61 Fig. Rotate the pinion several complete revolutions (both directions) to additionally seat the bearing rollers. lbs. If preload torque varies while rotating the shaft. 23). The bearing preload torque should be con­ stant during a complete revolution of the drive pinion gear shaft. there is an internal binding that must be corrected before assem­ bly. CAUTION: Do not loosen pinion gear nut to decrease pinion gear bearing preload or exceed specified preload torque. lbs. If preload torque is exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be installed. The correct pre­ load torque Is 1 N»m (10 in.). lbs. (2) Rotate the differential side gears and remove the pinion mate gears and thrust washers (Fig. 22) When using original p i n i o n rear bearing and a replacement front bearing. lbs. The cor­ rect bearing preload torque is 2-4 N-m (20-30 In.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . . This torque value is with replacement bearings and pinion nut tightened to a minimum of 285 N-m (210 ft.) torque plus the torque measured and recorded during disas­ sembly. The tightening sequence must be repeated.

Refer to Differential removal and installation procedure. 24 Trac-lok DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLE Differential Components RING GEAR BOLTS UPWARD (1) Differential side gears and thrust washers (2) Pinion gears and thrust washers (3) Pinion gear mate shaft (align holes in shaft and case) (4) Lubricate all differential components with hypoid gear lubricant. remove and discard the bolts holding the ring gear to the case. 25). I f neces­ sary. 26). Refer to this illus­ tration during repair service. 28). 27). 25). Thread forcing Screw 6960-4 into adapter until i t becomes centered in adapter plate. TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL The Trac-Lok (limited-slip) differential compo­ nents are illustrated in (Fig.3 . DISASSEMBLY Service to the Trac-Lok differential requires the use of Tool Set 6960. (8) Position a small screw driver in slot of Threaded Adapter 6960-1 (Fig. (7) Assemble Threaded Adapter 6960-1 into top side gear. 24). use a drift and hammer (Fig.II DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y (Continued) DIFFERNTIAL THRUST WASHER PINION SNAP RING CASE SHAFT LOCK PIN CLUTCH PACK PINION MATE SHAFT J9203-13 Fig. Refer to Model 35 Axle section in this Group for Differential Removal and Installa­ tion. (2) Position the differential case on the holding tool (Fig. Place shop towels under the differen­ tial to avoid damage i f removal of the ring gear is required (Fig. (5) Install differential case in axle housing. (1) Clamp Side Gear Holding Tool 6965 in a vise. 29). 25 Differential Case Holding Tool (6) Install and lubricate Step Plate 6960-3 (Fig. Tap the ring gear with a rawhide or plastic mallet and separate ring gear from case (Fig. (5) Remove the pinion gear mate shaft. 30) to prevent adapter from turning. . DIFFERENTIAL ON AXLE SHAFT J8903-43 Fig. (3) I f ring gear replacement is required. (4) Remove the pinion gear mate shaft lock screw (Fig.

BR • DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 .67 D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y (Continued) Fig. 28 Mate Shaft Removal .

feeler gauge and mallet. Mark each clutch pack for installation reference.020 in. Fig.) (maximum) to compress Belleville springs In clutch packs (Fig. Keep plates in correct order during removal (Fig. 35). (1) Assemble the clutch discs into packs secure disc packs with retaining clips (Fig. 31). 31 Tighten Beileviiie Spring Compressor Toot (10) Using a 0. Removal DIFFERENTIAL CASE Fig.3 . 34 Side Gear & Clutch Disc Removal (14) Remove case from fixture. (12) Insert Turning Bar 6960-2 in case. 32). both packs must be replaced.68 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I S A S S E M B L Y A N D A S S E M B L Y (Continued) (9) Tighten forcing screw tool 122 N-m (90 ft. lbs. The clutch discs are replaceable as complete sets only. 34). Rotate case with tool until pinion gears can be removed (Fig. Remove remaining clutch pack. 33 Pinion Gear SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC . Fig. (15) Remove clutch pack retaining clips. (2) Position assembled clutch disc packs on the side gear hubs. (13) Remove top side gear and clutch pack. Lubricate each component with gear lubricant before assembly. remove thrust washers from behind the pinion gears (Fig. Fig. 32 Remove Pinion Thrust Washer ASSEMBLY (11) Loosen the forcing screw tool until the clutch pack tension is relieved and the pinion gears can be slightly rattled between the case and side gears. 33). If one clutch disc pack is damaged. . (3) Position case on axle fixture.

35 Clutch Disc Pack (4) Install clutch pack and side gear in lower bore (Fig.69 D I S A S S E M B L Y A N D A S S E M B L Y (Continued) CLUTCH PACK UPPER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK DIFFERENTIAL CASE RETAINER J8903-50 Fig. Insert Threaded Adapter 6960-1 into top side gear. Fig. (9) Place pinion gears in position in side gears and verify that mate shaft hole line up. DO NOT spin bearings with compressed air. Do not steam clean the differential components. insert forcing Screw 6960-4. it is not necessary to measure the gear backlash. Correct fit is due to close machining tolerances during manufacture. or dry with compressed air. 37). CLEANING AND INSPECTION AXLE COMPONENTS Wash differential components with cleaning solvent and dry with compressed air. (7) Hold assembly in position. . (14) Lubricate all differential components with hypoid gear lubricant. Insert mate shaft into each pinion gear to verify alignment.) to compress the Belleville springs. (13) Install the pinion mate shaft lock screw finger tight to hold shaft during installation. lbs. Wash bearings with solvent and towel dry. 37 Upper Side Gear & Clutch Disc Pack Installation (10) Rotate case with Turning Bar 6960-2 until mate shaft holes in pinion gears align with holes in case. (12) Remove forcing screw. If replacement gears and thrust washers were installed. 36 Clutch Discs & Lower Side Gear installation (5) Install lubricated Step Plate 6960-3 on first clutch pack (Fig. Clean axle shaft tubes and oil channels in housing. threaded adapter and step plate. Fig. Cup and bearing must be replaced as matched sets only. Install pinion gear mate shaft. Lubricate and install thrust washers behind pinion gears and align washers with a small screw driver. (6) Install the upper side gear and clutch disc pack (Fig. (8) Tighten forcing screw tool to slightly compress clutch discs. align holes in shaft and case. 37). (11) Tighten forcing screw to 122 N-m (90 ft.B R — — • • • — DIFFERENTIAL AND D1I1EL1NE 3 . Be sure clutch pack r e t a i n i n g clips remain i n position and are seated I n the case pockets. 36).

Soak plates and discs for a minimum of 20 minutes.13 mm). • Install Gauge Block SP-6020 at the end of SP-526 Fig. I f the . The plunger should contact the ring squarely between the outer edge and the gear attaching bolt holes (Fig. (4) Inspect differential case and pinion shaft. Replaced as a matched set only.08 mm). © Position Spacer (SP-6017) over Shaft (SP-526) o Position pinion rear bearing on shaft • Position tools (with bearing) in the housing • Install Sleeve (SP-1730) • Install pinion front bearing • Install Spacer (SP-6022) • Install Sleeve (SP-535-A). Replace i f worn or damaged.003 inch (0. Lubricate the pinion gear front and rear bearings with gear lubri­ cant. (3) Attach Dial Indicator to measure the flange runout. cracked. case flange runout should be measured. (3) Inspect side and pinion gears. Remove the differential case from the differential housing. chipped or damaged. • Pinion yoke for cracks. Install new shims i f necessary. Rotate the pinion gear several complete revolutions to align the bearing rollers. • Preload shims for damage and distortion. worn splines. Washer (SP-534) and Nut (SP-533) (1) Tighten the nut to seat the pinion bearings in the housing.70 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR CLEANING AND INSPECTION ( C o n t i n u e d ) Inspect for. Add remaining Friction Modifier to differen­ tial after assembly. (2) Loosen the compression nut tool. Tighten the bolts lightly. DIFFERENTIAL CASE RUNOUT (1) I f the ring gear runout exceeded 0. The required thickness of the depth shim(s) is determined according to the following information.) torque. Allow the sleeve to turn several times during the tightening to prevent brinelling the bear­ ing cups or the bearings. Install the case with the bearing cups and the threaded adjusters close to their original position. TRAC-LOK (1) Clean all components in cleaning solvent. lbs. scoring or damage. Re-tighten the compression nut tool to 1-3 N-m (15-25 in. and a rough/corroded seal contact surface. Depth shim(s) are positioned between the pinion gear rear bearing and pinion gear to provide the separation distance. pinion gears. 38 Case Flange Runout Measurement (4) Rotate the differential case several times and observe the dial indicator. Replace both clutch packs i f any one compo­ nent in either pack is damaged. To reduce r i n g gear r u n o u t positioning the r i n g gear r u n o u t m a r k 18(1 degrees opposite the flange r u n o u t mark.3 . • Smooth appearance with no broken/dented sur­ faces on the bearing rollers or the roller contact sur­ faces • Bearing cups must not be distorted or cracked • Machined surfaces should be smooth and with­ out any raised edges • Raised metal on shoulders of cup bores should be removed with a hand stone • Wear and damage to pinion gear mate shaft. Mark the area of maxi­ mum flange runout. The differential case flange runout must not exceed 0. (2) Install the bearing caps and bolts. pitted areas. • Ring and pinion gear for worn and chipped teeth • Ring gear for damaged bolt threads. Remove all side play. (2) Inspect clutch pack plates for wear. Replace as a matched set only.005 Inch (0. ADJUSTMENTS PINION DEPTH MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT Pinion depth measurement is taken with Tool Set C-758-D6 with new pinion bearing cups Installed. Use Wrench C-4164 to thread both adjusters inward. runout exceeds this amount replace the differential case. 38). Replace any gear that is worn. (5) Remove the differential bearing cap bolts. PRESOAK PLATES AND DISC Plates and discs with fiber coating (no grooves or lines) must be presoaked in Friction Modifier before assembly. Dry components with compressed air. side gears and thrust washers. Repair or replace as necessary.

005 + 0. GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance -3 + 0.004 + 0.004 +1 + 0.006 -0.003 i + 0. (5) Trial fit depth shim(s) between the crossbore arbor and gauge block (Fig.006 + 0.001 -0.006 + 0.002 + 0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 + 0.005 + 0. lbs. After selecting the proper pinion depth shim (s).001 0 -0.002 -0. PINION Original Pinion Gear Depth Variance +4 + 0.003 -0.003 + 0.). add that value to the required thickness of the depth shim(s).002 + 0.005 +2 + 0.001 0 -0.003 -0.005 -0.006 +3 + 0.002 + 0. +1.005 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0.002 -0.007 -0.001 0 -0.001 0 -0. (3) Position Crossbore Arbor SP-6018 In the differ­ ential housing.001 -0. Tighten the cap bolts to 14 N-m (10 ft. Install the attaching bolts.003 -0. 40 Depth Shim(s) Selection • Install Cap Screw (SP-536) and tighten with Wrench SP-531 (Fig.005 + 0. 39).004 + 0.002 -0.001-inch incre­ ments from 0.002 + 0. etc.002 -0.001 -0.002 -1 + 0.006 -0.020 i n c h to 0. Position the bearing caps on the arbor tool.BR ————-—_ ^ - DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 .003 + 0. If the number is positive.007 + 0. I f the number is negative.001 0 (6) Note the etched number on the face of the drive pinion gear ( . I f the number is 0 no change is necessary. remove the measurement tools from the axle hous­ ing.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0. Depth shims are available i n 0.001 0 -0. +2.001 0 -0.001 0 -0.007 +4 0 -0. 89 Gauge Block Fig.038 inch.1 .003 -0.71 ADJUSTMENTS (Continued) Fig.003 + 0.003 + 0.005 -0. -2.004 -0.005 -0.004 + 0.) torque.008 J8902-46 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 . 40).008 + 0.004 + 0. subtract that value from the thickness of the depth shim(s). The num­ bers represent thousands of an inch deviation from the standard.004 -0. (4) Center the tool and place a piece of 0.002 inch shim stock at each end of the arbor.004 -0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 -0. 0.007 + 0.004 + 0.006 + 0.001 -0. The depth shim(s) fit must be snug b u t not tight (drag f r i c t i o n of a feeler gauge blade).002 + 0.

(6) Use Wrench C-4164 to tighten the right-side threaded adjuster to 102 N-m (75 ft. Continue increasing the torque at the right-side threaded adjuster until the specified backlash is obtained. D o t h i s f i v e t o t e n times each t i m e t h e threaded adjusters are adjusted. (4) Loosen the right-side.) t o r q u e . Seat the bearing cups with the procedure described above.) torque. lbs. Position the plunger against the drive side of a ring gear tooth. Continue to tighten the right-side adjuster and seat bearing cups until the torque remains con­ stant at 102 N-m (75 ft. (9) Install the threaded adjuster locks. lbs.003 to 0. Adjust until the differen­ tial bearing free-play Is eliminated.076 mm) • Mark the gears so the same teeth are meshed during all backlash measurements • Maintain the torque while adjusting the bearing preload and ring gear backlash • Excessive adjuster torque will Introduce a high bearing load and cause premature bearing failure.) torque. Ensure the lock finger is engaged with the adjuster hole. (3) Rotate the ring gear to the position of the least backlash. t h e c o m p l e t e adjustment procedure must be repeated. . (5) Tighten the differential bearing cap bolts to' 136 N-m (100 ft. M a i n t a i n t h e gear teeth engaged (meshed). lbs. lbs. Do this until the torque remains constant. lbs. Allow some ring gear backlash (approximately 0.004 inch (0. Ensure a c c u r a t e b e a r i n g c u p responses t o t h e a d j u s t ­ ments.72 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR ADJUSTMENTS {Continued) DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR LASH BEARING PRELOAD ADJUSTMENT AMD GEAR LASH The following must be considered when adjusting bearing preload and gear backlash: • The maximum ring gear backlash variation is 0. 41 Threaded Adjuster Toot (8) Tighten the left-side threaded adjuster until 102 N-m (75 ft. Obtain backlash of 0. lbs. The range of backlash is 0.01 inch/0.203 mm).25 mm) between the ring and pinion gear. Tighten the lock screws to 10 N-m (90 in. T h e b e a r i n g s m u s t b e seated b y r a p i d l y r o t a t i n g t h e p i n i o n gear a h a l f t u r n b a c k and f o r t h . (2) Install Dial Indicator (Fig.) (7) Measure the ring gear backlash.076 to 0. Fig.006 to 0. This can cause excessive differen­ tial case free-play and ring gear noise. Seat the bearing cups with the procedure described above.102 mm) with each adjuster tight­ ened to 14 N-m (10 ft. Mark the gear so that all future backlash measurements will be taken with the same gear teeth meshed. Locate and mark the area of minimum backlash. Fig. lbs.008 inch (0. Seat the bearing rollers with the procedure described above. Insufficient torque can cause excessive differential case free-play and ring gear noise • Insufficient adjuster torque will not support the ring gear correctly.) torque.15 to 0.3 . The d i f f e r e n t i a l b e a r i n g cups w i l l n o t always Measure the backlash at 4 positions (90 degrees apart) around the ring gear. Seat the bearing cups with the procedure described above. i m m e d i a t e l y follow the threaded a d j u s t e r s as they are moved d u r i n g adjustment.) torque. If t h e t o r q u e is c o n s i d e r a b l y less. tighten the left-side threaded adjuster. as m a r k e d . The left-side threaded adjuster torque should have approximately 102 N«m (75 f t .) torque is indicated. 42). 41). 42 Ring Gear Backlash Measurement (1) Use Wrench C-4164 to adjust each threaded adjuster inward (Fig.003 inch (0.

The backlash must be main­ tained within the specified limits until the correct teeth contact patterns are obtained. (6) Install the RWAL/ABS brake speed sensor and cover onto the axle housing. (5) Install the housing cover.) torque. Refer to chart for Interpretation of contact patterns and adjust accord­ ingly. Refill the differential with lubricant. • Excessive backlash is corrected by moving the ring gear teeth closer to the pinion gear teeth • Insufficient backlash is corrected by moving the ring gear away from the pinion gear (1) Apply yellow ferrous (Iron) oxide compound to both drive and coast sides of ring gear teeth. (4) Install the axle shafts. .BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . It will also show i f the ring gear backlash has been adjusted correctly. (3) Note patterns In compound.73 ADJUSTMENTS {Continued) GEAR CONTACT PATTERN The ring gear teeth contact patterns will show i f the pinion gear depth shim(s) have the correct thick­ ness. (2) Rotate the ring gear one complete revolution in both directions. Refer to Axle Shaft Installation within this group. Tighten the sensor to 13 N-m (10 ft. lbs.

PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE DRIVE SIDE O F T O O T H . T H I N N E R PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED. J9003-24 . PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT. THERE SHOULD ALWAYS BE SOME CLEARANCE BETWEEN CONTACT PATTERN AND TOP O F THE T O O T H . BUT MAY BE SLIGHTLY TOWARD THE T O E . I N C R E A S E RING GEAR BACKLASH. PATTERN SHOULD BE CENTERED O N THE COAST SIDE O F T O O T H . RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT T H I C K E R PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED.3 • 74 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR ADJUSTMENTS (Continued) GEAR TEETH CONTACT PATTERNS DRIVE SIDE O F RING GEAR TEETH COAST SIDE O F RING GEAR TEETH HEEL TOE TOE HEEL DESIRABLE CONTACT PATTERN. PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT D E C R E A S E RING GEAR BACKLASH.

44 Side Gear Calcuiations thickness and install the thrust washer. RWAL/ABS sensor TORQUE 47 N-m (35 ft. .305 mm) or greater.20 mm (0. Ring gear . replace both gears as a matched set.005 in. .0. . (5) I f there Is no side gear clearance. (6) Compare both clearance measurements. Insert a matched pair of feeler gauge blades between the gear and differential housing on opposite sides of the hub (Fig.) .) . .008 in. add clearance recorded when the C-clip lock was installed to thrust washer thickness measured. 3. I f i t necessary to replace a side gear. Pinion Bolt.BR A D J U S T M E N T S (Continued) SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE MEASUREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT When measuring side gear clearance.8 pts.25 in.005-0. lbs. . .0.037 0. Backing plate Bolt.076 mm (0. remove the C-clip lock from the axle shaft. lbs. Add the washer thick­ ness to the recorded side gear clearance.) 136 N-m (100 ft.lbs. .005 inch (axle shaft not contacting mate shaft).) 0 12-0. . (1) Install the axle shafts and C-clip locks and pin­ ion mate shaft. .) 1-2 N-m (10-20 in. .012 inch (0. I f the end of the axle shaft is not contacting the pinion gear mate shaft.12 mm (0. In some cases.305 mm). Bolt. cover. . (2) Measure each side gear clearance.012 inch (0.033 0.) DESCRIPTION Bolt.005 in. Bolt. 3.) 24 N-m (18. . . record the side gear clear­ ance.21. 0. The C-clip lock is preventing the side gear from sliding on the axle shaft. Determine i f the shaft Is contacting the pinion gear mate shaft. hypoid SAE 80W-90 .040 0.003 J9203-31 Fig.3 L (4. .012 inch (0.040 "0. lbs. .) . .) 3. The sum will determine the required thickness of the replacement thrust washer. Remove the thrust washer and measure its thickness with a micrometer.007 + 0.127 mm (0. the feeler gauge is inserted.005 inch.) . 95 N-m (70 ft. .305 mm) or greater. inspect the axle shaft w i t h the feeler gauge inserted behind the side gear. (8) I f clearance (above) continues to be 0. I f necessary. .) . refer to the Installation located within this group.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . 44). lbs. S P E C I F I C A T I O NIS 9 1/4 INCH AXLE Fig. . . I f the difference is less than 0. Do not remove the feeler gauges. the case must be replaced. Diff. both side gears must be replaced (matched set) and the clearance measurements repeated. ft. Nut.64 N-m (48 ft.55. The sum of gear clearance and washer thickness will determine required thickness of replacement thrust washer (Fig. lbs. (7) I f clearance is 0.) . . the side gear clearance Is acceptable. lbs. the end of the axle shaft will move and contact the mate shaft when.) 285 N-m (210 ft. (4) I f clearance Is more than 0.2. . Use a micrometer to measure the thrust washer thickness.003 in. Record the Axle Type Lubricant Lube Capacity Axle Ratio Differential Case Clearance Case Flange Runout Ring gear Diameter Backlash Runout Pinion Bearing Preload TORQUE Semi-floating. check each gear Independently. Bearing cap . 43). 48 Side Gear Ciearance Measurement (3) I f side gear clearances Is no more than 0.50 cm (9.23. Assemble the differential case without the C-clip lock installed and measure the side gear clearance.92 .75 SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE THRUST WASHER THICKNESS TOTAL I REPLACEMENT WASHER THICKNESS NEW SIDE GEAR CLEARANCE ^ ^ 0.

3 .76 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE Installer—C-3980A .

BR • DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 - S P E C I A L T O O L S (Continued) Remover/Installer. Bearing Set—C-4306 .

3 .78 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR S P E C I A L T O O L S (Continued) Wrench—6719 Fixture Tool—6965 .

79 MODEL 60/70/80 AXLES INDEX page GENERAL INFORMATION GENERAL INFORMATION LUBRICANT DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL OPERATION TRAC-LOK/POWER-LOK OPERATION DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING DRIVELINE SNAP GEAR AND BEARING NOISE GENERAL INFORMATION LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL LOW SPEED KNOCK REAR AXLE ALIGNMENT SERVICE DIAGNOSIS TRAC-LOK NOISE DIAGNOSIS VIBRATION SERVICE PROCEDURES DRAIN AND REFILL WHEEL BEARINGS REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION AXLE ASSEMBLY AXLE ASSEMBLY DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS GENERAL INFORMATION DIFFERENTIAL EXCITER AND RING GEAR . The tubes are pressed in to form a one-piece axle housing. PINION GEAR PINION SEAL—MODEL 70/80 PINION SHAFT SEAL DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY POWER-LOK—MODEL 70/TRAC-LOK— MODEL 80 STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL TRAC-LOK DIFFERENTIAL CLEANING AND INSPECTION AXLE COMPONENTS TRAC-LOK AND POWER-LOK ADJUSTMENTS DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR LASH PINION GEAR DEPTH SPECIFICATIONS MODEL 60/70/80 REAR AXLES TORQUE SPECIAL TOOLS MODEL 60/70/80 AXLES page 91 94 95 90 89 79 81 81 81 83 83 82 84 83 83 85 87 83 87 88 88 91 92 104 99 100 107 107 110 108 113 113 114 side. 1) consists of an iron center casting with axle shaft tubes extending from either . GENERAL INFORMATION The axle housing (Fig.jgg DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 .

1 Model 60.3-80 differential and driveline General Information (continued) WASHER COVER SIDE GEAR GASKET OR SEALER WASHER EXCITOR RING CONE FLANGE A N D AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL GASKET BOLT > X WASHER J9203-54 Fig. 70 and 80 Rear Axle 09 3B .

Vehicle load is supported by the axle housing tubes. the differential allows the axle shafts to turn at unequal speeds (Fig. CAUTION: If axle is submerged in water. In operation. TRAC-LOK/POWER-LOK OPERATION Trac-Lok differential is available on Model 60 and 80 axles. The differential case is a one-piece design.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . In a conventional differential. i f one wheel spins. IN STRAIGHT A H E A D DRIVING EACH W H E E L ROTATES AT 100% O F CASE SPEED 4__P PINION G E A R S ROTATE WITH C A S E M V J9303-13 Fig. Model 70 axles with the optional Power-Lok use a two piece differential case. This occurs because input torque applied to the gears is divided and distributed equally between the two side gears. Model 80 axles with the optional Trac-lok also uses a two piece case. An addition tag will be attached i f equipped with a limited-slip differential. The hub rides on two taper bearings at the outboard end of the axle tube. the opposite wheel will generate only as much torque as the spin­ ning wheel. . Differential bearing preload and ring gear back­ lash are adjusted with shims located between the dif­ ferential bearing cones and case. The removable steel cover provides a means for inspection and service without removing the axle from the vehicle. 80W-90 or equivalent GL-5 grade lubricant. A stamped metal axle gear ratio identification tag is attached to the housing cover with one cover bolts. I n this instance. To accomplish this. the pinion gears revolve with the pinion mate shaft but do not rotate around i t (Fig. During normal operation. The pinion gear is fitted in a bore in the differential case and is positioned at a right angle to the axle shafts. the outside wheel must travel a greater distance than the inside wheel i n order to complete a turn. the input torque applied to the pinion gears is not divided equally. As a result. Dana 80 4x4 vehicles use 10 oz. The axles are equipped with full floating axle shafts. For complete drive axle assembly removal and installation refer to Drive Axle Assembly Replacement in this Group. Power-Lok differential is available on Model 70 axles.ahead driving. power flow occurs as follows: • The pinion gear rotates the ring gear • The ring gear (bolted to the differential case) rotates the case • The differential pinion gears (mounted on the pinion mate shaft in the case) rotate the side gears • The side gears 'splined to the axle shafts) rotate the shafts During straight. 2 Differential Operation—Straight Ahead Driving When turning corners. Each differential side gear is splined to an axle shaft. lubricant must be replaced immediately to avoid possible premature axle failure. to prevent the tires from scuffing and skidding through turns. I t allows the axle shafts to rotate at different speeds when turning corners. LUBRICANT Dana® axles use a thermally stable Lubricant.81 GENERAL I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) The integral type housing. The full-float axle shafts are retained by bolts attached to the hub. The pinion gears are mounted on a pinion mate shaft and are free to rotate on the shaft. Model 60 axles with the optional Trac-lok use a one piece case. The pinion gears now rotate around the pinion mate shaft in opposite directions. The axle shafts can be removed without disassembling the wheel bearings. the torque transmitted to each wheel is equal at all times. 3). The dif­ ferential pinion mate shaft is retained with a roll pin. torque applied to the ring gear is transmitted to the axle shafts through differential gears. 2). of friction modifier added to the lubricant. hypoid gear design has the centerline of the pinion set below the centerline of the ring gear. This allows the side gear and axle shaft attached to the outside wheel to rotate at a faster speed. However. This tag also identifies the number of ring and pinion teeth. The difference must be compensated for. The wheel bearings are opposed tapered roller bearings that contained in the wheel hub.. the differential pinion gears do not rotate on the pinion mate shaft. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL OPERATION The differential gear system divides the torque between the axle shafts. Vehicles with Trac-Lok/Power-Lok also use 6 oz. of friction modifier added to the lubricant.

This will overheat them and brinell the bearing surfaces. 4). part of the ring gear torque is transmitted through clutch packs. In operation. Trac-Lok operation is normal. 3 Differential Operation—On Turns In the Trac-Lok/Power-Lok differential. Check for cracks or porous areas in the housing or tubes. 4 Limited Slip Differential Operation—Both Wheels Driving air. that have radial grooves on the plates and concentric grooves on the discs. the wheel with the least traction may spin. However. The clutch packs contain multiple disc clutches. when one wheel looses traction. the Trac-Lok/Power-Lok clutches are engaged by two concurrent forces. Axle component breakage is most often the result of: © Severe overloading • Insufficient lubricant • Incorrect lubricant • Improperly tightened components Overloading occurs when towing heavier than rec­ ommended loads. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING GENERAL INFORMATION Axle bearing problem conditions are usually caused by: • Insufficient or incorrect lubricant • Foreign matter/water contamination • Incorrect bearing preload torque adjustment • Incorrect backlash (to tight) When serviced. Trac-Lok differentials can also use plates and discs with bonded fiber material that is smooth in appear­ ance.3 . Trac-Lok differentials resist wheel spin on bumpy roads and provide more pulling power when one wheel looses traction. I f both wheels slip due to unequal traction. The Trac-Lok design provides differential action needed for' turning corners and for driving straight ahead. the bearings must be cleaned thor­ oughly. Pulling power is provided continuously until both wheels loose trac­ tion. Axle gear problem conditions are usually the result of: • Insufficient lubrication • Incorrect or contaminated lubricant • Overloading (excessive engine torque) or exceed­ ing vehicle weight capacity • Incorrect clearance or backlash adjustment Insufficient lubrication is usually the result of a housing cover leak. Using the wrong lubricant will cause overheating and gear failure. Never spin d r y bearings w i t h compressed Fig. Component breakage can occur when the wheels are spun excessively. The first being preload force exerted through dished spring washers contained In the clutch packs. Gear tooth cracking and bearing spalling are indicators of this. The second from sepa­ rating forces generated by the side gears as torque is applied through the ring gear (Fig. I t can also be from worn axle shaft or pinion gear seals. They should be dried with lint-free shop tow­ els. This will result in noisy oper­ ation after repair. I n extreme cases of dif­ ferences of traction. Incorrect . the clutch packs transfer additional torque to the wheel having the most traction.82 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D E S C R I P T I O N AND O P E R A T I O N (Continued) j OUTER W H E E L 110% CASE SPEED AXLE % 100% DIFFERENTIAL C A S E SPEED J INNER W H E E L 9 0 % CASE SPEED P I N I O N GEARS ROTATE O N P I N I O N SHAFT J9303-14 Fig.

Turn the vehicle sharply to the left and to the right. DRIVELINE SNAP A snap or clunk noise when the vehicle is shifted into gear (or the clutch engaged). the side or pinion gears could be worn or damaged. differential and pinion gear bear­ ings can all produce noise when worn or damaged. deceleration. check for insuf­ ficient lubricant. LOW SPEED KNOCK Low speed knock is generally caused by a worn U-joint or by worn side-gear thrust washers. GEAR AND BEARING NOISE GEAR NOISE This will load the bearings and change the noise level. or gear damage can cause noise changes. Instruct the helper to shift the transmission into gear. Axle shaft bearings produce noise and vibration when worn or damaged.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . or above 50 mph. coast. a mechanics stethoscope is helpful i n isolating the source of a noise. front bearing is the source. Incorrect bearing preload or gear backlash will not result in component breakage. or a growling sound. This condition will cause high temperature which can result in bearing failure. I f the bearing noise is heard during a coast. VIBRATION Vibration at the rear of the vehicle is usually caused by a: • Damaged drive shaft • Missing drive shaft balance weight • Worn. These conditions are acceleration. Incorrect ring gear backlash. accelerate the vehicle to the speed range where the noise is the greatest. BEARING NOISE The axle shaft. tooth contact. The range is 30 to 40 mph.83 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING {Continued) lubricant quantity contributes to breakage. I f the noise stops or changes greatly. Pinion bearing noise will be higher because it rotates at a faster rate. I f noise does occur dur­ ing vehicle turns. damaged differential bearings usually pro­ duce a low pitch noise. component failure can result. Do not overlook engine accessories. or constant load. These components can contribute to what appears to be a rear-end vibration. Wheels and Tires for additional information. The pitch of differential bearing noise is also constant and varies only with vehicle speed. The noise generally changes when the bearings are loaded. Road test the vehicle. Shift out-of-gear and coast through the peak-noise range. Pinion gear bearings have a constant-pitch noise. Drive the vehicle and load the differen­ tial. Gear noise usually happens at a specific speed range. Incorrect backlash. out-of-balance wheels • Loose wheel lug nuts © Worn U-joint • Loose spring U-bolts • Loose/broken springs ® Damaged axle shaft bearings • Loose pinion gear nut © Excessive pinion yoke run out • Bent axle shaft Check for loose or damaged front-end components or engine/transmission mounts. When road testing. A worn pinion gear shaft bore will also cause low speed knock. Differential side and pinion gears can be checked by turning the vehicle. the noise is usually not noticeable at speeds above 30 mph. This noise changes only with vehicle speed. or worn/dam­ aged gears can cause noise. Loose dif­ ferential components can also cause breakage. can be caused by: • High engine idle speed • Loose engine/transmission/transfer case mounts • Worn U-joints • Loose spring mounts • Loose pinion gear nut and yoke • Excessive ring gear backlash • Excessive side gear/case clearance The source of a snap or a clunk noise can be deter­ mined with the assistance of a helper. These gears are loaded during vehicle turns. Mis-adjustment will produce enough noise to cause service repair before a failure occurs. . Bearing noise can be either a whining. Where axle bearing damage is slight. REAR AXLE ALIGNMENT MEASUREMENT Axle gear noise can be caused by insufficient lubri­ cant. They usually do not cause noise in straight-ahead driving. I f a mis-adjustment condition Is not corrected. Refer to Group 22. All driveline components should be examined before starting any repair. Worn. A worn pinion gear mate shaft can also cause a snapping or a knocking noise. brack­ ets and drive belts. Excessive bearing preload may not be noisy. Raise the vehi­ cle on a hoist with the wheels free to rotate. The following procedure can be used to determine if abnormal rear tire tread wear is the result of a bent or deformed rear axle shaft. The noise can also occur during a specific type of driving condition. I f bearing noise occurs the pinion rear bearing is the source of the noise. Differential bearing noise is similar to pinion bearing. Listen for the noise.

The most common problem is a chatter noise when turning corners. (7) Average the FTR and the RTR distance mea­ surements. .6 mm) to 3/16 in.4 mm). I f the chatter persists. Measure the dis­ tance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape. (1. a bent or deformed rear axle shaft Is most likely the cause. Measure the dis­ tance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape.8 mm) toe-out. Subtract the BTR measurement from this average distance to obtain the camber. (6) Rotate the rear wheels until the reference marks are facing downward. This maneu­ ver will pump lubricant through the clutches.6 to 2. With low-traction surfaces. Replace the gear lubricant If necessary. Record this measurement as the Front Of Tire (FTR) measurement. Record this measurement as the Bottom Of Tire (BTR) measurement. the camber will be positive ( + ). (3) Rotate the rear wheels until both reference marks face the front of the vehicle. The accept­ able amount of camber is 1/16 inch to 3/32 inch (1. clutch damage could have occurred. engine torque is divided evenly. NOTE: FTR + RTR Divided By two Minus BTR Equals Camber I f the BTR distance measurement is less than the average FTR and RTR distance measurement.84 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) (1) Raise both rear wheels off the surface with a frame contact hoist. (2) Attach a one-Inch long piece of masking tape at the center of each tire tread for use as reference marks. The acceptable rear wheel toe-in position is 1/16 in. I f the BTR distance measurement is greater than the average FTR and RTR distance. engine torque Is transferred to the wheel with the most tire traction. figure-eight turns. • With Trac-Lok® differentials add a container of Mopar Trac-Lok Lubricant. (4. drive the vehicle and make 10 to 12 slow. the camber will be negative ( . LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL Under normal traction conditions. (5) Subtract the RTR measurement from the FTR measurement to obtain the amount of wheel toe. When diagnosing a limited-slip differential the wheel with the least traction can continue spin­ ning.3 . I f the toe position or camber is not acceptable. Measure the distance between the outside edges of the two pieces of tape. This will correct the condition i n most Instances. Check for incorrect or contaminated lubricant. Record this measurement as the Rear Of Tire (RTR) measurement. (4) Rotate the rear wheels until both reference marks face the rear of the vehicle.). After changing the lubricant.

At reassembly. Refer to Drive Pinion Bearing Pre-Load Adjustment. Excessive gear backlash between ring gear and pinion gear. Grabbing clutch. Replace cracked case. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Readjust as necessary. 2. .BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 • 85 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) SERVICE DIAGNOSIS CONDITION WHEEL NOISE SERVICE P O S S I B L E CAUSES 1. Loose drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut. 2. Bent or sprung axle shaft. Faulty or brinelled bearings must be replaced. Scoring marks on the drive face of gear teeth or in the bore are caused by instantaneous fusing of the mating surfaces. Scuffed gear tooth contact surfaces. Excessive ring gear backlash. Excessive spinning of one wheel/tire. Faulty. Improper grade of lubricant. Replace broken axle shaft. 8. 2. Tighten loose nuts. Replace broken axle shaft. 3. 3. Replace cracked case. 4. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. Correct as necessary. J9503-3 . Inspect all gears and bearings for possible damage. 3. Inspect axle shaft tube alignment. 4. pinion bores and shaft for damage. 4. 7. Check adjustment of ring gear backlash and pinion gear. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Avoid excessive weight on vehicle. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. Replace scored gears. Adjust drive pinion shaft bearings. If necessary. DIFFERENTIAL G E A R S SCORED Insufficient lubrication. 2. 3. Vehicle overloaded. 6. 2. 4. Replace broken axle shaft after inspecting for other possible causes. 2. Vehicle overloaded. Correct as necessary. At reassembly. 3. Wheel loose. 2. Erratic clutch operation. Replace bent or sprung axle shaft. brinelled wheel bearing. Replace cracked case. AXLE SHAFT BROKE 1. 1. 8. End play in drive pinion bearings. replace scuffed gears. Scored gears should be replaced. Replace scored gears. 4. . DIFFERENTIAL C A S E CRACKED 1. Refer to Specifications. Clean and refill differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. Avoid erratic use of clutch. Improper wheel bearing adjustment. examine gears and bearings for possible damage. AXLE SHAFT N O I S E 1. . Inspect all gears. Replace scored gears. Inspect clutch and make necessary repairs or adjustments. 1. adjust ring gear backlash properly. adjust differential bearings properly. Erratic clutch operation. DIAGNOSIS CORRECTION 1. Replace broken axle shaft after correcting axle shaft tube alignment. Service as necessary. Misaligned axle shaft tube. Improper adjustment of drive pinion gear shaft bearings. 5. LOSS O F LUBRICANT Lubricant level too high. 7. 3. Replace cracked case. 5. Misaligned axle shaft tube. After inspecting for other possible causes. 6. Fill rear differential housing to required capacity with proper lubricant. Avoid erratic use of clutch. Improper adjustment of differential bearings. Tighten drive pinion gearshaft yoke nut with specified torque. Drain excess lubricant by removing fill plug and allow lubricant to level at lower edge of fill plug hole. 2.

Insufficient lubricant. Incorrect grade of lubricant. Improper adjustments. Overloading. Improper ring gear and drive pinion gear adjustment. 4. Replace gears and examine the remaining parts for possible damage. 1. GEAR TEETH BROKE (RING GEAR A N D P I N I O N ) 1. Replace as necessary. 5. 5. 1. 3. 3. Also inspect for leaks and correct as necessary. Replace gears. 7. Check ring gear and pinion gear teeth contact pattern. If necessary. Erratic clutch operation. Loose differential bearings. Remove unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. 5. Avoid erratic clutch operation. Repair or replace housing as necessary. Scored and worn yoke. 6. Examine other parts for possible damage. Ice-spotted pavements. 3. Replace parts as required. Examine other gears and bearings for possible damage. Worn axle shaft seals. 2. Adjust differential bearing preload torque. 4. 2. 3. Loose differential bearing cap bolts J9503-4 . AXLE NOISE 1. 6. Tighten with specified torque j j AXLE OVERHEATING 1. Replace gears. Readjust ring gear backlash and inspect gears for possible scoring. 4 Worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. 2. Adjust drive pinion gearshaft bearing preload torque. 3. 4. flush and refill with correct amount of the correct lubricant. Lubricant level too low. 3. Examine the remaining parts for possible damage.86 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) SERVICE CONDITION LOSS O F LUBRICANT DIAGNOSIS (CONT'D) CORRECTION POSSIBLE CAUSES 2. 4. 3. Loose drive pinion gear shaft bearings. Cracked differential housing. Refill axle with correct amount of the proper lubricant. 7.3 . 4. 8 . Misaligned or sprung ring gear. Inspect gears for excessive wear or scoring. 6. Replace worn drive pinion gear shaft seal. Bearings adjusted too tight. Excessive gear wear. 2. 8 . Check teeth on ring gear and drive pinion gear for correct contact. 1. replace with new matched set. 2. Insufficient ring gear backlash. 5. Replace worn or scored yoke and seal. Refill differential housing. 3. Axle cover not properly sealed. Ensure ring gear backlash is correct. 6. Replace worn seals. Unmatched ring gear and drive pinion gear. Readjust bearings. Replace gears. Replace with matched gear and drive pinion gear set. Measure ring gear runout. 4. 2. 5. 5. 2. 4. Remove cover and clean flange and reseal. Worn teeth on ring gear or drive pinion gear. Drain.

Make sure brakes are not dragging during this measure­ ment. steam. (4) Remove the differential housing cover and drain lubricant from the housing and axle shaft tubes. flush and refill the axle with the specified lubricant. This maneuver will pump the lubricant through the clutch discs to eliminate a possible chat­ ter or pop noise complaint. and park­ ing brake off. Apply a bead of MOPAR Sili­ cone Rubber Sealant on the housing cover (Fig. Before removing the Trac-lok unit for repair. BOTH REAR WHEELS MUST BE RAISED AND THE VEHI­ CLE SUPPORTED. (6) Scrape the residual sealant from the housing and cover mating surfaces. drain. (4) Remove wheel and bolt Special Tool 6790 to studs. Vehicles with a limited slip differential should be road tested by making 10 to 12 slow figure eight turns. SERVICE PROCEDURES DRAIN AND REFILL (1) Drive the vehicle until the gear lubricant reaches normal operating temperature. Lubrication and Maintenance for additional information. the most probable cause is incorrect or contaminated lubri­ cant.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . lbs. (5) With standard differential. DIFFERENTIAL TEST SPECIAL TOOL 6790 J9403-51 Fig. Refer to Lubricant change i n this Group.Do not use water. A LIMITED SLIP AXLE CAN EXERT ENOUGH FORCE (IF ONE WHEEL IS IN CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE) TO CAUSE THE VEHICLE TO MOVE. lbs. Refer to Group 0. S not installed. transmission in neutral. . the seal­ f ant must be removed and another bead applied.) or more than 271 N-m (200 ft. (5) Use torque wrench on special tool to rotate wheel and read rotating torque (Fig. 5).) on either wheel the unit should be service. 6 Typical Housing Cover NOTE: Install the housing cover within 5 minutes after applying the sealant. SEALING CONTOUR OF BEAD Fig. Allow the sealant to cure for a few minutes. 5 Trac-loc Test WARNING: WHEN SERVICING VEHICLES WITH A LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL DO NOT USE THE ENGINE TO TURN THE AXLE AND WHEELS. (6) I f rotating torque is less than 22 N-m (30 ft. The differential can be tested without removing the differential case by measuring rotating torque. A container of Trac-lok Lubricant (friction modifier) should be added after repair service or a lubricant change. clean the differen­ tial and the housing cavity with a flushing oil (or light engine oil).87 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) TRAC-LOK NOISE DIAGNOSIS If a noise occurs when turning corners. (3) Raise one rear wheel until i t is completely off the ground. (2) Raise and support the vehicle. (1) Engine off. (3) Remove the lubricant fill hole plug from the differential housing cover. Clean the mating surfaces with mineral spirits. This will remove the residual lubri­ cant and foreign matter. 6). (2) Place blocks in front and rear of both front wheels. kerosene or gasoline for flushing.

(6) Remove all the rough contact surfaces from the axle. (9) Remove the rear axle from the vehicle. (7) Carefully slide the hub onto the axle. (6) Remove RWAL sensor from axle housing. (3) Position axle under the rear springs. and seal could be damaged. the complete axle assemble can be removed. (2) Remove the lock wedge and adjustment nut. Install the hubs and brake drums. lbs. (9) Install the fill hole plug. (9) Loosen the adjustment nut 1/8 of-a-turn (120 degrees) to provide 0. (2) Use a wooden block to retain the brake pedal in the up position. (5) Inspect the bearing and seal contact surfaces on the axle tube spindle for burrs and/or roughness.). (4) Disconnect brake lines and cap the fittings to prevent loss of brake fluid. bearing. grade 2. lbs. (2) I f cover was removed. (4) Install the spring U-bolts and tighten the nuts to the specified torque.) while rotating the wheel. apply a bead of MOPAR Silicone Rubber Sealant around the cover bolt circle. INSTALLATION (1) I f the differential housing cover was removed. Otherwise. (2) I f a bearing and cup must be replaced. hubs and brake drums. ensure differential housing and cover mating sur­ faces are clean. (8) Refill the differential with the specified quan­ tity of Mopar Hypoid gear Lubricant. the locktab and outer wheel bearing locknut. EP-type lubricant to the axle. (5) Disconnect parking brake cables and cable brackets. Adjust the wheel bearings (refer to Wheel Bearing Adjustment). (7) Install RWAL sensor. add a container of friction modifier. Install the differential housing cover. Install the axle gear ratio identification tag under one of the cover bolts. Install a replacement bearing seal with an appropriate seal installation tool. (8) Connect the brake lines. lbs. Replace as necessary.88 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE — — BR SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued) (7) Install the cover on the differential. It is not necessary to remove the complete axle from the vehicle for routine differential service. I f the differential housing or axle shaft tubes are damaged. (4) Remove inner grease seal and discard. (7) Scribe alignment reference marks on drive shaft U-joint and pinion yoke. Install the inner wheel bearing in the hub. (5) Install shock absorbers. REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION AXLE ASSEMBLY REMOVAL (1) Remove the axle shaft. (5) Remove inner wheel bearing an inspect wheel bearings for wear. (8) Tighten the adjustment nut to 163-190 N-m (120-140 ft. remove the cup from the hub bore. . WHEEL BEARINGS REMOVAL (10) Tap the locking wedge into the spindle keyway and adjustment nut.). (9) Remove the block from the brake pedal. (4) Apply lubricant to surface area of the hub bore.Disconnect the drive shaft U-joint from the pinion yoke. (8) Remove the rear shock absorbers and the rear spring U-bolts from the axle. (3) Remove the hub and drum assembly. Tighten the cover bolts to 47 N-m (35 ft. INSTALLATION (1) Thoroughly clean both wheel bearings and inte­ rior of the hub with an appropriate cleaning solvent. to prevent the inner wheel seal from contacting the axle during installation. (10) Road test the vehicle. CAUTION: Use care bearing and bearing tube spindle threads the threads. (3) Install the replacement bearing cup(s) with an appropriate installation tool. (6) Connect parking brake cables and cable brack­ ets. Apply a coating of multi-purpose NLGI. (1) Raise vehicle and place support stands axle. Bleed and adjust the brakes. Secure it in an upright position to prevent damage to the U-joint. Use a brass drift or an appropriate removal tool to tap out the cup. (11) Install the axle shaft. CAUTION: Overfilling the differential can result in lubricant foaming and overheating. The outer wheel bearing will slide out as the hub is being removed. Install the identification tag. wheels. Tighten the cover bolts to 47 N-m (35 ft. With Trac-Lok differentials.3 .010-inch wheel bearing end play. Install the outer wheel bearing. (3) Remove axle shafts.001-inch to 0.

and nut on shaft. (3) Install the pinion yoke. (4) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. check rotation resistance of the pinion and record the results to aid installation. (18) Install the fill hole plug. 7 Pinion Yoke Removal (7) Use Remover C-748 to remove the pinion gear seal (Fig. (2) Mark the U-joint. Remove the supports and lower the vehicle.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . (7) Lower the vehicle. 9 Tightening Pinion Shaft Nut (5) Align the installation reference marks and attach the drive shaft to the yoke. i f necessary. lbs. PINION SEAL J9203-55 Fig. pinion yoke. (11) Install wheel and tire assemblies. (6) Add hypoid gear lubricant to the differential housing.). Tighten the nut to 292 N-m (215 ft. (5) Using an inch pound torque wrench. washer. (12) Remove the fill hole plug from housing cover. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. Install the new seal with Installer C-3719-A and Handle C-4735. lbs. Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig. (2) Align the installation reference marks and position the yoke on the pinion gear.89 REMOVAL AMD INSTALLATION (Continued) (10) Connect the drive shaft to the pinion yoke with the reference marks aligned. PINION SHAFT SEAL REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. Fill the housing to the correct level with MOPAR Hypoid gear Lubricant.) (Fig. Fig. INSTALLATION (1) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. 9). 8 Pinion Seal Removal (4) Verify that the pinion rotation resistance value is equal to that recorded during removal procedure. and pinion shaft for reference. . 8). I f equipped with Trac-Lok add correct amount of friction modifier. 7). (6) Mark the positions of the yoke and pinion gear for installation alignment reference. Tighten the U-joint clamp bolts to 21 N-m (16 ft. DIFFERENTIAL C-452 J9102-31 Fig. adjust flange nut until pinion resistance is cor­ rect. If not. (3) Disconnect the drive shaft from the pinion yoke.

Install the new seal with Installer D-187B. • Model 70: 298-379 N-m (220-280 ft.) torque DIFFERENTIAL (6) Use Remover 7794A and remove pinion seal (Fig. pinion yoke. Fig. REMOVAL (1) Raise and support the vehicle. 10). lbs. 11 Pinion Seal Removal INSTALLATION (1) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. SPECIAL TOOL 7794A slide hammer to PINION SEAL J9402-59X Fig. 12).3 . 12 Yoke Installation C-452 J9102-31 Fig. lbs. (5) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. and pinion shaft for reference. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. 11). Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig.) torque • Model 80: 597-678 N-m (440-500 ft. 13). 10 Pinion Yoke Removal (4) Install washer with concave surface against yoke on Model 70 axle. Install nut on shaft and tighten nut to (Fig. (4) Mark the positions of the yoke and pinion gear for installation alignment reference. (2) Mark the U-joint.Si DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) PINION SEAL—MODEL 70/80 . YOKE ) J9402-61 Fig. (3) Install yoke with Installer D-191 (Fig. (3) Disconnect the drive shaft from the pinion yoke. (2) Align the installation reference marks and position the yoke on the pinion gear. 13 Tightening Pinion Shaft Nut .

WARNING: AXLE MAY ROTATE ON ' SUPPORT WHEN SPRING CLAMP BOLTS ARE REMOVED ENSURE A1LE IS SECURED ON SUPPORT (11) Remove the axle assembly from the vehicle. (5) Align the installation reference marks and con­ nect the drive shaft yoke to the pinion yoke. (10) Support axle and remove rear spring U-bolts and the spring brackets. (2) Block the brake pedal i n the up (non-de­ pressed) position with a wooden block. AXLE ASSEMBLY It is not necessary to remove the complete axle from the vehicle for routine differential inspection and service. I f the differential housing. REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. Fig. (7) Remove support and lower vehicle. (2) Install the spring clamp bolts and nuts. Secure the drive shaft in an upright position to prevent damage to the rear U-joint. Carefully detach the brake fluid tubes from the clips. (5) Remove the vent hose from the brake tee nip­ ple. 15 Bearing Cap Identification .). (4) Disconnect the brake fluid tube fittings from the wheel cylinders. Model 80: Torque pin­ ion nut to 339 N-m (250 ft. This will tighten the nut to the correct torque. Refer to the removal procedures in this Group.91 HEHOWAL AND INSTALLATION (Gontinued) Optional Torque Method. DIFFERENTIAL REMOVAL To service the differential the axle shafts must be removed. Mark the U-joint. (7) Remove support and lower the vehicle. (3) Remove the rear wheels and brake drums. (12) Wash and clean the outer surface of the hous­ ing and tubes. (1) Position the rear axle spring pads over the spring center bolts. 14 Pinion Nut (5) Align the installation reference marks and attach the drive shaft to the yoke. (6) Add gear lubricant to the differential housing if necessary. (6) Remove the brake tee bolt.) torque. (8) Disconnect the drive shaft from the pinion yoke. lbs.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . Then scribe a line on the yoke 3/8 of an inch from one point of the pin­ ion nut (Fig. (7) Disconnect the parking brake cables and unbolt backing plates. and pinion shaft for reference. (1) Note the installation reference letters stamped on the bearing caps and housing machined sealing surface (Fig. case or axle shaft tubes are damaged the complete axle can be removed and replaced. 14). Tighten the nuts to the specified torque. Use an appropriate cleaning solution and dry the surface with compressed air. (9) Remove the shock absorber lower attaching nuts and bolts. and shock absorber lower bolts. Bleed and adjust brakes refer to Group 5 Brakes for procedure. (4) Connect the brake fluid tube fittings to the wheel cylinders. pinion yoke. (3) Connect the parking brake cables. lbs. 15). INSTALLATION Fig. Tighten the nut until the point of the nut lines up with the scribe mark. Tighten the U-joint clamp bolts to 19-23 N-m (170-200 in. (6) Install wheel and tire assemblies. Cap the fittings to prevent loss of brake fluid.

(7) Pry the differential case loose from the hous­ ing. 16) and zero the indicator. 16). it could be distorted or damaged. Tap the differential case to ensure the bearings are fully seated (Fig. lbs. . Mark or tag bearing cups and outboard shim/spacer (selected thickness) indicating which side they were removed. it could be distorted or damaged. 20). (2) Install differential in axle housing. 16 Spread Differential Housing (4) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the differ­ ential housing. Load the indicator plunger against the opposite side of the housing (Fig. Measure the distance with the dial indicator (Fig. (3) Separate the housing enough to install the case in the housing. 16). (7) Install the bearing caps at their original loca­ tions (Fig. Remove the spreader. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot stud. 16).38 mm (0. (1) Using tool C-4340 with handle C-4171. (5) Separate the housing enough to remove the case from the housing.015 in). DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARING INSTALLATION (1) Position Spreader W-129-B with the tool dowel pins seated in the locating holes (Fig. If ring and pinion gears have been replaced. 17). and Adapter 1130 (Fig.3 • 92 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (2) Remove the differential bearing caps. (2) Install a pilot stud at the left side of the differ­ ential housing. CAUTION: Do not spread over 0.015 in). 19). 17 Differential Removal Fig. DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARINGS REMOVAL (1) Remove Differential case from axle housing. To prevent damage. DIFFERENTIAL PRY BAR Fig.) torque. Measure the distance with the dial indicator (Fig. verify differential side bearing preload and gear mesh back­ lash. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to 77 N-m (57 ft. Attach Dial Indicator to housing pilot stud. Install the hold down clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle finger-tight. (6) Remove the dial indicator. install differential side bearings (Fig. pivot on housing with the end of the pry bar against spreader (Fig. Install the hold down clamps and tighten the tool turnbuckle finger-tight. If the housing is over-separated. (4) Remove the dial indicator. (5) Install differential and outboard shim/spacer (selected thickness) in housing. (6) Install case in the housing. 21). DIFFERENTIAL INSTALLATION CAUTION: Do not spread over 0. (8) Remove the case from housing. 16). (2) Remove the bearings from the differential case with Press 938. Load the indicator plunger against the opposite side of the housing (Fig. 16) and zero the indicator. (3) Position Spreader W-129-B with the tool dowel pins seated i n the locating holes (Fig. if the housing is over-separated. 18).38 mm (0.

BR R E M O V A L AND I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . 21 Install Differential Side Bearings .93 Fig.

SLOT 8903-36 Fig. 25). (3) Press the exciter ring onto the differential case using the ring gear as a pilot (Fig. 24 Exciter Ring Alignment Fig.) torque • Model 80: 272-325 N-m (200-240 ft. 25 Ring Gear Bolt Hole Alignment Fig. (2) Clamp the differential case in a vise equipped with soft jaws. Discard exciter ring after removal. 23 Exciter Ring Removal (4) Install new ring gear bolts and alternately tighten to. (1) Remove the differential case from axle housing. (4) Tap the ring gear off with a rawhide or plastic mallet (Fig.) torque .3 . align exciter ring tab with slot in differential case (Fig. (3) Remove and discard the ring gear bolts. lbs. This will provide case to ring gear bolt hole alignment.94 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) EXCITER AND RING GEAR REMOVAL EXCITER AMD RING GEAR INSTALLATION (1) I f exciter ring was removed. (2) Invert the differential case and start two ring gear bolts. 24). • Model 60 and 70: 163-190 N-m (120-140 ft. lbs. 23). 22 Ring Gear Removal (5) The can be removed with a soft-faced hammer (Fig. Fig. 22).

RAWHIDE HAMMER Fig. 27). (5) Remove oil slinger.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIWELINE 3 . front bearing. 29). HANDLE REMOVER' J9302-22 Fig. (6) Remove the front pinion bearing cup and seal with Remover C-4307 for model 80 or D-158 for model 60/70 and Handle C-4171 (Fig. . 26 Pinion Yoke Removal (3) Remove the pinion gear from housing (Fig.Ii REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) PINION IEAR REMOVAL (1) Remove differential assembly from axle hous­ ing. 29 Rear Bearing Cup Removal (4) Remove the pinion gear seal with a slide ham­ mer or pry out with bar. 28 Front Bearing Cup Removal (7) Remove the rear bearing cup from housing (Fig. 26). Catch the pinion with your hand to prevent i t from falling and being damaged. 27 Remove Pinion Gear Fig. (2) Remove the pinion yoke nut and washer. DRIVER HANDLE J9302-25 J9302-23 Fig. Use Remover C-452 and Wrench C-3281 to remove the pinion yoke (Fig. Use Remover D-159 for model 80 or D-162 for model 60/70 and Handle C-4171. 28).

(9) Remove the inner bearing from the pinion with Splitter 1130 and Bridge 938 (Fig. 31). 30 Pinion Preload Shims—Model 70/80 (8) Remove the preload shims on model 70/80 (Fig. 32). 82 inner Bearing Removal . Record the thickness of the depth shims. 30) or collapsible spacer on model 60 axles (Fig.96 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE REMOVAL AND I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) PINION WASHER Fig. 31 Collapsible Preload Spacer—Model 60 Fig.3 . Fig. (10) Remove the depth shims from the pinion gear shaft.

install pin­ ion bearing preload shims (Fig. oil slinger. 35). (10) Install the yoke washer and a new nut on the pinion gear. 36). Model 70/80 uses shims to set pinion bearing preload. (9) Install yoke with Installer D-191 for model 80 or C-3716A for model 60/70 and Wrench 6719 (Fig. Install seal with Installer D-163 and Handle C-4171 (Fig. (2) Install the pinion rear bearing cup with Installer C-4204 for model 80 or D . (5) Apply a light coating of gear lubricant on the lip of pinion seal. 34). 39). place the proper thickness depth shim on the pinion gear and install the rear bearing.) . INSTALLER INSTALLER HANDLE J9402-65 Fig. (4) I f equipped. Model 60 axle uses a collaps­ ible spacer to preload the pinion bearings. On model 70/80 axles. install a new collapsible pre­ load spacer on pinion shaft and install pinion gear in housing (Fig. 34 Pinion Front Bearing Cup Installation fa 1 HANDLE HANDLE 19402-66 INSTALLER Fig. place pinion depth shims in axle housing rear bearing bore. Tighten the nut to 258 N-m (190 ft. If the factory installed ring and pinion gears are reused. Refer to Pinion Gear Depth paragraph in this sec­ tion to select the proper thickness shim before installing rear pinion bearing cone. (1) On model 70/80 axles. install pinion front bearing. proceed with installation procedure. NOTE: Pinion depth shims are used to achieve proper ring and pinion gear mesh. 35 Pinion Seal Installation (6) On model 60 axle.BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) PINION GEAR INSTALLATION DIFFERENTIAL AND DR1WEL1NE 3 -17 After selecting the proper pinion depth shim using the Pinion Depth Measurement paragraph in the Adjustment section of this Group. The shims are between the rear pinion bearing cone and pinion gear on model 60 axle and in the axle housing behind the rear bearing cup on model 70/80 axles J9502-1 Fig. 37). 33). (8) On model 60 axle. Refer to Pinion Gear Depth paragraph i n Adjustments section of this group. (7) Install the rear bearing (and slinger i f used) on the pinion gear with Installer D-389 for model 70/80 or C-3095A for model 60 and an arbor press (Fig. 38).l l l for model 60/70 and Driver Handle C-4171 (Fig. Ensure cup is correctly seated. the pin­ ion depth shim should not require replacement. 33 Pinion Rear Bearing Cup installation (3) Install the pinion front bearing cup with Installer C-4308 for model 80 or C-4203 for model 60/70 and Handle C-4171 (Fig. lbs.

) for model 60 minimum. lbs. 37 Collapsible Preload Spacer—Model 60 for model 44 or 291 N-m (215 ft. PINION YOKE WASHER PINION NUT SLINGER FRONT BEARING CUP PINION OIL SEAL PINION PRELOAD SHIMS PINION PRELOAD SPACER FRONT BEARING CONE SHOULDER FOR • PINION PRELOAD SPACER Fig. install yoke washer with concave surface against the yoke.98 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) INSTALLATION TOOL COLLAPSIBLE SPACER DRIVE PINION GEAR SHAFT REAR BEARING SHOULDER REAR BEARING OIL SLINGER PINION GEAR DRIVE PINION GEAR Fig. NOTE: On model 60 and 70 axles. 38 Pinion Preload Shims—Model 70/80 J9203-63 . Do not over tighten. lbs.3 .). 36 Shaft Rear Bearing J9003-67 Installation J9302-66 Fig.Maximum torque is 380 N-m (280 ft.

On model 70/80 axles ' Fig. To achieve proper pinion bearing preload on model 70/80 axles. 41 Check Pinion Gear Rotation Torque DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY STANDARD DIFFERENTIAL DISASSEMBLE (1) Clamp the differential case in a vise equipped with soft jaws. 40). newer loosen pinion gear nut to decrease pinion gear bearing preload torque and never exceed specified preload torque. If preload torque is exceeded a new collapsible spacer must be installed.BR — DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . • New Bearings—2 to 5 N-m (15 to 35 in. Measure the preload torque frequently to avoid over tightening the nut. lbs. use Flange Wrench 6719 to retain the yoke (Fig. (11) On model 60 axle. Use a pin punch to remove the pinion gear mate shaft lock pin (Fig. 40 Tightening Pinion Nut (12) Check bearing preload torque with an inch pound torque wrench (Fig. 42). The torque necessary to rotate the pinion gear should be: • Original Bearings—1 to 3 N-m (10 to 20 in. Increase shim thickness If rotation torque is to high. remove pinion gear from axle housing. lbs. 41). 80a0c4f5 • Fig.99 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) Fig. Fig. 39 Pinion Yoke installation—Typical CAUTION.). Decrease thickness i f rotation torque Is to low. Slowly tighten the nut in small increments until the rotating torque is achieved. 42 Mate Shaft Lock Pin Removal .). The torque sequence will have to be repeated. On model 60 axle.

3 • 100 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued) (2) Remove the mate shaft with a drift and ham­ mer (Fig. Correct f i t is due to close machining tolerances d u r i n g manufacture. Fig. THRUST WASHER Fig. Refer to this illus­ tration during repair service. Refer to Model 44 Axle section i n this Group for Differential Removal and Installation. 47). (3) I f ring gear replacement is required. 47). 44 Pinion Mate Gear Removal (4) Remove the differential side gears and thrust washers. remove and discard the bolts holding the ring gear to the case. (1) Clamp Side Gear Holding Tool 6963 in a vise. 45 Mate Shaft Pin instaiiation I f replacement gears and thrust washers were installed. • Differential side gears and thrust washers • Pinion gears and thrust washers Service to the Trac-Lok differential requires the use of Tool Set C-4487 (J-23781). (2) Position the differential case on the holding tool (Fig. TRAC^LOI DIFFERENTIAL The Trac-Lok (limited-slip) differential compo­ nents are illustrated in (Fig. 46). Tap the ring gear with a rawhide or plastic mallet and separate ring gear from case (Fig. (2) Install the following components In the differ­ ential case. DISASSEMBLY MATE' GEAR SIDE GEAR J9203-61 Fig. 48). 43 Mate Shaft Removai (3) Rotate the differential side gears and remove the pinion mate gears and thrust washers (Fig. 43). Place shop towels under the differen­ tial to avoid damage i f removal of the ring gear is required (Fig. ASSEMBLE (1) Lubricate all differential components with hypoid gear lubricant. i t is not necessary to measure the gear backlash. • Pinion gear mate shaft (align holes in shaft and case) (3) Install and seat the lock pin In differential case and mate shaft with a punch and hammer (Fig. 44). . Peen metal part of case over pin in two places 180 degrees apart. 45).

BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 - J8903-43 Fig. 47 Differential Case Holding Tool .

52) to prevent adapter from turning. 49).3 . 51). I f neces­ sary. DISC C-4487-1 J9203-1 Fig. PINION MATE SHAFT DIFFERENTIAL CASE LOWER SIDE GEAR J9203-4 Fig. 52 Threaded Adapter Installation . (7) Assemble Threaded Adapter C-4487-3 into top side gear.102 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y (Continued) (4) Remove the pinion gear mate shaft lock screw (Fig. 51 Step Plate Tool Installation SOCKET THREADED ADAPTER DISC C-4487-3 THREADED ROD C-4487-2 DRIFT J9203-60 Fig. Thread forcing Screw C-4487-2 into adapter until i t becomes centered in adapter plate. use a drift and hammer (Fig. 50 Mate Shaft Removai (6) Install and lubricate Step Plate C-4487-I (Fig. SPECIAL TOOL C-4487-1 J9302-47 Fig. (8) Position a small screw driver in slot of Threaded Adapter C-4487-3 (Fig. 50). 49 Mate Shaft Lock Screw (5) Remove the pinion gear mate shaft.

(13) Remove top side gear and clutch pack. DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3-103 Fig. Rotate case with tool until pinion gears can be removed (Fig. (1) Assemble the clutch discs into packs secure disc packs with retaining clips (Fig. 57). remove thrust washers from behind the pinion gears (Fig. (12) Insert Turning Bar C-4487-4 in case. 56). Keep plates i n correct order during removal (Fig. Mark each clutch pack for installation reference. 58 Tighten Beiieville Spring Compressor Tooi (10) Using a 0. ASSEMBLY The clutch discs are replaceable as complete sets only. lbs.BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y ( C o n t i n u e d ) (9) Tighten forcing screw tool 122 N-m (90 ft. both packs must be replaced. Remove remaining clutch pack. RE* Fig. 54 Remove Pinion Thrust Washer (11) Loosen the forcing screw tool until the clutch pack tension is relieved and the pinion gears can be slightly rattled between the case and side gears. (15) Remove clutch pack retaining clips. Fig. If one clutch disc pack is damaged. 54). (3) Position case on axle fixture. 55 Pinion Gear Removal SIDE GEAR A N D CLUTCH DISC DIFFERENTIAL CASE Fig. (2) Position assembled clutch disc packs on the side gear hubs. .) (maximum) to compress Belleville springs In clutch packs (Fig. 56 Side Gear & Clutch Disc Removal (14) Remove case from fixture.020 in. 55). Lubricate each component with gear lubricant before assembly. feeler gauge and mallet. 53).

(11) Tighten forcing screw to 122 N-m (90 ft. 59 Upper Side Gear & Clutch Disc Installation Pack J9003-4 (10) Rotate case with Turning Bar C-4487-4 until mate shaft holes in pinion gears align with holes in case. threaded adapter and step plate. Be sure clutch pack retaining clips remain in position and are seated in the case pockets. 59).) to compress the Belleville springs. All disc are dished i n this unit. 57 dutch Disc Pack (4) Install clutch pack and side gear in lower bore (Fig. Correct fit is due to close machining tolerances during manufacture. The Model 70 Power-Lok differential has a twopiece cross shaft and uses 2 disc and 3 plates for each clutch pack. 59). Only one disc in each clutch pack is dished. (6) Install the upper side gear and clutch disc pack (Fig. DIFFERENTIAL CASE LOWER SIDE GEAR AND CLUTCH DISC PACK Fig. The Model 80 Trac-Lok differential has a one-piece cross shaft and uses 6 disc and 5 plates for each clutch pack. Lubricate and install thrust washers behind pinion gears and align washers with a small screw driver. Fig. Install pinion gear mate shaft. insert forcing Screw C-4487-2. POWER-LOK—MODEL 70/TRAC-LOK—MODEL 80 The Trac-Lok differential for the Model 80 axle looks like the Power-Lok differential for the Model 70 axle but their are differences. (14) Lubricate all differential components with hypoid gear lubricant. . align holes in shaft and case. 58 Clutch Discs & Lower Side Gear Installation (5) Install lubricated Step Plate C-4487-1 on first clutch pack (Fig.3 . (12) Remove forcing screw. (9) Place pinion gears in position in side gears and verify that mate shaft hole line up. 58). Insert mate shaft into each pinion gear to verify alignment. (13) Install the pinion mate shaft lock screw finger tight to hold shaft during installation. lbs. (7) Hold assembly in position. it is not necessary to measure the gear backlash. Insert Threaded Adapter C-4487-3 into top side gear.114 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE mm UPPER SIDE GEAR A N D CLUTCH DISC PACK D I S A S S E M B L Y A N D A S S E M B L Y (Continued) CLUTCH PACK RETAINER DIFFERENTIAL CASE SIDE G E A R RETAINER J8903-50 SPECIAL TOOL C-4487-1 J9203-6 Fig. (8) Tighten forcing screw tool to slightly compress clutch discs. If replacement gears and thrust washers were installed.

Keep these parts with the flange cover half for correct installation i n their original positions. 60 Case Marked DISASSEMBLE Fig. (2) Remove the case attaching bolts and remove the button cover half (Fig. 62 Trac-Lok Dana 80 Components . 61). side gear (clutch) ring and clutch pack cross shaft (Fig. Keep these parts with the button cover half for cor­ rect installation in their original positions. 61 Cover Half Removal Pay close attention to .105 BUTTON HALF CLUTCH PLATES FLANGE HALF J9203-72 J9203-73 Fig. (3) Remove the pinion mate gear. (4) Remove the same parts listed above from the ring gear flange half of the case.BR D I S A S S E M B L Y A N D A S S E M B L Y (Continued) EINSTALLATION _ REFERENCE-y^ DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . 63). Note the direction of the concave and convex side of the plates and discs.the clutch pack arrangement d u r i n g this procedure. 62). 60). (1) Mark the ring gear half and cover half for installation reference (Fig. (Fig. F L A N G E HALF SIDE GEAR PINION M A T E GEAR B U T T O N HALF PLATE CROSS SHAFT J9503-8 Fig.

64 Clutch Pack Power-Lok .106 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR D I S A S S E M B L Y AND A S S E M B L Y (Continued) FLANGE HALF CLUTCH P I N I O N MATE GEAR RING SCREW PLATE DISHED DISC PLATE DISHED DISC PINION MATE CROSS SHAFT BUTTON HALF J9203-74 Fig. (Fig. 63). 62).3 . CLUTCH PLATES (2) Line up the plate ears and install the assem­ bled pack into the flange half (Fig. J9203-77 Fig. 64). (1) Saturate the clutch plates with Hypoid Gear Lubricant or Additive. or (Fig. Assemble clutch packs into the side gear plate in exactly the same position as removed (Fig. I f one clutch disc pack is damaged. Lubricate each component with gear lube before assembly and installation. b o t h packs must be replaced. 63 Power-Lok Components ASSEMBLE The clutch discs are replaceable as complete sets only. 65). Also make sure the clutch pack bottoms out on the case. 65 dutch CLUTCH RING J9203-76 Pack installation Fig. Make sure the clutch plate lugs enter the slots in the case.

Cup and bearing must be replaced as matched sets only. • Smooth appearance with no broken/dented sur­ faces on the bearing rollers or the roller contact sur­ faces • Bearing cups must not be distorted or cracked • Machined surfaces should be smooth and with­ out any raised edges • Raised metal on shoulders of cup bores should be removed with a hand stone • Wear and damage to pinion gear mate shaft. Soak plates and discs for a minimum of 20 minutes.) torque (Fig. Install new shims i f necessary. 65). 66).) torque. • Ring and pinion gear for worn and chipped teeth • Ring gear for damaged bolt threads. If bolt heads have 7 radial lines or the number 180 stamped on the head. lbs. chipped or damaged. (2) Inspect clutch pack plates for wear. pinion gears. Replace any gear that is worn. Install case body screws finger tight. Replace as a matched set only. • Preload shims for damage and distortion. Replaced as a matched set only.B R . Inspect for. Repair or replace as necessary. TRAC-LOK AND POWER-LOK (1) Clean all components in cleaning solvent. Add remaining Friction Modifier to differen­ tial after assembly. scoring or damage. 87 Case Half installation J9203-78 Fig. Dry components with compressed air. side gears and thrust washers. Do not steam clean the differential components. and a rough/corroded seal contact surface. (4) Inspect differential case and pinion shaft. Replace i f worn or damaged. lbs. DO NOT spin bearings with compressed air. (5) Correctly align and assemble button half to flange half. CLEANING AND INSPECTION AXLE COMPONENTS Wash differential components with cleaning solvent and dry with compressed air. cracked. tighten these bolts to 122-136 N-m (90-100 ft. (3) Inspect side and pinion gears. Make sure shafts are correctly installed according to the alignment marks. PRESOAK PLATES AND DISC Plates and discs with fiber coating (no grooves or lines) must be presoaked in Friction Modifier before assembly. 66 dutch Pack Instaiiation (4) Lubricate and install the other side gear and clutch pack (Fig.— — DISASSEMBLY DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 -107 AND ASSEMBLY (Continued) (3) Install pinion mate shafts and pinion mate gears (Fig. worn splines. • Pinion yoke for cracks. Tighten screws to 89-94 N-m (65-70 ft. 67). or dry with compressed air. pitted areas. . SIDE GEAR ALIGNMENT MARKS PINION G E A R S A N D MATE SHAFT Fig. Clean axle shaft tubes and oil channels in housing. Wash bearings with solvent and towel dry. (6) Tighten body screws alternately and evenly. Replace both clutch packs i f any one compo­ nent in either pack is damaged.

004 inch (0. 70 Shim Locations Subtract this amount from original shim.10mm). The Iden­ tifying numbers for the ring and pinion gear are etched into the face of each gear (Fig. 69 Pinion Gear Standard Depth/Distance Fig. Depth shim thickness for the new pinion gear must be determined before installing differential case in housing.375 inches). If equipped. 68). Or i f the old pinion is (-) 3 and the new pinion is (-) 2. Add or subtract the thickness of the original depth shims to compensate for the difference in the depth variances.001 inch (0.000 inches) • Model 70 axle.3-108 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE — BR ADJUSTMENTS PINION GEAR DEPTH GENERAL INFORMATION INNER PINION Gears are supplied as matched sets only. Refer to the Depth Variance charts. For example. DRIVE PINION STANDARD DEPTH Fig. A plus (+) number. • Model 60 axle. Add this amount to the original shim. If new gear set is being installed. Fig.525 mm (5. 70). Compensation for depth variance is achieved by two methods. ® Axle housing or differential case is replaced • Pinion select shim pack is unknown • Ring and pinion gears are replaced . the standard depth/distance is 147. intersecting figure is (-) 0. The second method is selective shim between the pinion gear head and bearing cone.) 3..625 mm (5. intersecting figure is (+) 0. the oil slinger must be measured and the thickness included with the total shim pack thickness. One method is shims placed between the pinion gear rear bearing cup and housing (Fig.00 mm (5. 69) from the centerline of the axle shaft/ring gear to the shoul­ der of the rear pinion bearing. This number is the amount (in thousandths of an inch) the depth varies from the standard depth setting. the standard depth/distance is 127. PINION DEPTH ADJUSTMENT MEASUREMENT AND Pinion gear depth measurement is necessary when. • Model 80 axle. i f old pinion is plus (+) 1 and the new pinion is minus ( . The standard depth provides the best teeth contact pattern.025mm). the standard depth/distance is 136. note the depth variance etched into original and new pinion gear. Refer to the Pinion Gear Depth Variance Chart. minus (-) number or zero (0) is etched into the face of the pinion gear. 68 Pinion Gear ID Numbers The standard depth is the distance (Fig.812 inches).

004 -0.001 -0. 71 Pinion Gear Depth Gauge Tools—Typical (2) Place Arbor Disc 6732 on Arbor D-115-3 and position in the bearing cradles (Fig.003 + 0.005 -0.001 0 -0.001 0 Measurements are taken with pinion cups and pin­ ion bearings installed in housing.005 + 2 + 0.002 + 0.001 -0.004 -0.004 + 0.003 -3 + 0. Pick correct size step for axle being serviced. Record the longest . Install dif­ ferential bearing caps on Arbor Discs and tighten caps snug only.BR A D J U S T M E N T S (Continued) PINION Original Pinion G e a r Depth Variance DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 -109 GEAR DEPTH VARIANCE Replacement Pinion Gear Depth Variance -4 + 0.001 -0. 72 Pinion Height PINION BLOCK Block—Typical SCOOTER BLOCK ARBOR DISC J9403-45 Fig.004 + 0.003 + 0.004 + 0.001 + 0.002 -0.001 0 -0. 74).001 0 -0. Arbor Discs have different steps. 72).004 + 1 + 0. to fit other axle sizes. (4) Slide the Scooter Block across the arbor while observing indicator (Fig. (Fig.004 + 0.003 + 0.002 + 0. Use Dial Indicator C-3339 dial indicator to measure dif­ ference in height of the arbor and the pinion block.001 0 -0.003 + 0. (3) Firmly place Scooter Block D-115-2 and Dial Indicator on pinion height block tool and zero the dial indicator pointer.005 -0.002 -0.005 -0.002 -0.007 +4 0 -0.005 + 0.006 -0.002 -1 + 0.002 + 0. Install assembly into differential pinion gear bore and hand tighten cone (Fig.002 + 0. Pinion Block and pinion bearings.006 + 0. Use Pinion Block 6734 for Model 44 and 6736 for model 60 axle. Take measure­ ments with Pinion Gauge Set 6730.006 + 3 + 0.008 + 0.002 -0.006 + 0.001 0 -0.005 + 0.004 -0. 73).003 -0.008 J8902-46 +4 +3 +2 + 1 § -2 -3 -4 + 0.003 -0.001 -0. 71).006 -0.004 -0.007 + 0.002 + 0. PINION BLOCK PINION HEIGHT BLOCK CONE o \ / PINION HEIGHT BLOCK SCREW J9403-39 Fig.001 -0.003 -0.007 -0.003 + 0.002 + 0.001 0 -0. DIAL INDICATOR (1) Assemble Pinion Gauge Set.001 -0.001 -0.004 + 0.005 + 0.002 -0.003 -0.007 + 0.006 + 0.005 + 0.001 0 -0.003 -0.002 -0.003 0 + 0.002 + 0.

(5) Attach a dial indicator to the housing. RING GEAR AAATING FACE J9003-28 Fig. shim/ spacers are available in various thicknesses. DIFFERENTIAL CASE J9003-27 Fig. Include oil slinger or baffle thickness with the total shim pack thickness. (3. (3. INSTALL 0. 75).142 in. 74 Pinion Gear Depth Measurement. DIFFERENTIAL BEARING PRELOAD AND GEAR LASH This procedure requires tool kit 6770 to determine the proper differential side gear preload. Position the indicator plunger so that it contacts the ring gear mating surface (Fig.Typical DIAL INDICATOR DIFFERENTIAL CASE The plunger travel distance indicated. indicated by the pointer.3 -110 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR A D J U S T M E N T S (Continued) ARBOR DISC PINION BLOCK (1) Install dummy side bearings D-343 on differen­ tial. (2) Install the differential case in the axle housing.142-IN. DIFFERENTIAL SHIM PACK MEASUREMENT NOTE: It is recommended whenever bearings are removed that they be replaced. Use 0. Install and snug the bolts. 76). 73 Gauge Tools in Housing—Typical travel distance. plus or minus the variance etched in the gear is the required thickness for the depth shims. 76 Shim Measurement . (6) Remove the measurement tools from the differ­ ential housing. J9403-38 Fig. (5) Measure the thickness of each depth shim with a micrometer and combine the shims necessary for total required shim pack thickness.6 mm) as a starting point. whether inward (-) or outward (+). 75 Differential Bearing Shim Installation (4) Install the marked bearing caps in their correct positions. ' (3) Install the outboard shim/spacer (selected thick­ ness) on each side between bearing cup and housing (Fig.6-AAAA) THICK SHIM EACH SIDE ARBOR PINION HEIGHT BLOCK J9403-37 Fig.

excessive bearing preload and damage will occur. (12) Install new side bearing cones and cups.10 mm) thick shim will be needed at each side zero end play. Adjust the backlash . GEAR BACKLASH ANALYSIS AND CONTACT PATTERN " FOR LESS BACKLASH — — * J9302-28 I f backlash must be adjusted.BR DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 . (2) Apply a thin coat of hydrated ferric oxide. (11) Remove dummy bearings.) between the points checked.005 . (1) Rotate assembly several revolutions to seat bearings. Measure backlash at three equally spaced locations around the perimeter of the ring gear with a dial indicator (Fig. Do not increase the total shim pack thickness. (15) Proceed to Final Assembly paragraph in this section. (13) Install ring gear. 77 Ring Gear Backlash Measurement The ring gear backlash must be within 0.12 0. (8) Install zero end-play shims on each side of case. Fig.05 mm (0. The differential bearings must be preloaded to compensate for heat and load during opera­ tion. It cannot vary more than 0. to the drive and coast side of the ring gear teeth.accord­ ingly (Fig. Fig. (10) Remove differential from axle housing. It will also show i f the ring gear backlash has been adjusted correctly.).008 in.004-in.20 mm). After installing new side bearings or ring and pin­ ion set adjusting the bearing perload and gear mash backlash will be necessary. (14) Install differential and verify gear lash and contact pattern. Reading is additional shim thickness needed for zero end play. Insert a pry bar between the differential housing and the case flange. (0. 79) for interpretation of contact patterns and adjust accordingly. . 77).111 ADJUSTMENTS (Continued) (6) Pry the differential case to one side and zero the dial indicator pointer.002 in. an additional 0. spacers are available in various thicknesses. or equivalent. This will produce distinct contact patterns on both the drive side and coast side of the ring gear teeth. (9) Add an additional 0. (4) Note patterns in compound. For exam­ ple. i f reading was 0. (0. The backlash must be main­ tained within the specified limits until the correct tooth contact patterns are obtained.008 in.0. Refer to (Fig.20 mm (0.1 mm) to each outboard shim/spacer for bearing preload. (7) Pry the differential case to the opposite side and record indicator reading. 78). (0. 78 Backlash Shim Adjustment The ring gear teeth contact patterns will show i f the pinion gear depth shim(s) have the correct thick­ ness.004-in. (3) Rotate the ring gear one complete revolution i n both directions while a load is being applied.

PATTERN S H O U L D BE CENTERED O N THE DRIVE SIDE O F T O O T H .112 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR DRIVE SIDE O F RING GEAR TEETH C O A S T SIDE O F RING GEAR TEETH H E E ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ T O E T O E ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ t L DESIRABLE C O N T A C T PATTERN. IS Fig. THERE S H O U L D ALWAYS BE SOME CLEARANCE BETWEEN CONTACT PATTERN AND TOP O F THE T O O T H .3 . PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT. BUT MAY BE SLIGHTLY TOWARD THE T O E . RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT T H I C K E R PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED. D E C R E A S E RING • GEAR BACKLASH. I N C R E A S E RING GEAR BACKLASH. PATTERN S H O U L D BE CENTERED O N THE C O A S T SIDE O F T O O T H . T H I N N E R PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM REQUIRED. J9003-24 Patterns . RING GEAR BACKLASH CORRECT. 79 Gear Tooth Contact PINION GEAR DEPTH SHIM CORRECT.

47 N-m (35 ft.) Model 70 298--379 N-m (220-280 ft. . .272--325 N-m (200-240 ft. 108 N-m (80 ft. . . .Thermally Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 4x2 .) 4x4 .1 pts.75 in. .10 Ring Gear Diameter .75 pts. .3.004-0. . lbs.Hypoid Lubricant. . Depth.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing.09 Ring Gear Diameter .) RWAL/ABS Sensor Bolt 24 N-m (18 ft. .4.) Backlash . 1-3 N-m (10-20 in. . .3.) Pinion Std. . .8 pts. . lbs.7 mm (10.) Model 80 .10-0. . lbs.) Backlash 0. .3. .) PINION NUT Model 60 . . lbs. lbs. . . . . . . . lbs.DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 8 . .247. 1-3 N-m (10-20 in.) New Bearing 2-5 N-m (20-40 in. .) Axle Ratio . .0.) Pinion Std. lbs. .812 in.) POWER-LOK CASE BOLT Standard 89-94 N-m (65-70 ft. lbs. . . Thermally Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 4x2 3. . lbs. .23 mm (0. lbs. .) 4x4. 2-5 N-m (20-40 in. . lbs. lbs. .23 mm (0.266. . Depth . lbs. . .) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing 1-3 N-m (10-20 in.000 in.0 mm (5.) Axle Ratio . . . .525 mm (5. . .) MODEL 70 AXLE DESCEIPTION SPEC.) 4x4.) Pinion Bearing Preload Original Bearing. . .25 pts.50 In.113 SPECIFICATIONS MODEL 60/70/80 REAR AXLES MODEL 60 AXLE MODEL 80 AXLE DESCRIPTION SPEC.) RING GEAR BOLT Model 60 & 70 163--190 N-m (120-140 ft.009 in.79 L (10. . lbs. . . .3.009 in. 292--427 N-m (215-315 ft.) Axle to Hub Bolt 123 N-m (90 ft. . . Axle Type . . . . .) .375 in.26 pts.009 In. . .4 mm (11. .10 Ring Gear Diameter 279. . .) Cover Bolts . . .ft. .43 L (7. ..95 L (6. lbs. . . . . 124. .) New Bearing. lbs.00 in. . .10-0.004-0.) Backlash 0 13--0.2-5 N-m (20-40 in. . . Thermally Stable SAE 80W-90 Lube Capacity 4x2 . .) DESCEIPTION ' SPEC.) Pinion Std.22 L (6. . .) TORQUE DESCRIPTION TORQUE DIFFERENTIAL Fill Hole Plug 34 N-m (25 ft. .) Bearing Cap Bolts. Axle Type . . .2. .23 mm (0.666 L (7. lbs. . Axle T^pe .54 4.) Heavy Duty 122-136 N-m (90-100 ft. .3. .54 4.) * Axle Ratio . . .Hypoid Lubricant. .625 mm (5.0 pts.136. . . . lbs. Depth.) New Bearing.Hypoid Lubricant.3.311 L (7. . . . .127. . .54 4.005-0. .7 mm (9.) Model 80 597--678 N-m (440-500.

3 -114 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE BR Puller—C-452 .

Differential Bearing—iC-4190 . . DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3 S P E C I A L T O O L S (Continued) Installer.BR .

Drive—C-4735 Remover. Pinion Bearing Cup—D-159 .3 -116 DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE (Continued) SPECIAL TOOLS Handle.

Pinion Seal—D-187B Spreader.BR S P E C I A L T O O L S (Continued) DIFFERENTIAL AND DRIVELINE 3- Installer. Differential—W-129B .

.

. 29 DISC BRAKESHOE 25 FRONT PARKING BRAKE CABLE 34 FRONT WHEEL BEARING 30 MASTER CYLINDER 19 PARKING BRAKE PEDAL 36 POWER BRAKE BOOSTER 20 POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL ENGINE) 21 REAR PARK BRAKE CABLE 35 RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION VALVE 18 STOP LAMP SWITCH 16 WHEEL CYLINDER 34 DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY DISC BRAKE CALIPER 38 MASTER CYLINDER 36 WHEEL CYLINDER 41 CLEANING AND INSPECTION CALIPER 41 REAR DRUM BRAKE 41 WHEEL CYLINDER 42 ADJUSTMENTS PARKING BRAKE CABLE TENSIONER ADJUSTMENT 44 REAR DRUM BRAKE 42 STOP LAMP SWITCH 42 SPECIFICATIONS BASE BRAKE 45 BRAKE FLUID 44 TORQUE CHART 45 SPECIAL TOOLS BASE BRAKES 45 2 2 8 2 5 7 6 5 7 4 3 3 2 8 13 13 13 12 11 12 11 10 10 15 16 14 16 15 14 17 34 .1 BRAKES CONTENTS page page BASE BRAKE SYSTEM 1 FOUR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM . . . . . 70 REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK (RWAL) BRAKES . 46 BASE BRAKE SYSTEM INDEX page G E N E R A L INFORMATION BRAKE SYSTEM SERVICE WARNINGS & CAUTIONS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION BRAKE HOSES AND LINES Brake Pedal COMBINATION VALVE DRUM BRAKES FRONT DISC BRAKES MASTER CYLINDER PARKING BRAKES POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL MODELS) Power Brake Booster RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP STOP LAMP SWITCH DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING BASE BRAKE SYSTEM BRAKE DRUM BRAKE FLUID CONTAMINATION BRAKE LINE AND HOSES COMBINATION VALVE DIESEL ENGINE VACUUM PUMP OUTPUT DISC BRAKE ROTOR MASTER CYLINDER/POWER BOOSTER RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP STOP LAMP SWITCH SERVICE PROCEDURES BRAKE BLEEDING BRAKE DRUM MACHINING BRAKE FLUID LEVEL BRAKE LINE DISC ROTOR MACHINING MASTER CYLINDER BLEEDING REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION BRAKE PEDAL BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE page BRAKESHOE (11 INCH BRAKE) 30 BRAKESHOE (13-INCH BRAKE) 32 DISC BRAKE CALIPER 24 DISC BRAKE ROTOR (WITH TAPERED BEARINGS) 28 DISC BRAKE ROTOR (WITH UNIT BEARINGS) . .BRAKES 5 .

IF A SUITABLE VACUUM C L E A N E R IS NOT AVAIL­ A B L E . An all-wheel antilock brake system (ABS) is available as an option. DO NOT C L E A N BRAKE PARTS WITH COMPRESSED AIR OR BY DRY BRUSHING. Use fresh fluid from sealed containers only to ensure proper antilock component opera­ tion. kerosene. D E S C R I P T I O N AMD OPERATION Brake Pedal The brake booster is operated by a suspended type brake pedal (Fig. The RWAL and ABS sys­ tems are designed to retard wheel lockup while brak­ ing. DO NOT SAND. . discol­ oration. Two antilock brake systems are used on this vehi­ cle. P R O C E S S I N G . SERVICE WARNINGS 1 CAUTIONS WARNING: DUST AND DIRT ACCUMULATING ON B R A K E PARTS DURING NORMAL U S E MAY CON­ TAIN A S B E S T O S F I B E R S . FOLLOW P R A C T I C E S P R E S C R I B E D BY THE OCCUPATIONAL S A F E T Y AND HEALTH ADMINIS­ TRATION AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FOR THE HANDLING. A rear wheel antilock (RWAL) brake system is standard. Both systems are monitored by a microprocessor which controls the operation of the systems*. Drain and flush the system with new brake fluid if contamina­ tion is suspected. The parking brake mecha­ nism is cable operated and connected to the rear brake trailing shoes. DISPOSE OF A L L RESIDUE CONTAINING A S B E S ­ TOS F I B E R S IN S E A L E D B A G S OR CONTAINERS TO MINIMIZE E X P O S U R E TO Y O U R S E L F AND OTH­ ERS. EXERCISE CARE WHEN SERVICING B R A K E PARTS. OR GRIND B R A K E LINING U N L E S S EQUIPMENT USED IS DESIGNED TO CONTAIN THE DUST RESIDUE. transmission fluid. Power brake assist is standard equipment. 1 Brake Pedal STOP LAiP SWITCH The plunger type stop lamp switch is mounted on a bracket attached to the brake pedal support. Use Mopar multi-mileage or high temperature grease to lubricate caliper slide surfaces. alcohol. If system contam­ Fig. 1). The switch can be adjusted when necessary. The pedal pivots on a shaft located in a mounting bracket attached to the dash panel. internal expanding units with cast brake drums.2 BRAKES — — — BR GENERAL INFORMATION BRAKE SYSTEM This vehicle is equipped with front disc brakes and rear drum brakes. These are the only cleaning materials recommended. The pedal shaft is supported by bushings in the pedal and mounting bracket. or an equivalent quality fluid meeting SAE/DOT standards J1703 and DOT 3. The rear brakes are dual brakeshoe. motor oil. These fluids damage rubber cups and seals. drum brake pivot pins. or any fluid containing mineral oil to clean the system components. CLEANING SHOULD B E DONE WITH A WATER DAMPENED CLOTH. A vacuum operated power brake booster is used for all applications. Use multi-mileage grease or GE 661 or Dow 111 silicone grease on caliper bushings and slide pins to ensure proper operation.5 . check the fluid for dirt. The front disc brakes consist of single piston calipers and ventilated rotors. AND DISPOSITION OF DUST OR DEBRIS THAT MAY CONTAIN ASBESTOS FIBERS. Brake fluid must be clean and free of con­ taminants. U S E A VACUUM C L E A N E R S P E ­ CIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR THE REMOVAL OF A S B E S T O S F I B E R S FROM B R A K E COMPONENTS. PEDAL SHAFT CAUSE SERIOUS BODILY HARM. Use only fresh brake fluid or Mopar brake cleaner to clean or flush brake system components. BREATHING E X C E S S I V E CONCENTRATIONS OF A S B E S T O S F I B E R S CAN ination is suspected. and shoe contact points on the backing plates. Retarding wheel lockup is accomplished by modulating fluid pressure to the wheel brake units. CAUTION: Use Mopar brake fluid. CAUTION: Never use gasoline. or separation into distinct layers.

2). The forward portion of the booster housing (area in front of the two diaphragms). is exposed to manifold INTEGRAL MOUNTING BRACKET BOOSTER PUSH ROD (TO BRAKE PEDAL) IDENTIFICATION CODE LOCATION CHECK VALVE BOOSTER PUSH ROD (TO MASTER CYLINDER) MASTER CYLINDER MOUNTING STUDS FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW BOOSTER MOUNTING STUDS REAR VIEW J9405-20 Fig. The red warning light alerts the driver i f a pres­ sure differential exists between the front and rear hydraulic systems. The outer edge of each diaphragm is attached to the booster housing.SBF1 BRAKES 5-3 0ESCHIPT1OH AMD ©PEKATf®li f C o n f l n y e d ) RED BRAKE WARNING LA1P A red warning lamp is used for the service brake portion of the hydraulic system.D. The entry point for atmospheric pressure is through an inlet valve at the rear of the housing. con­ nected to the booster push rod. The vacuum needed for booster oper­ ation is taken directly from the engine intake mani­ fold. The standard and high output boosters are identified by code letters on the forward face of the booster (Fig. 2 Power Brake Booster . The booster vacuum supply is through a hose attached to a fitting on the intake manifold. The diaphragms are in turn. The atmospheric Inlet valve is opened and closed by the push rod connected to the brake pedal. A standard duty is used in all 1/2 ton mod­ els and a higher output version Is used in 3/4 and 1 ton models. Two versions are used. The booster itself is not a repairable component. The light also alerts the driver when the parking brakes are applied. The lamp is located in the instrument panel. POWER BRAKE BOOSTER OPERATION Power Brake Booster All BR models are equipped with a tandem (dual) diaphragm power brake booster (Fig. code letters are as follows: • 1/2 ton booster code: ZK • 3/4 and 1 ton booster code: ZL The only serviceable power brake booster compo­ nents are the vacuum hose and check valve. Power assist is generated by utilizing the pressure differential between normal atmospheric pressure and a vacuum. Two push rods are used to operate the booster. The hose is con­ nected to a vacuum check valve in the booster hous­ ing. strokes the master cylinder pistons. The booster must be replaced as an assembly whenever diagnosis indicates a fault has occurred. The check valve is a one-way device that prevents vacuum leak back. Booster I. The second push rod (at the forward end of the housing). The rear push rod is connected to the two diaphragms in the booster housing. One push rod connects the booster to the brake pedal. The booster assembly consists of a housing divided into separate chambers by two internal diaphragms. 2).

. A vacuum hose connects the switch to the power brake booster. POWER BRAKE VACUUM PUMP (DIESEL MODELS) The power brake vacuum pump and the power steering pump are combined into a single assembly on diesel engine models (Fig. The. the power steering pump can be removed and serviced separately when necessary. 4 Diesel Vacuum Switch Location (Without ABS) VACUUM PUMP OPERATION A vacuum switch is used to monitor output of the vacuum pump. Refer to the pump removal and installation proce­ dures i n this section. The vacuum pump rotating components are lubri­ cated by engine oil. Pressing the brake pedal causes the rear push rod to open the inlet valve. the vacuum pump can be removed without having to disassemble the power steering pump. vane-type pump. The result­ ing force applied to the diaphragms is what provides the extra' boost in apply pressure for power assist. A wire harness connects the switch to the brake warning light. I f the power steering pump requires service. Each pump shaft has an adapter with drive lugs that engage in the coupling.3 kilopascals (14.side Inner fender panel just below the hood hinge (Fig. Pump output ranges from a minimum of 8. The vacuum and steering pumps are * operated by a single drive gear pressed onto the vacuum pump shaft. The rear portion (area behind the dia­ phragms). The combined vacuum and steering pump assem­ bly must be removed for access to either pump.5 to 25 inches vacuum. This exposes the area behind the diaphragms to atmospheric pressure. The pump rotor and vanes are rotated by the pump drive gear. LOW VACUUM WARNING switch VACUUM GEAR ADAPTER J9105-94 Fig. However. Lubricating oil is supplied to the pump through an oil line at the underside of the pump housing.7 psi). The drive gear is operated by the cam­ shaft gear. The drive gear is operated by the engine cam­ shaft gear. . 3 Diesel Vacuum & Power Steering Assembly Pump The switch is mounted on the driver . The vacuum and power steering pump shafts are connected by a coupling. The switch is in circuit with the red brake warning light. Vacuum pump output is transmitted to the power brake booster through a supply hose. Both pumps are operated by a drive gear attached to the vacuum pump shaft. Fig.5 4 BRAKES BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) vacuum. 4). The vacuum pump is not a serviceable component. I f diagnosis indicates a pump malfunction. the pump must be replaced as an assembly. Do not disassemble or attempt to repair the pump. The shaft gear is driven by the camshaft gear. The vacuum pump is a constant displacement. The hose is con­ nected to an outlet port on the pump housing and to the check valve i n the power brake booster. simply remove the assembly and separate the two pumps.rotor is located In the pump housing and is pressed onto the pump shaft. The complete assembly must be removed in order to service either pump. 3). is exposed to normal atmospheric pressure of 101. The switch is located just under the front antilock valve on ABS models. How­ ever. Vacuum is generated by four vanes mounted in the pump rotor.

The pressure differential switch is connected to the brake warning lamp. seal and cover are all serviceable parts. The cylinder body. The Fig. The primary and secondary pistons are located in the cylinder body. APPLICATION PRIMARY PISTON ASSEMBLY J9405-13 Three master cylinders are used i n BR models. The reservoir cover is equipped with diaphragm seal and is a snap fit on the reservoir. 6). This will cause unsatisfactory opera­ Pressure Differential Switch tion and improper brake balance. Code letters are as follows: Although the master cylinders used in 2500 and * 1/2 ton (Model 1500) code: NK 3500 models have the same bore size. The valve provides an extra volume of low pressure fluid during Initial brake apply. The purpose of the IDENTIFICATION CODES switch is to monitor fluid pressure i n the separate The master cylinder and reservoir are coded for front/rear brake hydraulic circuits. Code letters are provided on the cylin­ A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either der body and reservoir for proper component match­ hydraulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shuting. 5). Major components are the alumi­ num cylinder body and a removable plastic reservoir (Fig. I f booster vacuum falls below 8. The switch is triggered by movement of the switch valve.) bore. 5 Master Cylinder differences between' them concern cylinder bore size and fluid reservoir capacity..5 Inches for 8-10 seconds or more. • * 3/4 ton (Model 2500) code: NL ferent piston stroke lengths and fluid reservoir • 1 ton (Model 3500) code: NP capacities. grommets. Extra fluid volume provides faster take-up of normal clearances in the calipers and wheel cylinders.125 in.) bore. The take-up valve is the only non-serviceable compo­ nent. The cylinder body code letters are etched into the • The master cylinder in 1500 models has a 28. The valve is available only as part of a com­ plete cylinder body assembly.8 mm (1. . identification. piston assemblies. The cylinder body is equipped with a quick take-up valve located in the primary piston inlet port (Fig. are on an adhesive backed tag attached to the front • The master cylinder in 2500 and 3500 models face of the reservoir (Fig. The reservoir code letters mm (1. COMBINATION VALVE NOTE: Master cylinders and reservoirs must not be interchanged. reservoir. Grommets are used to secure and seal the reservoir in the cylinder body. 1ASTER CYLINDER BR models are equipped with a two-section master cylinder assembly. has a 31. A wire harness connects the switch sensor to the brake warning light.BR BRAKES i -S DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) Booster vacuum level is monitored by a warning switch. the switch sensor completes' the circuit to the warning light causing i t to illumi­ nate. The switch consists of a vacuum chamber that measures vacuum level and a sensor in circuit with the red brake warning light.6 front end of the cylinder. 5). The vacuum chamber is connected to the booster check valve by a vacuum supply hose.252 in. they have dif.

This action brings the outboard brakeshoe lining into contact with the outer surface of the disc brake rotor. When sufficient force is applied. the metering valve opens completely permitting full fluid apply pressure to the front disc brakes. At this point. The calipers are free to slide laterally. produces a strong clamp­ ing action. During brake application. Movement of the switch valve will push the switch plunger upward. The valve Is designed to maintain front brake fluid pressure at 21-207 kPa (3-30 psi) until the hold-off limit of 807 kPa (117 psi) is reached. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes. the seal Is deflected out­ ward by fluid pressure and piston movement (Fig. clearance is usually at. When the brakes (and fluid pressure) are released. fluid pressure acting simultaneously on both piston and caliper.between the piston and Inboard brakeshoe. FRONT DISC BRAKES The calipers are a single piston type. I n fact.S-i BRAKES BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) Fig. or close to zero. this allows continuous com­ pensation for lining wear. Metering Valve Fig. The brakeshoes do not retract an appreciable distance from the rotor. the caliper and pis­ ton return to a rest position. friction will stop the rotors from turning and bring the vehi­ cle to a stop. the seal relaxes and retracts the piston. Application and release of the brake pedal gener­ ates only a very slight movement of the caliper and piston. In summary. This closes the switch Internal contacts completing the electrical circuit to the warning lamp. This forces the shoe lining against the inner surface of the disc brake rotor. Fluid pressure applied to the piston Is transmitted directly to the inboard brakeshoe. 6 identification Code Locations tie forward or rearward in response to the pressure differential. . 8).until the rear brakeshoes are i n full contact with the drums. At the same time. The fluid pressure is exerted equally and In all directions. This means pressure exerted against the caliper piston and within the caliper bore will be equal (Fig. The caliper piston seal controls the amount of pis­ ton extension needed to compensate for normal lining wear. fluid pressure within the piston bore forces the caliper to slide Inward on the mounting bolts. 7 Brake Caliper Operation The metering valve Is used to balance brake action between the front disc • and rear drum brakes. The rea­ sons for this are to keep road debris from getting between the rotor and lining and in wiping the rotor surface clear each revolution. The switch valve may remain i n an actuated position until repair restores system pressures to normal levels. Generally the amount is just enough to maintain contact . When the brake are applied fluid pressure is exerted against the caliper piston. 7). The amount of piston retraction is determined by brakelining wear. Upon release of the pedal.

The cylinders used on 1/2 and 3/4 ton models have a' bore diameter of 23.5 in. The parking brake pedal assembly is mounted on the driver side cowl panel. And the second force is the friction generated turning torque of the rotating drum. The drum brakes are a semi-floating. The adjuster components are all connected to the secondary brakeshoes. Two forces affect the brakeshoes once they contact the drum. PARKING BRAKES The parking brakes are operated by a system of cables and levers attached to the rear brake second­ ary shoes. I t is servo action that creates the wedging (or wrap) effect which produces increased force on the drum braking surface. This pivots the lever away from the adjuster screw teeth. . This type of brake allows the shoes to pivot and move vertically to a certain extent.). lever return spring and the adjuster lever spring. The shoes make contact with the brake drum surface by a cable and lever mechanism attached to the secondary brakeshoe. adjuster lever. The adjustment process is continuous throughout the useful life of the brakelining. The lever will then rotate the adjuster screw one or two teeth as needed for adjust-' ment. In operation. fluid apply pressure causes the wheel cylinder pistons to move outward. In addition. is to maintain brake pedal height. The adjuster mechanism performs two important functions. The front cable is directly attached to the assembly. The rear drum brakeshoes serve as the parking brakes. The pedal assembly con­ tains a spring loaded.06 or 1-1/16 In. The front parking brake cable is connected to the parking brake pedal and to an intermediate cable. The first force being hydraulic pressure exerted through the wheel cylinder pistons. In operation. Secondary brakeshoe movement (during reverse stops). Servo action begins with the primary brakeshoe which begins to wedge (or wrap) Itself against the rotating drum surface. This force is transmitted equally to the secondary brakeshoe through the adjuster screw and anchor pin. Three different size drum brake assemblies are used: • 1/2 ton (1500) models: 11 x 2 in. self-energiz­ ing. 8 Lining Wear Compensation By Piston Seal DRUM BRAKES All BR models are 'equipped with rear drum brake assemblies. secondary shoe movement causes the adjuster lever spring to exert pull on the lever.5 In. At this point. They are two-shoe. • 3/4 ton (2500) models: 13 x 2. duo-servo units with an automatic adjuster mechanism. I t is during this return movement of the lever when adjustment occurs. The resulting brakeshoe expansion brings the lining material Into contact with the rotat­ ing brake drum. the adjuster screws are left and right hand parts and must NOT be interchanged.shoe position when the parking brakes are applied. The cylinders used on 1 ton models have a bore diameter of 27 mm (1. The mechanism does so. servo action design. is also equipped with a lever and tension spring. Actual adjustment only occurs during reverse brake stops. The differ­ ence being cylinder bore size. The drum forces both brakeshoes to move in the same direction of rotation. The intermediate cable connects the front cable to the rear cables. actuating lever (11 inch brake). • 1 ton (3500) models: 13 x 3. All drum brake assemblies are equipped with a self adjusting mechanism. is what activates the adjuster components. When the stop is completed and the brakes released. This movement is transferred directly to the brakeshoes by the cylinder connecting links. The components forming the mechanism consist of the: adjuster screw. Two different wheel cylinders are used. the lever comes back into contact with the adjuster screw teeth as i t moves upward.BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) BRAKES 5-7 Fig. A strut installed • between the' primary and secondary shoes maintains. by adjusting the shoes In small increments to compensate for lin­ ing wear. The net result is that each shoe helps the other exert extra force against the drum. A cable and spring are used to release the ratchet mechanism and return the pedal to normal position. First. The adjuster lever on the 13 inch brake.). is in maintaining proper brakeshoe operating clearance. The brakeshoes are not fixed on the support plate. the adjuster lever pivots back to a normal position. ratchet-type mechanism to hold the pedal i n the applied position. NOTE: The adjustment process requires a complete stop to actually occur.8 mm (0. And second.937 or 15/16 in. Rolling stops will NOT acti­ vate the adjuster components.

may also be the problem cause. (2) Check brake pedal response with transmission in Neutral and engine running. PEDAL PtJLSAIIOl Pedal pulsation is caused by components that are loose. damaged. Note that the front disc brake reservoir fluid level will decrease in proportion to normal lining wear. thin brake drums or substandard brake lines and hoses can also cause a spongy pedal. However. LOW-PEDAL I f a low pedal is experienced. fitting. and parking brake components. Note faulty brake opera­ tion such as low pedal. Internal leakage i n the master cylinder caused by worn or damaged piston cups. The power booster or check valve could also be faulty. pump the pedal sev­ eral times. The primary cause of pulsation are disc brake rotors with excessive lateral runout or thickness vari­ ation. Brake diagnosis involves determining i f the prob­ lem is related to a mechanical. brakelines. System will have to be flushed i f fluid is separated into layers. Also mote that brake fluid tends to darken over time. SP010Y PEDAL A spongy pedal is most often caused by air in the system. etc. booster. Jounce front and rear of vehicle and listen for noise that might be caused • by loose. calipers. (4) Check parking brake operation. rotors. (a) I f fluid level is abnormally low. check suspension components. fade. This is n o r m a l and should not be mistaken for contamination. (6) I f components checked appear OK. The system seals and cups will also have to be replaced after flushing. PRELIMINARY BRAKE CHECK (1) Check condition of tires and wheels. Verify that pedal does not bind and has adequate free play. noise. at calipers. (3) During road test. worn or damaged suspension or steering components. NOTE: Some pedal pulsation may be felt during RWAL/ABS activation. worn lining. brakelines. If leakage is severe. hard pedal. contaminated. Pedal should remain firm under constant foot pressure. Double walled steel tubing is used to connect the master cylinder to the major hydraulic braking components and then to the flexible rubber hoses. hose. PEDAL FALLS AWAY A brake pedal that falls away under steady foot pressure is generally the result of a system leak. hydraulic. check pedal and power* booster for being loose or for bind condition. vibration. or vacuum operated component. glazed. Damaged wheels and worn.. pedal pulsa­ tion. Also note If vehicle was being operated with parking brake partially applied. rotors. pump pedal and note i f i t comes back up to normal height. drag. or drums are the most likely causes. Verify free movement and full release of cables and pedal. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING BASE BRAKE SYSTEM Base brake components consist of the brakeshoes. wheel cylinders. or contains a substance • other than brake fluid. shudder. or caliper/wheel cylinder. (5) Check brake pedal operation. (b) I f fluid appears contaminated.5 -8 BRAKES BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) BRAKE HOSES AND LINES Flexible rubber hose is used at both front brakes and at the rear axle junction block. drain out a sample. or out of round brake drums. Use clean brake fluid to flush the system. internal leakage in the master cylinder may not be physically evident. pull. road test the vehicle. or underinflated tires can cause pull. and master cylinder. The leak point could be at a brakeline. The first diagnosis step is the preliminary check. or beyond tolerance limits. damaged tires. . Do not road test until condition is corrected. master cylinder. (3) Inspect brake fluid level and condition. However. brake drums. wheel cylinders. I f pedal lacks free play. I f the pedal comes back up. and a condition similar to grab. look for evi­ dence of leaks. The proper course of action is to bleed the system. (2) I f complaint was based on noise when braking. ROAD TESTING (1) I f complaint involved low brake pedal. or badly worn. Other causes are loose wheel bearings or calipers and worn. HARD PEDAL OR HIGH PEDAL EFFORT A hard pedal or high pedal effort may be due to lining that is water soaked. grab. or replace thin drums and suspect quality brake lines and hoses. fluid will be evident at or around the leaking component.. make normal and firm brake stops in 25-40 mph range.

or rears only. if the lining Is both soaked and dirt contaminated. or glazed/burnt lining. The wheels. I f the lining is only wet. brake lining not securely attached to the shoes. REAR BRAKE GRAB OR PULL Rear grab or pull is usually caused by improperly adjusted or seized parking brake cables. An additional point when diagnosing a change in pull condition concerns brake cool down. • Loose caliper mounting bracket. Drag Is a product of incomplete brakeshoe release. the master cylinder. However. damaged wheel bearing or suspension component are further causes of pull. I t can also generate hard spots In rotors and drums from the overheat-cool down pro­ cess. bent or binding shoes and support plates. Remember that pull will return to the original direction. • Loose/worn wheel bearing. Brake squeak or squeal may be due to linings that are wet or contaminated with brake fluid.' or faulty power booster (binds-does not release). I f the condition is allowed to continue. Glazed linings and rotors with hard spots can also contribute to squeak. BRAKE SQUEAK/SQUEAL Brake fade is usually a . Dirt and foreign material embedded in the brake lining will also cause squeak/ squeal. Additional causes of chatter are out-of-tolerance rotors. proportioning valve. or Improperly assembled components. rotors and drums. A very loud squeak or squeal Is frequently a sign of severely worn brake lining. This is particularly true when only one rear wheel is involved. or constant braking on steep mountain roads. brake overheating and resulting fade can also be caused by riding the brake pedal. when both rear wheels are affected. Its braking effect is magnified. Minor drag will usually cause slight surface char­ ring of the lining. Refer to the Brake Drag information In this section for causes. I f brake drag occurs at all wheels. Severe drag can char the brake lining all the way through. BRAKE PULL Front brake pull condition could result from: • Contaminated lining in one caliper ® Seized caliper piston • Binding caliper • Loose caliper • Rusty adapter/caliper slide surfaces • Improper brakeshoes • Damaged rotor A worn. contami­ nated lining. ply separation) can also cause pull. Drag can be minor or severe enough to overheat the linings. loose wheel bearings and contaminated brake lining. I n severe cases.BR BRAKES I -1 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) BRAKE DRAG Brake drag occurs when the lining is in constant contact with the rotor or drum. metal-to-metal contact occurs. I f the lining has worn through to the brakeshoes i n spots. A damaged front tire (bruised. The cause is a combination of brake drag fol­ lowed by fade at one of the brake units. However. efficiency is so reduced that fade occurs. Common causes of brake drag are: • Seized or improperly adjusted parking brake cables. Drag can occur at one wheel. cleaning and/or replacement will be necessary. BRAKES DO NOT HOLD AFTER DRiWING THROUGH DEEP WATER PUDDLES This condition is generally caused by water soaked lining. i t can be dried by driving with the brakes very lightly applied for a mile or two. making repeated high deceleration stops in a short time span. . BRAKE CHATTER Brake chatter is usually caused by loose or worn components. However. Since the opposite brake unit is still functioning normally. BRAKE FADE A common and frequently misdiagnosed pull condi­ tion is where direction of pull changes after a few stops. drums. I t can also distort and score rotors and drums to the point of replacement. • Seized caliper or wheel cylinder piston. grease. • Caliper binding on corroded bushings or rusted slide surfaces. or RWAL valve could be at fault. In most cases. the rotors. • Drum brakeshoes binding on worn/damaged sup­ port plates. wheels and tires are quite warm to the touch after the vehicle is stopped. I f the dragging brake unit is allowed to cool down (and is not seriously damaged). or oil. This causes pull to switch direction in favor of the normally functioning brake unit. Rotors with hard spots can also contribute to chatter. rotors and drums can become so scored that replace­ ment is necessary. tires and brake components will be extremely hot. the lining may generate smoke as i t chars from overheating. all wheels.product of overheating caused by brake drag. fronts only. the problem may be related to a blocked master cylinder return port. As the dragging brake overheats. • • Misassembled components.

the lamp is also in circuit with the low vacuum switch. the red brake warning lamp is also used to alert the driver of a low brake booster vacuum condition. (c) I f continuity exists. The switch wire harness must be discon­ nected before testing switch continuity. vibration and pull. The lamp illuminates for approximately 2-4 sec­ onds at every engine start up. suspension. or when a pressure drop occurs in the front or rear brake hydraulic circuit. STOP LAMP SWITCH Stoplamp switch operation can be tested with an ohmmeter. A damaged wheel can cause shudder. worn out. A pressure decrease moves the valve toward the low pressure side. The . (c) I f continuity exists. 9 Stoplamp Switch Terminal Identification Some conditions attributed to brake components may actually be caused by a wheel or tire problem. In addition. The vacuum side of the switch is connected to the power brake booster. Improperly adjusted. The ohmmeter is used to check continuity between the pin terminals at different plunger posi­ tions (Fig. On diesel models. NOTE. driv­ ing through deep water puddles. worn seals. or lining that has become covered with grease and grit during repair. proceed to next test. or engine components. Flat-spotted tires can cause vibra­ tion and generate shudder during brake operation. This closes the switch internal contacts and completes the circuit to the red warning lamp. (b) Attach test leads to pins 5 and 6 and note ohmmeter reading. such noises are caused by loose or damaged steering. A worn or damaged tire can also cause pull. (b) Attach test leads to pins 1 and 2 and note ohmmeter reading.5 -10 BRAKES BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) TERMINAL PINS THUMP/CLUNK NOISE Thumping or clunk noises during braking are fre­ quently not caused by brake components. WHEEL AND TIRE PROBLEMS J9405-88 Fig. Replace switch i f meter indicates lack of continuity (switch is open). A pressure drop in the front or rear brake hydrau­ lic circuit activates the pressure differential valve inside the combination valve. The warning lamp is in circuit with a vacuum warning switch mounted on the driver side fender panel. or ply separation can cause pull and vibration. In many cases. SWITCH CIRCUIT IDENTIFICATION (2) Check continuity between terminal pins 1 and 2 and pins 3 and 4 as follows: (a) Push switch plunger inward to fully retracted position. BRAKELINING C01TA1I1ATI0I Brakelining contamination is mostly a product of leaking calipers or wheel cylinders. Contaminated lining should be replaced to avoid fur­ ther brake problems. The red lamp illuminates when the parking brakes are applied. RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP The red warning lamp is in circuit with the park­ ing brake switch and pressure differential switch in the combination valve. 9). switch is OK. A tire with internal damage such as a severe bruise. As the valve moves. or improperly assembled rear brakeshoes can also produce a thump noise. i t pushes the pressure differential switch contact plunger upward. Replace switch i f meter indicates lack of continuity (shorted or open). cut. The lamp will remain on until repairs are made and normal fluid pressure restored. This is a self test fea­ ture designed to check bulb and circuit operation. On diesel models. However. Severely worn tires with very little tread left can produce a grab-like condition as the tire loses and recovers traction. calipers that bind on the slide surfaces can generate a thump or clunk noise. LOW VACUUM SWITCH—DIESEL MODELS • and • • cuit terminals 1 and 2 are for the RWAL/ABS module Powertrain Control Module (PCM) circuit terminals 5 and 6 are for the stoplamp circuit terminals 3 and 4 are for the speed control cir­ CONTINUITY TEST SWITCH (1) Check continuity between terminal pins 5 and 6 as follows: (a) Pull plunger all the way out to fully extended position.

POWER BOOSTER CHECK VALVE TEST 80316866 Fig. (2) Stop engine and shift transmission into Neu­ tral. POWER BOOSTER VACUUM TEST SHORT CONNECTING HOSE CHECK VALVE VACUUM GAUGE J9005-81 Fig. BOOSTER CHECK VALVE APPLY T E S T (1) Connect vacuum gauge to booster check valve with short length of hose and T-fitting (Fig. A hissing noise indicates vacuum leak. 11).11 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) electrical side of the switch is connected to the red brake warning lamp. The low vacuum switch monitors booster vacuum level whenever the engine Is running. or vacuum check valve is faulty. I f vacuum supply is not adequate. booster diaphragm or check valve Is faulty. I f gauge on pump Indicates vacuum loss. check valve is faulty and should be replaced. Proceed to the POWER BOOSTER VACUUM TEST. A standard vacuum gauge can be used to check pump output when necessary. booster is faulty. (3) Observe the vacuum supply. (6) I f vacuum drops more than one inch HG (33 millibars) within 15 seconds. Simply disconnect the pump supply hose and connect a vacuum gauge to the outlet port for testing purposes. I f vacuum assist Is not provided. Correct any vacuum leak before proceeding. vacuum supply. Booster should provide two or more vac­ uum assisted pedal applications. (4) Clamp hose shut between vacuum source and check valve. (6) I f the POWER BOOSTER VACUUM TEST passes. (3) Pump brake pedal until all vacuum reserve in booster is depleted. 10 Typical Booster Vacuum Test Connections (4) Apply 15-20 inches vacuum at large end of check valve (Fig. 10). (2) Start and run engine at curb idle speed for one minute. Increase engine speed to 1500 rpm. rebuild booster vacuum reserve as follows: Release brake pedal. (3) Use a hand operated vacuum pump for test. (2) Remove check valve and valve seal from booster. MASTER CYLINDER/POWER BOOSTER (1) Start engine and check booster vacuum hose connections.5 to 25 inches at various engine speeds. I f no pedal action is discernible. The pedal should hold firm. 11 Vacuum Check Valve And Seal (1) Disconnect vacuum hose from check valve. . repair vacuum supply.should falls away slightly under light foot pressure then holds firm. The warning lamp is designed to differentiate between a low vacuum condition and a hydraulic cir­ cuit fault. i f the pedal falls away master cylinder is faulty (Internal leak­ age). the switch completes the circuit to the warning lamp. DIESEL ENGINE VACUUM PUMP OUTPUT Vacuum pump diagnosis involves checking pump output with a vacuum gauge.BR BRAKES 5 . (5) Start engine and note pedal action i t . (7) Wait a minimum of 90 seconds and try brake action again. I f booster vac­ uum falls below 8.5 Inches for a minimum of 10 sec­ onds. power booster. The low vacuum warn­ ing switch can also be checked with a vacuum gauge. close the throttle and Immediately stop turn off ignition to stop engine. Vacuum should hold steady in a range of approximately 8. (4) Press and hold brake pedal under light foot pressure. (5) Vacuum should hold steady. (5) Stop engine and observe vacuum gauge.

I f leak­ age is noted and pump is noisy. uneven wear of the brakeshoes. bulb. check circuit fuse. vacuum hoses. bleed brake system and verify proper switch and valve operation. (b) I f light fails to illuminate.4 mm (1 in. (5) Start and run engine. old switch is faulty. switch is at fault and should be replaced. The rotor surfaces can be restored by machining i n a disc brake lathe i f surface scoring and wear are light. I f lamp now goes out. Rotor minimum thickness is usually specified on the rotor hub. I f lamp goes out. Output should range from 8. leave engine running and continue testing. replace pump.12 BRAKES BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) DIAGNOSING CONDITION LOW VACUUM OUTPUT A low booster vacuum condition or a faulty low vacuum warning switch will cause the brake warning lamp to illuminate. Plug hose and connect hand vacuum pump to switch. I f vacuum is consistently below 8. (3) Check booster operation as described In diagno­ sis section.parts as necessary and test differential pressure switch operation again. problem is in wiring between switch and warning lamp. (4) Disconnect vacuum hose at warning switch.5 inches. testing. or i f machining would reduce thickness below the allowable minimum.5 to 9 Inches of vacuum to warning switch and observe warning lamp. (1) Have helper sit in drivers seat to apply brake pedal and observe red brake warning light. switch is faulty. DISC BRAKE ROTOR The rotor braking surfaces should not be refinished unless necessary. i f booster operation is correct but warning lamp is still on. Replace the rotor i f worn below minimum thickness. Verify that line connections are secure and not leaking. continue testing. continue. switch vacuum hose Is either loose or leaking. Light surface rust and scale can be removed with a lathe equipped with dual sanding discs. ROTOR RUNOUT Metering valve operation can be checked visually and with the aid of a helper.) inward from the rotor edge. check the vacuum pump. NOTE: Be sure wheel bearing has zero end play before checking rotor runout. con­ tinue testing. problem is with vacuum hoses or pump component. booster and warning switch as fol­ lows: (1) Check vacuum pump oil feed line. replace the entire combination valve as an assembly. (4) Have helper press and hold brake pedal to floor and observe warning light. Connect vac­ uum gauge to this hose and run engine at various throttle openings. Excessive lateral runout will cause brake pedal pulsation and rapid. Position the dial indicator plunger approximately 25. (8) * Connect vacuum hoses and replace original warning switch with known good switch. I f lamp remains on. I f lamp is now off. Replace check valve. i f lamp remains on. (5) I f warning light still does not illuminate. (7) Apply 20-25 inches vacuum to switch and observe warning lamp operation. (2) Disconnect supply hose to booster. However.5 to 25 inches vacuum. I f lamp remains on. Pressure Differential Switch Check rotor lateral runout with dial indicator C-3339 (Fig. The specification is either stamped or cast into the hub surface. I f the valve is faulty.5 . I f the valve is operating correctly. I f the lamp does go on and indi­ cates the existence of a low vacuum condition. . (2) Raise vehicle on hoist. switch is operat­ ing correctly. The parking brake switch can be used to aid i n identifying whether or not the brake light bulb and fuse is functional. and wiring. the stem will extend slightly when the brakes are applied and retract when the brakes are released. Replace combination valve assembly. I f output is within specified limits. Observe the metering valve stem while a helper applies and releases the brakes. or booster i f necessary. (6) Apply 8. Repair or replace . Replace the rotor under the following conditions: • severely scored • tapered • hard spots • cracked • below minimum thickness ROTOR MINIMUM THICKNESS Measure rotor thickness at the center of the brakeshoe contact surface. Run engine and observe warning lamp operation. COMBINATION VALVE Metering Valve (3) Connect bleed hose to a rear wheel cylinder and immerse hose end in container partially filled with brake fluid. 12). (a) I f warning light illuminates.

MICROMETER ROTOR TAKE MINIMUM OF 6 MEASUREMENTS AROUND ROTOR J9405-103 BRAKE LINE AND HOSES Flexible rubber hose is used at both front brakes and at the rear axle junction block. BRAKE FLUID CONTAMINATION Fig. or whenever the vehicle is in for service. corroded or damaged brake lines should be replaced.20 mm (0.001 in. put a small amount of drained brake fluid i n clear glass jar. Also remember that right and left brake hoses are not interchangeable. I f fluid sepa- .025 mm (0. Replace any brake hose immediately i f the fabric casing of the hose is exposed due to cracks or abrasions.060 in.4 mm ( 1 in. Always replace the drum i f machining would cause drum diameter to exceed the size limit indicated on the drum. Variations in drum diameter should not exceed 0. twists.) out of round. twisted hoses.127 mm (0. Replace the drum i f machining causes the drum to exceed the maximum allowable diameter. Thickness should not vary by more than 0. Drum runout should not exceed 0. To test for contamination. Measure rotor thickness at 6-to-12 points around the rotor face (Fig. BRAKE DRUM RUNOUT DIAL INDICATOR Measure drum diameter and runout with an accu­ rate gauge. at every engine oil change. J8905-68 Fig. The most accurate method of measure­ ment involves mounting the drum in a brake lathe and checking variation and runout with a dial Indi­ cator. 12 Checking Rotor Runout And Variation MOTOR THICKNESS VARIATION Thickness Variations in rotor thickness will cause pedal pul­ sation. cracking and eventual failure. Use new copper seal washers at all caliper connec­ tions.005 in. Be sure brake line connections are properly made (not cross threaded) and tightened to recom­ mended torque.) from the rotor outer circumference for each mea­ surement. Faulty installa­ tion can result in kinked.). Generally. leaks.BR BRAKES 5 • 13 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) Maximum allowable rotor runout is 0. The steel brake lines should' be inspected periodi­ cally for evidence of corrosion.) from point-to-point on the rotor.). I n any case. kinks. Heavily corroded lines will eventually rust through causing leaks.) oversize.076 mm (0. or worn spots. 13). 13 Measuring Rotor Thickness BRAKE DRUi The maximum allowable diameter of the drum braking surface is stamped or cast into the drum Indications of fluid contamination are swollen or deteriorated rubber parts. outer edge. Swollen rubber parts Indicate the presence of petroleum in the brake fluid. Machine the drum if runout or variation exceed these values. Inspect the hoses whenever the brake system is serviced. Position the micrometer approximately 25. correct length and supe­ rior fatigue life. Inspect the hoses for surface cracking. Factory replacement brake lines and hoses are rec­ ommended to ensure quality. Machine or replace the rotor If necessary. A l l of these condition can lead to scuffing. a drum can be machined to a maximum of 1. or other damage. Also check brake hose'installation. or contact with the wheels and tires or other chassis compo­ nents.008 in.003 in.52 mm (0. Care should be taken to make sure that brake line and hose mating surfaces are clean and free from nicks and burrs. noise and shudder. scuffing.

(5) Continue stroking pistons until bubbles no longer appear in fluid entering reservoir. . wheel cylinder seals. Bleed tubes can either be purchased or fabri­ cated from spare brake lines and fittings. This practice saves time during brake bleeding because air in the cylinder will not be pumped into the lines. If the seal is improp­ erly seated. Always clean the master cylinder reservoir and cover before removing the cover to add fluid. it will shift out of position when the cover is installed resulting in fluid leakage and eventual contamination. 14) and (Fig. An acceptable level is between the top of the indicator window and the M1N mark. Use a wood dowel. CAUTION: Verify that the diaphragm seal is firmly seated in the reservoir cover. 15). use Mopar brake fluid or an equivalent meeting SAE standard J1703 and Federal standard DOT 3. Snap the seal into place before installing the cover. If brake fluid is contaminated. propor­ tioning valve. Clamp vise jaws on one of the cylinder mounting ears. 16). 1ASTER CYLINDER'BLEEDING An overhauled. if fluid level is very near the MIN level. Plugs will prevent fluid loss and keep dirt out until cylinder assembly is ready for installation. I f this is not done. Check the cover diaphragm seal and replace i t i f torn or distorted. (6) Remove bleed tubes and install plastic plugs in cylinder outlet ports. and a length of wood dowel. I f fluid is needed. (3) Fill reservoir chambers about 3/4 full with fresh. 14 Fiuid Level Indicator (Model 1500 & 2500) CORRECT FLUID LEVEL [TO TOP OF -INDICATOR WINDOWS) 1 r 1 i J9405-24 Fig. This is a normal condi­ tion. (1) Mount master cylinder in vise. clean brake fluid. 16). a pair of bleed tubes. SERVICE PROCEDURES BRAKE FLUID LEVEL Correct fluid level is to the top of the oval Indicator window on the side of the reservoir (Fig.5 . Replace master cylinder. Antilock Brakes hydraulic unit and all hydraulic fluid hoses. (2) Install bleed tubes in cylinder outlet ports and direct tube ends into appropriate reservoir chambers (Fig. or new master cylinder should always be bled before installation i n the vehicle. INDICATOR WINDOW CORRECT FLUID LEVEL (TO TOP OF WINDOW) J9405-23 Fig. there is mineral oil or other fluid contamination of the brake fluid. ' The only tools needed for bench bleeding are a vise. The hydraulic system -should be checked for leaks. 15 Fluid Level Indicators (Model 3500) (4) Bleed cylinder by stroking cylinder pistons inward then allowing them to return under spring pressure. dirt from the cover or reservoir could enter the fluid. or the brakeshoes for excessive wear.14 BRAKES BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) rates into layers. drain and thor­ oughly flush system. Note that fluid level in the reservoirs will decrease slightly in proportion to lining wear. Add fluid to the correct level i f necessary. or similar tool to stroke pistons (Fig. caliper seals.

The lathe should also be equipped with a grinder attachment or dual sanding discs for final cleanup or light refinishing (Fig. clean fluid from a sealed container at all times. a tapered rotor.out of position during installation if care is not exercised. or an equivalent quality fluid meeting SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards only. However. (1) Remove reservoir filler caps and fill reservoir with Mopar. Then move to the next wheel. 17 Typical Fluid Container And Bleed Setup Hose (4) Open up bleeder. FLUID) J9405-71 Fig.. This will result in leakage and possible fluid con­ tamination. 18). DiSC ROTOR MACHINING Rotor braking surfaces can be sanded or machining in a disc brake lathe. Equipment capable of machining only one side at a time will produce.will be compressed into small bubbles that are distributed throughout the hydraulic system. Do not allow the master cylinder to run out of fluid during bleed operations. Be sure end of bleed hose is immersed in fluid. CAUTION: Do not machine the rotor if it will cause the rotor to fall below . CAUTION: Be sure the seal is properly positioned on the reservoir cover. or equivalent quality DOT 3 brake fluid. The lathe must machine both sides of the rotor simultaneously with dual (two) cutter heads (Fig. Do not pump the brake pedal at any time while bleeding. 18). Check the cylinder fluid level frequently and add fluid as needed. Repeat bleeding until fluid stream is clear and free of bubbles. Top off master cylinder reservoir once more before proceeding. . open all caliper and wheel cylinder bleed screws. (2) I f calipers. Then close each bleed screw as fluid starts to drip from it. when a rotor is scored or worn.BR BRAKES 5 .minimum allowable thick­ ness. An empty cylinder will allow additional air to be drawn into the system.15 SERVICE' PROCEDURES (Continued) WOOD (3) Attach one end of bleed hose to bleed screw and insert opposite end in glass container partially filled with brake fluid (Fig. If the rotor surfaces only need minor cleanup of rust. Once the pedal Is down close the bleeder. BRAKE BLEEPING Use Mopar brake fluid. Use fresh. use abrasive discs to clean up the rotor surfaces. Then move to the front brakes and bleed the right front wheel then the left front wheel. 17). MANUAL BLEEDING J8905-18 Fig. 16 Master Cylinder Bleeding (7) Top off reservoir fluid level and install cover and seal. then have a helper press down the brake pedal. scale. First the right rear wheel then the left rear wheel. The Brakes should be bled In sequence. The seal can shift . machining with cutting tools will be required. or wheel cylinders were overhauled. Air in the system . or minor scoring. This will make additional bleeding operations necessary.

outer edge. Center tube in area between vertical posts. heavy duty tube bending and flaring equipment is required to prepare double wall brake line. REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION STOP LAMP SWITCH REMOVAL Fig. special flaring tools are needed to provide the Inverted-type.008 in. Then swing compression disc over gauge and center tapered flar­ ing screw In recess of compression disc (Fig. (2) Ream cut edges of tubing to ensure proper flare.12 . Final finish cuts of 0. (11) Remove the flaring tools and verify that the inverted flare is correct. A damper strap should (1) Remove knee bolster for access to stop lamp switch and pedal.025 to 0. double flare required on metal brake lines. (10) Remove the plug gauge and complete the inverted flare. 20). This will start the inverted flare. FLARING PROCEDURE J8905-70 (1) Cut off damaged tube with Tubing Cutter. (4) Insert tube In flaring tool.038 mm (0. (3) Press and hold brake pedal in applied position. (7) Squeeze flaring tool jaws to lock tubing in place.5 . However. 19). BRAKE LINE Mopar preformed metal brake line is recommended and preferred for all repairs. (5) Place gauge form over the end of the tube. Special. (8) insert plug on gauge in the tube. 18 Rotor Refinishing BRAKE DRUM MACHINING The brake drums can be machined on a drum lathe when necessary.) are recommended and will gen­ erally provide the best surface finish.0. Always replace the drum i f machining would cause drum diameter to exceed the size limit indicated on the drum.0015 in.0. (2) Disconnect switch harness (Fig. Initial machining cuts should be lim­ ited to 0. Be sure the drum is securely mounted in the lathe before machining operations. Special bending tools are needed to avoid kink­ ing or twisting metal brake line. (6) Push tubing through flaring tool jaws until tube contacts recessed notch In gauge that matches tube diameter.) at a time as heavier feed rates can produce taper and surface variation.001 to 0.20 mm (0.16 BRAKES BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) always be used around the drum to reduce vibration and avoid chatter marks. (4) Rotate switch counterclockwise about 30° to align switch lock tab with notch in bracket. . The maximum allowable diameter of the drum braking surface Is stamped or cast into the drum. double-wall steel line can be used for emergency repair when fac­ tory replacement parts are not readily available. (3) Install replacement tube nut on section of tube to be repaired. I n addition. (9) Tighten tool handle until plug gauge is seated on jaws of flaring tool.005 .

This is required preset position for switch installation. (4) Remove stop lamp switch bracket bolts and remove bracket (Fig. (5) Install switch. (2) Remove stop lamp switch. SWITCH BRACKET (1) Remove knee bolster.BR R E M O V A L A N P I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) BRAKES 5 . D C N A I BRAKELIGHT SWITCH B R A C K E T BRACKET BRACKET S C R E W S (2) J9505-140 Fig. BRAKE LIGHT SWITCH HARNESS CONNECTOR J9505-139 Fig. (3) Remove switches from tabs on stop lamp switch bracket. 20 Stop Lamp Switch & Harness INSTALLATION Connector (1) Pull switch plunger all the way out to fully extended position. Excessive force will damage the switch.55 in. Pedal will adjust switch plunger to correct position as pedal is moved to rear. 19 inverted Flare Tools (5) Pull switch rearward out of mounting bracket and release brake pedal.17 TAB N O T C H ( I N BRACKET) J9505-141 Fig. CAUTION: Do not use excessive force to move the pedal rearward for switch adjustment. (2) Push switch plunger inward 4 detent positions (or clicks). (3) Connect harness wires to switch. Align tab on switch with notch in switch bracket (Fig. 21). 22). 22 Brake Lamp Switch Bracket (5) Remove clip and washer attaching booster push rod and slide push rod off pedal. . Then lightly pull pedal fully rearward. Plunger will extend approximately 14 mm (0. (4) Press and hold brake pedal down. 21 Stop Lamp Switch RH222 (6) Release brake pedal. Then insert switch in bracket and turn i t clockwise about 30° to lock i t in place.) out of housing at this setting. BRAKE PEDAL REMOVAL Fig.

(5) Remove master cylinder. (7) Install booster push rod on brake pedal. (5) Push pedal shaft out driver side of mounting bracket just enough to allow Installation of retaining E-clip. (7) Push shaft toward driver side of bracket just enough to expose opposite E-clip. PEDAL SHAFT (1) Disconnect ground wire and harness wires from combination valve switch and RWAL valve (Fig. Lubricate shaft bores in bracket and pedal before installing bushings with Mopar Multi-mileage silicone grease. (9) Remove brake pedal and pedal shaft from vehi­ cle. 25 Master Cylinder brake lines (3) Remove brake lines connecting master cylinder to combination valve. (2) Apply liberal quantity of Mopar multi-mileage grease to pedal shaft and to pedal and bracket bush­ ings. Fig. FRONT BRAKES J9405-82 Fig. valve bracket and RWAL valve as assembly. 23). 25). 24 Valve Harness (2) Disconnect lines to front and rear brakes from RWAL and combination valves (Fig. Use flat blade screwdriver to pry clip out of shaft groove. (8) Install stop lamp switch bracket and switch. (3) Position brake pedal in mounting bracket. (4) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder and combination valve bracket to booster studs. Fig. . 23).5-18 BRAKES mm RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION VALVE REMOVAL REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (6) Remove E-clip from passenger side of pedal shaft (Fig. 24). (6) Remove combination valve. (9) Install knee bolster. Secure push rod to pedal with washer and retaining clip. (4) Slide pedal shaft into bracket and through pedal from passenger side. (6) Push pedal shaft back toward passenger side of bracket and install remaining E-clip on pedal shaft. 23 Brake Pedal Mounting (With Automatic Transmission) INSTALLATION (1) Replace bracket and pedal bushings i f neces­ sary. Then remove E-clip with flat blade screwdriver. (8) Push pedal shaft back and out of passenger side of bracket (Fig.

Bracket goes on top of cylinder mounting (Fig. Do not tighten RWAL valve bolt completely at this time. lbs. lbs. 27 Combination Valve. (6) Install combination valve bracket on booster mounting studs and against master cylinder. Fig. (5) Have an assistant depress the brake pedal slowly and hold it down. (10) Fill and bleed brake system. Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. (3) Start all brake line fittings in cylinder and valves by hand.). lbs.). 26 RWAL Valve/Combination INSTALLATION Valve (1) Install RWAL valve on combination valve bracket.To-Mlas ter Cylinder brake lines (2) Remove nuts attaching combination valve bracket and master cylinder to brake booster mount­ ing studs. Be sure booster push rod is aligned and seated in primary piston. REMOVAL (1) Remove brake lines connecting master cylinder to combination valve (Fig. Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. (3) Slide combination valve bracket off booster mounting studs. 26). (4) Install master cylinder attaching nuts on booster studs. Tighten nuts to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. 27). The threads in the cylinder and valve fluid ports can be dam­ Fig. (9) Connect harness wires to RWAL valve and to combination valve switch. (3) Tighten RWAL valve attaching bolt to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in.). (4) Install master cylinder on booster mounting studs.).). Use a flare nut wrench to loosen or tighten the fittings and start all brake line fittings by hand to avoid cross threading. (2) Install short brake line that connects RWAL valve to combination valve. INSTALLATION (1) Position master cylinder on booster mounting studs. (7) Loosely install nuts that retain master cylinder and combination valve on booster studs. MASTER CYLINDER Exercise care when removing/installing the master cylinder. lbs. combination valve and antilock valve connecting lines. Then separate RWAL valve from bracket. . (5) Attach antilock harness ground wire to combi­ nation valve bracket. 28).BR R E M O V A L AND I N S T A L L A T I O N {Continued) (7) Remove brake line connecting combination valve to RWAL valve. (4) Remove master cylinder. lbs. (8) Install and connect all remaining brake lines. (6) Tighten brake line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140200 in. (8) Remove bolt attaching RWAL valve to combina­ tion valve bracket (Fig. BRAKES 5-19 aged if care is not exercised. (2) Install combination valve bracket on mounting studs.

Fig. (2) Disconnect brake line from combination valve to front brakes. (5) Remove knee bolster for access to brake pedal. (3) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder and valves to power brake booster studs. code letters are: • 1/2 ton booster code is ZK • 3/4 and 1 ton booster code is ZL (7) Remove nuts attaching booster mounting studs to dash panel and pedal mounting bracket and remove booster (Fig.D. (6) Remove clip and washer securing booster push rod to brake pedal and slid rod off pedal (Fig. 31 Booster Push Rod POWER BRAKE BOOSTER The standard and high output boosters are identi­ fied by code letters on the forward face of the booster. 31). 32).5 . 30). Then remove master cylinder and valves as assembly (Fig. 29 Master Cylinder & Valve brake line Connections Fig.20 BRAKES BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) REMOVAL (1) Disconnect harness wires from differential switch on combination valve and from RWAL valve. or ABS valve. 30 Master Cylinder & Valve Assembly (4) Disconnect vacuum hose at booster check valve. Booster I. Then disconnect brake line from RWAL valve to rear brakes. . 28 Master Cylinder/Combination Mounting Valve Bracket MASTER Fig. BOOSTER WASHER CUP ABS VALVE SECONDARY LINE J9405-72 Fig.

). 33).' (3) Connect booster push rod to brake pedal. 32 Booster INSTALLATION Mounting NOTE: If new booster is being installed.21 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) Fig.). Tighten brake line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. (7) Connect front/rear brake lines to combination valve and RWAL valve. (4) Install knee bolster. 34). (2) Position drain pan under power steering pump. lbs. (5) Connect vacuum hose to booster check valve. (1) Position booster on engine compartment dash panel. (8) Connect harness wires to RWAL valve and pressure differential switch on combination valve. check code letters to verify that correct booster is being installed. (4) Disconnect oil pressure sender wires and remove sending unit (Fig. (3) Disconnect vacuum and steering pump hoses (Fig.). POWER BRAKE VACUUM P U i P (DIESEL ENGINE) REMOVAL Fig.BR BRAKES 5 . (6) Install master cylinder and valves on booster as assembly and tighten mounting nuts to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. (9) Fill and bleed brake system. Refer to proce­ dures in appropriate antilock brake section. lbs. (2) Install and tighten booster mounting stud nuts to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. 34 Oil Pressure Sender Location . lbs. ENGINE BLOCK J 9 1 (1) Disconnect battery negative cable. Fig. 33 Vacuum And Steering Pump Hose Connections PUMP .

remove spacer from each inboard mounting stud on pump. 37 Pump Assembly Upper Mounting Bolt (10) Remove nuts adapter (Fig. inboard nut that attaches adapter to steering pump. (8) Remove upper bolt that attaches pump assem­ bly to engine block (Fig. 37). 36). LINE J9105-96 attaching vacuum pump to Fig. (12) Remove coupling from adapter (Fig. . (9) Remove pump assembly from vehicle. 38 Pump Assembly Removal BOTTOM-INBOARD ADAPTER BRACKET NUT J9105-97 Fig. 38).5 . (7) Remove bottom. Turn pump gear back and forth to disengage pump shaft from coupling. This nut secures a small bracket to engine block. 36 Adapter And Pump Mounting Location Fastener (11) Remove vacuum pump from adapter (Fig. I f steering pump will be serviced. 40). 41). 39). (13) Remove remaining adapter attaching nuts and remove adapter from steering pump (Fig. Fig. 35). 35 Oil Feed Line Connection At Pump PUMP ASSEMBLY J9105-98 Fig. Nut and bracket must be removed before pump assembly can be removed from block. (6) Remove lower bolt that attaches pump assem­ bly to engine block (Fig.22 BRAKES BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (5) Disconnect lubricating oil feed line from fitting at underside of vacuum pump (Fig.

lbs. Verify that pump is seated before installing attaching nuts. (4) Position adapter on pump studs. 40 Pump Drive Coupling INSTALLATION (1) Clean and lubricate pump shaft with engine oil. 42). inboard stud at this time. (2) Install spacers on steering pump studs. Do not install nut on lower. ROTATE DRIVE GEAR TO ALIGN Fig. (9) Inspect adapter O-ring and replace O-ring i f cut or torn. (11) Note position of drive slots in coupling (Fig. Rotate drive gear until tangs on pump shaft engage in coupling. 42 Pump Shaft Drive Tangs . SHAFT DRIVE TANGS J9105-102 Fig. (6. 39 Vacuum Pump Removed From Adapter Fig. Tighten nuts to 24 N-m (18 ft.).23 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) COUPLING O-RING PUMP ADAPTER J9105-99 Fig. (5) Install attaching nuts on outboard stud and on the two upper pump studs. Then rotate drive gear to align tangs on vacuum pump shaft with coupling.) Install coupling on pump shaft.ER — - IRMES I . Be sure cou­ pling is securely engaged in shaft drive tangs. 41 Steering Pump Mounting Stud Locations Spacer (8) Install and tighten vacuum pump attaching nuts. (7) Install vacuum pump on adapter. (3) Install O-ring on adapter. (10) Lubricate adapter O-ring with engine oil.

44). (2) Remove wheel and tire assemblies. lbs. i f removed. Fig. Use sealer or grease to hold bolt in place i f necessary. Then tighten upper and lower bolt to 77 N-m (57 ft. Do this before moving vehicle. Use Mopar Perfect Seal.). 45 Pressing Caliper Piston Into Bore Fig. (21) Connect steering pump pressure and return lines to pump. (13) Install and tighten. Use large C-clamp to bottom piston i n bore i f additional force is required. (1) Raise vehicle. (16) Position pump assembly on engine and install upper bolt (Fig. 43).). lbs. Tighten upper bolt only enough to hold assembly in place at this time. (3) Press caliper piston back into bore with large flat blade screwdriver (Fig. 44 Installing Pump Assembly On Engine . Then verify that steering action is correct. DISC BRAKE CALIPER REMOVAL Fig.). Tighten pressure line fitting to 30 N-m (22 ft. Verify that power brake booster is provid­ ing vacuum assist and firm brake pedal is obtained. install pump assembly lower attaching bolt. pump attaching nuts and washers. 43 Pump Mounting Fiange Gasket (15) Insert pump assembly upper attaching bolt in mounting flange and gasket. (19) Connect oil feed line to vacuum pump connec­ tor and tighten line fitting. (18) Position bracket on steering pump inboard stud. (27) Start engine and check brake and steering operation. 45). (24) Fill power steering pump reservoir. Then install remaining adapter attaching nut on stud. (22) Connect vacuum hose to vacuum pump. (20) Install oil pressure sender and connect sender wires. (23) Connect battery cables. (26) Stop engine and top off power steering reser­ voir fluid level.24 BRAKES _ _ _ BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) (12) Verify that pump is seated in adapter and coupling. lbs. (17) Working from under vehicle. Tighten nut to 24 N-m (18 ft. (25) Purge air from steering pump lines. (14) Position new gasket on vacuum pump mount­ ing flange (Fig. or sili­ cone adhesive/sealer to hold gasket in place. Start engine and slowly turn steering wheel left and right to circulate fluid and purge air from system.5 .

BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) (4) Remove caliper mounting bolts with 3/8 hex wrench or socket (Fig. Then apply coat of Mopar multi-mileage grease. 46) and (Fig.). or Dow/GE. 49) and (Fig. (7) Cover open end of front brake hose fitting to prevent dirt entry. Fig. or kinked before tightening fitting bolt. 48). 50). DISC BRAKESHOE REMOVAL (1) Raise and support vehicle. Refer to procedure in appropriate antilock brake section. 47). (6) Remove front brake hose fitting bolt completely and remove caliper and brakeshoes as assembly. 48 Caliper Removal/lnstallation seated against locating shoulder on caliper and hose is not twisted. 47 Caliper Mounting Bolt (3/4 and 1 Ton) (5) Rotate caliper rearward off rotor and out of steering knuckle support ledges (Fig. (2) Install caliper over rotor and seat it on steering knuckle mounting arms. (6) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. 46 Caliper Mounting Bolt (1/2 Ton) J9405-28 Fig. . Inure brake hose fitting is correctly (5) Fill and bleed brake system. silicone grease to slide surfaces. (3) Start caliper mounting bolts by hand to avoid cross threading. 49 Front Brake Hose INSTALLATION Attachment (1) Clean caliper and steering knuckle slide sur­ faces with wire brush. (4) Connect brake hose to caliper (Fig. BRAKES 5-25 Fig.lbs. Fig. (2) Remove wheel and tire assemblies. Then tighten mounting bolts to 51 N-m (38 ft.

do not intermix them. 53). Tilt this shoe out at top to unseat clip. (7) Remove inboard and outboard brakeshoes (Fig. Keep the brakeshoes with the caliper they were removed from. I f the brakeshoes will be reused.5 mm (1/16 in. Inboard shoe has spring clip that holds i t in caliper piston. Unseat one spring end and rotate shoe out of caliper. J9405-49 Fig. or GE 661 silicone grease as follows: . 53 Caliper And Steering Knuckle Slide Surfaces (2) Lubricate caliper mounting bolts. CAUTION: Do not allow the brake hose to support the caliper. Suspending the caliper by the brake hose can damage the hose and fitting joints. Use large C-clamp If more force is required to bottom piston in bore. Then apply coat of Mopar multi-mileage grease to slide surfaces. 50 Front Brake Hose Routing (4 WD) Fig. (1) Clean caliper and steering knuckle slide sur­ faces with wire brush (Fig. 52 Outboard Brakeshoe Removal (3) Press caliper piston back into bore with large flat blade screwdriver. (5) Remove caliper mounting bolts with 3/8 hex wrench or socket. bush­ ings and bores with Dow 111. (4) Loosen bolt that secures front brake hose fit­ ting bolt in caliper. 52). Replace bonded lining if thickness is 3 mm (3/16 in. INBOARD wire to support and secure the caliper to a chassis or suspension component.) or less. 51 inboard Brakeshoe Removal (8) Secure caliper to convenient chassis or suspen­ sion component with wire.) of rivet heads. Outboard shoe has retaining spring that secures i t in caliper. collars. 51) and (Fig.5 • 26 BRAKES (Continued) 3R REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION CONTROL FRONT HOSE AND TUBE ASSEMBLY J9405-51 Fig. (6) Rotate caliper rearward off rotor and out of steering knuckle support ledges. INSTALLATION NOTE: Replace riveted lining if worn to within 1. Use Fig.

56 Inboard Brakeshoe Installation (4) Install outboard brakeshoe in caliper. 58). Be sure spring clip on shoe is properly aligned and seated in caliper piston (Fig. 56).BR BRAKES 5 . 57). coat mounting pin and interior of bushing with sili­ cone grease (Fig. • 3/4 and 1 ton models with 80 or 86 mm calipers. 54). Be sure spring ends are seated in dimples in caliper (Fig. APPLY SILICONE GREASE WHERE INDICATED CALIPER BOOT INBOARD SHOE (3) Install inboard brakeshoe in caliper. 54 Mounting Bolt Lubrication (75mm Caliper) APPLY SILICONE GREASE WHERE INDICATED MOUNTING BOLT J9405-29 BUSHING Fig. Then fill space between bushings in caliper (Fig. (8) Lower vehicle and tighten wheel lug nuts to following torque: . Be sure caliper is seated flush on mounting arm surfaces as shown.27 R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION fContinued) © 1/2 ton models with 75 mm caliper. (7) Install wheel and tire assemblies. 57 Brakeshoe Position In Caliper CALIPER J9405-33 Fig. CALIPER PISTON J9405-34 MOUNTING BOLT SEAL Fig. Then tighten mounting bolts to 51 N-m (38 ft. 55). lbs. apply sili­ cone grease to mounting pins and collars. (6) Start caliper mounting bolts by hand to avoid cross threading. 55 Mounting Bolt Lubrication (80 or 86mm Caliper) (5) Install caliper over rotor and into steering knuckle mounting arms (Fig.) torque. OUTBOARD BRAKESHOE J9405-32 BUSHINGS SPRING CLIP INBOARD BRAKESHOE RETAINING SPRING Fig.

(3) Remove caliper from rotor. (6) Remove grease cap from hub. (9) Remove rotor and hub assembly from spindle. (4) Install outer wheel bearing thrust washer and bearing adjusting nut. remove hub from rotor. (7) Install wheel and tire assembly. remove grease seal and inner wheel bearing from rotor hub. (11) Install grease cap and wheel cover/hub cap.025 to 0. (10) Check brake fluid level and add fluid i f neces­ sary. (6) On models with removable hub adapter install adapter on rotor. Then install inner bearing in hub and install new grease seal. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. DISC BRAKE ROTOR (WITH TAPERED BEAR110S) REMOVAL WASHER CAP J9405-178 Fig. Adjusting nut can be tightened slightly to align cotter pin holes i f necessary. 59). Verify that wheel bearing adjustment is still OK. (2) Apply liberal coat of bearing grease to spindle.). INSTALLATION (1) Repack wheel bearings with Mopar high tem­ perature bearing grease. use long pry tool with angled end to remove grease cap. Do not move vehicle u n t i l shoes have been properly seated. Then remove thrust washer and outer wheel bearing.28 BRAKES BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) SPLASH SHIELD GREASE SEAL INNER BEARING A N D RACE ROTOR OUTER BEARING A N D RACE COTTER PIN A N D NUT CALIPER / SLIDE SURFACE J9405-35 Fig. interior of rotor hub. grease seal lip and seal surface of spindle.002 in. (10) Inspect wheel bearings and interior of hub. Do not seat caliper pistons at this time. (10) Install nut lock on adjusting nut and install new cotter pin.) on 8 stud single wheel (9) Pump brake pedal to reseat caliper pistons and brakeshoes. lbs.5 . Pistons must not be seated until after wheel bearing adjustment has been completed.051 mm (0. Loosen and tighten bearing adjusting nut once again while rotating wheel. (3) Install rotor and hub assembly on spindle. Tighten wheel nuts snug but not to final torque at this time. (5) On models with one-piece rotor and hub assem­ bly. (8) Remove locknut from wheel bearing adjusting nut. Apply grease to bearing races as well. I f bearings need repacking. Tighten nut only enough to remove end play at this time. On models with long adapter. (5) Install disc brake caliper. remove grease cap that covers cotter pin and hub nut. (8) Adjust wheel bearings by rotate wheel and fully tighten bearing adjusting nut to seat bearings. (9) Continue rotating wheel and back off adjusting nut until wheel end play is no more than 0. 59 Rotor And Hub Assembly Bearings) (With Tapered (1) Raise vehicle. (7) Remove cotter pin from spindle and wheel bearing adjusting nut (Fig. . (4) On models with removable adapter hub. 58 Caliper installation • 108-150 N-m (80-110 ft. (12) Tighten lug nuts to proper torque. Pry against flats at each side of cap to loosen and remove it.001 to 0. lbs.) on 5 stud wheel • 163-203 N-m (120-150 ft.

or Permatex anti-seize compound to splines of front drive shaft (Fig. remove hub from rotor. Replace bearing assembly i f damaged. Fig. (4) On 1500 model vehicles remove rotor. Fig. Note spacer position for installation reference. (5) On models with removable adapter hub. 63). 62 Rotor Hub And Unit Wheel Bearing Assembly Fig. 64).BR BRAKES 5 . 62). (6) Remove cotter pin from rotor hub nut and remove nut (Fig. Fig. 61). Insert bolts through back . (9) Remove hub spacer from steering knuckle (Fig. 61 Rotor And Hub Attaching Bolts (8) Remove rotor and hub assembly (Fig. 64 Hub Spacer Positioning (3) Insert two rearmost. 60). 63 Hub Spacer Fig. INSTALLATION (1) Apply liberal quantity of Mopar. (2) Replace grease seal in steering knuckle i f dam­ aged.29 R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) DISC BRAKE ROTOR (WITH UNIT BEARINGS) REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. 60 Hub Nut Cotter Pin (7) Remove bolts that secure rotor and hub to steering knuckle from inboard (back) side of steering knuckle (Fig. (8) Remove caliper from rotor. top and bottom rotor hub bolts in steering knuckle.

(4) Position hub spacer on bolts just installed in knuckle. (5) Apply 1-2 drops of Mopar Lock N ' Seal. Make sure each screw assembly rotates . FRONT WHEEL BEARING On models with tapered roller front wheel bear­ ings. pin and retainers. (8) Remove secondary brakeshoe holddown spring. (13) Apply brakes several times to reseat brakeshoes and caliper piston. or high temp bearing grease. INSTALLATION REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle. (7) Align bolt holes In unit bearing flange with bolts previously installed In knuckle.31 BRAKES REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION {Continued) side of knuckle so they extend out front face as shown. Be sure flat on spacer Is positioned toward rear. Do not move vehicle until firm brake pedal is obtained. Then smooth shoe contact pads with wire brush or emery cloth. 67). (10) Disconnect park brake cable from lever on secondary brakeshoe. remove E-clip (or U-clip) that attaches park brake lever to secondary brakeshoe and remove lever. Use brake spring pliers to unseat and remove spring from anchor pin. On vehicles with unit style hub bearings the unit is a bolted to the knuckle. (1) Clean support plate with Mopar brake cleaner. Then thread bolts into bearing flange far enough to hold assembly in place. (3) Lubricate adjuster levers and anchor pin and shoe contact surfaces on support plate with Mopar multi-mileage grease. And the passenger side adjuster screw has a left hand thread. Tighten nut securely. (2) Apply coat of Mopar multi-mileage. Then remove brakeshoe. 65) and (Fig. The driver side adjuster screw has a right hand thread. the bearings and races can be serviced when necessary. (6) Tilt primary brakeshoe outward. Race installation is per­ formed with a bearing race driver set. (10) Install new cotter pin in hub nut. (2) Remove rear wheels. 65 Brakeshoe Mounting (7) Remove adjuster screw. BRAKESHOE (11 INCH BRAKE) ASSEMBLY ' J9405-16 Fig. (8) Install remaining rotor retaining bolts. (4) Clean and check operation of adjuster screw assemblies. The race can be removed with a long tapered brass drift. (6) Align rotor hub with ' drive shaft. Then disen­ gage shoe spring and remove primary brakeshoe. Tighten all bolts securely (9) Install washer and hub nut. (5) Remove primary shoe holddown spring. 66). (11) I f brakeshoes are to be replaced. (4) Remove primary (front) brakeshoe return spring (Fig. or high temp bearing grease to each shoe contact pad on sup­ port plate (Fig. Use brake spring tool to rotate retainers and disengage pins. Do not interchange them as the brake shoes will not adjust properly. The bearing races do not require special tools for removal. Then start shaft Into rotor hub splines. (3) Remove brake drums. 2500 and 3500 model vehi­ cles with unit style. (11) Install disc brake caliper. The wheel studs must be pressed or driven out in order to separate the rotor from the hub bearing for replace­ ment. pin and retainers.5 . Use chassis grease to hold spacer in place on knuckle. Tighten nut as needed to align cotter pin hole in shaft with open­ ing in nut. (12) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. (9) Pull adjuster lever and retainer out of second­ ary brakeshoe. or Loctite 242 to threads of rotor and hub retaining bolts. shoe spring and park brake strut and spring. Then rotate brakeshoe out arid up and remove adjuster spring and secondary shoe return spring. hub bearing have the disc brake rotor pressed onto the unit with the wheel studs. CAUTION: The adjuster screw assemblies have dif­ ferent threads and must be kept separate.

Be sure parking brake strut is seated i n both brakeshoes. (8) Position secondary brakeshoe on support plate. (7) Position adjuster lever on secondary brakeshoe. (6) Attach park brake cable to lever. 67 Typical Brakeshoe Contact Pad Locations freely. (9) Attach shoe spring to secondary brakeshoe. Lubricate screw threads with Mopar spray lube. Be sure star wheel Is positioned adjacent.secondary brakeshoe and install oval shaped spring on opposite end of strut (spring end of strut goes In primary shoe). (10) Engage parking brake strut In. 66 Brakeshoes ANCHOR PIN and Hardware SUPPORT PLATE SHOE CONTACT SURFACES J90Q5-14 Fig. (13) Install adjuster screw assembly. pinch clip together with chan­ nel lock pliers to secure It. be sure clip is fully seated In notch.BR BRAKES I . Connect long end of spring i n secondary shoe. I f E-clip is used. use new U-clip to secure lever to shoe. Then install spring retainer with shoulder on in lever and Into shoe. Large diam­ eter end of spring goes on shoe and small end on lever. (12) Install actuator lever and spring.31 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION fContinued) CYLINDER SUPPORT ' PARK FRONT ASSEMBLY RETAINERS J9405-4 Fig. Hook actua­ tor lever under adjuster lever as shown. pin and retainer to secure shoe and adjuster lever. Use new holddown spring. to adjuster lever and that notches i n buttons are properly seated on brakeshoes. . (11) Install primary brakeshoe on support plate. or damaged. (5) Attach park brake lever to secondary brakeshoe. corroded. Use new holddown spring. I f U-clip Is used to secure shoe. pin and retainers to secure shoe. Replace either assembly i f threads are heavily rusted.

I f leakage is evident. (6) Disconnect shoe spring and remove primary brakeshoe and parking brake lever strut. (9) Disconnect parking brake cable from lever attached to secondary brakeshoe. (7) Remove adjuster screw assembly. (18) Attach secondary shoe return spring to adjuster spring. (10) I f brakeshoes are to be replaced. WHEEL . or damaged. (2) Remove rear wheel and tire assemblies. BRAKESHOE (13-INCH BRAKE) REMOVAL (4) Remove primary (front) brakeshoe return spring from anchor pin with brake spring pliers (Fig. (21) Adjust brakeshoes to drum with brake gauge. (15) Install guide plate on anchor pin. spring and spring retainer assembly. Then remove brakeshoe. (11) Inspect wheel cylinder. (22) Install brake drum and wheel and tire assem­ blies. CYLINDER ANCHOR PIN SHOE GUIDE PLATE ADJUSTER LEVER SPRING SUPPORT PLATE SPRING RETAINER RETAINER SPRING PARK BRAKE STRUT AND SPRING PRIMARY BRAKESHOE PRIMARY SHOE RETURN SPRING ADJUSTER LEVER HOLDDOWN SPRING. (14) Attach shoe spring to primary brakeshoe. (5) Remove primary brakeshoe holddown spring. PIN. remove and overhaul cylinder. RETAINERS LEVER SPRING ADJUSTER SCREW ASSEMBLY PARK BRAKE STRUT HOLDDOWN SPRING. RETAINERS SHOE SPRING J9405-19 Fig. pin and retainers with holddown spring tool. Then smooth shoe contact pads with wire brush or emery cloth. Then remove adjuster lever.32 BRAKES BR REMOVAL AND I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) CAUTION: Be sure the adjuster screws are installed on the correct side. PIN. (19) Install primary brakeshoe return spring. SECONDARY SHOE RETURN SPRING SECONDARY BRAKESHOE (1) Clean support plate with Mopar brake cleaner. 68).5 . I t is not necessary to disassemble adjuster lever components unless they are worn. INSTALLATION (1) Raise vehicle. (8) Remove secondary brakeshoe holddown spring. remove E-clip attaching parking brake lever to secondary brakeshoe and remove lever. (17) Install secondary brakeshoe return spring in shoe. Refer to overhaul pro­ cedure in this section. Also be sure the short end of the screw is toward the secondary brakeshoe. (20) Verify that adjuster and return springs are properly installed. pin and retainers. (16) Attach adjuster spring to adjuster lever. 68 Brakeshoes and Hardware (13 inch Brake) . (23) Lower vehicle. (3) Remove brake drums. The driver side adjuster screw has right hand threads and the passenger side has left hand threads. Then install adjuster spring on anchor pin.

70 Assembling Adjuster Lever. Be sure tang on retainer is securely engaged in hole in lever. Hook spring over end of retainer as shown (Fig. (10) Install oval shaped spring on park brake strut and engage spring end of strut in secondary brakeshoe. (c) Secure retainer in lever with retainer spring. (16) Install secondary brakeshoe return spring. (b) Position small. (13) Attach shoe spring to primary brakeshoe. pin and retainers to secure shoe. Lock­ ing pliers can be used to hold retainer in place after positioning. 69 Positioning Retainer On Adjuster Lever (7) Install secondary brakeshoe and adjuster lever as follows: (a) Insert secondary shoe holddown pin through support plate. Use new E-clip to secure lever to shoe.BR BRAKES 5 . (5) Attach parking brake cable to parking brake lever. Be sure star wheel is positioned adjacent to adjuster lever and that notches in adjuster screw are properly seated on brakeshoes. 69). Needlenose pliers and number 2 Phillips screwdriver can be used to attach spring to lever and retainer. Then seat spring on anchor pin with brake spring pliers. (14) Install shoe guide plate on anchor pin. Also be sure the short end of the screw is toward the secondary brakeshoe. (8) Install adjuster lever spring between brakeshoe and lever. Lever flange that rotates adjuster screw star wheel teeth is at bottom of lever and will be dam­ aged. pinch new clip together with channel lock pliers to secure it. Use brake spring pliers and long screwdriver to seat spring in shoe.33 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (2) Lubricate adjuster levers and anchor pin and shoe contact surfaces on support plate with Mopar multi-mileage grease. Be sure parking brake strut is seated in both brakeshoes. Attach short end of spring to brakeshoe. Use brake spring J9405-68 Fig. ADJUSTER LEVER ADJUSTER SPRING RETAINER Fig. 70). (c) Position adjuster lever on brakeshoe and • insert holddown spring inner retainer into lever and shoe. (15) Attach adjuster spring to spring retainer at top of adjuster lever. or damaged. Be sure spring is seated on lever tang. corroded. Inner retainer has shoulder on i t which seats i n lever and shoe. (3) Clean and check operation of both adjuster screw assemblies. (9) Attach shoe spring to secondary brakeshoe. hooked spring retainer in upper end of lever (Fig. 69). Long end of spring goes in secondary shoe. or high temp bearing grease. reassemble it as follows: (a) Clamp adjuster lever in vise (Fig. The driver side adjuster screw has right hand threads and the passenger side has left hand threads. . Then hook opposite end on adjuster spring. Then install and seat holddown spring outer retainer on pin with holddown spring tool. I f lever is secured with U-clip. Do not clamp bottom end of lever i n vise. (12) Install adjuster screw assembly. Spring And Retainer (d) Install holddown spring over pin and seat i t in inner retainer. Clamp center p o r t i o n of lever i n vise only. (b) Position secondary brakeshoe on support plate and insert pin through shoe. Make sure each screw assembly rotates freely. Use new holddown spring. (6) I f adjuster lever was disassembled. Replace either assembly i f threads are heavily rusted. (11) Install primary brakeshoe on support plate. Then lubricate adjuster screw threads with Mopar spray lube. CAUTION: Be sure the adjuster screws were not intermixed and are installed on the correct side. (4) Attach parking brake lever to secondary brakeshoe.

(9) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. BRAKE SUPPORT PLATE REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle and remove tire and wheel assembly. Do not tighten fitting at this time. (8) Fill and bleed brake system.). Move upper ends of brakeshoes apart to provide removal clearance for wheel cylinder links. (4) Remove brakeshoe return springs. (6) Install axle shaft. (20) Install brake drums. (21) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. (2) Release parking brake pedal completely. Be sure adjuster screw. lbs. (4) Loosen tensioner nut to create slack in front cable and extension cable (Fig. Sealer prevents road splash from entering brake drum past cylinder. (5) Disconnect brake line from wheel cylinder. (7) Remove bolts attaching support plate to axle and remove support plate. or a long shank screwdriver to engage return spring in adjuster spring. (9) Fill and bleed brake system. (1) Apply thin bead of Mopar silicone sealer around axle mounting surface of support plate. INSTALLATION (1) Apply thin coat of Mopar silicone sealer to wheel cylinder mounting surface of support plate (Fig. (6) Remove wheel cylinder attaching screws and remove cylinder from support plate INSTALLATION (1) Remove wheel and tire assemblies. (5) Remove parking brake cable from support plate. (5) Install brakeshoe components. (2) Remove brake drum. adjuster spring and adjuster screw. Install wheel cylinder on new support plate. Extension cable also be removed at this time if necessary. Tighten screws to 20 N-m (15 ft. (8) Install brake drums. (4) Install parking brake cable in support plate. (5) Disengage front cable from extension cable con­ nector. (3) Raise vehicle. WHEEL CYLINDER REMOVAL (4) Tighten brake line fitting to 13 N-m (115 in. Tighten attaching bolts to 47-68 N-m (35-50 ft. (6) Disconnect brake line at wheel cylinder and remove cylinder. refer to Group 3 for proce­ dures. (2) Remove brake drums (3) Remove axle shaft. lbs. wheel cylinder links and park brake strut are all seated in brakeshoes. . (3) Mount wheel cylinder on support plate and install cylinder attaching screws. lbs. (5) Install brakeshoes and hardware. (6) Lower vehicle. (2) Install support plate on axle flange. (10) Install wheel and tire assemblies and lower vehicle. 72).). refer to Group 3 for proce­ dure. (6) • Adjust brakeshoes to drum using brake gauge. (18) Check component installation. (3) Apply thin bead of Mopar silicone sealer around wheel cylinder mounting surface. 71).BR R E M O V A L AMP I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) pliers. (3) Lift adjuster lever away from adjuster screw. (7) Install brake drum.). (7) Adjust brakeshoes to drum with brake gauge. 71 Wheei Cylinder Mounting Surface (2) Start brake line in cylinder inlet by hand. (19) Adjust brakeshoes to drum with brake gauge. Then turn screw star wheel until screw is fully retracted. (17) Install primary brakeshoe return spring. (4) Remove brakeshoes and hardware for access to parking brake cable. (22) Install wheel cover or hub cap. FRONT PARKING BRAKE CABLE REMOVAL Fig. (1) Remove knee bolster.

(5) Connect cable to tensioner. (8) Lower vehicle. Refer to procedure i n this section. (3) Install brakeshoes. INSTALLATION INSTALLATION (1) Insert new cable through floorpan grommet and up to arm on pedal assembly. (7) Install wheel and tire assemblies. 73). (7) Adjust cable tensioner. (2) Remove secondary brakeshoe and disconnect cable from parking lever attached to secondary shoe. (4) Realign floor carpet.BR BRAKES 5 . (2) Hook cable T-connector in arm on pedal assem­ bly (3) Secure floorpan grommet/seal. (6) Adjust cable tensioner. Fig.35 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION {Continued) PEDAL ASSEMBLY CABLE C O N N ECTORS J9405-169 Fig. J9405-170 Fig. (9) Verify parking brake operation. 74). and frame bracket. (2) Insert cable through support plate. reaction bracket. (4) Seat cable in body clips. (6) Engage front cable and extension cable in cable connectors. (4) Remove one (or both) cables reaction bracket on left rear fame rail. (6) Compress cable retainer with hose clamp or pliers and slide cable out of bracket. (3) Compress rear cable retainer with hose clamp or pliers and pull cable out of support plate. 72 Extension-To-Front Cable Attachment (7) Roll back carpet and loosen cable grommet (Fig. (5) Install knee bolster. 75). seat cable retainers and attach cable to parking brake lever on secondary brakeshoe. (1) Route new cable to rear brake support plate. Then pull cable through floorpan grommet and remove cable. 73 Cable Grommet In Floorpan (8) Disengage front cable from arm on foot pedal assembly (Fig. Refer to procedure in this section. (5) Disengage rear cable from tensioner (Fig. 74 Cable Attachment At Foot Pedal REAR PARK BRAKE CABLE REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle and remove necessary wheel and brake drum. Make sure right rear cable is secured in tensioner connector. .

77 Reservoir Seal And Cover (2) Drain reservoir fluid into drain container. Use a pry tool to help ease reservoir out of cylinder body and grommets (Fig. (4) Lower vehicle. (6) Disconnect brakelamp wire from switch on pedal assembly. lbs. 76 Parking Brake Pedal Mounting PARKING BRAKE PEDAL REMOVAL DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY MASTER CYLINDER DISASSEMBLY (1) Release parking brakes.) Fig. (3) Connect front cable to arm on pedal assembly. 76).R. (7) Adjust parking brake cable tensioner. CABLE COWL DASH EQUALIZER CABLE BRACKET R. (2) Raise vehicle. (8) Disengage cable end connector from arm on pedal assembly. RESERVOIR J9405-7 Fig. 77). (3) Loosen cable tensioner nut at equalizer to cre­ ate slack in front cable. (2) Install bolts/nuts and tighten to 21-34 N-m (200-300 in. (4) Connect wires to brakelamp switch. (4) Remove reservoir with a rocking motion. Clamp vise jaws on one of the cylinder mounting ears as shown.36 BRAKES BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION {Continued) PEDAL ASSEMBLY L. CABLE CABLE TENSIONER ITEM J9405-173 A J9405-175 TORQUE 21-34 N-m (200-300 in.5 . 75 Cable And Tensioner Attachment Fig. Only the secondary piston can be disas­ sembled for service. Refer to procedure in this section. (6) Raise vehicle. (7) Roll carpet back and loosen front cable grom­ met from floorpan.R. 78). (3) Clamp cylinder body in vise. (9) Remove bolts/nuts from pedal assembly and remove assembly (Fig. (5) Remove knee bolster. INSTALLATION The master cylinder primary piston is serviced as an assembly. COVER DIAPHRAGM SEAL (1) Position replacement pedal assembly on dash and cowl. I f reservoir is to be . lbs.). (5) Install knee bolster. • (1) Remove reservoir cover and seal (Fig.

Do not use any other type of cleaning solvent. (9) Remove secondary piston spring by tilting the cylinder body downward so the spring slides out of bore. (8) Remove secondary piston by apply air pressure through rear outlet port to ease piston out of bore. A light discoloration of the bore surface is normal and acceptable. Inspect the cylinder bore. 80). pitted. CYLINDER lODY J9405-10 Fig. 80 Master Fig. However. (10) Remove seal retainer from secondary piston. Discard grommets as they are not reusable. 78 Reservoir Removal Cylinder (5) Remove grommets from cylinder body (Fig. Dry the cylinder parts with com­ pressed air. . 79). primary piston is only serviced as complete assembly.BR BRAKES 5 . Discard assembly. 81 Secondary Piston Components (6) Remove master cylinder piston retaining snap ring with small pointed tool and flat blade screw­ driver. CLEANING AND INSPECTION Clean the cylinder body and reservoir with Mopar brake cleaner only. Then remove front and rear seals from piston (Fig. 81).37 DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued) replaced. 79 Reservoir Grommet Fig. Discard seals. replace the cylinder body i f the bore is scored. (7) Remove primary piston and spring assembly (Fig. The reservoir can be air dried or wiped dry with lint-free shop towels. and retainer after these parts are not reusable. mote and record reservoir code let­ ters. SPRING -9 PISTON J9405-11 Fig. or corroded. spring.

38 BRAKES BR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY {Continued) Inspect the cylinder cover and diaphragm seal. Fig. Then push pistons inward with wood dowel and seat snap ring. The valve should move freely and not be stuck or seized. A slight discoloration of the reservoir surface is normal. rubber or plastic only. (3) Pad interior of caliper with one-inch thickness of shop towels to cushion and protect caliper piston during removal (Fig. ASSEMBLY (1) Coat cylinder body bore. Replace the reservoir If distorted. (3) Assemble secondary piston components. 83). (4) Install secondary piston assembly (spring end first). (12) Bleed master cylinder on bench before install­ ing i t in vehicle. Metal tools will cut the seals and scratch the bore. Work i t into place w i t h a twisting/turning motion. 83 Caliper Piston Removal . (10) Install cylinder body on reservoir by rocking the cylinder onto the reservoir necks (Fig. Clamp one cylin­ der mounting ear in vise jaws. corroded. cracked. CAUTION: Do not blow the piston out of the bore with sustained high pressure. or cracked piston. CAUTION. Do not force piston i n t o bore. or otherwise damaged. Replace the piston i f it is scored. 82). cracked. Direct air through fluid inlet port to ease piston out of bore (Fig. Be careful when installing seals. RESERVOIR J9405-12 Fig. Eeplace the seal i f torn. Replace the cover If warped. Be very sure the piston retaining snap ring is fully seated. in cylinder bore. clean brake fluid. 83). (7) Install new grommets on cylinder body. or distorted. Recheck snap ring installation before proceeding. (4) Remove caliper piston with several short bursts of low pressure compressed air. Padding work surface with clean shop towels will keep reservoir in place dur­ ing installation. (5) Install primary piston i n cylinder bore (spring end first). 82 Assembling Reservoir DISC BRAKE CALIPER DISASSEMBLY (1) Drain brake fluid from caliper. use a small flexible item made from nylon. Bo not force piston into bore.5 . This practice will result in a chipped. piston components and reservoir grommets with fresh. (6) Insert piston retaining snap ring in cylinder body. or doubt exists about its condition. (9) Position reservoir on clean work surface with fluid inlet necks facing upward. This will result in personal injury. It will also keep dirt out as well. (2) Mount cylinder body i n vise. Avoid distorting them during installation. (8) Remove cylinder body from vise. If a tool is needed. NEVER attempt to catch the piston as it exits the bore. Inspect the reservoir. Inspect condition of the secondary piston. In addition. The valve Is not serviceable. Inspect the take up valve in the cylinder body. CAUTION: Do not use any kind of metal tool to ease piston seal installation in the cylinder bore. I t will be necessary to replace the cylinder body i f the valve is faulty. or the snap fasteners are damaged. (11) Verify that reservoir is properly seated and that grommets have not slipped out of place. (2) Remove brakeshoes from caliper. Work i t into place w i t h a t w i s t i n g / t u r n i n g motion.

84). J9405-36 Fig. rust. clean brake fluid. replace the piston i f i t exhibits any of these con­ ditions. (8) Remove caliper bleed screw. and bushings (Fig. for­ eign material. or damaged. ASSEMBLY PRY TOOL NOTE. oil. (1) Clean the caliper and piston with Mopar brake cleaner.BR BiAlES 5-3S DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY ( C o n t i n u e d ) (5) Remove piston dust boot with a suitable pry tool (Fig. (3) A fiber brush can be used to clean the bore i f necessary. The piston must be free of corrosion. The bore can be lightly polished by hand but only with crocus cloth. or solvents can damage seals. or scoring. pit­ ting. 85) and (Fig. pitting. The bore should be free of corrosion. or scoring. dirt. boots. (2) Inspect condition of the caliper piston bore. 86). or denatured alcohol. 85 Caliper Components (75mm Caliper) . DUST BOOT J9405-39 Fig. 85) and (Fig. Remove these components only i f cut. This is important as dust. (7) Remove mounting bolts from calipers and inspect seals. Discoloration of the bore is a normal condition and not cause for replacement. 86). Do not use any other cleaning agents. 84 Dust Boot Removal (6) Remove piston seal from caliper and discard seal It is not reusable (Fig. Do not scratch piston bore while removing boot. Discard dust boot as i t Is not reus­ able. harm piston surfaces and contaminate fluid. Be sure caliper assembly area of workbench is clean and dry. worn.

Do not attempt to salvage the threads. . or use any kind of abrasive material on the piston sur­ face.40 BRAKES - BR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY {Continued) MOUNTING BOLTS CALIPER PISTON SEAL . Once piston is started into the piston seal. cut. (5) Check the bushings i n the caliper mounting bolt bores.5 .) Press piston to the bottom of the caliper bore. Either of these practices will result in piston bind and even­ tual seizure. Replace the bushings i f worn. 87). 87 installing Dust Boot (12. then move boot forward until folds snap into place (Fig. 88): ' • 1/2 ton 75mm caliper: Installer 6753 • 3/4 ton 80 mm caliper: Installer 6754 • 1 ton 86mm caliper: Installer 6755 • CALIPER PISTON BOOT UP IN PISTON" GROOVE " ^J9405-40 Fig. press piston 3/4 of way down into the caliper bore by hand or with hammer handle. (7) Lightly lubricate lip of new boot with Dow or GE silicone grease. Replace the caliper i f thread damage is evident. or torn. 87). INBOARD BRAKESHOE OUTBOARD BRAKESHOE BLEED SCREW CALIPER PISTON DUST SOOT J9405-37 Fig. (10) Install piston into caliper bore.Be sure square cut seal is fully seated and is not twisted. piston seal and piston bore with liberal quantity of clean. (8) Stretch boot rearward to straighten boot folds. Install boot on piston and work boot lip into the groove at the top of piston (Fig. fresh brake fluid. (6) Lubricate caliper piston. (11) Seat dust boot in caliper with installer (Fig. Honing will result in an oversize bore and abrasives will damage the piston coating. (9) Install new piston seal into caliper bore. 86 Caliper Components (80/86mm Caliper) CAUTION: Never hone the caliper piston bore. (4) Inspect condition of the threads in the inlet and bleed screw ports.

Over­ heating will distort and weaken the springs. Discard the brake springs and retainer components if worn distorted. or collapsed.41 DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY (Continued) spring and expander) and flat side is against piston. kerosene. Then Install first cup i n bore and against piston. Also replace the springs i f a brake drag condition had occurred. (3) Remove bleed screw. (15) Install caliper bleed screw. riveted brakeshoes should be replaced when worn to within 0. Shoes exhibiting contact only on one side should be replaced and the drum checked for runout or taper. 89).is bent or distorted (Fig. (2) Press pistons.BR BRAKES 5 . cups and spring and expander out of cylinder bore. Do not use any other cleaning agents. boots and mounting bolts In caliper (Figs. including the support plate and wheel cylinder exterior. CALIPER CLEANING Fig.) of the rivet heads. WHEEL CYL11DER DISASSEMBLY (1) Remove push rods and boots (Fig. Inspect the brakeshoe contact pads on the support plate. collars. Bonded lining should be replaced when worn to a thickness of 1. Replace the assembly If the star wheel threads are damaged. 88 Seating Dust Boot (13) Lubricate caliper mounting bolts. or GE 661 silicone grease. Remove light rust and scale from the brakeshoe contact pads on the support plate with fine sandpaper. As a general rule. Also replace the plate i f it. (2) Install first piston in cylinder bore. bushings and bores with Dow 111. The lining should exhibit contact across its entire width. thinner. Do not use gasoline.78 mm (1/32 in. (5) Install cylinder bleed screw. replace the support plate If any of the pads are worn or rusted through. INSPECTION Fig.). (4) Install boots on each end of cylinder and insert push rods in boots. Be sure l i p of piston cup is facing i n w a r d (toward Clean the caliper components with clean brake fluid or Mopar brake cleaning solvent only. (14) Install bushings. Wipe the caliper and piston dry with lint free tow­ els or use low pressure compressed air. . piston cups and spring and expander with clean brake fluid. Inspect the adjuster screw assembly. 23 and 24). CLEANING AND INSPECTION REAR DRUM BRAKE CLEANING Clean the individual brake components. or the components are severely rusted or corroded. These products may leave a residue that could dam­ age the piston and seal.6 mm (1/16 in. INSPECTION The piston Is made from a phenolic resin (plastic material) and should be smooth and clean. (3) Install spring and expander followed by remaining piston cup and piston. 89 Wheel Cylinder ASSEMBLY Components (1) Lubricate wheel cylinder bore. 90). Examine the lining contact pattern to determine i f the shoes are bent or the drum is tapered. seals. pistons. with a water dampened cloth or with Mopar brake cleaner. or similar solvents.

The bore can be lightly polished with a brake hone to remove very minor surface imperfections (Fig. Adjustment is per- . Do not use rags or shop towels to dry the cylinder components. Plunger will extend approximately 14 mm (0. The piston must be replaced i f damaged. the only time adjustment is required is when the shoes are replaced. The cylinder bore can be lightly polished but only with crocus cloth. The pistons. scored. CAUTION: Do not use excessive force to move the pedal rearward for switch adjustment.025 mm (0. Inspect the cylinder pistons. Adjustment can be made with a standard brake gauge or with adjusting tool.001 inch). Lint from cloth material will adhere to the cylinder bores and pistons. Do not use any other cleaning agents. SPECIAL HONE CALIPER Fig. Do not attempt to restore a scored piston surface by sanding or polishing. install the same type of piston in the caliper. caliper bore and piston tolerances are different for resin and steel pistons. removed for access to other parts. Inspect the cylinder bore. INSPECTION . Dry the cylinder and pistons with compressed air. The piston surfaces should be smooth and free of scratches. Pedal will adjust switch plunger to correct position as pedal is moved to rear. rusted. Under normal circumstances. Do not intermix these components at any time.55 in. The caliper should be replaced i f the bore is severely corroded. ADJUSTMENTS STOP LAMP SWITCH (1) Push and hold brake pedal down (2) Pull switch plunger all the way out to fully extended position. This is required preset position. Discard the old piston cups and the spring and expander. Do attempt to restore the surface by sanding or polishing. Replace the cylinder i f the bore is scored. Replace the pistons i f worn. ' Fig. 90 Shoe Contact Surfaces Replace the piston i f cracked or scored. NOTE: If the caliper piston must be replaced. (4) Release brake pedal.CLEAHiNG AND I N S P E C T I O N fContinued) WHEEL C Y L i l i E R CLEANING Clean the cylinder and pistons with clean brake fluid or brake cleaner only. The original dust boots may be reused but only If they are in good condition. scoring and corrosion. or i f polishing would increase bore diameter more than 0. pitted or heavily corroded. 91 Lightiy Polishing Piston Bore With Tool REAR DRUM BRAKE The rear drum brakes are equipped with a self-ad­ justing mechanism.) out of housing at this setting. Excessive force will damage t h e switch. or cor­ roded. 91). seals. These parts are not reusable. Honing the bore to restore the surface is not recommended. scored. (3) Push switch plunger Inward 4 detent positions (or clicks). Newer interchange phenolic resin and steel caliper pis­ tons. or when one or both drums are replaced. Then lightly pull pedal fully rearward. Light discoloration and dark stains In the bore are normal and will not impair cylinder operation. seal grooves.

roiling stops will not activate automatic adjusters. (9) Repeat adjustment at opposite wheel. ADJUSTMENT WITH ADJUSTING TOOL (1) Be sure parking brake lever is fully released. adjust shoes. (6) Rotate adjuster screw star wheel (move tool handle upward) until slight drag can be felt when wheel is rotated. 94 Brake Adjustment Fig. Then lock gauge in position (Fig. (5) Insert adjusting tool through support plate access hole and engage tool In teeth of adjusting screw star wheel (Fig. Repeat procedure 8-10 times to operate automatic adjusters and equalize adjustment. (12) Install brake drums and wheels and lower vehicle. (10) Install support plate access hole plugs. Be sure adjustment Is equal at both wheels. Position gauge -legs at shoe centers as shown (Fig. (3) Remove plug from each access hole In brake support plates. ADJUSTMENT WITH BRAKE GAUGE (1) Be sure parking brakes are fully released. 93). (3) Verify that left and right automatic adjuster levers and cables are properly connected. (9) Drive vehicle and make one forward stop fol­ lowed by one reverse stop. 92). Repeat procedure 8-10 . (2) Raise vehicle so rear wheels can be rotated freely. 93 Adjusting Gauge On Brakeshoes (6) Pull shoe adjuster screw star wheel away from adjuster lever. Expand gauge until gauge inner legs contact drum braking surface. 94). Fig. i f gauge does not fit (too loose/too tight). (7) Turn adjuster screw star wheel (by hand) to expand or retract brakeshoes. 92 Adjusting Gauge On Drum (5) Reverse gauge and install it on brakeshoes. Continue adjustment until gauge outside legs are light drag-fit on shoes. (7) Push and hold adjuster lever away from star wheel with thin screwdriver. (13) Drive vehicle and make one forward stop fol­ lowed by one reverse stop.BR HUES 5 • 43 ADJUSTMENTS (Continued) formed with the complete brake assembly Installed on the backing plate. NOTE: Bring vehicle to complete standstill at each stop. (8) Install brake drums and wheels and lower vehicle. (2) Raise rear of vehicle and remove wheels and brake drums. BRAKE SHOES Fig. (4) Insert brake gauge In drum. (8) Back off adjuster screw star wheel until brake drag is eliminated. (4) Loosen parking brake cable adjustment nut until there is slack in front cable. (11) Adjust parking brake cable and lower vehicle. Incomplete.

Then remove brake drums. 95 Adjustment Mark On Cable Tensioner Rod SPECIFICATIONS BRAKE FLUID The brake fluid used in this vehicle must conform to DOT 3 specifications and SAE J1703 standards. Use of such type fluids will result in seal damage of the vehicle brake hydraulic system causing a failure of the vehicle brake system. NOTE: Bring vehicle to complete standstill at each stop. (4) Check rear brakeshoe adjustment with stan­ dard brake gauge. (11) Raise vehicle again. (6) Verify parking brake cables operate freely.5 mm (1/4 in. 95). . (8) Install wheel/tire assemblies. CAUTION: Do not loosen.5 . (9) Lower vehicle enough for access to parking brake foot pedal. (3) Remove rear wheel and tire assemblies. Incomplete.) from edge of tensioner bracket (Fig. (7) Install drums and verify that drums rotate freely without drag. CAUTION: Never use any type of a petroleumbased fluid in the brake hydraulic system. (12) Mark tensioner rod 6. 95). When adjustment is nec­ essary. THREADED ROD (TO EQUALIZER) CABLE CONNECTOR TENSIONER ROD PLACE MARK HERE T E N S I O N E R BRACKET J9405-176 Fig. Then lower vehicle. (5) Replace worn brakeshoes i f necessary. PARKING BRAKE CABLE TENSIONER ADJUSTMENT NOTE: Tensioner adjustment is only necessary when the tensioner. Replace faulty cables if necessary. (14) Release parking brake and verify rear wheels rotate freely without drag. (2) Back off cable tensioner adjusting nut to create slack in cables. Use only Mopar brake fluid or an equivalent from a tightly sealed container. or a cable has been replaced or disconnected for service. or tighten the tensioner adjusting nut for any reason after completing adjustment. An open container will absorb moisture from the air and contaminate the fluid. (10) Fully apply parking brakes and leave brakes applied until adjustment is complete.44 BRAKES BR ADJUSTMENTS (Continued) times to operate automatic adjusters and equalize adjustment. No other type of brake fluid is recommended or approved for usage in the vehicle brake system. (13) Tighten adjusting nut at equalizer until mark on tensioner rod moves into alignment with tensioner bracket (Fig. (1) Raise vehicle. perform adjustment only as described in the following procedure. CAUTION: Never use reclaimed brake fluid or fluid from an container which has been left open. rolling stops will not activate automatic adjusters. This is necessary to avoid faulty parking brake operation.

. lbs. .) 1 Ton Model .) Master Cylinder Bore Size 1/2 Ton Model .025 mm (0.) 1 Ton Model Size 317. . .27 mm (1.57x1. . lbs. . .125 in.) Park Brake Pedal Assembly Mounting Bolts/Nuts . .Dual Diaphragm High Output 1 Ton M o d e l . . . . .) Disc Brake Rotor 1/2 Ton Model Size .5 in.) SPECIAL TOOLS BASE BRAKES ( \ X \ \ \//j/j) (£y /] / # j s f ^ B o Q f ^ /""V \ \ \ Yg J IJ) Installer. .5x1.5x1. lbs. . lbs. . .) Drum Brake 1/2 Ton Model Size .. 13 N-m (115 in. . . . . .001 in. .) Max.008 in.) 1 Ton Model Size 330x89 mm (13x3.) 3/4 Ton Model Size . . . .26 in. . . . .) 1 Ton Model . . Sliding Caliper Piston Diameter 1/2 Ton Model . . 86 mm (3. .005 in. . . .5 mm (13x2.) Brake Line . . ..) Brake Lines.38 in. .BR — — — — — — _ _ — — — ^ — BRAKES 5 S P E C I F I C A T I O N S (Continued) BASE BRAKE Disc Brake Caliper .5x 8 mm (12. . .279x51 mm (11x2 in.23-34 N-m (200-300 i n . . .) Wheel Cylinder Bore Size 1/2 Ton Model.6 mm (1. lbs.2. .) Caliper Mounting Bolts 51 N-m (38 ft. .) 3/4 Ton Model 23. .5 in. .) Max. .31.) Max^Thickness Variation. Brake Caliper Dust Boot 6754 3/4 Ton Model. .) 3/4 Ton Model .8 mm (1. .. . 28. . lbs. lbs. . .) 3/4 Ton Model Size 330x63. .) Installer.127 mm (0.95 in..937 in. Runout 0. .. . .) . Thickness Variation 0. 23-34 N-m (200-300 in.25 In. .14 In.003 in. lbs. . lbs. . . . . . . lbs. . .23-34 N-m (200-300 in.937 in. .20 mm (0.06 in. . .5 in.317. Runout 0.80 mm (3. . Type.) 1 Ton Model . lbs. . . . 75 mm (2.16-23 N-m (140-200 in.31.) Brake Booster 1/2 Ton Model Dual Diaphragm 3/4 Ton Model . . . . .Dual Diaphragm High Output TORQUE CHART DESCRIPTION Booster TORQUE / ~ v V \> \ \ \ / / / ) ])) Mounting Nuts .) Support Plate Mounting Bolts 47-68 N-m (35-50 ft.5x38 mm (12.23. .076 mm (0.16-23 N-m (140-200 in.8 mm (0. .) Wheel Cylinder Mounting Bolts 20 N-m (15 ft. .) Master Cylinder Mounting Nuts .8 mm (0.8 mm (1.0. .) Max. .94x32 mm (11.5 in. Brake Caliper Dust Boot 6755 Diesel Vacuum Pump Mounting Bolts 77 N-m (57 ft.21-34 N-m (200-300 in. .) Brake Lines .) Combination Valve Mounting Nuts . . .25 in. .

REAR W H E E L S P E E D SENSOR RWAL CONTROLLER R W A L V A L V E / C O M B I N A T I O N VALVE .. From there hydraulic fluid is routed to the rear brake wheel cylinders. R W A L C O M P O N E N T A B B R E V I A T I O N LIST .. . . . VERIFICATION TEST 57 53 51 51 53 66 66 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION REAR W H E E L ANTILOCK . RWAL DIAGNOSTIC P R O C E D U R E S — T E S T 5 . 1 Rear Wheei Antilock (RWAL) of the RWAL brake system. diagnosis. . . .. • CAB . DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION REAR WHEEL ANTILOCK A Rear Wheel Antilock (RWAL) brake system is standard equipment on all Dodge trucks and full size vans (Fig. . 69 . .. RWAL DIAGNOSTIC P R O C E D U R E S — T E S T 4 . .46 BRAKES BR REAR W H E E L A N T I L O C K fRWAL) B R A K E S INDEX page page RWAL RWAL ' RWAL RWAL RWAL RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE—TEST 2 . . . . . the CAB signals the rear hydraulic control unit to rapidly turn on and off. . . . RWAL COMPONENT ABBREVIATION LIST In this section of the service manual. . During a normal stop hydraulic brake fluid flows to the rear wheel cylin­ ders unrestricted to allow the vehicle to stop. . GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION .Data Link Connector .. . . RWAL C O M P O N E N T LOCATION RWAL S Y S T E M C O M P O N E N T S RWAL S Y S T E M OPERATION D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G ABS SERVICE PRECAUTIONS RWAL DIAGNOSIS P R O C E D U R E S — T E S T 3 . This allows the driver to retain greater control of the vehicle during braking. During an ABS stop. . . . . . The RWAL brake system is designed to prevent rear wheel lock-up under heavy braking conditions on virtually all types of road surfaces. This system utilizes a standard vacuum operated power brake booster and a standard master cylinder. . . . RWAL DIAGNOSTIC P R O C E D U R E S — T E S T 1 . . . refer to the appropriate section in this group of the Service Manual for the specific details. .. . . . . . and on car service Fig. . . 46 46 47 48 51 54 60 54 55 61 62 62 64 SERVICE PROCEDURES RWAL BRAKE BLEEDING REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION EXCITER RING . . . operation.. . . release. Antilock brak­ ing is desirable because a vehicle which is stopped without locking the wheels will retain directional sta­ bility and some steering capability. . . . . DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES .. The RWAL brake system operates by using a Con­ troller Antilock Brake (CAB) to constantly monitor rear wheel speed through the rear wheel speed sen­ sor. . SYSTEM SELF DIAGNOSTICS . .5 . 69 68 67 69 SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE CHART . RWAL DIAGNOSIS . . . . . .. .. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS . This valve action will hold.•. . When the brakes are applied. and reapply hydraulic brake fluid pressure to the rear brakes. . I f a wheel is about to lock-up. . hydraulic fluid is routed from the master cylinder's secondary circuit to the RWAL valve (Hydraulic Control Unit HCU). . . . . the following abbreviations are used for the components of the Kelsey Hayes RWAL brake system. . ..Controller Antilock Brake • DLC . . . . . This section of the Service Manual covers the description. . . R W A L D I A G N O S T I C P R O C E D U R E S — T E S T 7 . RWAL DIAGNOSTIC P R O C E D U R E S — T E S T 6 . . . . . . the HCU modulates the hydraulic brake pressure to the rear wheels. . 1).

. Center of instrument panel. Also. hydraulic brake malfunction. Provides a fail-safe device for unwanted control of the isolation and dump solenoid/valves Provides modulation of the hydraulic portion of the rear brakes during an ABS stop.Wheel Speed Sensor BRAKES 5 . it monitors the ABS system for proper operation Provides a means to activate the CAB's diagnostic trouble code read out. Provides modulation of the hydraulic portion of the rear brakes during an ABS stop. Also. Located internally to the CAB.47 RWAL COMPONENT LOCATION COMPONENT CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKE LOCATION FUNCTION Gathers information from various inputs to control the rear brake system during an ABS stop. below the knee blocker. Sends an AC voltage sinewave to the CAB whose frequency is proportional to vehicle speed. Attached to the ring gear inside the differential housing. Located in the instrument panel harness near the parking brake switch.Antilock Brake System WSS . Provides the driver with a indicator of park brake engagement. Provides a means to isolate the park brake switch circuit from the CAB for proper red brake warning lamp operation. BRAKE WARNING LAMP DIODE I S O L A T I O N A N D D U M P VALVE FUSE ISOLATION A N D D U M P SOLENOID/VALVES Located internally to the HCU. HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT REAR W H E E L SPEED SENSOR EXCITER RING RED BRAKE WARNING LAMP AMBER ABS WARNING LAMP Located next to the red brake warning lamp in the instrument cluster. Provides a means to pull the magnetic field across the wheel speed sensor's windings.Hydraulic Control Unit ABS . Mounted at the top of the rear axle housing. Located under the master cylinder and is mounted on a bracket with the combination valve.BR D E S C R I P T I O N AND O P E R A T I O N ( C o n t i n u e d } • • • • DTC . Provides the driver with an indicator of an ABS malfunction and is used to identify any diagnostic trouble codes. DATA L I N K C O N N E C T O R Located to the right of the steering column. or ABS malfunction. Located in the instrument cluster. is used to identify any diagnostic trouble codes.Diagnostic Trouble Code HCU .

2). 2 RWAL CAB The CAB continuously monitors the speed of the differential ring gear by monitoring signals generated by the rear wheel speed sensor. 3). The exception to this is codes 9 and 11 which are erased any time the key has been turned OFF. the DTC will be reset on the next ignition key cycle to ON. the diagnostic trouble code will remain i n memory when the igni­ tion key has been turned OFF. I t will then generate a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) and store i t i n memory. i t will illuminate the red brake warning and ABS warning lamps. Trouble codes 9 and 11 are also in a vol­ atile memory but their memories are fed with igni­ tion voltage.I . • Perform self-check diagnostics. When a fault is detected. I t is required by the CAB to be able to operate any of its circuits. For both codes 9 and 11. I f a DTC is stored in the battery fed volatile memory. The CAB requires ignition voltage to be able to operate the function of antilock brakes. When the isolation solenoid is energized. I t has a 14 terminal con­ nector to deliver power and ground to the CAB and connect all inputs and outputs associated with the ABS system. I n general. Only one code can be stored at any one time. Also.the CAB energizes the isolation solenoid in the RWAL valve. • Monitor the RWAL brake system for proper oper­ ation. The CAB con­ tinues this action until the wheel-locking tendency no longer exists. Cab Inputs The CAB monitors the following inputs to deter­ mine when a wheel locking tendency may exists: • Rear Wheel Speed Sensor © Brake Lamp Switch ® Brake Warning Lamp Switch • Reset Switch • 4WD Switch (If equipped) Cab Outputs The CAB controls the following outputs for antilock braking and brake warning information: • RWAL Valve ® ABS Warning Lamp • Brake Warning Lamp Power Supply And Ground 8031e890 Fig. I f the rear wheel speed sensor still indicate that the ring gear is decelerating too rapidly. the CAB will generate and store diagnostic trouble codes. . the DTC can be cleared from the memory by disconnecting the battery supply to the CAB. • Control the application of brake fluid pressure to the rear brakes during antilock braking. A ground is provide to the CAB through pin 12 of the 14-way connector. the CAB then energizes the dump solenoid to reduce pressure at the rear wheel cylinders. Volatile memories only retain information as long as power is supplied to the memory. code 11 will be removed from memory when the ignition is in the RUN or ACC. the CAB stores DTCs in the battery fed volatile memory.4S BRAKES BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) RWAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKES The Controller Antilock Brakes (CAB) is a micro­ processor which monitors and controls the ABS brake system operation (Fig. This circuit supplies power to the memory cells so that the CAB can retain diagnostic information. The CAB primary functions are: ® Detect wheel locking tendencies. i f the malfunction remains. When a wheel-locking tendency is detected. positions i f the malfunction that caused the code has been eliminated. Battery voltage is provided to the CAB through pin 9 and is protected by a 20 amp fuse. The CAB determines a wheel locking tendency when i t recognizes the ring gear decelerating too rapidly. positions. I f the CAB senses a fault Ignition voltage is provided to the CAB through pin 3 and is protected by a 20 amp fuse. The WSS con­ sists of a magnet surrounded by windings from a sin- . hydraulic pressure cannot be increased to the rear wheel cylinders. Except for trouble codes 9 and 11. REAR RING WHEEL SPEED SENSOR AND EXCITER The rear Wheel Speed Sensor (WSS) is mounted in the rear differential housing (Fig. RWAL C O N T R O L L E R ANTILOCK BRAKES in any one of its monitored circuits. Ignition voltage is supplied when the ignition switch is in the RUN or ACC.

As the exciter ring passes the tip of the WSS. . 4 Exciter Ring Location When the ring gear is rotated. The sensor sends a small AC signal to the CAB. This signal is generated by mag­ netic induction. This connector is located to the left of the steering column and attached to the lower portion of the instrument panel (Fig. The magnetic induction is created when a toothed sensor ring (exciter ring or tone wheel) passes the stationary magnetic WSS. MAGNETIC CORE V COIL* CAB AIR GAP SENSOR \L WIRE AXLE HOUSING J9305-37 Fig. Fig. the faster the exciter ring rotates. The assembly plant performs a "Rolls Test" on every vehicle that leaves the assembly plant.49 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) gle strand of wire. the magnetic lines of force of the sensor are cut. This. the assembly plant connects test equipment to the Data Link Connector (DLC). then either the WSS or other compo­ nents may be damaged. 4).005 . 3 Rear Wheel Speed Sensor Location 8020cd59 The exciter ring is press fitted onto the differential carrier next to the final drive ring gear (Fig. A clearance speci­ fication has been established for manufacturing toler­ ances. Each AC signal (positive to negative signal or sinewave) is interpreted by the CAB. The rolls test terminal is spliced to the . The CAB continues to monitor the fre­ quency to determine a deceleration rate that would indicate a possible wheel-locking tendency. 6).an AC signal is generated. I f the clearance is not within these specifications. The signal strength of any magnetic induction sen­ sor is directly affected by: • Magnetic field strength. the exciter ring passes the tip of the WSS. the closer the WSS is to the exciter ring. To properly test the sensor. One of the test performed is a test of the WSS. more wind­ ings provide a stronger signal • Exciter ring speed.0. The clearance between the WSS and the exciter ring is 0. For service replacement of the exciter ring. SENSOR WIRE CONNECTOR REAR BRAKE SPEED SENSOR ASSEMBLY SENSOR COVER / SENSOR ' /WIRE SPEED SENSOR 5).050 in. causing the magnetic field to be moved across the sensor's windings. Every time a tooth of the exciter ring passes the tip of the WSS. I t then compares the fre­ quency of the sinewave to a time value to calculate vehicle speed. the stronger the signal • Number of windings in the sensor. refer to sec­ tion 3 of this Service Manual. the stronger the signal will be The rear WSS is not adjustable. 5 Operation of the Wheel Speed Sensor Fig. in turn causes current to flow through the WSS circuit (Fig. the stronger the mag­ netic field. the stronger the signal will be • Distance between the exciter ring teeth and WSS.BR BRAKES 5 .

i f excessive dump cycles occur. The switch is also used to send signals to components that must know when the brakes are applied. A ground for the bulb is provided by the: ® Ignition switch during the START mode © Parking brake switch when the park brake is applied • Brake warning lamp switch when a hydraulic fault has occurred • CAB during diagnostics and when a RWAL fault has occurred ABS Warning Lamp The ABS warning lamp illuminates when ignition voltage is supplied to the bulb and a ground is pro­ vided for the bulb. i f this initial action is not enough to prevent rear wheel lock-up. RIVAL VALVE In the RWAL brake system. 6 Data Link Connector STOP LAMP SWITCH The primary function of the switch is to turn on the stop lamps during braking. This signal to the CAB is an indication that pressure has equalized across the RWAL valve. a DTC will be set and stored in the CAB memory. A fuse internal to the CAB. provides a fail-safe device which prevents unwanted control over the iso­ lation and dump solenoids. A predetermined maximum number of consecutive dump cycles can be performed during any one antilock stop. The action of fluid moving to the accumulator reduces the isolated brake pressure at the wheel cylinders. which uses the signal to can­ cel speed control. such as the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). the brake warning lamp (red) is used to alert the driver of a hydraulic fault or that the parking brake is applied. Brake Warning Lamp If the CAB senses that rear wheel speed decelera­ tion is excessive. the CAB receives the brake applied signal. The system will switch to normal braking once wheel locking tendencies are no longer present. back into the hydraulic circuit and return to the mas­ ter cylinder. the braking system will operate normally but without antilock control over rear brake pressure.50 BRAKES D E S C R I P T I O N AND OPERATION fContinued) WSS circuit. The CAB will then reset the dump cycle counter in . Additionally. rate or the desired slip rate programmed into the CAB. The CAB will pulse the dump valve until rear wheel deceleration matches the vehicle deceleration The brake warning lamp illuminates when ignition voltage is supplied to the bulb and a ground is pro­ vided for the bulb. The bulb has ignition voltage sup­ plied to i t any time the ignition switch is in the RUN or START positions. This prevents a further increase of driver induced brake pressure to the rear wheels. I f the fuse is open. the CAB cannot provide voltage to energize either solenoid and antilock stops are prevented. The bulb has ignition voltage sup- . I f the internal fuse is open. i t will energize a isolation solenoid by providing battery voltage to the solenoid. i f during an antilock stop. the brake warning lamp is also used to alert the driver that there is a problem with the RWAL system. The ABS warning lamp is only used to alert the driver of RWAL malfunctions and to identify DTCs stored in the CABs memory. However.5 . The vehicle is then driven on a set of rollers and the WSS output is monitored for proper operation. any fluid stored in the accumulator will force its way past the dump valve. When the switch contacts open (brakes applied). There is also an ABS warning lamp (amber). WARNING LAMPS CONNECTOR Fig. in the RWAL system. The CAB then monitors the ABS system to anticipate the need for an ABS stop. the driver releases the brake pedal. This opens the dump valve to vent a small amount of isolated rear brake pres­ sure to an accumulator. the reset switch contacts will open. The CAB uses the brake switch sig­ nal to monitor brake pedal application. the CAB will momentarily energize a dump solenoid (the CAB energizes the dump solenoid by providing battery voltage to the solenoid). as in other brake sys­ tems. The dump (pressure venting) cycle is limited to very short time periods (millisec­ onds). anticipation of the next antilock stop. The fuse is in series with the isolation and dump solenoids output circuits.

deceler­ ation is not sufficient to activate the antilock system components. RWAL And Low Vehicle Speed I f the CAB senses that rear wheel speed decelera­ tion is excessive. When the CAB identifies a ground on this circuit. A circuit in the CAB monitors the brake warning lamp switch and the ignition switch bulb check circuit (grounds the brake warning lamp bulb during the START position). Normal Braking Mode In normal braking mode. sensor inputs will cause the CAB module to activate the system. the metering valve opens completely permitting full fluid apply pressure to the front disc brakes. This closes the switch internal contacts completing the electrical circuit to ^ the warning light. The CAB will pulse the dump valve until rear wheel decelera­ tion matches the vehicle's deceleration rate or the desired slip rate programmed into the CAB. the CAB illumi­ nates the ABS warning lamp. The valve is open and the dump valve is closed allowing normal fluid flow to the rear wheel cylinders. park­ ing brake. given adequate understanding of the operating prin­ ciples and performance characteristics of the RWAL system. Ideally. The valve is designed to maintain front brake fluid pressure at 21-207 kPa (3-30 psi) until the hold-off limit of 807 kPa (117 psi) is reached. i t will energize the isolation sole- The RWAL braking system will revert to normal braking and automatically turn off i f the vehicle is . the antilock solenoid valves are inactive.51 D E S C R I P T I O N AND OPERATION (Continued) plied to it anytime the ignition switch is in the RUN or START positions. The sys­ tem will switch to normal braking once wheel locking tendencies are no longer present. I f this ini­ tial action is not enough to prevent rear wheel lock­ up. This includes brake noise. and rate of deceleration approach programmed limits. The purpose of the switch is to monitor fluid pressure in the separate front/rear brake hydraulic circuits. Brake fluid applies pressure to the rear wheels remains normal and is not modulated. this point. but are judged to be a problem due to not being familiar with the RWAL system. At. These conditions can be recog­ nized without performing extensive diagnostic work. How­ ever. Many conditions that generate customer com­ plaints may be normal operating conditions. Antilock Braking Mode Antilock system operation depends on accurate sig­ nals from the rear wheel speed sensor. COMBINATION VALVE Pressure Differential Switch The pressure differential switch is connected to the brake warning light. Movement of the switch valve will push the switch plunger upward. The dump (pressure venting) cycle is limited to very short time periods (milliseconds). A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either hydraulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shut­ tle forward or rearward in response to the pressure differential. RWAL SYSTEM OPERATION During light ~ brake application. The switch is triggered by movement of the switch valve. or vehicle vibration during normal brak­ ing. This section should be used to help diagnose the following conditions: • Brake warning lamp (red) illuminated • ABS warning lamp (amber) illuminated • Rear brakes lock-up on hard application Diagnosis of base brake conditions which are obvi­ ously mechanical in nature should be directed to Group 5 Base Brake System in this Service Manual. This prevents a further increase of driver induced brake pressure to the rear wheels. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes until the rear brake shoes are in full contact with the drums. lack of power assist. The switch valve may remain in an actuated position until repair restores system pressures to normal levels. the CAB will momentarily energize a dump solenoid. A ground for the bulb is provided by the CAB only. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING RWAL GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION This section contains information necessary to diagnose the Rear Wheel Antilock (RWAL) brake sys­ tem.BRAKES 5 . This opens the dump valve to vent a small amount of isolated rear brake pressure to an accumu­ lator. See the RWAL Description and Operation section in this group of the Service Manual to famil­ iarize yourself with the operating principles of the RWAL system. when braking effort. Metering Valve noid. rear wheel. RWAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Wheel/Tire Size And Input Signals The metering valve is used to balance brake action between the front disc and rear drum brakes. The action of fluid moving to the accumulator reduces the isolated brake pressure at the wheel cyl­ inders. the vehicle's wheels and tires should all be the same size and type to ensure accurate signals and satisfactory operation.

Distribution Of Braking Effects Stopping Distance The RWAL system controls hydraulic pressure to both rear wheels simultaneously. Because the rear wheels never fully lock-up. This provides. there is 100% wheel slip. the RWAL valve cycles rapidly in response to CAB inputs. Wheel slip means how well the tires grip the road surface. depending upon the road surface. the sequence of antilock events is to isolate. 8 Directional Stability Vehicle Response In Antilock Mode During antilock braking. Pedal Feel In general. patched marks on the pavement. 8031e842 Fig. 8). The lower limit at which RWAL is cancelled may be different depending on tire and wheel diameters. This means that the wheel rolling speed is approximately 20% less than that of a free rolling wheel at any given vehicle speed. The driver may experience a pulsing sensation in the brake pedal . Under certain conditions the pedal may drop slightly when there is a need for pressure increase during a long antilock stop. Tire marks may be noticeable as light. approximately 20% wheel slip is most efficient. I f one rear wheel starts to decelerate too rapidly. i t is possible to lock the front wheels of the vehicle during a high deceleration stop. Although the RWAL system prevents complete rear wheel lock-up. not each one inde­ pendently. pedal feel will be similar to that of a conventional vacuum boosted brake system. Complete wheel lock-up normally leaves a continu­ ous black tire mark on dry pavement. 7). This sound should not be interpreted as a total wheel lock-up and can be considered normal under most conditions. 7 RWAL Hydraulic Circuit Directional Stability Since the RWAL system operates on the rear wheels only.DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) moving less than a few mph. At the point when the system is in the increase mode is when the pedal will drop slightly. the vehicle will be stable. the RWAL system affects the hydraulic pres­ sure to both rear brakes (Fig. decrease. The noise level of a vehicle equipped with ABS actually may be less during antilock brak­ ing. The wheel slip may result in some tire "chirping". for maximum brake effectiveness. since the RWAL brake system has no pump to produce noise that might be associated with other antilock brake sys­ tems. With light or no braking there is no wheel slip. To obtain the shortest stopping distance and the greatest control over the vehicle during heavy brak­ ing. some wheel slip is desired to obtain optimum braking performance. Tire Noise And Marks LF WHEEL LR WHEEL 8020cd5a Fig. RWAL's ABS mode will be noticeably different. but the driver will be unable to alter the direction of the vehicle with the steering wheel (Fig. Sound Level The noise level of antilock braking is different from normal braking. under most conditions. Antilock brak­ ing will not leave a continuous black mark since the wheel never reaches a totally locked condition. and then increase pres­ sure to maintain brake effectiveness. which would cause tire noise. Wheel lock-up may be noticed at the very end of an antilock stop and is con­ sidered normal. Also. Remember. With the wheels locked (not rotating) during a panic stop. In this event. The RWAL brake system limits wheel slip to approximately 20%. During brake " pres­ sure modulation brake pressure is increased and wheel slip controlled by the CAB is allowed to reach up to approximately 20%.

You must count the long flash and short flashes for an accurate trouble code number. Erratic s p e e d sensor r e a d i n g w h i l e rolling. B r a k e switch a l w a y s o n . 9 RWAL Diagnostic Trouble Codes Refer to the diagnostic test procedures in this sec­ tion of the Service Manual for proper testing proce­ dures. Electronic control m o d u l e program check failure. poor ground. Then one of the following . the brake warning lamp and ABS warning lamp are illuminated. first turn the ignition key to the OFF position. Never replace the CAB unless the diagnostic procedure identifies a CAB replacement is necessary. Then momentarily ground pin 13 of the Data Link Connector. FAULT CODE NUMBER TYPICAL FAILURE DETECTED 1 2 Not used. RUN position. To remove battery voltage from the CAB. To retrieve a DTC place the ignition key in the. both lamps will illuminate for a few sec­ onds and then go out. There may be a problem i f the brake warning lamp and/or ABS lamp: • Does not come on © Is on all of the time • Flashes incorrectly O p e n isolation v a l v e w i r i n g or b a d control module. During the self test. DO NOT immediately replace the CAB. I t also per­ forms a bulb check when the ignition key is first turned to START or RUN which turns on the brake warning lamp (red) and the ABS warning lamp (amber). A Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is also stored in the microprocessor's memory. I f a system fault is detected. or loss of feed voltage will cause system faults similar to a CAB failure. S p e e d sensor w i r i n g / r e s i s t a n c e (usually high reading). Sensor w i r i n g / r e s i s t a n c e (usually low reading). 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 • 12 13 Electronic control m o d u l e p h a s e lock loop failure. A blown system fuse. O p e n d u m p v a l v e w i r i n g or b a d control module. D u m p output missing or v a l v e wiring shorted to ground. Electronic control m o d u l e fuse pellet o p e n . the ABS warning lamp and the brake warning lamp are illuminated. I f a system malfunction should occur. Brake pedal and vehicle pulsations during an antilock stop should be considered as nor­ mal. the microprocessor monitors and processes signals gener­ ated by the systems inputs and outputs. The long flash indicates the beginning of the DTC number. The memory has the capability to store only one DTC at any given time.BR BRAKES I -13 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) and vehicle as the valves modulate brake fluid pres­ sure as needed. Erasing Diagnostic Memory Trouble Code From To erase a DTC from the CAB's memory. The initial flash will be a long flash followed by one or more short flashes. The short flashes are a continuation of the DTC number. 9). I f the self test does not identify any mal­ functions. or v a l v e wiring shorted to ground. The self test feature occurs every time the ignition key is turned to the START or RUN positions and continues as long as the igni­ tion is in the RUN position. C l o s e d RWAL v a l v e switch. RWAL SYSTEM SELF i J A I l O S T J C S The microprocessor in the CAB has both a self test feature and a memory. RWAL DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES When a DTC is generated. RWAL light c o m e s on w h e n speed exceeds 40 mph. The DTC remains in mem­ ory even after the ignition key is turned to OFF with the exception of codes 9 and 11 which are erased any­ time the ignition key is turned to OFF. battery voltage must be removed from the CAB.When the DTC has been retrieved compare i t to the Diagnostic Trouble Code Chart (Fig. O v e r 16 d u m p pulses g e n e r a t e d in 2 W D v e h i c l e s (disabled for 4 W D ) . The problem that caused the DTC must be repaired and the DTC erased before another code will appear (if any). J9005-101 14 15 Fig. isolation output missing. Electronic control m o d u l e R A M failure. Not used. When the ground is removed the ABS and Brake Warning Lamp will begin to flash.

or connectors. RWAL DIAGNOSIS An RWAL system malfunction will be indicated by illumination of the ABS warning lamp. to any control module with the ignition in the ON position. The brake pedal should remain firm under steady foot pressure and not travel too far towards the floor. Power should never be removed . The vehicle can be test driven i f is determined that the. Perform both normal and firm braking stops in the 25-40 mph range. This module is designed to withstand normal current draws associated with vehicle operation.. do not ground or apply voltage to any of the cir­ cuits unless instructed to do so for a diagnostic procedure. the CAB. Start . I n testing for open or short circuits. The addition of after-market electrical equipment (car phone. proceed to the RWAL DIAG­ NOSTICS PROCEDURES TEST 1 section in this group. With the engine running and the vehicle in PARK or NEUTRAL. you will begin with step 1. radar detector. Each test has four columns. These circuits should only be tested using a high impedance multi-meter or the DRB tester as described in this section. The purpose of the test drive is to duplicate and verify the customers concern. etc. I f the warning lamps remain extinguished and the brakes respond normally.. I f the brake warning lamp and or ABS warning lamp remain illuminated or do not come on. Refer to the Base Brake Diagnose and Testing section in this group of the Service Manual i f the previous checks determine a malfunction with the base brakes. brakes drag­ ging. the brakes are dragging. brakes grabbing. WARNING: Reduced braking may be encountered if the vehicle is test driven with either the brake warn­ ing lamp or the ABS warning lamp illuminated. I f either or both warning lamps illu­ minate. and NO. When this test is complete. or applied. I f the warning lamps illuminate for a few seconds and then go out. trailer brakes. CAUTION: Use only factory wiring harnesses. continue on to the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC TEST PROCEDURES TEST 1 section of this group. Then.RWAL Diagnosis Customer's Concern . The test usually will begin with a brief explanation of the procedure or provide guidelines for the test. then proceed to the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 2 section in this group. You will be guided through each test by the ACTION. At least one complete ABS stop should be performed. a low brake pedal. check the service brake. YES.) on a vehicle equipped with antilock brakes may affect the function of the antilock brake system. proceed with this test. there is brake related noise. Both lamps will illumi­ nate for a few seconds when the ignition is turned on. citizen band radio. Care must be taken to avoid overloading • the CAB circuits. ect. . noise.Verifying the Start the engine and monitor the brake warning lamp and ABS warning lamp. fuses. Determine i f there are any unusual brake operating conditions such as vehicle lead during braking. Answer all questions either with a YES or NO statement. • Disconnect CAB 14-way connector • Disconnect battery ground connector • Remove CAB fuse from fuse box ABS SERVICE PRECAUTIONS The ABS uses an electronic control module. The YES or NO columns will guide you to the next appropriate test.54 BRAKES BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) methods can be used to remove the battery supply voltage from the CAB. The ACTION questions will all have bullets (•) in front of them. etc. base brake system is functioning normally. the brake warning lamp will also be illuminated at the same time. always turn the ignition to the OFF position. refer to the base brake diagnosis section in this section of the Service Man­ ual. trailer lighting. the following six step troubleshooting proce­ dure should be implemented. I f the vehicle leads during braking. Before removing or connecting battery cables. • Verify the customer's concern • Determine any related symptoms • Diagnose the concern 9 Isolate the concern • Repair the concern • Verify the repair The RWAL diagnosis begins by verifying the cus­ tomers concern. STEP. ACTION. Do not cut or splice wiring to the brake circuits. the brakes grab.5 . you will be instructed to perform either RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 1 or RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 2. I f the brake warn­ ing lamp and or ABS warning lamps illuminate during the test drive. In most cases. This test starts by verifying the ABS warning lamp and brake warning lamp operation. Extreme caution should be used. low brake pedal. Test Driving RWAL Complaint Vehicle Most RWAL complaints will require a test drive as part of the diagnostic procedure.

Refer to the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR LOCATION section and the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES section in this group. or not coming on at all. No Perform RWAL DIAGNOSIS. This procedure starts with the brake warning lamp and/or ABS" warning lamp illuminated. make sure you do not turn the ignition key OFF prior to recording the DTC. . flashing. Refer to RWAL SYSTEM SELF DIAGNOSIS for instructions on retrieving any DTC. RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES—TEST 1 RWAL DIAGNOSIS must be performed before beginning this diagnostic test procedure. Step 1 Action RWAL DIAGNOSIS must be performed before beginning this diagnostic test procedure. Perform RWAL 6 Check the RWAL system for a DTC. • Has RWAL DIAGNOSIS test been performed? The ignition switch should be in the run position prior to starting. 5 • Are either the brake warning lamp or ABS warning lamp flashing? Perform step 11. a DTC should have been generated. I f you have arrived at this' procedure from RWAL DIAGNOSIS. Perform step 7. © Are both brake warning and ABS warning lamps illuminated? © Is the ABS warning lamp illuminated only? Yes Perform step 2. 4. Do not attempt to perform this test without first performing RWAL DIAGNOSIS. 4 © Is the brake warning lamp illuminated only? Perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE TEST Perform step 5. If either warning lamp is illuminated. 3 Perform RWAL Perform step 4. 2 Perform step 6. 8 • Were you required to perform the Test Driving RWAL Complaint Vehicle procedure prior to Perform RWAL Perform step 9.BR BRAKES 5 -15 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) NOTE. Do not turn the ignition key OFF until you have recorded the DTC. Perform step 3. 7 • Was DTC 9 or 11 recorded? Perform RWAL Perform step 8. © Were you able to retrieve a DTC from the CAB's memory? DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 6. Certain DTCs are erased when the ignition key is turned to OFF. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 3. Record the DTC before proceeding. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 7. beginning RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 1? DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 7. Perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TES 5.

Perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 7 for the code identified in this test first. Record the DTC before proceeding.Turn the ignition key to the run position. • Is the resistance greater then 100K and steady? Record the DTC and perform step 7. • Did the same DTC that was recorded in step 6 reappear? Yes Perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 2. Perform step 12. 15 Perform step 16. No Perform step 10.56 BRAKES BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) Step 9 Action To verify if the DTC is related to an intermittent fault. • Are there any connections that appear inadequate? Connect a voltmeter between terminal 3 and ground. 16 Replace the RWAL module and perform the Verification Test. 13 Repair as necessary and perform the Verification Test. Refer to the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE section of this group and erase the DTC. Repair the ground circuit for an intermittent connection and perform the Verification Test.5 . Perform step 13.Perform a wiggle test on the RWAL wiring harness while observing the ohmmeter. © Is the resistance steady at less than 1 ohm? Connect an ohmmeter between terminal 12 and ground. 11 12 • Have you initiated the self diagnostic program? Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. The code that was generated in step 6 does not have diagnostic priority over the DTC recorded in this test. • Did both the brake warning lamp and ABS warning lamp illuminate for a few seconds and then go out? Recheck the RWAL system for DTCs. Repair the ignition feea circuit for an intermittent connection and perform the Verification Test. the fault code should be erased from the CAB's memory. Perform a wiggle test on the RWAL wiring harness while observing the ohmmeter.Turn the ignition key to the RUN position. Disconnect and inspect the CAB 14-way connector for indications of poor connections. Perform step * * 14 Perform step 15.Disconnect the CAB 14-way connector and leave disconnected for 5 seconds. Refer to the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR LOCATION section and the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE section in this group. and then verify the repair. • Did the voltage remain steady at 9 volts or greater? Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. Connect an ohmmeter between terminal 10 and ground. 10 Perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 7. . intermittent short to ground and perform the Verification Test.Perform a wiggle test on the RWAL wiring harness while observing the voltmeter. • Is/are the warning lamp(s) still flashing? Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. Turn the ignition switch to the RUN position. Perform step 2. Repair the diagnostic terminal circuit for an .Reconnect the CAB 14-way connector.

verify proper level. hoses. Perform step 8.BR DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G (Continued! RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE—TEST 2 RWAL DIAGNOSIS must be performed before beginning this diagnostic test procedure.apply the service brakes and verify whether or not the pedal returns to its normal height • Suspension components . mph. lines. Replace the brake switch and perform the Verification Test. Apply and release the brakes. Repair as necessary and perform Verification Test. WARNING: STAY CLEAR OF ROTATING WHEELS • is the voltage 650mv (rms) or greater? . condition. Perform Verification Test. This procedure is performed only when there is a customers's concern related to the RWAL system and no DTC is recorded. or brake switch? Remove RWAL speed sensor from differential housing. connectors. 2 3 Perform step 3. 5 6 7 Replace the exciter ring and perform the Verification Test.Set scale to an AC voltage scale of approximately 2 volts. Perform step 6.Start the engine and rotate the wheels at approximately 5 Perform step 5. and brake switch for a short to battery voltage. Repair the short as necessary and perform the Verification Test.verify all suspen­ sion components for proper installation • Brake lines and hoses . Perform step 14. 4 o Are the stop lamps still on all of the time? Inspect the wiring. Inspect the exciter ring.57 • Service brakes . Your diagnostic test procedure must begin-with a visual inspection of the following items. • Brake fluid . • Did the brake pedal return to its proper position when you released the brakes? Yes Perform step 2. © Is the exciter ring present? © Does the exciter ring have any missing teeth or is cracked? Install speed sensor.verify proper' operation of the parking brake Step 1 BRAKES 1 . or pushed out wires (refer to section 8W in this Service Manual for proper location). • Did the stop lamps illuminate while depressing the brake pedal? Release the brake pedal. Position vehicle on a hoist. • Wheels and tires . connectors. Inspect the master cylinder push rod and brake pedal arm pivot for any binding. Install a exciter ring and perform Verification Test. 8 Perform step 9. Are the stop lamps on all of the time? Adjust the stop lamp switch. Raise rear wheels to safely clear the floor. • Was there a short to battery voltage at the wiring.inflate the tires to the rec­ ommended tire pressures and verify that all tires are of the same size • P a r k i n g brake . calipers. Perform step 4. No Perform step 15. and visually inspect for leaks around the master cylinder.Connect a voltmeter to the RWAL rolls test connector. and con­ nectors . Perform step 7. broken or distorted locking tabs. wiring. and wheel cylin­ ders. RWAL valve. Action Apply the brakes and observe the stop lamps. your next step in the diagnostic sequence is to proceed to step 1 in the following table.Electrical connectors should be inspected for bent or expanded pins and terminals. Once the visual inspection is completed.inspect all lines and hose for leaks and proper routing. WARNING. • RWAL related components. damaged or missing weather seals.

11 Measure resistance from terminal 14 to a good chassis ground. 10 Repair the RWAL speed sensor circuit for a short to ground and perform the Verification Test.5 .43 mm)? Perform step 13.005 in. o Is the resistance 1750 ohms + or . © Is the resistance less than 1000 ohms? Yes Perform step 10.Disconnect the 14-way connector from the CAB. • Is the clearance less than 0. No Perform Test 20. Repair the RWAL speed sensor circuit for a short to ground and perform the Verification Test. and greater than 0. Repair the open circuit as necessary and perform the Verification Test. © Do the rear brakes have any mechanical problems? Inspect the fuse that feeds the stop lamp switch. Repair the open circuit from the fuse to the stop lamp switch. Repair the open circuit to the fuse and perform the Verification Test. Perform step 11. 14 Inspect the rear brakes for mechanical problems such as brakes grabbing. locking.18 . or vehicle lead during braking. Replace the RWAL j speed sensor and perform the Verification Test. Perform step 16. ® Is the fuse for the stop lamp switch functional? Use a voltmeter and verify battery voltage supplied to the fuse. 12 Use the procedure "CHECKING RWAL SPEED SENSOR AIR GAP" and verify the clearance between the sensor and exciter ring. © Is the resistance less than 1000 ohms? Perform step 12. Repair the rear brakes as necessary and perform the Verification Test.Connect a ohmmeter across terminals 13 and 14 and measure the resistance of the RWAL speed sensor circuit. 18 Replace the stop lamp bulb(s) and perform the Verification Test. Perform step 14. ® Is battery voltage supplied to the fuse? Use a voltmeter and verify that battery voltage is supplied to the stop lamp switch for the stop lamp circuit. The RWAL brake system is operationa at this time. 13 Replace the exciter ring or repair differential as required and perform the Verification Test.750 ohms? Measure resistance from terminal 13 to a good chassis ground.1.? • Was the dimension recorded from the RWAL speed sensor underside flange to sensor pole piece between 1. Perform step 17.050 in.07 .58 BRAKES — — ~ BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) Step 9 Action Turn ignition key to the OFF position. . © Is battery voltage supplied to the stop lamp switch for the stop lamps? Verify if battery voltage is applied to the stop lamp circuit at the stop lamp bulb when the brakes are applied. 17 Adjust the stop lamp switch and perform step 18.08 in. • Is battery voltage supplied to the stop lamp circuit at the stop lamp bulb when the brakes are applied? 15 16 Perform step 19. (27.27.

(b) Dimension A distance should be between 27.BR — _ - _ _ _ _ - _ — _ _ _ _ _ — _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ BRAKES 5 .08 in. The gap should be a minimum of 0.). (3) Measure and record the distance between the sensor mounting surface of differential case and teeth at top of the exciter ring (Fig. I f dimension A is not within the specification.56 . 10 Checking RWAL Speed Sensor Air Gap . Replace the fuse. distance should be between 27. 20 Disconnect the 2-way rear WSS connector. or replace the wiring. remove. proceed as follows: (a) Dimension B .59 D I A G N O S E S AND T E S T I S ® ( C o n t i n u e d ) Step 19 Action Inspect for the presence of any add-on (trailer) wiring that may cause a short to ground. Perform the Verification Test and inform the customer of any alterations to their add-on wiring. Then. Repair the short to ground.). This dis­ tance represents dimension A.120 in.). (2) Measure and record the distance from the underside of the sensor flange to the end of the sen­ sor pole piece (Fig.07 -1. This distance represents dimension B. Perform step 21 3 Inspect the stop lamp switch wiring for any causes that may allow the fuse to blow.18 . 10).27 mm (0.750 ohms? Connect an ohmmeter between terminal 13 of the 14-way CAB connector and terminal 1 of the RWAL speed sensor's connector. Replace the RWAL speed sensor and perform the Verification Test.127 mm (0.050 in. CHECKING RWAL SPEED SENSOR AIR GAP (1) Remove sensor from differential.1.085 . Repair the RWAL speed sensor circuit for an open or high resistance between terminal 13 of the CAB and terminal 1 of the RWAL speed sensor's connector. perform the Verification Test. replace the exciter ring or repair the differential. (4) Subtract dimension B from dimension A to determine the RWAL speed sensor air gap.28. perform the Verification Test.43 mm (1.DIMENSION B DIMENSION C DIMENSION B E X C I T E R RING SENSOR POLE PIECE * 8020cdaf Fig. ® Is the resistance 1750 ohms + or . 10). © Is the resistance less then 1 ohm? 21 Repair the RWAL speed sensor circuit for an open or high resistance between terminal 14 of the CAB and terminal 2 of the RWAL speed sensor's connector.45 mm (1.Then. Perform the Verification Test.27.005 in. replace the RWAL speed sensor. © Is any additional wiring added to the vehicle that may cause a short to ground? Yes Repair. S E N S O R MOUNTING F A C E SENSOR FLANGE DIMENSION A . I f the RWAL speed sensor is not within these limits.Connect an ohmmeter across the terminals of the RWAL speed sensor. (5) I f air gap is not within stated limits. Replace the fuse.) and a maximum of 1.

Refer to section 8W for proper brake warning lamp wiring. Refer to section 8W for proper brake warning lamp wiring. Replace the bulb and restart the test at the RWAL DIAGNOSIS section. ® Did the brake warning lamp illuminate while the ignition switch was placed in the START position? Remove the brake warning lamp bulb. This test is performed only to identify the reason why the CAB did not illuminate the brake warning lamp when the ABS lamp was illuminated. © Is there continuity between the brake warning lamp bulb's ground circuit and terminal 5 of the RWAL 14-way connector? Inspect the RWAL 14-way CAB connector. No Perform step 2. Replace the CAB and perform the Verification Test. Connect an ohmmeter between terminal 5 of the RWAL 14-way connector and the brake warning lamp bulb's ground circuit. Repair the open circuit between the RWAL 14-way connector and the brake warning lamp. 3 Perform step 6. © Are there any terminals that are bent. © Are there any terminals that are bent. When the connector is disconnected. Refer to section 8W for proper brake warning lamp wiring. 4 Perform step 5. expanded. Prior to this test. Repair as necessary and restart the test at the RWAL DIAGNOSIS section. Also. expanded. © Did the brake warning lamp illuminate? Turn the ignition switch to the START position. restart the test at the RWAL DIAGNOSIS section. apply the parking brake. broken? Are the locking tabs functional? Are any wires pushed out from the connector? Yes Perform step 4. Replace the message center or instrument cluster as required and restart the test at the RWAL DIAGNOSIS section. Verify the bulb is not burned out or damaged.5 . 6 . Once the repair is complete. 2 Perform step 4. Refer to the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR LOCATION and the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE section in this group Step 1 Action With the ignition key in the RUN position. broken? Are the locking tabs functional? Are any wires pushed out from the connector? Inspect the connector to the brake warning lamp circuit. all DTCs stored in memory will be erased.60 BRAKES DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) (c) I f dimension A and dimension B exceeds their specifications. During the test. RWAL DIAGNOSIS PROCEDURES—TEST 3 The CAB illuminates the brake warning lamp any­ time i t illuminates the ABS warning lamp. repair the differential i f nec­ essary. • Is the bulb functional? Disconnect the RWAL 14-way connector and the connector to the brake warning lamp bulb. 5 Repair as necessary and restart the test at the RWAL DIAGNOSIS section. retrieve and record all DTCs for future reference. the RWAL 14-way CAB connector will be disconnected. replace both the RWAL speed sensor and exciter ring. Perform step 3.

© Is the voltage less than 9 volts? Inspect the ABS warning lamp bulb. WARNING: NOTE: Vehicles with diesel engines must also have the vacuum sensor disconnected. 9 Repair the ground circuit and perform the Verification Test. Replace the bulb and perform the Verification Test. 11 Repair the open circuit from terminal 2 to the ABS warning lamp and perform the Verification Test. Verify the operation of the parking brake mechanism. • Did the ABS warning lamp illuminate for a few seconds and then extinguish? Release the parking brake. Perform step 9. 7 8 Inspect the CAB 14-way connector. Yes Perform step 2 No Perform step 6. all other brake warning lamp switched ground circuits will cause the ABS warning lamp to illuminate also.BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G ( C o n t i n u e d ) RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES—TEST 4 This test has only the brake warning lamp illumi­ nated. 5 Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. © Is the connector properly connected to the CAB? Inspect the wiring and terminals at the connector. Turn the ignition key to the RUN position. Except for the parking brake switch. Perform step 5. This Step 1 Action Turn the ignition key OFF Turn the ignition key to the RUN position. Replace the CAB and perform the Verification Test. Repair the brake warning lamp ground control circuit for a short to ground and perform the Verification Test. © Is the resistance to ground less than 1 ohm? Connect a voltmeter to terminal 2 and a good chassis ground. . 4 Repair the parking brake system as necessary. Replace the CAB and perform the Verification Test.Turn the ignition key to the RUN position. Perform step 8 Repair as necessary and perform the Verification Test. Perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 1. © Are the terminals or wiring pushed out or damaged? Connect an ohmmeter to terminal 10 and a good chassis ground. Disconnect the CAB 14-way connector. © Is bulb functional? Reconnect and perform the Verification Test. Perform step 10 Repair the parking brake system as necessary then. Perform step 3. 10 Perform step 11. © Were you able to pull the pedal up any higher? © Did the brake warning lamp extinguish when the parking brake was released fully? BRAKES 5 . • Is the brake warning lamp illuminated? ® Is the ABS warning lamp illuminated continuously? 6 Perform step 7. 2 3 System is operating normally Perform step 4. perform step 5. e Did the brake warning lamp extinguish? Pull the parking brake release handle and pull the parking brake pedal upward.61 test verifies whether the parking brake switch is the only cause for brake warning lamp illumination or there is a malfunction with the ABS warning lamp circuit.

I f either lamp illuminated during the bulb check. Repair as necessary and then perform the Verification Test. • Did the brake warning lamp illuminate? Perform step 3. then perform RWAL DIAGNOSIS. then perform the Verification Test. 5 Start the engine. .5 . RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES—TEST 6 This procedure starts with both the brake warning lamp illuminated and ABS warning lamp illuminated and RWAL diagnostics cannot be performed. then perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 1 Yes Perform step 2 Inspect and repair the warning lamp circuit for a short to ground and replace the fuse.Use a voltmeter and verify battery voltage supplied to the fuse. 2 Turn the ignition key to the RUN position. Disconnect the 14-way RWAL CAB connector.62 BRAKES BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES—TEST 5 This procedure starts with neither the brake warning lamp illuminated nor the ABS warning lamp illuStep 1 Action In most cases. Check the brake system for air in the hydraulic circuit or • possible mechanical damage. Repair the open circuit to the fuse and perform the Verification Test. Repair the open circuit from the fuse to the warning lamp circuit and perform the verification Test. © Is the brake warning lamp still illuminated? Perform step 6. Perform step 8. then perform RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 1. • Is the fuse functional? minated during the CRANKING bulb check. © Is battery voltage supplied to the fuse? Apply the parking brake. the fuse that feeds the brake warning lamp also feeds the A B S warning lamp. Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. I f you Step 1 Action are able to retrieve a DTC from the CAB's memory. Repair the short to ground for the brake warning lamp circuit and perform the Verification Test. 3 Repair the open circuit from the ignition switch START circuit (ground side during cranking) to the brake warning lamp.Turn the ignition key to the RUN position. The pressure differential switch has shuttled. Is the fluid level correct? • Is the vehicle equipped with a diesel engine? Disconnect the harness connector from the differential pressure switch © Is the brake warning lamp still illuminated? 2 Perform step 3. Perform step 4. Find and repair cause of leakage then perform the Verification Test. 3 4 Perform step 5. • Is the brake warning lamp illuminated? Inspect the level of brake fluid in the master cylinder reservoir. Inspect the fuse that feeds the warning lamp circuit. Yes Perform step 2 No Perform step 8.

and perform the Verification Test. • Is the voltage greater than 9 volts? Install a voltmeter between terminal 9 of the CAB's 14-way connector and ground.Disconnect the harness connector from the diesel vacuum warning switch. Perform step 9. © Is the warning lamp still illuminated? Disconnect the vacuum hose from the diesel vacuum warning switch and connect a vacuum gauge to the hose. and then perform the Verification Test. • Is the resistance less than 1 ohm? Install a voltmeter between terminal 3 of the CAB's 14-way connector and ground. Repair the short to ground. 12 Repair as necessary and perform the Verification Test. 10 Perform step 13. • Is the resistance less than 1 ohm? Yes Perform step 4. replace the fuse. 8 9 With the ohmmeter still installed in terminal 12 of the CAB's 14-way connector. 13 Repair the open circuit to terminal 3 of the CAB's 14-way connector and perform the Verification Test. © Are there any bent terminals. and then perform the Verification Test. Start the engine.Connect a ohmmeter across terminal 12 to the terminal in the diagnostic test connector. Perform step 14.Turn the ignition key to the RUN position.63 D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) Step 6 Action Turn the engine OFF. 14 Inspect the fuse that feeds the battery feed circuit of the CAB.BR •— BRAKES 5 . • Is the fuse functional Repair the short to ground of the diagnostic terminal circuit and perform the verification test. replace the fuse. Repair the open circuit to terminal 9 of the CAB's 14-way connector. a locking tab that is damaged or pins that are bent on the CAB? Inspect the fuse that feeds the ignition circuit of the CAB. 11 Perform step 12. 7 Replace the diesel vacuum warning switch and perform the Verification Test. Is the voltage greater than 9 volts? Inspect the CAB's 14-way connector. terminals that are pushed out. • Is the fuse functional . terminals that are corroded. Perform step 11.Turn the ignition key to the RUN position. Repair the vacuum supply as required and perform the Verification Test. -> Perform step 7. • Is there an adequate supply of vacuum to the warning switch? Turn the ignition key to the OFF position. Repair the open circuit between the CAB's 14-way connector and the diagnostic terminal then perform RWAL DIAGNOSIS. Repair the short to ground. install the other end of the ohmmeter to ground. Perform step 10. Replace the CAB and perform the Verification Test.

2 3 This code identifies an open in the dump valve circuit. A brief description follows the code. • Ground connection for the RWAL valve. DIAGNOSIS Attempt to retrieve the DTCs again. Check resistance of the dump solenoid and circuit. • Poor connections in the RWAL valve's 4-way connector. • CAB. Never replace the CAB for an intermittent DTC unless otherwise told to do so. Components and circuits involved include: © Open circuit from terminal 1 of the 14-way connector to the RWAL valve. record the DTC and start at the appropriate test. perform the V E R I F I C A T I O N TEST. Once y o u r diagnosis is complete. Resistance of the solenoid should be approximately 3-6 ohms. Components and circuits involved include: o Open circuit from terminal 8 of the 14-way connector to the RWAL valve. An intermittent DTC can be tested i n the same manner as DTCs that are reoccurring. During an antilock stop. • RWAL valve. © Poor connections in the 14-way CAB connector. The only dif­ ference is usually an intermittent DTC will have a malfunction with either a poor electrical connection or have a problem with the wiring. Components and circuits involved include: © Short circuit from terminal 11 of the 14-way connector to the RWAL valve.If DTC 1 appears again.000 ohms.If not. 5 This code identifies that over 16 dump pulses occurred during an antilock stop. • CAB. Components and circuits involved include: © Open circuit from terminal 4 of the 14-way connector to the 4X4 switch (fault may have occurred in 4WD mode) © Mechanical malfunction in the rear brakes (brakes may be locking-up). You can begin your diagnosis by locating the recorded DTC i n the chart below. DTC 1 DTC DESCRIPTION DTC 1 is not a fault code and should not occur. Check resistance of the reset switch circuit and ground. © Open circuit in the RWAL valve's isolation solenoid. Resistance of the solenoid should be approximately 2-3 ohms. Check resistance of the isolation solenoid and circuit. • Poor connections in the RWAL valve's 4-way connector. The final column provides a list of circuits and com­ ponents to test along with specifications and values. © Short circuit in the RWAL valve's reset switch.5 . © Ground connection for the RWAL valve. 4 This code identifies a short in the reset switch circuit. • Open circuit in the RWAL valve's dump solenoid. a vehicle in 4WD mode may normally have 16 dump pulses. This code identifies a open in the isolation valve circuit. 4WD vehicles use the 4WD switch to disable the diagnostics. • Poor connections in the 14-way CAB connector. Resistance of the circuit to ground should be over 10. . perform step 12 of the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST t .This code only affects 2WD vehicles and 4WD vehicles while in 2WD mode. • CAB.64 BRAKES BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES—TEST 7 This test begins with a DTC that can be regener­ ated anytime the CAB memory is cleared.

Components and circuits involved include: © Short circuit between terminals 13 and 14 and the RWAL WSS © Short circuit between terminals 13 and 14. Set the voltmeter to the AC scale. 10 This code usually identifies a short in the RWAL WSS circuit. • RWAL WSS. © Short in the RWAL valve's dump solenoid. teeth that are missing. The RWAL WSS should have a resistance between 1000 and 2500 ohms. © Short in the RWAL valve's isolation solenoid. chipped teeth. Components and circuits involved include: • Short to ground from terminal 8 in the 14-way connector to the RWAL valve. • CAB. WARNING: CAUTION: It is important to remember that the short to ground m u s t be repaired p r i o r to i n s t a l l i n g a CAB for this DTC. • CAB. DIAGNOSIS Components and circuits involved include: • Intermittent poor connection between terminals 13 and 14 of the 14-way connector and the RWAL WSS. • Exciter ring . the RWAL WSS and a ground. The RWAL WSS should have a resistance between 1000 and 2500 ohms. Check resistance of the isolation solenoid and circuit.This code can only be recorded by the CAB while the CAB is monitoring a speed senor that identifies the vehicle is moving. Then. exciter ring that is bent. Resistance of the solenoid should be approximately 2-3 ohms. rotating the rear wheels (both wheels must be rotated at same speed and in same direction) at 5 mph. • CAB.65 DTC DESCRIPTION This code identifies an erratic rear wheel speed sensor reading.broken. The RWAL WSS should produce a voltage of at least 650 mv (rms) and should be steady. 9 This code usually identifies an open in the RWAL WSS circuit. 8 This code identifies a short in the dump valve circuit. WARNING: CAUTION: I t I s important to r e m e m b e r t h a t the short to ground m u s t be r e p a i r e d prior t o i n s t a l l i n g a CAB for t h i s DTC. 7 This code identifies a short in the isolation valves circuit. Components and circuits involved include: • Short to ground from terminal 1 in the 14-way connector to the RWAL valve. • CAB. • CAB. Check resistance of the dump solenoid and circuit. • RWAL WSS. Resistance of the solenoid should be approximately 3-6 ohms. . Components and circuits involved include: ® Open circuit between terminals 13 and 14 and the RWAL WSS • Poor connection in the 14-way connector.BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) DTC 6 BRAKES 5 . • RWAL WSS. • Build-up of foreign material on the tip of the RWAL WSS. The RWAL WSS can be tested by connecting a voltmeter into the RWAL WSS circuit. • Poor connection at the RWAL WSS.

14 15 >16 had a phase lock loop failure. © Poor connection in the stop lamp switch connector. o Mis-adjusted stop lamp switch. Do not allow the master cylinder to run out of fluid when bleeding the brakes. Attempt to retrieve the DTCs again. Be sure the end of the bleed hose remains immersed in fluid. or an equivalent meeting SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards. The CAB is the only component that will affect this DTC. The CAB is the only component that will affect this DTC. • CAB. The stop lamp switch provides a path to ground when the brakes are released. There are no DTC greater than 15. Check fluid level frequently during bleeding operations. proceed to the RWAL DIAGNOSTICS PROCEDURES TEST 1 section in this group. WARNING: Reduced braking may be encountered if the vehicle is test driven with either the brake warn­ ing lamp or the ABS warning lamp illuminated. Recom­ mended bleed sequence is: • master cylinder • combination valve • rear antilock valve • left rear wheel • right rear wheel • right front wheel • left front wheel Use Mopar DOT 3 brake fluid.5 . a DTC may have been generated. the path to ground is interrupted. This code identifies that the CAB had a RAM failure. © Open circuit from terminal 7 to the stop lamp switch © Poor connection in the 14-way connector. to fill and bleed the system. Restart your diagnosis at the RWAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TEST 1. This prevents air from' being drawn back into the system. RWAL VERIFICATION TEST The verification test will require a test drive as part of the diagnostic procedure. Do not turn the ignition key OFF until you have recorded the P T C S E R V I C E PR©©EBtJftES RWAL BRAKE BLEEDING RWAL brake bleeding can be performed manually. This code identifies that the CAB had a program check failure. brakes drag­ ging. Extreme caution should be used. Perform both normal and firm braking stops in the 25-40 mph range. The purpose of the test drive is to duplicate and verify the previous con­ dition. Certain DTCs are erased when the ignition key is turned to OFF. etc. I f the brake warn­ ing lamp and/or the ABS warning lamps illuminate or flash during the test drive. NOTE: If either warning lamp is illuminated. then the previous malfunction has successfully been repaired and the vehicle can be returned to the customer. . Determine i f there are any unusual brake operating conditions such as vehicle lead during braking. When the brakes are applied. An empty cylinder will allow air to be drawn back into the system. o Stop lamp switch. • Open circuit from stop lamp switch to ground. I f the warning lamps remain extin­ guished and the brakes respond normally. A glass container makes it easier to see air bubbles as they exit the bleed hose. The CAB is the only component that will affect this DTC. Use a bleed hose at each caliper/cylinder bleed screw. low brake pedal. noise. At least one complete ABS stop should be performed. brakes grabbing. Bleed only one brake component at a time.66 BRAKES — — BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) DTC 11 DTC DESCRIPTION This code indicates the CAB sensed the brakes being o n for an extended length of time with the DIAGNOSIS Components and circuits involved include: vehicle exceeding 4 0 mph. 12 13 This code is not used This code identifies that the CAB Attempt to retrieve the DTCs again. or with vacuum/pressure equipment. Refer to the vacuum and pressure bleeding information in this section. Attach one end of the hose to the bleed screw and insert the opposite end i n glass container par­ tially filled with brake fluid.

(8) Remove bolt attaching RWAL valve to combina­ tion valve bracket (Fig. Vacuum Bleeding If vacuum bleeding equipment is being used. 11 Valve Harness . (3) Tighten RWAL valve attaching bolt to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. A spring clip tool is best for securing the valve stem in an open position. (4) Install master cylinder on booster mounting studs.BR SERVICE BRAKES 5 . Follow the manufacturers instructions carefully when using pressure equipment. (5) Remove master cylinder. or bleed screw once bleeding is completed. The stem must either be pressed inward. Fig. 11). (4) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder and combination valve bracket to booster studs. lbs. Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. Do not tighten RWAL valve bolt completely at this time. Do not exceed the tank manufacturers pressure recommendations.). Loose fittings and bleed screws allows air to enter the system.). (6) Install combination valve bracket on booster mounting studs and against master cylinder. (3) Remove brake lines connecting master cylinder to combination valve. or drawing air back into the system. a spring clip tool or helper is needed to hold the valve stem in position. (6) Remove combination valve. it is not necessary to hold the front brake metering valve open. 12 Master Cylinder brake lines (1) Disconnect ground wire and harness wires from combination valve switch and RWAL valve (Fig. lbs. Simply bleed the brakes following the bleed equipment manufacturers instructions. a tank pressure of 15-20 psi is more than suf­ ficient for bleeding purposes. valve bracket and RWAL valve as assembly. The wrong adapter can lead to leak­ age. Gen­ erally. (2) Install short brake line that connects RWAL valve to combination valve. (5) Attach antilock harness ground wire to combi­ nation valve bracket. the front brake metering valve will have to be held open to bleed the front brakes. 12). The valve stem is located in the forward end of the combination valve. 13). Do not pressure bleed without a proper master cyl­ inder adapter. or held outward slightly. Be sure to tighten each brake line fitting. REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION VALVE REMOVAL FRONT BRAKES J9405-82 Fig. Then separate RWAL valve from bracket. Fill the bleeder tank with recommended fluid and purge air from the tank lines before bleeding.67 PROCEDURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) (2) Disconnect lines to front and rear brakes from RWAL and combination valves (Fig. Pressure Bleeding If pressure bleeding equipment will be used. Make sure the front brake metering valve in the combination valve is held open. (7) Loosely install nuts that retain master cylinder and combination valve on booster studs. (7) Remove brake line connecting combination valve to RWAL valve. INSTALLATION (1) Install RWAL valve on combination valve bracket.

(4) Install knee bolster. number 2 Phillips screwdriver as shown.68 BRAKES BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) (2) Remove module lower attaching screws (Fig. remove module from bracket. The module is accessible through an open­ ing created by removal of the knee bolster. 15). lbs. 14).5 . leave mod­ ule in place on bracket. 16). i f removed. (9) Connect harness wires to RWAL valve and to combination valve switch. Fig. However. (5) Disconnect harness wires from module. I t is mounted on a bracket attached to the back side of the panel. 15 RWAL Module Lower Attaching Fig.in. INSTALLATION Fig. (10) Fill and bleed brake system.). Fig. . 14 Knee Bolster (1) Install module on mounting bracket. (2) Connect harness wires to module. 16 RWAL Module Upper Attaching Screw (4) Remove module and bracket from underside of instrument panel. (3) Position module and bracket on instrument panel and install attaching screws.RWAL CONTROLLER The RWAL electronic control module is located under the central portion of the instrument panel. . (1) Remove screws from knee bolster attached to panel flange (Fig. (6) I f module is to be replaced. 13 RWAL Valve/Combination Waive Screws (8) Install and connect all remaining brake lines. i f module is only being removed for access to another component. REMOVAL (3) Remove module upper attaching screw (Fig. Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200. Screws are partially hidden by air duct but can be removed with long shank.

(3) Disconnect harness wires from sensor (Fig.) . (2) Clean sensor. 17 Rear Wheel Speed Sensor Mounting SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE CHART DESCRIPTION RWAL Valve Mounting Bolt Brake Lines Wheel Speed Sensor Rear Mounting Bolt TORQUE 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. (6) Cover sensor opening in axle housing to pre­ vent dirt entry. INSTALLATION RRAINING SCREW CABLECLAMP-—" BRAKE UNE COVERSENSORAXLE HOUSING " .). lbs.) 24 N-m (212 in. (5) Remove sensor and cover. lbs.) 16-23 N-m (140-200 in.—i S ^ I ^ j 1 . cover and sensor mounting area of axle housing (Fig. (2) Position cover over sensor and install cover and sensor attaching screw and tighten to 24 N-m (18 ft. &k """ "" — (1) Insert sensor in axle housing opening. sensor cover and sensor i n axle housing. lbs. 17). I f the ring is damaged refer to Group 3 Differ­ ential and Driveline for service procedures. EXCITER RING The * exciter ring is mounted on the differential case. J9405-80 Fig. (4) Lower vehicle. (4) Remove screw that secures brake cable. (3) Connect harness wires to sensor and lower vehicle.69 REAR WHEEL SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle on hoist. lbs.BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) BRAKES 5 . brake line. 17).

. . power booster and wheel brakes units all function as they would in a vehicle without ABS. Each front wheel brake unit is controlled separately. When a wheel speed . . The valves are operated by the antilock elec­ tronic module. . • Controller Antilock Brake (CAB) • Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU) • Wheel Speed Sensor (WSS) • Rear Antilock Valve • Combination Valve • Front Tone Rings • Rear Exciter Ring DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ALL WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS) The ABS system is designed to prevent wheel lock-up during braking under virtually any road sur­ face conditions. The pump/motor assembly on the front antilock valve provides the fluid volume needed during antilock braking. 1). The solenoid valves are not activated. A specially pro­ grammed electronic control module is used to operate the system components. . 77 FRONT SPEED SENSOR . These signals are transmitted to the module for processing and determine wheel lock-up and deceleration rate. The front brake antilock valve provides two channel pressure control of the front brakes. 70 COMBINATION VALVE 72 CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKES (CAB) 71 HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT (HCU) 71 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR (WSS) 72 EXCITER RING . This allows the driver to retain greater control of the vehicle during braking. 76 FRONT TONE WHEEL 77 FRONT WHEEL SPEED SENSOR (4WD) . . . NOTE: For additional information refer to the Antilock Brake Section in Group 8W. For test proce­ dures refer to the Chassis Diagnostic Manual. . The solenoid valves modulate brake fluid apply pressure during antilock braking. The rear brake antilock valve controls the rear wheel brakes in tandem. During normal braking. The DC type motor is controlled by the Controller Antilock Brake (CAB). Two solenoid valves are used in each control channel. plus the parts needed for ABS. . It consists of the standard Rear Wheel Antilock brake compo­ nents.5 .70 BRAKES BR FOUR WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM INDEX page page GENERAL INFORMATION ABS BRAKES COMPONENTS 70 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKE (CAB) . . The pump is operated by an inte­ gral electric motor. . the master cylinder. . . . . . The ABS system is a three channel design (Fig. The front and rear antilock valves contain electri­ cally operated solenoid valves. . The rear brake valve con­ tains two solenoid valves. The module will not activate the ABS sys­ tem as long as sensor inputs indicate normal brak­ ing. . Normal Braking Mode The ABS electronic control module monitors wheel speed sensor inputs continuously while the vehicle is in motion. The antilock electrical system is separate from other electrical circuits in the vehicle. . Antilock Braking Mode The wheel speed sensors converts wheel speed into electrical signals. . . 76 HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT/CONTROLLER ANITLOCK BRAKE 75 REAR WHEEL SPEED SENSOR 77 RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION VALVE 74 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING ANTILOCK BRAKES 72 72 SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE CHART 77 78 SERVICE PROCEDURES ABS BRAKE BLEEDING SPECIAL TOOLS ABS BRAKES GENERAL INFORMATION ABS BRAKES COMPONENTS The following is a list of components used in the All Wheel Antilock Brakes System (ABS). 75 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ABS RELAYS 72 ABS WARNING LAMP 72 ALL WHEEL ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS) . . .

The CAB controls the antilock valve sole­ noid operation during all phases of antilock braking. PUMP/MOTOR The front brake antilock valve consists of a sole­ noid valve body. I t monitors the brake switch and wheel speed sensors inputs to prepare for possible antilock braking. The solenoid valves are cycled continuously to mod­ ulate pressure. The antilock system retards the lockup conditions by modulating fluid apply pressure to the wheel brake units. The solenoid valves are cycled open and closed as needed during antilock braking. 2). CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKES (CAB) The CAB is located at the drivers inner fender panel. FRONT ANITLOCK VALVE HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT RWAL VALVE 80315898 Fig.71 RF WHEEL RR WHEEL LR WHEEL J9305-113 Fig. degree of lock-up and rate of decelera­ tion. 1 ABS Hydraulic System CONTROLLER ANTILOCK B R A K E S DRIVER SIDE FENDER PANEL sensor signal indicate the onset of wheel lock-up the ABS braking is activated. . The second The pump is run by a DC type motor controlled by the Controller Antilock Brake (CAB). The antilock valve provides two channel pressure control of the front brakes. One channel controls the left front brake unit. HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT (HCU) The HCU mounted on the driver side inner fender panel (Fig.BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION {Continued) POWER BRAKE BOOSTER FRONT ANTILOCK VALVE BRAKES I . Solenoid cycle time in antilock mode can be measured in milliseconds. 2). The CAB is attached to the forward side of the Hydraulic Control Unit mounting bracket (Fig. Each front brake unit is controlled independently. They are cycled rap­ idly and continuously to modulate brake fluid pres­ sure and control wheel lock-up and deceleration. The CAB is used to monitor and operate the ABS system. The HCU consist of the front antilock valve assem­ bly and pump/motor unit. The pressure is modulated according to wheel speed. The pump sup­ plies the additional fluid volume needed during antilock braking. 2 Controller Antilock Brakes and Hydraulic Control Unit channel controls the right front brake unit.

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING ANTILOCK BRAKES The ABS brake system performs several self-tests Pressure Differential Switch every time the ignition switch is turned on and the The pressure differential switch is connected to the vehicle is driven.72 BRAKES BR D E S C R I P T I O N AND O P E R A T I O N (Continued) WHEEL SPEED SENSOR (WSS) The ABS brake system uses 3 wheel speed sensors.4 seconds. The lamp is used to alert the driver i f a malfunction i n the ABS system has occurred by turning the lamp on steady. ABS WARNING LAMP The amber ABS warning lamp i n located in the vehicle instrument cluster. to fill and bleed the system. i f the CAB detects a sudden wheel or wheels deceleration within a prede­ termined amount the CAB will activate the ABS sys­ tem. The switch is triggered by movement of the switch valve. The purpose of the * input and output circuits to verify the system is oper­ ating correctly. An ABS warning lamp relay is used to activate the amber ABS warning lamp. ABS BRAKE BLEEDING ABS brake bleeding can be performed manually. I f the on board diagnostic system switch is to monitor fluid pressure in the separate senses that a circuit is malfunctioning the system front/rear brake hydraulic circuits. Refer to the vac­ uum and pressure bleeding information in this sec­ tion. A decrease or loss of fluid pressure in either hydraulic circuit will cause the switch valve to shut­ NOTE: The MDS or DRB III scan tool is used to tle forward or rearward in response to the pressure diagnose the ABS system. Movement of the switch valve will push tion refer to the Antilock Brake section in Group the switch plunger upward. As the teeth of the tone wheels front/exciter ring rear move through the magnetic field of the sen­ sor an AC voltage is generated. SERVICE PROCEDURES Metering Valve COiBiNATiON ¥ A L ¥ E The metering valve is used to balance brake action between the front disc and rear drum brakes. . The ABS warning lamp relay completes the circuit for the lamp by providing a ground. A sensor is mounted to each front steering knuckles. The second relay is the ASB main (pump) relay. This signal frequency increases or decreases proportionally to the speed of the wheel. When the lamp is. The sensor is a magnet coil that is mounted over a tone wheel front/exciter ring rear with an air gap between them. The volt­ age at the monitoring point will be 12 volts when the CAB energizes the relay turning the ABS lamp off. the metering valve opens completely permitting full fluid apply pressure to the front disc brakes. or an equivalent meeting SAE J1703-F and DOT 3 standards. Bleed only one brake component at a time. The valve meters (holds-off) full apply pressure to the front disc brakes until the rear brakeshoes are i n full contact with the drums. The sensors measure the wheel speed by monitor­ ing the rotation of the tone wheels front/exciter ring rear. The valve is designed to maintain front brake fluid pressure at 21-207 kPa (3-30 psi) until the hold-off limit of 807 kPa (117 psi) is reached. Front Antilock Valve and Rear Wheel Antilock Valve. For additional informa­ differential. Both relays are located in the engine compartment in the Power Distribution Center. Recom­ mended bleed sequence is: • master cylinder • combination valve • rear antilock valve © front antilock valve • left rear wheel • right rear wheel • right front wheel • left front wheel Use Mopar DOT 3 brake fluid. The CAB checks the warning lamp at the beginning of each ignition cycle by turning on the lamp for 3. The switch valve may remain in an actuated position until repair restores system pressures to normal levels. or with vacuum/pressure equipment. A I S RELAYS Two relays are use on the ASB system.5 . For test procedures refer to the Chassis Diag­ internal contacts completing the electrical circuit to nostic Manual. lit the voltage at the CAB monitoring point will be 0 volts. At this point. the warning lamp. will set a trouble code i n its memory. The third sensor is mounted on top of the rear axle differential housing. This relay is used to supply voltage to the ABS pump motor. This closes the switch 8W. The CAB monitors these signals for changes in wheel deceleration. The CAB monitors the systems brake warning lamp.

lbs.0. (4) Tighten thumbscrew on bleed Tool 6670 just enough to push valve stem inward about 0. (6) Stroke brake pedal rapidly 5-10 times. Plug must be open to fully bleed upper and lower sections of front antilock valve. 3 Front Antilock Valve Bleed Valve Stem & Plug ORIGINAL FRONT ANT1L0CI W L E AW If original assembly is being used. (5) Continue bleeding until fluid coming out of fit­ ting. Check fluid level frequently during bleeding operations. h o l d brake pedal to floor.BR BRAKES 5 . Be sure the end of the bleed hose remains immersed in fluid. combination valve sec­ ond. Be sure to tighten each brakeline fitting.020 . This prevents air from being drawn back into the system.0. Bleed cylinder and valves at brakeline fittings one at a time.76 mm (0. Do not allow the master cylinder to run out of fluid when bleeding the brakes. A glass container makes it easier to see air bubbles as they exit the bleed hose. An empty cylinder will allow air to be drawn back into the system. This action will fill upper and lower sections of valve rap­ idly.51 . (2) Loosen brakeline fitting about 1-1/2 turns. 3). Loose fittings and bleed screws allow air to enter the system.030 in. or bleed screw once bleeding is completed. Procedure is as follows: (1) Remove cap or caps and fill reservoir with fresh Mopar. BLEED VALVE STEM Bleed new or overhauled master cylinder on bench before installation. Attach one end of the hose to the bleed screw and insert the opposite end in glass container par­ tially filled with brake fluid. (2) Remove cap from bleed valve stem (Fig.). Observe condition of fluid coming out of brakeline fitting. 4). Then verify proper brake operation before moving vehicle. is clear and free of bubbles. Top off master cylinder reservoir fluid level.). Be sure to t i g h t e n f i t t i n g before helper releases brake pedal. bleed plug and bleed valve do not have to be open during bleeding operations. Bleed master cylinder first. rear antilock valve third and front antilock valve fourth. (4) Tighten brakeline fitting and have helper release brake pedal. 3). Repeat bleeding operation at each wheel until fluid coming out of bleed screw is clear and free of bubbles. . Remember to close valve bleed plug before each brake pedal stroke. (5) Apply brake pedal. (8) Remove depressor tool from valve stem and install cap on stem. NEW FRONT ANT1L0C1 W L E AW If a new front antilock valve assembly was installed. This shortens overall bleed time and ensures proper cylinder operation. Just bleed the valve assembly at each brakeline fitting one at a time Bleed first wheel brake unit. Start at left rear wheel and follow sequence recommended. (7) Bleed new valve assembly at each brakeline fit­ ting one at a time. (3) Install Valve Depressor Tool 6670 on bleed valve stem by sliding notched side of tool onto boss that surrounds bleed valve stem (Fig. Pedal will fall off signifi­ cantly when bleed plug is properly open and bleed Fig. Continue bleed­ ing until fluid flowing from fittings is clear and free of bubbles. Stem must be held inward (in open position) to fully bleed upper section of new valve assembly. bleed new valve as follows: (1) Loosen bleed plug on new front valve about 1/4 to one full turn (Fig. Then tighten bleed plug to 7-9 N-m (60-84 in. ABS MANUAL BRAKE BLEEDING valve stem is correctly unseated (pressed inward) by tool. Refer to procedure in Master Cylinder Service sec­ tion. (3) Have helper press and. or equivalent quality brake fluid.73 SERVICE PROCEDURES (Continued) Use a bleed hose at each caliper/cylinder bleed screw.

Fill the bleeder tank with recommended fluid and purge air from the tank lines before bleeding. Then separate RWAL valve from bracket. or held outward slightly. i t is not necessary to hold the front brake metering valve open. Do not exceed the tank manufacturers pressure recommendations. 6). 7). 6 Master Cylinder brake lines 1E1 RWAL VALVE/COMBINATION VALVE REMOVAL (1) Disconnect ground wire and harness wires from combination valve switch and RWAL valve (Fig. (7) Remove brake line connecting combination valve to RWAL valve. (5) Remove master cylinder.SERVICE PH©€EPUHES (Continued) SPECIAL TOOL GROUND. the front brake metering valve will have to be held open to bleed the front brakes. COMBINATION VALVE RWAL VALVE LINE TO FRONT BRAKES J9405-82 Fig. Do pressure bleed without a proper master cylin­ der adapter. Make sure the front brake metering valve in the combination valve is held open. The wrong adapter can lead to leakage. Follow the manufacturers instructions carefully when using pressure equipment. The valve stem is located in the forward end of the combination valve. Simply bleed the brakes following the bleed equipment manufacturers instructions. a spring clip tool or helper is needed to hold the valve stem in position. (6) Remove combination valve. (4) Remove nuts attaching master cylinder and combination valve bracket to booster studs. A spring clip tool is best for securing the valve stem in an open position. Pressure Bleeding If pressure bleeding equipment will be used. . 5 Waive Harness i f vacuum bleeding equipment is being used. (8) Remove brake lines connecting master cylinder to combination valve. Do not tighten RWAL valve bolt completely at this time. The stem must either be pressed inward. a tank pressure of 15-20 psi is more than suf­ ficient for bleeding purposes. 5). (8) Remove bolt attaching RWAL valve to combina­ tion valve bracket (Fig. Gen­ erally. valve bracket and RWAL valve as assembly. INSTALLATION ' (1) Install RWAL valve on combination valve bracket. 6670 PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH WIRE RWAL VALVE HARNESS AND CONNECTOR J9305-70: J9405-77 Fig. or drawing air back into the system. (2) Disconnect lines to front and rear brakes from RWAL and combination valves (Fig. 4 Front Antilock Valve Bleed Tool Vacuum Bleeding Fig.

(8) Install and connect all remaining brake lines. lbs.). (1) Remove and isolate negative battery cable.). 7 RWAL Valve/Combination Valve Fig. (6) Install combination valve bracket on booster mounting studs and against master cylinder. 8 CAB Harness Connector (2) Install short brake line that connects RWAL valve to combination valve. 11). (4) Install master cylinder on booster mounting studs.). lbs. (10) Fill and bleed brake system. 9 ABS Harness (1) Install CAB in mounting bracket. INSTALLATION Fig. CONTROLLER ANTILOCK BRAKE (CAB) . REMOVAL (4) Install negative battery cable. (2) Install mounting bolts. HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT/CONTROLLER ANITL0CK BRAKE REMOVAL (1) Disconnect ABS harness at HCU (Fig. Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. (5) Attach antilock harness ground wire to combi­ nation valve bracket. (3) Tighten RWAL valve attaching bolt to 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. . (4) Remove stud nuts and bolt that attach HCU to inner fender panel (Fig. (3) Connect harness and lock into place with lock­ ing handle.Fig. 9). (2) Unlatch and disconnect harness at controller. (2) Release CAB connector locking handle and remove connector (Fig. (7) Loosely install nuts that retain master cylinder and combination valve on booster studs. Then remove valve from engine compartment. (3) Disconnect lines to front brakes at HCU (Fig. (9) Connect harness wires to RWAL valve and to combination valve switch. 8). lbs. Tighten line fittings to 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. (3) Remove the 2 CAB mounting bolts and remove CAB from bracket. 10).

(6) Fill and bleed brake system. (3) Install and tighten mounting bolt and stud nuts. They are special and must be reused i f in good condition. 12). 10 HCU Brakelines ABS VALVE AND MODULE ASSEMBLY (1) Raise vehicle and support vehicle front end. lbs. lbs. 11 HCU Mounting (5) I f valve is only being removed for access to another component. lbs. (4) Install rotor and brake caliper. (2) Install and tighten sensor bolts to 21-25 N-m (190-250 in. (4) Remove brake caliper bolts and lift caliper from knuckle and rotor. (2) Remove wheel and tire assembly. (5) Remove rotor. 12 Front Speed Sensor Mounting (2-Wheel Drive Shown) INSTALLATION (1) Install module on HCU. INNER FENDER PANEL SENSOR BOLTS (2) STUD PLATE (ON UNDERBODY) STEERING KNUCKLE J9405-99 SPLASH SHIELD FRONT SENSOR J9505-1U Fig. . (4) Connect ABS harnesses to HCU and CAB. refer to Group 5 Brakes. Tighten bolts and nuts to 10-13 N-m (92-112 in. Retain bolts. disconnect sensor wire connector at harness plug. The bolts are special and must not be substituted. cover brake line fluid ports with tape or plugs to prevent dirt entry. (6) Lower vehicle. Use original or replacement sensor bolts only.).76 BRAKES AND BR ITALLATION (Continued) AIS MODULE REMOVAL FRONT BRAKELINES ABS VALVE FRONT SPEED SENSOR REMOVAL J9405-98 Fig.). FRONT WHEEL SPEED SENSOR (4WD) REMOVAL (1) Remove bolt attaching sensor to the inside of the steering knuckle. (7) Disconnect sensor wire and remove sensor from vehicle. (1) Position sensor in knuckle. (5) Install wheel and tire assembly. (7) Verify sensor operation with scan tool. (3) Remove sensor and wire assembly. Secure caliper to frame or chassis component with wire. (3) Connect sensor wire to harness wire from CAB. (3) Press caliper piston back into bore with pry tool. (5) Connect brake lines to HCU and tighten line fittings to 19-23 N-m (170-200 in. Do not allow brake hose to support caliper weight. (6) Remove bolts attaching sensor to steering knuckle (Fig. Be sure CAB harness is securely latched in place.). INSTALLATION Fig. (6) Remove bolts attaching CAB to HCU and remove controller. (2) Position HCU on mounting studs.5 . (2) I n engine compartment.

the complete rotor and hub assembly will have to be replaced i f the tone wheel is damaged. I f the ring is damaged refer to Group 3 Differ­ ential and Driveline for service procedures. FRONT TONE WHEEL The tone wheel for the front speed sensor is located in the rotor hub on 2-wheel drive models (Fig.) 16-23 N-m (140-200 in. the driveshaft will have to be removed and the axle outer stub shaft replaced. lbs. 13 Front Tone Wheel 2WD REAR WHEEL SPEED SENSOR (1) Raise vehicle on hoist. cover and sensor mounting area of axle housing (Fig. lbs. 14 Rear Wheel Speed Sensor Mounting (2) Position cover over sensor and install cover and sensor attaching screw and tighten to 24 N-m (18 ft. 14). sensor cover and sensor in axle housing. . . lbs. lbs. (4) Connect sensor wire to harness i n engine com­ partment. . On 4-wheel drive models.) . (4) Remove screw that secures brake cable.) . (3) Check sensor wire routing. . INSTALLATION TORQUE CHART DESCRIPTION Hydraulic Control Unit Mounting Bolts/Nuts .21-25 N-m (190-250 in. SPECIFICATIONS REMOVAL Fig. 13).BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) INSTALLATION BRAKES 5 . On 2-wheel drive models. i f the tone wheel is damaged. Fig. (6) Cover sensor opening in axle housing to pre­ vent dirt entry. Seat sen­ sor locating tab in hole in knuckle and install sensor attaching bolt and tighten to 14 N-m (11 ft. (4) Lower vehicle.10-13 N-m (92-112 in. . .19-23 N-m (170-200 in. (5) Remove sensor and cover. (3) Disconnect harness wires from sensor (Fig. . lbs. RWAL Valve Mounting B o l t . (2) Clean sensor. 14).) 23-34 N-m (200-300 in. lbs. (3) Connect harness wires to sensor and lower vehicle. brake line. The tone wheel is not a serviceable component.). . Be sure wire is clear of all chassis components and is not twisted or kinked at any spot. Brake Lines. Brake Lines. On 4-wheel drive models. lbs.) . lbs. EXCITER RING The exciter ring is mounted on the differential case.). . . .77 (1) Position sensor on steering knuckle. (2) Route sensor wire from steering knuckle to harness connector. .) (1) Insert sensor in axle housing opening. . the tone wheel is located on the axle outer stub shaft. .24 N-m (212 in. Wheel Speed Sensor Front Mounting Bolts Rear Mounting Bolt TORQUE . . .

5 .78 BRAKES SPECIAL TOOLS ABS BRAKES Depressor Brake Valve 6670 .

The facing is made from a non-asbestos material. dry-type clutch disc and a diaphragm style clutch cover.BR CLUTCH 6-1 CLUTCH CONTENTS page page GENERAL DIAGNOSIS INFORMATION 3 1 2 1 3 3 3 4 11 4 INSPECTION AND DIAGNOSIS CHARTS 4 L-^. FACING MATERIAL Fig. 1) and (Fig.9L gas engines (Fig. The cyl­ inder push rod is connected to the clutch pedal. The fork pivots on a ball stud mounted inside the housing. The clutch disc has damper springs i n the disc hub. 18 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING NV4500 CLUTCH HOUSING CLUTCH PROBLEM CAUSES SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE G E N E R A L INFORMATION CLUTCH COMPONENTS The clutch mechanism in BR models with a gas or diesel engine consists of a single. or 5.9L. 5. A hydraulic link­ age is used to engage/disengage the clutch disc and cover. The release bearing is operated by a release fork in the clutch housing. A sleeve type release bear­ ing is used to engage and disengage the clutch cover pressure plate. A 281 mm (11 in. The clutch cover pressure plate is a diaphragm type with a one-piece spring and multiple release fingers. The pressure plate release fingers are preset during man­ ufacture and are not adjustable.) diameter clutch disc is used with a 3. 1 Clutch Disc—¥6 Engine . The slave cylinder is operated by a clutch master cylinder mounted on the dash panel. CLUTCH DISC APPLICATION Two clutch disc diameters and four different thick­ nesses are used. The transmission input shaft is supported in the crankshaft by a bearing.2L. 5 13 15 15 20 20 19 21 GENERAL INFORMATION CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION CLUTCH COMPONENTS CLUTCH COVER APPLICATION CLUTCH DISC APPLICATION CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH INSTALLATION METHODS AND PARTS USAGE SERVICE PROCEDURES CLUTCH LINKAGE FLYWHEEL SERVICE REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION CLUTCH COVER AND DISC CLUTCH PEDAL PILOT BEARING RELEASE BEARING CLUTCH HOUSING REPLACEMENT—NV4500 . The release fork is actu­ ated by a hydraulic slave cylinder mounted in the housing. The clutch disc facing is riveted to the hub. 2).

3) and (Fig.6 -2 CLUTCH (Continued) FACING MATERIAL BR G E N E R A L INFORMATION FACING MATERIAL Ml Fig.9L gas engine applications. The damper springs provide smoother torque transfer and disc engagement. is used for 3. The 281 mm discs have four springs while the 312. 5 Clutch Cover—¥6/¥8 Gas Engine . 2 Clutch Disc—V8 Engine J9406-8 1DIESEL 1 J9406-10 Fig. 5. 4). 3 Clutch Disc—¥10 Engine 281 mm (11 m.9L.2L and 5.) diameter clutch disc is used with diesel and V10 engines (Fig. 5). 4 Clutch Disc—Diesel Engine A 312. COVER 1VIOl J9406-9 Fig. The 281 mm cover (Fig.3 in.) \V6N8] J9406-12 Fig.5 mm (12.5 mm disc has five springs. DAMPER SPRINGS (5) All the discs have damper springs in the hub. CLUTCH COWEFt APPOCAT10I Two clutch covers are used for all applications.

BR CLUTCH 6 -3 GENERAL INFORMATION (Continued) The 312. . Wiring Diagrams for compo­ nent locations and circuit information. 8 Clutch Hydraulic Linkage Fig. or removing fluid from the reser­ voir.9L diesel and V10 gas engine applications. 8). The correct lubricant and not over lubricating are equally important. or an equiv­ alent meeting SAE and DOT standards J1703 and DOT 3. 6). CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH The clutch master cylinder is connected to the clutch * pedal and the slave cylinder is connected to the clutch release fork. master cylinder. slave cylinder and fluid lines are prefilled with fluid at the factory during assembly operations. Do not use any other type of fluid. The switch is actuated by clutch pedal movement.3 in. . CLUTCH LINKAGE FLUID The clutch' fluid reservoir. CLUTCH HYDRAULIC LINKAGE The hydraulic linkage consists of a remote reser­ voir. 6 Clutch Cower—¥10 and Diesel Engine CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH All BR models are equipped with a clutch pedal position switch (Fig. 7 Clutch Pedal Position (Interlock) Switch The position switch is an integral part of the clutch master cylinder push rod and is not serviced sepa­ rately. use Mopar brake fluid. Refer to Group 8W.5 mm (12.) DIESEL/V10I J9406-11 Fig. 7). For this reason. The switch is in circuit with the starter relay and is mounted on the clutch mas­ ter cylinder push rod. COVER RESERVOIR DASH PANEL DASH OPENING FLUID LINES CYLINDER DASH SEAL CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER SLAVE CYLINDER BODY CLIP J9406-15 312. If inspection or diagnosis indicates additional fluid may be needed. CLUTCH COMPONENT LUBRICATION Proper clutch component lubrication is important to satisfactory operation. I n fact. The hydraulic system should not require additional fluid under normal circumstances.5 mm cover (Fig. clutch master cylinder. is used for 5. clutch slave cylinder and interconnecting fluid lines (Fig. i t is important to avoid overfilling. The clutch pedal must be fully depressed in order to start the engine. The master cylinder is mounted on the drivers' side of the dash panel adja­ cent to the brake master cylinder. Apply rec­ ommended lubricant sparingly to avoid disc and pres­ sure plate contamination. the reser­ voir fluid level will actually increase as normal clutch wear occurs. Clutch and transmission components requiring lubrication are: • pilot bearing • release lever pivot ball stud • release lever contact surfaces • clutch disc hub splines J9506-26 Fig.

Apply recommended amounts and do not over lubricate. chatter and improper clutch release. vent openings. Improper clutch cover bolt tightening can distort the cover. mounting the flywheel on a dirty crankshaft flange. Misalignment caused by excessive runout or warpage of any clutch component will cause grab. remove and inspect the clutch components. clutch fluid leaks will usually be noted and corrected before severe contamination occurs. Tighten the clutch housing bolts to proper torque before installing any struts. Very light scratches or surface roughness on . Careful observation during a road test will help narrow the problem area. Use Mopar high tem­ perature grease (or equivalent) for all other lubrica­ tion requirements. Water and steam vapors can be absorbed by the clutch facing material. Road splash contamination means dirt and water are entering the clutch housing due to loose bolts. The glaze-like residue ranges in color from amber to black. Improperly seated flywheels and clutch housings are other causes of clutch failure. the only remedy for the above condi­ tion is component replacement. drive the vehicle at normal speeds. or water/road splash. fur­ ther diagnosis is needed. i f the problem is noise or hard shifting.the flywheel face can be cleaned up by scuff sanding with . Oil contamination indicates a leak at either the rear main seal or transmission input shaft. However. or clutch fluid on the clutch contact surfaces will result in faulty operation. An additional problem caused by water contamina­ tion and especially by steam cleaning. Oil leakage produces a residue of oil on the hous­ ing interior and on the clutch cover and flywheel. improper machining. Improper seating will produce misalignment and subsequent clutch problems. a vehicle should be driven as soon as possible to heat and dry the clutch components. Shift the transmission through all gear ranges and observe clutch action. hydraulic fluid. However. CLUTCH MISALIGNMENT Clutch components must be in proper alignment with the crankshaft and transmission input shaft. or release bearing. or improper release is experi­ enced. If chatter. Also be sure the align­ ment dowels are in place and seated in the block and housing beforehand. a road test and component inspection will be required for accurate diagnosis. Tighten the cover bolts as described in the Clutch Service section. RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS Use Mopar multi-purpose grease for the clutch pedal bushings and pivot shaft. disc and flywheel. can sometimes bake the oil residue onto the components. Use the recom­ mended factory quality parts to avoid comebacks. To avoid this prob­ lem. incorrect bolt tightening. The usual result is chatter. note i f any components are con­ taminated with oil. The transmission or another driveline component may actually be at fault.' chatter and rapid wear. Driving through deep water pud­ dles can force water/road splash into the housing through such openings. Heat buildup caused by slippage between the cover. involves clutch disc sticking and poor release.I •4 CLUTCH mm CLUTCH PROBLEM CAUSES CONTAMINATION G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) • clutch pedal pivot shaft bore • clutch pedal bushings • input shaft splines • input shaft pilot hub • transmission front bearing retainer slide surface Do not apply grease to any part of the clutch cover. DIAGNOSIS A U B TESTING GENERAL DIAGNOSIS INFORMATION Unless the cause of a clutch problem is obvious. housing cracks. water. slip. FLYWHEEL RUNOUT Common causes of runout are heat warping. or grab. Clutch fluid leaks are from a loose or damaged slave cylinder line or connection. Oil. INSTALLATION METHODS AND PARTS USAGE Distortion of clutch components during installation and the use of non-standard components are addi­ tional causes of clutch malfunction. or through the slave cylinder opening. I f the vehicle sits idle for long periods after water contamination. The use of non-standard or low quality parts can also lead to problems and wear. The usual result is clutch grab. Frequently. the force exerted by the pressure plate may cause the disc to bond itself to the flywheel or pressure plate. disc. or improper seating on the crankshaft flange shoulder. A road test will help determine the type of fault while component inspection will identify the problem component. During inspection. grab. slip. Fluid contamination is one of the more common causes of clutch malfunctions. During a road test.

) from the outer edge of the disc facing. release fingers and the hub of the clutch disc. Clean the crankshaft flange before mounting the flywheel. Obtain another disc if runout is excessive. alignment dowels. cover release fingers and clutch disc. causes and correction.020 in. Overtightening could distort the flywheel hub causing runout. If housing misalignment is suspected. Dirt and grease on the flange surface may cock the flywheel causing runout. tighten the bolts alternately (in a diagonal pattern) and evenly (2-3 threads at a time) to specified torque. Housing face misalignment is generally caused by incorrect seating on the engine or transmission. i f the surface is warped or severely scored. Use new bolts when remounting a flywheel and secure the bolts with Mopar Lock And Seal. Since the NV3500 clutch housing is an integral part of the transmission front case. The housing bore maintains alignment . The diagnosis charts describe common clutch prob­ lems. missing alignment dowels or housing damage. Use an alignment tool when positioning the disc on the flywheel. Impact can distort the cover. diaphragm spring.B R M _ _ CLUTCH § -1 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) 180 grit emery cloth. replace the flywheel. causes and corrective action are outlined in the indicated col­ umns. Be careful when handling the cover and disc. 9) outlines items to be checked before and during clutch installation. RUNOUT Clutch housing alignment is important to proper operation. In severe cases.5 mm (0. CLUTCH COWER AMD DISC RUNOUT Check the clutch disc before installation. Measure runout about 6 mm (1/4 in. Misalignment can cause noise. I t can also result in premature wear of the pilot bearing. Conditions. A frequent cause of clutch cover distortion (and consequent misalignment) is improper bolt tighten­ ing. Axial (face) runout of a new disc should not exceed 0. misalignment may also be caused by housing mounting surfaces that are not parallel. INSPECTION AND DIAGNOSIS CHARTS The clutch inspection chart (Fig. or Loctite 242. To avoid warping the cover. Do not machine the flywheel. However. Check condition of the clutch before installation. the housing is probably not fully seated on either the engine. Fault conditions are listed at the top of each chart. CLUTCH HOUSING MISALIGNMENT AND between the crankshaft and transmission input shaft. loose housing bolts. incomplete clutch release and chatter. or transmission front face. Machining w o u l d negate this feature and could result i n unsatisfactory operation. Infrequently. The flywheel face is manufactured w i t h a unique surface contour. Use the chart as a check list to help avoid overlook­ ing potential problem sources during service opera­ tions. The runout check procedure is described in detail in the Clutch Service section. A warped cover or diaphragm spring will cause grab and incomplete release or engagement. The charts are provided as a convenient reference when diagnosing faulty clutch operation. Tighten flywheel bolts to specified torque only. The tool prevents accidental misalign­ ment which could result in cover distortion and disc damage. Housing bore and face runout can only be checked in the vehicle on models with a NV4500 transmission. it will be necessary to remove the transmission and housing as an assembly to check seating. misalignment can also cause premature wear of the transmission input shaft and bearing.).

Check crankshaft flange (if flywheel is removed). 16 2 17 18 3 19 20 4 5- 21 6 22 7 8 J9506-2 Points Fig. Do not reuse old bolts.02 in. or cut. Disc must slide freely on shaft splines. Be sure bolts are tight.Check transmission input shaft. Make sure side of clutch disc marked "flywheel side" is toward flywheel. Failure to do so could warp the cover. flaking off. cracked. replace them. Replace disc if facing is charred. 9 Clutch Inspection . Make sure pivot and bearing contact surfaces are lubricated. or damaged. Check release fork. Check condition of clutch cover. Verify that housing alignment dowels are in position before installing housing. warped. warped. Replace it if leaking.6 -6 CLUTCH — BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) 9 Inspect release bearing slide surface of trans. Replace housing if damaged. or improper release i f damaged. Secure flywheel with new bolts (if removed). Tighten clutch cover bolts 2-3 threads at a time. Check clutch cover diaphragm' spring and release • fingers. broken. or worn. Replace shaft if splines or pilot bearing hub are damaged. Inspect clutch housing. Be sure housing is fully seated on engine block. Check pilot bearing.5 mm (0. Check release fork pivot (in housing). or cracked. Replace cover if spring or fingers are bent. . Clean engine block surface before installing clutch housing. Check condition before installing transmission. Replace retainer if necessary. Lubricate slide-surface before installing release bearing. Be sure cylinder is properly secured in housing and cylinder piston is seated in release fork. Be sure flange is clean and flywheel bolt threads are in good condition. scored. alternately and evenly (in a star pattern) to specified torque. Scuff sand face to remove glaze. Check input shaft seal if clutch cover and disc were oil covered. Replace seal if worn. 'Check slave cylinder. Use Mopar Lock N'Seal on bolts.). Check clutch disc facing. Use Mopar Lock N'Seal to secure new bolts. Dirt. Replace clutch cover if plate surface is deeply scored. Replace flywheel if severely scored. Clean surface with wax and grease remover. If bolts are loose. Lube with Mopar high temp. free of nicks. grime can produce misalignment. Replace seal if necessary. Transmission input shaft bearing will cause noise. Replace bearing if damaged. Tighten if loose. scores. Replace bearing only if seized. Lightly grease splines before installation. 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 Check clutch housing bolts. Be sure cover is correct size and properly aligned on disc and flywheel. Check flywheel. Surface should be smooth. noisy. chatter. front bearing retainer. Do not replace release bearing unless actually faulty. Check rear main seal if clutch disc and cover were oil covered. Runout should not exceed 0. Check flywheel bolt torque. worn or cracked. Be sure pivot is secure and ball end is lubricated. Also check runout of new disc. Replace fork if bent or worn. bearing grease before installation. Do not tamper with factory spring setting as clutch problems will result. worn.

Also replace cover if spring is weak or pressure plate surface is damaged. WORN 1. Rough handling (impact) bent cover. Flywheel surface scored and nicked. WARPED. Apply less grease to input shaft splines. Scuff sand flywheel. Replace leaking seals. Insufficient clutch cover diaphragm spring tension. Replace clutch disc.002-. Driver frequently rides (slips) clutch. 1. FLY­ WHEEL AND COVER PRESSURE PLATE SURFACES HEAVILY GLAZED 1. or disc. Leak at rear main seal or at transmission input shaft seal. Clean clutch cover and reuse only if cover is in good condition. Verify that bearing is actually binding. GOUGED. Excessive amount of grease applied to input shaft splines. Driver frequently rides (slips) clutch. 1. CLUTCH DISC FACING BURNT (CHARRED). Replace flywheel if scores-nicks are deeper than . then replace bearing and transmission front bearing retainer if sleeve surface is damaged. Too much stock removed or surface is tapered. CLUTCH IS RUNNING PARTIALLY DISENGAGED 1. Results in rapid wear overheating. Normal wear. Slave cylinder leaking. Results in rapid wear and overheating of disc and cover. Frequent operation under high loads or hard acceleration conditions. Alert driver to problem cause. 1. GREASE. Incorrect bolt tightening sequence and method caused warped cover. Reduce scores and nicks by sanding or surface grinding. 1. . spring. Flywheel surface improperly machined. Replace clutch disc (do not clean and reuse). Incorrect parts order or model number. DISTORTED FACING ON FLYWHEEL SIDE OF DISC TORN. OR CLUTCH FLUID 1. Replace slave cylinder if leaking. 1. 1. Replace clutch cover and disc. Replace flywheel. 1. Follow installation/tightening instructions.BR . CLUTCH DISC FACING CONTAMINATED WITH OIL. Release bearing stickingbinding.004 inch. 1. J9506-18 . COVER AND/OR DIAPHRAGM SPRING. Install new disc or cover as needed. Road splash. water entering housing. Replace with correct parts. CLUTCH 6•7 D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) CLUTCH CONDITION DISC FACING WORN OUT DIAGNOSIS CORRECTION 1. Does not return to normal running position. 1. POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. WRONG DISC OR PRES­ SURE PLATE INSTALLED CLUTCH DISC. FLYWHEEL HEIGHT INCORRECT 1. Compare old and new parts before installation.

CLUTCH DISC TOO THICK PILOT BEARING SEIZED. 7.).020 in. damaged. Low clutch fluid level. Corrosion. or not driven for extended periods of time. Replace cover. 1. Replace disc. Replace disc and/or input shaft if splines are severely damaged. 6. CLUTCH DISC BINDS ON INPUT SHAFT SPLINES CLUTCH DISC RUSTED TO FLYWHEEL AND/OR PRESSURE PLATE 1. Wrong disc installed. 5. 8. Be sure disc side marked "to flywheel" is actually toward flywheel. Sand rusted surfaces clean with 180 grit paper. Install correct disc. and flywheel if corrosion is severe. Replace disc cover. Remove clutch cover and disc. New disc not checked for axial . Replace fork and pivot if worn or damaged.8 CLUTCH BR DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G (Continued) CONTINUED CONDITION CLUTCH DISC WARPED POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Vacuum may form in pockets over rivet heads in clutch disc. Bearing defective. 6.5 mm (. Clutch disc installed backwards. Be sure runout of new disc is less than . 4. 5. Top off reservoir and check for leaks. Input shaft splines rough. Clutch master or slave cylinder fault. 7. Clean. CORRECTION 1. Lubricate and install new bearing. CLUTCH DISC FACING STICKS TO FLYWHEEL 1. 1. runout before installation. 1. Bearing cocked during installation. 4. Remove and reinstall disc correctly. 1. 2. J9506-1 . OR ROLLERS ARE WORN 1. distorted during installation. Tighten bolts. LOOSE. 3. 8. CLUTCH WILL NOT DISENGAGE PROPERLY 1. 1. Occurs as clutch cools down after use. Replace disc. Release fork bent or fork pivot is loose or damaged. Replace disc. Clutch misalignment. Bearing not lubricated. Occurs in vehicles stored. Disc bent. Clutch cover diaphragm spring bent or warped during transmission installation. rust * formations on splines of disc and input shaft. Clutch disc hub splines damaged during installation. Check and correct any misalignment. Wrong clutch disc. Also occurs after steam cleaning if vehicle is not used for extended period. Replace master and slave cylinder as assembly. smooth and lubricate disc and shaft splines. 1. 3. 1.6 . Clutch cover loose. 2. Drill 1 /16 inch diameter hole through rivets and scuff sand disc facing with 180 grit paper. 1.

distorted (rough handling. Replace both cylinders as assembly (and reservoir).9 CORRECTION 1. 2. Master or slave cylinder SLAVE CYLINDER PLUNGER components worn or corroded. propeller shafts and U-joints. 1. Correct leak and replace disc (do not clean and reuse the disc). Check engine/transmission mounts. Clutch pressure plate position setting incorrect or modified. J9506-20 . improper assembly). Problem actually related to suspension or driveline component. spring. Replace disc.BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) CONTINUED CONDITION CLUTCH DISC FACING COVERED WITH OIL. 2. Check alignment and runout of flywheel. 3. 3. 4. Replace clutch cover and disc. 1. disc. tires. 1. Apply lighter grease coating to splines and replace disc (do not clean and reuse the disc). GREASE. Oil leak at rear main or input shaft seal. CLUTCH MASTER OR 1. Too much grease applied to splines or disc and input shaft. Clutch misalignment. DRAGGING-BINDING NO FAULT FOUND WITH CLUTCH COMPONENTS 1. OR DISC FACINGS EXHIBIT UNUSUAL WRONG TYPE 1. Incorrect or substandard parts. Engine related problem. 1. CLUTCH DISC AND/OR COVER WARPED. suspension attaching parts and other driveline components as needed. 2. CLUTCH 6 . PARTIAL ENGAGEMENT OF CLUTCH DISC (ONE SIDE WORN-OPPOSITE SIDE GLAZED AND LIGHTLY WORN) 1. 2. Correct as necessary. OR CLUTCH FLUID POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. 4. Check EFI and ignition systems. Clutch disc damaged or distorted. Replace clutch cover and disc. 2. Clutch cover. Replace disc and/or cover with correct parts. Further diagnosis required. 2. or release fingers bent. or cover and/or clutch housing.

Clutch pedal squeak. full Hub of disc cracked or torsion throttle operation. Alert driver to condition causes. Release bearing misaligned. 1. Replace parts as needed. disc. or release fingers are bent or distorted causing damage. Replace any clutch bolts that are damaged 1. 1. cover. 1. Contact surface of release bearing damaged. Replace input shaft if bearing hub is damaged. 3. Clutch misalignment. Pilot bearing damaged. Incorrect or sub-standard clutch parts. Lubricate pin and bushings with silicone base lubricator chassis grease. Replace if damaged. 1. Replace bushings if worn or damaged. Tighten pivot pin. Replace with parts of correct type and quality. cover or clutch housing. Release bearing defect. Attaching bolts loose at flywheel. 1. 1. Release bearing defect.D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) CONTINUED CONDITION Clutch components damaged or worn out prematurely. Bearing cocked during installation. Check and correct misalignment caused by excessive runout of flywheel. Pivot pin loose. Clutch cover incorrect. Replace clutch cover and bearing. 1. Bearing defect. 2. Frequent high load. 1. 2. Release bearing is noisy. 1. 1. 2. Pedal bushings worn out or cracked. damper springs are distorted or broken. or clutch housing. Replace bearing. Replace bearing. Bearing not lubricated prior to installation. J9506-21 . Loose components. Replace bearing. Check'and correct runout of clutch components. 1. 1. POSSIBLE CAUSE CORRECTION 1. 2. Be sure it is properly seated and lubricated before installing clutch. Components appear overheated. Tighten bolts to specified torque. 3. Check front bearing retainer sleeve surface.

Repeat the measurement at least twice for accuracy.002 . Offset dowels are available in 0.012 in. On gas engines.(-0. threaded rod and position the indicator plunger on the surface of the clutch housing bore (Fig. (= 0. 10) and (Fig. (as in the example). bore runout will have to be corrected with offset dowels.20 THREAD NUT STUD OR THREADED ROD (7) Rotate the crankshaft until the indicator plunger is at the top center of the housing bore. unlike gas engines. 10).009 in. Zero the indicator at this point.004 . The rod will be used to mount the dial indicator. (6) Mount the dial indicator on the. If bore runout exceeds the stated maximum on a diesel engine. 10 Dial Indicator Mounting Stud Or Rod (4) Remove the release fork from the clutch hous­ ing. 7/16 .000 002 J9006-25 Fig.002 in.012 in. ' +0. . the largest difference is 0. (2) Remove the clutch cover and disc. -0. offset dowels are not available to correct runout on diesel engines.007. 0. the acceptable maximum TIR for housing bore runout is 0. or transmission adapter plate.002 inch) = In the above example. I f measured TIR is more than 0. Bore runout example: 0.015 inch.012 in. (which is 1/2 of 0. +0. i E A S U l i l G CLUTCH HOUSili BORE FtOIOUI—1¥45I0 OILY (1) Remove the clutch housing and strut. Refer to (Fig. Refer to Correcting Housing Bore Runout for dowel installation. 11 Checking Clutch Housing Bore Runout . 11).010) = 0. MOUNTING STUD DIAL INDICATOR CLUTCH HOUSING BORE CIRCLE + .(-0. 12).). (3) Replace one of the flywheel bolts with an appropriate size threaded rod that is 10 in.010 in.007 in. 12 Housing Bore Measurement Points And Sample Readings CLUTCH HOUSING BORE J9006-26 On diesel engines. 12) and following example.(-0. (5) Reinstall the clutch housing.007) = 0.000 .(+0. sizes for this purpose (Fig. The NV3500 clutch housing is an integral p a r t of the transmission front case and can only be checked off the vehicle. (25. it may be necessary to replace either the clutch housing. How­ ever.010 inch. Tighten the hous­ ing bolts nearest the alignment dowels first.021 in.005) = 0.004 (SAMPLE READINGS) J9006-27 NDSCATOR PLUNGER Fig. (8) Rotate the crankshaft and record the indicator readings at eight points (45° apart) around the bore (Fig. the acceptable maximum T I R for housing bore runout is 0. and is called the total indicator reading (TIR).014 and 0. This means that the housing bore is offset from the crankshaft centerline by 0. Fig.BR CLUTCH 6 -11 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) NV4500 CLUTCH HOUSING CHECKING RUNOUT Only the NV4500 clutch housing can be checked using the following bore and face r u n o u t procedures.4 cm) long (Fig.006 in.001 . (9) Subtract each reading from the one 180° oppo­ site to determine magnitude and direction of runout.001) ± -0. 11).

004 (SAMPLE READINGS) J9006-30 Fig. ( 2 ) Rotate the crankshaft until the indicator plunger is at the 1 0 O'clock position on the bore. The dial indicator reads positive when the plunger moves inward (toward indicator) and negative when it moves outward (away from indicator). + . . ( 5 ) Total allowable face runout is 0 .. 0 5 2 inch OFFSET DOWEL REQUIRED 0 . In the example. Rotate the dowels until the TIR is less than 0 . As an example. 0 3 5 inch 0 . 0 3 6 . Perform the measurement at least twice for accuracy. clutch housing bore runout is corrected with offset dowels. 0 1 2 inch. 1 5 ) . the lowest or most negative reading determines the direction of housing bore offset (runout). 1 3 ) and in Step 7 above. refer to the sample readings shown (Fig. 0 1 0 inch. can be corrected by installing shims between the clutch housing and transmission (Fig. 0 1 4 inch 0.0 . Place the indicator plunger at the rim of the housing bore as shown. 0 2 2 . 0 1 3 inch. or greater is encountered. 1 3 ) . I f the low reading was minus 0 . i t may be necessary to replace the clutch housing. TIR on a diesel equipped model. Then install the housing.021 inch J9206-7 CLUTCH HOUSING FACE CIRCLE (AT RIM O F BORE) . remove the housing and orig­ inal dowels. I f runout exceeds this figure. 0 1 5 in.009 DOWEL SELECTION mm VALUE 0. runout will have to be corrected. In the sample readings shown (Fig. 0 5 3 in. 0 2 1 inch 0 . The shims can be made from shim stock or similar materials of the required thickness. As a result. Then install the new offset dowels in the direction needed to center the bore with the crank­ shaft centerline. i f bore runout exceeds 0 . Then zero the dial indicator. 0 1 0 inch reading. Refer to Correcting Clutch Housing Face Runout.0 . As an example. 16). 0 0 7 inch 0 .0 . 1 4 ) . total runout is actually 0 . i f necessary. the clutch housing. 15 Housing Face Measurement Points And Sample Readings ( 4 ) Subtract the lowest reading from the highest to determine total runout. The dowels needed for correction would have an offset of 0 . TIR was 0 . 0 1 0 in. 0 0 9 in. Measuring Clutch Housing Face Runout—NV4500 ( 1 ) Reposition the dial indicator plunger on the housing face (Fig. 0 0 7 in. 13 Housing Bore Alignment Dowel Selection Install the dowels with the slotted side facing out so they can be turned with a screwdriver. Offset dowels are not available for diesel models. To correct this. CORRECTING CLUTCH HOUSING FACE RUNOUT—NV4500 Housing face runout. However.011 . 17). (Fig. I n this Fig. or transmission adapter plate may have to be replaced. on gas or diesel engines. SLOT S H O W S DIRECTION OF OFFSET OFFSET DOWEL INDICATOR PLUNGER DIAL INDICATOR CLUTCH HOUSING FACE INDICATOR MOUNTING STUD OR ROD J9006-29 Fig. I f a TIR of 0 . remount the dial indicator and check bore runout again. the bore is offset toward the 0 . 1 7 ) and in Step 4 . 0 0 4 in.6 -12 CLUTCH BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) Correcting Clutch Housing Bore Runout—NV4500 l a s Engine Only On gas engine vehicles. 14 Measuring Clutch Housing Face Runout ( 3 ) Measure and record face runout at four points 9 0 ° apart around the housing face (Fig. and the highest reading was plus 0 . assume that face runout is the same as shown i n (Fig.

These components cannot (1) Raise vehicle. 20). (14) Remove reservoir mounting bracket screws and remove reservoir from dash panel. They are pre-filled with fluid during manufacture and must not be disassembled nor disconnected. 18 Housing Face Measurement Points And Sample Readings case.DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G (Continued) CUT/DRILL BOLT HOLE TO SIZE SHIM STOCK . lbs. 17 Measuring Clutch Housing Face Runout SERVICE PROCEDURES CLUTCH LINKAGE The clutch master cylinder.000 + . (16) Remove clutch master cylinder rubber seal from dash panel (Fig. Linkage Removal INDICATOR MOUNTING STUD OR ROD J9006-29 Fig.003 corner) and 0. (9) Remove retaining clip. After installing the clutch assembly and housing. 19).004 cor­ ner). (13) Remove screws that attach clutch fluid reser­ voir to dash panel. lbs. (at the -0. 20).000 corner). install the shims between the clutch housing and transmission at the appropriate bolt locations.) for 3/8 in. three shims will be needed.009 MAKE SHIM 1-INCH DIAMETER CLUTCH HOUSING FACE CIRCLE (AT RIM OF BORE) J9006-31 -. 0. The linkage cylinders and connecting lines are sealed units. (4) Remove slave cylinder from clutch housing. remove slave cylinder shield from clutch housing i f equipped. flat washer and wave washer that attach clutch master cylinder push rod to clutch pedal (Fig. (10) Slide clutch master cylinder push rod off pedal pin.) for 7/16 in.009 in. (12) Verify that cap on clutch master cylinder res­ ervoir is tight.012 in. Then remove cylinder from dash panel. (11) Inspect condition of bushing on clutch pedal pin (Fig. Shim thicknesses should be 0. (7) Disconnect clutch pedal interlock switch wires. .003yf . (6) Lower vehicle. (3) Remove nuts attaching slave cylinder to studs on clutch housing. (at the 0. 16 Housing Face Alignment Shims Fig. diameter bolts • 68 N-m (50 ft. Remove and replace bushing i f worn or damaged. lbs. 19). INDICATOR PLUNGER DIAL INDICATOR CLUTCH HOUSING FACE b e serviced separately. (8) Remove locating clip from clutch master cylin­ der mounting bracket (Fig. remote reservoir.004 (SAMPLE READINGS) J9006-30 Fig. This will avoid spillage during removal. diameter bolts • 47 N-m (35 ft. (2) On diesel models. tighten the housing bolts nearest the alignment dow­ els first.013 in. Clutch housing preferred bolt torques are: • 41 N-m (30 ft. (15) Rotate clutch master cylinder 45° counter­ clockwise to unlock it. (5) Disengage slave cylinder fluid line from body retainer clips.) for V10 and diesel clutch housing bolts During final transmission installation. slave cylinder and connecting lines are all ser­ viced as an assembly. (at the -0.

(12) Raise vehicle. (15) Lower vehicle. (4) Insert clutch master cylinder in dash panel. ^ . lbs. . Check this before installing cylinder attaching nuts. (9) Install clutch master cylinder push rod on clutch pedal pin. (5) I f cylinder seal is hard to seat. (14) Install and tighten slave cylinder attaching nuts to 23 N-m (200 in. Do this after installing slave cylinder and before operating linkage.) torque. connecting lines and reser­ voir in vehicle engine compartment. (8) Install replacement bushing on clutch pedal pin if necessary. (3) Lubricate cylinder seal with liquid dish soap to ease installation. Secure rod with wave washer. Then lock cylinder after­ ward. LINKAGE INSTALLATION (1) Tighten cap on clutch fluid reservoir to avoid spillage during installation. lbs. 20 Clutch Cylinder Push Rod Attachment (17) Remove clutch cylinders. Tighten screws to 5 N-m (40 in. reservoir and con­ necting lines from vehicle.6 .^ CLUTCH PUSH ROD CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER SLAVE CYLINDER J9506-25 Fig. remove plastic shipping stop from master cylinder push rod. (6) Position clutch fluid reservoir on dash panel and install reservoir screws. (2) Position cylinders. (13) Install slave cylinder. (11) Install locating clip i n clutch master cylinder mounting bracket. (7) Install reservoir mounting bracket on dash panel. flat washer and retainer ring.) torque. 19 Clutch Hydraulic Linkage PIN CLIP PEDAL J9406-21 Fig. Then seat seal in dash and around cylinder. i f removed. Be sure cap at end of cylinder rod is seated i n release lever.14 CLUTCH BR SERVICE PROCEDURES {Continued) CYLINDER RESERVOIR LOCATING PIN & . Rotate cylinder 45° clockwise to lock i t in place. (16) I f new linkage has been installed. unlock cylinder and reseat seal i f necessary. (10) Connect clutch pedal position (interlock) switch wires.

Check flywheel runout i f misalignment Is sus­ pected. remove clutch slave cylinder from clutch housing (Fig. Mount the dial indi­ cator on a stud installed in place of one of the flywheel attaching bolts. (4) Support engine with wood block and adjustable jack stand (Fig. cracked. (2) Remove transmission and transfer case i f equipped. heat checked. Excessive stock removal can result in flywheel cracking or warping after Installation.) for gas engine flywheels • 137 N-m (101 ft. Use a scriber for this pur­ pose. vise grips.001 . Measure runout at the outer edge of the fly­ wheel face with a dial Indicator. Also use metal tongs. Cleanup of minor flywheel scoring should be per­ formed with surface grinding equipment. Remove only enough material to reduce scoring (approximate­ ly 0. 24). (6) Be sure to wear eye and hand protection. Tempera­ ture required for uniform expansion is 325-350° F. Minor scratches. Clean the crankshaft flange before mounting the flywheel. CAUTION: Never use water.08 mm (0. or Loctite 242 on replacement bolt threads. Recommended flywheel bolt torques are: • 75 N-m (55 ft. the flywheel should be replaced as an assembly. Check condition of the flywheel hub and attaching bolts. i f the teeth are w o r n or damaged. lbs. hub. Runout should not exceed 0. a replacement ring gear can be installed. or obviously worn. the flywheel should be replaced i f the disc contact surface is severely scored.CLUTCH S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued! (17) Operate linkage several times to verify proper operation. mark position of cover on flywheel with paint or scriber (Fig. Supporting engine is necessary to avoid undue strain on engine mounts.076 mm (0. Refer to Group 21 for procedures.003 in. The torch flame will also anneal the gear teeth resulting in rapid wear and damage after installation.003 in. (2) Wear protective goggles or approved safety glasses. This means the gear must be expanded by heating in order to install It. Then remove transmission and clutch housing from engine (Fig. FLYWHEEL SERVICE Inspect the flywheel whenever the clutch disc. The rapid cooling produced by water or compressed air can distort. A shop press and suitable press plates should be used to install the gear i f at all possible. The method of heating and expanding the gear is extremely i m p o r t a n t . . Set the assembly on a workbench and let i t cool i n normal shop air. This is the recom­ mended and preferred method of repair. (5) The heated gear must be installed evenly to avoid misalignment or distortion. or compressed air to cool the flywheel. 23). ' (3) Remove the old gear by cutting most of the way through i t (at one point) with an abrasive cut-off 6 -15 wheel. and flywheel bolts.003 in. Also wear heat resistant gloves when han­ dling a heated ring gear. 22).). Install new attaching bolts whenever the flywheel is replaced and use Mopar Lock N ' Seal. REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION CLUTCH COVER AND DISC REMOVAL (1) Raise vehicle. CAUTION: Never use an oxy/acetylene torch to remove the old gear. In addition. or crack the gear and flywheel. Then complete removal with a cold chisel or punch. Replace the flywheel If scoring Is severe and deeper than 0.). Heat resistent gloves and safety goggles are needed for personal safety.0. (5) I f clutch cover will be reused. (7) Allow the flywheel and ring gear to cool down before installation. (4) The ring gear Is a shrink fit on the flywheel. or similar tools to position the gear as necessary for installation. ring gear teeth. burrs. Replace the flywheel i f the hub exhibits cracks In the area of the attaching bolt holes. Check condition of the flywheel face. However. (1) Mark position of the old gear for alignment ref­ erence on the flywheel.). The high temperature of the torch flame will cause localized heating and damage the flywheel. the following precautions must be observed to avoid damaging the flywheel and replacement gear. How­ ever. An oven or simi­ lar enclosed heating device must be used. Heavy stock removal is not rec­ ommended. or glazing on the flywheel face can be scuff sanded with 180 grit emery cloth. It can also weaken the fly­ wheel and Interfere with proper clutch release. Every surface of the gear must be heated at the same time to produce uniform expansion. 21). Dirt and grease on the flange surface may cock the flywheel causing excessive runout.) for diesel flywheels inspect the teeth on the starter ring gear. (3) On models with NV4500 transmission. using the torch to heat a replacement gear will cause uneven heating and expansion. or to heat and expand a new gear. lbs. cover and housing are removed for service. In cases where a new flywheel is not readily avail­ able.

25 Clutch Cover Bolt Loosening/Tightening Pattern (6) Insert clutch alignment tool in clutch disc and into pilot bushing. disc and alignment tool. only few threads at a time. . 22 Transmission/Clutch Housing—NV4500 J9106-17 J9106-22 Fig.16 CLUTCH I N S T A L L A T I O N fConflnued) ALIGNMENT MARKS (SCRIBE OR PAINT) R E M O V A L AHP MOUNTING STUDS 19-26 N-m (170-230 in.6 . loosen cover bolts evenly. This relieves cover spring tension evenly to avoid warping. 24 Marking Clutch Cover Position NV4500 TRANSMISSION / (7) I f clutch cover will be reused. 23 Supporting Engine With Jack Stand And Wood Block—Diesel Model Shown Fig. J9406-16 Fig. 21 Siave Cylinder CLUTCH HOUSING Mounting CLUTCH COVER J9406-17 Fig. lbs. (8) Remove cover bolts completely and remove cover. 25). Tool will hold disc in place when cover bolts are removed. and in a diagonal pattern (Fig.) FLYWHEEL FLUID LINE CLUTCH HOUSING SLAVE CYLINDER J9406-13 Fig.

29).) • Tighten 3/8 in. diameter bolts to 41 N-m (30 ft. 28 Clutch Release Component Points Lubrication Fig. (b) Leave disc on shaft and check disc runout with dial indicator. (4) Verify that disc hub is positioned correctly. 27). Fig.). (8) Tighten cover bolts evenly and a few threads at a time. Disc should slide freely on splines. 27). lbs. lbs. Cover bolts must be tightened evenly and to specified torque to avoid distorting cover. Installation (6) Position clutch cover over disc and onto fly­ wheel (Fig. (3) Insert clutch alignment tool In clutch disc hub. (9) Remove release lever and release bearing from clutch housing. 26 dutch Disc Position (Typical) (5) Insert alignment tool in pilot bearing and posi­ tion disc on flywheel surface (Fig. (7) Align and hold clutch cover in position and Install cover bolts finger tight. Obtain another clutch disc If runout exceeds this limit.5 mm (0.REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) CLUTCH COVER AND DISC INSTALLATION (1) Check runout and free operation of new clutch disc: (a) Install disc on transmission Input shaft splines and check fit. Be sure spring clips that retain fork on .020 In. release lever contact surfaces and release lever pivot stud (Fig. (c) Position indicator plunger about 1/4 inch from outer edge of disc facing. (d) Runout should not exceed 0.). Side of hub marked Flywheel Side should face flywheel (Fig. diameter bolts to 23 N-m (17 ft. Do not over lubricate shaft splines. 26). 27 Clutch Disc And Cower Alignment/ . Fig. • Tighten 5/16 in. (11) Install release lever and bearing i n clutch housing. (2) Lubricate crankshaft pilot bearing with Mopar high temperature bearing grease. 28). Apply Mopar high temperature bear­ ing grease to bore of release bearing. (10) Apply light coat of Mopar high temperature bearing grease to splines of transmission input shaft (or drive gear) and to release bearing slide surface of the transmission front bearing retainer (Fig. This can result in grease contamination of disc.

(1) Raise vehicle and remove transmission and transfer case i f equipped. (2) Remove clutch housing bolts and remove hous­ ing from engine (Fig. 30). The NV3500 clutch housing is part of the transmission front case and is therefore serviced only as part of the case assembly. 30 Release Fork And Bearing Spring Clip Position (12) Install clutch housing (Fig. 31) and (Fig. (3) Clean housing mounting surface of engine block with wax and grease remover.6 . Be sure housing is properly seated on alignment dowels before tightening housing bolts. 34). FORK J9O06-32 Fig. .18 CLUTCH mm R E M O V A L AW© I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) ENGINE BLOCK CLUTCH DISC A N D COVER APPLY LIGHT COAT O F HI-TEMP GREASE TO THESE SURFACES BEFORE INSTALLATION • J9106-15 Fig. 31 Clutch Housing Installation—NV4500 J9406-18 Fig. 32). (14) Check fluid level in clutch master cylinder. Fig. (13) Install transmission. 29 input Shaft Lubrication Points—Typical pivot ball and release bearing on fork are properly installed and (Fig. 32 Clutch Housing/Transmission Diesel Engine Installation— (4) Verify that clutch housing alignment dowels are in good condition and properly seated. 33) and (Fig. CLUTCH HOUSING REPLACEMENT—NV4500 Only the NV4500 clutch housing is serviced sepa­ rately.

(2) Inspect release lever and pivot stud. bearing retainer slide surface. Replace fork spring clips i f bent or damaged. 35). Tighten bolt attaching strut to clutch housing first and engine bolt last. Be sure stud is secure and in good condition. 33 Transmission/Clutch ENGINE BLOCK Housing—NV4500 REMOVAL (1) Remove transmission. (2) On models with gas engine and new style release fork. (7) Align and Install clutch housing on transmis­ sion. worn or cracked. (6) Install transmission. (3) Lubricate crankshaft pilot bearing. (3) Disconnect release bearing from release fork and remove bearing (Fig. Be sure fork and bearing are properly secured by spring clips.19 NV4500 TRANSMISSION els first and to torque values indicated (Fig. 35 dutch RELEASE BEARING Release Components ' INSTALLATION J9006-32 Fig. 34). (6) Lubricate release. fork and pivot contact sur­ faces with Mopar High Temperature wheel bearing grease before installation. 34 dutch Housing Installation—NV4500 (5) Transfer slave cylinder. (5) Install clutch housing. i f removed. Refer to procedure in Group 21. (4) Install release fork and release bearing (Fig. 36). input shaft splines. . Replace retainer i f slide sur­ face is scored. release fork and boot. RELEASE BEARING ' 1 J9406-16 Fig. Be sure fork is not distorted or worn. (9) Install transmission and transfer case i f equipped. Also install transfer case on 4-wheel drive models. 33) and (Fig. remove clutch housing for access to release fork and release bearing retainer springs. CLUTCH DISC A N D COVER RELEASE BEARING AND SLEEVE RELEASE FORK RN1232 Fig. fork pivot stud and wire/base brackets to new hous­ ing. (8) Install transmission-to-engine strut after installing clutch housing.BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) / /-a* f-^Vx CLUTCH HOUSING CLUTCH 6 . lever pivot ball stud and release lever pivot surface with Mopar high temperature bearing grease. Tighten housing bolts closest to alignment dow­ (1) Inspect bearing slide surface on transmission front bearing retainer.

(2) Remove knee bolster (Fig. Use blind hole puller tools such as those included in Snap-On set CG40CB to remove bearing. (5) Push pedal pivot shaft toward driver side of support only enough to remove clutch pedal. 40). 38). 39) for access to pedal pivot shaft. Keep bearing straight during installation. Tap bearing into place until flush with edge of bearing bore. (2) Remove clutch cover and disc. (2) Install new bearing with clutch alignment tool (Fig. 37). Turn switch clock­ wise about 30° to release it then remove switch from bracket. INSTALLATION J9206-8 Fig. Installation PILOT BEARING REMOVAL (1) Remove transmission and clutch housing. Do not recess bearing. (6) Remove clutch pedal. (4) Remove retainer from passenger side of pedal pivot shaft (Fig. 36 Clutch Release Fork And Bearing. Do not allow bearing to become cocked. 37 Typical Method Of Installing Pilot Bearing PIN (1) Clean bearing bore with solvent and wipe dry with shop towel. CLUTCH PEDAL REMOVAL PEDAL J9406-21 (1) Remove retaining ring. I t is not Fig.i . or an equivalent quality grease. flat washer and wave washer that secure brake and clutch pedals to push rods (Fig. (3) Remove pilot bearing. . transmission and trans­ fer case on 4-wheel drive models. (3) Remove brake light switch. (5) Install clutch housing. CLUTCH PEDAL from pedal support INSTALLATION (1) Inspect bushings in clutch and brake pedals (Fig. 38 Clutch Cylinder Push Rod Attachment necessary to remove shaft entirely. (4) Install clutch cover and disc. Replace bushings i f worn.20 CLUTCH BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) BEARING SEAL MUST FACE Fig. or dis­ torted. 41). (3) Lubricate bearing with Mopar high tempera­ ture grease. cracked.

clutch cover—3/8 i n . lbs. .) J9406-22 Fig. . 45 N-m (33 ft. . slave cylinder .21 R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) Fig. housing to engine— 7/16 In. 41) and all bushings with Mopar Multi Mileage.BR CLUTCH 8 .) Pivot.) Bolt. . 40) and (Fig.) Bolt. . . housing to engine—V-10 . pedal shaft bore (Fig. lbs. . . .41 N-m (30 ft. 39 Knee Bolster PEDAL SUPPORT PEDAL PIVOT Bushings Removal (3) Position clutch pedal in support. 19-26 N-m (170-230 in.68 N-m (50 ft. .) Bolt.5 N-m (40 In. . . release bearing . . . . 41 Clutch/Brake Pedal Fig. . (7) Install knee bolster. 23 N-m (17 ft. . or high temperature bearing grease. . lbs. . lbs. . 47 N-m (35 ft. fluid reservoir . .) Screw.23 N-m (17 ft. . Rotate switch into place to lock it in bracket. .) Bolt. lbs. . (5) Secure push rods to clutch and brake pedals. (4) Slide pedal shaft through support and install shaft retainer. .) Bolt. SPECIFICATIONS TORQUE DESCEIPTION TORQUE Nut. lbs. 40 dutch/Brake Pedal Mounting (2) Lubricate pedal shaft. Align pedal with pivot shaft and slide shaft through pedal bush­ ings. . lbs. clutch cover—5/16 in. . . lbs. housing to engine— 3/8 i n . Then repeat process for brake pedal. (6) Install brake light switch In bracket.

.

. AND V-10 VISCOUS FAN DRIVE WATER PUMPS—V-6. . . . AND V-10 ENGINES WATER PUMP—5 9L DIESEL REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION AIR-TO-OIL COOLER—3. 9 L DIESEL ENGINE . 46 47 48 42 42 38 35 5? 35 5 12 11 11 15 32 14 32 13 14 32 32 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS DEAERATION DRB SCAN TOOL LOW COOLANT LEVEL—AERATION ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD) PRELIMINARY CHECKS P R E S S U R E TESTING RADIATOR CAPS RADIATOR CAP-TO-FILLER NECK S E A L P R E S S U R E RELIEF CHECK .9L V-8 THERMOSTAT—8. .0L V-10 ENGINE WATER PUMP—V-6 AND V-8 ENGINES WATER-TO-OIL C O O L E R — 5 . AND V-10 ENGINES COOLING SYSTEM CLEANING/REVERSE FLUSHING DRAINING COOLING SYSTEM REFILLING COOLING S Y S T E M 33 34 33 34 33 33 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION AIR-TO-OIL COOLER AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERSDIESEL ENGINE AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERSGAS ENGINES COOLANT PERFORMANCE COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW S Y S T E M . . . 52 AIR-TO-OIL C O O L E R — 8 .9L/5.0L V-10 THERMOSTAT—DIESEL ENGINE WATER PUMP BYPASS HOSE WATER PUMP—5. . .BR — - _ _ _ _ _ COOLING SYSTEM 7 . COOLANT SELECTION-ADDITIVES COOLING SYSTEM HOSES AND CLAMPS . 9 L DIESEL ENGINE 60 59 54 53 50 55 . . 27 31 31 28 31 SERVICE PROCEDURES ADDING ADDITIONAL COOLANT—ROUTINE .2L/5. .1 COOLING SYSTEM CONTENTS page page RADIATOR COOLANT FLOW TEST SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS—ALL ENGINES TESTING COOLING SYSTEM FOR LEAKS THERMOSTAT—DIESEL . . V-8.9L ENGINES . 51 57 AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK COOLING SYSTEM FAN D R I V E — D I E S E L ENGINE COOLING S Y S T E M FAN—GAS ENGINES ENGINE BLOCK HEATER RADIATOR REPLACING WATER-TO-OIL COOLER IN RADIATOR SIDE TANK SERPENTINE DRIVE BELTS THERMOSTAT—3. . V-8. 33 33 COOLANT LEVEL CHECK—ROUTINE COOLANT LEVEL C H E C K — S E R V I C E COOLANT S E R V I C E — D I E S E L ENGINE COOLANT S E R V I C E — V . 0 L V-10 ENGINE . V-8. ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS RADIATOR P R E S S U R E CAP THERMOSTAT—DIESEL THERMOSTAT—V-6. THERMOSTAT—GAS ENGINES VISCOUS FAN DRIVE WATER PUMP 27 GENERAL INFORMATION 5 BELT TENSION—ALL ENGINES COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW SYSTEM .6 . 50 AIR-TO-OIL C O O L E R — 5 . .2/5.9L DIESEL WATER PUMP—8. .9L V-6 OR 5. . 3 3 COOLANT COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND FLOW—DIESEL COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND FLOW—GAS ENGINES COOLING SYSTEM ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS RADIATOR P R E S S U R E CAP RADIATORS THERMOSTAT 2 2 5 3 4 4 6 7 7 6 9 11 10 11 9 10 5 3 29 . .

63 RADIATOR WATER PUMP INSPECTION G E N E R A L INFORMATION 61 61 SPECIAL TOOLS COOLING 63 COOLING SYSTEM The cooling system regulates engine operating tem­ perature. I t allows the engine to reach normal oper­ ating temperature as quickly as possible. 62 TORQUE . . 62 RADIATOR CAP 61 SPECIFICATIONS COOLANT CAPACITIES . . . . .7 -2 COOLING SYSTEM BR CLEANING A N i INSPECTION FAN . . . . 1). This package will provide additional cooling capacity for vehicles used under extreme conditions such as trailer towing in high ambient temperatures. . . . . . . . . An optional factory installed maximum duty cool­ ing package Is available for some engines on most models. . . . . . . . . I t also maintains normal operating temperature and pre­ vents overheating. . . . . . . . The cooling system also provides a means of heat­ ing the passenger compartment and cooling the auto­ matic transmission fluid (if equipped). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The cooling system Is pressurized and uses a centrifugal water pump on all engines to circulate coolant throughout the system. . . COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND F L O W GAS ENGINES The cooling system consists of: • A cross-flow radiator • Thermal viscous fan drive • Fan shroud • Radiator pressure cap • Thermostat • Coolant reserve/overflow system • Transmission oil cooler (automatic transmission) • Coolant • Water pump (to circulate coolant) • Hoses and hose clamps Typical coolant flow circuits for gas powered engines are shown In (Fig. .

Coolant flows through the engine water jacket absorbing heat produced during engine operation. radiator pressure cap. COOLANT The cooling system is designed around the coolant. The coolant carries the heat to radiator and heater core. thermo­ stat. to exhaust manifold side of engine and to thermostat. I t then crosses to the transfer (lift) pump side of the engine where it flows up into the cylinder head through openings in top of the cyl­ inder block (Fig. which releases pressure at some point within a range of 97-124 kPa (14-18 psi). Refer to Description and Operation in this group for more information. The pressure relief point (in pounds) is engraved on top of cap. it provides cooling for the injector nozzle. a bypass hose at thermostat. COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW SYSTEM The coolant reserve/overflow system works In con­ junction with the radiator pressure cap. Coolant flows past the valve bridges (Fig. a vertically mounted one-way check valve (jiggle pin) at cylinder head. The diesel cooling system consists of: a cross-flow radiator.BR G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N fContinued) COOLING SYSTEM 7-3 Fig. I t utilizes thermal expansion and contraction of coolant to keep coolant free of trapped air. I t provides a volume for expansion and contraction of coolant. fan shroud. thermal viscous fan drive. 2 Typical Cooling System Flow—Diesel Powered Engine COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND F L O W DIESEL Coolant flow circuits for the 5. hoses and hose clamps. coolant reserve/overflow system. 3). The coolant also removes heat from the automatic trans­ mission fluid in vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission. Water pump output is directed to the engine oil cooler cavity of the cylinder block (Fig. Here it is transferred to the ambient air pass­ ing through the radiator and heater core fins. water pump. This can be found In the Thermostat section of this group. From the oil cooler cavity the coolant circulates around each cylinder. Also refer to Thermostat Operation—5.9L Diesel Engine.9L diesel engine are shown in (Fig. coolant. . 2). 4). Coolant is drawn from radiator into the water pump. As coolant flows toward the ther­ mostat. engine driven cooling fan. See Description and Operation i n this group for more information. RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP Radiators are equipped with a pressure cap. transmission oil cooler (if equipped with an automatic transmission). 3).

Coolant to Thermostat Housing TEMP. 6 Thermostat—8. 5) (Fig. Copper-brass cores are used with the 8.0L V-10 and diesel engines. V-6 or 5. RUBBER LIP SEAL J9407-16 Fig. Aluminum cores with plastic side tanks are used on all 3.2/5.7 -4 COOLING SYSTEM (Continued) BR G E N E R A L INFORMATION THERMOSTAT The thermostat on all gas powered engines is located beneath the thermostat housing at the front of the intake manifold (Fig. The radiator supplies sufficient heat transfer to cool the engine and automatic transmission (if equipped). 5 Thermostat—3£L V-8 Gas Powered Fig.9L Engines COOLANT Fig. 3 Cylinder Block Coolant Routing—Diesel Engine 1.0L V-10 Engine . 4 Cylinder Head Coolant Routing—Diesel Engine RADIATORS The radiator used on all engines (both gas powered and diesel) are of a cross-flow design with horizontal tubes through the radiator core and vertical side tanks.2/5.9L V-6 and 5. 6).9L V-8 engines. Coolant Flow from Cylinder Block 2. THERMOSTAT MACHINED GROOVE J9207-14 Fig.

overcoming closing spring tension and water pump pressure to force the valve to open. an 8.9L/5. except for servicing or testing.2L/ 5. The accessory drive components are operated by a single. serpentine drive belt on all engines. 7 Thermostat—5. increased exhaust emissions and crankcase condensa­ tion that can result i n sludge formation. Above 95°C (203°F). An automatic belt tensioner is also used to maintain correct belt tension at all times. This provides quick engine warmup and overall temperature control.9L Diesel—Typical THERMOSTAT—V-6. The same thermostat is used for winter and sum­ mer seasons.9L in-line 6 cylinder diesel engine. two different 5. fan and ambient tempera­ ture. Thermostats very rarely stick. It is not necessary to adjust belt tension on any engine. When coolant temperature reaches 83°C (181°F). When heated. refer to Auto­ matic Belt Tensioner proceeding in this group.0L V-10). unreliable warmup performance. reverse poppet choke type (3. V-8. The housing is located behind the generator mounting bracket. or moveable sleeve type (8. The ther­ mostat is designed to provide a minimum engine operating temperature of 88 to 93°C (192 to 199°F). The air bleeds (jiggle pins) that were used on the thermostats of diesel engines in previous years are no longer used. They have been replaced by a verti­ cally mounted one-way check valve (jiggle pin) and a rubber bypass hose.BR COOLING SYSTEM 7-5 G E N E R A L INFORMATION (Continued) The thermostat of the 5. loss of air conditioning capac­ ity. An engine should not be operated with­ out a thermostat. This provides quick engine warm-up and overall temperature control. allowing cool­ ant flow to the radiator.0L V-10 or a 5. This is used on all engines. a 5. I f specific tension is not maintained. the thermostat is closed (Fig. It should be fully open for maximum coolant flow during operation in hot ambient temperatures of approximately 104°C (220°F).9L V-8 engines. Cool­ ant leakage Into the pellet container will cause the thermostat to fail in the open position. CAUTION: Do not operate an engine without a thermostat.9L). For other tensioner information and removal/installation procedures. except for servicing or testing. Due to use of this belt tensioner.9L diesel engine is located in the thermostat housing (Fig. Do not attempt to free a thermostat with a prying device. A l l engines are equipped with an automatic belt tensioner. fan and ambient temperature.9L V-6. engine overheating. lack of power steering assist. the thermostat begins to open allowing coolant flow to the radiator. the thermostat begins to open. BELT TENSION—ALL ENGINES Correct accessory drive belt tension is required to be sure of optimum performance of belt driven engine accessories. at front of cylinder head. When coolant temperature is below 83°C (181°F). coolant temperature is controlled by the radiator. When the coolant reaches this temper­ ature. crankshaft driven. 8). DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION Fig. The check valve is used as a ser­ vicing feature and will vent air when the system is Gas powered engines: The thermostat is a wax pel­ let driven. AND V-10 The thermostat controls the operating temperature of the engine by controlling the amount of coolant flow to the radiator. the pellet expands. coolant temperature is controlled by the radiator. belt slippage may cause. Operating without a thermostat causes longer engine warmup time. reduced generator output rate and greatly reduced belt life. The wax pellet is located In a sealed container at the spring end of the thermostat. Above 104°C (220°F). do not attempt to use a belt tension gauge on any engine.' ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS All vehicles are available with either a 3. The thermostat is closed below 88°C (192°F). 7). Refer to Automatic Belt Ten­ sioner proceeding in this group.. THERMOSTAT—DIESEL The thermostat controls the operating temperature of the engine by controlling the amount of coolant flow to the radiator. . The tensioner maintains correct belt tension at all times. The thermostat is designed to provide a minimum engine operating temperature of 83°C (181°F) and to be fully open for maximum coolant flow at approximately 95°C (203°F).2L V-8.

9L V-8 . the check valve will be in the closed position. This heavy duty air-to-oil cooler is an option on most engine packages. UPPER RADIATOR SUPPORT BRACKET BOLT TRANS. Transmission oil is cooled when it passes through this separate cooler. AIR-TO-OIL COOLER 5.0L V-10 and 5. On the 5.8 COOLING SYSTEM BR D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N (Continued) AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS—GAS ENGINES MMTER-TO-OIL COOLER All gas powered models equipped with an auto­ matic transmission are equipped with a transmission oil cooler mounted internally within the radiator side tank. 10). 9). I n case of a leak in the internal radiator mounted transmission oil cooler. 9). When the engine is off.9L V-8 Gas Powered Engines: An optional air-to-oil transmission oil cooler is available with most engine packages. 9 One-Way Check Valve (Jiggle Pin) Location COOLER LOWER MOUNTING BOLT J9407-40 Fig. OIL COOLER UPPER Fig.7 . When the engine is operating.9L diesel engines. this optional cooler is located between the radiator and air conditioning condenser (Fig. The internal radiator oil cooler is not used with the diesel engine.2/5. 10Air-To-Oil Cooler—3.9L Engines V-6 or 5. engine cool­ ant may become mixed with transmission fluid or transmission fluid may enter engine cooling system. The check valve is located inside of a brass fitting. I t is connected to the thermostat hous­ ing with a rubber hose and screw-type clamps (Fig.2/5.9L V-8 engines. Both cooling system and transmission should be drained and inspected i f the internal radiator mounted transmission cooler is leaking. I t is supplied as standard equipment on both the 8. 8 Thermostat Operation-—5*91 Diesel—Typical being filled. This fitting is threaded into the front of the cylinder head (Fig. BOLTS 121 1 Fig.2/5. the check valve will be in the open position. Also refer to the section on Transmission Air-to-Oil Coolers. I t is also used to block the flow of cool­ ant during engine operation (all coolant will pass through the thermostat). This internal cooler is supplied as standard equipment on all gas powered models equipped with an automatic transmission. Water pressure (or flow) will hold the pin closed.

The air-to-oil cooler is located in front of and to the left side of the radiator (Fig. the tensioner is equipped with an indexing arrow (Fig. 12). The transmission oil is routed through the main cooler first. AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER Drive belts on all engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 13). 17). 16). 11).0L V-10 Engine: The air-to-oil cooler is located in front of and to the left side of the radiator (Fig. 14) (Fig.9L V-8 LDC-gas engines.2/5. arrow must be within approximately 3 mm (1/8 in. On 3. 17) on back of tensioner and an indexing mark on tensioner housing. I f a new belt is being installed. such as with or without power steering or air conditioning. Both cool­ ers are supplied as standard equipment on diesel engine powered models when equipped with an auto­ matic transmission.0L V-10 engine and an automatic transmission. 11 Air-To-Oil Cooler—8. CAUTION: Do not attempt to check belt tension with a belt tension gauge on vehicles equipped with an automatic belt tensioner. This belt tensioner will be used with all belt configurations.) of indexing mark (point B-) (Fig. before returning to the transmission. The diesel engine is not equipped with an internal radiator mounted oil cooler. Belt is consid- . The main water-to-oil transmission oil cooler is mounted to a bracket on the turbocharger side of the engine (Fig. Transmission oil is cooled when it passes through these coolers. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL C O O L E R S DIESEL ENGINE All diesel models equipped with an automatic transmission are equipped with both a main waterto-oil cooler and a separate air-to-oil cooler.0L V-10 Engine The oil coolers on all gas powered engines operate in conjunction with the internal radiator mounted main oil cooler. This secondary cooler is supplied as standard equipment on models equipped with the 8. then the optional cooler.9L V-6 or 5. 13 Air-To-Oil Cooler—Diesel Engine 15) (Fig. RADIATOR SUPPORT C O O L i l i SYSTEM 7-7 OIL C O O L E R MOUNTING BOLTS (3) J9407-41 Fig.BR D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N (Continued) 8. MOUNTING NUTS (2) QUICKCONNECT FITTINGS (2) J9407-42 Fig.

2/5. . 17).9L Diesel—Typical (non-A/C shown) J9219-15 TENSIONER ASSEMBLY TENSIONER MOUNTING NUT Fig. water pump. BOLT ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT 3/8 SQUARE HOLE AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER J9307-59 Fig.2/5.9L V-6 or 5. 17 indexing Marks—3. check for: • The wrong belt being installed (incorrect length/ width) • Worn bearings on an engine accessory (A/C com­ pressor. Tensioner travel stops at point-A.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines • Misalignment of an engine accessory • Belt incorrectly routed. 16 Belt Tensioner—5. a used belt should be replaced i f tensioner indexing arrow has moved to point-A (Fig. idler pul­ ley or generator) • A pulley on an engine accessory being loose Fig.9L V-8 LDC-gas engines. power steering pump. 14 Beit Tensioner—3.7 •8 COOLING SYSTEM BR D E S C R I P T I O N AND O P E R A T I O N (Continued) MOUNT.9L HDC-Gas and 8.0L V-10 Engines ered new i f it has been used 15 minutes or less.9L V-6 or 5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines PULLEY BOLT TENSIONER MOUNTING BOLT INDEXING ARROW INDEXING MARK TENSIONER J9307-64 J9207-17 Fig.2/5. 15 Belt Tensioner—5. I f this specification cannot be met. On 3.9L V-6 or 5.

19 Engine Block Heater—8. C (-35 deg.9U5.0L V-10 engine has the block heater located on the right side of engine next to the engine oil dip­ stick tube (Fig.9L gas powered engine has the block heater located on the right side of engine next to the oil filter (Fig.2U5. engine parts may be eroded by cavitation. WARNING: DO NOT OPERATE ENGINE UNLESS BLOCK HEATER CORD HAS BEEN DISCONNECTED FROM POWER SOURCE AND SECURED IN PLACE. 18 Engine Block Heater—3.9L/5. The recommended mixture of 50/50 ethylene-glycol and water will provide protection against freezing to -37 deg. Fig.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS An optional engine block heater is available on all models. The heater is mounted i n a core hole of the engine cylinder block (In place of a freeze plug) with the heating element immersed i n engine coolant.2L/5. The anti­ freeze concentration must always be a minimum of 44 percent.9L Powered Engine Gas The required ethylene-glycol (antifreeze) and water mixture depends upon the climate and vehicle oper­ ating conditions. The heater warms the engine providing easier engine starting and faster warm-up in low temperatures. year-round in all climates. The cord is attached to an engine compartment com­ ponent with tie-straps. The 5. The 3. 20). 19). which . 18). The heater is equipped with a power cord.BR COOLING SYSTEM 7.0L V-10 Engine Fig. If percentage is lower than 44 percent. Maximum protection against freezing is provided with a 68 percent antifreeze concentration.9L diesel engine has the block heater located on the right side of the engine below the exhaust manifold (Fig. F). and cooling system com­ ponents may be severely damaged by corrosion. Connect the power cord to a grounded 110120 volt AC electrical outlet with a grounded three wire extension cord. The 8. 20 Engine Block Heater—5.9L Diesel Engine COOLANT PERFORMANCE ETHYLENE-GLYCOL MIXTURES Fig. THE POWER CORD MUST BE SECURED IN ITS RETAINING CLIPS AND ROUTED AWAY FROM EXHAUST MANIFOLDS AND MOVING PARTS.

once ethylene-glycol and propy­ lene-glycol based coolants are mixed in the vehicle. Only use an antifreeze containing ALUGARD 340-2 ® such as Mopar Antifreeze. i t con­ tracts and creates a vacuum in the cooling system.10 COOLING SYSTEM D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N {Continued) prevents freezing down to -67. Also. F) for ethylene-gly­ col. 21). The increased temperature can result In engine detona­ tion. C (-8 deg. F ). C (-90 deg. Use of propylene-glycol can result in boil-over or freeze-up in Chrysler vehicles. A higher percentage will freeze at a warmer tempera­ ture. I f coolant becomes contaminated or looses color. This can increase cylinder head temperatures under cer­ tain conditions. The boiling point (protection against summer boil-over) of propyleneglycol is 125 deg. as the cor­ rosion inhibitive additives in ethylene-glycol require the presence of water to dissolve. 5 deg. which releases pressure at some point within a range of 97-124 kPa (14-18 psi). C (257 deg. Propylene-glycol/ethylene-glycol Mixtures can cause the destabilization of various corrosion inhibi­ tors. I f the vacuum valve is stuck shut.7 deg. 100 percent ethylene-glycol freezes at 22 deg. Propylene-glycol/Ethylene-glycol Mixtures—Should Not Be Used in Chrysler Vehicles COOLANT SELECTION-ADDITIVES The presence of aluminum components in the cool­ ing system requires strict corrosion protection. Fig. drain and flush cooling system and fill with correctly mixed solution. This temperature is hot enough to melt plastic and soften solder.7 . RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP Radiators are equipped with a pressure cap. Both the refractive index and spe­ cific gravity differ between ethylene glycol and propy­ lene glycol. causing damage to the various cooling system components. 21 Radiator Pressure Cap and Filler Typical Neck- A vent valve in the center of cap allows a small coolant flow through cap when coolant is below boil­ ing temperature. a higher percentage of antifreeze. The cooling system will operate at pressures slightly above atmospheric pressure. Propylene glycol also has poorer heat transfer characteristics than ethylene glycol. compared to 128 deg. I t also maintains vacuum during coolant cool-down allowing coolant to return from reserve/ overflow tank. CAUTION: Richer antifreeze mixtures cannot be measured with normal field equipment and can cause problems associated with 100 percent ethyl­ ene-glycol. 21) contains a spring-loaded pressure relief valve that opens when system pressure reaches release range of 97-124 kPa (14-18 psi). F ) at 96. conventional methods of determining freeze point will not be accurate.5 kPa (14 psi). The valve is completely closed when boiling point is reached. C (263 deg. . It's overall effec­ tive temperature range is smaller than that of ethyl­ ene-glycol. C (-26 deg. This results in a higher coolant boiling point allowing increased radi­ ator cooling capacity. The cap (Fig. This causes the vacuum valve to open and coolant in the reserve/overflow tank to be drawn through its connecting hose into radiator. A rubber gasket seals radiator filler neck to pre­ vent leakage. F). The deposits act as insulation. This is done to keep system under pressure. Clean the vent valve (Fig.. causing temperatures to rise to as high as 149 deg. As the coolant cools. C higher than ethylene-glycol's freeze point. Also. 111 Percent Ethylene-Glycol—Should Not Be Used in Chrysler Vehicles Use of 100 percent ethylene-glycol will cause for­ mation of additive deposits in the system. The freeze point of 50/50 propylene-glycol and water is -32 deg. F). The pressure relief point (in pounds) is engraved on top of cap. the radiator hoses will collapse on cooldown. Main­ tain coolant at specified level with a mixture of ethylene glycol based antifreeze and water. Propylene-glycol Formulations—Should lot le Used in Chrysler Vehicles Propylene-glycol formulations do not meet Chrysler coolant specifications. In addition. CAUTION: Do not use coolant additives that are claimed to improve engine cooling. F). C (300) deg. which are designed for ethylene-glycol. can cause the engine to overheat because the specific heat of antifreeze is lower than that of water.

AND V-10 ENGINES A centrifugal water pump circulates coolant through the water jackets. The water pump impeller Is pressed onto the rear of a' shaft that rotates In a bearing pressed into the water pump body. If replacement is necessary. Inspect the hoses at regular intervals. 23 Hose Clamp Tool—Typical COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW SYSTEM The coolant reserve/overflow system works i n con­ junction with the radiator pressure cap. fan blades.) torque. Ordinary worm gear type hose clamps (when equipped) can be removed with a straight screw­ driver or a hex socket. Check clearance from exhaust manifolds and pipe. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES.BR COOLING SYSTEM 7 . use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter. intake manifold and heater core. An automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 22) is used to prevent the belt from slipping. The pump is driven from the engine crankshaft by a drive belt. feel brittle when squeezed or swell excessively when system is pressurized. This is done without removing the radiator pressure cap. SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. lbs. The water pump seals are lubricated by antifreeze in the' coolant mixture. 22). ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC­ ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. For all vehicles: In areas where specific routing clamps are not provided. I t also provides a convenient and safe method for checking coolant level and adjusting level at atmospheric pressure. 24). V-8. from water pump suction at moderate and high engine speeds. 23). USE ONLY J9207-36 Fig. be sure that hoses are posi­ tioned with sufficient clearance. passages. drive belts and sway bars.11 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION { C o n t i n u e d } WATER PUMPS—V-6. Do not over tighten hose clamps. Additional lubrica­ tion is not necessary. the hose clamps should be tightened to 4 N»m (34 in. When performing a hose inspection.9L Diesel—Typical shown) (non-A/C COOLING SYSTEM HOSES AND CLAMPS Rubber hoses • route coolant to and from the radia­ tor. HOSE CLAMP HOSE Fig.9L DIESEL The diesel engine water pump draws coolant from radiator outlet and circulates It through engine. Radiator lower hoses are spring-reinforced to prevent collapse. To prevent damage to hoses or clamps. cooling system hoses and heater core. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING. The use of molded replacement hoses is recommended. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (Fig. WATER PUMP—5. radiator core. I t provides a volume for expansion and contraction of coolant. . inspect radiator lower hose for proper position and condition of spring. Improperly positioned hoses can be damaged. TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. The crank­ shaft pulley drives the water pump with a serpentine drive belt (Fig. 22 Water Pump—5. Replace hoses that are cracked. heater core and back to radiator Inlet. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. resulting in coolant loss and engine overheating. The system also provides some reserve coolant to the radiator to cover minor leaks and evaporation or boiling losses. Intake manifold. I t utilizes thermal expansion and contraction of coolant to keep coolant free of trapped air. The body has a small hole for ven­ tilation.

25). On 3. On the 8.0L V-10 Engine Except Fig.0L V-10 engine the tank is mounted to right inner fender (Fig. 27 Viscous Fan Drive—Gas Engines .2L/5.9L gas engines and the 5.9L/5.9L diesel engine. 25 Coolant Reserve/Overflow Tank—All 8. 26 Coolant Reserve/Overflow TankS. 28)is a silicone-fluid.7 . This is done at low engine speeds while limiting the top speed of the fan to a predetermined maximum level at higher engine speeds. The coupling allows the fan to be driven in a normal manner. 24 damp Number/Letter Location As the engine cools. FAN BLADE ASSEMBLY THREADED NUT WATER PUMP PULLEY WATER PUMP COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW \ ALIGNMENT PIN FAN SHROUD THREADED SHAFT (WATER PUMP HUB) J9407-36 VISCOUS FAN DRIVE CRANKSHAFT PULLEY J9307-32 Fig.OL TYPICAL HOSE V-10 Engine CLAMP NUMBER/LETTER LOCATION J9407-39 Fig. T-SLOTS Refer to Coolant Level Check—Service. the coolant reserve/overflow tank is mounted to the side of the fan shroud (Fig.filled coupling used to connect the fan blades to the water pump shaft. 27) (Fig. it can be cleaned with detergent and water. Cool­ ant will then be drawn from the coolant tank and returned to a proper level in the radiator.12 COOLING SYSTEM BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) TYPICAL CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMP IGNITION CONTROL MODULE (ICM) COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK TANK MOUNTING BOLTS (3) ICM MOUNTING BOLTS (2) J948D-21 Fig. Rinse tank thoroughly before refilling cooling system as described in the Coolant section of this group. 26). Should the reserve/overflow tank become coated with corrosion. VISCOUS FAN DRIVE The thermal viscous fan drive (Fig. Deaeration and Radiator Pressure Cap sections in this group for coolant reserve/overflow system operation and service. a vacuum is formed in the cooling system of both the radiator and engine.

CAUTION: If the viscous fan drive is replaced because of mechanical damage. the radiator discharge temperature will drop. This lamp is displayed on the instrument panel as the CHECK ENGINE lamp (Fig. This is when the air flowing through the radiator core causes a reaction to the bimetallic coil. 28 Viscous Fan Drive—Diesel Engine DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD) FOR CERTAIN COMPONENTS COOLING SYSTEM A thermostatic bimetallic spring coil is located on the front face of the viscous fan drive unit (a typical viscous unit is shown In (Fig. This spring coil reacts to the temperature of the radiator discharge air. 30). CAUTION: . DTC number I f is not used with diesel powered engines. the cooling fan blades should also be inspected. The bimetallic coil again reacts and the fan speed is reduced to the previous disengaged speed. Fig. Inspect for fatigue cracks. It then increases fan speed to provide the necessary additional engine cooling. Until additional engine cooling is necessary the fan will remain at a reduced rpm regardless of engine speed. such as with a stuck open thermostat. Replace fan blade assembly If any of these conditions are found. Fig. Fig. 29 Viscous Fan Drive—Typical Only when sufficient heat is present. loose blades. will the vis­ cous fan drive engage. MOUNTING NUT T O WATER PUMP The powertrain control module (PCM) has been programmed to monitor certain cooling system com­ ponents on gasoline powered engines only: • I f the engine has remained cool for too long a period. Installation of the wrong fan or viscous fan drive can result in engine overheating. I t engages the viscous fan drive for higher fan speed i f the air temperature from the radiator rises above a certain point. Also inspect water pump bearing and shaft assembly for any related damage due to a viscous fan drive malfunction.Some engines equipped with serpentine drive belts have reverse rotating fans and viscous fan drives. a Diag­ nostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 can be observed at the malfunction indicator lamp.BR D E S C R I P T I O N AND O P E R A T I O N (Continued) THREADED COOLING SYSTEM 7 -13 Once the engine has cooled. 29). or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. 30 Check Engine Lamp Location . They are marked with the word REVERSE to designate their usage.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM OVERHEATING A stored Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) can be dis­ played by cycling the ignition key On-Off-On-Off-On within three seconds and observing the malfunction indicator lamp. A DTC Indicates that the PCM has recognized an abnormal signal in a circuit or the system. The criteria may be a specific range of engine rpm. a flashing Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 12 is indicated. I f this code is observed. refer to the appro­ priate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual. They can also be displayed through the use of the Diagnostic Readout Box (DRB) scan tool. pauses and flashes 2 more times. Establish what driving conditions caused the com­ plaint. This may be: • Engine adjustments (incorrect timing) • Slipping engine accessory drive belt(s) • Brakes (possibly dragging) « Changed parts. but never Iden­ tify the failed component directly. I f the problem Is repaired or ceases to exist. SLIGHT TAIL WIND AT IDLE. other DTCs may have been erased. ACCESSING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES • I f the lamp flashes 1 time. Driving techniques that avoid overheating are: • Idle with A/C off when temperature gauge is at end of normal range. Do not exceed limits. 30). For operation of the DRB. refer to following Cooling System Diagnosis charts. (2) TRAILER TOWING: Consult Trailer Towing section of owners manual. In either case. SLOW TRAFFIC. Certain criteria must be met for a DTC to be entered Into PCM memory.Board Diagnostics (OBD) in Group 14. It is possible that a DTC for a monitored circuit may not be entered into memory even though a malfunction has occurred. refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual for operation of the DRB scan tool. After any stored DTC information has been observed. 31 Data Link Connector EXAMPLES: • I f the lamp (Fig. Fuel Systems for additional information. i t is indicating that the battery has been disconnected within the last 50 key-on cycles. VERY HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE. ADD-ON OR AFTER MARKET: A maximum cooling package should have been ordered with vehicle i f add-on or after market A/C is installed. 31) located at the lower edge of instrument panel near the steering column. • Increasing engine speed for more air flow is rec­ ommended. a DTC is stored. the display will end with a flashing DTC number 55. (4) RECENT SERVICE OR ACCIDENT REPAIR: Determine i f any recent service has been per­ formed on vehicle that may effect cooling system. This will indicate the end of all stored information. maximum cooling system compo­ nents should be installed for model involved per manufacturer's specifications. ERASING TROUBLE CODES After the problem has been repaired. I f not. Abnormal loads on the cooling system such as the following may be the cause: (1) PROLONGED IDLE. . use the DRB scan tool to erase a DTC. I t could also indicate that battery voltage has been dis­ connected to the PCM. engine temperature and/or Input voltage to the PCM. HIGH SPEED OR STEEP GRADES. (3) AIR CONDITIONING. 30) flashes 1 time. 16-WAY DATA LINK CONNECTOR 805dd852 Fig. a flashing Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 is indicated. Incorrect water pump or pump rotat­ ing in wrong direction due to belt not correctly routed • Reconditioned radiator or cooling system refill­ ing (possibly under filled or air trapped in system). pauses and flashes 7 more times. the PCM can­ cels the DTC after 51 engine starts.7 -14 COOLING SYSTEM BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) I f the problem Is sensed in a monitored circuit often enough to indicate an actual problem. TRAFFIC JAMS. The DRB con­ nects to the data link connector (Fig. NOTE: If investigation reveals none of the previous items as a cause for an engine overheating complaint. This lamp is displayed on the instru­ ment panel as the CHECK ENGINE lamp (Fig. The DTC will be stored In the PCM memory for eventual display to the service technician. DRB SCAN TOOL For operation of the DRB scan tool. Refer to On. A DTC may indicate the result of a failure.

Coolant low in coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator? 5. Replace thermostat if necessary. The gauge should return to the normal range. Pressure cap not installed tightly. Repair as necessary. Replace cap if necessary. Refer to the Coolant section of the manual text for WARNINGS and precautions before removing the radiator cap. Check coolant level in the coolant reserve/overflow tank and the radiator. Has a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 been set indicating a stuck open engine thermostat? CORRECTION 1. determine the cause for overheating and repair. Repair as necessary. Trailer is being towed. Is temperature warning lamp (if equipped) illuminating unnecessarily? 4. 2. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. Refer to Radiator Cap. (a) Check condition of cap and cap seals. Higher altitudes could aggravate these conditions. Refer to Group 24. Refer to Group 8E. This may be a temporary condition and repair is not necessary. Coolant level low in cold ambient temperatures accompanied with poor heater performance. or engine is being idled with very high ambient (outside) temperatures and the air conditioning is on. Improper operation of internal heater doors or heater controls. Refer to Group 8E. boiling point of coolant will be lowered. Refer to Group 8E. Check gauge. 3. Refer to POSSIBLE CAUSES (numbers 2 through 20). Also refer to the following step 6. 2. Poor seals at radiator cap. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS HIGH OR ENGINE COOLANT WARNING LAMP 1. If the gauge does not return to normal range. If neck is bent or damaged. Refer to Group 8E. 6. Turn off the air conditioning and attempt to drive the vehicle without any of the previous conditions. Repair leaks as necessary. If a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 has not been set. Repair as necessary. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in the service manual text. the problem may be with the temperature gauge. Is the temperature gauge (if equipped) connected to the temperature gauge coolant sensor on the engine? 3. 5. a steep hill is being climbed. Check the engine temperature sensor connector in the engine compartment. Check for coolant leaks and repair as necessary. Observe the temperature gauge. Tighten cap. ILLUMINATES. 4. READS LOW 2. Repair as necessary. 3. COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT BE LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING SYSTEM 6. Heating and Air Conditioning for procedures. t J9507-41 . Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. replace radiator. Is temperature gauge (if equipped) reading correctly? 3. 4. Inspect system for leaks. Inspect heater and repair as necessary. Check gauge operation. Check warning lamp operation. If cap is loose. vehicle is operated in slow moving traffic. 5. 1. 2. 5.BR — — — COOLING SYSTEM 7 -15 DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS CONDITION TEMPERATURE GAUGE POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Is the temperature gauge (if equipped) operating OK? 4.

Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. This is more prevalent on high mileage vehicles. or cooling system has leaks. 18. Mixture may be too rich. Replace cap if necessary. Check heater core for leaks. 10. Have radiator re-cored or replaced. Aftermarket A/C installed without proper radiator. Dragging brakes. replace radiator. 12. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. Refer to Group 5. Also refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual for operation of the DRB scan tool. 19. Bug screen is being used reducing airflow. Brakes in the manual text. Refer to Thermostats in this group. determine reason for lack of flow and repair as necessary. 9. Check for coolant flow at radiator filler neck with some coolant removed. 8. This means the radiator is not drawing coolant from the coolant reserve/overflow tank as the engine cools. 15. 13. (d) Check coolant reserve/overflow tank and tank hoses for blockage. Radiator core is corroded or plugged. Check fan drive operation and replace if necessary. Repair as necessary. Refer to Group 24. Adjust antifreeze-to-water ratio as required. 17. POSSIBLE CAUSES . Remove bug screen. Radiator or A/C condenser fins are dirty or clogged. Repair as necessary. Coolant should be observed flowing through radiator. Check and correct as necessary. 16. Check thermostat operation and replace as necessary. Thermal viscous fan drive not operating properly. Fuel or ignition system problems. Coolant level low in radiator but not in coolant reserve/overflow tank. 14.16 COOLING SYSTEM BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM CONDITION DIAGNOSIS—ALL EXCEPT DIESEL CORRECTION 7. Replace hose if necessary. Check antifreeze. Install proper radiator. J9507-50 . If flow is not observed. If neck is bent or damaged.7 . engine warm and thermostat open. a vacuum is formed in the cooling system of the engine and radiator. Refer to Fuel and Ignition System groups for diagnosis. Clean insects or debris. 13. Coolant not flowing through system. (c) Check the condition of the hose from the radiator to the coolant tank. 8. refer to Group 9. (a) Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. Check for cylinder head gasket leaks. Thermostat partially or completely shut. 15. 9. If radiator cap seals are defective. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS HIGH OR ENGINE COOLANT WARNING LAMP ILLUMINATES. 14. 12. As the engine cools. 19. 16. 10. a vacuum can not be formed. It should fit tight at both ends without any kinks or tears. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 11. COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT BE LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING SYSTEM . Heating and Air Conditioning. Engines. Freeze point of antifreeze not correct. Refer to Coolant section of this group. 17. For repair.CONT. 11. Heater core leaking. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. 18. Cylinder head gasket leaking.

The gauge should return to normal range after a few minutes of engine operation. A normal condition. 7. the gauge reading may drop slightly. corroded or loose wiring in this circuit.BR — — — COOLING SYSTEM 7 -17 D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS—ALL EXCEPT DIESEL—CONTINUED CORRECTION 1. Gauge reading high after re­ starting a warmed-up (hot) engine. Inspect for white steam emitting from exhaust system. 5. 1. Loose accessory drive belt (water pump slipping). J9507-51 . Gauge reading should return to normal range after vehicle is driven. Gauge reading rises when vehicle is brought to a stop after heavy use (engine still running). GAUGE IS READING HIGH OR HOT 1. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 6. Also. 3. 8. cooling system hoses. Check and correct coolant leaks. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING MAY BE ABOVE NORMAL BUT NOT HIGH. 3. PRESSURE CAP IS BLOWING OFF STEAM AND/OR COOLANT TO COOLANT TANK. Check and correct as necessary. Check water pump and replace as necessary. Coolant leaks in radiator. (b) Check for coolant in the engine oil. 7. 6. CYCLES OR IS ERRATIC) 2. 4. (a) Check for cylinder head gasket leaks with a commercially available Block Leak Tester. Refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. Repair as necessary. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING IS INCONSISTENT (FLUCTUATES. Replace cap as necessary. Check operation of gauge and repair if necessary. Pressure relief valve in radiator cap is defective. COOLANT LEVEL MAY BE HIGH IN COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK COOLANT LOSS TO THE GROUND WITHOUT PRESSURE CAP BLOWOFF. A normal condition. water pump or engine. Refer to Water Pumps in this group. A normal condition. 9. Repair as necessary. 8. No correction is necessary. 9. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. Water pump impeller loose on shaft. Refer to Group 8E. 1. Locate leak and repair as necessary. Temperature gauge or engine mounted gauge sensor defective or shorted. Coolant level low in radiator (air will build up in the cooling system causing the thermostat to open late). 2. Instrument Panel And Gauges. 5. No correction is necessary. with the heater blower in the high position. 1. No correction is necessary. Pressure test and repair as necessary. CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Refer to Radiator Caps in this group. During cold weather operation. Air leak on the suction side of water pump allows air to build up in cooling system causing thermostat to open late. 4. Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. Cylinder head gasket leaking allowing exhaust gas to enter cooling system causing thermostat to open late.

Remove obstructions and/or clean debris or insects from radiator or A/C condenser. leaves etc. 2. Engine is overheating (heat may be transferred from radiator to A/C condenser. (d) Reserve/overflow tank is internally blocked or plugged. Check for missing or damaged air seals and repair as necessary. 4. Thermal viscous fan drive is free­ wheeling. Some models with certain engines are equipped with air seals at the radiator and/or A/C condenser. 4. Thermal viscous fan drive has defective bearing. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. Replace fan drive. 5. J9507-52 . 2. Engine overheating. Replace fan blade assembly. 1. 3.). not enough air flow will be pulled through the radiator and A/C condenser. obstructed or dirty (insects. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group for an explanation of normal fan noise. Repair as necessary. 3. Cooling. INADEQUATE AIR CONDITIONER PERFORMANCE (COOLING SYSTEM SUSPECTED) 1. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. 2. Freeze point of antifreeze not correct. Check antifreeze. Locate point of fan blade contact and repair as necessary. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. Remove restriction and/or clean as necessary. 3. 1. 2. Correct overheating condition. Bearing is not serviceable. (b) Hose between coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator is kinked. Repair as necessary. 3. NOISY FAN 1. (c) Vent at coolant reserve/overflow tank is plugged.D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G ( C o n t i n u e d ) COOLING S Y S T E M DIAGNOSIS—ALL EXCEPT DIESEL—CONTINUED CORRECTION 1. Some of this noise is normal. Fan blades loose. Check for blockage and repair as necessary. Refer to Cooling System Fans in this group. Air obstructions at radiator or air conditioning condenser. 5. A certain amount of fan noise (roaring) may be evident on models equipped with a thermal viscous fan drive. CONDITION DETONATION OR PREIGNITION (NOT CAUSED BY IGNITION SYSTEM). GAUGE MAYOR MAY NOT BE READING HIGH HOSE OR HOSES COLLAPSE WHEN ENGINE IS COOLING POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Check reason for overheating and repair as necessary. 4. Refer to the Coolant section of this group. 4. 1. Mixture is too rich or too lean. (a) Radiator cap relief valve stuck. Adjust antifreezeto-water ratio as required. Replace if necessary. If these seals are missing or damaged. 2. Radiator and/or A/C condenser is restricted. Clean vent and repair as necessary. 2. Refer to text in Group 7. 1. Vacuum created in cooling system on engine cool-down is not being relieved through coolant reserve/overflow system. Fan blades striking a surrounding object. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive for diagnosis. High underhood temperatures due to engine overheating may also transfer heat to A/C components).

Repair as necessary.detected. Repair as necessary. HEAT ODOR 1. 4. DTCs may also be checked using the DRB scan tool. good vehicle emissions and for preventing build-up of engine oil sludge. 2. Some models with certain engines are equipped with a water control valve located on one of the heater hoses. INADEQUATE HEATER PERFORMANCE. Locate missing shields and replace or repair as necessary. Clean undercoating as necessary. 2. the water pump may not be operating correctly. When the engine is fully warmed up.19 D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G COOLING S Y S T E M DIAGNOSIS—ALL CONDITION POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. . Repair as necessary. Remove heater hoses at both ends and check for obstructions. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in the manual text. 3. Heater hose kinked. necessary. If only one of the hoses is hot. Repair as. One or more of these shields may be missing. Coolant level low. Refer to Group 24. Refer to Water Pumps in this group. J9507-53 . Various heat shields are used at certain drive line components. Repair as necessary. 4. 4. 1. Refer to the proper Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures service manual for checking the thermostat using the DRB scan tool. Repair as necessary. Locate kinked area and repair as necessary. Refer to the previous Temperature Gauge Reads High in these Diagnosis Charts. Repair as necessary. Replace thermostat if necessary. Is cooling fan operating correctly? 4. Repair as necessary. For proper driveability. Refer to the DRB scan tool and the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual.BR — — — (Continued) EXCEPT DIESEL—CONTINUED COOLING SYSTEM 7 . GAUGE MAY BE READING LOW 1. 1. Has a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) number 17 been set? 2. POOR DRIVEABILITY (THERMOSTAT POSSIBLY STUCK OPEN). 5. refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. Is temperature gauge reading above the normal range? 3. both heater hoses should be hot to the touch. Heating and Air Conditioning for diagnosis. Has undercoating been applied to any unnecessary component? 5. CORRECTION 1. THERMOSTAT FAILED IN OPEN POSITION 3. Obstructions in heater hose fittings at engine. 5. Water pump is not pumping water to heater core. Refer to Cooling System Fan in this group for diagnosis. If a slipping belt is . Has a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) number 17 been set? 6. the thermostat must be operating properly. 6. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in this group. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in the manual text and replace thermostat if necessary. 3. Engine may be running rich causing the catalytic converter to overheat. This valve may be defective. The accessory drive belt may also be slipping causing poor water pump operation. 5. 2.

COOLANT LEVEL CHANGES IN COOLANT RESERVE/ OVERFLOW TANK. This opening allows heated water into the radiator. AND VEHICLE IS STATIONARY. Coolant color is not necessarily an indication of adequate corrosion or temperature protection. Refer to Coolant in this group for antifreeze tests. If the level in the tank was between the FULL and ADD marks at normal engine operating temperature. DIESEL—CONTINUED Correction 1. A normal condition. Level changes are to be expected as coolant volume fluctuates with engine temperature.20 COOLING SYSTEM — BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM Condition STEAM IS COMING FROM FRONT OF VEHICLE NEAR GRILL AREA WHEN WEATHER IS WET. the level should return to within that range after operation at elevated temperatures. moisture (snow. 1. Occasional steam emitting from this area is normal. No repair is necessary. Adjust antifreeze-towater ratio as necessary. 1. steam may be emitted. ice or rain condensation) on the radiator will evaporate when the thermostat opens. Do not rely on coolant color for determining condition of coolant. J9507-55 . COOLANT COLOR 1. This usually occurs in cold weather with no fan or airflow to blow it away. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE 1.7 . No repair is necessary. During wet weather. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE DIAGNOSIS—ALL EXCEPT Possible Causes 1. ENGINE IS WARMED UP AND RUNNING. When the moisture contacts the hot radiator.

Repair leaks as necessary. Check the engine temperature sensor connector in the engine compartment. CORRECTION 1. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 5. . COOLING SYSTEM 7 . Refer to Group 8E. Refer to the Coolant section of the manual text for WARNINGS and precautions before removing the radiator cap.BR . Refer to POSSIBLE CAUSES (numbers 2 through 17). 5. J9507-57 . 2. 1. This may be a temporary condition and repair is not necessary. Is the temperature gauge operating OK? 4. 2. Inspect system for leaks. Refer to Group 8E. If the gauge does not return to normal range. replace radiator. Heating and Air Conditioning for procedures. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. Check gauge operation. See Thermostat Diagnosis .Diesel Engine. (a) Check condition of cap and cap seals. or engine is being idled with very high ambient (outside) temperatures and the air conditioning is on. The gauge should return to the normal range. vehicle is operated in slow moving traffic. Turn off the air conditioning and attempt to drive the vehicle without any of the previous conditions. COOLANT MAY OR MAY NOT BE LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING SYSTEM 1.21 DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS—DIESEL ENGINE CONDITION TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS LOW POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Coolant low in coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator? 4. Repair as necessary. Trailer is being towed. 3. boiling point of coolant will be lowered. Pressure cap not installed tightly. determine the cause for overheating and repair. Refer to Group 8E. If neck is bent or damaged. Inspect heater and repair as necessary. Tighten cap. Repair as necessary. 2. Higher altitudes could aggravate these conditions. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS HIGH. Coolant level low in cold ambient temperatures accompanied with poor heater performance. 5. Refer to thermostats in the manual text for information. Improper operation of internal heater doors or heater controls. Is the temperature gauge connected to the temperature gauge coolant sensor on the engine? 3. 2. Refer to Group 24. 4. Observe the temperature gauge. due to their inherent efficiency are slower to warm up than gasoline powered engines. Check for coolant leaks and repair as necessary. 3. Check gauge. 5. a steep hill is being climbed. 4. Replace cap if necessary. Poor seals at radiator cap. Refer to Radiator Cap. Is temperature gauge reading correctly? 3. . Diesel engines. If cap is loose. Also refer to the following step 5. and will operate at lower temperatures when the vehicle is unloaded. Repair as necessary. Check coolant level in the coolant reserve/overflow tank and the radiator. The low gauge reading may be normal.

a vacuum is formed in the cooling system of the engine and radiator. 15. 12. Have radiator re-cored or replaced.22 COOLING SYSTEM BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM CONDITION TEMPERATURE GAUGE READS HIGH. Check and correct as necessary. Radiator or A/C condenser fins are dirty or clogged. 14. If flow is not observed. Refer to Thermostats in this group. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 13. If neck is bent or damaged. Check fan drive operation and replace if necessary. For repair. Repair as necessary. Adjust antifreeze-to-water ratio as required. Refer to Coolant section of this group. It should fit tight at both ends without any kinks or tears. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. Thermal viscous fan drive not operating properly. 14. or cooling system has leaks. Refer to Group 5. Remove bug screen. This means the radiator is not drawing coolant from the coolant reserve/overflow tank as the engine cools. (c) Check the condition of the hose from the radiator to the coolant tank. 10. 11. Thermostat partially or completely shut. determine reason for lack of flow and repair as necessary. 17. Coolant not flowing through system. J9507-58 . Check for coolant flow at radiator filler neck with some coolant removed. 12. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. If radiator cap seals are defective. Cylinder head gasket leaking. 7. refer to Group 9. Dragging brakes. 9. 10. Replace hose if necessary. COOLANT DIAGNOSIS—DIESEL ENGINE—CONTINUED CORRECTION 6. Heater core leaking. 15. Brakes in the manual text. Freeze point of antifreeze not correct. POSSIBLE CAUSES 6. 11. Engines. 17. Coolant should be observed flowing through radiator. 16. MAY OR MAY NOT BE LOST OR LEAKING FROM COOLING SYSTEM . 16. Radiator core is corroded or plugged. 7. Replace cap if necessary. Coolant level low in radiator but not in coolant reserve/overflow tank. Heating and Air Conditioning. (d) Check coolant reserve/overflow tank and tank hoses for blockage. Bug screen is being used reducing airflow. Check heater core for leaks. replace radiator. 9.7 . 8. Check antifreeze. (a) Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. 8. As the engine cools. Clean insects or debris.CONT. a vacuum can not be formed. Repair as necessary. Install proper radiator. (b) Check condition of radiator filler neck. This is more prevalent on high mileage vehicles. Check thermostat operation and replace as necessary. Aftermarket A/C installed without proper radiator. Mixture may be too rich. engine warm and thermostat open. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. Refer to Group 24. 13. Check for cylinder head gasket leaks.

Gauge reading high after re­ starting a warmed-up (hot) engine. During cold weather operation. Pressure relief valve in radiator cap is defective. J9507-59 . Refer to Water Pumps in this group. 1. 1. Replace cap as necessary. COOLANT LEVEL MAY BE HIGH IN COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK COOLANT LOSS TO THE GROUND WITHOUT PRES­ SURE CAP BLOWOFF. A normal condition. Repair as necessary. 8. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. cooling system hoses. 5. Coolant level low in radiator (air will build up in the cooling system causing the thermostat to open late). Pressure test and repair as necessary. Cylinder head gasket leaking allowing exhaust gas to enter cooling system causing thermostat to open late. 5. Check operation of gauge and repair if necessary.BR — — — — — — COOLING SYSTEM 7 . Gauge reading should return to normal range after vehicle is driven. Temperature gauge or engine mounted gauge sensor defective or shorted. 6. 3. the gauge reading may drop slightly. corroded or loose wiring in this circuit. (b) Check for coolant in the engine oil.23 DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM CONDITION DIAGNOSIS—DIESEL ENGINE—CONTINUED POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. Locate leak and repair as necessary. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING IS INCONSISTENT (FLUCTUATES. 9. with the heater blower in the high position. AND/OR COOLANT TO COOLANT TANK. 6. (a) Check for cylinder head gasket leaks with a commercially available Block Leak Tester. Check condition of radiator cap and cap seals. 9. 4. A normal condition. 7. Loose accessory drive belt (water pump slipping). Air leak on the suction side of water pump allows air to build up in cooling system causing thermostat to open late. Also. TEMPERATURE GAUGE READING MAY BE ABOVE NORMAL BUT NOT HIGH. Refer to Radiator Caps in this group. PRESSURE CAP IS BLOWING OFF STEAM 1. Gauge reading rises when vehicle is brought to a stop after heavy use (engine still running). Refer to Group 8E. 2. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in this group. 8. 3. 7. Inspect for white steam emitting from exhaust system. Water pump impeller loose on shaft. 4. outside temperature and extended idle time with diesel engines. Instrument Panel And Gauges. No correction is necessary. Check and correct coolant leaks. A normal condition. CORRECTION 1. water pump or engine. Repair as necessary. Check and correct as necessary. Check water pump and replace as necessary. Fluctuation is also influenced by loads. The gauge should return to normal range after a few minutes of engir 5 operation. CYCLES OR IS ERRATIC) 2. No correction is necessary. No correction is necessary. Coolant leaks in radiator. GAUGE IS READING HIGH OR HOT 1.

3. 1. Some models with certain engines are equipped with air seals at the radiator and/or A/C condenser. Remove restriction and/or clean as necessary. Cooling. . 1. 3. Check for blockage and repair as necessary. If these seals are missing or damaged. 2. Repair as necessary. High underhood temperatures due to engine overheating may also transfer heat to A/C components). Correct overheating condition. 2. Remove obstructions and/or clean debris or insects from radiator or A/C condenser. Replace fan blade assembly. CORRECTION 1. (c) Vent at coolant reserve/overflow tank is plugged. 4. Some of this noise is normal. 5. Thermal viscous fan drive has defective bearing. 2. Clean vent and repair a: necessary. (b) Hose between coolant reserve/overflow tank and radiator is kinked.24 COOLING SYSTEM — — — BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM CONDITION DIAGNOSIS—DIESEL ENGINE—CONTINUED POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Air obstructions at radiator or air conditioning condenser. (a) Radiator cap relief valve stuck. Repair as necessary. HOSE OR HOSES COLLAPSE WHEN ENGINE IS COOLING NOISY FAN 1. not enough air flow will be pulled through the radiator and A/C condenser. Radiator and/or A/C condenser is restricted. INADEQUATE AIR CONDITIONER PERFORMANCE (COOLING SYSTEM SUSPECTED) 1. Fan blades loose. leaves etc. 3. Refer to Radiator Cleaning in this group. Bearing is not serviceable. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. Engine is overheating (heat may be transferred from radiator to A/C condenser. Refer to Radiator Cap in this group. Refer to Cooling System Fans in this group. Refer to text in Group 7. 4.). Fan blades striking a surrounding object. Replace if necessary. A certain amount of fan noise (roaring) may be evident on models equipped with a thermal viscous fan drive. 5.7 . Check for missing or damaged air seals and repair as necessary. obstructed or dirty (insects. Replace fan drive. J9507-60 . Locate point of fan blade contact and repair as necessary. (d) Reserve/overflow tank is internally blocked or plugged. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group for an explanation of normal fan noise. Vacuum created in cooling system on engine cool-down is not being relieved through coolant reserve/overflow system. 4. 2. Thermal viscous fan drive is free­ wheeling. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive for diagnosis. 3. 4.

Refer to Cooling System Fan in this group for diagnosis. MAYBE ACCOMPANIED BY LOW GAUGE READING DIAGNOSIS—DIESEL ENGINE—CONTINUED CORRECTION 1. Has undercoating been applied to any unnecessary component? 2. See Thermostat Diagnosis . Repair as necessary. 1.25 D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM CONDITION INADEQUATE HEATER PERFORMANCE. Clean undercoating as necessary. Coolant level low. Refer to the previous Temperature Gauge Reads High in these Diagnosis Charts. refer to Engine Accessory Drive Belts in this group. 4. Is temperature gauge reading above the normal range? 3. 5. 3. One or more of these shields may be missing. 2. the water pump may not be operating correctly. Is cooling fan operating correctly? 4. If a slipping belt is detected.Diesel Engine. both heater hoses should be hot to the touch. When the engine is fully warmed up. Water pump is not pumping water to heater core. If only one of the hoses is hot. due to their inherent efficiency are slower to warm up than gasoline powered engines. and will operate at lower temperatures when the vehicle is unloaded. 4. Repair as necessary. Repair as necessary. Repair as necessary. 4. 2. Repair as necessary. 3. Refer to Thermostats in the manual text for information.BR • • —— — • — — COOLING SYSTEM 7 . 5. Remove heater hoses at both ends and check for obstructions. HEAT ODOR 1. Obstructions in heater hose fittings at engine. Repair as necessary. 3. Refer to Testing Cooling System For Leaks in the manual text. POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Heater hose kinked. The accessory drive belt may also be slipping causing poor water pump operation. Locate missing shields and replace or repair as necessary. Refer to Water Pumps in this group. Various heat shields are used at certain drive line components. Locate kinked area and repair as necessary. The low gauge reading may be normal. 2. Diesel engines. J9507-61 .

26 COOLING SYSTEM — — — BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS—DIESEL ENGINE—CONTINUED Condition STEAM IS COMING FROM FRONT OF VEHICLE NEAR GRILL AREA WHEN WEATHER IS WET. Level changes are to be expected as coolant volume fluctuates with engine temperature. A normal condition.7 . ENGINE IS WARMED UP AND RUNNING. COOLANT LEVEL CHANGES IN COOLANT RESERVE/ OVERFLOW TANK. the level should return to within that range after operation at elevated temperatures. When the moisture contacts the hot radiator. 1. COOLANT COLOR 1. Coolant color is not necessarily an indication of adequate corrosion or temperature protection. This usually occurs In cold weather with no fan or airflow to blow it away. During wet weather. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE Possible Causes 1. steam may be emitted. Correction 1. No repair is necessary. J9507-55 . Adjust antifreeze-towater ratio as necessary. Refer to Coolant in this group for antifreeze tests. moisture (snow. Do not rely on coolant color for determining condition of coolant.' ice or rain condensation) on the radiator will evaporate when the thermostat opens. This opening allows heated water into the radiator. TEMPERATURE GAUGE IS IN NORMAL RANGE 1. 1. If the level in the tank was between the FULL and ADD marks at normal engine operating temperature. Occasional steam emitting from this area is normal. No repair is necessary. AND VEHICLE IS STATIONARY.

I f coolant is flowing past the exposed tubes. Start and operate engine until radiator upper hose is warm to touch. I f cams are bent. However. WARNING: HOT. Also inspect transmission dipstick for water globules and transmission fluid cooler for leakage. THIS WILL ALLOW ANY BUILT-UP PRESSURE TO VENT TO THE RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT METHOD A leak detection additive is available through the parts department that can be added to cooling sys­ tem. Push down on cap to disengage it from stop tabs.BR DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G ( C o n t i n u e d ) RADIATOR COOLANT FLOW TEST Use the following procedure to determine i f coolant is flowing through the cooling system. it will drain first because it is heavier than oil. replace as necessary. Seal small leak holes with a sealer lubricant (or equivalent). TESTING COOLING SYSTEM FOR LEAKS PRESSURE TESTER METHOD The engine should be at normal operating temper­ ature. Operate tester pump to apply 103. seating of pressure cap valve and tester seal will be affected. remove engine dipstick and inspect for water glob­ ules. Drops Quickly: Indicates that serious leakage is occurring. inspect for internal leakage. Pour one ounce of additive into cooling system.4 kPa (15 psi) pressure to system. . Examine system for external leakage. Inspect radiator-to. Examine all connections for seepage or slight leakage with a flashlight. dirt and solder residue. Inspect cams on outside of filler neck. gasket edges and heater. Idle the engine at normal operating temperature. The additive is highly visible under ultraviolet light (black light). Observe gauge pointer and determine condition of cooling sys­ tem according to following criteria: Holds Steady: I f pointer remains steady for two minutes. 32). cracks. the thermostat is opening and coolant is flow­ ing to the radiator.27 Testing Cooling System—Typical (2) Drain a small amount of coolant from the radi­ ator until the ends of the radiator tubes are visible through the filler neck. I f coolant is present in the pan. I f it is certain that coolant is being lost and leaks can- not be detected. I f leaks are not visible. 32 Pressure COOLING SYSTEM 7 . I f leaks are present. Recheck the system cold i f cause of coolant loss is not located during the warm engine examina­ tion. WARNING: HOT. Inspect radiator. there could be an internal leak that does not appear with normal system test pressure. hoses. The black light can be used in conjunction with a pressure tester to determine i f any external leaks exist (Fig. AFTER PRES­ SURE BUILD-UP HAS BEEN RELEASED. 33). black light will cause additive to glow a bright green color. REMOVE CAP FROM FILLER NECK. Repair leak holes and inspect system again with . paint. After this is done. Fig. Place heater control unit i n HEAT position. PRESSURIZED COOLANT CAN CAUSE INJURY BY SCALDING. Insert a wire through the hose to be sure i t is not obstructed. PRESSURIZED COOLANT CAN CAUSE INJURY BY SCALDING. Drops Slowly: Indicates a small leak or seepage is occurring. Replace cap i f cams are bent. Large radiator leak holes should be repaired by a reputable radiator repair shop. An alternative method is to operate engine for a short period to churn the oil. the coolant is circulating. INTERNAL LEAKAGE TEST Remove engine oil pan drain plug and drain a small amount of engine oil. Attach pressure tester (7700 or an equivalent) to radiator filler neck (Fig. USING A RAG TO COVER THE RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP. (1) Idle engine until operating temperature is reached. I f hoses enlarge excessively or bulges while testing. pressure applied. Aim the commercially available black light tool at components to be checked. inspect for interior leakage or per­ form Internal Leakage Test. Carefully remove radiator pressure cap from filler neck and check coolant level. OPEN RADIATOR CAP SLOWLY TO THE FIRST STOP. serious coolant leaks are not present i n sys­ tem. Wipe inside of filler neck and examine lower inside sealing seat for nicks. I f the upper radiator hose is warm to the touch.reserve/overflow tank hose for internal obstructions.

I f leakage appears excessive. TO R E L E A S E P R E S ­ S U R E . Coolant or steam from exhaust pipe may indicate a faulty cylinder head gas­ ket. WHEN REMOVING T E S T E R . ROCK T E S T E R FROM SIDE TO SIDE. This is usually the result of a cylinder head gasket leak or crack in engine. bubbles will appear in coolant. Add coolant to radiator to bring level to within 6. Do not operate engine for an excessive period of time. • Cool silicone fluid within the fan drive unit is being redistributed back to its normal disengaged (warm) position.7 . Drain sufficient coolant to allow thermostat removal. Because the vehicle is equipped with a catalytic converter. TESTING If the fan assembly free-wheels without drag (the fan blades will revolve more than five turns when . cracked engine cylinder block or cylinder head. P R E S S U R E WILL BUILD UP QUICKLY IF A COM­ BUSTION LEAK IS PRESENT. VISCOUS FAN DRIVE NOISE NOTE: It is normal for fan noise to be louder (roar­ ing) when: Operate engine without pressure cap on radiator until thermostat opens. replace the fan drive unit. I f bubbles do not appear. A convenient check for exhaust gas leakage into cooling system is provided by a commercially avail­ • The underhood temperature is above the engage­ ment point for the viscous drive coupling. Follow manufacturers instructions when using this product. Open draincock immediately after test to eliminate boil over. drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. do not remove spark plug cables or short out cylinders (non-diesel engines) to isolate compres­ sion leak.3 mm (1/4 in) of top of thermostat housing. This may occur when ambient (outside air temperature) is very high. If there is not an immediate pressure increase. If the needle on dial of pressure tester does not fluctuate. 88 Leak Detection Using Black Light—Typical WARNING: WITH COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURE T E S T E R TOOL INSTALLED ON RADIATOR. I f pressure builds up quickly it indicates a combustion leak exists. Attach a pressure tester to filler neck. to approximately 3000 rpm (2000 rpm for diesel) while observing coolant. Repair as necessary. CAUTION: Avoid overheating. COMBUSTION PRESSURE LEAKAGE TESTER TEST—WITHOUT DO NOT WASTE reusable coolant. • Engine loads and temperatures are high such as when towing a trailer. DO NOT ALLOW P R E S S U R E TO E X C E E D 110 KPA (20 PSI). Refer to Thermostat Replacement. DO NOT TURN T E S T E R MORE THAN 1/2 TURN IF SYSTEM IS UNDER P R E S S U R E . Discon­ nect water pump drive belt. Fluctuation of gauge pointer indicates compression or combustion leakage into cooling system. LEAKS Viscous fan drive operation is not affected by small oil stains near the drive bearing. pump the pressure tester.28 COOLING SYSTEM BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) able Block Leak Check tool. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. Do this until indicated pressure is within system range of 110 kPa (16 psi). I f solution is clean. This would be emitting from exhaust pipe. race engine a few times to check for an abnormal amount of coolant or steam. Start engine and accelerate rapidly three times. This can occur during the first 15 seconds to one minute after engine start-up on a cold engine. internal combustion gas leakage is not present. I f internal engine combustion gases are leaking into cooling system. Fig. WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE CYLINDER B L O C K DRAIN P L U G S OR L O O S E N RADIATOR DRAINC O C K WITH S Y S T E M HOT AND UNDER P R E S S U R E .

A definite decrease of fan flow noise (roaring) should be noticed.DO NOT STAND IN A DIRECT LINE WITH THE FAN. (2) Obtain a dial thermometer with an 8 inch stem (or equivalent). (6) NORMAL CRACKS BELT OK NOT NORMAL CRACKS REPLACE BELT * Fig.29 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING { C o n t i n u e d ) spun by hand). For the following test. remove the plastic sheet. replace the fan drive. DO NOT PUT YOUR HANDS NEAR THE PULLEYS. the cooling system must be in good condition. are considered normal. Fan drive engagement should have started to occur at between 7 4 ° to 8 2 ° C ( 1 6 5 ° to 1 8 0 ° F). I t should have a range of -18°-to1 0 5 ° C (0°-to-220° F).18-mm (1/8-in) diameter hole i n the CAUTION: If the viscous fan drive Is replaced because of mechanical . This spin test must be performed when the engine is cool. Fan drive disengage­ ment should have started to occur at between 5 7 ° to 7 9 ° C ( 1 3 5 ° to 1 7 5 ° F). Be sure that there is adequate clearance from the fan blades. (3) Connect a tachometer and an engine ignition timing light. Installation of the wrong fan or viscous fan drive can result in engine overheating. Inspect for fatigue cracks. loose blades. WARNING: USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN THE ENGINE IS OPERATING. The timing light also will indi­ cate an increase i n the speed of the fan (non-diesel only). Secure a sheet of plastic in front of the radiator (or air con­ ditioner condenser). WARNING. Start the engine and operate at 2 4 0 0 rpm. They are marked with the word REVERSE to designate their usage. This step cannot be used on the diesel engine. Also replace belt i f i t has excessive wear. The timing light is to be used as a strobe light. I f not. 34 Serpentine Accessory Patterns J9007-44 Drive Beit Wear CAUTION: Some engines equipped with serpentine drive belts have reverse rotating fans and viscous fan drives. (5) Be sure that the air conditioner (if equipped) is turned off. Within ten minutes the air temperature (indicated on the dial thermometer) should be up to 8 8 ° C ( 1 9 0 ° F). These are not a reason to replace belt. BELTS OR FAN. top center of the fan shroud.BR COOLING SYSTEM 7 . the cooling fan blades should also be inspected. BE SURE THAT THERE IS ADEQUATE FAN BLADE CLEARANCE BEFORE DRILLING. 3 4 ) . (1) Drill a 3. . (4) Block the air flow through the radiator. However. replace the defective viscous fan drive unit. Also refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner proceeding in this group. ( 7 ) When the air temperature reaches 8 8 ° C ( 1 9 0 ° F). Also inspect water pump bearing and shaft assembly for any related damage due to a viscous fan drive malfunction. cracks running along a rib (not across) are not normal. Engage­ ment is distinguishable by a definite increase i n fan flow noise (roaring). SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS—ALL ENGINES When diagnosing serpentine drive belts. Replace fan blade assembly if any of these conditions are found. Refer to the Serpentine Drive Belt Diagnosis chart for further belt diagnosis. I t also will ensure against exces­ sively high coolant temperature. 3 4 ) . Use tape at the top to secure the plastic and be sure that the air flow is blocked. Insert thermometer through the hole i n the shroud. Any belt with cracks running along a rib must be replaced (Fig. DO NOT WEAR LOOSE CLOTHING. frayed cords or severe glazing. damage. or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. small cracks that run across ribbed surface of belt from rib to rib (Fig.

Incorrect belt. Replace belt. 1. 1. Pulley(s) misaligned. 1. Check and replace. Bracket. 5. Replace belt. 2. 2. 1. Driven component bearing failure. Replace belt. Clean pulley(s). 4. Tensile member damaged during belt installation. Replace belt. Replace belt. Replace belt. 5. Replace fauity component bearing. Replace belt if necessary. Replace belt. Pulley misalignment. Belt misalignment. SQUEAK. 2. Belt tension either too high or too low. Severe misalignment. Belt slippage. 4. CORRECTION 1. Belt has mistracked from pulley groove. 4. 3. Replace belt. Replace belt or automatic belt tensioner. "GROOVE JUMPING" (BELT DOES NOT MAINTAIN CORRECT POSITION ON PULLEY) 1. 5. Incorrect belt. Belt cordline is broken. 2. 3. Replace belt. pulley. 4. 5. Replace pulley. 5. BELT SLIPS 1. oil. 3. Incorrect belt. Belt slipping because of insufficient tension. Rubber deteriorated. 3. 4. 3. LONGITUDINAL BELT CRACKING (CRACKS BETWEEN TWO RIBS) 1. Replace automatic belt tensioner. Remove foreign objects from grooves. Replace belt. Pulley groove tip has worn away rubber to tensile member. 1. 2.— BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS CONDITION RIB CHUNKING (ONE OR MORE RIBS HAS SEPARATED FROM BELT BODY RIB OR BELT WEAR POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Replace belt and automatic belt tensioner. Install correct belt.7 . 3. 3. Remove foreign objects from pulley grooves. Check and replace. 5. 2. 4. 2. 2. 2. Replace belt. Installation damage. 2. 1. 5. Foreign objects imbedded in pulley grooves. 1. 3.30 COOLING SYSTEM _ _ _ _ _ — _ — . 3. Replace pulley(s). 3. 2. Belt glazed and hardened from heat and excessive slippage. Belt-to-pulley mismatch. Bearing noise. 1. OR RUMBLE IS HEARD OR FELT WHILE DRIVE BELT IS IN OPERATION) . Pulley(s) not within design tolerance. 2. 2. 4. 2. 4. ethylene glycol) that has reduced friction. Locate and repair. 4. Replace belt and clean pulleys. Replace belt. Excessive tension. 4. J9507-27 j | BELT BROKEN (NOTE: IDENTIFY AND CORRECT PROBLEM BEFORE NEW BELT IS INSTALLED) NOISE (OBJECTIONAL SQUEAL. 5. Abrasive environment. 4. Rusted pulley(s). 1. Sharp or jagged pulley groove tips. 4. Replace automatic belt tensioner. or bearing failure. Replace defective component and belt. Clean rust from pulley(s). Foreign object(s) in grooves. Align pulley(s). Belt or pulley subjected to substance (belt dressing.

refer to On-Board Diagnostics in the General Diagno­ sis section of Group 14. i t is opening too early. The following test procedure is to be used for the diesel engine only.31 (3) Place the thermostat into a container filled with water. This accessory cover is designed to block airflow entering the radiator and engine compartment to promote faster engine warm-up. I f the powertrain control module (PCM) detects low engine coolant temperature. Diesel engines. exam­ ine the thermostat and inside of thermostat housing for contaminants. Do not change a thermostat for lack of heat as indicated by the instrument panel gauge or by poor heater performance unless a DTC number 17 is present. This system capacity will not effect warm up or cold weather operating characteristics i f the thermo­ stat is operating properly. The thermostat should be fully open (valve will stop moving) at 95°C (203°F). Typically. Replace thermostat. the elec­ tric engine block heater must be used with cool or cold outside temperatures. Because of this. i t will record a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) in the PCM mem­ ory. serious engine damage could result. NOTE: The DRB scan tool cannot be used to mon­ itor engine coolant temperature on the diesel engine. i t is opening too late. TESTING COOLING SYSTEM 7 . (6) Apply heat to the water while observing the thermostat and thermometer. Refer to Thermo­ stats for removal and installation procedures. WATER PUMP A quick test to determine i f pump is working is to check i f heater warms properly. The cover is to be used with cool or cold temperatures only. i t must be removed from the vehicle. . complaints of low engine coolant temper­ ature are observed as low heater output when com­ bined with cool or cold outside temperatures. This will help keep the engine coolant warm when the vehicle is parked. A "Cold Weather Cover" is available from the parts department through the Mopar Accessories product line. Flush the cooling system before replacing thermostat. To help promote faster engine warm-up. (4) Place the container on a hot plate or other suit­ able heating device. I f the valve starts to move before this temperature is reached. The DTC number for low coolant temperature is 17. Refer to Cooling System Cleaning/Reverse Flushing in this group for additional information. (7) When the water temperature reaches 83°C (181°F) the thermostat should start to open (valve will start to move). Refer to On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) i n the Diagnosis section of this group for additional infor­ mation. the thermostat may already be i n a "stuck open" position. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diag­ nostic Procedures manual for diagnostic information and operation of the DRB scan tool. The DTC can also be accessed through the DRB scan tool. Fuel Systems. due to their inherent efficiency are slower to warm up than gasoline powered engines. This is because coolant will be held i n the engine until i t reaches the ther­ mostat "set" temperature. at times be normal. THERMOSTAT—GAS ENGINES ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS All gasoline powered models are equipped with On-Board Diagnostics for certain cooling system com­ ponents. For other DTC numbers. I t attaches to the front of the vehicle at the grill opening. Do not use the Mock heater i f the outside temperature is above 4°C (40°F). NOTE: Vehicles equipped with a 5. (5) Place a commercially available radiator ther­ mometer into the water. I f used with high outside temperatures. I f contaminants are found. Refer to the litera­ ture supplied with the cover for additional informa­ tion. replace thermostat.9L diesel engine do not have the DTC number 17 check engine lamp feature.BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) THERMOSTAT—DIESEL The cooling system used with the diesel engine provides the extra coolant capacity and extra cooling protection needed for higher GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating) and GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating) vehicles. Replace thermostat. Refer to the Diagnosis section of this group for other probable causes. A defective water pump will not be able to circulate heated coolant through the long heater hose to the heater core. (2) After the thermostat has been removed. lower tempera­ ture gauge readings for diesel versus gasoline engines may. (8) I f the valve is still moving when the water tem­ perature reaches 203°. Use the block heater i f the outside temperature is below 4°C (40°F). and will operate at lower temperatures when the vehicle is unloaded. (1) To determine i f the thermostat is defective. (9) I f the valve refuses to move at any time.

When engine cools down the coolant. Refer to CAUTION below. inspect radiator filler neck and cap's top gasket for J9507-3 Fig. The pressure cap may test properly while posi­ tioned on tool 7700 (or equivalent). it . LOW COOLANT LEVEL—AERATION I f the coolant level in the radiator drops below the top of the radiator core tubes. Also inspect for dirt or distortion that may prevent cap from sealing properly. air trapped in the cooling system gathers under the radiator cap. Air trapped in cooling system also reduces the amount of coolant circulating in the heater core.32 COOLING SYSTEM BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) RADIATOR CAP-TO-FILLER NECK S E A L PRESSURE RELIEF CHECK The pressure cap upper gasket (seal) pressure relief can be tested by removing overflow hose from radiator filler neck nipple. Here it escapes to atmosphere in the tank.7 . This will cause the thermostat to open later. I f so. Attach hose of pressure tester tool 7700 (or equivalent) to nipple. PLACE A RAG OVER CAP AND WITHOUT PUSHING CAP DOWN. Do not remove radiator cap at any time except for the following purposes: • Check and adjust antifreeze freeze point • Refill system with new antifreeze • Conducting service procedures • Checking for vacuum leaks WARNING: IF VEHICLE HAS BEEN RUN RECENTLY. Add water to tool. WARNING: THE WARNING WORDS —DO NOT OPEN HOT— ON RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP. which will not cause cooling system problems. This may result in low heat output. thermal expansion of coolant will push trapped air past radiator cap into coolant reserve/overflow tank. Low coolant level can cause the thermostat pellet to be suspended i n air instead of coolant. ARE A SAFETY PRECAUTION. ALLOW FLUID TO ESCAPE THROUGH THE COOL­ ANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW HOSE INTO RESERVE/ OVERFLOW TANK. I t may not hold pressure or vacuum when installed on radiator. iEAERATION As the engine operates. PRESSURE BUILDS UP IN COOLING SYSTEM. WHEN COOLANT AND STEAM STOP BEING PUSHED INTO TANK AND SYSTEM PRESSURE DROPS. SQUEEZE RADIATOR UPPER HOSE TO DETERMINE WHEN PRESSURE HAS BEEN RELEASED. The next time engine is operated. air will enter the sys­ tem. SQUEEZE RADIATOR UPPER HOSE TO CHECK IF SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE. WITH A RAG. 35). Be sure that sealing surfaces are clean. Turn tool upside down and recheck pressure cap to confirm that cap needs replacement. PRESSURE TESTING RADIATOR CAPS Remove cap from radiator. WHEN HOT. TO PREVENT SCALDING OR INJURY. A pressure cap that does not have a history of coolant loss should not be replaced just because it leaks slowly when tested with this tool. REMOVE RADIATOR CAP COMPLETELY. which in turn causes higher coolant temperature. WAIT AT LEAST 15 MINUTES BEFORE REMOVING RADIATOR CAP. The pressure cap upper gasket should relieve at 69-124 kPa (10-18 psi) and hold pressure at a minimum of 55 kPa (8 psi). Moisten rubber gasket with water and install cap on pressure tester 7700 or an equiv­ alent (Fig. ROTATE IT COUNTER-CLOCKWISE TO FIRST STOP. I t will be necessary to disconnect hose from its adapter for filler neck. Operate tester pump to bring pressure to 104 kPa (15 psi) on gauge. I f pressure cap fails to hold pres­ sure of at least 97 kPa (14 psi) replace cap. Pump air into radiator. 35 Pressure Testing Radiator Tester Cap—Typical damage. RADIATOR CAP SHOULD NOT BE REMOVED WHILE SYSTEM IS HOT AND/OR UNDER PRESSURE. CAUTION: Radiator pressure testing tools are very sensitive to small air leaks.

This produces corrosion. (2) Turn the ignition off. WARNING: DO NOT OPEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH ENGINE RUNNING OR WHILE ENGINE IS HOT AND COOLING SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE. I f not. Do this while observing the coolant reserve/overflow system tank. Open radiator drain plug and when tank is empty.33 NOTE: Do not remove radiator cap for routine coolant level inspections. SERVICE PROCEDURES COOLANT LEVEL CHECK—ROUTINE COOLING SYSTEM 7 . COOLANT LEVEL C H E C K — S E R V I C E The cooling system is closed and designed to main­ tain coolant level to the top of the radiator. The coolant level can be checked at the coolant reserve/overflow tank. With engine idling and at normal operating temperature. COOLANT SERVICE—DIESEL ENGINE and coolant reserve/overflow system connection. (1) Start the engine and place the heater control temperature selector in the Full-On position. drain several ounces of coolant from the radiator drain cock. I f the solution is clean. I f not and i f coolant level in re serve/overflow tank is at the ADD mark.000 kilometers (52. Remove the radiator cap only for testing or when refilling the system after service. inspect for a leak between radiator Fig. It is recommended that the cooling system be drained and flushed every 24 months or 38.BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) will be drawn from reserve/overflow tank into radia­ tor to replace removed air. The coolant level should be between the ADD and FULL marks. Remove radiator cap. DO NOT WASTE reusable coolant.500 miles) or 3 years.600 kilo­ meters (24. The coolant reserve/overflow system provides a quick visual method for determining the coolant level without removing the radiator pressure cap.000 miles). COOLANT SERVICE—V-6. 36). Then every two years or 48. remove the cylinder block drain plugs. 36 Drain Plugs—Gas Powered Engines—Typical . The coolant need not be removed from tank unless the system is being refilled with fresh mixture. These are located on the sides of the block just above the oil pan (Fig. V-8. When adding coolant to main­ tain the correct level.000 miles). The coolant level should be to the top of the radiator. ADDING ADDITIONAL COOLANT—ROUTINE Do not remove the radiator cap to add cool­ ant to the system. When vehicle servicing requires a coolant level check in the radiator. drain the coolant into a clean container for reuse. observe coolant level in coolant reserve/overflow tank. refer to the Testing Cooling System for Leaks section in this group. Engine vacuum is needed to actuate the heater controls. I f the coolant reserve/overflow tank does not drain. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. (4) On vehicles equipped with gas powered engines. Removing cap unnecessarily can cause loss of coolant and allow air to enter system. (5) Remove radiator pressure cap. (3) Do not remove radiator cap when draining cool­ ant from reserve/overflow tank. whichever occurs first. The coolant level in the reserve/overflow tank should drop slightly. remove radiator cap.000 kilometers (30. check for: • An air leak in the coolant reserve/overflow tank • An air leak in the radiator filler neck ® Leak in the pressure cap seal to the radiator filler neck DRAINING COOLING SYSTEM WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR DRAIN PLUG WITH SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE. AND V-10 ENGINES It is recommended that the cooling system be drained and flushed at 84. whichever occurs first. which­ ever occurs first. do so at the coolant reserve/ overflow tank with a 50/50 mixture of ethylene glycol antifreeze (containing Alugard 340-2 ®) and water.

REVERSE V-10 FLUSHING ENGINE-VS V-8 S AND Drain cooling system.34 COOLING SYSTEM - S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) REFILLING COOLING SYSTEM Clean cooling system prior to refilling.9L Diesel Engine Only. Allow radiator to fill with water. The level in the reserve/over­ flow tank may drop below the ADD mark after three or four warm-up and cool-down cycles. (6) Back-flush the engine until clean water exits the water pump inlet. Install thermostat housing. Continue until clean water flows through the lead away hose. apply air in short blasts. add 50/50 water and antifreeze mixture to the coolant reserve/overflow tank to main­ tain coolant level. 36). Refer to Refilling the Cooling System. fill system with water. Disconnect radiator lower hose from water pump and attach a lead-away hose to water pump inlet fitting. Con­ nect a water supply hose and air supply hose to flushing gun. (6) I f necessary. Refer to Cooling System Cleaning section of this group. (2) Disconnect the upper hose from the radiator. Refer to Thermo­ stat Replacement.7 .9L Diesel Engine in the Thermostat section of this group for more information. apply air in short blasts. Discon­ nect radiator upper hose from radiator and attach flushing gun to hose. Remove thermostat housing and install thermostat. I f water is dirty. REVERSE (1) Drain the cooling system. Remove thermostat housing and thermostat. Connect radiator hoses. Refill cool­ ing system with correct antifreeze/water mixture. 37). This is done using air pressure in the opposite direction of normal cool­ ant flow. Attach a section of radiator hose to radiator bottom outlet fitting and insert flushing gun. REVERSE FLUSHING RADIATOR Disconnect radiator hoses from radiator inlet and outlet. Continue this reverse flushing until clean water flows out through rear of radiator cooling tube passages. run engine and drain system. (3) Fill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze. 37 Typical Reverse-flushing—5. Due to the use of this valve. When radiator is filled. (4) Fill coolant reserve/overflow tank to the FULL mark. (1) Install the cylinder block drain plugs (Fig. flushing gun. Stop engine and drain water from system. Run engine with radiator cap installed until upper radia­ tor hose is hot. I t is usually only necessary with very dirty systems with evidence of partial plugging. allowing system to fill between air blasts. The check valve is used as a servicing feature and will vent air when the system is being filled. (3) Disconnect the radiator lower hose from the water pump. Allow engine to fill with water. 5. Allow radiator to Fig. Connect water supply hose and air supply hose to flushing gun. Remove lead away hose. (4) Remove the heater core inlet hose from tube (Fig. Refer to Thermostat Operation—5. Install thermostat housing with a replacement gasket. Water pressure (or flow) will hold the valve closed. Repeat until water drains clean. CAUTION: Internal radiator pressure must not exceed 138 kPa (20 psi) as damage to radiator may result. the engine must not be operating when r e f i l l i n g the cool­ ing system. FLUSHING Reverse flushing of cooling system is the forcing of water through the cooling system. This level should be between the ADD and FULL marks.9L Diesel (5) Attach water supply hose to heater tube. COOLING SYSTEM CLEANING/REVERSE FLUSHING CLEANING refill between blasts. The diesel engine is equipped with a one-way check valve (jiggle pin). REVERSE FLUSHING ENGINE—DIESEL Drain cooling system and refill with water. (5) Start and operate engine until thermostat opens. water sup­ ply hose and air supply hose. . (2) Close radiator drain plug. Upper radiator hose should be warm to touch. When engine is filled. Have radiator cleaned more extensively by a radiator repair shop.

Replace fan i f any of these conditions are found. drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. (2) Unsnap the coolant reserve/overflow tank from fan shroud.0L V-10 ENGINE TANK- (1) Remove overflow hose from radiator. loose blades or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. 39) and remove tank. The water pump on all gas powered engines is bolted directly to the engine timing chain case/cover. WATER PUMP—V-6 AND V-8 ENGINES REMOVAL Fig.0L V-10 ENGINE TANK REMOVAL—8. (1) Position tank to inner fender. COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK TANK REMOVAL—ALL ENGINE EXCEPT 8. (2) Drain cooling system. I f solution is clean.9L/5. (3) Connect overflow hose to radiator. On all 3. use a radiator cleaner (Mopar Radiator Kleen or equivalent) before flushing.) torque. Lift straight up. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. 38) to attach the tank. CAUTION: Follow manufacturers instructions when using these products. Refer to Draining Cool­ ing System in this group. Also check condi­ tion of the thermal viscous fan drive. Windshield Wiper and Washer Systems. (2) Install bolts and tighten to 6 N-m (50 in. 89 COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW 10 ENGINE INSTALLATION TANK—V- (1) Snap the tank into the two T-slots and the alignment pin on fan shroud. (4) Disconnect the coolant reserve/overflow tankto-radiator hose at the tank. This will soften scale and other deposits and aid flushing operation. An alignment pin is located on the side of tank. Do not waste reusable coolant. Inspect for fatigue cracks. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. 40). (2) Connect overflow hose to radiator.0L V-10 BOLTS (2) J948D-21 (1) Remove overflow hose from radiator. Refer to Group 8K.35 In some instances. . the mechanical cooling fan assembly should also be inspected. a gas­ ket is used as a seal between the water pump and timing chain case/cover. (3) Remove windshield washer reservoir tank from radiator fan shroud. If water pump is replaced because of bearing/shaft damage or leaking shaft seal. Do not attempt to remove shroud from vehicle at this time.BR S E R V I C E P R O C E D U R E S (Continued) CHEMICAL CLEANING COOLING SYSTEM 7 . The fan shroud is equipped with T-shaped slots (Fig. (2) Remove three tank mounting bolts (Fig. 38 COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW ALL EXCEPT 8. lbs. (5) Remove the four fan shroud mounting bolts at the radiator (Fig.9L gas powered engines. The water pump on all models can be removed without discharging the air conditioning system (if equipped). INSTALLATION Fig.2L/5.

41) from the thermal control fan drive. the silicone THREADED SHAFT (WATER PUMP HUB) VISCOUS FAN DRIVE CRANKSHAFT PULLEY J9307-32 Fig.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines (13) 3.9L V-6 or 5. Place a bar or screwdriver between the water pump pulley bolts (Fig. SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. (6) Remove upper radiator hose at radiator. I f stored horizontally. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC­ ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. 42) (Fig. 43).9L V-6 or 5. FAN BLADE ASSEMBLY THREADED NUT WATER PUMP WATER PUMP BYPASS HOSE PULLEY FAN SHROUD M O U N T I N G BOLTS J9407-37 Fig.2/5.36 COOLING SYSTEM BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) RADIATOR FAN SHROUD fluid in the viscous drive could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate the bearing lubricant. USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter. If replacement is necessary. 23). (9) Remove fan blade/fan drive and fan shroud as an assembly from vehicle. 41). do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines: Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the ten- .2/5.7 . Threads on the fan drive are RIGHT-HAND. (7) The thermal viscous fan drive is attached (threaded) to the water pump hub shaft (Fig. J9219-15 Fig. (8) I f water pump is being replaced. (11) Do not remove the water pump pulley bolts at this time. 41) to prevent the pulley from rotating. 40 Typical Fan Shroud Mounting WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (Fig. 41 Fan Blade and Viscous Fan Drive—Typical (12) Remove accessory drive belt as follows: The drive belt is equipped with a spring loaded automatic tensioner (Fig. (Fig. do not place the thermal viscous fan drive in the horizontal position. (10) After removing fan blade/fan drive assembly. 24). A Snap-On 36 M M Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. 42 Belt Tensioner—3. Remove the fan/fan drive assembly from water pump by turning the mounting nut counterclockwise (as viewed from front).

45 Coolant Return Tube—5. 42).9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines Fig. . (18) Remove the seven water pump mounting bolts (Fig. CAUTION: Do not pry the water pump at timing chain case/cover. INSTALLATION Fig. lbs. Install water pump bolts (Fig.9L HDC-Gas Engine: Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the tensioner counterclockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig.) torque. 45). 46). (4) Spin water pump to be sure that pump impel­ ler does not rub against timing chain case/cover. (16) Remove the lower radiator hose and heater hose from water pump. 46). The machined surfaces may be damaged resulting in leaks.9L V-6 or 5.37 R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) sioner clockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig.BR — — ^ ^— « • COOLING SYSTEM 7 . (5) Install a new o-ring to the heater hose coolant return tube (Fig. (19) Loosen the clamp at the water pump end of bypass hose (Fig. 43 Beit Tensioner—5. (2) Using a new gasket. (17) Loosen heater hose coolant return tube mounting bolt (Fig. (14) 5. 44 Coolant Return Tube—3. 44) (Fig. 41) and remove pulley from vehicle. Fig. 41). Tighten water pump mounting bolts to 40 N-m (30 ft. (20) Discard old gasket. 43). Discard the old tube O-ring.9L HDC-Gas Engine (15) Remove the four water pump pulley-to-water pump hub bolts (Fig. (3) Position bypass hose clamp to bypass hose. Slip the bypass hose from the water pump while removing pump from vehicle. 44) (Fig. Coat the new o-ring with antifreeze before installation. 45)and remove tube from water pump. When all belt ten­ sion has been relaxed. install water pump to engine as follows: Guide water pump nipple into bypass hose as pump is being installed.9L HDC-Gas Engine (1) Clean gasket mating surfaces.2/5. When all belt tension has been relaxed. Do not remove the clamp from the bypass hose. remove accessory drive belt. remove accessory drive belt.

Inspect for . Tighten bolts to 27 N-m (20 ft.0L ¥-10 ENGINE REMOVAL J9307-55 Fig. *IF VEHICLE IS NOT EQUIPPED WITH POWER STEERING. Install drive belt. Be sure the slot in tube bracket is bottomed to mounting bolt. 45). THIS WILL BE A N IDLER PULLEY.2/5. 48 Belt Routing—5. (12) Install fan shroud. Refer to (Fig. The water pump on all gas powered engines is bolted directly to the engine timing chain case/cover. (16) Start and warm the engine.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines : AUTOMATIC TENSIONER (11) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit.38 COOLING SYSTEM BR R E M O V A L AMB I N S T A L L A T I O N ( C o n t i n u e d ) Fig. lbs. Check for leaks. This will properly position return tube.9L V-8 or 5.2/5. (14) Fill cooling system. I f water pump is replaced because of bearing/shaft damage or leaking shaft seal. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. the belt must be routed correctly.9L V-6 or 5. (9) Install water pump pulley.7 .0L V-10 engine. 47) (Fig. J9307-26 Fig.) torque.. a rubber o-ring (instead of a gasket) is used as a seal between the water pump and timing chain case/cover. engine may overheat due to water pump rotat­ ing in w r o n g direction. If not. 42) (Fig. (15) Connect negative battery cable. (10) Relax tension from automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 43). 44) (Fig. 47 Belt Routing—3. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. CAUTION: When installing the serpentine acces­ sory drive belt. (7) Connect radiator lower hose to water pump. The correct belt with correct length must be used. (8) Connect heater hose and hose clamp to coolant return tube. 49) for correct belt routing. 46 Water Pump Bolts—3. WATER PUMP—8. (13) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft. 41) to prevent pulley from rotating. the mechanical cooling fan assembly should also be inspected. On the 8.9L HDC-Gas A/C Engine—With The water pump on all models can be removed without discharging the air conditioning system (if equipped). 48) (Fig.9L V-8 Gas Engines—Typical (6) Install coolant return tube and its mounting bolt to engine (Fig.

use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter. 52). USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. Replace fan i f any of these conditions are found. Do not remove the water pump pulley bolts at this time. the silicone fluid in the viscous drive could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate the bearing lubricant. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (Fig. 51) to prevent the pulley from rotating. Refer to Group 8K. (2) Drain cooling system. 49 Beit Routing—5. (8) Remove fan blade/fan drive and fan shroud as an assembly from vehicle. 51). 17). Place a bar or screwdriver between the water pump pulley bolts (Fig. (5) Remove upper radiator hose at radiator. Windshield Wiper and Washer Systems. I f solution is clean. 50 Typical Fan Shroud Mounting fatigue cracks. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (7) I f water pump is being replaced. After removing fan blade/fan drive assembly. 24). WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. loose blades or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration.BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) AUTOMATIC TENSIONER FAN SHROUD COOLING SYSTEM 7 .31 RADIATOR J9307-56 FAN SHROUD M O U N T I N G BOLTS J9407-37 Fig. 51) from the thermal control fan drive. Do not waste reusable coolant. A Snap-On 36 M M Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. . CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. Do not attempt to remove shroud from vehicle at this time. do not place the thermal viscous fan drive in the hori­ zontal position. Threads on the fan drive are EIGHT-HAND. 50).9L HDC-Gas Without A/C Engine— Fig. (9) Remove accessory drive belt as follows: The drive belt is equipped with a spring loaded automatic tensioner (Fig. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC­ ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig. remove accessory drive belt. (3) Remove windshield washer reservoir tank from radiator fan shroud. Refer to Draining Cool­ ing System in this group. drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. 23). (4) Remove the four fan shroud mounting bolts at the radiator (Fig. (6) The thermal viscous fan drive is attached (threaded) to the water pump hub shaft (Fig. The threads on the pulley bolt are left-hand. Remove the fan/fan drive assembly from water pump by turning the mounting nut counterclockwise (as viewed from front). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the ten­ sioner counterclockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. Also check condi­ tion of the thermal viscous fan drive. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group. I f stored horizontally. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING. If replacement is necessary. When all belt tension has been relaxed.

Fitting must be re-installed to same position. (13) Remove the seven water pump mounting bolts (Fig. (11) Remove the lower radiator hose at water pump. (12) Remove heater hose at water pump fitting. 54). 53 Water Pump Bolts—8. (14) Loosen the clamp at the water pump end of bypass hose. 52 Belt Tensioner—8. 51 Fan Blade and Viscous Fan Drive—Typical PULLEY BOLT Fig. ION. 54 Water Pump O-Ring Seal—8.0L V-10 Engine (10) Remove the four water pump pulley-to-water pump hub bolts (Fig.7 . Note posi­ tion (direction) of fitting before removal. Fig. Slip the bypass hose from the water (16) Remove the heater hose fitting from water pump i f pump replacement is necessary. WATER PUMP TENSIONER MOUNTING BOLT J9407-18 TENSIONER J9307-64 . (15) Discard the water pump-to-timing chain/case cover o-ring seal (Fig. 53). Do not remove the clamp from the bypass hose. . Do not pry the water pump at timing case/cover* The machined surfaces may be damaged resulting in leaks. 51) and remove pulley from vehicle.40 COOLING SYSTEM (Continued) WATER PUMP BR R E M O V A L AMD fUSTALI F A N BLADE ASSEMBLY THREADED NUT ' WATER PUMP PULLEY D l | M C V PULLEY BOLTS THREADED SHAFT (WATER PUMP HUB) VISCOUS FAN DRIVE J9307-32 Fig.0L V-10—Typical pump while removing pump from vehicle.0L V-10 Fig.

When positioning fitting. Refer to the directions on the package. 57)for correct belt routing. (5) Position bypass hose clamp to bypass hose. lbs. (6) Spin water pump to be sure that pump impel­ ler does not rub against timing chain case/cover.0L J9407-17 AUTOMATIC TENSIONER V-10 Engine—With A/C Fig. 52).) torque. (10) Relax tension from automatic belt tensioner (Fig. lbs. (7) Connect radiator lower hose to water pump. Install drive belt. (3) Apply a small amount of petroleum jelly to o-ring (Fig. CAUTION: This heater hose fitting must be installed to pump before pump is installed to engine.) torque. 53). Use a sealant on the fitting such as Mopar® Thread Sealant With Teflon. 51) to prevent pulley from rotating. (4) Install water pump to engine as follows: Guide water pump fitting into bypass hose as pump is being installed. 56) (Fig. If not. 55). (9) Install water pump pulley. After fitting has been torqued. do not back off (rotate counter­ clockwise). Tighten water pump mounting bolts to 40 N-m (30 ft. position fitting as shown in (Fig. 54).) torque. The correct belt with correct length must be used.BR COOLING SYSTEM 7 . install the heater hose fitting to the pump. the belt must be routed correctly. 55 Heater Hose Fitting Position—8. AUTOMATIC TENSIONER HEATER HOSE FITTING WATER PUMP <^ I FRONT J9307-55 Fig.0L V-10 (2) Clean the o-ring mating surfaces at rear of water pump and front of timing chain/case cover. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. Refer to (Fig. Tighten bolts to 22 N-m (16 ft. lbs. Install water pump bolts (Fig. (8) Connect heater hose and hose clamp to heater hose fitting. 56 Belt Routing—8. This will help retain o-ring to water pump.41 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) INSTALLATION (1) I f water pump is being replaced.0L V-10 Engine—Without A/C . CAUTION: When installing the serpentine acces­ sory drive belt. engine may overheat due to water pump rotat­ ing in wrong direction. 57 Belt Routing—8. J9307-56 Fig. Tighten fitting to 16 N-m (144 in.

59).2/B. (6) Connect both battery cables. Refer to the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. (12) Install fan shroud to radiator. lbs.7 . (13) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft. drain the coolant into a clean container for reuse. THREADED SHAFT (WATER PUMP HUB) VISCOUS FAN DRIVE CRANKSHAFT PULLEY J9307-32 Fig.) torque. (14) Fill cooling system. lbs. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (2) Drain cooling system.42 REMO' COOLING SYSTEM I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) BR (11) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit. Tighten bolts to 6 N-m (50 in. (5) Fill cooling system. WATER PUMP—5. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this section. To test for leaks. I f the solution is clean. INSTALLATION (1) Install new O-ring seal in groove on water pump (Fig. (5) Remove water pump mounting bolts (Fig.) torque. (4) Install the bolt retaining the wiring harness near top of water pump.BL CONDITIONING W»S ENGINES A water pump bypass hose (Fig. (3) Install accessory drive belt. (4) Remove the accessory drive belt. Refer to Drain­ ing Cooling System i n this group. WATEi PUMP BYPASS HOSE REMOWML—3.9L DIESEL REMOVAL (1) Disconnect the negative battery cables from both batteries.&L WITHOUT AM V-6 &m 5. WATER PUMP O-RING SEAL GROOVE J9107-6 Diesel Fig. 60) is used between the intake manifold and water pump on all gas powered engines.9L (7) Start and warm the engine.9L J9107-5" Diesel (6) Clean water pump sealing surface on cylinder block. Position wire harness to the side. . Tighten mounting bolts to 24 N-m (18 ft. Refer to Draining Cool­ ing System in this section. (16) Start and warm the engine. refer to Test­ ing Cooling System for Leaks in this group. 59 Pump O-ring Seal—5. Refer to the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. (2) Install water pump. (3) Remove the bolt retaining the wiring harness near the top of water pump. FAN BLADE ASSEMBLY THREADED NUT PULLEY BOLTS WATER PUMP PULLEY WATER PUMP BYPASS •"SCREW (2) Fig. 58 Pump Removal/Installation—5. Check for leaks. 58). (15) Connect negative battery cable. (2) Do not waste reusable coolant. 60 Water Pump Bypass Hose—Typical (1) Partially drain cooling system. Check for leaks.

Do not remove any refriger­ ant lines from A/C compressor. 61 Generator—A/C Compressor Bracket—Typical Mounting I f equipped with A/C. (4) Fill cooling system. Refer to Belt Removal/Installation i n the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. Remove the idler pulley bolt and remove idler pulley (Fig. (5) Start and warm the engine.9L V-6 or 5. Remove hose at radia­ tor. GENERATOR/COMPRESSOR AND BRACKET SUPPORT BRACKET \ IGNITION COIL BRACKET J9307-33 Fig. (6) Unplug wiring harness from A/C compressor. 23). ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC­ ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. (3) Secure both hose clamps. 62). (2) Install bypass hose to engine. (9) (8) 3. 24). If replacement is necessary. Check for leaks. (3) Do not waste reusable coolant. SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING. REMOVAL—3„BL V-0 OR 5. (7) Remove the air cleaner assembly. A special clamp tool (Fig.9L V-6 or 5. the generator and A/C com­ pressor along with their common mounting bracket (Fig. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (Fig. (3) Loosen both bypass hose clamps and position to the center of hose. 62 Idler Pulley—3. Refer to Refilling Cooling System i n this group.' Removing the generator or A/C compressor from their mounting bracket is not necessary. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING. 23) must be used to remove the constant tension clamps.9L ¥-8 LDC-Gas: The drive belt idler pulley must be removed to gain access to one of the A/C compressor/generator bracket mounting bolts.9L V-8 WITH AIR CONDITIONING ENGINE— Fig. If the solution is clean.BR ^ — — — — —~ — COOLING SYSTEM 7 .43 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. (2) Partially drain cooling system. drain the coolant into a clean container for reuse. REFER TO REFRIGERANT WARNINGS IN GROUP 24. (8) Remove accessory drive belt. ^ (4) Remove hose from vehicle.2/5.2/5. 61) must be partially removed. WARNING: THE A/C SYSTEM IS UNDER PRES­ SURE EVEN WITH THE ENGINE OFF.2/5. Also.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines . INSTALLATION G E N ERATOR/COMPRESSOR M O U N T I N G BRACKET J9307-66 SUPPORT BRACKET (ROD) (1) Position bypass hose clamps to the center of hose. (4) Remove upper radiator hose clamp at radiator. discharging the A/C system is not necessary. (5) Disconnect throttle cable from clip at radiator fan shroud. Refer to Drain­ ing Cooling System in this group.

Remove hose from vehicle.7 . 67)to 40 N-m (30 ft. (12) Disconnect throttle body control cables. 66) (Fig. Tighten bracket mounting bolts (Fig. PULLEY BOLT TENSIONER MOUNTING BOLT WATER PUMP J9307-34 Fig. Tighten bolt number 1 (Fig. (3) Secure both hose clamps. A special clamp tool (Fig. (15) Remove remaining bracket-to-engine bolts (Fig.9L HDC-Gas: The automatic belt tensioner/ pulley assembly must be removed to gain access to one of the A/C compressor/generator bracket mount­ ing bolts.9L HDC-Gas Engine (11) Remove the engine oil dipstick tube mounting bolt at the side of the A/C-generator mounting bracket.) torque. A block of wood may be used to hold assembly in position. lbs. Discard the old tube O-ring. 64) (Fig.9L V-6 or 5.2/5. INSTALLATION TUBE MOUNTING BOLT WATER PUMP J9307-61 Fig. (17) Loosen and position both hose clamps to the center of bypass hose.) torque. 67). 61) to 41 N-m (30 ft. 64 Coolant Return Tube—3.44 C O O L I i i SYSTEM BR REMOVAL A N D INSTALLATION (Continued) (10) 5. 63 Beit Tensioner—5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines COOLANT TENSIONER RETURN TUBE Fig. (2) Install bypass hose to engine. Tighten bolt number 2 (Fig.) torque. (5) Install a new O-ring to the heater hose coolant return tube (Fig. lbs. Remove the tensioner mounting bolt (Fig. Refer to Accelerator Pedal and Throttle Cable in Group 14. (16) Lift and position generator and A/C compres­ sor (along with their common mounting bracket) to gain access to bypass hose. 65)and remove tube from engine. 65 Coolant Return Tube—5.9L HDC-Gas Engine (1) Position bypass hose clamps to the center of hose. 65). Coat the new O-ring with antifreeze before installation. 61) to 28 N-m (20 ft. 61). (13) Remove heater hose coolant return tube mounting bolt (Fig. 64) (Fig. 23) must be used to remove the constant tension clamps. Fuel System. (4) Install generator-A/C mounting bracket assem­ bly to engine. 66) (Fig. (14) Remove bracket-to-intake manifold bolts (number 1 and 2 (Fig. . lbs. 63) and remove tensioner.

SYSTEM 7 . A dowel pin is located on back of tensioner (Fig. The cor­ rect belt with the correct length must be used. Align this to dowel hole (Fig.) torque. Refer to Belt Removal/In­ stallation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. CAUTION: When installing the serpentine acces­ sory drive belt. Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft.9L HDC-Gas Engine (11) Install drive belt. (13) Install upper radiator hose to radiator.9L ¥-6 or 5. (7) Connect throttle body control cables. Refer to Belt Schematics in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt sec­ tion of this group for correct belt routing.9L HDC-Gas Fig. the belt must be routed correctly. lbs. 64) (Fig. 68).2/5. lbs. the engine may overheat due to the water pump rotating in the wrong direction. 69 Tensioner Mounting Bracket Dowel Hole—5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines: Install idler pulley. . Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft. BELT TENSIONER DOWEL PIN J9307-63 Fig.9L HDC-Gas: Install automatic belt ten­ sioner assembly to mounting bracket.9L V-6 or 5. (12) Install air cleaner assembly. 69) in tensioner mounting bracket.2/5. 67 Bracket Bolts—5. 65). If not. 66 Bracket Bolts—3.9L ¥-8 LDC-Gas Engines Engine Fig. 68 Tensioner Dowel Pin—5.45 t E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (10) 5. (9) 3.9L HDC-Gas Engine (6) Install coolant return tube and its mounting bolt to engine (Fig. (8) Install oil dipstick mounting bolt. Fig.) torque.

70 Support Bracket—Generator Mounting Bracket-to-intake Manifold—Typical CAUTION: A number or letter Is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig.7 .2/5. (3) I f equipped with air conditioning: (a) Remove the support bracket (rod) located near the rear of generator (Fig. (17) Start and warm the engine. thermostat housing. use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter. drain the coolant into a clean container for reuse. I f the solution is clean. unplug the 4WD indicator lamp wiring har­ ness (located near rear of generator). •THERMOSTAT MACHINED GROOVE J9207-14 Fig. (2) Drain cooling system until coolant level is below thermostat. proceed to step number 4.9L V-6 or 5. Remove upper radiator hose at thermostat housing. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (d) Remove generator. Discard old gasket. 23).9L V-8 engines are installed on a gasket with an anti-stick coating. 71 Thermostat—3. 70). Remove the two generator mounting bolts.2/5. I f not equipped with air conditioning. This will aid in gasket removal and cleanup.9L V-8 Gas Engines . Do not waste reusable coolant. 24). THERMOSTAT—3.9L V-8 REMOVAL WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES­ SURIZED. (c) The generator must be partially removed. Fig.2/5. Check for leaks. be sure that the replacement is the specified thermostat for the vehicle model and engine type. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (Fig. USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. (5) Position the wiring harness (behind the ther­ mostat housing) to gain access to thermostat hous­ ing. If replacement is necessary. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. Factory installed thermostat housings on 3. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable at battery. Do not remove any wiring at generator. I f equipped with 4WD. I f the thermostat is being replaced. (6) Remove thermostat housing mounting bolts. (b) The drive belt must be removed. gasket and thermostat (Fig. (15) Connect wiring harness to A/C compressor. SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS.46 COOLING SYSTEM — mm R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (14) Connect throttle cable to clip at radiator fan shroud. (4) Remove upper radiator hose clamp. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. Position generator to gain access for thermostat gasket removal. Refer to Belt Removal/Installation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group. SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT CAN OCCUR. 71).9L V-6 OR 5. (16) Fill cooling system. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING.9L V-6 or 5. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC­ ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.

(10) Start and warm engine. damaged intake manifold threads or cool­ ant leak. drain the coolant into a clean container for reuse. (2) Drain cooling system until coolant level is below thermostat. (7) Air conditioned vehicles: (a) Install generator. Do not. If not.0L V-10 Engine (1) Disconnect negative battery cable at battery. I f the solution is clean. If the thermostat is being replaced. CAUTION: When installing the serpentine acces­ sory drive belt. 74). SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT CAN OCCUR. Note the word FRONT stamped on the housing (Fig. If not. 72). this must be placed towards the front of vehicle. Fig. Fig. lbs. THERMOSTAT—8.9L (5) Install two housing-to-intake manifold bolts. lbs. 73). The housing should be slightly angled forward after installation to intake manifold. 71). Tighten bolts to 54 N-m (40 ft. (4) Position the thermostat housing to the intake manifold. Check for leaks. (6) Install upper radiator hose to thermostat hous­ ing.) torque. 70).BR COOLING SYSTEM 7 . Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. lbs. Refer to Belt Schematics in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt sec­ tion of this group for correct engine belt routing. the engine may overheat due to the water pump rotating in the wrong direction. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group.91 V-8 Gas Engines V-6 or 5. CAUTION: Housing must be tightened evenly and thermostat must be centered into recessed groove in intake manifold. Tighten bolts to 41 N-m (30 ft. Tighten bolts to 23 N-m (200 in. (2) Install thermostat (spring side down) into recessed machined groove on intake manifold (Fig. The correct belt with the correct length must be used. 73 Thermostat Seal—8. the belt must be routed correctly. .) torque. (8) Fill cooling system. A rubber lip-type seal with a metal shoulder is pressed into the intake manifold beneath the thermo­ stat (Fig. (b) Install support bracket (generator mounting * bracket-to-intake manifold) (Fig. 72 Thermostat Position—3.0L V-10 MEMOVAL WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES­ SURIZED. waste reusable coolant. 71). (9) Connect negative battery cable to battery. For adequate clearance. (3) Remove' the two support rod mounting bolts and remove support rod (intake manifold-to-genera­ tor mount) (Fig.) torque.47 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) INSTALLATION (1) Clean mating areas of intake manifold and thermostat housing. it may result in a cracked housing. be sure that the replacement is the specified thermostat for the vehicle model and engine type. (3) Install gasket on intake manifold and over thermostat (Fig.2/5.

use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter.48 COOLING SYSTEM R E M O V A L AN© INSTALLATION (Continued) TEMP. gasket and thermostat. lbs. (7) Connect the wiring to both sensors. (8) Install the upper radiator hose and hose clamp to thermostat housing. (2) Check the condition (for tears or cracks) of the rubber thermostat seal located in the intake manifold (Fig. (4) Remove upper radiator hose clamp. SERIOUS BURNS FROM THE COOLANT CAN OCCUR. 75). 75). ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CON­ STANT TENSION CLAMPS.7 . (9) Install support rod. Check for leaks. OL ¥-10 Engine (6) Install housing-to-intake manifold Tighten bolts to 25 N-m (220 in. 73) (Fig. (12) Start and warm engine. SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. (11) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (5) Install gasket on intake manifold and over thermostat (Fig. Do not waste reusable coolant. 75). The thermostat should fit snugly into the rubber seal. Install the seal into the manifold using Spe­ cial Seal Tool number C-3995-A with handle tool number C-4171. WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND PRES­ SURIZED. (4) Install thermostat into recessed machined groove on intake manifold (Fig. coat the outer (metal) portion of the seal with Mopar® Gasket Maker. CAUTION: Housing bolts should be tightened evenly to prevent damage to housing and to pre­ vent leaks. I f the solution is clean. (6) Remove six thermostat housing mounting bolts. Remove upper radiator hose at thermostat housing. drain the coolant into a clean container for reuse. Refer to Refilling Cooling System i n this group. bolts. If replacement is necessary. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094). 74 Support Rod—8. RUBBER LIP SEAL J9407-16 CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps. THERMOSTAT—DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL (1) Clean mating areas of intake manifold and thermostat housing. Discard old gasket. INSTALLATION. (3) I f seal replacement is necessary. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING. . COOLANT Fig. (5) Disconnect the wiring connectors at both of the sensors located on thermostat housing.) torque. thermostat housing. 75 Thermostat—8. (10) Fill cooling system.0L ¥-10 Engine WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. Fig.

inner and outer seals and lift bracket (Fig. 23) must be used to remove the constant tension clamps. HOUSING HOSE LIFT BRACKET MOUNTING BRACKET BRACKET SOUS GENERATOR J9407-13 Fig. mSWMLLMTIOm (1) Install the outer seal (Fig. 76 Thermostat Removal—5. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. 77 Generator Mounting Bracket Bolts—Diesei (11) Remove the thermostat housing. 78). WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING. use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter. 23). OUTER SEAL SHOULDER J9507-23 Fig. (8) Loosen but do not remove the generator lower pivot bolt. (2) Remove accessory drive belt. A special clamp tool (Fig. thermostat. 24).BR COOLING SYSTEM 7 . (4) Remove radiator hose clamp and hose from thermostat housing. 78). LIFT BRACKET THERMOSTAT HOUSING BOLTS OUTER SEAL THERMOSTAT INNER SEAL J9507-22 Fig. 78)into the machined shoulder on the thermostat housing. (3) Drain cooling system until coolant level is below thermostat. 76) (Fig. 77). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. 78 Thermostat Seals—5. (3) Position the inner thermostat seal with the shoulder towards the thermostat housing (Fig. Refer to Belt Removal/Installation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section in this group. Note direction of thermo­ stat in (Fig. 77). 76). Refer to Draining Cooling System in this section.49 REMOVAL AN© INSTALLATION (Continued) (1) Disconnect both negative battery cables from both batteries. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC­ ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. (5) Remove the hose clamp and check valve hose at thermostat housing (Fig. 76) (Fig. USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. (10) Remove thermostat housing mounting bolts. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (Fig. 76). CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig.9L Diesel—Typical .9L Diesei (6) Remove the two upper generator bracket mounting bolts (Fig. (12) Clean the mating surfaces of the thermostat housing and the cylinder head. (7) Remove the upper generator mounting bracket (Fig. If replacement is necessary. (9) Position the generator to gain access to thermo­ stat housing and housing bolts. (2) Install the thermostat into the machined shoul­ der next to the outer seal.

Wind­ shield Wiper and Washer Systems for procedures. Plug cooler lines to prevent oil leakage. lbs. Once the repaired or replacement radiator has been installed. Refer to Group 21. (6) Install the check valve hose and hose clamp at thermostat housing (Fig. The shield is held to vehicle body with plastic clips. Inspect for a dirty or plugged inlet filter. Install and tighten mounting bolt to 24 N-m torque. REMOVAL CAUTION: If a leak should occur in the internal radiator mounted transmission air-to-oil cooler (gas engines only). Remove this A-shaped support bracket and the transmission oil cooler as an assembly from the vehicle. Refer to Group 8K. Inspect for sludge and/or rust. 80). Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group.vehicle body) (Fig. engine coolant may become mixed with transmission fluid. lift bracket. (8) Connect negative battery cables to both batter­ ies. Install the bolts but do not tighten at this time. 79 Radiator Mounting Bolts—Typical (9) Position the upper part of radiator towards engine. (2) Install the radiator support bracket and oil cooler (as an assembly) to the vehicle. Refer to Draining Cool­ ing System. 79). Transmissions for procedures. Refer to Belt Removal/Installation in the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group.50 COOLING SYSTEM R E M O V A L mm msmLLMfmm (Continued) (6) Disconnect the windshield washer reservoir tank at the fan shroud. drain the transmission and remove the transmission oil pan. (4) Disconnect the two transmission oil cooler line quick-connect fittings at the radiator.. (7) Remove the rubber shield at right side of radi­ ator.) torque. (13) Remove oil cooler from the A-shaped radiator support bracket. AifFTO-OlL COOLER—3 J L / I . INSTALLATION (1) Install the oil cooler assembly to the A-shaped radiator support bracket using the two upper mount­ ing bolts and mounting straps. fill the cooling system and inspect for leaks. seals and hous­ ing to the engine as an assembly. Both cooling system and transmission should be drained and inspected in case of oil cooler leakage. (5) Disconnect the oil cooler quick-connect fitting at the transmission oil cooler line. Tighten pivot bolt to 43 N-m (32 ft. the transmission and torque convertor may not require reconditioning. . REPLACING WATER-TO-OIL COOLER IN RADIATOR SIDE TANK The internal transmission oil cooler located within the radiator is not serviceable. Refer to Group 21. Take care not to damage the radiator core or A/C condenser fins with the cooling lines when removing. (5) Position generator to thermostat housing. Do not tighten bolts at this time. 76). (12) Remove oil cooler from A-shaped support bracket by removing two upper mounting strap bolts and mounting straps at support bracket (Fig. (7) Install accessory drive belt. I f none of these conditions are found.7 . (9) Fill cooling system and check for leaks. Transmission fluid may also enter engine cooling system. Install and tighten mounting bolts to 24 N-m (18 ft. (8) Remove the two radiator upper mounting bolts (Fig. 2 L / 1 J L ENGINES.) torque. the radiator must be replaced. I f it requires service. I f the transmission operates properly after repairing the leak. (3) Place a drain pan under the oil cooler lines. ALIGNMENT DOWELS (2) J9407-38 Fig. (10) Remove the oil cooler lower mounting bolt (oil cooler-to. (11) Remove three bolts (radiator support bracketto-body). (2) Drain cooling system. 80). Refer to Group 21 for automatic transmission servic­ ing. Refer to the Refilling Cooling System and Test­ ing Cooling System For Leaks sections in this group. MOUNTING BOLTS (4) Install thermostat. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable at battery. (3) Install the two lower radiator A-shaped support bracket bolts. lbs. Transmissions for procedures.

Plug cooler lines to prevent oil leakage. engine coolant may become mixed with transmission fluid. OIL C O O L E R LOWER RADIATOR SUPPORT BRACKET BOLTS (2) TRANS. Transmissions for procedures. lbs. (6) Install the two radiator upper mounting bolts (Fig. Tighten bolts to 11 N-m (95 in. (4) Remove the oil cooler and line assembly from the vehicle. 80 AiMo-oii Cooler 3. OIL COOLER UPPER MOUNTING BOLTS (2) COOLING SYSTEM 7 . Refer to Refilling the Cooling System in this group.9L Engines (4) Slide and position the oil cooler on the A-shaped bracket until its lower mounting hole lines up with the bolt hole on the vehicle body. Transmis­ sions for procedures. (4) Start the engine and check all fittings for leaks. (8) Install rubber shield to radiator. (10) Fill cooling system. lbs. Refer to Group 21.BR REMOVAL A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) UPPER RADIATOR SUPPORT BRACKET BOLT RADIATOR SUPPORT BRACKET TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER TRANS. RADIATOR SUPPORT TRANS. Tighten all three radiator support bracket mounting bolts to 11 N-m (95 in. Transmission fluid may also enter engine cooling system.) torque.) torque.51 and transmission should be drained and inspected in case of oil cooler leakage.2/5. (1) Place a drain pan under the oil cooler lines. OIL C O O L E R LINES Fig. (12) Start the engine and check all fittings for leaks. . (7) Install windshield washer reservoir tank. 79).) torque. Refer to Group 21. Trans­ missions for procedures. lbs. OIL COOLER LOWER MOUNTING BOLT J9407-40 TRANS. (3) Remove three oil cooler-to-radiator support mounting bolts (Fig. lbs.9L or 5. (11) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (5) Install the upper radiator A-shaped support bracket bolt. Refer to Group 21. 81 Air To Oil Cooler—V-10 INSTALLATION Engine (1) Install the oil cooler and cooler line assembly to the vehicle. Both cooling system QUICK-CONNECT FITTINGS (2) OIL COOLER MOUNTING BOLTS (3) J9407-41 Fig. (13) Check the fluid level in the automatic trans­ mission. (2) Disconnect the two transmission oil cooler line quick-connect fittings from the transmission oil cooler lines (Fig.) torque. Transmissions for proce­ dures. (3) Connect the quick-connect fittings. (5) Check the fluid level in the automatic trans­ mission. (2) Install three mounting bolts and tighten to 6 N-m (50 in. A1R-T0-01L COOLER—8 J L ¥ 4 0 ENGINE REM0WAL CAUTION: If a leak should occur in the internal radiator mounted transmission oil cooler (gas engines only). Refer to Group 21. 81). Transmissions for proce­ dures. Tighten the oil cooler mounting strap bolts to 6 N-m (50 in. 81). (9) Install the quick-connect fittings on the two oil cooler lines to the radiator. Refer to Group 21.

(2) Install mounting straps. (2) Install two nuts and one bolt. (6) Check the fluid level i n the automatic trans­ mission. 82). (1) Carefully position the oil cooler assembly to the vehicle. (3) Raise the vehicle. Refer to Group 14. Refer to Draining Cool­ ing System. These are located near the power steering gearbox. (2) Place a drain pan under the oil cooler. (6) Fill cooling system. Body. Refer to Group 14. (2) Remove air cleaner assembly and air cleaner intake hoses. INSTALLATION (7) Lift oil cooler off of mounting bracket. (7) Remove the oil cooler and line assembly towards the front of vehicle. Refer to Group 21. (4) Disconnect the oil cooler quick-connect fittings from the transmission lines.7 . (6) Remove oil cooler mounting straps (Fig. 83 Air-to-Oil Cooler—Diesel Engine J9407-47 Fig. (3) Drain cooling system. . Transmis­ sions for procedures. (4) Disconnect coolant lines from cooler. Body. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this section. (4) Install front bumper.9L DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL AIR-TO-OIL COOLER—5 J L DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL CAUTION: If a leak should occur in the water-to-oil cooler mounted to the side of the engine block. Refer to Group 23. TRANSMISSION WATER-TO-OIL COOLER (1) Remove front bumper. Refer to Group 21. Refer to Group 21. (4) Connect coolant hoses to cooler. (3) Connect transmission oil lines to cooler. engine coolant may become mixed with transmis­ sion fluid.Oil Cooler—Diesel (6) Remove two mounting nuts. (7) Check transmission oil level and fill as neces­ sary. Transmission fluid may also enter engine cooling system. Fuel System for pro­ cedures. C H A R G E AIR C O O L E R (INTERCOOLER) TRANSMISSION OIL C O O L E R MOUNTING NUTS (2) QUICKCONNECT FITTINGS (2) J9407-42 Fig. (5) Connect negative battery cables to both batter­ ies. INSTALLATION (1) Position oil cooler on bracket. (5) Remove the charge air cooler-to-oil cooler bolt (Fig. Fuel System for pro­ cedures. (8) Install air cleaner assembly and air cleaner intake hoses. (1) Disconnect both negative battery cables at bat­ teries. Plug cooler lines to prevent oil leakage.52 COOLING SYSTEM BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) WATER-TO-OIL COOLER—5. Both cooling system and transmis­ sion should be drained and inspected in case of oil cooler leakage. (5) Disconnect transmission oil lines from cooler. lbs. 82 Transmission Water-To. (5) Start the engine and check all fittings for leaks. Transmissions for proce­ dures. Cooler must be rotated and tilted into position while removing. (3) Connect the quick-connect fittings to the trans­ mission cooler lines. Transmissions for procedures. Tighten to 11 N-m (95 in. Refer to Group 23.) torque. 83).

84). Position positive battery cable to rear of vehicle. (3) Drain the cooling system. Position shroud rearward over the fan blades towards engine. use only an original equipment clamp with a matching number or letter. 85 Typical Radiator Mounting . RADIATOR FAN SHROUD M O U N T I N G BOLTS J9407-37 Fig. (6) A l l engines: Remove coolant reserve/overflow tank hose from radiator filler neck nipple. MOUNTING BOLTS ALIGNMENT DOWELS (2) J9407-38 Fig. Windshield Wiper and Washer Systems for procedures.0L V-10: Remove the cool­ ant reserve/overflow tank from the fan shroud (pull straight up). Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. (4) Disconnect throttle cable from clip at top of radiator fan shroud.0L V-10 and Diesel: Remove the plastic clips retaining the rubber shields to the sides of radiator. 84 Typical Fan Shroud Mounting (12) A l l Engines Except 8. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. (7) All engines except 8. 23). If replacement is necessary. (9) If equipped with an automatic transmission (all engines except diesel). The tank slips into T-slots on the fan shroud.mm R E M O V A L A N D INSTALLATION (Continued) RADIATOR REMOVAL—ALL ENGINES (1) A l l Engines Except Diesel: Disconnect nega­ tive battery cable from battery. disconnect oil cooler lines (hoses) at radiator tank. SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (Fig. (13) Remove the two radiator upper mounting bolts (Fig. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 85). Trans­ missions for procedures. 24).0L V-10 and Diesel: Except 8. (10) Diesel Engine Only: Remove the two metal clips retaining the upper part of fan shroud to the top of radiator. Refer to Group 8K. (5) Remove hose clamps and hoses from radiator. COOLING SYSTEM 7 . (8) Disconnect electrical connectors at windshield washer reservoir tank and remove tank.53 (11) Remove the four fan shroud mounting bolts (Fig. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. (2) Diesel engine: Disconnect both negative bat­ tery cables at both batteries. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING. Refer to Group 21. Remove the nuts retain­ ing the positive cable to the top of radiator. Position rubber shields to the side. USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP. WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE THE CYLINDER BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN THE RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH THE SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVIC­ ING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.

(5) Fill cooling system with recommended coolant. .to-side. Refer to Refilling Cooling System section in this group. 87). On the diesel engine.9L V-6 or 5. (11) A l l engines: Install coolant reserve/overflow tank hose to radiator filler neck nipple. Refer to Group 8K. When removing block heater. (13) Connect throttle cable to fan shroud.54 COOLING SYSTEM BR R E M O V A L A N D I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) (14) Lift radiator straight up and out of engine compartment. 84).2L/5. connect transmission oil cooler lines to radiator tank. Install fan shroud mounting bolts (Fig. (6) Connect both radiator hoses. 86) (Fig. 86) (Fig. the cord is connected to the heater with a knurled cap. (3) Lower the radiator into position while guiding the two alignment dowels into lower radiator sup­ port. The bottom of the radiator is equipped with two alignment dowels that fit into holes in the lower radiator support panel (Fig. (4) Loosen (but do not completely remove) the screw at center of block heater (Fig. Element coil must be installed correctly to prevent damage. (10) Diesel Engines: Install metal clips to top of fan shroud.9L V-8 Engines: Position the rubber shields to the sides of radiator. 87). (12) All Engines Except 8. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. Fig. (4) Install two upper radiator mounting bolts. 85).9L/5. note direction of heating element coil (up or down). (1) Disconnect negative battery cable(s) from battery(s). lbs. (17) Fill cooling system with coolant.) torque. Check cooling system and automatic trans­ mission (if equipped) fluid levels. an alien headed screw is used. Rubber bis­ cuits (insulators) are installed to these dowels. Install the plastic clips retaining the rubber shields to the sides of radiator. Refer to previous CAUTION and install hose clamps. Take care not to damage cooling fins or tubes on the radi­ ator and air conditioning condenser when removing. (7) I f equipped. Different alignment holes are provided in the lower radiator support for each engine application. (2) Install new O-ring seal(s) to heater.9L Powered Engine INSTALLATION Gas (1) Thoroughly clean the cylinder block freeze plug hole and block heater seat. (18) Operate engine until it reaches normal tem­ perature. (16) Position heater controls to full heat position. Unscrew this cap for cord removal. (7) Check block heater for leaks. Tighten bolts to 6 N-m (50 in. lbs. (9) Position fan shroud to flanges on sides of radi­ ator. INSTALLATION (1) Position fan shroud over the fan blades rear­ ward towards engine. Transmis­ sions for procedures.0L V-10: Install coolant reserve/overflow tank to fan shroud (fits into T-slots on shroud).2L/5.) torque. ENGINE 1L0C1 HE1TER REMOVAL (2) Drain coolant from radiator and cylinder block. (6) Start and warm the engine. Refer to Group 21. (4) With heater fully seated. (5) Remove block heater from engine by carefully prying from side.7 . (3) Remove power cord from heater by unplugging (Fig. On the diesel engine. (14) Install negative battery cable to battery. (3) Insert block heater into cylinder block. (2) Install rubber insulators to alignment dowels at lower part of radiator. Tighten bolts to 11 N-m (95 in. 86 Engine Block Heater—3. (5) 3. Tighten radiator-to-battery cable mounting nuts. tighten center screw. (8) Install windshield washer reservoir tank. (15) Diesel Engine: Install positive battery cable to top of radiator.

90). . (2) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. Refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner in this group. Refer to (Fig. refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner.2/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines IISTALLATIOI CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt. (3) Remove belt from idler pulley first. This belt tensioner will be used on all belt configurations. proceeding in this group. (4) Check belt indexing marks. Let tensioner rotate back into place.9L V-6 or 5.This label is located in the engine compartment. the belt must be routed correctly.9L REMOVAL V-8 LDC-GAS ENGINES Fig. such as with or without power steering or air conditioning. 3. 88). 88).0L V-10 ENGINES Drive belts on these engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. Drive belts are equipped with a spring loaded auto­ matic belt tensioner (Fig. (2) Rotate tensioner assembly clockwise (as viewed from front) until tension has been relieved from belt. (1) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 88). engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner. For more information. use the sche­ matics on Belt Routing Label. The correct belt with correct length must be used. (4) Remove belt from vehicle. (1) Position drive belt over all pulleys except idler pulley.9L HDC-GAS REMOVAL AND 8. For more information. (3) Rotate socket/wrench clockwise. pro­ ceeding in this group. CAUTION: Do not attempt to check belt tension with a belt tension gauge on vehicles equipped with an automatic belt tensioner. 87 Engine Block Heater—8.BR COOLING SYSTEM 7 . If not. This pulley is located between generator and A/C compressor.55 REMOVAL AH© INSTALLATION (Continued) Fig.9L V-6 OR 5. If anything differs between these sche­ matics and the Belt Routing Label.OL V-10 Engine SERPENTINE ORifE BELTS NOTE: The belt routing schematics are published from the latest information available at the time of publication. 88 Belt Tensioner—3. Refer to the pro­ ceeding Automatic Belt Tensioner for more belt infor­ mation. such as with or without power steering or air condi­ tioning. This belt tensioner will be used on all belt configurations. Place belt over idler pulley. 5. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys. 89) for correct engine belt routing. Remove wrench.2/5.

Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys.hand. 91 Belt Routing—5. such as with or without air conditioning.7 . CAUTION: If the pulley is to be removed from the tensioner. engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Drive belts on diesel engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 89 Belt Routing—3. J9307-26 AUTOMATIC TENSIONER * ! F VEHICLE IS NOT EQUIPPED WITH POWER STEERING. refer to Automatic Belt Ten­ sioner.2/5.9L HDC-Gas and 8. The correct belt with cor­ rect length must be used. . If not. 92)for cor­ rect engine belt routing. Refer to (Fig. When all belt tension has been relaxed.56 COOLING SYSTEM BR 1ISTALLAT10N REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION fContinued) CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt. remove belt from tensioner pulley first and other pul­ leys last. (1) Position drive belt over all pulleys except ten­ sioner pulley. 93). (2) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. Fig.9L DIESEL Fig.9L HDC-Gas Engine and 8. proceeding in this group.0L V-10 Engines—Typical REMOVAL ENGINE (1) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. This belt tensioner will be used on all belt config­ urations.9L V-6 or 5. 93) displays the tensioner for vehicles without air conditioning. 91) (Fig. (2) Relax the tension from the belt by rotating the tensioner counterclockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. 90).9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines J9307-55 Fig. (3) Rotate socket/wrench counterclockwise. 90). Let tensioner rotate back into place. Remove wrench. For more information. Install belt over tensioner pulley. 90 Belt Tensioner—5. The threads on the pulley mounting bolt are left.0 L V-10—With A/C 5. the belt must be routed correctly. THIS WILL BE A N IDLER PULLEY. 90). its mounting bolt has left-hand threads. (Fig.

B R _ _ _ _ _ _ _ — COOLING SYSTEM 7 . power steering pump.9L V-6 or 5. 96) on back of tensioner and an indexing mark on tensioner housing. Fig. 94) (Fig. (3) Remove belt from water pump pulley first. If this specification cannot be met.9L V-6 or 5. Remove ratchet. (1) Position drive belt over all pulleys except water pump pulley. 92 Beit Routing—5.2/5. The correct belt with cor­ rect length must be used.9L Diesei—Typical (non-A/C shown) (1) A 3/8 inch square hole is provided in the auto­ matic belt tensioner (Fig.57 R E M O V A L AND I N S T A L L A T I O N (Continued) AUTOMATIC TENSIONER wrong direction. arrow must be within approximately 3 mm (1/8 in. (2) Rotate ratchet and tensioner assembly counter­ clockwise (as viewed from front) until tension has been relieved from belt. (2) Attach a 3/8 inch ratchet to tensioner.9L HDC-Gas Engine and 8. 98 Beit Tensioner—5. water pump. Belt is considered new if it has been used 15 minutes or less. Attach a 3/8 inch drive-long handle ratchet to this hole. Let ten­ sioner rotate back into place. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys. 95)for cor­ rect engine belt routing. Place belt over water pump pulley. a used belt should be replaced if tensioner indexing arrow has moved to point-A (Fig. If a new belt is being installed. the tensioner is equipped with an indexing arrow (Fig. idler pulley or generator) • A pulley on an engine accessory being loose • Misalignment of an engine accessory • Belt incorrectly routed. On 3. 96). 94 Belt Routing—5. (4) Remove belt from vehicle.0 I v-10—Without A/C Fig.2/5. check for: • The wrong belt being installed (incorrect length/width) • Worn bearings on an engine accessory (A/C compressor.) of indexing mark (point B-) (Fig. Tensioner travel stops at point-A. INSTALLATION CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt. 93). the belt must be routed correctly. * POWER STEERING PUMP IS NOT BELT DRIVEN J9307-56 Fig. If not.9L V-8 LDC-gas engines. engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in .9L Diesei Engine—With A/C AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER NOTE: On 3.9L V-8 LDC-gas engines. 96). Refer to (Fig. (3) Rotate ratchet and belt tensioner counterclock­ wise.

lbs. 5. Refer to Belt Removal/Instal­ lation in this group. CAUTION: To prevent damage to coil case. (2) Install tensioner assembly to mounting bracket.) torque. 96 Indexing Marks—3. tighten to 11 N-m (100 in. (2) Disconnect wiring and secondary cable from ignition coil.0L V-10 ENGINES INDEXING ARROW (1) Remove accessory drive belt. UNIT IS SERVICED AS AN ASSEMBLY (EXCEPT FOR PULLEY). Do not remove coil mounting bracket from cylinder head. Fig. Tighten nut to 67 N-m (50 ft. 95 Belt Routing—5.58 COOLING SYSTEM R E M O V A L A N D 1 INSTALLATION fContinued) 3.9L Diesei A/C Engine—Without TENSIONER ASSEMBLY (1) Install pulley and pulley bolt to tensioner.2/5. lbs. I1STALLATI01 Fig. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO DISASSEMBLE AUTO­ MATIC TENSIONER. UNIT IS SERVICED AS AN ASSEMBLY (EXCEPT FOR PULLEY). its mounting bolt has left-hand threads.7 . Tighten bolt to 61 N-m (45 ft. 97) and remove tensioner. Refer to Belt Removal/Installation in this group. (2) Remove tensioner mounting bolt (Fig.) torque. 96). I f nuts and bolts are used to secure coil to coil bracket. (5) Remove pulley bolt. coil mounting bolts must be torqued.) torque. (5) Install drive belt. Refer to Belt Removal/Installation in this group. lbs. tighten bolts to 5 N-m (50 in. (3) Remove ignition coil from coil mounting bracket (two bolts). (4) Install coil to coil bracket. (6) Check belt indexing marks (Fig. .BL W°6 OR 5*2/5*91 REMOVAL ¥-8 LDC-GAS EMGINES (1) Remove accessory drive belt. Align this tab to slot in mounting bracket. Remove pulley from ten­ sioner. (4) Remove tensioner assembly from mounting bracket (one nut) (Fig.91 ¥-6 or 5. (3) Connect all wiring to ignition coil. WARNING: BECAUSE OF HIGH SPRING PRES­ SURE.9L ¥-8 LDC-Gas Engines WARNING: BECAUSE OF HIGH SPRING PRES­ SURE. lbs. CAUTION: If the pulley is to be removed from the tensioner.) torque. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO DISASSEMBLE AUTO­ MATIC TENSIONER.BL HDC-GAS REMOVAL AMD 8. 96). An indexing tab is located on back of ten­ sioner. I f coil mounting bracket has been tapped for coil mounting bolts.

Refer to Belt Removal/Installation in this group. Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft. .9L HDC-Gas and 8.0L V-10 Engines 5. (2) Remove throttle cable at top of fan shroud. (2) Remove tensioner mounting bolt (Fig. (3) Install drive belt. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. 98 Tensioner Dowel Pin—5. 99) in ten­ sioner mounting bracket.0L V-10 Engines (3) Install drive belt. Inspect for fatigue cracks. INSTALLATION • (1) Install pulley to tensioner. lbs.BR — — COOLING SYSTEM 7 . BELT TENSIONER (1) Remove accessory drive belt.59 R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION fContinued) Fig. Refer to Belt Removal/Instal­ lation in this group. WARNING: BECAUSE OF HIGH SPRING PRES­ SURE. 98). A dowel pin is located on back of tensioner (Fig. Also inspect water pump bearing and shaft assembly for any related damage due to a viscous fan drive malfunction. loose blades. Tighten bolt to 41 N-m (30 ft. UNIT IS SERVICED AS AN ASSEMBLY (EXCEPT FOR PULLEY). 97 Belt Tensioner—SSL INSTALLATION HDC-Gas and 8.) torque.) torque. Align this to dowel hole (Fig. Tighten bolt to 88 N-m (65 ft. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO DISASSEMBLE AUTO­ MATIC TENSIONER. CAUTION: If the viscous fan drive is replaced because of mechanical damage.9L HDC-Gas and 8. or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. lbs. A dowel is located on back of tensioner.9L DIESEL REMOVAL ENGINE Fig. lbs. (2) Install tensioner assembly to mounting bracket. (2) Install tensioner assembly to mounting bracket. 97) and remove tensioner. Refer to Belt Removal/Instal­ lation in this group. the cooling fan blades should also be inspected. COOLING SYSTEM FAN—GAS ENGINES REMOWAL DOWEL PIN J9307-63 Fig. 99 Tensioner Dowel Hole—5.0L v-10 (1) Install pulley and pulley bolt to tensioner (observe the previous CAUTION). Replace fan blade assembly if any of these conditions are found. Align this dowel to hole in tensioner mounting bracket.) torque.

100 Fan BladeA/iscous Fan Drive—Gas Engines—Typical (6) Do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig. bring the engine speed up to approximately 2000 rpm and hold for approximately two minutes. This pulley is under spring tension. 101). CAUTION: Do not remove water pump pulley-towater pump bolts (Fig. Inspect for fatigue cracks. (7) Remove four fan shroud-to-radiator mounting bolts. Installation of the wrong fan or viscous fan drive can result in engine overheating. 68). CAUTION: If the viscous fan drive is replaced because of mechanical damage. silicone fluid in the viscous fan drive could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate lubricant. FAN BLADE WATER WATER PUMP (10) Remove four bolts securing fan blade assem­ bly to viscous fan drive (Fig. I f stored horizontally. Posi­ tion fan shroud towards engine. (3) Install fan shroud. 100) to prevent pulley from rotating. The tank is held to shroud with T. Tighten bolts (Fig. 100). (3) The thermal viscous fan drive/fan blade assem­ bly is attached (threaded) to the fan hub shaft (Fig. CAUTION: Some engines equipped with serpentine drive belts have reverse rotating fans and viscous fan drives. Remove the fan blade/fan drive assembly from fan pulley by turning the mounting nut clockwise (as .60 COOLING SYSTEM HEH©WAL AMD INSTALLATION fContlmuecfl (3) A l l Except 8. Replace fan blade assembly if. NOTE: Viscous Fan Drive Fluid Pump Out Require­ ment: After installing a new viscous fan drive. Threads on viscous fan drive are EIGHT-HAND. the cooling fan blades should also be inspected. 100) from viscous fan drive at this time. (1) Disconnect both negative battery cables at both batteries. Also inspect water pump bearing and shaft assembly for any related damage due to a viscous fan drive malfunction. do not place viscous fan drive in horizon­ tal position. Remove fan blade/viscous fan drive assem­ bly from water pump by turning mounting nut coun­ terclockwise as viewed from front. They are marked with the word REVERSE to designate their usage.shaped slots. (5) Do not attempt to remove fan/viscous fan drive assembly from vehicle at this time. 100). (4) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft (Fig.any of these conditions are found. (4) The thermal viscous fan drive/fan blade assem­ bly is attached (threaded) to water pump hub shaft (Fig. (7) Connect negative battery cable. (8) Remove fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly as a complete unit from vehicle.) torque. A Snap-On 36 M M Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. (9) After removing fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly. (6) Install throttle cable to fan shroud. 100). COOLING SYSTEM FAN DRIVE—DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL VISCOUS FAN DRIVE J9307-32 Fig. 100) to 23 N-m (17 ft.0L V-10 Engine: Unsnap coolant re serve/overflow tank from fan shroud and lay aside. This will ensure proper fluid distribution within the drive. (2) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit. (2) Remove the fan shroud mounting bolts. lbs.0L V-10 Engine: Install coolant reserve/overflow tank to fan shroud. Snaps into posi­ tion. loose blades. (5) Except 8. CAUTION: Do not remove the fan pulley bolts. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. Do not disconnect hose or drain coolant from tank. This pulley is under spring tension. or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration.7 . fffSFALLATfOfi (1) Install fan blade assembly to viscous fan drive.

9L Diesel (4) Remove the fan shroud and the fan blade/vis­ cous drive as an assembly from vehicle. right side up. (5) Install battery cables to batteries. A replacement cap must be the type designed for a coolant reserve/over­ flow system with a completely sealed diaphragm spring and a rubber gasket.BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) viewed from front). Clean radiator fins are necessary for good heat transfer. gasket. replace cap. (3) Install viscous fan drive assembly on fan hub shaft. Use of proper cap will allow coolant return to radiator. 101 Fan Blades/Viscous Fan Drive—5. The radiator and air conditioning fins should be cleaned when an accumulation of bugs. Tighten mounting bolts to 23 N-m (17 ft. INSTALLATION Fig. RADIATOR CLEANING (1) Install fan blade assembly to viscous fan drive. Tighten mounting nut to 57 N-m (42 ft. leaves etc. lbs. loose or bent fan blades. C L E A N I N G AND I N S P E C T I O N RADIATOR CAP INSPECTION Hold cap at eye level.) torque. This will ensure proper fluid distribution within the drive. (2) Position the fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive to the vehicle as an assembly. replace cap. (4) Install fan shroud bolts. has occurred. loose rivets. CAUTION: Some engines equipped with serpentine drive belts have reverse rotating fans and viscous fan drives. (6) Inspect the fan for cracks.) torque. (5) Remove fan blade-to-viscous fan drive mount­ ing bolts. THREADED COOLING SYSTEM 7 . 102) at bottom of cap should open. Installation of the wrong fan or viscous fan drive can result in engine overheating. 102 Radiator Pressure Cap Hold cap at eye level. Fig. This gasket is used to seal to radiator filler neck top surface.61 NOTE: Viscous Fan Drive Fluid Pump Out Require­ ment: After installing a new viscous fan drive. Place a bar or screwdriver between the fan pulley bolts to prevent pulley from rotating. lbs. I f rubber gasket has swollen and prevents vent valve from opening. They are marked with the word REVERSE to designate their usage. upside down. apply cold water and compressed air to the back (engine side) of the radiator to flush the radiator and/or A/C con­ denser of debris. I f any light can be seen between vent valve and rubber. WATER PtJiVJP INSPECTION Replace water pump assembly i f i t has any of the following conditions: • The body is cracked or damaged . The vent valve (Fig. bring the engine speed up to approximately 2000 rpm and hold for approximately two minutes. Threads on the viscous fan drive are LEFT-HAND* A Snap-On 36 M M Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. Do not use a replacement cap that has a spring to hold vent shut. With the engine cold.

water pump and viscous fan drive should also be inspected. CAUTION: If fan blade assembly is replaced because of mechanical damage. Refer to preceding Removal procedure. * Capacities shown include vehicles with a i r conditioning a n d or heavy-duty cooling systems. 5 G a l s .9L 19 Liters (20 Qts. 8 . J9407-2I . I f fan is damaged. (3) Lay fan on a flat surface with leading edge fac­ ing down.7 . Rocking motion of opposite blades-should not. (4) Inspect fan assembly for cracks.0 mm (. ) 2 5 Liters ( 2 6 Q t s . This is evident by traces of coolant below the vent hole .62 COOLING SYSTEM _ — — — BR CLEANING AND INSPECTION (Continued) SPECIFICATIONS COOLANT CAPACITIES • Water leaks from the shaft seal. ) 2 3 Liters (24 Q t s .090 inch). bends. Also inspect thermal fan drive • Impeller rubs either the pump body or timing chain case/cover FAN INSPECTION 3. 0 G a l s . Inspect fan as follows: (1) Remove fan blade and viscous fan drive as an assembly from the engine. These components could have been damaged due to excessive vibration. Test all blades In this manner. 0 G a l s . 5 . exceed 2. 9 L Diesel Engine * Nominal refill capacities a r e shown. or 6 . Also refer to the proceeding Viscous Fan Drive sec­ tion for additional information. 0 L Engine . A variation m a y be observed from vehicle to vehicle due to manufacturing tolerances a n d refill procedures.2L/5.090 inch). With tip of blade touching flat surface. • Loose or rough turning bearing. Replace fan i f any damage is found. replace fan i f clearance between opposite blade and surface is greater than 2. ) G a s Engines The fan cannot be repaired.9L/5. or 6 .0 mm (. loose rivets or broken welds. It must be replaced. (2) Remove fan blade assembly from viscous fan drive unit (four bolts). WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT TO BEND OR STRAIGHTEN FAN BLADES IF NOT WITHIN SPECI­ FICATIONS. or 5 .

lbs.) 61 N * m (45 ft. . .) Automatic Belt Tensioner Pulley Bolt — 5 . lbs.) N«m ( W i n .) 2 3 N * m ( 2 0 0 in.0LV-10. Thermostat Housing Bolts — Diesel Engine W a t e r Pump Mounting BoltsA l l G a s Engines W a t e r Pump Pulley Bolts — All G a s Engines Water Pump Mounting BoltsDiesel Engine 57 N«m (42 ft.0L 8 8 N * m ( 6 5 f t . lbs. lbs.2L/5. 2 L / 5 . lbs. lbs.) J9407-20 SPECIAL TOOLS COOLING Pliers 6094 Pressure Tester 7700-A . lbs.) 4 0 N * m ( 3 0 ft.) Bolt — 3 .BR SPECIFICATIONS (Continued) TORQUE Description Automatic Belt Tensioner Pulley Torque Description Radiator Mounting Bolts COOLING SYSTEM 7 . . Thermostat Housing Bolts — All G a s Engines Except 8 . 9 L L D C G a s Engine . . .) G a s Engine Automatic Belt Tensioner-to-Mounting Bracket — 5 . .) 2 4 N « m (18 ft. . lbs. 0 L V-10 Engine Hose C l a m p s Idler Pulley Mounting Bolt — All G a s Engines 6 N » m (50 in. Thermostat Housing Bolts — 8. 9 L / 5 . . .) 2 2 N * m ( 1 6 f t . lbs.) V-10 Engines Fan Shroud-to-Radiator Mounting Bolts Heater Hose Fitting at Water Pump — 8 . . . . lbs. . lbs. .) 2 5 N * m ( 2 2 0 in. .) 2 4 N * m ( 1 8 f t . . . . . . lbs. .) 16 Thermal Viscous Fan-to-Hub-Diesel Engine . lbs. 61 N ° m ( 4 5 ft. 0 L 41 N « m (30 ft.] 4 N « m ( 3 4 in. lbs. 0 L V-10 . 9 L H D C G a s and 8.63 Torqy 11 N * m ( 9 5 in. lbs. . lbs.9L/5.9L LDC 6 7 N » m ( 5 0 f t .) V-10 Engine Automatic Belt Tensioner-to-Mounting Bracket-3. 9 L H D C G a s a n d 8 .

.

volt/ ohmmeter. when attempting to diagnose any of these systems. Water can­ not be added to this battery. Refer to Group 8W . 1 . group. The factory-installed battery also has a built-in test indicator (hydrometer).. The factory-installed maintenance-free battery has non-removable battery vent caps (Fig. . In order for the vehicle to start and charge properly. and 12-volt test lamp may be required.BR BATTERY 8A . . . . Group 8B covers the starting system. 1 Maintenance-Free Battery INTRODUCTION This section covers battery diagnostic and service pro­ cedures only. and Group 8C covers the charging system.. 1 2 2 2 3 5 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION BATTERY MOUNTING BATTERY SIZE AND RATINGS BATTERY DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING BATTERY BUILT-IN TEST INDICATOR . See Built-in Test Indicator in this group for more information. . 1). . All OBD-sensed systems are monitored by the PCM.1 BATTERY CONTENTS page page GENERAL INFORMATION INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW .Charging System for more information. 7 7 10 12 14 GENERAL INFORMATION OVERVIEW The battery. .. battery charger. The chemical composi­ tion within the maintenance-free battery reduces battery gassing and water loss at normal charge and discharge rates.Lubrication and Maintenance. starting. the battery should not require additional water in normal service. the battery must be replaced. Group 8A covers the battery. While bat­ tery charging can be considered a maintenance proce­ dure. HYDROMETER TEST IGNITION^OFF DRAW TEST LOAD TEST OPEM-CiRCUiT VOLTAGE TEST SERVICE PROCEDURES BATTERY CHARGING REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION BATTERY SPECIFICATIONS BATTERY 5 9 . Use of a induction milliampere ammeter. and charging systems oper­ ate with one another. refer to Group 0 . all of the components involved in these systems must perform within specifications. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnos­ tic Trouble Code (DTC). . However. We have separated these systems to make i t easier to locate the information you are seeking within this Service Manual. carbon pile rheostat (load tester). and must be tested as a com­ plete system. For battery maintenance procedures. Be certain to diagnose the charging system before returning the vehicle to service. . . This was done because the battery must be fullycharged before any diagnosis can be performed. Therefore. i t is important that you keep their inter dependency in mind. . However. The diagnostic procedures used in these groups include the most basic conventional diagnostic meth­ ods to the more sophisticated On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) built into the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). . battery charging information is located in this If the battery electrolyte level becomes low. The PCM will store a DTC in electronic memory for any failure i t detects. . rapid loss of elec­ trolyte can be caused by an over-charging condition. Refer to Group 80 Charging System for more information. See the On-Board Diagnostics Test i n Group 80 .Wiring Diagrams for complete circuit descriptions and diagrams. Fig. . . . The color visible in the sight glass of the indicator will reveal the battery condition..

However. The battery tray is fastened to the inner fender shield with two bolts. D E S C R I P T I O N AMB O P E R A T I O N BATTERY The storage battery is a device used to store electrical energy potential in a chemical form. The battery is vented to release excess hydrogen gas that is created when the battery is being charged or dis­ charged. As the battery discharges. and the voltage potential of the battery cells.81 . A bolt passes through the holddown strap on each side of the battery. This reaction causes the battery to discharge electrical current.2 volts. COLD CRANKING AMPERAGE GENERAL I N F O R M A T I O N (Continued) It is important that the battery. Both ratings are described in more detail below. This rating estimates how long the battery might last after a charging system failure. For a battery to remain useful.7°C (0°F). electrons between the positive and negative plate groups. As the plate materials become more similar chemi­ cally. so that its voltage potential may be restored.. When an electrical load is applied to the battery terminals. even with these vents. A U-nut is held in a formation on each side of the battery tray. The chemical changes within the battery are caused by the movement of excess. oxygen from the positive plate material combines with hydrogen from the sulfuric acid. or free. RESERVE CAPACITY The Reserve Capacity (RC) rating specifies the time (in minutes) i t takes for battery terminal volt­ age to fall below 10. Terminal volt­ age must not fall below 7. This action restores the difference in the electron charges deposited on the plates. The cause of abnormal discharge. This movement of electrons produces a flow of electrical current through the load device attached to the battery terminals. The battery is made up of six individual cells that are connected in series. the battery must be replaced i f the electrolyte level becomes low. an electrochem­ ical reaction occurs within the battery. BATTERY MOUNTING The battery is mounted to a molded plastic tray located in the left front corner of the engine compart­ ment. and RC rating can be found on the original equipment battery label.2 volts during or after the 30 second discharge. A battery must also be able to accept a charge. These dissimilar metal plates are submerged in a sulfuric acid and water solution called an electrolyte. for a vehicle's electrical system. and the electrolyte becomes less acid. as well as CCA and RC ratings that equal or exceed the original equipment specification for the vehicle being serviced. it may ignite. RC is determined with the battery fullycharged at 26. Each cell contains positively charged plate groups made of lead oxide.2 BATTERY BR gas can collect in or around the battery. The sulfuric acid in the electrolyte combines with the plate materials. the battery serves as a capacitor. The Group Size number. The CCA required is generally higher as engine displacement increases. CCA rating. It absorbs most abnormal or transient voltages caused by the switching of any of the vehicle's electrical components. the hydrogen The Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) rating speci­ fies how much current (in amperes) the battery can deliver for 30 seconds at -17. If the electrolyte level is low. These ratings are called Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) and Reserve Capacity (RC). BATTERY SIZE AND RATINGS The outside dimensions and terminal placement of the battery conform to standards established by the Battery Council International (BCI). i f the battery is equipped with removable cell caps. and nega­ tively charged plate groups made of sponge lead. add distilled water whenever the electrolyte level is below the top of the plates. over-charging. However. If the bat­ tery cell caps cannot be removed. and is threaded into the U-nut on each side of the battery tray. Charging the battery gradually changes the sul­ fated lead plates back into sponge lead and lead oxide. If hydrogen gas is exposed to flame or sparks. the battery may arc internally and explode. See the Battery Classifica­ tions and Ratings chart in Specifications at the back of this group for more information. starting. in addition to producing and storing electrical energy. causing both plates to slowly change to lead sulfate. depending also upon the starter current draw requirements. the voltage potential of each cell is reduced. the battery discharging process is reversed. by charging the battery with a. there are two commonly accepted methods for rating and comparing battery perfor­ mance. Be certain that a replacement battery has the correct Group Size number. a gradual chemical change takes place within each cell. voltage higher than that of the bat­ tery.7°C (80°F). or voltage stabilizer. In addition. The tray is also fastened to the . A holddown strap fits across the top of the battery case. under minimum electrical load. at a discharge rate of 25 amperes. or early battery failure must be diagnosed and corrected before a battery is replaced or returned to service. and charging systems be thoroughly tested and inspected any time a battery needs to be charged or replaced. At the same time. and the water back into sulfuric acid. i t must be able to produce high-amperage current over an extended period. Each battery is assigned a BCI Group Size number to help identify a correctly-sized replacement. causing the electrolyte to become mainly water.

KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. The battery must be charged before proceeding with a load test if: • The built-in test indicator has a black or dark color visible. which measures the abil­ ity of the battery to supply high-amperage current. Cranking Capacity . A second plate with two studs passes through the rear of the tray and wheelhouse panel from underneath.This can be determined by performing a battery load test. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV­ ABLE CELL CAPS. NOTE: Completely discharged batteries may take several hours to accept a charge. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI­ CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. indicate no increase in the specific gravity. these batteries MUST be disconnected from each other. Further testing is not required. is faulty and must be replaced. This can be done in one of three ways. Nuts are used to secure each of the four exposed studs. • Three corrected specific gravity tests.235. Models with the diesel engine option have a second bat­ tery tray located in the right front corner of the engine compartment. Models without the battery temperature sensor have a plug fitted to this hole. or a hydrometer is not available. or by checking the battery voltage (open circuit voltage test). WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. The secondary battery. I f the battery has a built-in test indicator. and must be replaced.Vehicle Speed Control System for more information. EYES. but does not pass the load test. but has removable cell caps. Refer to Group 8H . and its mounting method and hardware. AVOID CON­ . Refer to Group 8C Charging System for more information on the battery temperature sensor. LEAKING. A battery is fully-charged when: • All cells are gassing freely during charging.BATTERY D E S C R I P T I O N ANP O P E R A T I O N ( C o n t i n u e d ! inner wheelhouse panel. connected in parallel (positive-to-positive/negative-to-negative). OR CHARGE. A fully-charged battery must be load tested to determine its cranking capacity. is a mirror image of the left battery tray. I f the battery has no test indicator. taken at 1-hour intervals. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID. NOTE. State-Of-Charge .3 TACT WITH THE SKIN. • The temperature corrected specific gravity is less than 1. • A green color is visible in the sight glass of the built-in test indicator. WARNING: • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ­ ING.4 volts. BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. as well as from the vehicle electrical sys­ tem. This tray. In order to ensure accurate diagnostic results. PER­ SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS.This can be determined by viewing the built-in test indicator. 2. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT. I f the cell caps are not removable. • Open circuit voltage is 12. A hole in the bottom of the left battery tray is fit­ ted with a battery temperature sensor on some mod­ els. • The open circuit voltage is less than 12. use this test to determine the state-of-charge. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY DO NOT SMOKE. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING BATTERY The battery must be completely charged and the top. perform the open circuit voltage test to determine the state-of-charge. when being tested. determine the battery state-of-charge. Models equipped with the diesel engine option are equipped with two 12-volt batteries. OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. A plate with two studs passes through the front of the tray and wheelhouse panel from the top. posts. 8A . USE FLAME. See Battery Charging in this group for more information. A battery that will not accept a charge is faulty. OR CLOTHING. by checking the spe­ cific gravity of the electrolyte (hydrometer test). ASSIST BOOST. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. on the passenger's side. LOOSE POSTS. OR LOW ELECTRO­ LYTE LEVEL.4 volts or greater. on the driver's side. DO NOT TEST. A battery that is fully-charged. First. The condition of a battery is determined by two cri­ teria: 1. Models with an optional vehicle speed control sys­ tem have the speed control servo mounting bracket attached to the bottom of the left battery tray. The primary battery. See Charging A Completely Discharged Battery in this group for more information. is dedi­ cated to providing current for the operation of the intake manifold air heater. is dedicated to all other vehicle electrical requirements. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. perform the hydrometer test to determine the state-of-charge. and terminal clamps should be properly cleaned before diagnostic procedures are performed.

YES BATTERY S E E M S WEAK OR DEAD? YES NO R E P L A C E WITH CORRECT BATTERY. IN THIS GROUP. YES WILL BATTERY PASS A LOAD T E S T ? R E F E R TO LOAD TEST. NO C H A R G E BATTERY. HYDROMETER TEST. OR OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST. Battery Diagnosis . IN THIS GROUP. DOES BATTERY A C C E P T A C H A R G E ? R E F E R TO BATTERY CHARGING.8A . DONE IS BATTERY FULLY C H A R G E D ? R E F E R TO T E S T INDICATOR. NO CLEAN AND TIGHTEN AS REQUIRED.4 BATTERY — BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G ( C o n t i n u e d ) IS THIS THE C O R R E C T BATTERY FOR THIS V E H I C L E ? R E F E R TO SPECIFICATIONS. IN THIS GROUP. IN THIS GROUP. YES NO REPLACE FAILED BATTERY. YES NO I BATTERY STILL S E E M S WEAK OR DEAD WHEN STARTING? YES R E F E R TO GROUP8B STARTING S Y S T E M NO R E F E R TO ABNORMAL BATTERY DISCHARGING. IN THIS GROUP. A R E BATTERY POSTS TIGHT AMD IS BATTERY C A S E F R E E OF DAMAGE OR L E A K S ? YES A R E BATTERY CONNECTIONS CLEAN AND TIGHT? YES HO REPLACE DAMAGED BATTERY.

To read the built-in test indicator. HYDROMETER TEST The hydrometer test reveals the battery state-ofcharge by measuring the specific gravity of the elec­ trolyte. The battery is inadequately charged and must be charged until a green indication is visible in the sight glass (12. loose posts. This can be due to equipment installed after manufacture. BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE THE BATTERY IS RETURNED'TO SERVICE. See Load Test in this group for more information. before the bat­ tery is tested further or returned to service. Before testing. The battery is adequately charged for further testing or return to use. LOOSE POSTS. OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. Water must be added to a lowmaintenance battery with removable cell caps before it is charged. OR CHARGE. The test indicator reveals the battery state-of-charge. etc. Electrical loads that exceed the output of the charging system.indicates 0% to 75% state-ofcharge. 6. A low electrolyte level may be caused by an over-charging condition. EYES. BUILT-IN TEST INDICATOR A test indicator (hydrometer) built into the top of the battery case provides visual information for bat­ tery testing (Fig. Like a hydrometer. In order to obtain correct indications from the built-in test indi­ cator. Do not use open flame as a source of additional light. Also see Abnormal Battery Discharging in this group for possible causes of the discharged condition. 3. PER­ SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV­ ABLE CELL CAPS. ASSIST-BOOST. 4. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID.5 AND TESTING (Continued! DISCHARGING BATTERY Any of the following. with high-amperage draw systems in use. A faulty circuit or component causing excessive ignition-off draw. This test cannot be performed on maintenance-free batteries with non-removable cell caps. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT. as the color indi­ cates: • Green .indicates 75% to 100% state-of-charge. A load test must be per­ formed to determine the battery cranking capacity.battery posts and terminal clamps. OR LOW ELECTRO­ LYTE LEVEL. Corroded or loose. Refer to the following description.indicates a low electrolyte level. A maintenance-free battery with non­ removable cell caps must be replaced i f the electro­ lyte level is low. 5. or repeated short trip use. A loose or worn generator drive belt. The electrolyte level in the battery is below the test indicator. visually inspect the battery for any damage (a cracked case or cover. . PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI­ CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY.BR DIAGNOSIS ABNORMAL BATTERY 8A . • Black or Dark . 7. Refer to Group 8C . 2). FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. • Yellow or Bright . See Ignition-Off Draw Test in this group for more information. I f the vehicle will not crank for a minimum of 15 seconds with a fully-charged battery. perform the Load Test. 2 Built-in Test Indicator WARNING. 2. • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ­ ING. see Fig. it is important that the battery be level and have a clean sight glass. Slow driving speeds (heavy traffic conditions) or prolonged idling. See Battery Charging in this group for more information.4 volts or more). Additional light may be required to view the indicator. the built-in test indicator measures the specific gravity of the electrolyte. OR CLOTHING. however.Charging System to diagnose an over-charging condition. LEAKING. DO NOT SMOKE.) that would cause the battery to be faulty. USE FLAME.conditions can result in abnor­ mal battery discharging: 1. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. look into the sight glass and note the color of the indicator (Fig. A faulty or incorrect charging system compo­ nent. DO NOT TEST. i t will not reveal the crank­ ing capacity of the battery. 3). AVOID CON­ TACT WITH THE SKIN. A faulty or incorrect battery. I f the battery has non-removable cell caps. See Bat­ tery Charging in this group for more information. WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC.

5 = 7 (70°F/10 = 7) (3) Multiply the result from Step 2 by the temper­ ature correction factor (0.050) at the end of the charge period. or 24% by volume.050).7°C (10°F above 80°F). 004 = 0 . replace the battery. Then remove the cell caps and check the electrolyte level. To read the hydrometer correctly. Hydrometer floats are generally calibrated to indicate the specific gravity correctly only at 26.6 BATTERY BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) TEST INDICATOR/STATE-OF-CHARGE 100% 75% O LOW ELECTROLYTE (^) GREEN (^^ ^^^ BLACK ® YELLOW J958A-6 Add distilled water i f the electrolyte level is below the top of the battery plates. DO NOT TEST. taken at 1-hour intervals. subtract 4 points. The correction factor is approximately a specific gravity value of 0. DO NOT SMOKE. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT. but the variation between cells is more than 50 points (0.290. (2) Divide the result from Step 1 b y 5. etc. Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.8A . the temperature correction factor is subtracted: 1. WARNING: • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ­ ING. CAUTION: Exercise care when inserting the tip of the hydrometer into a cell to avoid damaging the plate separators. a specific gravity of 1. a cor­ rection factor is required.004): 7 X 0 . Always correct the specific gravity for temperature variation.835. LEAKING. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. are constant. referred to as 4 points of spe­ cific gravity. FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.2°C = 38. add 4 points. charge the battery at a rate of approximately 5 amperes. and the cell variation is less than 50 points (0.density of the electrolyte to the density of pure water. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV­ ABLE CELL CAPS. For each 5. LOOSE POSTS. Before testing.8°C (80°F 10°F = Fig. Sulfuric acid makes up approximately 35% of the electrolyte by weight.) that would cause the battery to be faulty. Test the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each battery cell. 3 Buiit-ln Test Indicator Sight Glass Built-in Test Indicator or Open Circuit Voltage Test in this group. OR CLOTHING. When the specific gravity of all cells is above 1. EYES.8°C/5. ASSIST-BOOST. WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. Remove only enough electrolyte from the battery so that the float is off the bottom of the hydrometer barrel with pres­ sure on the bulb released. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID. PER­ SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS.004. and sulfuric acid has a specific gravity of 1.240 0. Refer to the hydrometer manufacturer's instruc­ tions for correct use of the hydrometer. OR CHARGE.7°C (80°F). hold i t with the top surface of the electrolyte at eye level.6°C 70°F) -12.5°C below 26.7°C (10°F below 80°F). OR LOW ELECTRO­ LYTE LEVEL. USE FLAME. In a fully-charged battery the electrolyte will have a temperature-corrected specific gravity of 1.235. OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY.7°C (80°F): 26.028 (4) The temperature at testing was below 26.235 or above is satisfactory for battery load testing and/or return to service. the battery should be replaced. If the cell specific gravity variation is more than 50 points (0.5°C above 26. Continue charging until three consecutive specific gravity tests.7°C (80°F).212. loose posts. therefore.240. I f the specific gravity of one or more cells is less than 1. I f the specific gravity of all cells is above 1.028 = 1.5 (10): 38.260 to 1. Determine the actual specific gravity as follows: (1) Determine the number of degrees above or below 26.000.212 The corrected specific gravity of the battery in this example is 1.050). THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. However. Damaged plate separators can cause early battery failure. BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI­ CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. When testing the specific gravity at any other temperature.2°C (10°F) and has a specific gravity of 1.235. EXAMPLE: A battery is tested at -12. Specific gravity is a comparison of the . visually inspect the battery for any damage (a cracked case or cover. AVOID CON­ TACT WITH THE SKIN. For each 5.235. .

EYES. when being tested. 898A-7 Fig. See Load Test in this group for more information. See Load Test in this group for more infor­ mation.6 volts or more Charge Percentage 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% LOAD TEST A battery load test will verify the battery cranking capacity.7 (2) Disconnect and isolate both battery cables. LOOSE POSTS. BATTERY 8A . completely charge the battery as described in Battery Charging in this group. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. I f a battery has an open-circuit voltage reading of 12. Open Circuit Voltage Open Circuit Volts 11. Before proceeding with this test.0 volts 12. The secondary battery. The test is based on the Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) rating of the battery. then allow up to five minutes for the battery voltage to stabilize. as well as from the vehicle electrical system. but will not reveal its cranking capacity. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY. 4).2 volts 12.4 volts or greater. neg­ ative cable first. . USE FLAME. DO NOT SMOKE. i f a hydrometer is not available. (3) Using a voltmeter connected to the battery posts (refer to the instructions provided with the voltmeter). LEAKING. OR LOW ELECTRO­ LYTE LEVEL. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV­ ABLE CELL CAPS. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT. on the driver's side. 4 Testing Open-Circuit Voltage See the Open-Circuit Voltage chart. these batteries MUST be disconnected from each other. or.BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) the battery may be load tested to determine its cranking capacity. OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE TEST A battery open-circuit voltage (no load) test will show the state-of-charge of a battery. DO NOT TEST. OR CLOTHING. WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. Turn the headlamps on for 15 seconds. is dedicated to providing current for the operation of the intake manifold air heater. FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. ASSIST BOOST. NOTE: Models equipped with the diesel engine option are equipped with two 12-volt batteries. OR CHARGE. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID. the surface charge must be removed from the battery.7 volts or less 12. OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. This voltage reading will indicate the battery state-of-charge. See the Bat­ tery Classifications and Ratings chart in Specifica­ tions at the back of this group. (1) Before measuring the open-circuit voltage. AVOID CON­ TACT WITH THE SKIN. WARNING: • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ­ ING. on the passenger's side. for maintenance-free batteries with non-removable cell caps. BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. The primary battery.4 volts 12. In order to ensure accurate diagnostic results. con­ nected in parallel (positive-to-positive/negative-tonegative). it may be load tested to reveal its cranking capacity. This test can be used in place of the hydrometer test. PER­ SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS. is dedi­ cated to all other vehicle electrical requirements. measure the open-circuit voltage (Fig. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI­ CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT.

on the passenger's side. (1) Disconnect and isolate both battery cables. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY.. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. 5) to the battery posts (Fig. on the driver's side._ 3^ " . 5 Volt-Ammeter-Load J948A-13 Fig. PER­ SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS. (2) Connect a suitable volt-ammeter-load tester (Fig. .8A . • IF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ­ ING. Refer to the operating instructions provided with the tester being used. I t may take up to five minutes for the bat­ tery voltage to stabilize. Open-circuit voltage must be 12. con­ nected in parallel (positive-to-positive/negative-tonegative). FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. 1 1 it ! 1 . OR CHARGE. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID.u ro r ™±L IL£ ^ Fig.. NOTE: Models equipped with the diesel engine option are equipped with two 12-volt batteries. DO NOT TEST. 6 Volt-Ammeier-Load Tester Connections ! i |j^-r^^:v:iW: i ! : : ii . these batteries MUST be disconnected from each other. 6). WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. LOOSE POSTS. After 15 seconds. neg­ ative cable first. The battery top and posts should be clean. BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. _ -. 7 Remove Surface Charge from Battery (4) Allow the battery to stabilize to open-circuit voltage._ • 1 - — —-1— -- ii . . USE FLAME. i vo j ^ j VLscnrajasn^crc^=S2 jl j O'. (3) Rotate the load control knob (carbon pile rheo­ stat) to apply a 300 amp load to the battery for 15 seconds. (5) Rotate the load control knob to maintain a load equal to 50% of the battery's CCA rating (Fig. 7). completely charge the battery as described in Battery Charging i n this group. DO NOT SMOKE. 3 1 j V V 1 '• • . then return the load control knob to the Off position. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI­ CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. is dedicated to providing current for the operation of the intake manifold air heater. OR LOW ELECTRO­ LYTE LEVEL. In order to ensure accurate diagnostic results. Tester . 8). then return the control knob to the Off posi­ tion (Fig.Typical ?*/ O L T mm VS -6/ -. 1 . Before proceeding with this test. ASSIST BOOST.''. / .i & ' f p I p 'ilp. Check the open-circuit voltage (no load) of the battery. OR CLOTHING. The primary battery. EYES. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY* RESULT. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT. "^X^v.——i Fig.4 volts or greater. when being tested. ? y'C i J U j / ^ •— 1 i ^ II. f->— s ' . as well as from the vehicle electrical system. The secondary battery. LEAKING.8 BATTERY DIAGNOSIS mm T E S T I N G (Continuedl II WARNING. is dedi­ cated to all other vehicle electrical requirements. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. AVOID CON­ TACT WITH THE SKIN. record the loaded voltage reading. This will remove the surface charge from the battery. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV­ ABLE CELL CAPS. OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY.

or may not light at all. I f the IOD is over 20 milliamperes. The term "brightly. at a minimum battery temperature of 21°C (70°F). Turn off all lamps. remove the ignition key. then disconnect the lamp or remove the bulb. (1) Verify that all electrical accessories are off. Load Test Temperature Minimum Volt­ age 9. the battery is faulty and must be replaced. DIAGNOSIS (6) The voltage drop will vary with the battery temperature at the time of the load test. and close all doors. in proper working order. boosted.9 898A-11 Fig.7 volts 8.6 volts. allow the electronic timer function of these systems to automatically shut off (time out). See the Load Test Temperature chart for the proper loaded voltage reading.4 volts 9. I f the battery has been charged. depending upon the vehicle's electrical equipment.3 volts 9. remove the IOD fuse from the fuseblock module. may discharge the battery to an inadequate level. The test lamp must be securely clamped to the battery negative cable clamp and the battery negative terminal post. NOTE: When testing a diesel engine-equipped vehi­ cle (dual batteries).Note Voltage A vehicle that has not been operated for approxi­ mately 20 days. do not check the IOD between batteries. (3) Disconnect the battery negative cable. The 20 milliamperes are needed to supply Powertrain Control Module (PCM) memory.5 volts Temperature °F CAUTION: Testing for high-amperage IOD must be performed first to prevent damage to most milliampere meters. the problem must be found and corrected before replacing a bat­ tery. digital clock memory. I f the conti­ nuity between the battery negative terminal post and 70° and above 60° 50° 40° 30° 20° 10° 0° °c 21° and above 16° 10° 4 -1° -7° -12° -18° C (7) I f the voltmeter reading falls below 9.9 volts 8. Excessive IOD can be caused by: • Electrical items left on • Faulty or improperly adjusted switches • An internally shorted generator • Intermittent shorts in the wiring. One battery may be at a higher state-ofcharge than the other. Remove the negative cable from the passenger's side battery negative terminal post prior to performing the IOD diagnosis outlined below. and all non-ignition controlled circuits . the battery can be charged and returned to service. and electronically tuned radio memory. This will reduce battery dis­ charging.020 ampere) with the ignition switch in the Off position. A normal vehicle electrical system will draw from 5 to 20 milliamperes (0. I f the vehicle is equipped with a illumi­ nated entry system or electronically tuned radio. (4) Connect a typical 12-volt test lamp (low-watt­ age bulb) between the disconnected battery negative cable clamp and the battery negative terminal post. The test lamp may light brightly for up to three minutes. When a vehicle will not be used for 20 days or more (stored). (2) Determine that the underhood lamp is operat­ ing properly. This may take up to three minutes." as used throughout the following tests. or loaded a few minutes prior to test. IGNITI0N-0FF DRAW TEST Ignition-Off Draw (IOD) refers to power being drained from the battery with the ignition switch in the Off position. The battery temperature can be estimated by the ambient tem­ perature during the past several hours.1 volts 8. I n most cases.6 volts 9.005 .0. which will cause a high IOD between the batteries. implies the brightness of the test lamp will be the same as i f i t were con­ nected across the battery.5 volts 9. . the battery will be somewhat warmer.BR DIAGNOSIS mm BATTERY 8A . 8 Load 50% CCA Rating . Make sure that the doors remain closed so that the illuminated entry system is not activated.

After the high-amperage IOD has been corrected. LEAKING. The secondary battery. on the passenger's side.-Observe the milliam­ pere meter. • The battery should not be hot to the touch.020 ampere). or turn on any electrical accessories. Immediately reduce the charging rate or turn off the charger to evaluate the battery condition. whether it is a wiring short. I f the test lamp remains brightly lit. refer to Group 8C . FLUSH WITH WATER AND CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.Wiring Diagrams for more information) until the test lamp is either off. • Three corrected specific gravity tests. AVOID CON­ TACT WITH THE SKIN. I f the battery state-of-charge AND EXPLODE. (5) After three minutes. OR CREATE SPARKS NEAR THE BATTERY. I f the test lamp now turns off or Is dimly lit.8A-10 BATTERY DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) cable clamp is lost during any part of the IOD test. Damage to the battery may result. This will Isolate each circuit and Identify the source of the high-amperage IOD. IN THE EVENT OF CONTACT. • A green color is visible in the sight glass of the built-in test indicator. Remove each fuse or circuit breaker (refer to Group 8W . while being charged. CAUTION: ® Always disconnect and isolate the battery neg­ ative cable before charging a battery.0 volts while charging a battery. The milliampere meter reading will drop when the source of the draw is discon­ nected. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. • EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS FORMS IN AND AROUND THE BATTERY DO NOT SMOKE. USE FLAME. is dedicated to providing current for the operation of the intake manifold air heater. as well as from the vehicle electrical system. OR CLOTHING. with the test lamp discon­ nected or the milliampere meter may be damaged. the test lamp should turn off or be dimly lit. (7) Disconnect the test lamp. incorrect switch adjustment. CAUTION: Do not open any doors. . LOOSE POSTS. the low-amperage IOD may be checked. (6) With the test lamp still connected securely. SERVICE PROCEDURES BATTERY CHARGING A battery is fully-charged when: • A l l cells are gassing freely during battery charg­ ing. • THE BATTERY CONTAINS SULFURIC ACID. THE BATTERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY NOTE: Models equipped with the diesel engine option are equipped with two 12-volt batteries. depending upon the vehicle's elec­ trical equipment. Do not exceed 16. If the battery feels hot to the touch. indicate no increase in the specific gravity. WHICH IS POISONOUS AND CAUSTIC. In order to ensure proper charging of each battery. Do not discon­ nect the test lamp. isolate each circuit by removing the circuit breakers and fuses. do not disconnect it. ASSIST BOOST. This circuitry protects the charger and/or battery from being damaged i f they are improperly connected. I f the test lamp is still brightly lit after disconnecting each fuse and circuit breaker. taken at 1-hour intervals. • IF THE BATTERY IS EQUIPPED WITH REMOV­ ABLE CELL CAPS. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.Charging System to diagnose the faulty charging system. The primary battery. EYES. • Open-circuit voltage is 12. OR CHARGE. Electro­ lyte boiling or being discharged from the battery vents indicates a battery over-charging condition. Some battery chargers are equipped with polaritysensing circuitry. The current draw should mot exceed 20 milliamperes (0. I f draw exceeds 20 mil­ liamperes. clamp a milliampere meter between the battery neg­ ative terminal post and the negative cable clamp. Damage to the battery may result from over-charging. on the driver's side.4 volts or above. PER­ SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT FROM LOOSE OR MISSING CELL CAPS. BE CERTAIN THAT EACH OF THE CELL CAPS IS IN PLACE AND TIGHT BEFORE THE BATTERY IS RETURNED TO SERVICE. PERSONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHI­ CLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. DO NOT TEST. Repair this circuit as required. Damage to the vehicle electrical system components may result. these batteries MUST be disconnected from each other. is dedi­ cated to all other vehicle electrical requirements. OR LOW ELECTRO­ LYTE LEVEL. • Battery electrolyte will bubble inside the bat­ tery case during normal battery charging. WARNING: • SF THE BATTERY SHOWS SIGNS OF FREEZ­ ING. disconnect the wiring harness from the generator. con­ nected in parallel (positive-to-positive/negative-tonegative). or a component failure. the electronic timer function will be activated and all tests must be repeated. I t is now safe to install a milliampere meter to check the low-amperage IOD. turn off the charger and let the battery cool before continuing the charging operation. or dimly lit.

Clean and inspect the battery holddowns. • Temperature . BATTERY 8A -11 . After the battery has been charged to 12. I t could take some time before the battery accepts a current greater than a few milliamperes.4 volts or greater.00 to 12. CHARGING A COMPLETELY DISCHARGED BATTERY The following procedure should be used to recharge a completely discharged battery.94 5 Amperes 10 20 Amperes Ampere Hours Charging at 21 °C (70°F) 6 hours 8 hours 12 hours 14 hours 3 hours 4 hours 6 hours 7 hours ' 1. i t will accept a higher charging current rate (amperage). the charger will not operate. the charger will not operate. As the bat­ tery charges.A charger that supplies only 5 amperes will require a longer charging time. A charger that supplies 20 amperes or more will require a shorter charging time. ter­ minals. This makes it appear that the bat­ tery will not accept charging current.9 volts or less CHARGING TIME REQUIRED Hours up to 4 hours up to 8 hours up to 16 hours The time required to charge a battery will vary.' i t Is faulty and must be replaced. At first. Some bat­ tery chargers are equipped with polarity-sensing cir­ cuitry.00 See Charging Completely Discharged Battery . I f the battery will endure a load test. This makes It appear that the battery will not accept charging current. Electrolyte is nearly pure water in a completely discharged battery. 9 Voltmeter Accurate to 1/10 Volt Connected (2) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable.5 hours less than 10. I f the battery state-of-charge is too low for the polarity-sensing circuitry to detect. (1) Measure the voltage at the battery posts with a voltmeter. Charge Rate Voltage 16. accurate to 1/10 (0. This circuitry protects the charger and/or battery from being damaged i f they are improperly connected.99 11. depending upon the following factors: • Battery Capacity . • State-Of-Charge . (3) Battery chargers vary in the amount of voltage and current they provide. perform a load test to determine the battery cranking capacity. the charging current (amperage) will be low.. I f the charge current is still not measur­ able at end of the charging time. and top before completing service. Charging Amperage Open Circuit Voltage 12. • Charger Capacity .5 hours 2 hours 3 hours 3. I f the battery will not endure a load test.95 to 10.BR SERVICE PROCEDURES ( C o n t i n u e d ) is too low for the polarity-sensing circuitry to detect.0 to 15. When a fast charger is connected to a cold battery. As the battery warms. return the battery to use. the battery may be good and the charging should be completed in the normal manner. Connect the battery charger leads. 9). See the Battery Removal and installation procedures In this group for more information.0 volts maximum 14.A completely discharged heavy-duty battery requires twice the charging time of a small capacity battery. I f the charge current is mea­ surable during the charging time. The amount of time required for a battery to accept measurable charger current at various voltages is shown i n the Charge Rate chart. the battery is faulty and must be replaced. Such low current may not be detectable on the ammeters built into many chargers.9 volts 13. the charge current will be low. a good battery may be needlessly replaced. I f the reading is below 10 volts.10) volt (Fig. Refer to the instructions provided with the battery charger to bypass the polarity-sensing circuitry. the current accepted by the battery will be very low at first.25 to 12.39 12. Unless this proce­ dure is properly followed. posts.A longer time will be needed to charge a battery at -18°C (0°F) than at 27°C (80°F). the specific gravity of the electrolyte will gradually rise. Battery Charging Timetable 898A-12 Fig.00 to 11. tray. Refer to the Instructions provided with the battery charger to bypass the polarity-sensing circuitry.24 11.A completely discharged bat­ tery requires more charging time than a partially discharged battery.

10 Remove Battery Terminal Clamp (3) Inspect the cable terminal clamps for corrosion and damage.8A . 12 Left Battery Holddown 8056d9f6 . I f nec­ essary use a puller to remove the terminal clamps from the battery posts (Fig. THE ELECTRO­ LYTE CAN BURN THE SKIN AND EYES. 15) or (Fig. (5) Inspect the battery tray and the holddowns for corrosion or damage (Fig. Remove any corrosion using a wire brush or a post and terminal cleaning tool.12 BATTERY (Continued) BR SERVICE PROCEDURES WARNING: NEVER EXCEED 20 AMPS WHEN CHARGING A COLD (-1°C/30°F) BATTERY. IF THE BAT­ TERY IS CRACKED OR LEAKING. Remove any corrosion using a wire brush and a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution. 11). 14). and a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution (Fig. THE BAT­ TERY MAY ARC INTERNALLY AND EXPLODE. negative cable first. (4) Remove the battery holddowns and remove the battery from the vehicle (Fig. Paint any exposed bare metal and replace any damaged parts. 10). WARNING: WEAR A SUITABLE PAIR OF RUBBER GLOVES (NOT THE HOUSEHOLD TYPE) WHEN REMOVING A BATTERY BY HAND. 11 Clean Battery Cable Terminal Clamp BATTERY BATTERY 898A-4 Fig. PER­ SONAL INJURY AND/OR VEHICLE DAMAGE MAY RESULT. 12) or (Fig. R E M O V A L AND I N S T A L L A T I O N BATTERY (1) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position. 16). BATTERY ERMINA PULLER Fig. Fig. SAFETY GLASSES SHOULD ALSO BE WORN. 13). (2) Loosen the cable terminal clamps and discon­ nect both battery cables. Replace any cable that has damaged or deformed terminal clamps. (Fig. Make sure all electrical accessories are off.

I f the electrolyte level is low. the battery must be replaced. 19). 13 Right Battery Holddown . 14 Left Battery Tray . Rinse the battery with clean water. 17).Diesel Engine Fig. (10) Position the battery in the tray. then tighten the holddowns to 12 N-m (100 in. (9) Clean any corrosion from the battery terminal posts with a wire brush or a post and terminal cleaner.BR • _ _ — _ — — BATTElf 8A . clean the out­ side of the battery case and the top cover with a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution to remove any acid film (Fig. Con­ firm that the replacement battery is the correct size and has the correct ratings for the vehicle. check the battery terminal posts for looseness. and a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and warm water cleaning solution (Fig. The cable terminal clamps must reach the correct battery post without stretching the cables (Fig. 16 Right Battery Tray . Ensure that the positive and negative terminal posts are correctly positioned. (7) Inspect the battery built-in test indicator sight glass for an indication of the battery condition. Ensure that the battery base is correctly posi­ tioned in the tray. Ensure that the cleaning solution does not enter the battery cells through the vent holes. I f the battery is discharged.1 3 R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) Fig. see the Battery Ratings and Classifications chart in Specifications at the back of this group. Bat­ teries with damaged cases or loose posts must be replaced. I f the battery is being replaced. 18).w/o Speed Control (6) Inspect the battery case for cracks or other damage that could result in electrolyte leaks. (8) If the battery is to be reinstalled. (11) Loosely install the battery holddown hard­ ware. . lbs. charge as required.Diesel Engine Fig. See Built-in Test Indicator and Battery Charging in this group for more information.). Also.

Tighten both cable termi­ nal clamp bolts to 8. lbs. 18 Clean Battery Terminal Post . (13) Install and tighten the battery positive cable terminal clamp. 17 Clean Battery TERMINAL BRUSH Classification 27 27 J928B-30 Cold Cranking Amperage 600 750 Reserve Capacity 120 Minutes Load Test Amperage 300 375 150 Minutes Fig. SPECIFICATIONS BATTERY Battery Classifications and Ratings BCI Group Size BATTERY RK108 Fig. Then install and tighten the nega­ tive cable terminal clamp. 19 Battery Cables .8A-14 BATTERY ION (Continued) 3R REMOVAL AND II C L E A N I N G BRUSH POSITIVE CABLE TEST INDICATOR WARM WATER AND BAKING S O D A SOLUTION BATTERY TEST INDICATOR J908B-8 Fig.).5 N-m (75 in. (12) Place an oiled felt washer on the battery pos­ itive terminal post. (14) Apply a thin coating of petroleum jelly or chassis grease to the exposed surfaces of the cable terminal clamps and battery terminal posts. Reverse polarity may damage electrical components.Typical CAUTION: Be certain that the battery cables are connected to the correct battery terminals.

Service procedures for other starting system components can be located as follows: • Battery . and a low-amperage control circuit that operates on less than 20 amperes.BR STARTING SYSTEMS 81 .Wiring Diagrams for complete circuit descriptions and diagrams. all of the components involved in these systems must perform within specifications. when attempting to diagnose any of these systems. and must be tested as a com­ plete system.Transmission for the service procedures • Wiring harness and connections .refer to Group 8A . . battery voltage is supplied through the low-amper­ age control circuit to the coil battery terminal of the starter relay when the ignition switch is turned to the Start position. . . .refer to Group 8D . carbon pile rheostat (load tester). IE10VAL AND INSTALLATION STARTER RELAY STARTER SPECIFICATIONS STARTING SYSTEM GENERAL I N F O R M A T I O N OVERVIEW The battery. . . and Group 8C covers the charging system. . . . . it is important that you keep their interdependency in mind. We have separated these systems to make i t easier to locate the information you are seeking within this Service Manual. . However. .Ignition Systems for the service procedures • Clutch pedal position switch . . and 12-volt test lamp may be required. . . INTRODUCTION The starting system consists of: • Battery • Starter relay • Starter with an integral solenoid • Ignition switch © Clutch pedal position switch (manual transmission) • Park/neutral position switch (automatic trans­ mission) • Wiring harness and connections. volt/ ohmmeter. If the vehicle is equipped with a manual transmission. this group only covers service procedures for the starter and starter relay. However.Wiring Diagrams for the service procedures. except the battery. A high-amperage feed circuit that feeds the starter between 150 and 350 amperes (700 amperes diesel engine). This normally open switch . . . The diagnostic procedures used in these groups include the most basic conventional diagnostic meth­ ods to the more sophisticated On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) built into the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Use of a induction milliampere ammeter. . .refer to Group 21 . All OBD-sensed systems are monitored by the PCM. OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION STARTER RELAY STARTER STARTING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING COLD CRANKING TEST CONTROL CIRCUIT TESTS FEED CIRCUIT TESTS STARTING SYSTEM page 6 4 2 10 8 10 1 1 2 2 1 4 . Group 8B covers the starting system. . See the On-Board Diagnostics Test in Group 80 . and charging systems oper­ ate with one another.1 STARTING SYSTEMS CONTENTS page GENERAL INFORMATION INTRODUCTION . The clutch pedal position switch is connected in series between the ignition switch and the coil battery termi­ nal of the starter relay. it has a clutch pedal position switch. battery charger. . If the vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmis­ sion. This group covers diagnosis of the complete start­ ing system. Group 8A covers the battery. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION STARTING SYSTEM The starting system components form two separate circuits. . In order for the vehicle to start and charge properly. . starting. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnos­ tic Trouble Code (DTC). The PCM will store a DTC In electronic memory for any failure it detects. Refer to Group 8W . .refer to Group 6 Clutch for the service procedures • Park/neutral position switch .refer to Group 8W .Charging System for more information.Battery for the diagnostic and service procedures • Ignition switch .

Determine the state-of-charge and cranking capacity of the battery. the starter solenoid plunger hold-in coil is de-energized. efficient.Battery for more information. The energized solenoid pull-in coil pulls In the sole­ noid plunger. as required. it allows higher armature rotational speed and delivers increased torque through the pinion gear to the starter ring gear on the flywheel (manual transmis­ sion). If the vehicle is equipped with an automatic trans­ mission. refer to 8W-21 .Visually inspect the park/neutral position switch for indica­ tions of physical damage and loose or corroded wiring connections. The solenoid plunger pulls the shift lever In the starter.Wiring Dia­ grams. • Wiring . perform the following inspec­ tions: • Battery .8B . the solenoid plunger return.Visually inspect the clutch pedal position switch for indica­ tions of physical damage and loose or corroded wiring connections. This causes the con­ tact disc to open the starter feed circuit. compact. With the starter relay coil now energized. Refer to Group 8A . Refer to the PDC label for relay identification and location.2 STARTING SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) closes only when the clutch pedal is depressed. When the driver releases the ignition switch to the On position. At the same time. • Starter .Visually inspect the battery for indi­ cations of physical damage and loose or corroded cable connections. The relay contacts connect the relay common feed terminal to the relay normally open terminal. Charge or replace the battery. • Ignition Switch .Starting System in Group 8W . This engages the starter overrun­ ning clutch and pinion gear with the starter ring gear on the flywheel. the starter relay coil ground terminal Is always grounded. See the Diagnosis and Testing section of this group for more information on the starter relay's operation. . • Starter Solenoid . INSPECTION • Before removing any unit from the starting system for repair or diagnosis. the overrunning clutch pro­ tects the starter from damage by allowing the starter pinion gear to spin faster than the pinion shaft. • Clutch Pedal Position Switch . i f required. the starter relay coil is de-energized. When the relay contacts open. A planetary gear system (intermediate trans­ mission) Is used between the electric motor and the pinion gear.Visually inspect the ignition switch for indications of physical damage and loose or corroded wiring connections. This normally open switch closes only with the automatic transmission gear selector in the Neutral or Park positions. This feature makes i t possible to reduce the dimensions of the starter. the park/neutral position switch is installed in series between the starter relay coil ground termi­ nal and ground.(manual transmission) or torque converter (automatic transmission). This causes the relay contacts to open. The starter motors for all engines are activated by a solenoid mounted to the overrunning clutch housing. As the solenoid plunger reaches the end of its travel. STARTER RELAY The starter relay is a International Standards Organization (ISO)-type relay The starter relay is a electro-mechanical device that switches current to the pull-in coil of the starter solenoid. Current now flows between the solenoid battery terminal and the starter motor. • Park/Neutral Position Switch . and lightweight unit. prevent­ ing starter operation while the clutch disc and the fly­ wheel are engaged. the starter motor and solenoid are serviced only as a complete assembly. when the igni­ tion switch is turned to the Start position. the entire assembly must be replaced.. energizing the starter. the solenoid contact disc completes the highamperage starter feed circuit and energizes the sole­ noid plunger hold-in coil. spring returns the plunger to its relaxed position. • Starter Relay . When the solenoid plunger hold-in coil Is de-ener­ gized. STARTER The starter motor Incorporates several features to create a reliable. Once the engine starts. In vehicles with a manual transmission. I f either component fails. the nor­ mally open relay contacts close. and the shift lever to disengage the overrunning clutch and pinion gear from the starter ring gear. The starter relay Is located in the Power Distribu­ tion Center (PDC) in the engine compartment. The closed relay contacts energize the starter solenoid coil windings.Visually inspect the starter solenoid for indications of physical damage and loose or corroded wiring connections.Visually inspect the wiring for damage.Visually inspect the starter relay for indications of physical damage and loose or corroded wiring connections.Visually inspect the starter for indica­ tions of physical damage and loose or corroded wiring connections. However. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING STARTING SYSTEM For circuit descriptions and diagrams. Repair or replace the faulty wiring. or torque converter (automatic transmission).

7. See Relay Test. Test and repair feed and/or control circuits. Park/Neutral position switch (auto trans) faulty or misadjusted. 4. Starter assembly faulty. in this group. 2. Remove starter as described in this group. 3.Battery. 1. Starting circuit wiring faulty. 7. if required. 8. Starting circuit wiring faulty. Broken teeth on starter ring gear. 1. if required. if required. replace starter assembly. Install starter as described in this group. CORRECTION 1. FAILS TO TURN ENGINE. Starter assembly faulty. 2. Replace switch. Refer to Group 8A . if required. POSSIBLE CAUSE 1. Engine seized.3 D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) Starting System Diagnosis Starting System Diagnosis CONDITION STARTER FAILS TO ENGAGE. if required. 2. SPINS OUT BEFORE ENGINE STARTS. Battery discharged or faulty. STARTER ENGAGES. Ignition switch faulty. Charge or replace battery.Engine. 2. 4. in this Group. 3. See Park/Neutral Position Switch Test. See Clutch Pedal Position Switch Test. Tighten starter mounting hardware to correct torque specifications. 3. 4. See Cold Cranking Test. if required. in this group. if required. in this group. Replace switch. 5. Starter relay faulty. if required. 2. 5. Starter assembly faulty. If all other starting system components and circuits check OK. in this group. Starter assembly faulty. Ignition switch faulty. 2. 1. 1. in this group. replace starter assembly. Starter improperly installed. 3. 6. if required. Replace relay. STARTER DOES NOT DISENGAGE. in this group. See Relay Test.BR — — — — — ~ - STARTING SYSTEMS 8B . Replace switch. Starter relay faulty. 8. . 4. STARTER ENGAGES. If all other starting system components and circuits check OK. 3. 2.Battery. for diagnostic and service procedures. if required. replace starter assembly. If all other starting system components and circuits check OK. if required. Inspect ring gear and replace. in this group. Clutch pedal position switch (man trans) faulty. Replace starter assembly. Refer to Group 9 . See Ignition Switch Test. 1. replace starter assembly. Test and repair feed and/or control circuits. Starter solenoid faulty. If all other starting system components and circuits check OK. Replace switch. See Cold Cranking Test. See Solenoid Test. 3. Refer to Group 8A . Replace relay. 4. See Ignition Switch Test. if required. Battery discharged or faulty. 6. in this group. Charge or replace battery. 1. 4. 2.

2 Fuel Shutdown Solenoid Connector . touch the voltmeter leads to the battery positive cable clamp and the cable connector at the starter solenoid.5 volts or greater and the current (amperage) draw reads below specifica­ tions. and reduce the bat­ tery voltage reading. (3) Place the manual transmission gearshift selec­ tor lever in the Neutral position and fully depress the clutch pedal. REMOVAL OF THE ASD RELAY MAY NOT PREVENT THE DIESEL ENGINE FROM STARTING. I f you probe the battery pos­ itive terminal post and the cable connector at the starter solenoid. (4) Verify that all lamps and accessories are turned off. (a) I f the voltage reads above 9.Starting System in Group 8W . disconnect the fuel shutdown solenoid connector (Fig. Refer to the operating instructions provided with the tester being used. 1).8B . The following operation will require a voltmeter accurate to 1/10 (0. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. Refer to Group 8A .Diesel Engine Fig. 2). (6) Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the Start position. The ASD relay is located in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). WARNING: MODELS EQUIPPED WITH THE DIESEL ENGINE OPTION ALSO HAVE AN AUTOMATIC SHUT-DOWN (ASD) RELAY LOCATED IN THE POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER (PDC). (1) Connect a suitable volt-ampere tester to the battery terminals (Fig. HOWEVER. FEED CIRCUIT TESTS The starter feed circuit tests (voltage drop method) will determine i f there is excessive resistance in the high-amperage circuit. When performing these tests. you are reading the combined volt­ age drop in the battery positive cable clamp-to-termi­ nal post connection and the battery positive cable. refer to 8W-21 . NOTE: A cold engine will increase the starter cur­ rent (amperage) draw reading. be certain the following procedures are accom­ plished: . see the Control Circuit Tests in this group. it is important to remember that the voltage drop is giving an indica­ tion of the resistance between the two points at which the voltmeter probes are attached.6 volts and the current (amperage) draw reads above specifica­ tions.Starting System in Group 8W -Wiring Diagrams.Battery for more information. To prevent a diesel engine from starting. see the Feed Circuit Tests in this group. The battery must be fully-charged and loadtested before proceeding. BE CER­ TAIN TO DISCONNECT THE FUEL SHUTDOWN SOLENOID CONNECTOR. Example:When testing the resistance of the bat­ tery positive cable. Place the automatic transmission gear selector lever in the Park position. (5) To prevent a gasoline engine from starting. Note the cranking voltage and current (amperage) draw. (b) I f the voltage reads 12.4 STARTING SYSTEMS BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) COLD CRANKING TEST For circuit descriptions and diagrams. unplug the Automatic Shut-Down (ASD) relay. POSITIVE CLAMP NEGATIVE CLAMP FRONT OF ENGINE AIR TEMPERATURE • SENSOR SENSOR ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR INTAKE MANIFOLD (UPPER HALF) INDUCTION AMMETER CLAMP 948A-24 FUEL SHUTDOWN SOLENOID SOLENOID ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR J9414-93 Fig. Before performing the tests.10) volt. refer to 8W-21 .Wiring Dia­ grams. 1 Volts-Amps Tester Connections .Typical (2) Fully engage the parking brake. Refer to the PDC label for relay identification and location. FAILURE TO DO SO MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.

• Fully engage the parking brake. FAILURE TO DO SO MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY. Connect the nega­ tive lead of the voltmeter to the battery positive cable clamp (Fig. Repeat the test. (4) Connect the voltmeter to measure between the battery negative terminal post and a good clean ground on the engine block (Fig.BR DIAGNOSIS AND T E S T I N G fContlnueii WARNING: MODELS EQUIPPED WITH THE DIESEL ENGINE OPTION ALSO HAVE AN AUTOMATIC SHUT-DOWN (ASD) RELAY LOCATED IN THE POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER (PDC).2 volt. replace the faulty battery negative cable. REMOVAL OF THE ASD RELAY MAY NOT PREVENT THE DIESEL ENGINE FROM STARTING. 2). Observe the voltmeter. Refer to Group 8A Battery for more information. I f the reading is above 0. Connect the negative lead of the voltmeter to the battery negative terminal post (Fig. disconnect the fuel shutdown solenoid connector (Fig. 4 Test Battery Positive Connection Typical Resistance - (3) Connect the voltmeter to measure between the battery positive terminal post and the starter sole­ noid battery terminal stud (Fig. STARTING SYSTEMS 81 . HOWEVER. I f the reading is above 0. • Unplug the Automatic Shut-Down (ASD) relay to prevent a gasoline engine from starting. The relay is located in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). Fig.2 volt. I f the reading is still above 0. clean and tighten the battery negative cable attachment on the engine block. Connect the neg­ ative lead of the voltmeter to the battery negative cable clamp (Fig.2 volt. Observe the voltmeter. Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the Start position. I f voltage is detected. Observe the voltmeter. replace the faulty battery positive cable. Refer to the PDC label for relay identification and location. Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the Start . 3). 6). 7). Place the automatic transmission gear selector lever in the Park position. Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the Start position. (5) Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the starter housing. clean and tighten the battery cable connection at the solenoid. correct the poor contact between the cable clamp and the terminal post. 4). I f voltage is detected. To prevent a diesel engine from starting. correct the poor contact between the cable clamp and the terminal post.2 volt. Repeat the test. 5). Rotate and hold the ignition switch in the Start position. © Battery is fully-charged. 5 Test Battery Positive Cable Resistance Typical - Fig. Observe the voltmeter.1 80660061 Fig. Rotate and hold the ignition switch i n the Start position. (1) Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the battery negative terminal post. • Place the manual transmission gearshift selector lever in the Neutral position and fully depress the clutch pedal. BE CER­ TAIN TO DISCONNECT THE FUEL SHUTDOWN SOLENOID CONNECTOR. 3 Test Battery Negative Connection . I f the reading is still above 0.Typical Resistance (2) Connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the battery positive terminal post.

The starter control circuit consists of: ® Battery • Starter relay • Starter solenoid • Ignition switch • Park/neutral position switch (automatic trans­ mission) • Clutch pedal position switch (manual transmis­ sion) • Wiring harness and connections. If not OK. CONTROL CIRCUIT TESTS For circuit descriptions and diagrams. I f OK. go to Step 4. I f OK.Typical If the resistance tests detect no feed circuit prob­ lems. R E L A Y TEST The starter relay is located in the Power Distribu­ tion Center (PDC) in the engine compartment.Starting System in Group 8W . I f OK.6 STARTING SYSTEMS BR SOLENOID TEST DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) Remove the starter as described in this group. remove the starter and see the Solenoid Test i n this group. Fig. There should be continuity. 9 Continuity Test Between Solenoid and Solenoid Case Terminal (4) Connect the solenoid field coil wire to the field coil terminal. I f not OK.Wiring Dia­ grams. Remove the starter relay from the PDC as described in this group to perform the following tests: (1) A relay in the de-energized position should have continuity between terminals 87A and 30. There should now be continuity between terminals 30 and 87. There should be continuity. (2) Resistance between terminals 85 and 86 (elec­ tromagnet) should be 75±5 ohms. go to Step 2. Then proceed as follows: (1) Disconnect the wire from the solenoid field coil terminal. (3) Connect a battery to terminals 85 and 86. 7 Test Starter Ground . I f the reading Is above 0.2 volt. replace the faulty relay. I f not OK. (5) Install the starter as described in this group. I f OK. 8). Test procedures for these components should be performed in the order in which they are listed. I f not OK. 9). correct the poor starter to engine block ground contact. Observe the voltmeter. SOLENOID RR8BD33 Fig.8B . (2) Check for continuity between the solenoid ter­ minal and the field coil terminal with a continuity tester (Fig. Refer to the PDC label for relay identification and location. and no continuity between terminals 87A . replace the faulty relay. Fig. 6 Test Ground Circuit Resistance -Typical position. and no continuity between terminals 87 and 30. 8 Continuity Test Between Solenoid and Field Coil Terminal Terminal (3) Check for continuity between the solenoid ter­ minal and the solenoid case (Fig. replace the faulty starter assembly. go to Step 3. go to Step 3. refer to 8W-21 . replace the faulty starter assembly. as follows: Fig.

(2) The relay normally closed terminal (87A) is connected to terminal 30 In the de-energized position. go to Step 5. There should be continuity. (3) Raise and support the vehicle. On vehicles with a manual transmission. see the Park/Neutral Position Switch Test in this group. I f OK. I f OK. go to Step 2. but is not used for this application. (1) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. I f not OK with an automatic transmission. repair the open circuit to the PDC fuse as required. I t is located near the dash panel under the instrument panel. see the Ignition Switch Test in this group. replace the faulty switch. REFER TO GROUP 8M . On vehicles with a manual transmission. I f not OK. RELAY TERMINALS 87A 87 85 | 87A j 86 RELAY CAVITIES JllKIiNG SYSTEMS 8B . (4) Disconnect the park/neutral position switch harness connector. i f required. I f not OK. I f OK. i f required. (3) The relay normally open terminal (87) Is con­ nected to the common feed terminal (30) In the ener­ gized position. This terminal supplies battery voltage to the starter solenoid field coils. (5) Check for continuity between the center switch terminal and a good chassis ground. I f not OK. On vehicles with an auto­ matic transmission. it is grounded through the park/ neutral position switch only when the gearshift selector (1) Place the transmission gear selector lever in the Park position. I f not OK with an automatic transmission. see the Relay Circuit Test In this group. Check for continuity to ground at the cavity for relay terminal 85. I t is energized when the Ignition switch is held In the Start position. go to Step 4. I f not OK. I f not OK with a manual transmission. CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH TEST The clutch pedal position switch is integral to the clutch pedal pushrod. I f the circuit is OK. There should be no continuity. I f OK. go to Step 4. There should be no continuity. replace the faulty switch.PASSIVE RESTRAINT SYSTEMS BEFORE ATTEMPTING STEERING WHEEL OR STEERING COLUMN COMPONENT DIAGNOSIS OR SERVICE. repair the open circuit to the starter solenoid as required. . There should be continuity between the cavity for relay terminal 87 and the starter solenoid terminal at all times. (4) Check for continuity between the two cavities in the switch-half of the harness connector again with the clutch pedal depressed. I f not OK with a manual transmission. I f OK. Go to Step 3. the clutch pedal must be fully depressed for this test. I f OK. replace the faulty relay.BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) and 30. it is grounded at all times. check for an open or short circuit to the ignition switch and repair. check the circuit between the relay and the clutch pedal position switch for an open or a short. (4) The coil battery terminal (86) is connected to the electromagnet in the relay. go to Step 6. and no voltage when the ignition switch is released to the On position. I f not OK. (2) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. check for an open or short circuit to the park/neutral position switch and repair. (3) Check for continuity between the two cavities in the switch-half of the harness connector with the clutch pedal released. replace the faulty switch.. (2) Disconnect the switch harness connector.7 lever is in the Park or Neutral positions. FAILURE TO TAKE THE PROPER PRECAUTIONS COULD RESULT IN ACCI­ DENTAL AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT AND POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY. IGNITION SWITCH TEST WARNING: ON VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH AN AIRBAG. The harness con­ nector for the switch is wrapped with foam tape. (5) The coil ground terminal (85) is connected to the electromagnet in the relay. repair the circuit to ground as required. I f the circuit to the Ignition switch is OK. see the Ignition Switch Test in this group. (6) Move the transmission gear selector lever to the Reverse position and check ' for continuity between the center switch terminal and a good chas­ sis ground. There should now be continuity. Check for battery voltage at the cavity for relay terminal 86 with the ignition switch in the Start position. see the Clutch Pedal Position Switch Test in this group. I f not OK. replace the faulty switch. I f not OK. PARK/NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH TEST 30 J958A-2 TERMINAL LEGEND NUMBER 30 85 86 87 87A i IDENTIFICATION C O M M O N FEED COIL GROUND COIL BATTERY NORMALLY OPEN NORMALLY CLOSED Starter RELAY CIRCUIT TEST Relay (1) The relay common feed terminal cavity (30) is connected to battery voltage and should be hot at all times. I f the circuit is OK. I f OK.

) o Solenoid lead terminal nut . (3) Remove the nuts from the terminal studs for the starter battery lead and solenoid lead (Fig. 11).8B . (5) Move the starter forward to clear the lower mounting stud (V-6/V-8 engine) and for the starter gear housing nose to clear the bellhousing.2. 12). lbs. 14). REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION STARTER GASOLINE ENGINE (1) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable.5 N-m (22 in. (2) Raise and support the vehicle. (4) With the ignition switch held i n the Start posi­ tion. I f OK. 12 Starter Mounting Hardware Remove/instaii V-6A/-8 Engine (4) Remove the hardware securing the starter to the bellhousing (Fig. check for continuity between the ignition switch terminals 1 and 7 again. DIESEL ENGINE (1) Disconnect and isolate both of the battery neg­ ative cables. 10) or (Fig.Ignition Systems for the procedures. check for continuity between the ignition switch ter­ minals 1 and 7. Tighten the starter hardware as follows: • Starter mounting bolts to 68 N-m (50 ft. lbs.V-6/V-8 Fig. There should be no continu­ ity. 11) or (Fig. (3) Remove the battery lead from the solenoid ter­ minal by pulling the rubber boot up and removing the nut (Fig. I f not OK.). replace the faulty switch. (3) With the ignition switch i n the On position. There should now be conti­ nuity. (6) Reverse the removal procedures to install.27 N-m (20 ft. 10 Starter Connector Remove/Install Engine .) • Starter mounting nut . I f not OK. lbs. lbs. Refer to Group 8D .14 N-m (120 in. (2) Remove the steering column shrouds and dis­ connect the ignition switch harness connector.8 STARTING SYSTEMS DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING fContinued) (1) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. These are the terminals at each end of the switch connector. WIRE NUT AND WASHER 8354 0182 Fig. (4) Remove the nut from the solenoid lead termi­ nal at the solenoid. go to Step 4. 11) or (Fig. 13). replace the faulty switch. .) • Battery lead terminal nut . (2) Raise and support the vehicle. This allows the starter to come down past the exhaust pipe (Fig.

). * (7) Reverse the removal procedures to install. lbs.) • Solenoid lead nut . 14 Starter Connectors Remove/lnstaii Engine . 15 Starter Mounting Bolt . Fig.) • Battery lead nut .BR — — „ _ _ STARTING SYSTEMS 8B . Fig. 15). 14) and (Fig.9 HEHiOWAL mm mmikLLmmm {Continued) (5) Remove the starter mounting bolts (Fig. Tighten the starter hardware as follows: • Starter mounting bolts .6 N-m (55 in. lbs.43 N-m (32 ft.10 N-m (90 in.Diesel . lbs.Diesei Engine (6) Remove the starter motor.

(4) Remove the starter relay by unplugging i t from the PDC.9L.4 Kilowatt 12 Volts 4 4 4 Reduction Gear Train 11 Volts 73 Amperes 3601 rpm 7.5 Volts 125 .0L Nippon Denso 56004757 1.7 Kilowatt 12 Volts 4 4 4 Conventional Gear Train 11 Volts 200 Amperes 3000 rpm 8.250 Amperes 5.5 Volts 125 . or heavy oil will increase starter amperage draw . tight (new) engine. 5. (6) Install the PDC cover. 5.0 Volts 450 . Cold engine. (2) Remove the cover from the Power Distribution Center (PDC) (Fig. (3) Refer to the label on the PDC for starter relay identification and location.700 Amperes "Test at operating temperature. Fig. 16). 16 Power Distribution Center SPECIFICATIONS STARTING SYSTEM Starter and Solenoid Engine Application Manufacturer Part Number Power Rating Voltage Number of Fields Number of Poles Number of Brushes Drive Type Free Running Test Voltage Free Running Test Amperage Draw Free Running Test Minimum Speed Solenoid Closing Voltage Cranking Amperage Draw Test* 3. (7) Connect the battery negative cable(s).2L.1 0 STARTING SYSTEMS BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION (Continued) STARTER RELAY (1) Disconnect and Isolate the battery negative cable(s).? 2. (5) Install the starter relay by aligning the relay terminals with the cavities in the PDC and pushing the relay firmly into place.8B .9L (Gas) Nippon Denso 56027702 i .4 Kilowatt 12 Volts 4 4 4 Reduction Gear Train 11 Volts 73 Amperes 3601 rpm 7. (8) Test the relay operation.9L (Diesel) Nippon Denso 47410"!.250 Amperes 8.

. . However. . . The PCM will store a DTC in electronic memory for any failure i t detects. . Group 8B covers the starting system. . Wiring for Information) The charging system is turned on and off with the ignition switch. . i t Is important that you keep their interdependency in mind. . . . In order for the vehicle to start and charge properly.Wiring Diagrams for complete circuit descriptions and diagrams. See the On-Board Diagnostics Test i n Group 8C . . . . The amount of DC current produced by the gener­ ator is controlled by the EVR (field control) circuitry. . . . Instrument Panel and Gauges for information) • Wiring harness and connections (refer to Group 8W. Use of a induction milliampere ammeter. . The PCM then compensates and regulates generator current output accordingly. . . . . . DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION CHARGING SYSTEM OPERATION The charging system consists of: • Generator • Electronic Voltage Regulator (EVR) circuitry within the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) • Ignition switch (refer to Group 8D. . . This temperature data. . and 12-volt test lamp may be required. . when attempting to diagnose any of these systems. . . along with data from monitored line voltage. This circuitry is con­ nected in series with the second rotor field terminal and ground. . This is done by cycling the ground path to control the strength of the rotor mag­ netic field. battery voltage Is applied to the generator rotor through one of the two field termi­ nals to produce a magnetic field. . . is used by the PCM to vary the battery charging rate. . . . . . . GENERATOR . . . . . . REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION BATTERY TEMPERATURE SENSOR . volt/ ohmmeter. carbon pile rheostat (load tester). . . contained within the PCM. Battery for informa­ tion) • Battery temperature sensor • Voltmeter (refer to Group 8E. . The generator is driven by the engine through a serpentine belt and pulley arrangement. . . . . 9 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING BATTERY TEMPERATURE SENSOR CHARGING SYSTEM RESISTANCE T E S T S G E N E R A L INFORMATION OVERVIEW The. . . starting. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnos­ tic Trouble Code (DTC). . . and must be tested as a com­ plete system. . . . . We have separated these systems to make it easier to locate the information you are seeking within this Service Manual. . . . . . . 9 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . A battery temperature sensor located In the bat­ tery tray housing. All OBD-sensed systems are monitored by the PCM. Refer to Group 8W . . . . all of the components Involved In these systems must perform within specifications.BR CHARGING SYSTEM au . . . . ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM TEST . and Group 8C covers the charging system. 2 3 6 8 7 GENERAL INFORMATION OVERVIEW 1 2 1 2 2 6 3 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION BATTERY TEMPERATURE SENSOR CHARGING SYSTEM OPERATION GENERATOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR SPECIFICATIONS GENERATOR RATINGS . .i CHARGING SYSTEM CONTENTS page page CHARGING SYSTEM CURRENT OUTPUT TEST .Charging System for more information. . . . . . battery. . . . . Group 8A covers the battery. and charging systems oper­ ate with one another. . . . . Ignition Sys­ tem for information) • Battery (refer to Group 8A. . The diagnostic procedures used In these groups include the most basic conventional diagnostic meth­ ods to the more sophisticated On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) built into the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). . . . battery charger. . When the ignition switch is turned to the ON position. . . is used to sense battery tempera­ ture.

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING CHARGING SYSTEM When the ignition switch is turned to the ON posi­ tion. a misaligned drive pulley or a defective stator or diode. a loose or defec­ tive drive pulley. 1). See OnBoard Diagnostic System Test in this group for more information. It is actually a voltage regulating circuit located within the PCM. the entire assembly must be replaced. along with data from monitored line voltage. This will depend upon engine size and optional equipment. With the engine running. rectified DC current is delivered to the vehicle electrical system through the generator battery and ground terminals. The Y type stator winding connections deliver the induced AC current to 3 positive and 3 negative diodes for rectification. incorrect. . During engine cranking a lower voltage will appear on the meter. The generator is belt-driven by the engine using a serpentine type drive belt. Although the generators appear the same exter­ nally. 1 Battery Temperature Sensor Location I f replacement is necessary. BATTERY Fig. I t is serviced only as a complete assembly. Voltage is regulated by cycling the ground path to control the strength of the rotor magnetic field. Location is under battery on drivers side of vehicle. On models equipped with a diesel engine (dual bat­ teries). a voltage reading higher than the first reading (ignition i n ON) should register. The EVR circuitry monitors system line voltage and bat­ tery temperature (refer to Battery Temperature Sen­ sor for more information). loose or defective bearings.1 CHARGING SYSTEM BR D E S C R I P T I O N AND OPERATION (Continued) All vehicles are equipped with On-Board Diagnos­ tics (OBD). See Generator Ratings in the Specifications section at the back' of this group for amperage ratings. This temperature data. BATTERY TEMPERATURE SENSOR The battery temperature sensor is used to deter­ mine the battery temperature and control battery charging rate. different generators with different output rat­ ings are used on this vehicle. Operation: The amount of DC current produced by the generator is controlled by EVR circuitry con­ tained within the PCM. System voltage will be higher at colder temperatures and is gradually reduced at warmer temperatures.oh . Once the generator begins producing sufficient current. Each monitored circuit is assigned a Diagnos­ tic Trouble Code (DTC). From the diodes. The PCM will store a DTC in electronic memory for any failure i t detects. The sensor is located under the vehicle battery and is attached (snapped into) the battery tray (Fig. the PCM must be replaced. A l l OBD-sensed systems. the spinning magnetic field Induces a cur­ rent into the windings of the stator coil. i t also provides the current needed to energize the rotor. battery potential will register on the voltmeter. are monitored by the PCM. GENERATOR . only one sensor is used. Also see Charging System Operation for additional infor­ mation. This circuitry is connected i n series with the generators second rotor field terminal and its ground. Noise emitting from the generator may be caused by: worn. worn. As the energized rotor begins to rotate within the generator. Be certain that the replacement generator has the same output rat­ ing as the original unit. This EVR is not serviced separately. Is used by the PCM to vary the battery charging rate. I t then compensates and regulates generator current output accordingly. loose mounting bolts. damaged or misadjusted fan drive belt. including the EVR (field control) circuitry. I f the generator fails for any rea­ son. . VOLTAGE REGULATOR The voltage regulator is not a separate component.

TEST (1) Inspect condition of battery cable terminals. (b) Touch the positive lead of voltmeter to the ground terminal stud on the generator case (not the terminal mounting nut).BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) The following procedures may be used to diagnose the charging system if: • the voltmeter does not operate properly • an undercharged or overcharged battery condi­ tion occurs. Bring engine speed up to 2400 rpm and hold. check for corrosion at generator mounting points or loose generator mounting. . PREPARATION (1) Start engine. They should be properly installed and tight. CURRENT OUTPUT TEST The current output test will determine i f the charging system can deliver its minimum test cur­ rent (amperage) output.3 volts. They will also show the amount of voltage drop from the ground (-) terminal on the generator (Fig. (2) Check condition of battery cables at battery. (5) Start engine. I f voltage is now below 0. connections at engine block. touch test lead to terminal mounting stud nut and then to the wiring connector. loose or poor connection at this point. CHARGING S Y S T E i RESISTANCE TESTS These tests will show the amount of voltage drop across the generator output wire. (7) Testing (-) circuitry: (a) Touch the negative lead of voltmeter directly to battery negative post.6 volts. Repair as required. A voltmeter with a 0-18 volt DC scale should be used for these tests. I f voltage is now below 0. By repositioning the voltmeter test leads.3 (3) Start the engine and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. (3) Inspect the electrolyte level i n the battery. Remember that an undercharged battery is often caused by: • accessories being left on with the engine not running • a faulty or improperly adjusted switch.3 volts. The first part of this test (Test 1) will determine the combined amperage output of both the generator and the Electronic Voltage Regulator (EVR) circuitry. Tighten or replace belt as required. look for dirty. (5) Connect an engine tachometer. Repair as required. (5) Inspect generator drive belt condition and ten­ sion. They should all be clean and tight. loose or poor connection at this point. (b) Touch the positive lead of voltmeter to the B + output terminal stud on the generator (not the terminal mounting nut). Cooling System for information. 2) to the battery positive post. (6) Inspect automatic belt tensioner (if equipped). look for dirty. See Group 8A.3 volts. and ground terminals. (6) Testing (+) circuitry: (a) Touch the negative lead of voltmeter directly to battery positive post.6 volts. (4) Turn vehicle interior lamps on. 2) to the battery negative post.that allows a lamp to stay on. battery posts.6 volts. the point of high resistance (voltage drop) can easily be found. Wiring for connector location. Cooling Sys­ tem. Repair or replace as required. make sure battery is in good condition and is fully-charged. A voltage drop test may be performed at each (+) con­ nection i n this circuit to locate the excessive resis­ tance. Refer to Group 8. INSPECTION CHARGING SYSTE1 SC . Clean i f necessary. battery output. Voltage should be no higher than 0. Refer to the Specifications section at the end of this group for minimum test current (amperage) requirements. (4) Inspect generator mounting bolts for tightness. Replace or tighten bolts i f required. Refer to Belt Tension Specifications in Group 7. I f voltage is higher than 0. Battery for more information. See Ignition-Off Draw Test in Group 8A. Battery for more information. I f voltage is higher than 0. (3) Turn on headlamps and place i n high-beam position. Also check ground con­ nection at engine. starter solenoid and relay. (2) Inspect all fuses in the fuseblock module and Power Distribution Center (PDC) for tightness in receptacles. Also check condition of the generator output wire-to-battery bullet connector. This test can also be performed between the generator case and the engine. Refer to Group 7. A voltage drop test may be performed at each (-) connection i n this circuit to locate the excessive resistance. touch test lead to terminal mounting stud nut and then to the wiring connector. Voltage should be no higher than 0. (1) Before starting test. (2) Place heater blower in high position.3 volts. from the generator output (B+) terminal (Fig. They should be clean and tight. I f test voltage is higher than 0. (4) Shut engine off. Refer to the Gen­ erator Removal/Installation section of this group for torque specifications. (7) Inspect connections at generator field. Replace battery i f electrolyte level is low. (6) Fully engage the parking brake.

Charging System Test . f PERFORM OUTPUT VOLTAGE TEST REFER TO LOW OR NO VOLTAGE TEST. YES CHARGING SYSTEM AND GENERATOR IS OK. CHECK ON BOARD DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTC). CHECK DRIVE BELT. REFER GROUP 7.8C .— - DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING {Continued) CHECK BATTERY CONDITION.4 CHARGING SYSTEM — — . REFER TO OVERCHARGE TEST. CHARGE BATTERY IF NECESSARY. COOLING SYSTEM FOR ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS. CHECK GENERATOR GROUND PATH YES CLEAN MOUNTING SURFACES TIGHTEN FASTENERS TO SPECIFIED TORQUE.

This test will determine i f the generator is faulty. Connect the other end of jumper wire to the (-) field control circuit terminal. On certain brands of test equipment. (9) Turn off all electrical accessories and all vehicle lighting. refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures man­ ual for testing. slowly adjust the rheostat control (load) on the tester to obtain the highest amperage reading. (3) Start engine. . (10) Connect the volt/amp tester leads to the bat­ tery. (4) Bring engine speed to 2500 rpm. (3) Check condition of battery cables at battery. amperage should drop below 15-20 amps. I f minimum amperage could not be met. With all electrical accessories and vehicle lighting off. When using a tester equipped with an inductive-type clamp. This can be found in the Specifica­ tions section at the end of this group. Refer to operating instructions supplied with tester. (2) Fully engage the parking brake.BR — — •—•— —•— CHARGING SYSTEM 8C . TEST 2 (1) Perform the previous test preparation. A label stating a part reference number is attached to the generator case. EVR circuitry is located within the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). (12) I f volt/amp tester is not equipped with an engine tachometer. (5) With engine speed held at 2500 rpm. (9) Remove volt/amp tester. this could take several minutes of engine operation. Compare this reference num­ ber to the Generator Ratings chart. Refer to Group 7. This terminal is GROUND (+) ASD RELAY OUTPUT TERMINAL 8020cd8c Fig. For repair. On some engines this label may be located on the bottom of the case. Cooling System for information. To determine a DTC. this load will be applied automatically. (2) Before starting test. PREPARATION (1) Determine i f any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) exist. Battery for more information. removal of wiring at the gener­ ator will not be necessary. I f EVR circuitry is OK. (7) Rotate the load control to the OFF position. Record the reading. (3) Connect one end of a jumper wire to a good ground. proceed to Test 2. or i f EVR circuitry is defective. TEST 1 (1) Perform the previous test Preparation. connect a separate tachometer to the engine. This load test must be performed within 15 sec­ onds to prevent damage to test equipment. (6) A volt/amp tester equipped with both a battery load control (carbon pile rheostat) and an inductivetype pickup clamp (ammeter probe) will be used for this test. To test volt­ age regulator circuitry refer to the appropriate Pow­ ertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual. Refer to the operating manual supplied with test equipment. Be sure the carbon pile rheostat control is i n the OPEN or OFF position before connecting leads. refer to On-Board Diagnostics in this group. (5) Be sure the generator drive belt is properly tensioned. I f amperage did not drop. See Group 8A. Do not allow voltage to drop below 12 volts. Battery for more information. (6) The ammeter reading must meet the Minimum Test Amps specifications as displayed i n the Genera­ tor Ratings chart.S D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued^ (8) Shut engine off. Clean i f necessary. Refer to the operating instructions supplied with test equipment. This will ensure clean and tight generator/battery electrical connections. make sure battery is i n good condition and is fully-charged. refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures man­ ual. Also refer to the operating instructions supplied with test equipment. (11) Connect the inductive clamp (ammeter probe). See Load Test in Group 8A. (8) Continue holding engine speed at 2500. (4) Perform the previous Output Wire Resistance Test (voltage drop test). 2 Generator Terminals The second part of this test (Test 2) will determine only generator amperage and will not include anal­ ysis of EVR circuitry. (2) Fully engage the parking brake. (7) Start the engine and allow i t to reach operating temperature.

an ohmmeter reading of 9 to 11K ohms should be observed. Damage to the battery and electrical system components may result. To test the sensor only. (2) Disconnect the two-wire pigtail harness from the engine harness. The PCM is programmed to clear the memory after 50 engine starts i f the problem does not occur again. making sure they are operational. DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) are two-digit num­ bers flashed on the malfunction indicator (Check Engine) lamp that identify which circuit is bad. a DTC should be treated as a symptom. to understand what caused a DTC to be set. the problem is in EVR circuitry. This can be found in the Specifica­ tions section at the end of this group. Refer to the DRB screen for procedures. (4) Start engine. A DTC does not identify which component in a cir­ cuit is bad. (9) Use the DRB scan tool to erase the DTC. Immediately after starting. not as the cause for the problem. reduce engine speed to idle. (5) I f reading is above or below the specification. 2). refer to the following: The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) monitors critical input and output circuits of the charging sys­ tem. See the Generator Diagnostic Trouble Code chart (Fig. Refer to the Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures manual to diagnose an on-board diagnostic system trouble code. (7) Remove volt/amp tester. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures manual for information. and wire resistance (voltage drop) tests were OK. • I f Test 2 results were OK. Refer to appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures man­ ual for diagnosis. The DTC will stay in electronic memory as long as the circuit continues to be bad. refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diag­ nostic Procedures manual. replace the sensor. If the OBD system senses that a monitored circuit is bad. Some circuits are checked continuously and some are checked only under certain conditions. 3) for DTCs which apply to the charging sys­ tem. CAUTION: When adjusting rheostat load. Refer to Group 14. (6) The ammeter reading must meet the Minimum Test Amps specifications as displayed in the Genera­ tor Ratings chart.8C . 2 ) . The (-) field control circuit terminal is located farther away from the B+ output terminal than the (+) ASD Relay terminal (Fig. CAUTION. Immediately record ammeter reading. 2). do not allow voltage to rise above 16 volts. A label stating a part reference number is attached to the generator case. Con­ necting the jumper wire will remove the voltage reg­ ulator circuitry from the test. Refer to Removal and Installation in this group for procedures. A DTC description can also be read using the DRB scan tool. 1). (8) Remove jumper wire. I n some cases. . On some engines this label may be located on the bottom of the case. • I f amp reading is less than specified in Test 2 . A Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is assigned to each input and output circuit monitored by the OBD system. ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM TEST GENERAL INFORMATION D I A G N O S I S A N D TESTING (Continued) located on the back of the generator (Fig. (6) Refer to the Removal and Installation section for procedures. Compare this reference num­ ber to the Generator Rating chart. Therefore. and a voltmeter reading of 15 volts is obtained. This will prevent any electrical accessory damage from high voltage. a DTC can be the reason for another DTC to be set.§ CHARGING SYSTEM BR (1) The sensor is located under the battery and is attached (snapped into) the battery tray (Fig. RESULTS • I f amp reading meets specifications in Test 2. The opposite end of this harness connects the sensor to the engine wiring harness. (4) At room temperature of 25° C (75-80° F). generator is OK. Fuel Systems for more information. Do not apply load to system longer than 15 seconds as damage to test equipment may result. (5) Adjust carbon pile rheostat (load) and engine speed in slow increments until a speed of 1250 rpm. but Test 1 results were not. A two-wire pigtail harness is attached directly to the sensor. because of the design of the diagnostic test procedure. (3) Attach ohmmeter leads to the wire terminals of the pigtail harness. BATTERY TEMPERATURE SENSOR To perform a complete test of this sensor and its circuitry. i t will put a DTC into electronic memory. Thus. the generator should be replaced. Damage to electrical system components may result. Do not connect the jumper wire t o the (+) ASD Relay output terminal (Fig. I t will also generate a' Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC). i t is important that the test pro­ cedures be followed in sequence.

Fig. This will cause any DTC stored i n the PCM memory to be displayed. The malfunction indicator (Check Engine) lamp will display a DTC by flashing on and off. An example of a DTC is as follows: (1) Lamp on for 2 seconds. (2) Lamp flashes 4 times pauses and then flashes 1 time. no significant change detected in battery voltage during active test of generator output. battery terminal. Battery voltage sense input above target charging voltage during engine operation. The lamp will flash until all stored DTCs are displayed.BR — — — — — CHARGING SYSTEM 8C . 5). 55* * Check Engine lamp will not illuminate at all times if this Diagnostic Trouble Code was recorded. Remove wire connectors. Position generator for access to wire connec­ tors. (2) Remove generator drive belt. GENERATOR MOUNTING BOLTS . 3 Generator Diagnostic Trouble Code RETRIEVING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES To start this function. 41 **.. lbs. (3) Remove the generator pivot and mounting bolts (Fig. There is a short pause between flashes and a longer pause between digits. Completion of fault code display on Check Engine lamp. cycle the ignition switch ONOFF-ON-OFF-ON within 5 seconds. FAILURE TO DO SO CAN RESULT IN INJURY. Cooling System for procedure.. Refer to Group 7. An open or shorted condition detected in the generatorfieldcontrol circuit.. pauses.. (6) Reverse removal procedures to install. ground terminal and 2 field terminals (Fig. AH DTCs displayed are two-digit numbers. Tighten generator hardware as follows: • Generator mounting bolt . then i t will flash a DTC 55 to indicate the test is complete. lbs. * * Check Engine lamp will illuminate during engine operation if this Diagnostic Trouble Code was recorded.. flashes 4 times. 46**.) • Battery terminal nut . (4) The two DTCs are 41 and 47. 47** DRB Scan Too! Display Battery Disconnect Generator Field Not Switching Properly Charging System Voltage Too High Charging System Voltage Too Low N/A Description of Diagnostic Trouble Code Direct battery input to PCM was disconnected within the last 50 key-on cycles. (5) Remove the generator.41 N-m (30 ft. Cycle ignition key as described in manual and observe code flashed by Check Engine lamp.) (1) Disconnect negative battery cable.. ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES The DRB Scan Tool must be used to erase a DTC.) • Generator pivot bolt . with a four-second pause between codes. 4). (3) Lamp pauses for 4 seconds. Generator—Typical (4) Remove nuts from harness holddown. J958A-7 Fig. then flashes 7 times.7 DIAGNOSIS AMD T E S T I N G (Continued) Diagnostic Trouble Code 12*.8. 4 Remove/Install REH©WAL A N P INSTALLATION GENERATOR WARNING: DISCONNECT NEGATIVE CABLE FROM BATTERY BEFORE REMOVING BATTERY OUTPUT WIRE FROM GENERATOR. Also.5 N-m (75 in. Battery voltage sense input below target charging during engine operation. then turns off. as long as they are i n mem­ ory. lbs.41 N-m (30 ft. Any number of DTCs can be displayed.

) CAUTION: Newer force a belt over a pulley rim using a screwdriver. INSTALLATION BATTERY TEMPERATURE SENSOR The battery temperature sensor is located under the vehicle battery (Fig. lbs. 8056d9f6 Fig.2. 5 Remove/instail Generator Typical Connectors— • Ground terminal nut .8.8C . The water pump will be rotating in the w r o n g direction if the belt is installed incorrectly. (2) Disconnect the sensor pigtail harness from the engine wire harness. Battery for procedures. only (1) Feed the pigtail harness through the mounting hole in top of battery tray and press sensor into top of tray (snaps in). (3) Install the battery.8 N-m (25 in.) © Field terminal nuts .5 N-m (75 in. or refer t o Belt Schematics in Group 7. Battery for procedures. the belt MUST be routed correctly. Ths synthetic fiber of the belt can be damaged. causing the engine to overheat. The sensor is located under the battery on drivers side of vehicle. BATTERY REMQW&h Mm INSTALLATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) Fig. Cooling System. lbs.8 CHARGJHG SYSTEM BR one sensor is used. Refer to Group 8A. Refer to belt routing label in engine compartment.5 N-m (75 in. 6) and is attached (snapped into) a mounting hole on battery tray. Refer to Group 8A. On models equipped with a diesel engine (dual batteries). lbs. (2) Connect the pigtail harness. (3) Pry the sensor straight up from the battery tray mounting hole.8. (1) Remove the battery. 6 Battery Temperature Sensor REMOVAL Location CAUTION: When installing a serpentine accessory drive belt.) © Harness holddown nut . .

. .) Field Terminal Nuts .2L/5.LIR CHARGING SYSTEM 8C .9L 3.8. .9L 3. . .9L DIESEL MINIMUM TEST AMPS 75 90 120 120 TORQUE SPECiFiCATiOIS DESCEIPTION TOEQUE Generator Mounting Bolt— All Engines .8. . . lbs. .5 N-m (75 in.2L/5. . .9L/5. .9L/5. . . . .5 N-m (75 in.2L/5.) Ground Terminal N u t .2.) Generator Pivot Bolt— All Engines 41 N-m (30 ft.) Harness Hold-down Nut . .) Battery Terminal N u t . lbs. .8.) . . . . .9 SPECIFICATIONS GENERATOR RATINGS TYPE DENSO DENSO DENSO DENSO PART NUMBER 53008646 53008647 53008651 56027221 RATED SAE AMPS 81 117 136 136 ENGINES 3.9L/5. . lbs. lbs. lbs.8 N-m (25 in. .41 N-m (30 ft. .5 N-m (75 in. . . lbs. .

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9L ENGINES AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASD) R E L A Y — 8 .9L 4 5 3 6 3 .9L ENGINE DISTRIBUTOR ENGINES 4 4 6 6 4 SENSOR—5.8 ENGINES INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE P R E S S U R E (MAP) SENSOR POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE SPARK PLUG CABLES SPARK PLUGS THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASD) RELAY .9L/5. .9L ENGINES CAMSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 8 . 2 L / 5. .9L ENGINES IGNITION TIMING INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR MAP SENSOR SPARK PLUG CABLES SPARK PLUG CONDITIONS TESTING FOR SPARK AT COIL—3. 0 L V-10 ENGINE CAMSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 3 ..2L/5.9L/5. 3 7 2 2 7 6 2 3 3 6 7 13 12 12 DISTRIBUTOR ENGINES ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR .9L 11 14 CAP—3. . . .9L/5.9L/5. .2L/5.9L ENGINES IGNITION SWITCH AND KEY LOCK CYLINDER IGNITION S Y S T E M — 8 .0L ENGINE IGNITION COIL—3. IGNITION COIL PACKS—8. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASD) RELAY CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR T E S T — 8 .9L/5.9L ENGINES CAMSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 8 .2L/5. 9 L V-6 ENGINE CRANKSHAFT POSITION V-8 ENGINES CRANKSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 8 . 0 L V-10 ENGINE CRANKSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 3 .2L/5..BR IGNITION SYSTEM 8D -1 IGNITION SYSTEM CONTENTS page page CRANKSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 3 .9L/5. 0 L V-10 ENGINE DISTRIBUTOR ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR . 9 L / 5 .9L ENGINES 7 20 23 23 30 20 22 26 25 20 19 27 25 25 14 11 14 15 8 11 8 9 ROTOR—3. .2L/5.9L/5. IGNITION COIL PACKS—8.0L V-10 ENGINE . 0 L V-10 ENGINE IGNITION S Y S T E M — V .2L/5. 2 L / 5. 0 L V-10 ENGINE DISTRIBUTORS ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR .2L/5.6 / V . CAMSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 3 ..9L 11 11 GENERAL INFORMATION INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASD) R E L A Y — 3.2L/ 5. 9 L / 5 .9L ENGINES IGNITION COIL PACK T E S T S — 8 . 2 L / 5.9L ENGINES IGNITION SWITCH AND KEY CYLINDER INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE P R E S S U R E (MAP) SENSOR . 9 L / 5 .9L ENGINES CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR T E S T — 8. 0 L V-10 ENGINE COLUMN SHIFT INTERLOCK CRANKSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 3 . 0 L V-10 ENGINE IGNITION COIL TEST—3.0L V-10 ENGINE . 9 L / 5 . .9L ENGINES CRANKSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 8 .9L/5. 0 L V-10 ENGINE CAMSHAFT POSITION S E N S O R — 3 . 9 L / 5 . 2 L / 2 5. FAILURE TO START TEST—3. 2 L / 5. .. IGNITION COIL—3.2L/5..

5. . The Owner's Manual also contains maintenance information.0L V-10 engine will not use a conventional mechanical distributor.9L ENGINES 32 30 G E N E R A L INFORMATION INTRODUCTION This group describes the ignition systems for 3.2L/5.9L/5. .2L V-8 and the 5.9L V-8 gas powered engine will be referred to as either: Light Duty Cycle (LDC) or Heavy Duty Cycle (HDC) engines. The ignition system consists of: • Spark Plugs • Ignition Coil Packs containing individual coils • Secondary Ignition Cables • Powertrain Control Module (PCM) • Also to be considered part of the ignition system are certain inputs from the Crankshaft Position.0L V-10 LDC gas engines will not use an air injection pump. The ignition system consists of: • Spark Plugs • Ignition Coil • Secondary Ignition Cables • Distributor (contains rotor and camshaft position sensor) • Powertrain Control Module (PCM) • Also to be considered part of the ignition system are certain inputs from the Crankshaft Position.0L V-10 engines. but each coil is a dual output. 27 SPARK PLUG CABLES SPARK PLUGS THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR 17 18 25 IGNITION COIL RESISTANCE—8. Camshaft Position. On Board Diagnostics is described in Group 25. Throttle Position and MAP Sen­ sors IGNITION SYSTEM—8.9L V-8 are basically identical. The ignition coils are individually fired. Emission Control Systems. 1).0L V-10 ENGINE IGNITION TIMING SPARK PLUG CABLE O R D E R — 8 . Similar­ ities and differences between the systems will be dis­ cussed.9L V-6 engine. I t will be referred to as a distributor-less ignition sys­ tem. 9 L V-6 ENGINE . the 5. .0L V-10 ENGINE The ignition system used on the 8. and 8. The ignition system is controlled by the powertrain control module (PCM) on all engines. contains general maintenance information (in time or mileage intervals) for ignition related items.2L V-8 engines will be referred to in this Ignition Group as: Light Duty Cycle (LDC) engines.9L V-6 and 5.9L V-6. The 3. Either of the HDC gas powered engines can be eas­ ily identified by the use of an engine mounted air injection pump. the 5.9L V-8 LDC or the 8.0L V-10 engine will be referred to as either: Light Duty Cycle (LDC) or Heavy Duty Cycle (HDC) engines. 30 ENGINE FIRING ORDER—5. 1 Powertrain Control Module (PCM) The ignition system is controlled by the PCM.2/5.9L V-6. Camshaft Position. The ignition system is controlled by the powertrain control module (PCM) on all engines.2 IGNITION SYSTEM POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE (PCM) .9L V-8 ENGINES IGNITION COIL RESISTANCE—3. The 8. Lubrication and Maintenance. Group 0. 0 L V-10 ENGINE SPARK PLUG CABLE RESISTANCE SPARK PLUGS TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS VECI LABEL SPECIFICATIONS 31 32 31 31 30 32 30 SPECIFICATIONS ENGINE FIRING O R D E R — 3 . The 5. Fig. D E S C R I P T I O N MMB O P E R A T I O N IGNITION SYSTEM—V-6/V-8 ENGINES The ignition systems used on the 3. Throttle Position and MAP Sen­ sors POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) is located in the engine compartment (Fig. Refer to Ignition Coil Pack for additional information.2L/5.2L/5.8D . .9L V-8. The 3.

0L ENGINE The ignition system used on the 8. to individual spark plugs at each cylinder. The PCM opens and closes the ignition coil ground circuit (or circuits) to operate the ignition coil (or coil packs).9L engines. The windings are embedded in an epoxy compound. both initial (base) and advance. SPARK PLUGS All engines use resistor type spark plugs. The distributor is equipped with the camshaft position (fuel sync) sensor (Fig. Lubrication and Maintenance Spark plugs that have low milage may be cleaned and reused i f not otherwise defective. IGNITION SYSTEM 80 . The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) opens and closes the ignition coil ground circuit for ignition coil operation. and for changing engine operating conditions. Ignition timing is not adjustable on any 8. This sensor provides fuel injection synchronization and cylinder identification. carbon or oil fouled. The distributor is held to the engine in the conven­ tional method using a holddown clamp and bolt.9L/5. By controlling the coil ground circuit. manifold "absolute pressure and throttle position. . The amount of electronic spark advance provided by the PCM is determined by five input factors: engine coolant temperature.2L/5. All 3. Base ignition timing is not adjustable on any engine.built in centrifugal or vacuum assisted advance. Remove the spark plugs and examine them for burned elec­ trodes and fouled.9L/5. base ignition t i m i n g is not adjustable. SPARK PLUG CABLES Spark plug cables are sometimes referred to as sec­ ondary ignition wires. engine rpm. IGNITION COIL PACKS—8.0L V-10 engine does not use a conventional mechanical distributor. The seal is not serviceable. the PCM is able to set the base timing and adjust the ignition timing advance. Because ignition timing is controlled by the PCM. A single plug displaying an abnormal condition indicates that a problem exists in the corresponding cylinder. These cables transfer electrical current from the ignition coil(s) and/or distributor.9L V-6 and 5.2L/5. Keep plugs arranged in the order in which they were removed from the engine.0L V-10 engine. This is done to adjust ignition timing. IGNITION COIL—3.BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) NOTE: On 3.9L ENGINES Battery voltage is supplied to the ignition coil pos­ itive terminal from the ASD relay. The cables provide suppression of radio frequency emissions from the ignition system. I t will be referred to as a distributor-less ignition sys­ tem.2L/5. Refer to. This provides heat and vibration resistance that allows the ignition coil to be mounted on the engine.3 Although the d i s t r i b u t o r can be rotated. This is done to meet chang­ ing engine operating conditions. The resistive spark plug cables are of nonmetallic construction. 2).the Spark Plug Condition section of this group. 2 Distributor and Camshaft Position Typical Sensor- The distributor does not have.9L V-8 engines are equipped with a conventional camshaft driven mechanical distributor containing a shaft driven dis­ tributor rotor. DISTilBOTOfl . All distributors contain an internal oil seal that prevents oil from entering the distributor housing. i t w i l l have no effect on i g n i t i o n timing. The ignition coil is not oil filled. Base ignition timing and all timing advance is controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). intake man­ ifold temperature. Replace spark plugs at the intervals recommended in Group O. base ignition tim­ ing by rotation of distributor is not adjustable. cracked or broken porcelain insu­ lators. Fig.

3). The sensor generates pulses that are the input sent to the Pow­ ertrain Control Module (PCM). the ASD relay will shut off positive voltage to all of the coils.2L/5. The ground circuit for the ASD relay is controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). The PCM then uses this position. along with other inputs. The front coil pack contains three independent epoxy filled coils.9L/ 5. ENGINE -CYLINDER^ NUMBER COIL "MOUNTING BOLTS (8) 5 J948D-6 Fig. along with other inputs. I t is also sensitive to steel within a certain distance from it. The PCM interprets the sensor input to determine the crankshaft posi­ tion. The PCM adjusts ignition timing based on inputs it receives from: • The engine coolant temperature sensor • The crankshaft position sensor (engine speed) • The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—3. The coil packs are not oil filled.80 . The PCM will determine cylinder identification after receiving sig­ nals from the crankshaft and camshaft position sen­ sors. The PCM was formerly referred to as the SBEC or engine control­ ler. The notches cause a pulse to be generated when they pass under the sensor. The PCM regulates ASD relay operation by switching the ground circuit on-and-off. The pulses are the input to the PCM. I f these signals are not received by the PCM after approximately one sec­ ond of engine cranking (start-up).4 IGNITION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) Two separate coil packs containing a total of five independent coils are attached to a common mount­ ing bracket located above the right engine valve cover (Fig. COILS • The throttle position sensor • Transmission gear selection AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASD) RELAY—3. The sensor is a hall effect device combined with an internal magnet.0L V-10 Engine When one of the 5 independent coils discharges. 4). Coil oper­ ation (firing) is then controlled by switching ground circuits (off-and-on) through the PCM. The PCM interprets the sensor input to determine the crankshaft posi­ tion. there are three sets of double notches and three sets of single notches (Fig. The automatic shutdown (ASD) relay. The ground circuit for the ASD relay is con­ trolled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). 3 Ignition Coil Packs—8.9L ENGINES As one of its functions. to determine injector sequence and igni­ tion timing. AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASi) RELAY—8. Coil firing is paired together on cylinders: • Number 5 and 10 • Number 9 and 8 • Number 1 and 6 • Number 7 and 4 • Number 3 and 2 The ignition system is controlled by the powertrain control module (PCM) on all engines. .9L V-8 ENGINES Engine speed and crankshaft position are provided through the crankshaft position sensor. CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—5. The sensor is a hall effect device combined with an internal magnet. I t is also sensitive to steel within a certain distance from it. The rear coil pack contains two indepen­ dent epoxy filled coils. the ASD relay will supply bat­ tery voltage to the ignition coil.0L V-10 ENGINE As one of its functions. will supply battery voltage to all of the ignition coil positive terminals. The flywheel/drive plate has groups of notches at its outer edge. after receiv­ ing signals from the crankshaft and camshaft posi­ tion sensors. The sensor generates pulses that are the input sent to the Pow­ ertrain Control Module (PCM). the ASD relay will supply battery voltage to each of the 5 independent ignition coils. i t fires two paired cylinders at the same time (one cyl­ inder on compression stroke and the other cylinder on exhaust stroke). to determine injector sequence and igni­ tion timing. The PCM then uses this position. On 3.9L V-6 engines. The engine will not operate i f the PCM does not receive a crankshaft position sensor input. The PCM regulates ASD relay operation by switching the ground circuit on-and-off.2L/5.9L V-6 ENGINE Engine speed and crankshaft position are provided through the crankshaft position sensor.

CRANKSHAFT POSITIONSENSOR Fig. The notches cause a pulse to be generated when they pass under the sensor.9L ¥-8 engines. 6).0L Engine V-10 The crankshaft position sensor detects notches machined into the middle of the crankshaft (Fig. at its outer edge (Fig.5 CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—8.2U5.0L V-10 Engine There are five sets of notches. 6 Crankshaft Position Sensor—8.9L Engine .9L Engine On 5.2L and 5.0L V-10 ENGINE The crankshaft position sensor is located on the right-lower side of the cylinder block. Each set contains two notches. The pulses are the input to the PCM. just above the oil pan rail (Fig. i t will determine crankshaft position (which piston will next be at Top Dead Center). An input from the camshaft position sensor is also needed. Fig. there are 8 pulses generated on V-8 engines. For each engine revolution. 7). Basic ignition timing is determined by the position of the last notch in each set of notches. 7 Sensor Operation—8. Once the powertrain control module (PCM) senses the last notch. 5 Sensor Operation 1—5.BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) CRANKSHAFT POSITIONSENSOR IGNITION SYSTEM 8D . 4 Sensor Operation—3. the flywheel/drive plate has 8 single notches. forward of the right engine mount. Fig. spaced every 45 degrees. The engine will not operate i f the PCM does not receive a crankshaft position sensor input. Fig. 5). I t may take the module up to one complete engine revolution to determine crankshaft position during engine cranking.

3 volts.0L The camshaft position sensor is used in conjunction with the crankshaft position sensor to differentiate between fuel injection and spark events. Once crankshaft position has been determined. CAM DRiWE GEAR CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR Fig.0L V-10 Engine MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSOR For an operational description. When the trailing edge of the pulse ring (shutter) leaves the sync signal generator. This sync signal generator detects a rotating pulse ring (shutter) on the distributor shaft.9L/5. When the leading edge of the pulse ring (shutter) enters the sync signal generator. I t is also used to synchro­ nize the fuel injectors with their respective cylinders.8D . CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—3. the following occurs: The change of the magnetic field causes the sync sig­ nal voltage to switch low to 0 volts. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. . Fuel System.3 volts) to a high (approximately 5 volts). the PCM begins energizing a ground circuit to each fuel injec­ tor to provide injector operation. Input voltage from the sensor to the PCM will then switch from a low (approximately 0. the following occurs: The interruption of magnetic field causes the voltage to switch high resulting i n a sync signal of approxi­ mately 5 volts. The sensor is positioned in the timing gear cover so that a small air gap (Fig. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. The PCM will then determine crankshaft position from both the cam­ shaft position sensor and crankshaft position sensor. 9). 9) exists between the face of sensor and the high machined area of cam gear. refer to Group 14.0L V-10 ENGINE The camshaft position sensor is located on the tim­ ing chain case/cover on the left-front side of the engine (Fig.9L ENGINES The camshaft position sensor is located in the dis­ tributor on all engines. refer to Group 14. Fig. Fuel System. the sensor will detect the machined low area. The pulse ring rotates 180 degrees through the sync signal genera­ tor. The sensor generates electrical pulses. ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR For an operational description. A low and high area are machined into the cam­ shaft drive gear (Fig. 8). diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. 9 Sensor Operation—8. Its signal is used in conjunction with the crank­ shaft position' sensor to differentiate between fuel injection and spark events.2L/5. refer to Group 14. 8 Camshaft Position Sensor V-10 Engine Location—8. Fuel System.6 IGNITION SYSTEM BR used to synchronize the fuel injectors with their respective cylinders. These pulses (signals) are sent to the powertrain control module (PCM). When the cam gear is rotating. CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—8. the input voltage switches back low to approx­ imately 0. When the sensor detects the high machined area. I t is also THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR For an operational description. LOW MACHINED AREA HIGH MACHINED AREA CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) The PCM uses the signal from the camshaft posi­ tion sensor to determine fuel injector sequence. The sensor contains a hall effect device called a sync signal generator to generate a fuel sync signal.

Refer to Group 19. The PDC is located in the engine compartment (Fig.9L ENGINES CAUTION: When disconnecting a high voltage cable from a spark plug or from the distributor cap. I f steady arcing occurs. even force. The Key-In-Switch is located in the ignition switch module. hold the cable terminal approximately 12 mm (1/2 in. twist the rubber boot slightly (1/2 turn) to break it . Fig. Fuel System. Grasp the boot (not the cable) and pull it off with a steady. To perform a complete test of the ASD relay and its related circuitry. (4) Using insulated pliers. 11). DO NOT PUT YOUR HANDS NEAR THE PULLEYS. 10). refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual. refer to Group 14. Refer to label on PDC cover for relay location. 12). the steering col­ umn assembly must be replaced. 10 Power Distribution Center TESTING FOR SPARK AT COIL—3. (3) Remove a cable from one spark plug. IGNITION SWITCH AND KEY LOCK CYLINDER The ignition switch is located on the steering col­ umn. I f steady arcing does not occur. connect ignition coil cable to the dis­ tributor cap.) from the engine cylin- Fig. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASD) RELAY The Automatic Shutdown (ASD) relay is located in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). Also inspect the distributor cap and rotor for cracks or burn marks. 8U. inspect the sec­ ondary coil cable. 11 Cable Removal (1) Disconnect the ignition coil secondary cable from center tower of the distributor cap. Steering for procedures. Refer to Spark Plug Cables in this group. BELTS OR THE FAN. For diagnosis of the Key-In-Switch. 12 Checking for Spark—Typical WARNING: BE VERY CAREFUL WHEN THE ENGINE IS CRANKING. refer to Group.7 loose (Fig. refer to ASD and Fuel Pump Relays in Group 14.9L/5. To test the relay only. Repair as necessary.BR D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N (Continued) INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR For an operational description. Hold the cable terminal approximately 12 mm (1/2 in. Fig. DO NOT WEAR LOOSE FITTING CLOTHING.2L/5. The interlock device is located within the steering column assembly and is not servicable. IGNITION SYSTEM 8D . A column shift interlock device is used to lock the transmission shifter in the Park position when the key is in the Off position.) from a good engine ground (Fig. I f repair is necessary. (2) Rotate (crank) the engine with the starter motor and observe the cable terminal for a steady arc. Fuel System.

Fig.9L ENGINES To perform a complete test of the ignition coil and its circuitry. Also refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures manual. 14 Ignition Coii Packs—8. Also refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures manual. I f steady arcing occurs at the spark plug cables.300. The rear coil pack contains two independent epoxy filled coils that will fire four cylinders. 13 ignition Coii (5. the secondary spark plug cable must also be checked. refer to the DRB scan tool.13. ' IGNITION COIL PACI TESTS—8 J L ¥-18 ENGINE To perform a complete test of the ignition coil packs and their circuitry.2L/5. IGNITION COIL TEST—3. I f steady arcing occurs. Refer to the Ignition Coil Resistance chart. i t should be replaced with a new cable and new terminal. Test the coil primary and secondary resistance. To test the coil packs only. Replace any coil that does not meet specifications. I f the ignition coil is being replaced. Fig. will cause the coil to fail. 14).9L/5.300. Replace cable if i t has been burned or damaged. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual.300 Ohms 11. but the engine will not start. refer to the following procedure: Two separate coil packs containing a total of five independent coils are attached to a common mount­ ing bracket located above the right engine valve cover (Fig. the spark intensity w i l l be m u c h higher). Observe the spark plug cable terminal for an arc.20 Ohms 11.1. i t can be expected that the ignition secondary system is operating cor­ rectly ( I f the i g n i t i o n coil cable is removed for this test. which i f i t is connected to a new ignition coil.1.8 IGNITION SYSTEM • BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) der head or block while rotating the engine with the starter motor. I f the secondary coil cable shows any signs of dam­ age. Carbon tracking on the old cable can cause arcing and the failure of a new ignition coil. refer to the following: The ignition coil (Fig. Arcing at the tower will carbonize the cable boot.2L Shown) Inspect the ignition coil for arcing.95. The front coil pack contains three independent epoxy filled coils that will fire six cylinders.300 Ohms J918D-2 IGNITION COIL RESISTANCE . The coil packs are not oil filled.' connect the DRB scan tool. refer to the DRB scan tool.0L V-10 Engine P R I M A R Y RESISTANCE C O I L (MANUFACTURER) 21-27°C (70-80°F) S E C O N D A R Y RESISTANCE 21-27°C (7§-8§°P) Diamond Toyodenso 0.15. To test the coil only.8D . Test the coil according to coil tester manufacturer's instructions.18 Ohms 0.97. 13) is designed to operate without an external ballast resistor. instead of a spark p l u g cable.

Refer to (Fig.BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) To test the secondary resistance of each individual paired coil. 19) for resistance specifications. 7/4.0L V-10 Engine TO CENTER COIL J948D-16 FAILURE TO START TEST—3. Fig. To test the primary resistance of the front coil pack. 18). attach an ohmmeter between the B+ coii terminal and either the right (cylinders 9/8) or left (cylinders 5/10) coil terminals (Fig. attach an ohmmeter across the coil tow­ ers (Fig. Determine that sufficient battery voltage (12.2L/5. center (cylin­ ders 7/4) or left coil (cylinders 1/6) terminals (Fig. 15 Checking Coil Secondary Resistance—Front Coils—8. refer to the Wiring Diagrams section. . 17 Checking Coil Primary Resistance—Front Coils—8.9L ENGINES To prevent unnecessary diagnostic time and wrong test results.9 OHMMETER MAKE OHMMETER C O N N E C T I O N S AT C O R R E S P O N D I N G CYLINDERS (5/10 OR 9/8). 15) or (Fig. 14). (3) Attach one lead of a voltmeter to the positive (12 volt) jumper wire. the Testing For Spark At Coil test should be performed prior to this test.4 volts) is present for the starting and ignition systems. Refer to (Fig. This must be done between corresponding cylinders number 3/2.0L V-10 Engine B+ TERMINAL FRONT OF ENGINE J948D-14 Fig. J948D-15 Fig.9L/5. 19) for resistance specifications. To test the primary resistance of the rear coil pack. 9/8 or 5/10 (Fig. Attach the negative side of voltmeter to a good ground. (1) Unplug the ignition coil harness connector at the coil (Fig. 16). OHMMETER IGNITION SYSTEM 8D . attach an ohmmeter between the B+ coil termi­ nal and either the right (cylinders 3/2).0L V-10 Engine (2) Connect a set of small jumper wires (18 gauge or smaller) between the disconnected harness termi­ nals and the ignition coil terminals. 1/6. 7/4 O R 3/2). To determine polarity at connector and coil. 13). 19) for resistance speci­ fications. WARNING: SET PARKING BRAKE OR BLOCK THE DRIVE WHEELS BEFORE PROCEEDING WITH THIS TEST. FRONT OF ENGINE MAKE OHMMETER C O N N E C T I O N S AT C O R R E S P O N D I N G CYLINDERS (1/6. 16 Checking Coil Secondary Resistance—Rear Coils—8. Refer to (Fig. 17).

Test across the individual coil towers. Refer to text for test procedures.10 IGNITION SYSTEM BR Check 32-way connectors for any spread terminals or corrosion.80 . ~~ POWERTRAI CONTROL MODULE FRONT OF ENGINE DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) TO LEFT COIL TO RIGHT COIL B+ TERMINAL' J948D-17 Fig. replace the PCM. 18 Checking Coii Primary Resistance—Rear Coils—8. replace the ignition coil.(6) Remove test lead from the coil positive terminal. Connect an 18 gauge jumper wire between the battery positive terminal and the coil positive terminal. use the special jumper to ground the coil negative terminal directly.9 to 14. 21). A spark should be generated at the coil cable when the ground is removed. Refer to text for test procedures.0L (4) Determine that sufficient battery voltage (12. (11) I f spark is not produced. Wiring. refer to Group 8W. (9) I f spark is not seen.65 ohms * * Secondary Resistance: 10. J948D-13 Connectors . • I f voltage remains at or near battery voltage during the entire 5 seconds. (10) I f spark is produced. momentarily ground the ignition coil driver circuit at the PCM connector (cavity A-7).7 K ohms Test across the primary connector.4 volts) is present for the starting and ignition sys­ tems. (5) Crank the engine for 5 seconds while monitor­ ing the voltage at the coil positive terminal: • I f the voltage remains near zero during the entire period of cranking. turn the key off. 21 Special Jumper Ground-to-Coil Terminal Negative (8) I f spark is generated. Using the jumper. 20) from the PCM. • I f voltage is at or near battery voltage and drops to zero after 1-2 seconds of cranking. refer to On-Board Diagnos­ tics in Group 14. repair wiring harness for an open condition.01 V-10 Engine Fig. Fuel Systems. Check the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) and auto shutdown relay. Fuel Systems. CAPACITOR Fig. For cavity/terminal location of this circuit. GROUND THIS CLIP ALLIGATOR CLIP RBI003 Fig. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics in Group 14. check the pow­ ertrain control module circuit.53 to 0. 19 Ignition Coil Resistance V-10 Engine Specifications—8. . Remove the three 32-way connectors (Fig. (7) Make the special jumper shown in (Fig. 20 PCM and Three 32-Way * P r i m a r y Resistance: 0.

diagnosis or remov­ al/ installation procedures.9L75. To test the sensor only. MAP SENSOR For an operational description.2L/5.2L/5.9L ENGINE To perform a complete test of this sensor and its circuitry. 2 L / S J L ENGINES Visually inspect the rotor (Fig. Replace any cap that displays charred or eroded terminals. broken towers or damaged rotor button (Fig. On 3. The silicone-dielectricvarnish-compound applied to the rotor tip for radio interference noise suppression.9L ENGINES Remove the distributor cap and wipe i t clean with a dry lint free cloth. Test the spring for insufficient tension. carbon paths. 22) or (Fig.Also check for white deposits on the inside (caused by condensation entering the cap through cracks). refer to Group 14. refer to the DRB scan tool. INSUFFICIENT SPRING TENSION CORRODED EVIDENCE OF PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH CAP J908D-48 Fig. CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—3. 23 Cap inspection—internal—Typical DISTRIBUTOR ROTOR—3 J L / I . See Checking Distributor Position. Refer to the Distributor Removal/Installation section of this group. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures service manual for operation of the DRB Scan Tool.9L engines only. Also check for evidence of mechanical interference with the cap. All ignition timing functions are controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Also refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures man­ ual. The machined surface of a terminal end (faces toward rotor) will indicate some evidence of erosion from normal operation.9L engines. 24 Rotor inspection—Typical IGNITION TIMING NOTE: Base (initial) ignition timing is NOT adjust­ able on any engine. do not attempt to adjust ignition timing by rotating the distributor. refer to the following: Fig. Visually inspect the cap for cracks. The DRB scan tool may be used to verify base timing and electronic timing advance. Fuel synchronization can be verified and set by rotating the distributor. 24) for cracks. 23).2L/5. Examine the terminal ends for evi­ dence of mechanical interference with the rotor tip. Replace a rotor that displays any of these adverse conditions.BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) DISTRIBUTOR CAP—3.9L/5. . IGNITION SYSTEM 8D -11 This is normal. Fuel Systems.9L/5. This operation can be performed on 3. will appear charred. Do not remove the charred com­ pound. Some charring is normal on the end of the metal tip. evi­ dence of corrosion or the effects of arcing on the metal tip.2L/5.9L/5. .

27). Replace sensor i f a low resis­ tance is indicated. Sensor—Typical (2) Place an ohmmeter across terminals B and C (Fig.0L V-10 ENIINE The crankshaft position sensor is located on the right-lower side of the cylinder block. The meter reading should be open (no resistance). (2) Disconnect the sensor pigtail harness from the main engine wiring harness connector. 25). To test the' sensor only. The meter reading should be open (no resistance). Fig. 28) on all engines. Ohmmeter should be set to lK-to-lOK scale for this test.9L/5. 26). Also refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures man­ ual. 27 Crankshaft Position Sensor—8*01 Engine—Typical ¥-10 Fig.1 2 IGNITION SYSTEM BR DIAGNOSIS A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) The sensor is located on the top of cylinder block near the rear of right cylinder head (Fig.. Replace sensor i f a low resistance is indi­ cated. CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—3.9L ENGINES The camshaft position sensor is located in the dis­ tributor (Fig. VIEW LOOKING INTO CPS CONNECTOR J938D-7 Fig. forward of the right engine mount. refer to the following: (1) Raise and support the vehicle. To perform a complete test of this sensor and its circuitry. 28 Camshaft Position Sensor—Typical To perform a complete test of this sensor and its circuitry. 25 Crankshaft Position. (1) Near the rear of the intake manifold.2L/5. just above the oil pan rail (Fig. (3) Place an ohmmeter across terminals B and C (Fig. Fig.80 . refer to the DRB scan tool. refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diag- . Ohmmeter should be set to lK-to-lOK scale for this test. 26 Sensor Connector CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR TEST—8. discon­ nect sensor pigtail harness connector from main wir­ ing harness. 26).

(2) Connect the negative (-) voltmeter lead into the ground wire. (9) I f voltage is still not present. To test the sensor only. but not at the supply wire: (a) . Voltmeter should read approximately 5.0L Engine . Leave the PCM connector connected for this test. If sync pulse signal is not present..0 volts. 30 Sensor Connector—8. insert them into the backside of the distributor wire harness connector to make contact with the termi­ nals. (5) Turn ignition key to ON position. The voltmeter needle should fluctuate between 0 and 5 volts while the engine is cranking. (2) Place an ohmmeter across terminals B and C (Fig. (3) Set the voltmeter to the 15 Volt DC scale. check the voltmeter leads for a good connection. (b) Check for continuity between the camshaft position sensor output wire and cavity A-18 at the PCM. For wire identification. Using small paper clips. Wiring Diagrams. This is checked between the distributor connector and cavity A-17 at the PCM. Do not remove the distributor connec­ tor from the distributor. repair the har­ ness as necessary. B+ GROUND OUTPUT Fig. refer to the DRB scan tool.en IGNITION SYSTEM 80 . Wiring Diagrams. Fig. Also refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostics Procedures man­ ual. (8) I f 5 volts is not present at supply wire.0L V-10 ENGINE The camshaft position sensor is located in the tim­ ing chain case/cover on the left-front side of the engine (Fig. Check continuity between the supply wire. (10) I f voltage is present at cavity A-17. Replace sensor i f a low resis­ tance is indicated. 29). 29 Camshaft Position Sensor—8. This is at done the distributor wire harness connector. To test the sensor only. refer to Group 8W. Be sure that . (4) Remove distributor cap from distributor (two screws). crank the engine with Ignition switch. refer to Group 8W. • (6) I f voltage is not present. I f continuity Is not present. replacement of the camshaft position sensor is necessary CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR TEST—8. (1) Connect the positive (+) voltmeter lead into the sensor output wire. Ohmmeter should be set to lK-to-lOK scale for this test. check for voltage at PCM 32-way connector (cavity A-17). Rotate (crank) the engine until the distribu­ tor rotor is pointed towards the rear of vehicle. I f continuity is not present. an analog (non-digital) voltme­ ter is needed. The meter reading should be open (no resistance). For wire identification. refer to the following: (1) Disconnect the sensor connector at sensor. perform vehicle test using the DRB scan tool. The movable pulse ring should now be within the sensor pickup. Refer to Group 8W.13 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING fContinued! nasties Procedures service manual. refer to the following: For this test. Wiring for location of connector/ terminal. check for voltage at the supply wire. This verifies that the camshaft position sensor in the distributor is operating prop­ erly and a sync pulse signal is being generated. 30). (7) I f voltage is still not present. For wire identification. (c) Check for continuity between the ground cir­ cuit wire at the distributor connector and ground. Wiring Diagrams. Attach voltmeter leads to these paper clips. repair the harness as necessary. (11) While observing the voltmeter.the connector is not damaged when inserting the paper clips. refer to Group 8W. If continuity is not present. repair the harness as necessary.0L V-10 Engine To perform a complete test of this sensor and its circuitry.

Terminals should be fully seated. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. MINIMUM 250 Ohms Per Inch 3000 Ohms Per Foot MAXIMUM 1000 Ohms Per Inch 12. replace the cable. and spark plugs. I f equipped. The insulators should be in good condition and should fit tightly on the coil.9L engines. The cable running from the ignition coil to the distributor cap can be checked in the same manner. Spark plug cables with insulators that are cracked or torn must be replaced. dam­ aged or faulty cables should be replaced with resis­ tance type cable. spark plug cables may be tested as follows: CAUTION: Do not leave any one spark plug cable disconnected for longer than necessary during test­ To test ignition coil-to-distributor cap cable. exces­ sive resistance or loose terminals. spark plug cable heat shields are pressed into the cylinder head to sur­ round each spark plug cable boot and spark plug (Fig. follow the instructions of the equipment manufacturer. replace the cable. distributor cap towers. Connect ohmmeter to rotor button (center contact) of distributor cap and terminal at ignition coil end of cable.9U5. 31 Heat Shields—3. I f not. the engine rpm should drop and the engine will run poorly. On 3. distributor and spark plugs. Use an ohmmeter to test for open circuits. I f cables are cracked or punctured. 31). connect one end of a test probe to a good ground. Clean high voltage ignition cables with a cloth moistened with a non-flammable solvent. I f the cable and spark plug are in good condition. there will be a noticeable spark jump from the damaged area to the test probe. Fuel System. I f resistance is not within specifications as found in the Spark Plug Cable Resistance chart. the lip of the cable boot should have a small air gap to the top of the heat shield (Fig. With the engine running. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. Connect the ohmmeter to the termi­ nal ends of the cable. Test all spark plug cables in this manner. remove cable from dis­ tributor cap tower and connect ohmmeter to the ter­ minal ends of cable. burns or corrosion. Fuel System. Also check engine cylinder compression. Start the engine and run the other end of the test probe along the entire length of all spark plug cables. I f resistance is not within specifications as found in the Spark Plug Cable Resistance chart. If an oscilloscope is not available. Wipe the cables dry. Resistance should be 250 to 1000 Ohms per inch of cable. This may cause possible heat damage to the catalytic converter. Check for brittle or cracked insulation. the cable and/or spark plug may not be operat­ ing properly and should be replaced. .8D 14 IGNITION SYSTEM BR D I A G N O S I S A N D T E S T I N G (Continued) ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR For an operational description. With the engine not running. refer to Group 14. These shields protect the spark plug boots from damage (due to intense engine heat generated by the exhaust manifolds) and should not be removed.2U5. I f engine rpm does not drop. Do not remove cables from cap. Cracked. Total test time must not exceed ten minutes. SPARK PLUG CABLES Check the spark plug cable connections for good contact at the coil(s). remove the cable from the distributor cap. ing.9L/5.000 Ohms Per Foot J908D-43 SPARK PLUG CABLE Fig. remove the distributor cap from the distributor. remove spark plug cable from spark plug (one at a time) and hold next to a good engine ground. This can be identified by the words ELECTRONIC SUPPRESSION printed on the cable jacket. do not remove the cable from the cap. Inspect the igni­ tion coil tower for cracks. refer to Group 14. After the spark plug cable has been installed. 31). Connect ohmmeter to spark plug termi­ nal end of cable and to corresponding electrode in distributor cap. If resistance is not within spec­ ifications as found in the Spark Plug Cable Resistance chart. Remove cable from spark plug.2L/5.9L TESTING Engines RESISTANCE When testing secondary cables for damage with an oscilloscope. INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR For an operational description.

A dry. evaluate engine condition for the cause of oil entry into that particular combustion chamber. In older engines. black deposit on one or two plugs in a set may be caused by sticking valves or defective spark plug cables. I n new or recently overhauled engines. have the electrodes filed. This short circuits the electrodes. This rust color can be misdiagnosed as being caused by coolant in the com­ bustion chamber. The deposits that cause cold fouling are basi­ cally carbon (Fig. 33). Cold (carbon) fouling of the entire set of spark plugs may be caused by a clogged air cleaner element or repeated short operat­ ing times (short trips). deposits partially liq­ uefy and bridge the gap between electrodes (Fig. fuel with MMT causes the entire tip of the spark plug to be coated with a rust colored deposit. These deposits accumulate on the spark plugs during continuous stop-and-go driving. 32 Normal Operation and Cold (Carbon) Fouling Some fuel refiners in several areas of the United States have introduced a manganese additive (MMT) for unleaded fuel. Gap growth will not average more than approximately 0.1 5 WET FOULING OR GAS FOULING A spark plug coated with excessive wet fuel or oil is wet fouled. OIL OR ASH ENCRUSTED If one or more spark plugs are oil or oil ash encrusted (Fig. ELSCWmOmE GAP BRIDGING Electrode gap bridging may be traced to loose deposits i n the combustion chamber. worn piston rings. wet fouling may occur before break-in (nor­ mal oil control) is achieved. J908D-15 Fig. leaking valve guide seals or excessive cylinder wear can cause wet fouling. When the engine is suddenly subjected to a high torque load. NORMAL DRY BLACK COLD (CARBON) FOULING IGNITION SYSTEM 80 . Spark plugs with electrode gap bridging can be cleaned using standard procedures. There will not be evidence of electrode burning. COLD FOULING/CARBON FOULING PR!673 Fig.001 in) per 1600 km (1000 miles) of operation. Spark plug performance is not affected by MMT deposits. 34). 33 Oil or Ash Encrusted Cold fouling is sometimes referred to as carbon fouling. This is evident with most grades of commercial gasoline (Fig. 32). . have the gap set and then be installed. Spark plugs that have normal wear can usually be cleaned. During combustion.BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) SPARK PLUG CONDITIONS NORMAL OPERATING The few deposits present on the spark plug will probably be light tan or slightly gray in color.025 mm (. 32). This condition can usu­ ally be resolved by cleaning and reinstalling the fouled plugs.

Spark plugs with scavenger deposits can be considered nor­ mal in condition and can be cleaned using standard procedures. Under certain conditions. 36 Chipped Electrode Insulator SCAVENGER DEPOSITS PREMONITION DAMAGE Fuel scavenger deposits may be either white or yel­ low (Fig.8D . Determine i f ignition timing is over advanced or i f other operating conditions are causing engine over­ heating. Spark plugs are designed to operate within specific temperature ranges. They may appear to be harmful. Spark plugs with this condition must be replaced. 37 Preignition Damage J908D-14 A chipped electrode insulator usually results from bending the center electrode while adjusting the spark plug electrode gap. Determine i f the spark plug has the correct heat range rating for the engine. . 35 Scavenger Deposits CHIPPED ELECTRODE INSULATOR Fig. 36). but the deposits are easily removed. These additives are designed to change the chemical nature of deposits and decrease spark plug misfire tendencies. (The heat range rating refers to the operat­ ing temperature of a particular type spark plug.16 IGNITION SYSTEM _ — _ - _ ' rs^ro) DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) GROUND GROUND ELECTRODE J908D-11 J908D-13 Fig.) GROUND ELECTRODE CENTER ELECTRODE DISSOLVED J908D-12 Fig. Insulators appear relatively deposit free. 34 Electrode Gap Bridging Fig. 35). Notice that accumula­ tion on the ground electrode and shell area may be heavy. severe detonation can also separate the insulator from the center electrode (Fig. The center elec­ trode dissolves first and the ground electrode dis­ solves somewhat latter (Fig. but this is a normal condition caused by chemical addi­ tives in certain fuels. GROUND ELECTRODE COVERED Preignition damage is usually caused by excessive combustion chamber temperature. 37). This depends upon the thick­ ness and length of the center electrodes porcelain insulator.

41 Engine Firing Order—5. 39). When installing new cables. Grasp the boot (not the cable) and pull it off with a steady.001 inch per 1000 miles of opera­ tion. This suggests . Over advanced ignition timing. When disconnecting a high voltage cable from a spark plug or from the distributor cap. make sure a positive connection is made. (Fig. 39 Cable Removal . 38). will be consider­ ably in excess of 0. 38 Spark Plug Overheating REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION SPARK PLUG CABLES CAUTION. The Increase in electrode gap. route the cables correctly and secure in the proper retainers. detonation and cooling system malfunctions can also cause spark plug overheating. I t could also cause cross ignition of the plugs or short circuit the cables to ground. Failure to route the cables properly can cause the radio to reproduce ignition noise.1 7 Overheating is indicated by a white or gray center electrode Insulator that also appears blistered (Fig. A snap should be felt when a good connection is made between the plug cable and the distributor cap tower. o FRONT OF ENGINE CLOCKWISE ROTATION 1-6-5-4-3-2 J9314-80 Fig.9L V-8 Engines SPARK PLUG CABLE A N D BOOT When replacing the spark plug and coil cables. SPARK PLUG BOOT * PULLER o CLOCKWISE ROTATION 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 FRONT OF ENGINE J9314-79 Fig.2U5.that a plug with a cooler heat range rating should be used.BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) SPARK PLUG OVERHEATING IGNITION SYSTEM 8D . twist the rubber boot slightly (1/2 turn) to break it loose (Fig.9 L V-6 Engine J906D-16 Fig. BLISTERED WHITE OR GRAY COLORED INSULATOR Install cables into the proper engine cylinder firing order (Fig. even force. 40). 41) or (Fig. TWIST A N D PULL SPARK PLUG 958D-9 Fig. 40 Engine Firing Order—3. 42).

(2) Prior to removing the spark plug. After clean­ ing. spark plug cable heat shields are pressed into the cylinder head to sur­ round each cable boot and spark plug (Fig. GAUGE SPARK PLUG J9314-94 Fig.0L ¥-10 Engine SPARK PLUGS On 3. 42 Spark Plug Cable Order—8.9L/5. align shield to machined opening in cylinder head and tap Into place with a block of wood. 43).9. remove the spark plug cable and compress the sides of shield for removal. (4) Inspect the spark plug condition. Turn the cable boot 1/2 turn and pull straight back i n a steady motion.shield(s) is necessary. file the center electrode flat with a small point file or jewelers file before adjusting gap.9U5. Never attempt to adjust the gap by bending the center electrode. To install the shields.9L engines. 48 Heat Shields—3. J908D-10 Fig.IO.2U5. Metallic deposits will remain on the spark plug insulator and will cause plug misfire. spray com­ pressed air around the spark plug hole and the area around the spark plug. (3) Remove the spark plug using a quality socket with a rubber or foam insert. adjust i t by bending the ground electrode (Fig.7.8D . I f the gap is not correct. Never pull directly on the cable. Check the spark plug gap with a gap gauge tool. CAUTION: Never use a motorized wire wheel brush to clean the spark plugs. 44 Setting Spark Plug Gap—Typical . This will help prevent foreign material from entering the combustion chamber.18 IGNITION SYSTEM BR PLUG REMOVAL (1) Always remove spark plug or ignition coil cables by grasping at the cable boot (Fig. 39). PLUG GLEANING REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) REAR COIL PACK FRONT COIL PACK The plugs may be cleaned using commercially available spark plug cleaning equipment. J 948D-12 PLUG GAP ADJUSTMENT RIGHT BANK FIRING ORDER LEFT SANK I.2 Fig.3-6-5-8. 44).2L/5. Refer to Spark Plug Condition in the Diagnostics and Testing section of this group.4. Each shield is slotted to allow for compression and removal. Internal damage to cable will result.9L Engines If removal of the heat.

A L L BELT TENSION MUST FIRST BE RELIEVED. Over tightening can cause distortion resulting in a change in the spark plug gap or a cracked porcelain Insulator.0L Engine.9L/5.9L V-6 or 5. This bracket is mounted on top of the automatic belt tensioner bracket using common bolts.89 mm (. IGNITION COIL—3.) torque. (2) Disconnect the secondary spark plug cable from the ignition coll.2L/5. (2) Connect all wiring to ignition coil. REMOVAL Fig. lbs. Failure to route the cables properly can cause the radio to reproduce ignition noise. I f nuts and bolts are used to secure coil to coil bracket.035 in). It could cause cross ignition of the spark plugs or short circuit the cables to. PLUG INSTALLATION Special care should be taken when installing spark plugs into the cylinder head spark plug wells.9L ¥-8 LDC-GAS ENGINES. REFER TO Fig. THE COIL MOUNTING BRACKET IS UNDER ACCES­ SORY DRIVE BELT TENSION. Always tighten spark plugs to the specified torque.2/5.2/5.) torque.2/5. 3. tighten bolts to 5 N-m (50 in.045 in).9L ¥-6 OR 5. .9L V-6 or 5. (1) Start the spark plug into the cylinder head by hand to avoid cross threading. lbs. DO NOT REMOVE THE COIL MOUNTING BRACKET-TO-CYLINDER HEAD MOUNTING BOLTS. IF THIS BRACKET IS TO BE REMOVED FOR ANY REASON. (3) Install spark plug cables over spark plugs. 45 Ignition Coil—3.1 9 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) SPARE PLUG GAP 3. 5. When replacing the spark plug and ignition coil cables.9L/5. INSTALLATION coil from coil mounting (1) Install the ignition coil to coil bracket. I f the coil mounting bracket has been tapped for coil mounting bolts. 8.9L Engines: .9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines: The coil is mounted to a bracket that is bolted to the front of the right engine cylinder head (Fig. (3) Remove ignition bracket (two bolts). Be sure the plugs do not drop into the plug wells as elec­ trodes can be damaged. I f the coil is replaced.14 mm (. (1) Disconnect the primary wiring from the igni­ tion coil. 46). ground. tighten to 11 N-m (100 in. WARNING.9L V-8 HDC-Gas Engine THE BELT SECTION OF GROUP 7.9L ENGINES The ignition coil is an epoxy filled type.IGNITION SYSTEM 80 .BR — — — — ^ — . 45). (2) Tighten spark plugs to 35-41 N-m (26-30 ft. COOLING SYS­ TEM.9L V-8 HDC-Gas Engine: The coil is mounted to a bracket that is bolted to the air injection pump (AIR pump) mounting bracket (Fig.) torque. lbs.2L/5.9L V-8 LDC-Gas Engines 3. 46 Ignition Coil—5. 1. route the cables correctly and secure them in the appropriate retainers. i t must be replaced with the same type.

8D .0L ¥-10 Engine POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER (PDC) (1) Position coil packs to mounting bracket (prima­ ry wiring connectors face downward). 47). 48 Spark Plug Cable Order—8. (2) Disconnect the primary wiring harness connec­ tors at coil packs.9L ENGINES REMOVAL—EXCEPT 5. 47). Refer to label on PDC cover for relay location. Check the ter­ minals in the PDC relay connector for corrosion or damage before installation. J9414-10 Fig. (5) Connect secondary spark plug cables to coil packs.20 IGNITION SYSTEM BR R E M O V A L AND INSTALLATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) IGNITION COIL PACKS—8. ENGINE CYLINDER^ " NUMBER COIL "MOUNTING' BOLTS (8) J948D-6 RIGHT LEFT BANK FIRING ORDER 1-10.GL V-10 ENGINE REMOVAL R E A R C O I L PACK FRONT COIL PACK Two separate coil packs containing a total of five Independent coils are attached to a common mount­ ing bracket located above the right engine valve cover (Fig. . The PDC is located in the engine compartment (Fig. The front and rear coil packs can be serviced separately. 48) for correct cable order. 49 Power Distribution Center CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—3.91/5. (3) Remove the four (4) coil pack-to-coil mounting bracket bolts for the coil pack being serviced (Fig. (3) Install coil pack-to-engine mounting bracket (if necessary). AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN (ASD) 1ELAY The Automatic Shutdown (ASD) relay is located in the Power Distribution Center (PDC). (4) Connect primary wiring connectors to coil packs (four wire connector to front coil pack and three wire connector to rear coil pack). Note position of cables before removal. (4) Remove coil(s) from mounting bracket.9-4-3-6-5-8-7-2 J948D-12 Fig.9L HDC ENGINE Use the following procedure i f engine is not equipped with an EGR system. 47 ignition Coii Packs—8*01 ¥-10 Engine (1) Remove the secondary spark plug cables from the coil packs. lbs. 49). Refer to (Fig.) torque. Tighten bolts to 10 N-m (90 in.2L/5. (2) Install coil pack mounting bolts. INSTALLATION BANK Fig.

(4) Disconnect electrical connector and hoses at electric EGR valve control. 50). 51 Crankshaft Position Sensor—5. (2) Remove the spark plug cable loom and spark plug cables from valve cover mounting stud at rear of right valve cover (Fig. INSTALLATION—EXCEPT 5 . (4) Remove sensor from engine. 52). 52 Oil Pressure Sending Installation Unit—Removal/ . Note position of hoses before removal. 50 Crankshaft Position Sensor—Except HDC Engine 5. 51).) torque. (8) Remove two sensor (recessed hex head) mount­ ing bolts (Fig. such as number C-4597 must be used (Fig.91 (1) Remove the air cleaner Intake tube. Remove sending unit from engine. 9 L NBC ENGINE (5) Remove 2 EGR valve mounting bolts and remove EGR valve. (7) To prevent damage to oil pressure sending unit.9L HOC ENGINE Use the following procedure If the 5. (6) Disconnect electrical connector at engine oil pressure sending unit.BR REMOVAL AND I N S T A L L A T I O N fContinued) The sensor is bolted to the top of the cylinder block near the rear of right cylinder head (Fig. Fig. (1) Remove the air cleaner assembly and its plastic air intake tube. (3) Disconnect 2 hoses at Exhaust Gas Recircula­ tion (EGR) valve. a special tool. (1) Position crankshaft position sensor to engine. (3) Connect main harness electrical connector to sensor. (4) Install air cleaner tube. (2) Install mounting bolts and tighten to 8 N-m (70 in. Discard old EGR gasket. Position spark plug cables to top of valve cover. IGNITION SYSTEM 80 . REMOVAL—5. 51).9L HDC engine Is equipped with an EGR system. (2) Disconnect crankshaft position sensor pigtail harness from main wiring harness.21 Fig. lbs. Note position of hoses at EGR valve before removal. 50).9L Engine HDC ¥-8 Fig. The sensor is bolted to the top of the cylinder block near the rear of right cylinder head (Fig.

(6) Clean the intake manifold and EGR valve of any old gasket material. (2) Connect main harness electrical connector to sensor. install electrical connector to sending unit.) torque. (9) Remove 2 EGR tube mounting bolts at exhaust manifold and remove EGR tube. CRANKSHAFT POSITION (1) Raise and support the vehicle. 55 Sensor O-Ring—8. (8) Install EGR valve to intake manifold. or the opening at the engine. to 23 N-m (200 in. Tighten 2 bolts. 53). REMOVAL S E N S O R POSITIONED FLUSH TO CYLINDER BLOCK J948D-2 Fig.22 IGM1TI0SSS SYSTEM BR R E M O V A L A N D INSTALLATION fContinued) (8) Loosen EGR tube mounting nut at Intake man­ ifold. lbs.manifold (at EGR tube mounting point) of any old gasket mate­ rial.91 HOC ENGINE ' (1) Position crankshaft position sensor to engine and Install mounting bolts. (5) Coat the threads of the oil pressure sending unit with thread sealant. (2) Disconnect the sensor harness connectors. lbs. lbs. (4) Install a new gasket to exhaust manifold end of EGR tube and install EGR tube to both manifolds. (3) Remove the sensor mounting bolt (Fig.* Connect hoses between EGR valve and EGR valve control.8D .) torque. 55). lbs. 54 Sensor Removal/Installation—8. Tighten 2 mounting bolts at exhaust manifold to 23 N-m (204 in. (4) Carefully pry the sensor from the cylinder block in a rocking action with two small screwdrivers.) torque. (9) Position EGR valve control and install its elec­ trical connector.0L Engine ¥-10 (5) Remove the sensor from vehicle. CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—8. 54). (11) Remove 2 sensor (recessed hex head) mount­ ing bolts and remove sensor. forward of the right engine mount. Do not allow any of the thread sealant to get Into the' sending unit opening. Tighten mounting nut at intake manifold. Discard old gasket at exhaust manifold. J948D-3 Fig. INSTALLATION—5. (3) Clean the EGR tube and exhaust. (10) Disconnect crankshaft position sensor pigtail harness from main wiring harness. Connect hose between main vacuum harness and control valve. (10) Install spark plug cable loom and spark plug cables to valve cover mounting stud.) torque. just above the oil pan rail (Fig. Install sending unit to engine and tighten to 14 N-m (130 in.0L ¥-10 Engine . Tighten bolts to 8 N-m (70 in. (6) Check condition of sensor o-ring (Fig.0L V-10 ENGINE The crankshaft position sensor is located on the rightlower side of the cylinder block. (11) Install the air cleaner housing and plastic air Intake tube. (7) Install a new EGR valve gasket at intake man­ ifold.

56). 56 Camshaft Position Sensor—•Typical (1) Remove air cleaner assembly. Fig.) torque. (5) install air cleaner assembly. (3) Remove distributor cap from distributor (two screws). The first time the engine has been operated. (6) Lift the camshaft position sensor assembly from the distributor housing (Fig. Align sensor into notch on distributor housing. (4) Connect sensor wiring harness and lower the vehicle.2L/5. lbs. Tighten screws. be sure the sensor is completely flush to the cylinder block (Fig. 58) to position the depth of sensor to the upper cam gear (sprocket). CAMSHAFT Fig. (2) Install the sensor Into the cylinder block with a slight rocking action. 58 Sensor Depth Positioning Rib—8. 57 Camshaft Position Sensor V-10 Engine Location—8. Depending on parts tolerances. IGNITION SYSTEM 80 . This rib can be found on both the new replacement sensors and sensors that were originally installed to the engine. INSTALLATION (1) Install camshaft position sensor to distributor. RIB MATERIAL (FOR SENSOR DEPTH POSITIONING) Fig.BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) INSTALLATION (1) Apply a small amount of engine oil to the sen­ sor o-ring (Fig. (4) install distributor • cap.0L V-10 Engine . some of the rib material may still be observed after removal. 56).9L ENGINES The camshaft position sensor is located in the dis­ tributor (Fig. Do not twist the sensor into position as damage to the o. If sensor is not flush. (2) Disconnect negative cable from battery.23 (8) Install rotor.0L A thin plastic rib is molded Into the face of the sen­ sor (Fig. dam­ age to the sensor mounting tang may result. CAUTION: Before tightening the sensor mounting bolt.9L/5.0L V-10 ENGINE The camshaft position sensor is located on the tim­ ing chain case/cover on the left-front side of the engine (Fig. (4) Disconnect camshaft position sensor wiring harness from main engine wiring harness. (2) Connect wiring harness. (3) install the mounting bolt and tighten to 8 N-m (70 in.ring may result. part of this rib may be sheared (ground) off. CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—3. REMOVAL Distributor removal is not necessary to remove camshaft position sensor. 55). (5) Remove distributor rotor from distributor shaft. 57). 54). mounting CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR—8.

the cam gear may have to be rotated. special paper spacers are of a certain thickness and are to be used as a tool to set sensor depth. 61) or (Fig. it is OK to install sensor. (4) Remove the sensor from vehicle. (1) Observe the face of the sensor. (9) Install the sensor into the timing case/cover with a slight rocking action until the paper spacer contacts the camshaft gear. (5) Check condition of sensor o-ring (Fig. Do not remove more material than necessary as damage to sensor may result.0L V-10 Engine Fig.818 inch dimension is attained. 59). the cam gear will have to be rotated. Remove only enough of the rib material until the face of the sensor is flat. 60) exists between the face of sensor and the high machined area of cam gear. such as when servicing the timing chain. (3) Clean the face of sensor and apply paper spacer (Fig. (2) From the parts department. Do not twist the sensor into position as damage to the o-ring or tearing of the paper spacer may result. 60 Sensor Operation—8. (3) Carefully pry the sensor from the timing chain case/cover in a rocking action with two small screw­ drivers. Proceed to step Step 9. 59 Camshaft Sensor O-Ring—8.24 IGNITION SYSTEM BR A low and high area are machined into the cam­ shaft drive gear (Fig. the sensor will be broken. measure the distance from the cam gear to the face of the sensor mounting hole opening on the timing gear cover (Fig. (5) Using a 1/2 in. 57). (8) Attach a socket to the vibration damper mount­ ing bolt and rotate engine until the 1. Sensor Removal—Replacing Old Sensor With Original. . wide metal ruler.818 inches. never use an electric grinder to remove material from sensor. 58). This is to allow the high machined area on the gear to be directly in front of the sensor mounting hole opening on the timing gear cover. 60). obtain a peel-andstick paper spacer (Fig. SLOTTED DUNTII CAM DRIVE GEAR MACHINED AREA HIGH MACHINED AREA CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR SCRIBE LINE HOLE CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR O-RING Fig. The sensor is positioned i n the timing gear cover so that a small air gap (Fig. 59). When the engine is started. Do not install sensor with gear positioned at low area (Fig. 58). Before the sensor is installed. 60). These. Do not install the sensor mounting bolt. . timing gears or timing chain cover. (7) I f the dimension is approximately 2. use this procedure. (2) Remove the sensor mounting bolt (Fig. (10) Scratch a scribe line into the timing chain case/cover to indicate depth of sensor (Fig. 58). (4) Apply a small amount of engine oil to the sen­ sor o-ring (Fig.8D . I f any of the original rib material remains (Fig. 61). or Sensor Removal—Replacing With New Sensor: SENSOR SENSOR REMOVAL—REPLACING WITH ORIGINAL OLD If the original camshaft position sensor is to be removed and installed. the sensor depth must be adjusted to prevent contact with the camshaft gear (sprocket). ' (6) I f the dimension is approximately 1. (1) Disconnect the sensor harness connector from the sensor.018 inches. LOW REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) Refer to either of the following procedures. Due to a high magnetic field and possible elec­ trical damage to the sensor.0L ¥-10 Engine INSTALLATION When installing a used camshaft position sensor. 59). it must be cut down flush to the face of the sensor with a razor knife.

(2) Remove the sensor mounting bolt (Fig. lbs. use this procedure.IGNITION SYSTEM 8 1 . Fuel System. wide metal ruler. Fuel System. Fuel Systems. (8) Connect sensor wiring harness to engine har­ ness. (6) Install the sensor into the timing case/cover with a slight rocking action. (2) Using a 1/2 in. refer to Group 14. it is OK to install sensor. ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR For an operational description.018 inches. MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSOR • For removal and installation. THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR For an operational description. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. 57). (4) Remove the sensor from vehicle. lbs. 61) . the cam gear will have to be rotated. When the engine is started. the sensor will be broken. refer to Group 14.) torque. apply a small amount of engine oil to sensor o-ring. measure the distance from the cam gear to the face of the sensor mounting hole opening on the timing gear cover (Fig. refer to Group 14. Do not twist the sensor into position as damage to the o-ring may result. INSTALLATION INTAKE MANIFOLD AIR TEMPEftATOiE SENSOi For an operational . 58) contacts the cam­ shaft gear. (5) Attach a socket to the vibration damper mount­ ing bolt and rotate engine until the 1. Push the sensor all the way into the cover until the rib material on the sensor (Fig.818 inch dimension is attained. (14) Again. When the engine is started.25 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) LOW MACHINED AREA 2. 60). 61) or (Fig. (15) Install sensor mounting bolt and tighten to 6 N-m (50 in. Proceed to step Step 9. 61 Sensor Depth Dimensions (11) Remove the sensor from timing chain case/ cover. refer to Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor in group 14.018" DO NOT INSTALL SENSOR Fig. Fuel System. The sensor is positioned i n the timing gear cover so that a small air gap (Fig. Before the sensor is installed. (3) I f the dimension is approximately 1. (4) I f the dimension is approximately 2. SENSOR REMOVAL—REPLACING WITH NEW 60) exists between the face of sensor and the high machined area of cam gear. (3) Carefully pry the sensor from the timing chain case/cover in a rocking action with two small screw­ drivers. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. A low and high area are machined into the cam­ shaft drive gear (Fig. (1) Disconnect the sensor wiring harness connector from sensor. (13) Again. 59). install the sensor into the timing case/ cover with a slight rocking action until the sensor is aligned to scribe line. Do not install sensor with gear positioned at low area (Fig. SENSOR I f a new replacement camshaft position sensor is to be installed.818 inches. (1) Apply a small amount of engine oil to the sen­ sor o-ring (Fig. description. . (7) Install the mounting bolt and tighten to 6 N-m (50 in. the rib material will be sheared off the face of sensor. This will automatically set sensor air gap. This step must be followed to prevent the paper spacer from getting into the engine lubrication sys­ tem. diagnosis and removal/installation procedures. (16) Connect engine wiring harness to sensor. the cam gear may have to be rotated.) torque. 60). (12) Remove the paper spacer from the sensor. This is to allow the high machined area on the gear to be directly in front of the sensor mounting hole opening on the timing gear cover.

establish the relationship between distribu­ tor shaft and number one piston position as follows: Rotate crankshaft in a clockwise direction. 83 Rotor Alignment Mark (10) Remove distributor rotor from distributor shaft.28 IGNITION S \ „. (11) Remove distributor holddown clamp bolt and clamp (Fig.. (7) Slowly rotate engine clockwise. (6) Attach a socket to the Crankshaft Vibration Damper mounting bolt. until. (5) Before distributor is removed. 1 alignment mark (stamped) into the camshaft position sensor (Fig. 82). (4) Mark the position of distributor housing in relationship to engine or dash panel. the number one cylinder must be brought t o t h e Top D e a d Center (TDC) firing position. DISTRIBUTOR J9314-81 Fig. until indicating mark on crankshaft vibration damper is aligned to 0 degree (TDC) mark on timing chain cover (Fig. 63). • (3) Remove distributor cap from distributor (two screws). _ _ _ _ _ _ BR R E M O V A L AND BNSYALLATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) DISTRIBUTORS REMOVAL CAUTION: Base ignition timing is not adjustable on any engine.number one cylinder piston is at t o p o f compression stroke (compression should be felt on finger with number one spark plug removed). Then * continue to slowly rotate engine clockwise until Indicating mark (Fig. 64 Distributor Holddown Clamp CAUTION: Do not crank engine with distributor removed. 62 Damper-To-Cover Alignment Marks—Typical • (8) The distributor rotor should now be aligned to the CYL. as viewed from front. Remove distributor from vehicle. 64). (9) Disconnect camshaft position sensor wiring harness from main engine wiring harness. 62) is aligned to 0 degree (TDC) mark on timing chain cover. INSTALLATION Fig. (1) Remove air cleaner assembly... Rotor should now be aligned to this position. I f engine lias been cranked while distributor is removed.. (2) Disconnect negative cable from battery. note position of distributor before removal. Distributor/crankshaft relationship will be lost. rotate the crankshaft through another complete 360 degree turn. This is done to aid in installation.. NO. Distributors do not have built in centrifugal or vacuum assisted advance. i f not. Fig. as viewed from front. Because a conventional timing light can not be used t o adjust distributor position after installation.8D . . Base igni­ tion t i m i n g and timing advance are controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Note the position of the number one cylinder spark plug cable (on the cap) in relation to rotor.

BE CARE­ FUL NOT TO STAND IN LINE WITH THE FAN BLADES OR FAN BELT. the words I N RANGE should appear on the screen along with 0°. This indicates correct distributor position. After adjustment.5 N-m (200 in. tighten clamp bolt to 22. Checking Distributor Position. Gain access to the SET SYNC screen on the DRB. REMOVAL (1) Disconnect negative cable from battery. For diagnosis of the Key-In-Switch. loosen but do not remove the distributor holddown clamp bolt. lbs. (9) Install distributor cap. lbs. (2) Lightly oil the rubber o-ring seal on the distrib­ utor housing. Fuel System for procedures. and/or the degree displayed is not zero. 65 Shroud Removal/Installation—Typical . (4) Position distributor into engine to its original position.) torque.BR IGNITION SYSTEM 80 . connect the DRB scan tool to the data link connector. Because of this. If a plus (+) or a minus (-) is displayed next to the degree number. Follow the directions on the DRB screen and start the engine. (6) Rotate the distributor housing until rotor is aligned to CYL. (5) Install distributor holddown clamp and clamp bolt. Position rotor to the number one spark plug cable position. (3) Install rotor to distributor shaft. (2) I f vehicle has a tilt column. Do not tighten bolt at this time. Engage tongue of distributor shaft with slot in distributor oil pump drive gear. CHECKING DISTRIBUTOR POSITION The degree scale on the SET SYNC screen of the DRB is referring to fuel synchronization only. POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE (PCM) Refer to Group 14. It is not referring to ignition timing. 64) to 22. THE ENGINE WILL BE RUNNING. 63). (8) Connect camshaft position sensor wiring har­ ness to main engine harness. The data link connector is located in the engine com­ partment. remove tilt lever by turning it counterclockwise. After testing. Rotate the distributor until I N RANGE appears on the screen. (10) Refer to the following. (7) Tighten clamp holddown bolt (Fig.5 N-m (200 in. DO NOT WEAR LOOSE CLOTHING. The Key-In-Switch is located i n the ignition switch module.27 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (1) Clean top of cylinder block for a good seal between distributor base and block. All ignition timing values are con­ trolled by the powertrain control module (PCM).) torque. With the engine running. 1 alignment mark on the cam­ shaft position sensor (Fig. Continue to rotate the distributor until achieving as close to 0° as pos­ sible. do not attempt to adjust ignition timing using this method. (3) Remove upper and lower covers from steering column (Fig. NO. Tighten mounting screws. install air cleaner assembly. WARNING: WHEN PERFORMING THE FOLLOWING TEST. 65). Rotating the distributor will have no effect on ignition timing. refer to Section 8U. IGNITION SWITCH AND KEY CYLINDER The ignition switch is located on the steering col­ umn. SHROUD N U T J928J-2 Fig. STEERING WHEEL TILT LEVER UPPER SHROUD PANEL BRACKET To verify correct distributor rotational position.

67). Release connector locks on 7-terminal wiring connector. Using a TTXR20A2 or equivalent torx bit. 68 Key-ln-Switch and Halo Lamp Connector Fig. Do not attempt to remove key cylinder at this time. remove key cylinder retaining screw and bracket (Fig. (b) Rotate key clockwise to the OFF position. Key cylinder will unseat from ignition switch (Fig. Use tamper proof torx b i t Snap-on TTXR20A2 or equiva­ lent to remove the screws (Fig. 66 Ignition Switch Screw Removal (a) Insert key in ignition switch. SWITCH 958D-61 Fig.28 IGNITION SYSTEM BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (4) Remove ignition switch mounting screws. Turn key to LOCK position. rotate key counterclockwise to the lock position and remove key. 69) or (Fig.8D . (7) To remove key cylinder from ignition switch: Fig. 68). (c) With key cylinder in unseated position. When key cylinder is unseated. 70). then remove connector from ignition switch (Fig. 67 Ignition Switch Screw Removal (5) Gently pull switch away from column. 69 Key Cylinder Retaining 958D-62 Screw . 66) or (Fig. 71). then remove connector from ignition switch. it will be approximately 1/8 inch away from ignition switch halo light ring. KEY-IN SWITCH & MULTI-FUNCTION Fig. (6) Release connector lock on 4-terminal connector.

BRACKET RETAINING IGNITION SYSTEM 8D . (d) Apply a light coating of grease to column lock flag and park lock dowel pin. The switch is in the lock position when column lock flag is parallel to ignition switch terminals (Fig. rotate key counterclockwise to the lock position and remove key (e) Remove key cylinder from ignition switch (Fig. (2) Before attaching ignition switch to a tilt steer­ ing column. 70 Key Cylinder Retaining \ Screw KEY CYLINDER 908D-18 Fig. (b) Place ignition switch in lock position.29 Fig. 72). (c) Position ignition switch park lock dowel pin so it will engage steering column park lock slider linkage (Fig.BR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION (Continued) (d) With key cylinder in unseated position. 72 Key Cylinder Removal INSTALLATION 958D-63 (1) Connect electrical connectors to ignition switch. Make sure that switch locking tabs are fully seated In wiring connectors. The park lock dowel pin and column lock flag must also be properly indexed before installing switch (Fig. . 73). Fig. 71 Unseated Key Cylinder (a) Place transmission shifter in PARK position. the transmission shifter must be In Park position. 73). 74). 73 Ignition Switch View From Column 1 RING 908D-16 Fig.

While gently pushing lock cylinder In toward ignition switch. COLUMN SHIFT INTERLOCK The column shift interlock is used to lock the transmission shifter in the Park position when the key is in the Off position. Tighten screws to 2 N-m (17 in. lbs.8D . Steering for procedures. (12) Check for proper operation of halo light. and start positions. Tighten screw to 3±.2L/5.9L V-8 ENGINES a CLOCKWISE ROTATION 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 FRONT OF ENGINE J9314-79 .5 N-m (26±4 in. I f repair is necessary. (8) Install retaining screw into bracket and lock cylinder.) torque. FRONT OF ENGINE CLOCKWISE ROTATION 1-6-5-4-3-2 J9314-80 ENGINE FIRING ORDER—5. lock.) torque. The interlock device is located within the steering column assembly and is not servicable. the steering col­ umn assembly must be replaced. (9) Install steering column covers. shift lock (if applicable). Refer to Group 19. use specifica­ tions on VECI label. (7) Insert ignition key into lock cylinder. and column lock. install tilt lever. Ensure that ignition switch park lock dowel pin enters slot in park lock slider linkage in steering column. Refer to Ignition Timing in the Diagnostics/Service Procedures section of this group for more informa­ tion. 74 ignition Switch Mounting Pad (3) Place ignition switch against lock housing opening on steering column. (4) Install retaining bracket and ignition switch mounting screws. (10) I f vehicle is equipped with a tilt steering col­ umn. lbs. (11) Connect negative cable to battery.9L V-6 ENGINE Fig. Also check for proper operation of ignition switch accessory. lbs. ENGINE FIRING ORDER—3.5 N-m (26±4 in.30 IGNITION SYSTEM HEH@WAL AHP INSTALLATION {Continued) LOCATING PIN HOLE K LOCK S L I D E R / X ^LINKAGE^-^^ SPECIFICATIONS VEC1 LABEL SPECIFICATIONS I f anything differs between the specifications found on the Vehicle Emission Control Information (VECI) label and the following specifications. off. insert lock cylinder into ignition switch until It bottoms. (5) Install ignition lock cylinder: (6) With lock cylinder and Ignition switch in Lock position. rotate ignition key to end of travel. run. Tighten screws to 3±. IGNITION TIMING Ignition timing is not adjustable on any engine. The VECI label is located in the engine compartment.) torque.

lbs. lbs.2L/5.) 10 N-m (90 in.) 1 N-m (9 in.035" (0.6-5-8-7-2 SPA1I PLUGS Spark Plug Engine Original Equipment RC12YC Replacement Application Gap lightening Torque 41 N.) 8 N-m (70 in.m (30 ft.9L V-6 RC12YC ALL . lbs.) 11 N-m (100 in.035" (0.) RIGHT BANK LEFT BANK FIRING ORDER J 948D-12 1-10-9-4. . lbs.BR SPECIFICATIONS (Continued! SPARK PLUG CABLE ORDER—8.14MM) 5.9L/5.) 41 N. Thread 3/4" Reach 14 mm Thread 3/4" Reach 14 mm Thread 3/4" Reach 3. . Ignition Coil Mounting— 3. lbs. lbs.) 41 N. .0L Engine Crankshaft Position Sensor—All Engines Distributor Hold Down Bolt . . Ignition Coil Mounting— 8.045" (1.0L Engine .9MM) .9L/5. lbs. lbs.) 23 N-m (17 ft.9L Engines— if tapped bolts are used .2/5. lbs. .3. Ignition Coil Mounting— 3. .0L V-10 ENGINE REAR COIL PACK FRONT COIL PACK IGNITION SYSTEM 8 0 .) 41 N-m (30 ft.m (30 ft.9L Engines— if nuts/bolts are used . Powertrain Control Module (PCM) Mounting Screws Spark Plugs (all engines) TOEQUE 6 N-m (50 in. lbs.31 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS DESCRIPTION Camshaft Position Sensor—8.2L/5.0L V-10 QC9MC4 QC9MC4 ALL . . .m (30 ft. .9L V-8 RC12YC RC12YC ALL 8.) 5 N-m (50 in.) Size 14 nrr.9MM) . lbs. .

15.9L ENGINES PRSMARY RESISTANCE S E C O N D A R Y RESISTANCE COIL (MANUFACTURER) 21-27°C ( 7 0 .300.0L ¥ 4 0 ENGINE * Primary Resistance: 0.000 Ohms Per Foot J908D-43 IGNITION COIL RESISTANCE—3.300 Ohms JVS8D-2 IGNITION COIL RESISTANCE—8.18 Ohms 0.8 0 ° F ) 21-27°C (70-80°F) Diamond Toyodenso 0.2L/5.7 K ohms * Test across the primary connector.300.1. Refer to text for test procedures.53 to 0. * * Test across the individual coil towers. J948D-13 .65 ohms * * Secondary Resistance: 10.97 .300 Ohms 11. Refer to text for test procedures.20 Ohms 11.95.9 to 14.1.32 IGNITION SYSTEM BR S P E C I F I C A T I O N S (Continued) SPARK PLUG CABLE RESISTANCE MINIMUM 250 Ohms Per Inch 3000 Ohms Per Foot MAXIMUM 1000 Ohms Per Inch 12.8D .9L/5.13.

. 5 5 6 8 FUEL GAUGE 13 GENERATOR WARNING LAMP HEADLAMP HIGH BEAM INDICATOR LAMP . .BR INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS 8E -1 INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS CONTENTS page page CLUSTER ILLUMINATION LAMPS COOLANT TEMPERATURE GAUGE FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LAMP 12 8 12 GENERAL INFORMATION FUSEBLOCK MODULE GAUGES INDICATOR LAMPS INSTRUMENT C L U S T E R S INSTRUMENT PANEL INTRODUCTION MESSAGE CENTER 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 3 5 3 4 5 5 . 15 15 MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LAMP OIL P R E S S U R E GAUGE PRINTED CIRCUITS SEAT BELT REMINDER LAMP SPEEDOMETER/ODOMETER TACHOMETER TRANSMISSION OIL TEMPERATURE WARNING LAMP TRIP ODOMETER TURN SIGNAL INDICATOR LAMPS UPSHIFT INDICATOR LAMP VOLTMETER WAIT-TO-START LAMP WATER-IN-FUEL LAMP DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION AIRBAG INDICATOR LAMP ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM LAMP BRAKE WARNING LAMP CLUSTER ILLUMINATION LAMPS COOLANT TEMPERATURE GAUGE FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LAMP FUEL GAUGE GEAR SELECTOR INDICATOR GENERATOR WARNING LAMP HAZARD WARNING INDICATOR LAMP HEADLAMP HIGH BEAM INDICATOR LAMP LOW FUEL WARNING LAMP LOW OIL P R E S S U R E WARNING LAMP 9 7 16 10 10 16 10 16 17 10 17 17 18 19 19 22 20 18 18 20 22 6 LOW WASHER FLUID WARNING LAMP MAINTENANCE REQUIRED INDICATOR LAMP . 13 13 LOW FUEL WARNING LAMP 14 LOW OIL P R E S S U R E WARNING LAMP 14 LOW WASHER FLUID WARNING LAMP MAINTENANCE REQUIRED INDICATOR LAMP . 25 25 GLOVE BOX LATCH 24 GLOVE BOX 24 HEADLAMP SWITCH INSIDE HOOD RELEASE INSTRUMENT CLUSTER INSTRUMENT PANEL ASSEMBLY KNEE BLOCKER 18 19 26 18 DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING AIRBAG INDICATOR LAMP ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM LAMP BRAKE WARNING LAMP .. 6 6 MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LAMP 6 MASTER LIGHTING INDICATOR LAMP OIL P R E S S U R E GAUGE SEAT BELT REMINDER LAMP SPEEDOMETER/ODOMETER TACHOMETER TRANSMISSION OIL TEMPERATURE WARNING LAMP TRIP ODOMETER TURN SIGNAL INDICATOR LAMPS UPSHIFT INDICATOR LAMP VOLTMETER WAIT-TO-START LAMP WATER-IN-FUEL LAMP 4 6 4 4 6 4 6 6 4 7 7 11 11 11 REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION ASH RECEIVER CIGAR LIGHTER/POWER OUTLET CLUSTER BEZEL CLUSTER BULBS CLUSTER LENS AND MASK CUP HOLDER FUSEBLOCK MODULE GAUGES GEAR SELECTOR INDICATOR GLOVE BOX LAMP/SWITCH/LATCH STRIKER .

GENERAL I N F O R M A T I O N INTRODUCTION This group is responsible for covering the vehicle instrument panel. Removal of the instrument cluster bezel allows access to the cluster assembly. refer to the Component and System Index at the back of this manual. Some variations of each cluster exist due to optional equipment and regula­ tory requirements. the information found in this group has been limited as follows: • General Information . . . . . . . . OVERDRIVE LOCKOUT/FOG LAMP SWITCH . because the instrument panel serves as the vehicle's command center.2 INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS 22 23 23 2224 PRINTED CIRCUIT VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR SPECIFICATIONS GAUGE CALIBRATION BR 22 22 29 LOW FUEL WARNING CIRCUIT MESSAGE CENTER BULBS MESSAGE C E N T E R . However. The instrument panel is designed to house the controls and monitors for standard and optional powertrains. . . The low-line cluster includes provisions for the fol­ lowing indicator lamps: • Airbag indicator lamp • Anti-lock brake system lamp • Brake warning lamp • Four-wheel drive indicator lamps • Generator warning lamp • Headlamp high beam indicator lamp • Low oil pressure warning lamp • Malfunction indicator (Check Engine) lamp • Seat belt reminder lamp • Turn signal indicator lamps • Upshift indicator lamp. most switches.Wir­ ing Diagrams for complete circuit descriptions and diagrams. . . • Diagnosis and Testing . . and the other is referred to as a high-line cluster. I f you are uncertain as to the appropri­ ate group. Each cluster is served by a printed circuit and two wiring connectors. . I f necessary. . illu­ mination and indicator lamp bulbs. . • Removal and Installation . One is referred to as a low-line cluster. . . . . I t is also designed so that all of the controls and monitors can be safely reached and/or viewed by the vehicle oper­ ator. The high-line cluster includes all of the gauges and indicator lamps found in the low line cluster. Removal of the cluster assembly allows access to the individual gauges. . warning lamps and their switches. . warning lamps and their switches.Covers non-electrical com­ ponents and features of the instrument panel that are not related to other systems. INSTRUMENT PANEL Modular instrument panel construction allows all of the gauges and controls to be serviced from the front of the panel. • Description and Operation .Covers components installed on or in the instrument panel that require removal for diagnosis or service of instrument panel components covered in this group. the instrument panel can be rolled-down and removed from the vehi­ cle as an assembly. and the radio. audio systems.Covers gauges and their sending units. Complete service information coverage for all of the systems and components housed in the instrument panel in this section of the service manual would not be practical. . . Removal of the steering column cover/knee blocker provides access to the steering column mounts. . Therefore. .8E . and instrument panel illumination lamps. . For more information on components or systems not covered above. The low-line cluster includes the following gauges: • Coolant temperature gauge • Fuel gauge • Gear selector indicator (automatic transmission) • Oil pressure gauge • Speedometer/odometer. while still allowing relative ease of access to these items for service. I t would result in a great deal of dupli­ cation and make this group too large for the informa­ tion to be easily accessed and used. the intermittent wipe module. . . but . . the fuseblock module (removal of a snap-fit cover on the left end of the instrument panel allows access to the fuses and cir­ cuit breakers) and the gear selector indicator cable (automatic transmission). printed circuits. climate control systems. . OIL PRESSURE SENDING UNIT .Covers gauges and their sending units. . Refer to Group 8W . safety systems and many other comfort or convenience items. i t is a very complex unit. lighting systems. and most of the instrument panel wiring. . and instrument panel illumination lamps. most of the instru­ ment panel wiring or heating and air conditioning components can be accessed without complete instru­ ment panel removal. . In addition. • Trip odometer • Voltmeter. the cli­ mate controls. refer to the appropriate group in this manual. INSTRUMENT CLUSTERS Two basic instrument cluster options are offered on Ram truck models.

As the float moves. which causes changes in its magnetic field strength. The sending unit has a float attached to the end of a swing-arm. a message center located directly below the climate controls has provisions for up to five warning lamps. With the Ignition switch in the Off position. Some of the low line cluster gauges and indicator lamps have different positions. GAUGES With the ignition switch i n the On or Start posi­ tions. Some gauge needle cycling. A gauge pointer may remain within the gauge scale with the ignition switch In the Off posi­ tion.shaft. and relay can be accessed by removing a snap-in cover located on the left outboard end of the instrument panel. FUSEBLOCI MODULE The fuseblock module is mounted to the left end of the instrument panel. The gauge nee­ dle Is attached to the other end of the . One of the coils has a fixed current flowing through it to maintain a constant magnetic field strength. The available lamps in the message center include: • Hazard warning indicator (export vehicles) ® Maintenance required indicator (heavy-duty emissions cycle engines) @ Master lighting Indicator (export vehicles) • Transmission oil temperature warning (V-10 and diesel engines with an automatic transmission) ® Wait-to-start (diesel engines) • Water-In-fuel (diesel engines). tachometer). Low resis­ tance causes high fuel level readings. depend­ ing upon the vehicle load.BR GENERAL INFORMATION ( C o n t i n u e d ) adds a analog tachometer. The fuses. Current flow through the second coil changes. The movable magnet is suspended within the coils on one end of a shaft. The current flowing through the second coil can be changed by: • A variable resistor-type sending unit (fuel level. coolant temperature. The sending unit resistance values are shown i n a chart in Spec­ ifications at the back of this group. All gauges. High sending unit resistance causes low fuel level readings. circuit breakers. INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS 8E . The fuel gauge sending unit is mounted to^the electric fuel pump module located inside the fuel tank. Refer to Group 14 . DESCRIPTION AN© OPERATION COOLANT TEMPERATURE GAUGE . . Those lamps located in the message center area of the cluster are served by the message center printed circuit and connector. FUEL GAUGE The fuel gauge gives an indication of the level of fuel in the fuel tank. flashers. or oil pressure gauges) • Changes In electrical system voltage (voltmeter) • Electronic control circuitry (speedometer/odome­ ter. These lamps may or may not be functional. are air core mag­ netic units. or sizes in the high line cluster to accommo­ date the tachometer. The float moves up or down within the fuel tank as the fuel level changes. MESSAGE CENTER In addition to the warning lamps found in the instrument cluster. However. low fuel warning lamp and low washer fluid warning lamp. the gauges do not accurately indicate any vehicle condition unless the ignition switch is in the On or Start positions. a buzzer module. an electrical contact on the pivot end of the swing-arm wipes across a resistor coil. and the ignition switch lamp time delay relay. voltage is not supplied to the gauges. Low resistance causes high coolant temperature readings. voltage Is supplied to all gauges through the Instrument cluster printed circuits. The sending unit resistance values are shown in a chart in Specifications at the back of this group.3 INDICATOR LAMPS Indicator lamps are located in several areas of the instrument cluster and the instrument panel. These coils are wrapped at right angles to each other around a movable perma­ nent magnet. Two fixed electromagnetic coils are located within the gauge. which changes the resistance of the sending unit.Fuel System for sending unit service procedures. is normal on models equipped with the diesel engine option. the turn signal and hazard warning flashers. High sending unit resistance causes low coolant temperature read­ ings. The coolant temperature gauge gives an indication of the engine coolant temperature. The fuseblock module can be accessed for removal from under the instrument panel by removing the lower steering column cover/knee blocker. The gauge needle moves as the movable permanent magnet aligns itself to the changing magnetic fields created around It by the electromagnets. except the odometer. The coolant tem­ perature sending unit is a thermistor that changes electrical resistance with changes in the engine cool­ ant temperature. depending upon the optional equipment and regulatory' requirements affecting the vehicle being serviced. Those lamps within the gauge area of the cluster are served by the cluster printed circuit(s) and cluster connec­ tors). I t has cavities for 24 bladetype fuses and circuit breakers.

The VSS is mounted to an adapter near the trans­ mission (two-wheel drive) or transfer case (four-wheel drive) output shaft. The speedometer/odometer unit receives a vehicle speed pulse signal from the Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS). I t also sends signals to an electric stepper motor to control movement of the odometer number rolls. With the ignition switch in the On position. The combination oil pressure switch/sending unit contains a flexible diaphragm and a variable resistor coil. With the engine running. resistance in the coil increases or decreases.Transmission for more information. the tachometer receives an engine speed pulse signal from the powertrain control mod­ ule. The adapter and pinion used may vary with transmission and transfer case models. TRIP ODOMETER Like the odometer. Refer to Group 8 M Passive Restraint Systems for more information. An electronic integrated circuit contained within the tachometer unit reads and analyzes this pulse signal. ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM LAMP R E A R WHEEL ANTI-LOCK On vehicles equipped with the standard Rear Wheel Anti-Lock (RWAL) brake system. Sending unit resis­ tance values are shown in a chart in Specifications at the back of this group. The lamp will stay on for 3 to 5 seconds after vehicle start-up to indicate that a system self-test is in progress. . by depressing the trip odometer reset knob on the face of the speedometer/odometer unit. An electronic integrated circuit contained within the speedometer/odometer unit reads and analyzes the pulse signal. AIRBAG INDICATOR L A i P The airbag indicator lamp lights for 6 to 8 seconds each time the ignition switch is turned to the On position as a bulb test. High resistance on the gauge side of the sending unit causes low oil pressure readings. The RWAL control module lights the lamp when the ignition switch is turned to the Start position as a bulb test. The sending unit is installed in a threaded hole that pen­ etrates a oil passage of the engine. I t then adjusts the ground path resistance for one of the electromagnets in the gauge to control gauge needle movement. OIL PRESSURE GAUGE The oil pressure gauge gives an indication of the engine oil pressure. i t may indicate that the ACM has detected a system malfunction and/or that the airbag system has become inoperative. axle ratio and tire size.4 INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS BR D E S C R I P T I O N A N D O P E R A T I O N (Continued) GEAR SELECTOR INDICATOR The gear selector indicator gives an indication of the position of the automatic transmission gear selec­ tor lever. Refer to Group 21 . TACHOMETER The tachometer gives an indication of the engine speed in revolutions-per-minute (rpm).Brakes for more infor­ mation. The diaphragm moves in response to changes in the engine oil pressure. the AntiLock Brake System (ABS) lamp is switched to ground by the RWAL control module. I t then adjusts the ground path resis­ tance of one electromagnet in the gauge to control speedometer needle movement. The sensor is driven through the adapter by a speedometer pinion gear. As the diaphragm moves. the trip odometer gives an indi­ cation of the distance the vehicle has travelled. The indicator is mounted to the instrument cluster housing. How­ ever. This group covers only the removal and Installation of the gear selector indicator. I f the lamp remains on after start-up. SPEEDOMETER/ODOMETER The speedometer/odometer gives an indication of the current vehicle speed. The indicator is mechanically actuated by a cable connected to the PRNDL driver of the gear selector lever mechanism on the steering column. the voltmeter indicates the bat­ tery voltage or the generator output voltage. VOLTMETER The voltmeter gives an indication of the vehicle's electrical system voltage. Refer to Group 5 . The frequency values for the pulse signal are shown in a chart in Specifica­ tions at the back of this group. The trip odometer is serviced only as a part of the speedometer/odometer gauge unit. Low resistance causes high oil pressure readings. The trip odometer is driven by the same signal and circuits as the speedometer and odometer. or comes on and stays on while driving. it may indicate that the RWAL control module has detected a system mal­ function and/or that the RWAL system has become inoperative. and to indicate that a system self-test is in progress.8E . I f the lamp remains on after the self-test. the trip odometer number rolls can be reset to zero. which­ ever is greater.Transmission for the diagnosis and adjustment of this component. and displays a cumulative total of the distance the vehicle has traveled. Refer to Group 21 . The lamp is switched to ground by the Airbag Control Module (ACM). or comes on while driving. The frequency values for the pulse signal are shown in a chart in Specifica­ tions at the back of this group. The voltmeter is connected in parallel with the battery.

This causes the four-wheel drive indicator lamp bulb to light.Charging System for diagnosis of a charging system problem. The switch is connected in series between the other side of the indicator lamp bulb and ground. A low fuel warning circuit attached to the rear of the gauge cluster provides ignition-switched battery volt­ age to the lamp when the fuel level is low. Refer to Group 8C . The lamp should light when the ignition switch is turned to the On position. GENERATOR WARNING LAMP The generator warning lamp gives the driver an indication of a charging system problem. Refer to Group 14 Fuel System for more information on the PCM gen­ erator warning lamp control output. The bulb will light when: • The ignition switch is in the Start position (bulb test). I f the self-test is successfully completed. battery voltage is supplied to one side of the indicator bulb. plunger-type.BR D E S C R I P T I O N UNO OPERATION fContinued) ANTI-LOOK BRAKE SYSTEM INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS 8E . A normally open. • The parking brake switch is closed (indicating the parking brake is applied). HAZARD WARNING INDICATOR LAMP The hazard warning indicator lamp is only used on certain export models. LOW FUEL WARNING LAMP The low fuel warning lamp will light when the fuel level falls below approximately four gallons. which turns the lamp off. With the ignition switch turned to the On or Start positions. providing four-wheel drive. i t may indicate that the CAB module has detected a system malfunction and/or that the ABS system has become inoperative.Lamps for more information. the Controller Anti-lock Brake (CAB) module energizes the ABS lamp relay. BRAKE WARNING LAMP The brake warning lamp gives the driver an indi­ cation that the parking brake is applied. Refer to Group 8L . FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE INDICATOR LAMP On models equipped with the four-wheel drive option. Illumination brightness can be adjusted by rotating the headlamp switch knob (clockwise to dim. Refer to Group 5 . I f the lamp comes on and stays on while the engine is running. the lamp is lighted as a bulb test. Refer to Group 5 Brakes for more information. HEADLAMP HIGH BEAM INDICATOR LAMP The headlamp high beam indicator lamp lights when the high beam circuit is activated. or that the pressures in the two halves of the split brake hydraulic system are unequal. or comes on and stays on while driv­ ing. The lamp in the message center is turned on by a signal from the hazard warning (multi-function) switch to indicate that the hazard warning lamp system is activated. i t indicates that the PCM has detected a charging system mal­ function and/or that the charging system has become inoperative. When the park or head lamps are on. The low fuel warning circuit monitors the signal from the fuel level sending unit. The circuit is controlled by the headlamp dimmer (multi-func­ tion) switch. a four-wheel drive indicator lamp in the instrument cluster lights any time the front axle is in the four-wheel drive operating mode. • The vacuum sensor (models with the diesel engine option) senses low system vacuum. A ground path for the bulb is provided by up to five switches. but should go out when­ ever the engine is running. Ignitionswitched battery voltage is supplied to one side of the indicator lamp bulb. 1 four-wheel drive switch is threaded into the front axle disconnect housing. When the ignition switch is turned to the Start position. One side of the indicator bulb is grounded at all times. When the circuit senses approxi- . where required. counterclockwise to brighten).5 The optional all-wheel Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) lamp is grounded through the normally closed contacts of the de-energized ABS lamp relay. the plunger of the four-wheel drive switch is moved by the internal axle disconnect mechanism. One side of the low fuel warning bulb is grounded at all times. The other side of the bulb is switched to ground by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). CLUSTER ILLUMINATION LAMPS Each of the instrument cluster illumination lamps receives battery feed through the panel dimmer rheo­ stat of the headlamp switch from the instrument lamps fuse in the fuseblock module. the cluster illumination lamps light. One side of the bulb is connected to an ignition-switched battery feed. The lamp will stay on for 3 to 5 seconds after vehicle start-up to indicate a system self-test is in progress. • I f certain ABS or RWAL system faults are detected. due to low brake fluid or brake fluid leakage).Brakes for more information. When the vacuum-actuated front axle disconnect is engaged. The other side of the bulb receives a battery feed through the contacts of the dimmer switch when the multi-function switch stalk is actuated to turn on the headlamp high beams. • The brake warning switch is closed (indicating unequal split brake hydraulic system pressures. closing the switch and providing a path to ground. I f the lamp remains on after start-up.

MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LAMP The Check Engine or Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) lights each time the ignition switch is turned to the On position.1 INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS BR a bulb test. This lamp is only used on vehicles equipped with a diesel or V-10 engine option.Chime/Buzzer Warning Systems for more information.9L V-8. The other side of the bulb is grounded by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). MAINTENANCE REQUIRED INDICATOR LAMP The maintenance required indicator lamp is used on vehicles equipped with a heavy-duty emissions cycle package. which causes the bulb to light. the required ser­ vices and maintenance must be performed.Wiper and Washer Systems for more information. However.Fuel System for more information. resistance on the warning lamp side of the resistor coil is high and the lamp goes off. LOW WASHER FLUID WARNING LAMP The low washer fluid warning lamp indicates when the fluid level in the washer fluid reservoir is too low. The washer fluid level sensor uses a float in the res­ ervoir to monitor the fluid level.8E . TRANSMISSION OIL TEMPERATURE WARNING LAMP The transmission oil temperature warning lamp lights to indicate that the transmission oil is over­ heated. Also refer to Group 25 . SEAT BELT REMINDER LAMP The seat belt reminder lamp lights for four to eight seconds after the ignition switch is turned to the On position. where required. the indicator lamp will light. This lamp is intended to act as a reminder that scheduled vehicle emissions services and mainte­ nance must be performed. A timer circuit within the chime/buzzer module controls ignition-switched battery feed to the lamp. The other side of the bulb receives a battery feed through the contacts of the multi-function switch when the turn signal lever (multi-function switch stalk) or hazard warning button is actuated. Battery voltage is supplied to one side of the indi­ cator bulb when the ignition switch is turned to the On position. The up and/or down action of the float opens or closes the switch within the sensor that provides a ground path to the warn­ ing lamp bulb. I t is not intended to indicate a warn­ ing. indicating the transmission fluid tem­ perature. Refer to Group 21 . See the chart i n Specifications at the back of this group for more information. One side of the bulb for each lamp is grounded at all times.Emission Control System for more information.Lubrication and Maintenance.0L V-10 engine. TURN SIGNAL INDICATOR LAMPS The left and right turn signal indicator lamps are controlled by the turn signal and hazard warning (multi-function) switches. The indicator lamp will remain on until the circuit senses approximately 65 ohms or less from the fuel sender for 8 to 30 continuous sec­ onds. The lamp should be off when the engine is running. and stays on for three seconds as . When the engine oil pressure is too low. UPSHIFT INDICATOR LAMP Vehicles equipped with a manual transmission may have an optional upshift indicator lamp. I f the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) receives an incorrect signal or no signal from certain fuel or emission system related circuits or compo­ nents. MASTER LIGHTING INDICATOR LMIVIP The master lighting indicator lamp is only used on certain export models. A sensor located within the transmission sends a signal to the PCM. refer to Group 0 . This indicates that the PCM has recorded a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) in electronic memory for a circuit or component mal­ function. resistance on the warning lamp side of the resistor coil is low. For a list of the required services and maintenance. or 8. or that a state of emergency exists. . Refer to Group 14 .Turn Signal and Hazard Warning Systems for more information. One side of the indicator lamp bulb receives ignition-switched battery feed. One side of the lamp bulb receives battery voltage when the ignition switch is turned to the On position. and a 5. Refer to Group 8J . and an automatic transmission. When normal engine oil pressure is applied to the sending unit. before the lamp can be legally reset.Transmission for more information on the sensor and its circuit. when i t senses transmission oil temperature is too high. Refer to Group 8K . LOW OIL PRESSURE WARNING LAMP The low oil pressure warning lamp lights with the ignition switch in the On position and the engine not running. The lamp in the message center is turned on by a signal from the headlamp switch to indicate that the exterior lamps are lighted. The ground feed for the other side of DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) mately 65 ohms or more from the fuel level sending unit for 8 to 30 continuous seconds. as required by federal emissions laws. when the lamp has been activated. Refer to Group 8U . The warning lamp side of the combina­ tion oil pressure switch/sending unit resistor coil is connected to the other side of the bulb. stated in time or mileage. the lamp is turned on.

The PCM will also turn on the lamp any time there is excess water accumulated in the fuel filter/water separator and the ignition switch Is In the On position. go to Step 3. according to the engine speed and load conditions that are being mon­ itored by the PCM. A water-in-fuel sensor In the fuel fil­ ter/water separator signals the PCM' that excess water has accumulated. (4) Connect the battery negative cable. Refer to Group 14 . perform the following: (1) Check the fuse in the fuseblock module. Refer to Group 14 . Check for continuity to a good ground. I f OK. go to Step 2. refer to 8W-46 . go to Step 3. as required. I f not OK. replace the faulty gauge cluster printed circuit. Disconnect the gauge cluster connectors.7 gauge or lamp.Fuel Systems for more information. The lamp lights to indicate when the driver should shift to the next highest gear for best fuel economy. WAIT-TO-START LAMP The wait-to-start lamp Is only used on diesel engine models. . The lamp will remain off until the vehicle stops accelerating and Is brought back to the range of lamp operation. when the Ignition switch is first turned to the On position. The wait-to-start lamp bulb In the message center is lighted by a ground signal from the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Remove the instrument cluster bezel and the mes­ sage center assembly. I f OK. DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING PRINTED CIRCUITS GAUGE CLUSTER INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS 8E . or i f the driver turns the Ignition switch to the Start position prior to the end of the heater control module cycle. refer to 8W-40 . the entire control unit must be replaced. Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. Probe the ground circuit cavities of both the left and right cluster connectors. The PCM will turn the lamp off after 3 to 5 seconds if the upshift is not performed. I f not OK. There should be continuity. The message center printed circuit is only serviced as a part of the heater-A/C control unit.Ignition Systems for testing of the ignition switch.Fuel Systems for more information. see the diagnostic procedure under the heading for that If an individual lamp is inoperative. I f more than one lamp is inoperative. Turn the ignition switch to the On position. I f not OK. The lamp will be turned on and off during vehicle operation. replace the faulty fuse.Wiring Diagrams.Ignition Systems for testing of the ignition switch. repair the open circuit(s) to ground as required. I f the printed circuit is faulty. (3) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position. The water-in-fuel lamp i n the message center is turned on by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) for two seconds. It gives the driver an indication to wait until the intake manifold air heater grid has had sufficient time to warm the intake air for a good quality start. repair the open circuit from the fuse as required. Check for battery voltage at the fused ignition switch output circuit cavity of the message center connector. Turn the ignition switch to the On position.Instrument Cluster in Group 8W Wiring Diagrams. Check for battery voltage at the fused ignition switch output circuit cavity of the right cluster connector. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. Disconnect the message center connector. The indicator lamp is normally on when the Igni­ tion switch is in the On position. repair the open circuit from the ignition switch and/or refer to Group 8D . after the ignition switch is turned to the On position. replace the faulty heater-A/C control unit. I f not OK. replace the faulty fuse. per­ form the following: (1) Check the fuse in the fuseblock module. Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. I f OK. I f OK. see the diag­ nostic procedure under the heading for that lamp. go to Step 5. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. (3) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position. I f more than one gauge or lamp is inoperative. as required. The intake mani­ fold air preheat cycle is controlled by an electronic air heater control module. (2) Check for battery voltage at the fuse with the ignition switch in the On position. I f OK. (2) Check for battery voltage at the fuse with the ignition switch in the On position. Remove the instrument cluster bezel and the cluster assembly. I f OK. MESSAGE CENTER If an Individual gauge or lamp is Inoperative. WATER-IN-FUEL LAMP The water-in-fuel lamp is only used on models with the diesel engine option. (4) Connect the battery negative cable. The PCM will turn the lamp off when the excess water has been' drained. as a bulb check.Message Center in Group 8W . repair the open circuit from the ignition switch and/or refer to Group 8D . I f not OK. or until the transmission is shifted into another gear. Refer to Group 14 .Fuel System for more Information on the PCM upshift indicator lamp control output.BR DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION (Continued) the lamp bulb is switched by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). repair the open circuit from the fuse as required. and is turned off when the engine is started. The lamp will be turned off by the PCM when the heater control module cycle is completed. (5) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position. I f not OK. Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. I f OK. go to Step 2. I f not OK.

Remove the instrument cluster bezel and the cluster assembly. check for continuity to the sending unit connec­ tor. repair this circuit to ground as required. FUEL GAUGE The diagnosis found here addresses an inoperative gauge condition. Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. (1) Turn the ignition switch to the On position. go to Step 3. Refer to Group 7 Cooling System for more information. If not OK. There should be continuity. go to Step 2. 1 Cooiant Temperature Sending Unit . Be certain that there is continuity between the sending unit case and ground on these models. refer to 8W-40 . I f not OK. Therefore. I f OK. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. Disconnect the coolant temperature sending unit con­ nector (Fig. 3). remove the jumper wire and go to Step 3.8E . There should be no continuity. I f not OK.V-6/V-8 Engine (2) Install a jumper wire from the sending unit connector to a good ground.0L V-10 engine have the coolant temperature sending unit threaded into the plastic water outlet. The gauge needle should move to the low end of the gauge scale. Inspect the fuel tank for signs of damage or distortion that could affect the sending unit performance before you proceed with gauge . an extra spade terminal and connector near the side of the coolant temperature sending unit is wired to pro­ vide a ground path for the sending unit case. 2) or (Fig. be certain to confirm that the problem is with the gauge and not with cooling system performance. I f OK.V-10 Engine ' Fig.Wiring Diagrams. (5) Still probing the engine coolant temperature sending unit circuit cavity of the left cluster connec­ tor. (3) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position.8 INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS BR D I A G N O S I S AND T E S T I N G (Continued) COOLANT TEMPERATURE GAUGE The diagnosis found here addresses an inoperative gauge condition. Check for continuity to a good ground. 1). go to Step 5. I f the problem being diagnosed is related to gauge accuracy. 3 Coolant Temperature Sending Unit . replace the faulty gauge. (4) Probe the engine coolant temperature sending unit circuit cavity of the left cluster connector. be certain to confirm that the problem is with the gauge or sending unit and not with the fuel tank. Fig.Instru­ ment Cluster in Group 8W . I f not OK. I f not OK.Diesel Engine Fig. I f OK. The actual engine coolant tem­ perature should be checked with a test gauge or ther­ mometer and compared to the gauge readings before you proceed with gauge diagnosis. The gauge needle should move to the high end of the gauge scale. I f the problem being diagnosed is related to gauge accuracy. replace the faulty sending unit. NOTE: Models equipped with the 8. repair the short circuit as required. repair the open circuit as required. Disconnect the left cluster connector. (Fig. I f OK. 2 Coolant Temperature Sending Unit .

5) or (Fig. repair the open circuit to ground as required. 5 Oil Pressure Switch/Sending Engine Unit • V-10 (2) Install a jumper wire from the oil pressure sen­ sor signal circuit cavity of the sending unit connector to a good ground. The gauge needle should move to the high end of the gauge scale. go to Step 2. I f not OK. Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. repair the short circuit as required. go to Step 4. There should be continuity.Instrument Cluster in Group 8W Wiring Diagrams. (1) Turn the Ignition switch to the On position. I f not OK. I f not OK. The gauge needle should move to the high end of the gauge scale. The gauge needle should move to the low end of the gauge scale. I f not OK. There should be no continuity. (4) Probe the oil pressure sensor signal circuit cav­ ity of the right cluster connector and check for conti- .9 EGR VALVE OIL PRESSURE SENDING UNIT J938E-35 Fig. fuel pump module connector. 4). Remove the instrument cluster bezel and the cluster assembly.Instru­ ment Cluster in Group 8W . go to Step 2. Refer to Group 14 . refer to Group 14 Fuel System for the procedures to replace the faulty sending unit. repair the open circuit as required. I f OK. replace the faulty gauge. The actual engine oil pressure should be checked with a test gauge and compared to the Instrument cluster gauge readings before you proceed with gauge diagnosis. If not OK. 4 Oil Pressure Switch/Sending Engine Unit . (3) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position. I f OK.Wiring Diagrams. OIL PRESSURE OAUIE The diagnosis found here addresses an inoperative gauge condition. I f OK. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. The con­ nector is located on top of the fuel tank.Fuel System for more information. replace the faulty sending unit. I f OK. remove the jumper wire and go to Step 3. INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS 8E . Disconnect the fuel pump module connector. Check for continuity between the sending unit ground circuit cavity of the fuel pump module wiring connector and a good ground. 6). (4) Remove the instrument cluster bezel and the cluster assembly. Refer to Group 9 . refer to 8W-40 . Check for continuity to a good ground. Disconnect the oil pressure sending unit connector (Fig. (5) Probe the fuel level sensor signal circuit cavity of the right cluster connector. be certain to confirm that the problem is with the gauge and not with the engine oiling system performance.Engines for more information.BR DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) diagnosis. (6) Check for continuity between the fuel level sen­ sor signal circuit cavities of the right cluster connec­ tor and the. refer to 8W-40 . go to Step 3. I f not OK. go to Step 4. (3) Turn the ignition switch to the Off position. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. go to Step 6. Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. There should be conti­ nuity. Disconnect the right instrument cluster connector. I f the problem being diagnosed is related to gauge accuracy. I f OK. (1) Turn the ignition switch to the On position. I f OK. remove the jumper wire and go to Step 3. Disconnect the right cluster connec­ tor. I f not OK. (2) Connect a jumper wire between the sending unit ground circuit cavity and the fuel level sensor signal circuit cavity of the fuel pump module wiring connector.V-6/V-8 J948E-38 Fig. (Fig. I f OK. The gauge needle should move to the low end of the gauge scale.

Refer to Group 21 . DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued) PUMP ENGINE BLOCK Fig. There should be continuity. I f the speedome­ ter/odometer functions are affected. replace the faulty speedometer/odometer unit. Unplug the vehicle speed sensor connector. repair the open circuit as required. 6 Oil Pressure Switch/Sending Engine Unit . the following pro­ cedure will help diagnose an inaccurate gauge. Refer to Group 80 . replace the faulty vehicle speed sensor. Check for continu­ ity to a good ground. I f not OK. I f the problem being diagnosed is related to gauge accuracy. Remove the instrument cluster bezel and the cluster assembly. I f not OK. Check for continuity to a good ground. There should be no continuity.Wiring Diagrams. axle ratio. See the Tachometer Cal­ ibration chart in Specifications at the back of this group for the frequency ranges. SPEEDOMETER/ODOMETER The diagnosis found here addresses an Inoperative gauge condition. There should be no continuity. repair the short circuit as required. repair the open circuit as required. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. I f all gauges except the voltmeter are OK. I f not OK. VOLTMETER The diagnosis found here addresses an inoperative gauge condition. I f OK. I f OK. replace the faulty gauge. the buzzer module connector (export only). I f OK. and the PCM connector B (white). The voltmeter should read battery voltage. I f not OK. I f no charging system problem is found. (4) Check for continuity' between the tachometer signal circuit cavities of the right cluster connector and the PCM connector C. repair the open cir­ cuit as required.Wiring Diagrams. There should be no continuity. There should be continuity. I f the other gauges are inoperative. Remove the instrument cluster bezel and the cluster assembly. see the diagnosis for Printed Circuits in this group. I f the gauge accuracy is suspect. . repair the short circuit as required. (3) Probe the tachometer signal circuit cavity of the right cluster connector. I f OK. but the speed­ ometer/odometer functions are unaffected.Diesei nuity to a good ground. (2) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. (1) With the engine running. Disconnect the left instrument cluster connector. I f not OK. go to Step 4. check for a tachome­ ter signal at the tachometer signal circuit cavity of the PCM connector C (gray). I f not OK. go to Step 4. refer to 8W-40 Instrument Cluster in Group 8W . go to Step 2. repair the short circuit as required. (1) Perform the vehicle speed sensor test as described in the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures manual. If OK.1 0 INSTRUMENT PANEL SYSTEMS BR (4) Check for continuity between the vehicle speed sensor signal circuit cavities of the left cluster con­ nector and the vehicle speed sensor connector.Instrument Cluster in Group 8W . replace the faulty tachometer. (3) Probe the vehicle speed sensor signal circuit cavity of the left cluster connector. go to Step 2. see the diagnosis for Speedometer/Odometer i n this group.8E . refer to 8W-40 .Transmission for more information. I f OK.Charging System for more information. Disconnect the right instrument cluster connector. be certain to confirm proper charging system operation before considering gauge replacement.. refer to 8W-40 Instrument Cluster i n Group 8W . (2) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. go to Step 2. refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnos­ tic Procedures manual to test the PCM. I f OK. I f OK. TACHOMETER For circuit descriptions and diagrams. For circuit descriptions and diagrams. Unplug the PCM connector C. TRIP ODOMETER If the trip odometer is inoperative. I f not OK. be certain to confirm that the problem is with the gauge and not with an incor­ rect speedometer pinion. (5) Check for continuity between the oil pressure sensor signal circuit cavities of the right cluster con­ nector and the sending unit connector. replace the faulty speed­ ometer/odometer unit. There should be continu­ ity. (1) Turn the ignition switch to the On position. or tire size. I f not OK.Wiring Diagrams. go to Step 5.

the following procedure will help locate a short or open in the airbag warning lamp circuit. I f the voltmeter does not per­ form within the specifications. remove the ABS lamp relay from the Power Distribution Center (PDC). refer to Group 8M . There should be no continuity. go to Step 3. refer to Group 5 Brakes for diagnosis of RWAL/ABS control module. (3) Disconnect and isolate the battery negative cable. Check for continuity between the ABS warning lamp driver circuit cavity of the right cluster connector and a good ground. I f not OK. There should be continuity. Check for battery voltage between the fused ignition switch output circuit and the ABS warning lamp driver cir­ cuit cavities of the right cluster connector within five seconds of turning the ignition switch to the On posi­ tion.Rear Wheel AntiLock Brakes or 8W-35 . I f the brake warning lamp stays on with the ignition switch in the On position and the parking brake released. I f not OK. (2) Connect the battery negative cable. I f not OK. refer to Group 8M Restraint Systems for diagnosis of the ACM. I f OK. the following proce­ dure will help locate a short circuit or a faulty switch. Check for continuity between the airbag system warning lamp driver circuit cavities of the left cluster connector and the ACM connector. Apply the parking brake and check for continuity between the switch terminal and a good ground. see the Voltmeter Calibration chart in Specifications at the back of this group. I f not OK. go to Step 4. repair the open circui