2007-AL PMATH

PAPER 1

HONG KONG EXAMINATIONS

AND ASSESSMENT AUTHORITY 2007

HONG KONG ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATION

PURE MATHEMATICS A·LEVEL PAPER 1
8.30 am -11.30 am (3 hours)

This paper must be answered in English

I.

This paper consists of Section A and Section B.

2.

Answer ALL questions in Section A, using the AL(E) answer book.

3.

Answer any FOUR questions in Section B, using the AL(A) answer book.

4.

Unless otherwise specified, all working must be clearly shown.

Not to be taken away before the end of the examination session

zoo

-AL-P MATII 1-1

18

FORMULAS FOR REFERENCE

sineA ± B)

=:

sin A cos B ±cos A sin B

cos(A± B) = cos Acos B~sin A sin B
tan(A ± B) = tan A± tan B I+tan A tan B
sm A

.

+ sm
-sm

.B

. A+B = 2 sm --

2

C05-·

A-B

-~-~.

2 2

Sill

.A

.B

2 A+B. =~.cos--sm--

A-B

2

cos A + cos B = 2cos·-cos-A cos B _= 2sin A cos B

-

A+B

cos--~ 2 2
2

A-B

- 2· --~ sm A+B

. A-B sm -~~2

=:

sin(A + B) +sin(A - B)

2 cos A cos B = cos(A + B) + cos(A - B)

2 sin A sin B = cos(A - B) - cos(A + B)

2007-AL-P MATH I-2

19

SECTION A (40 marks) Answer ALLqueslions in tbis section. Write your answers in the AL(E) answer book.

1.

For any positive integer n, denote the coefficient of (a) Prove that (i) n(l +

xl.

in the expansion of (1 + x)" by C; .

xr- = ct + 2C~x + 3C;x2
l

+ ....+ nC:x"-!

,

(Ii) (b) Using (Cj}2 n (I + x)n-l (I + x),,+1 = (1 + x)2n , prove that 2(C;)2 n-l 3(C;i. n-2 . n(C:i n(2n)! = ----'----'---;,(n+l)(n!i (7 marks)

-.--.~ +

..

+ ---

+ ..... +

2.

Let

f(x)

be a polynomial

with real coefficients.

When

f(x)

is divided by

(x - I)(x - 3),

the

remainder is -2x + 5 (a) (b) Find f(l) . When (i)
(Ii)

f(x)

is divided by (x -l)(x - 2) , the remainder is kx + 8

>

where k is a rea! constant.

Find k. Find the remainder when

(f(x»)

2007

is divided by

x-

2. (6 marks)

3.

(a)

(i)

Resolve

xCx + l)(x-l)

into partial fractions.

(ii)

Using differentiation, or otherwise, resolve

x2

ex

3x2 -l + I)l(x _1)2

into partial fractions.

(b) (7 marks)

2.007-AL-P MATH 1-3

2.0

) ~ 2 n k~! -La. P2 =(~12.\" ~ ~ala" . where fj. . (1'1' -l)(rq -1). r + 1 ~ 0 for any non-negative integers all and q. (a) Let r be a positive real number.=o (~5. Let A be the matrix representing T. let numbers. 0) where a and f3 are two distinct real numbers. Find AZ007 Write down the coordinates of P" for all positive integers n.-k+l for all k '" 1. .M. Let T be the rotation in the Cartesian plane anticlockwise about the origin by an angle 0. n • Using (b )(i) and A.. prove that a) + all ~ Ok + o. [2) .rq + 1". (6 marks) 6. (0 (ii) be the nth term of a geometric sequence of positive real Using (a).. p or otherwise.2.. or otherwise.rP q Using rP . Pl' P3'.L-P MATH 1-4 21 . ~ G .4. or otherwise. Q (a) (b) Find real numbers A and ). (7 marks) 20Q7-A. It is given that p. where 0< B < 27t . (7 marks) 5.. . Define M ~ p~l P and denote the 2 x 2 identity matrix by I.M..l . prove that r p + q . -5) and T transforms (a) (b) (c) PI!: to Phi for each positive integer k • Find a. prove that 1 t" -(al· +0. . q - r" . Prove that det (M2 + afJ J) '" aj3 (a + p)2 . in terms of a and f3 ' such that M2 = AM + f.1 I ... Let P be a non-singular 2 x 2 real matrix and Q = a 0 ( P.. are the points in the Cartesian plane... (b) For each positive integer n .

and solve (E) for such valuers) of b . y. x4+PX'+Qx"2+Rx+S=O. z (E): {: : 2x+ay(i) !~ + Q. (a) 3y =1 + 5y . b E R ... where 2 a.Z - s. (7 marks) 2007·AL·. S in terms of h .. (*). (U) Suppose that a = -2 .SECTION B (60 marks) Answer any FOUR questions in this section. Solve (E) when z Find the range of values of a for which (E) has a unique solution. (6 marks) (c) Using (a) and (b). Express P... (E) has a unique solution.2y . Wri.q. solve ("') in (b).... (c) Solve the system oflinear equations (~ 8. (8 marks) (b) Is the system of Linear equations p . (a) Consider the system of linear equations in x . x-v h ..... Provethat the equation x~+pxJ+qx2+rx+".z = 2 Y - z = 3 (4 marks) 2 Let p.p MATH 1-5 22 .te. Rand (ii) Prove that P2S == R2 ifand only if 81ll + 13h2 ...-=0 p- can be (2 marks) (b) Consider the equation l+y2_4y-3=0 When y (i) e . Find the value(s) of b for which (E) is consistent.3y + 5y + Y y -l- z 16 -z z - 2 3 (3 marks) consistent? Explain your answer. Q. Each question carries IS marks.4"-+ 4 = 0 .rER with pr*O. C*) can be written as. your answers in the AL(A) answer book.2t = .

. define 0. Do tim n--J.. .+2 = 1"0n+l 5 2 + 70" (a) (3 marks) (b) Suppose that (i) 02 ~ 01 ' Prove that (ii) Prove that . y" ' (5 marks) 10.9. (5 marks) (0) Let al and a2 be positive real numbers. 2.•. (5 marks) (c) Using mathematical induction. (a) Let a be a positive real number. . .-1 and "~g:. Let at and 02 be real numbers. ~rove ~at for any positive real numbers Xt.. For each II = I. aj (i) By putting a e=« at (ii) Using (O)(i).. (9 marks) (c) Suppose thata2 < at .. By differentiating f(t) = (t + 1_)9 .n~«t lim 02n-I and f!-Ji-CO limo2n bothexist. prove that (t + 1)t2+1 {I. x1. prove that numbers PI and for any positive real P2 .. .'CD 02. lim 0211 exist? Explain your answer.'l- +1 . (3 marks) 2007-AL-P MATH 1-6 23 .:en and YI' )12' . > - (a + l)a:+l aa: for all t >0 .3 .

II. tan-. prove that the roots of the equation tr 2tr 67Z' tan-. . (6 marks) (b)' Using (a)(ii). prove that tan 78 = tan 8-21tan 8+35tan e-7tanB 7 tan 6 B . tanT ( 22tr)( tanT' 237Z') 2tr -+tan 7 2 (ii) tan -+tan 7 2 1C 2 - 37Z' 7 (5 marks) END OF PAPER 2007-AL-P MATH 1-7 24 . (1. or otherwise. evaluate (i) 2 trX tan-::.i tan 8) 7 7 (i) Prove that I tan = (l + i tan 8) 7 + (1. (a) Let 8 be a real number such that cos 78 .i tan 8) (ii) Using (a)(i). tan.35 tan 4 6' + 21 tan 2 8-1 7 5 3 ... 777 x6 - 21x4 + 35x2 - 7 = 0 are (4 marks) (c) Using (b) and relations between coefficients and roots. . 78 (1+ i tan 8) *0 7 - .

2007-AL PMATH PAPER 2 HONG KONG EXAMINATIONS AND ASSESSMENT AUTHORITY 2007 HONG KONG ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATION PUR:E MATHEMATICS A·LEVEL PAPER 2 1..30 pm . all working must be clearly shown. Unless otherwise specified. 3. using the AL(E) answer book. 4. Answer ALL questions in Section A. 2.4. Not to be taken away before the end of the examination session 2007·AL·P MATH 2-1 25 . using the AL(A) answer book. Answer any FOUR questions in Section B.30 pm (3 hours) This paper must be answered in English l. This paper consists of Section A and Section B.

:..2 sm--sm-. 2 A-IB · A+B .-- cos.FORMULAS FOR REFERENCE sin(A ± B) == sin A cos B ±cos Asin B cos(A ± B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B tan(A ± B) '" tan A ± tan B I+tan A tan B .-.B) I 2 cos A cos B = cos(A + B) + cos(A .:.=..B 2 2 A+B 2 cos A+ cos B '" 2 cos-.-cos-... A-B cos A -cos B ==. sm A·+sm B 2'Stn-. ..B) 2sin Asin B '" cos(A. B) -"cos(A + B) 2007·AL·P MATH 2-2 26 .:.sin B =: 2 cos A + B sin A .2 2 2 sin A cos B == sin(A + B) + sin(A .J.A+B A-B -.-- =: 2 2 sin A .

. or otherwise. (6 marks) Using (a). (6 marks) 2. where (b) f(O) =f .lj (x) = (2n + l)(x . Let f:R~R (a) (b) (c) be defined by fex-) =lx-. Let g : R -t R be defined by g(x) = f(x -1) (i) (Ii) Prove that g is an even function. Write your answers in the AL(E) answer book. I forall xE(O. L (a) (b) Prove that lim x ln x == 0 . evaluate 3. It is given that ftx) is continuous at x (1) (ii) Find k Is f'(x) differentiable at x =0 . Sketch the graph of y = f{x) Is f a surjective function? Explain your answer.. fex + 1)+ I (7 marks) 2007·AJ.. x when x :5 0 >0 J . (a) Prove that (4x-. Sketch the graph of y = g(x) . "(->-0+ Let k be a real constant and f : R --+ R be defined by sin x + cos 2x + k f(x) = {2 '" x ln x Whell.P MATH 2-3 27 .t2)f'(x)o=(x-2)f(x) Hence prove that (4x ...4).j.x2 ..x2) . =0 ? Explain your answer.II-lx+ll· .SECTION A (40 marks) Answer ALL questions in this section. f(7)(2) and [(8)(2). Define f(x)~ '/4x. f(r.2) r{") (x) + n2 [(I1-I)(x) for all positive integers n.

id . (a) Find J(X~2~(X~5)r dx . ~ 6) is a point on intersect at P. R . ks: sm - k" n (7 marks) 5. ConSI. Find the equation of the normal to F at A . 2a) and B(b2 + 1. x+2 D about the x-axis. 2b) be two distinct points on r. = . J:. (a) Using integration by parts.. (b) Evaluate 1 lim n~"" n .4. y '" x ex - Find the volume of the (7 marks) 6. find f . (a) Let (I) (ii) A(a2 + I. the normals to F 200?-AL-P MATH 2-4 28 . (7 marks) T. 0 2 + ab + 2 =0 other than P. (b) Let D be the region bounded by the curve solid of revolution generated by revolving 3) and the z-axis.. at which (b) It is given that Find two points on r. ·n . Prove that A B is normal to F at A if and on ly if P(lO. er th e curve: r {x. eX sin x dx .2 + 1 ' y=2t h were t E.k~l Le n..

reO) and g(O) . (3 marks) (e) Prove that f"(x)-lOf'(x}+25f(x)=O for all xeR . (5 marks) (e) Find g(x) .SECTION B (60 marks) Answer any FOUR questions in thi. (1 mark) (b) Prove that f'ex) = 8f(x) + 3g(x) for all x E R. (3 marks) (e) Sketch the graph of y=f(x) . (3 marks) 8. Hence find f'(O) . 7. (a) and fll(x) (3 marks) (b) Solve each of the following inequalities: (i) (ii) f(x) > 0 > f"(x) > 0 _ (2 marks) (c) Find the relative extreme point(s) and pointis) of inflexion of the graph of y= f(x) .<S:e-UfCt) dt foraH rER (a) Find . (4 marks) (d) By considering the second derivative of e-s. e8x + 3e8x S: e-8f get) dt and g(x) = e2 . Write your answers in the AL(A) answer book.< - 3e2. . Let rex) = ex + 15)(x + Ii (x_6)2 Find fl(x) (x * 6).< f(x) .s section. (2 marks) 2007-AL-P MATH 2-5 29 . find f(x) . Let f: R -+ R and g : R ~ R be continuous functions such that f(x) ee. (4 marks) (d) Find the asymptote(:ijofthe graph of y = f(x) . Each question carries 15 marks.

--:::-~-_ 2 +4 x +2x+2 [0 . define In 8 X4 = . [.J 4k+ k~O _'_' _ 1· (.. where 0 < x <] .9.:.. and the curve E2: y= g. evaluate ~ L. find J~ a2 _:. Consider the curve E: y "" !!_~ .4) n. -J " L~~--()k _+ I k~O 4k 1 4 (iii) Hence.. Find the area of the region bounded by E]. or otherwise. (12 marks) (b) Using (a).c2 ill: .at the straight line c=~ a2m2 +b2 . y :.. where 0 < x < a . (1) (2) Find the equation of L .)k 4 (3 marks) 10. prove that lim : _ . In is a tangent to E if and only if <0 and (4 marks) Consider the curve E..: Y where 0 < x < 3J3 (i) (ii) . 4 .2 Prove th.f Jo x 1 +4" +4 dr _ (i) Verify that x+2 . (c) = ~27 -3x2 . where a is a positive constant (3 marks) (b) Let a and b be positive constants.!. Find the point of intersection of E] and E1" Let L be the common tangent to £1 and E2 . mx + c a - x2 .. E2 and L " (8 marks) 2007-AL-P MATH 2-6 30 . x-2 Hence evaluate (ii) Prove that c. (_1)" I"+I '" 0 . (a) Using integration by substitution.~"".+1 + 41" = __ '= (- I 4n+ 1 4) n+1 - Hence prove that In+] Prove that In+l '51"" [0 + (. (a) For each non-negative integer n.

(a) Suppose that 0:5 a -c b ./6 +. prove that tan'!!_ .J3 . 24 =: (ii) Using (b lei)..J2 -. Using Mean Value Theorem. (4 marks) (b) (i) Prove that tan I+ ~1r =: 8 f2 .a 1 -c -1 +-a-2 ./2 . prove that 3(. or otherwise. (7 marks) (e) Using (a) and (b)(ii). prove that I tan-1b-tan-1a -1+-b-2 -c b. +./6- Ii) < 1r < 24(.J3.i ./6 .2) . (4 marks) END OF PAPER 2007-AL-P MATH 2-7 31 .11..

In general. even if these answers are erroneous. In many cases. It is very important that all markers should adhere asclosely as possible 10 the marking scheme. the benefit of doubt should be given in the candidates' favour. would either be omitted or stated implicitly. In a question consisting of several parts each depending on the previous parts. They should not be regarded as sets of model answers.g. However. it is still likely that cand idates would not present their solution in the same explicit manner. 2. 'M' marks should be awarded to steps or methods correctly deduced lTom previous answers. At most deducted I mark from Section A and 1 mark from Section B for pp. In the marking scheme. the accuracy of the answers: correctly completing a proof or arriving given in a question. Marks may be deducted for poor presentation (Pp). e. In any case. 6_ 7. For the convenience of markers.' stands for 'follow through'. Steps which can be skipped are ~had~d whereas 4.: @. The symbol@should be used to denote I mark deducted for pp. In such cases. a correct answer merits all the marks allocated to that part. marks are classified into the following three categories: 'M'marks 'A'marks Marks without' M' or 'A' awarded for awarded for awarded for at an answer correct methods being used. however. unless a particular method has been specified in the question. 'f. 'A' marks for the corresponding answers should NOT be awarded (unless otherwise specified). markers should exercise their discretion in marking eand idates' work. marks for a certain step she uld be awarded if cand idates' so lution indicated that [he relevant concept/technique had been used. In the marking scheme. 5. 32 .~ . In general. Markers should be patient in marking alternative solutions not specified in the marking scheme. 3. In marking candidates' work. the marking scheme was written as detailed as possible. However. Use of notation different from those in the mark ing scheme should not be penalized. General Marking Instructions 1. some steps. Candidates and teachers who were not invo lved in the mark ing process are advised to interpret their contents with care.~ * Marking Schemes These documents were prepared for markers' reference.t. alternative answers are enclosed with Irectallgle~. candidates will have obtained a correct answer by an alternative method not specified in the marking scheme. do not deduct any marks for pp in those steps where candidates could not score any marks.

Ci' +_.-1 ." +-"_-X._-----.(e"0 + en X '+ en X 2 _ 1 2 =0 SO.. . 11+1]) 1M = (I-'+ x-)" ..I Cn . ..·+n C. 11+1 n+1 33 ... C" 3 ....Paper 1 Solution Marks 1M accept (I +/).. we have A = _.+1 +A ~ where A is a real number independent of x. we have A = _.C. ).. 1 (I +x)n+1 n+! =--+ OX+--·x +-x n+l 2 1 c: Cr 2 Ci' ] +"'+--X C.' ...-1 + C.. Thus. we have (I + '. x 3 + "'+--X 3 n+1 ..-Ix n-l x+ = C" +22C" 1 (ii) C" n-l "x 1 J(l + x)ndx = Jeco' + Gl'x+ C. r forall =r + ')' C. .-I. ?'..-l = _ ._ Thus..-l = n(C(. +-..:.. n+l n+l 1 -d [(1+x/.. 1 Putting x::: 0 . we have (1+xt+1 n+l 1 q =---+Cox+-x /j 2 n+l 2 3 +-.r)! (r + 1)!(n -r -I)! ( Note t hat n C.C~l -x 3 2 3 + . . . + C~x") dx (1 + X)" ... + C. 3 C.(n-I)! (r+1)n!.:::J1X"-1) 2 +·. we have (1+ X)fI+l 11+1 1 11+1 2 =--+Cox+-x n+l InC. 2 2.+I n+l 2 3 n+1 where A is a real number independent of x . x +···+----x Cl.:_-~-=C3x+--' xl +_2X +...C'" 3X "x ". + q [+ Cill rx + . + Cnt")dt II 1M + n -=---.x:2 + ..n-l n(l+x)..I..-1 = LC~Hrk hO n-l (I') d d dx (1 +x )11 =dx~ n (1 ' .-=Cox+--xI (1 X)"'" 1 1 c: 2 2 n+1 n+l 2 +-x 3 c: 3 3 +"·+--x II n+1 c: " ."-IX+ .··-·-x n+l C.-I =n CO+n cr' x+n cr:x 1 2 3C"x 3 2 +'''+11 Ci'-lx2 +". IHI 1 Jo ex (I + I)" dt = Jo (c.." 2 +--x Ci' 3 3 +···+-.II I r+l 1M r=O. Putting x = 0 ..-I .)"+1 x n+l + " + en X fI) n n Gin = COX+-X 2 +-. . dx n+1 [cnOx+-x c.+X =1 (Cn O+IX+2X C" Cn 2 " +···+C"X II) 1M C" +..2X+ 3CII 2 +"'+n C" . n+1 1M c: + A. = rl(n -1.-x n+l c.

_. .+I n+l I =--..+ C. the required remainder is _ 22007 . 3 +. n+1 .. + kx + 8 for some polynomial q2 ex) 1M for using (a) lA By (a). +___!!_:!l_X"+1 C.-x _I) 11+1 Xl '" (CI" + 2C ~x + 3Cl • X2 + ... Marks n1 r(r-l)!(n-r+I)! C. aX+-X n+l 2 +-X 3 1+ ..+I "" (n+ I)! n+l (n+l)r!(n+l-r)! I..3)q] (x) . n+1 XN+1) Note that n(1+x)" '_(l+X). .. .l n-2 n(C:)2 1 _ n(2n)! (n+l)(n!)2 -·-----(7) 2.. we have f(2) So..t: = (e] n + zc: 3C" 2X+ N 2 +···+n"x "-1)( .. +-_. we have fCI) forsomepolynomial ql(x) 1M for using Division Algorithm-v->. .--. we have k 3 +8 =3 Thus. n+l ]... IA for some polynomial . f(x) 0::.-1(0 + x)". lA ql(x) 3)q] (x) ------- = -2(1) +5= 3 1 I· 1 1 I I . (a) Let f(x)=(x-I)(x-3)qJ(x)-2x+5 Then. c..Solution Note that . cn ..1 ) . .2(x -I) + 3 = (x -l)(x.+ 3(C. + n(C"n)2 ="!!_C211 n 11-1 n-) 11-2 11+1 n --+ n (Cn 2 2(C2'i +---+ . we have 1 1M By comparing the coefficients of x" . 2) + 3 Let f(x)=(x-l)(x-3)QI(x)-2x+5 Then.+I) 1 n+l =--(I+xf"n n+l in both sides..(C]n)2 __ . x Il+l Co X +_.+1 n+l + _1_· e""] n+l _xl + .. n + 1 =-r C. 2.j..either one (x-I)(x .. we have k (ii) = -5 Note that the required remainder is (f(2)lo07 By (b)(I).. for all r 0::.. we have (b) (I) Let f(x) fell =3 = (x -l)(x ._I 1M (1 + x)"'" 1 n+l ""_0 _ +_1 -x C"+] n+l C. .- So. --·(6 ) 34 ..r + p C:'".2)q2 (x) =.. .C. when f(x) is divided by x-I Thus.+ cs Cln 2..1 . + 2(C... we have (f(2»)2007 = 2k +8 = -10 + 8 =-2 = _22007 IM for attempting to find f (2) lA accept (_2)2007 = (_2)2007 Thus. the remainder is 3 . 2 3 n+l (b) Jl (I +x ) . C.. + nC" X"-I "n+1 )(_1_· n + C".'-1 2 x2 + C:_1 3 + ..2")2 + 3(C3" )2 + . C: + "Cll x +---x . . +-. we have [(1) So.

I) +C2 xex-I) + C3 xex + l) x = Putting 0. 04 -1 x =l. DJ D2 +_. we have x(x+l)(x-I) 1 ) -1 I =~ + " x 2(x+l) 2(x-l) . (a) (i) Marks CJ x-I Let=~+--+-x(x+l)(x-l) J ..L. lA CJ(x + l)(x .. (x + ])2 (x + 0)x2(x + I){x _1)2 06x2 (x+ 1)2 + 04x2 (x..----=J? (x + 1)2 _1)2 xl 2(r + Ii 2(x _1)2 ex 1A for correct partial fractions Let .\:+1) (x-l)~ :2' 2 . .. . ( .' 2 2(x + Ii . +-. 03.05 ."" . + I)-(x _1)2 3xl. . x (.2 ..2(x + 1)2 1 2(x -Ii 3x2 -1 -I I _ I. OJ =0 . ..x-t (x-1)2 lA or equivalent -1)' + 01 03 =0.. . -1 .. .!.. dx x(x+l)(x-l) I .. C2 """2' + 1 I 1 C3 = 2 . we have C\.1)2 +OSX2 (x+])2 (x-l)+ So. =-] .-+---"'-. 2(x+1) 2(x-l) Differentiate both sides with respect to x . x2(x+l)2(r_I)2 -I . 1.:=. I C1 x C2 x+l .--. I (b) 1M lA or equivalent IA Jj .+ . x x2 04 (x+l)2 _1)2 x+l D6 +_. + -+-. + _. -3x 2 +1 . we have . 2 IA for all correct x2 ex .Solution 3. we have . I A for al! correct Thus. I A or equivalent I (ii) Note that . O2 Thus. . .d . 3Xl . _. x(x+l)(x-l) .. ~-----:::--. -1 =-+. eo - -\ x + I -3x1 +1 x2 (x + 1)2(x _1)2 = .. ... 2 Os =0 1 and 06 I 2(x _1)2 =. we have By (a)(I).. 0IX(X + I)'(r 3r' -1 =-..::.'+ .

we have (:~:. if if n=1. IA can be absorbed 5mB fJ _. with the help of 0 < f) < 21r . . we have Let 0 be the origin.11. (-S.77: J 2 1M =( 0 ~.Solution ~_ (a) Note that COS ( Marks T. . we have OP} _l 1M 1A can. be absorbed I OPz ~ Since ~ and P2 are in the second quadrant and the third quadrant I respectively and 0 < B < 2. we have fJ = !!. { (5.we have -5cosfJ-J2sinfJ""-12 and -5sinB+12cosB=-5 Therefore. we have sin fJ = I and cos B = 0 Solving.-12) (12.J2007 ~' 005- IA = [c~s SIII- 2 2 = [.12. we have =(A4)sol A3 =A3 1M Aloo7 =( ~1 A ~J 200' ~ ....os:~.:: sm-- sin 220:~.sin"... we have A4 Thus..7. = n 2 C05-- -J 0 IJ P2 =(-12.8. ~:~:)( ~:}{ ~I.5) 2 .6.• n=4. _. (n -I)" 2 ---------. .5 ) ""-I -5 -12 So. .5 cos· . Yn) x " =- (n-I).sin BJ cosB is the matrix representing So..(7) 36 . ._ =/ 2 IA I (b) By the result of (a). we have .5) if if n=3...12).(_l3__) ( -.. . Then..•.9.12) (-12. .12'sin (n-I)" 2 and } IA for any two cases correct 1A for all being correct Let P" = (x" .5. . ..10.J 1M Thus. n = 2. 2 lA lA )/" = -5sin·· (n -I)JIT 2 + 12c05 . B = 7r 2 IA Note that (the slope of OP1 lethe slope of OP2) "" ..-5) and (J =ff IA (c) Note that fj =(-5.

JJ)rl 1M Ql =AQ+J.to /3 .for either = (a + f3)"2(·_l_)(detQ)(det detP = (a + P) pi det Q =af3(a + 13)"2 det (M2 + ap J) = det(rlQl P +aj3l) t t = det (rlQ2 p + p-l (ap!)p) t I I' = det(r1 (Q2 + afJl)P) = (detp-I) (det(Q"2 + afJl)(det = .J a and 13 Since a.-.. we have .AM+J... we have M2 +af31 = AM + pi + af3! det (M + af3 /) = det«a = (a 2 =:= AM == (a + f3)M + f3)M) 1M --..------------ +13)2 det M det(p-IQp) ---I 1 = (a + 13)2 1 1 1 = (a + 13)2 (det p-I )(detQ)(detP) 1 -.. -.J and 132 ==)..t = a + f3 and J. 1 t I I = det (Ql + af3!) = ap +a2 0 afJ + 13 2 == (af3 + a1)(ap + pI) =~p(a + f3i' 37 .J/ (a0 2 . we have u2 = AU + J.2) = .J (~ ~ J 1M f.) + J. (a) Note that M2 Marks IA = CP-1QP)(p-IQP) == p-IQ2 P Ml =.11 p-IQ2p = AP-1QP+ J.Solution 5.J! p(p-IQ2 p)p-l = p(. the roots of the equation x -.13 + J.tx Thus.1 = -ap IA for both correct (b) By (a)..p-1QP + J..---.0 are 2 So.------ -.L =. ( ~ .(det (Q"2 + af3l)) (det P) detP ( I) o P) ---------------------~ .

-I -all" 1l~1 -a]r . we have rP - rq + 1 ~ 0 . (.all' . . J 01a" 2: ..- G .-II.. •.)2: LCak +an-k+I) " 1M k=] Therefore. we have -(al +0.) 2: 2 L... . . Note that (i) 01+ 0" =0\+01' >0 ale - ail-hi It. ] k".Q2. on { all.O _ I" picq - By combining the above 2 cases.] By A. n k .M.. we-have n (al +0. -(al 1 2 + 0.-hl } .h1 BAM> y . we have oJ + an 2: ak + 0.0-1»)" 1 = al 11_.l " Hence.n ...1 rT =.M._k+l> 2VaJ ~ I" la -VII. we have (rP-l)(rQ-I)"2:0.P Case l : O<r~l -. S0.1 for all k .. Thus. we have _..-11.(al kod +a.. k. . we have " L k=1 all. we have L. l..Solution 6. + an-h!-1 > ~ a" _ l 2 "a ee = "ala" ~ for aII k ..... (a) Marks Note that rp+q -.-k.weave M h . and rq-l$O..ave all. II = 1..... we have at + an 2: ak + a~-k+l (ii) By (b)(i). we-have (rP-I)(rq -1)z. . ~ )a1Gn ..2:. h. I" (b) Let r be the common ratio of the geometric sequence.2. There are 2 cases. Since rP-I~O ease 2 : r>.. 2 . ak )" . we . .. . 38 . on {al. 2: nJ al a" .h . n -1 :Simplifying.-II. a..)2:- 11" :2 n Lol<... .1'1 N ote tat h t.). a 11-11.• .. = aJ (r ~-! -I" :2: 0 -I" 11.1 Since r" -1 ~O and rq -I ~o .1 Note thatn I [) ak" = (al~ r 1+ 2 .- 1 nk~l L 11 all. -vakG. So..~G.an}..:-1.-1 + 1) p ( by putting = n- k and q = k -1 . in (a)) Thus. all.... I = Vall" 1. we have -Lak IT n I" (.-hl ak+a..q + 1 = (rP -!)(I·q -1) .

:-4 a<~ ° IA IA or a>-2 .cO 1M IA or a>~2 (':) a e -2 and a:t-4 a<-4. b-J (a+2)(a+4) I -3 1 5 a 1 b 2 (6 + a)(I-b) 6.::> Ll.= _a2 1 2 5 a ° a -1 ..::> -(a + 2)(a+ 4):. (a) (i) ('. lA for all) 39 .') -6a-8.e~2 and a:. -4 < a<-2 The augmented matrix of (E) is ~ [~ -53 -1 2 2a ~J.: a.') Marks (E) has a unique solution t.. -4<a<-2 When (E) has a unique solution.eO 1M ¢> ('.[~ -8 0 o a 3 ~ b~IJ -1 a+6 0 -[001~3 o e:> c> I' b-J ) lA (a + 2)(a + 4) (a+ 6)(b -1) (E') has a unique solution (a+2)(a+4):.:: _(a2 + 6a + 3b+ 5) tJ. 1 b x= -3 5 a 0 a 2 -1 . a2 +6a+3b+5 I M for Cramer's rule = (a + 2)(a + 4) I 2 1 0 1b Y = a -1 -- 2 J-b Ll. (a + 6)(b -1) (a+2)(a+4) ~ - 1 A + 1A CIA for anyone.Solution 7.e0 e:> <:. Ll._*0 I -3 <:.. tJ. z= - 2 tJ.

lA for all) I (ii) When 0 == -2 .. the solution of the first lA three equati ons of the system linear equations is x:= 4. ofthe system of linear equations is x:= 1+ 3f . the required solution is x z IA = 41 in x .. Putting X"" I + 3t .:.Solution Marks When (m has a unique solution.= -4 . Thus. the solution of the first three equations.y .z = 3 . y =. where t E R . we have t -= -1 . Y == 1 and z = 7 _ 1M 1A f. . Therefore. we have.--( 8) (0) Putting a ~ I and b == 16 in (a). by (a)(ii). y == ( and z = 4t .J (0+2)(a+4) 2: '" .2t = 3 . 4t): R} _ IA 1A or equivalent -----.I . the augmented matrix of (E) becomes 1 -3 [ o o 8 -2 b-1 0 b-J 0 1 J IE 0 (E) is consistent when b = 1 . 1M IA = -2 lA --------(4) 40 . we have._. y ""-1 and z. -3 0 a b-1 8 0 the augmented matrix of (E) becomes -3 ·0 0 1 0 0 0 1 b-l (0+2)(a+4) (a+6)(b-l) (a + 2)(a+ 4) " o o 1M eli + 6)(b -1) (a + 2)(a +4) 2 .7 = -4 3. we have 1. 0f by (a)(i). b. ---------(3) Note that 4 . the system of linear equations is inconsistent.-..__...y (a+6)(b-l) (a+2)(a+4) lA + JA (IA for anyone. Thus.._.- x= (} + 6a + 3b + 5 (0+2)(0+4) . o o o 0 a +6a+ 3b+ 5 0 (a+2)(0+4) b-J (0+2)(0+4) (a+6)(b-l) (a + 2)(a + 4) o 1 .t.rand So. * (c) Putting a = -2 and b = I in (a). the solution set is {(I + 3.1• t.

the roots of (*) are -+_.-_2 2 2 . R=-40 X4 - The real value of It is -2 ' By(b)(i).4)x + (h + h2_ 4h ._. '2 2 -+-/ and -----1. we have 8h3 + 13h2 -4h + 4 = 0.IAfora.:. 0 lA+lA(lAforanyone.wehave So.J5 J5 2.JIlt 2 I A for all the roots being correct 1 1 Thus. we have (h + 2)(8h2 - 1M for finding h 3h + 2) . (ii) (::> P".:. 8x3 + 25x2 - y =x - 2 . -l.4h.. when . 8x3 + 25x2 40x + 25 = 0 I M for using (a) <.fli.> (x +~)'. P2S = R2 (4h)2(/14 + h2 . (a) 1M for camp Ieting the sq uare ------(2) (b) (i) ¢:) (::> (x+ h)4 +(x+ h)2 -4(x+ (X 4 h)-3 "" 0 =0 := +4hx3 +6h x 3 21 +4h x +h4) +(x' +2hx+h2)-4(x+h)-3 4 3 IA X4 + 4hx + (6h2 + 1)x 2 + (4h3 + 2h .4(-2)+4 =-64 + 52 + 8 + 4= 0 So. R:=4hl+2h-4 and S=h4+h2_4h-J.lI) So.4h-3) '" (4h' + 211-4)2 +h-2)2 6 1M for using (b)(i) <=> Q (2h)2(h4 +h2 -4h-3)=(2h3 4h6 8h3 + 4114-16113 -12112 + 13h2 - = 411 + hI + 4 + 4h4 -4h- 8~ lA 1 --------( 6) ee- 4h + 4 =0 (c) By (b)(ii). -1. Note that 8(-2)3 + 13(-2)2 . . and S=25. (*) can be written as - 40x + 25 =0 .Jli .3) Q=6h1+l.Solution Marks '8.> (x+~J -s(X+~)+15=O 5 x+-=5 lA <=> x 5 or x+-".3 x I M for forming a quad ratio equation (:) x=-2 5±J5 or x 3 ± ..8( x+ ~)+(25 -IO) = 0 <. 2 2 1M ------(7) 41 . 4 _ P=-B.= 0 ' lA Q=25.

lA Therefore. we have 2:: for all t > 0 . we have d dt f(t) (t+l)""(t-a) . (a + 1)a+1 a'" for all t >.. t'" an 0.a+1 :-------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------for all t > 0 . Putting a'" al.. we have f(t) 2:: fCa) Thus.0 . ·_------·-(5) (b) (i) Note that EL> a2 0 . we have ~f(t) dr .----------------------------------------.-1 . f(t) attains its least value when t == a . in (a).. for all t > 0 .. (a) Let f(t):= (t + 1)a+1 ta Then. d2 == (r+l)n(t-a) t"'+1 lA -f(t)::= dt2 .::. Note that f(t) So. . f(t) 1 =0 if 0 <I < a if t v o: jf I> 1M for testing + IA >0 a t '" attains its least value when (t + l)a+1 {l a. d -f(t)::=O dt a(a + 1)(1 + 1)". dt2 2 r. we have a2 ~+l (t + 1)"'2 tal 1M 42 . 1"'+2 <=> t e o: 1M for testing + I A .> .----------------------.... Then. IA <0 So. Let f(t) == (t + I)a+l fa for aU t > 0 .Q == (a + I)'" > 0 an+1 has only one local minimum. we have (t + 1)". for all I> lA Therefore. d f(I)I. . 1 (a + 1)"'+1 .--------------------------Solution Marks 9. we have f(t) ~ fCa) Thus.

for any positive real numbers xI. Then. (Y2 JX.-( 5) 43 . ok Q2 ak al• and . __.2 .>:... the statement is true for all positive integers n ' -. the statement is true for n = k + 1 when it is true for n = k .(/32 ~-=--____£ A + IJ (.-(5) (c) Since (~: J' ""(~:r' . I O 2 1M uI 'a2"'1 1 -------. the statement is true for rr= 1 Assume that (~ + ~ +. (~ I< )X ..--+ k at + az + --. .. (b.. ) ).::. + ak for any positive real numbers b )01+Ol ·+"1. bk • where k is ' a positive integer.. (J2 . and Yj' Y2' "" Yk+J 1M ( by (b)(ii) ) 1M ?: (2lJx.XI ( . x2.<'" X2 Xk+1 Therefore..2 )"l . ( Xl. -_ ..-----.Solution (b) (ii) Marks in (b)(i).)O~ (~)Ol +.~.~. ). '" . By mathematical induction.:r __ > (a +a )D'." (.+<>. we have IA Note that A> (J2 O l +01 0 Putting I ==- A. 1M at G2"".__( bk. (Y h-J JXh' xl x2 XI< )(1<+1 ( by induction assumption) 1M YI 12 Yk+1 = . Xk+1 .

a211-4) = .0 . we have a2n+1 Note that a3 .a1) ~ 0 Thus. a211-1 ( by induction assumption) By mathematical induction. -(a 5 5 7· an+3 5 7· +-an+2 an+2 2 7 -a..:~-------------------------------------------------------------r----------------------------Solution Marks •.:: 0 So. (a) ""-an+3 =r-: -7 "" 2.al = -(a2 5 7 .+2 1M n+3 .a2n-3) '"(4~ r C by (a) ) (a2n-3 .a1 ::=: 5 - ~ a211-1 7 42 +-al 2 7 . 7 "" n+3 7(a ""( -7 ::=: -2 2 r - an+!) lA (a1l+2 .a2n-1 '" 49 4 (a2n-1 . ~------------------------------------------------------------~----------------------------10..an) 4 49 (an+2 .an) 1 ---.:: a2k-1 for some positive integer k .al).~an+l) . the statement is true for n = 1 Assume that u2k+]. we have 0211+2:S al" 44 .aln 4 = 49 (a2" - a2n-2) ( by (a) ) 1M ::=: (4~r (a211-2 .aU-I) (by (a) ) 1M 1..a] = -(a2 5 7··· .-----( 3) (b) (I) (I) a2n+1 .:: (2) a211+2. + -a1 2 7· . we have a2n+1.a2n-5) 1M Note that a3 .::.al = -a2 5 7 .aU"1 4 '" 49 Ca2k+l . Note that Thus. a2k+3 ..

::'7°2. 7 5 5 Q2n .-2- 2 +~Q2n-3 a2n-3) - = ( 4~ = .0lk+2 = 49 4 (02k+2 ._1 -a2n ::::=-02n_1 7 .Solution Marks Note that °4 .. Then. J (a2n-4 - °2....+2:$ a2n 1M 1 :$ 0 ( by induction assumption) By mathematical induction.::%02. the statement is true for n = 1 Assume that 02k+2:$ 0u for some positive integer k .°2n-2) 5 2 ~ Q2n-1 I a2n-2) lA = 7(a2.. we have (3) °2n ='7Q2/l-1 +7a2.-5) 45 ..-2 5 2 +'702n ( by (b)( i)(2) ) 5 2 °2n .°2k) (by (a» 02.-1 = -7 (%a2"-2 4 = 49 (°2. we have 02k+4 .°1 =703 ='7 5 +'7°2 2 ~ °2= '7(03 ....°2) 5 ) 5 (5 '7°2+'701-02 2 10 = 49{01-02):$O So.°2n_1 = '7 Q2n-1 + "7 a2n-2 -2 .-1 IA (1-~}2n.

1A I .1-) = -7 4 2 ( au + a2k-t -02k-l) % f - au ) IA "='~(a2k 49 ~0 ( by induction assumption) induction. G] = -2 T(a2 -01) >0 ... 1M So... Define bOi=-an for all n=I.t..=...a2 '" 0] 5 Z 701 + 7G1 ..+2 = %b. tJ"". as .~ both exist. the statement Assume that alk:<! is true for n '" I .···--··(9) (c) If 02 < 01 • then -a2 > -al • 1M .. a211-1 and lim a2n both exist...3. So. {ai' a3 . 06 ' . we have ~ > ~ and ."".. By (b)(ii). for all n'" 1. Note that a] . we have a2.t(I lim a211 both exist. .. n-+-«l lim aln and lim tj~IXl' Jim U2ntl both exist...:<! 02n-1 By mathematical (ii) Note that So.':II limb"n n~...° is increasing and bounded above by a2 while 1A 4 . .2... Thus. we have Define bl1 > 02 = Gn+1 for all n = 1. So._1 n~cQ and p~1XJI lim aln both exist...)-'I:I. Thus.3. 1M So. Thus. lima2t.+1 and n-+w +*b" for all n = 1.Solution Marks Note that a2:<! al . we have b2 > bl and b. lim b2n-1 n--.+«l 46 . IA f... ..3. { a2 at $ 02n-l :5 02n+1 :5 a2tl+2 :5 azu :5 02 . 1M So.. _} is decreasing and bounded below by at. = "7Q2A:-t-1 +7Q2/( =7(au·+1 5 2 a2k+1 -2 - a2. 2. aU-I for some positive integer k . n.3. 2. .'-"'+CCI 5 2 b'I+1 = "1bn+1 + tbn ~n By (b)(ii).. } . . lim 02n-1 and n.~ lim b211-1 and lim (I--'iXJo both exist lAft.2.

as.Solution Marks = (4)"-1(5) 49 .. 7 "7~" -a.2 < a2" < a2f1+2 < 021H1 < a2. ---------(3) 47 .-1 < al So. ..} is strictly decreasing and bounded below by a1 .. 5 < -a2 I 7 . } is strictly increasing and bounded above by and n~~ [Thus. a6 .. a2.'.• 5 Hence._1 lim aZn both exist.a211-2 7 2 ~fI 2 'a2 n <-02 7 n._1 a1" '" -02n-l 5 7 5 + . we have a2" < a2n-1 Note that a.. n~. we have < 02.. {ai' o} . a2 while 1M ·IM { a2 ' a4 . (a2 - a1) G2...+1 <0 [Therefore.. lim . .1 +-a. 1A f.t..

we have (1 + itanB) 7 + (1.5(-O) + isin(-B»? - (cos 7B + isin 7() .--.35 tan 8 + 21 tan~ f)-I s 1 e- e- 48 .35 tan) e + 21 tanS e . .(case .itan (l + i tan Marks I L (a) (i) of of )7 +Cl-itanO)7 ( 1+ ism OJ· cosO cosO 7_ (. I' lA -__~ I (J"" itan 8)7 + (1..(I + isin 0)7 + (1.(cos 761 .itan 8)' = 2i(7t-35t3 2(1.J5 tan 8 + 2ltan 61 . one == 1-7it So.[sin 8)7 (cosB + ism ei + (cosB - isin B)7 1M 7 (ens 0 + ism B) 7 (cos( -8) + i sine -8» .i tan 8)1 = 2(1. for both ..2U 1 3 +2It'. Then. 6 4 7 tan 8 .itan = ! + 7 it - 3 5itJ + 3514 + 2 !itS - 7 t6 _ il7 1M .--.Solution (l + ilanB)? .(I + 2ltS Han 8) 7 -(7) Moreover.tan 61 1-21 tan 2 B+35tan4 e-» tai16 B _ tan 7 2ltan 5 61 + 3 5 tan 3 7 tart B Thus. .21(2 + 35(4 Therefore. correct . of . e/ .7 tan6 e 3 By (a}(i).------ --. we have tan 78 = 7 tan B ...(cosO + isin 0)7 + (C0..tan 7e) 1-21 tan 2 e + 35 tan 461 . we have tan 78 ~ .(1.(cosC -78) + {sine -78» (cos78+ ism 78) + (cos(-78) -l. we have (1+ i tan B)7 -(I-ftanef 7t6) ---~---------------~ .Isin BJ?" cosO (cos 61 + ism 61)7 .isin(-7e» (cos 78 + isiD 78) . -t) + 35t 4 -7(6) - 1(71-351 1(7 tan +21t -t') S 1-2112 +35t4 _7(G = 0 .1_ismO cosO . we have {I + i tan =2i(71-35t3 -21t2 --------------------. we have (I + itan 8)7 ~ (1 +it)7 21 (2 Also. for either + 35it3 +35(4 -21it~ _7t6 tit7 ={l-lt)7 . we have (1.( .i sin 78) (cos 78 + isin 78) + (cos 78 .j sin 761) 21sm 761 2C057B IA = itan (ii) 7e Let tanB". .

tan. the roots of the eq uatlon x 6 1f 211" 61Z" tan-. tan-... tan- lA .in78 =a'-21a~bl -. .7 tan B 7 tan 2 5 7tan6 e-35tan4 B+21 tanl 8-1 (b) Putting x = tan For tan7B=O.1f Further note that x 7 - 2" 61Z" di . e in (a)Oi). we have cos78 = cos' o -21cos5 8sin2 8 + 35cos3 Osin4 8 -7 cos8sin6 8 { sin 78 = 7 cos" Osin B .B . tan-' . cj a'(ib)l . t21x2-1 6. A [so note thtat tan 0 .Solution Marks ILet cosO (a+ ib)' =a 7 =a .35 tan] e + 21 tanS B .21la'hi -7ab6 +2IaI6' ib1 oO'$78+I.'istrnct. 1M for putting x =..21a'b? -351a'b +3Sa'h' -7ab~ 1 .35 cos" 85in3 8 + 2lcos2 BsiIll 8-sin So.i(7a6b-3Sa'b' -b') By comparing the real and imaginary parts of both sides. tan-... oj. () .. 3 21x 5 + 35x -7x - =0~ x(x6 - - 21x4 + 35x2 -7) = 0 Thus.. C{a"{ib) +Cia'{lb)' 7a6(lb) and sin t9 = b . l:<fu711 = a~ + + 35a'. tan.3 COS ()7 (J + 21 COSZ 3 21cos S 8sin 28 +35cos 4 Bsrn 6 4 e sins 8 .35 cos 4. we have tan 78 -... 7 7 1f Note (hat tan 7() '" 0 7 7 tan-.6)' + CJ al(lb}~ + claW.)" + (.tan 7 0 1-21tan B + 35tan e -7 tan B tan-.2Hao 8+ 35 tan] e ... tane = tan 0 ..r 7 ...sin 78 8": 7 cose'sin'' e = e .6)' - cos78 . we have tan 7B wehave a = x7 -21x5 +35x3 -7x 7x6 -35x4 ..are a[I . tan-. .tan e in (a)(ii) I M for setting tan 78 == 0 x7 -21x5+35x3-7x=0.7 21r •. } IM+ IA sin 78 cos?8 7 cos6 8 sin () .6' . 8 sin. 21x 4 + 3 5x 2 7 '" 0 are 777 ~--------( 4) 49 .. C1a\. ..

either one tan-+tan---+tan-+tan 7 7 7 1t 67t)2 = ( tan"'1+ +tanT . IA f.~..+ tan 2 _7 :2 31r) = 42 7 . I 1 -.. we have ~Xtan2 2... we have 2 tt 7 21r + tan 2 .= -tan.". tan 2 . .. I I I I =0 -2(-21) =42 6.l. tan -+tan 7 2 7t . 1M ----------}. ..Solution Marks 1M .. 7 7' 2 tan 1 2 47r 2 31r = tan _ and tan --. we have (tan:2 ~ X tan 37t 2 3fJ 777 and tan 2 3.. IA ft. 2 2Jr -+tan 7 2 -=21.11 So. 2 ]. . .= -tan7 7 77 _ 57r 27r 4" 3ff . 1t3023..t.= tut .t.---.-+tan-+~7 7 21r _. 1A f. .. 1r Note that tan -.··+tanTtanT ( 1r 61r) --------------. with the help of Ib)..t.)( 3. ------(5) I . ------1 I I either one Thus. --... ) = 7 and 2 IA r.-----. )=-7 ... . 51r 41r2 57r 2 6lt 7 -2 tan?" tanT+.r tan . Notethat tan7 67t =: - 7r tan ~ se..- tan2l.". '2 7t ) 2ff 2 37r 2 -. tan 3.)=7 IA r. .t. we have 2 ( tan Thus. 7 lA f.= tart ~ 7 7 7 7 127r 2 5. .. tan ?" + tan 7 21C 2n + tan :2 311' 7~ 21 -7 7 Therefore. I M can be absorbed +35x-7 =0 are tan :2 -1r . ~~. we- ave -( taol l X 7' tan. ...- are a '-I di rsnnct. tan 2 -2n Thus.---- - -------~ .and tan.-211" an d tan .. the roots ofthe equation x 3 -21x 2 A lso note that tan 2 n: - 7' ... we have (tan (ji) By (b).

Jim f(x) .0X . [(x) .f(O) '<-4ci~ x-a 1M for one-sided derivative -----.O~ lim f(x) = f(O) So. we have k =.>:-401 =1 lim f(x)-f(O) .. .<-.>.feO) .: lim ttx) . lim x lnx ""( lim x'_' 2 .. . Therefore.<-'>0' x.. (ii) By (blei).t-40+ =0 (by (a» limttx) -. 51 .t.f(O) X- 0 .Paper J Solution Marks I. L I x-Inx-O X 'l = lim xlnx .-1 I A f. we have SillX' + cos2x-l when when x:$ 0.. = . .<-40' X- 0 1A f.. cosx. J 'I.. sinx+cos2x-l I1m . we have Thus.<-40+ either one IA ___________________________ . --~--••~---(6) is not differentiable at x = 0 .0 = lim .x"""" 0'" 0+ X)( 1-)1. f(x) = { . (a) lim xlnx '" lim r40~ lnx 1 x ': lim ~ =-lim =0 (b) (i) Since -1 x2 x 1M f(x) is continuous at x =0 • we have x .->0" So.0· lim Xlnx) '" 0 (by (a» . we have Note that lim x2 In x ""I + k .. We have 1+ k '" 0 Thus.:e2mx x>O.-2sin2x = I1m .t. .

!(4x 2 f''(x) = Xl) Marks .x~ )f("+I) (x) .-------lA .2x)f(")(x) = (x .2n(x .2)f(x) + C.n)f(n-I) (x) == (x .2 J4x-x2 (x . f(7)(2) = 32 f(5) (2) f(3) = (32) (22) = (2) f'(2) 1M . . we have f(n+I)(2) = (% r = n2f(n-l) (2) .2)f(·) (x) + nf(n-I) (x) (4x-x2)f{M1l(x) = (2n+l)(x-2)f(n)(x) + n~f(n-I)(x) (b) Putting x = 2 in (a).-. f(n-l) (2) for all positive integers n.4x ~X f(x)=(4x-x )2 f'(x) == .(-2)f(n-I)(x) + nf(n-I)(x) = Differentiate both sides n times with respect to x . (a) I f(x) = I .-..--" (32)(21)(12) =0 f(8) (2) f{6\2) either one =(lr (}r(lr (lr(%r(%r =(}r(lr(%r(~r (}r(%r(%r(~J2(IJ = f(4)(2) = f"(2) f(2) = = 11025 512 IA ---------(6) 52 .2x) -3 x-2 ~(4X_X2)3 = (4x _ x2)f'(x) (4x.----.2)f(n) (x) 1M (4x . we have 4f(n+I)(2) So.=.Solution 2..(n~ .2)f(n) (x) . we have (4x .x2)f'(x) x.2 -I 2 T (4 .xl)f(n+I)(x) +n(4 ..

t. 1 . g is an even function. x $ 1 -2 X . (c) (i) g(x) = f(x -I) .:. Thus.f:. -2· -vl c x cl .x if if 0$x<2.:2. Marks we have xER. (ii) R...f if forall -1. g(x) = 1 -2 o IM for the shape lA for all correct 2 x ~·········(7) 53 . x. we have g(x) = g(-x) Hence. Note that g is an even function and 52 1. y == f(x) -1 x I M for the shape IA for all correct 1M lA f. x.. f is not a surjective function. (b) Note that f(x).(lxl-lx+21) 2lxl+l +1 = Ix+21+lx-21g(-x) =1-x+21 +1-x-21- 21-xl+1 =lx-21+lx+21= Ix+21+lx-21- 2lxl+l 21xl+I for all x E Thus.Solution 3.f(x + I) + 1 = (Ix -21-lxl) 1 . (a) Since f(x)=lx-II-lx+11 2 f(x)= if i. 3 E R for all x E R.

L. J J eX(-sin x)dx eX sin x dx J IA 1M So.e k..Jl"X cos _ . I~ I . e" + 1 tr J" e' sinxdx 0 J l oe sx:.J "'ex J e' sin xdz eX cos x dx 1M for using integration by parts = eX sin x . IA pp-I for omitting constant =~ I..eX cos x+ ::: eX sin x .ktr lim ... (a) Marks '" J sin x de" sin x . (8 in x .eIcos x - J Thus..:. i « n *" .. we have 2 eX sin x dx = eJ sin x .:r trx)] 1 (by (a» 1M for using the result of (a) lA ~~-·-~···-(7) e" + I 54 \ .Solution 4. Jl"n .e n .• SlO1!"Xdx (SinX-COSX)I (by(a)) 1M for using the result of (a) lA 2ft .. " n k~1 " '" SID - n IA =~ 1 =~[e.....L. k1r n SJnn lA k-l elf_' sin zrx dx (sin .. etr ]" ( by (a) ) 1M for using the result of (a) '0 +1 211" ktr lA l~n..L [ eft..~e im ::J~ = 2tr° 2tr n..."" n hm .e cos x + constant ..cos x) -t. ex (sinx-cosx) _ 2 tr _. we have J eX sin x dx = e.fcosxdeJ ::: e'" sinx.1 Jl"~n.k1t k" sm- n lA =~ 1 1r J" 0 eX sinxdx 1[ "'.constant .

100 I x+ 21--·- ..s 0.140 + - = ft --5x 3 [ ] x+2 (x+2) 100) 2 dx 1M for x + ax+--+ 3 2 2 b c (x+2)2 +45x-140In .fO r: I y 1)r-"y-2 +-}-4-y-+-9y d f211O-7 ji+14Y+9dCl+14Y+9)-I41rJo i=1C Jo rJlO- 7 jy2+14y+9dy • I M for using substitution ~" 2(/ + I..3»). . x! --+ constant x .-. The required volume = Jo = . 1C f( x3 (x .Y+9)2 -7(y+ 7))/ + 14y+9 +280++ 7+)/ 3 j2JiO-7 + 14Y+91 0 r 2. . . 3 .\ 5.. ° and 3 1C fJ(x(x . 100 (b) Note that the x-intercepts of the curve are The required volume =.2 dx Jo (x+2) =.0 II I X2 f3(X(X _3))1 dx (x+2) I M for lower and upper limits + IA 2 x-· lOx + 45 .2)x(X-5) J 1M for lower and upper limits + IA IM for using integration by substitution dx =ft = [ T-7x .2 +69x-1401nIxl-~ . The required volume . +asl+blnlc(s+t)I.-+ 1M for division IA accept without absolute value pp-J for omitting constant '" __ 2 7x2 + 69x -1401nl.5) r Solution dr 100) x2 dx Marks 2. '" 21C 2v 10-7 (JlO - 2M -7) between x =0 and x == 3 1M for lower and upper limits + J A . ]3 0 x+2 x+2 IMfor ~+ax +blnlx+21--c3 2 x+2 = lZ"(129-140In(%)) IA Note that the z-intercepts of the curve are 0 and 3 and the curve has a minimum point 2.3 1M for _ -.r . (a) '"" J( ex J( 3 2~(X.0 y + 7 and t =) i + 14y + 9 IA ··········(7) 55 .100]5 ~ (byta) ) I M for using the result of (a) ft( 129 -1401n(%») 1C lA Note that the x-intercepts of the curve are 0 and 3. 140 x -14x+69---.

Solution 6. (a) (i) Case I: 0=0

Marks

The equation of the Donna! is y
Case 2: a#-O

=

0

Since x '" t1 + l and y = 21 , we have

dy
dy _

dx-

cit dr

-2(-,

_~_!

if t#-O

1M

dt The equation of the normal is

y - 2a

= ~a(x - a
3
0 3 - 30

2

-1)

y-2a = -ax+a
ax

+0 =0 IA

+y -

Thus, by combining the above two cases the equation of the normal is ax+ y_a3 -30=0

(it)

AB is normal to r at A (::)a(b2 +J) +2b- 03 -30= 0
¢)

I M for using the result of(a)(i)

ab

2

+ a + 2b - a
2

J

J

3a = 0

ee 2b - 2a + ab - a = 0 (::) 2(b - 0) + a(b - o)(b + 0) = 0

o (b - a)(a2 + ab + 2) = 0
(since
0

*b

)

Note that a -b Also note that the slope of the normal to T at A
Further note that the slope of AB is -a+b AB is normal to at A 2 o-a=-2

*

IS

-a

r

o+b

I M for eq uating slopes

o-a-ab=2

o a2 +ab+2=0

(b)

Putting b = -3
0 -30+2=0 (0-1)(0-2) =0 2

in (a)(ii), we have

1M fOT observing P "" «_3)2 + 1,2(-3» 1M for using (a)(ii) with b SUbstituted

a

=

I or a = 2

Thus, two required points are (2,2)

and (5.,4)

I A for both correct -~~----(7)

56

\
Solution 7, (a)
['(x)

Marks

_ (x _6)2(X + 1)2 + 2(x + I)(x+ (x_6)4 _ (x + 1)(x -19x-216) (x-6)3 _ (x+I)(x+8)(x-27) (x-6)3
2

15»)- 2(x - 6)(x+

IS)(x + Ii .

1M for quotient ru Ie or product rule - --I

,, ,
,.

I I I

either I A or equivalent

f"(x)
(x-6)3(x+8)(x-27)
686(x + =-~..__:_ 3)

+(x + l)(x -27) +(x+ l)(x+8»)_3(x_6)2(X+ (x-6)6

l)(x +8)(x-

27)

----------------------~-~--~----lA
Of

,, ,, ,, ,, ,,
I I

0

(x - 6)4

equivalent

----------(3 ) (b)

Note that

f'(x)

=

0 e- x= ~8 , e- x=-3

X=

-1 or x=27

Also note thai f"(x) =0

.
0

-

x ['(x) f"(x)

(--<7.) ,-8) -8 (-8,- 3) -3 (-3 ,-I)

-1

(-1,6)

(6,27)
-

27 (27,00)

+

71

7 4

~
x<-8

-

+ ~

0

+
+
71

0

+ +
71

0
16 27

+
0

+
~

+
1-

f(x) (i) (ii)

224 3

f'(x) > 0
f"(x) >

<:=:> <:=:>

, -1<x<6

or x>27

lA lA accept .• -------- (2) _ (-3,00)

0

-3 < x <6 or x>6

(c)

The relative minimum points are (-1, 0) and (27, 2~4) The relative maximum point is (-8, The poi.ntofinflex:ion

lA+ lA lA lA ------(4)

2)
4

>

is (-3, ~~)

Cd)

,.

I ID1 ~-,>6I1m x~6' '

'

fiC)-

x - ('. lIll
x~6-

(x+15)(x+I)2 2:= (x - 6)

+00

and

fi() = li {x +.. 5.)(..x + 1)2 1 x 1m· 2 x->6+ (x - 6)

=+00

the vertical asymptote is x = 6

lA

57

Solution

Marks

lim ttx) = lim (x + 15)(X~ I) = lim
x->oo

2

15)( 1)2 ( 1+- 1+x fX = 1

x

.<->«>

x(x-6)

x -e-ec

(I~;)
29--+x
(

1M for finding oblique asymptote lim (f(x) - x)= lim 29x - 5x + 15 = lim );->00 );->w (x _ 6)2 .r-e-ec the oblique asymptote is y = x + 29
2

5

15
x
2

6)2 I-x

= 29

lA

lim f(x) '" lim
x->6x->6-

ex +15)(x;
(x.-6)

1)2

= co

and

lim, ttx) '" lim,
x->6 x->6

ex + 15)(x ;
(x -" 6) is x
=

1)2 = co 6 .. lA

the vertical asymptote (x+15)(x+l)2 (x_6)2

f() = x

.2.9. 343x-l029 = x + + ------,,.--(x-6i is y = x + 29 .

1M
lA ----------(3)

the oblique asymptote

(e) Y
1\

y = f(x)

IA for and 1A for 1A for

the extreme points the point 0 f inflexion the asymptotes all being correct

(-1,0)

0
1 I'
1 1 1 1

"" x

x=6 -------- --(3 )

58

\

Therefore. r o .>: e-8'g(t)dt By Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. we have hex) = 6x+ I .'f'(x) . we have f!l(x) = 8f/(x) lA for correct f"(x) . ( by (a» h(O) = eOf(O) = 1 and (by (a) and (b) ) .5f(0»)= 11. where a and b are constants.3eo fe-S'g(()d(~l+O=l e-2If(t)dr -= I . h/(O) == eO (f'(0) . we have hex) Note that = ax + b . (by (b) . we have h'(x) "" a .0 r =1 } 1A for both correct (b) f(x) = eS'>: +3e8 . .5 = 6 Hence. (5) 59 .Se-5'>:f(x) = e-5x(fl(x) h"ex) == -5e-5.Solution 8.. Then..>. So. -= 0 . g'(x) exists and g'(x) = 2e2x -6e2. eO .3f(x) Note that f'(x):= 8f(x) + 3g(x) (by (b) and both f(x) and g(x) are differentiable. lA ----.>: (f"(x) . (a) Marks f(0)=-eo+3eo g(O) "..>:(f"(x) -IOf/Cx} = 0 (by (c) Therefore. f'(x) = 8e8. Thus. So.>: (f'(x) 5 . we have f"(x) = 8f(x) -9f(x) +2f/(x) -16f(x) -\ Of' (x) + 2Sf(x) IM+l ----------(4) (d) Let hex) = e-s'>:f(x) for all x E R . IA -------(3) Thus.. we have f(x) = (6x + 1)e5r .5f'(x») + 25f(x») IA IA } 1 M for using (a) and (b) =. Hence.tf(x) IA == 2g(x) .t -3e2.5f(x»)+ e.9f(x) + 6g(x) . we have f'(O) =-8f(0) (c) g(x)= e2.Sf(r») IA 5 h'(x) = e-5·.e. we have a = 6 and b = I . we have f"(x) Thus.r = 8f(x) + 24e8 I' f'(x) exists and 1M e-81 g(t)dt + 3e81e-8Xg(x) + 3g(x) + 3g(0) "" 11 .>: r.r e-11f(t)dt Jo By Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. f'(x) is differentiable and f'(x) = 8f'(x) + 3g'(x) . So.>: fo'>:e-21f(t)dt -Je2'>:e-2.

8(6x + 1) e5x ) 1M IA = e2x -3e2x f: (6t + 1)e dl 31 1M = e2~ _ e2x IXo (61 + l)de31 .3f(x) g(x) are differentiable.5 = -6 Hence.6 fox e31dt - J 2) = e2i _ (6x + i)e'x + eZx +e2. and w'(O) '" eO (g'(O) . g'(x) is differentiable and g"(X) = 2g'(x) -3f'(x) (by (b) ) . e. we have gU(x) == 2g'(x) . Hence. (by the proof in (c) }. eOg(O) = I .24f(x) .8f(x)} 3 "'.6x Thus.< (2e3. we have c = -6 and d So.6x) =1 lA ----------(2) e5~ 60 . (f'ex) .9g(x) So. we have g"(X) = 2g'(x) Therefore. we have g(x) "'. By (b). we have wlf(x) = 0 + 8g'(x) -J6g(x)-9g(x) -I Og'(X) + 25g(x)= 0 Therefore. we have g"(X) So.!. == e2x _e2x[ [(61 + 1)e31]~ ..(g"(x) 1M Note that g'(x) = 2g(x) . we have g(x) = (1. we have w(x) = ex + d . Therefore.Solution (e) Note that f'(x) == 5(6x Marks + 1) e5x + 6e'x == (30x + 11) e5x . we have w(x) = 1 .!. ((30x + II) eSx 3 = (1-6x)e5X g(x) . where c and d are constants.5g(0») ( by (a» = -1 (by the proofs in (c) and (a) ) .< =(1-6x)e5x Let w(x) == e-SXg(x) w'(z) = e-h(g'(x)w"(x} = 5X lA for all x 5g(x») -lOg'{x) + 25g(x») (by the proof in (c) and both f(x) and E R Then. Note that w(O) ee.

we have A+C=O. B-2A+2C+D=O > 2A-2B+2C+2D=O and 2B+2D=8 Solving.[ln(x2 + 2x + 16 2)1~+. 8 ':::::i (A + C)x3 + (B. we have 8 ':::::i (Ax + B)ex2 . C and Dare Therefore. [tan-I (x + 1)]~-_!_[In(x2 8 16 l~8 +'!'[tan-1(x-n l~ 1 dx +8 O(x-li+l JI 1M 1M lA = _!_ In 5 + tan -I 2 16 8 .!.28+ 2C + 2D)x+2B + 2D Hence. (a) ei) x+2 xl x-2 Xl - + 2x + 2 2 2x + 2 +2x+2) -2x+2) - (x+2){x -2x+2)-(x-2)(x2 (x2 +2x+2)(x2 (x) -2x+4)-(x3 -2x-4) =~--~~~~~--~ 2 1 (x + 2)2 _ 4x 8 8 +4 x+2 Xl Thus. B. C = -1 and D = 2 8 x+2 x-2 Thus.2x + 2 = I 1 II 8.2x+ 2) r +8oex+l)2+I-iJox2-2x+2 = 2. 8 Cx+D x -2x+2 . where A . JA 4n+l 61 .2A + 2C + D)x2 +(2A.!. we have -.2x + 2) + (ex + D)(x2 + 2x + 2) So. we have A::= I. B = 2 ._.--x-2 -2x+2 2x + 2) ' Note that Let -4 _-.0 1 II =8 = 0 X4 I dx +4 (x+2)dx ~2 + 2x+2 -8Jo I r1 Xl (x-2)dx -2x+2 (x+l)dx ox2+2x+2 I Jldx I l (x-I)dx . we have -X4 = +2x+2 - x-2 .4 = 2 x + 4 x + 2x + 2 Xl .) Solution Marks 9. 2 x +4 x +2x+2 constants. X4 + 4 = (xl + 2x + 2)(x2 + 2 Ax+B == .

--... we have Itt] + 41J< = ----.+I) for all x x4 . we have -. 4 (_1)"-1 Ix_] =: k~O = bO 2:- 4k + 1 (_l)k -.t)" =0.Q 1 (_I)k 4 4k+ 1 for some non-negative integer > • Then.! 4k + 1 1 ( __ 4 n l)k I Then.. we have _I)k ( 4"" hO Ik+! - (_I)k-l t. we have (-1)" 4 1.--k~O (_I)1r: 4: 4k+l So.._ k~O 4k +1 (_1)1< 4 (iii) Note that x4nt4:s >...:. + ~ k~O 4k + 1 (.dx s Jr ~ +4 dx Jo x +4 ox 1 s I" Since 11"+11=1'1+1 s10 and lim .. 1] xE[O. the statement is true for n = 0 r Assume that 1.we have 2: _"_[(_I)k.·. (-1)" 4 1. +11) + 1 4 1M 4k+ I (_l)k 4 =r Therefore.. /1-j..Solution 0+1 O~ Marks 1 Now.-.-----... -..!}k 4 'r 1 Now.4" So. 4 1M Therefore.-410+1=(-4) 10+(-4) L.+1= (_4). 1 So.(_l)k -4k 1 4 Thus.-"-'" 4 wehave hm.4 +4 Therefore.+. -. we have I"tl x4(.J.+1 =(_4)'+I/Q +(-4)'2:-.{ 12) .4 E [0. bO 1 =(-4t+J "" (-4)'+2[0 + (_4)r+l f-. we have 1r+2 =:-4[ - r+ 1 + . ).+1 =0 62 .. k"O 4k + I _1_ .I] I 411 1M +4 4"t4 forall r... I n+1 + 1 if it is true for 0 n =r = (-4)"+11 _ (-4)"~-!-. _. --$). we have Thus.«l .+11Q + C-4tt_l_. (. we have 1. = 4"" 1k+14 4k+. (-IJI< + 4(r. the statement is true for n By mathematical induction.-..11".h.+1 + 4/0 = "I L--. 4(r +1) + 1 10 +(-4)'+1i:_1_..

O In+1 +4/0 .. =' -. k_O 4k+1 "'L n ~l • _l)k 4 "!~(( =0 H 2 1"... 1M for using (a)(ii) 1 (_l)k L-._l)k (_l)n _...Solution Marks (b) By (a)(ji)..·_-4 4k + I k-O .. we have So.!.!. 4 4 n~..... + 4/0 ) + 410 (by (a)(iii) ) 1M for using (a)(iii) 1M for 410 with 10 substituted --------(3 ) =4/0 =. In 5 + . we have ec L 4k + 1. lim n .tan-I 2 (by (a)(I» 4 63 . b...

(a) Let X"" Marks IM for a suitable substitution asio (J . -1 X X .wehave 1M =0 _x2) b2x2 +a2(m2x2 +2mcx+c2)-a2b2 (a2m2 + b2)x2 + 2a2cmx + a2(c2 _b2) = 0 The straight line y = I A or equivalent mx + c is a tangent to E e::.2 B dB IA + constant 2 =--cos -a 2 .S2B dB a2(~B +.. we have dB dx = -asin B 1M for a suitable substitution =- =_02 •= J I.+ -a~ 2 a 2 . ~m<O 2 . Then. +e>O m «b a2m2 +b2 e::. b2c2 = b4 + a2b2m2 e:>m<O. em<O and am 2 2 b2 c 2 >0 +b e::.b2) = 0 and I M for discriminant = 0 the x-coordinate and the j-coord inate of the point of contact are positive. Then.(3) (b) Putting y=mx+c a2(mx+c)2 =b2(a2 in y=!!.Solution 10.. -1 X 2 -+_ a X~ 2 a2 -x + constant I A or equivalent pp-I for omitting constant ---.~a2_x2 a .sin 2B) + constant a 2 = -sm 2 . (2a2cm)2 _4a2(a2m2 + b2)(c2 .x2 + constant 1A or equivalent pp-l for omitting constant Let x = acosB . em < 0 and c > 0 c =a2m2+b2 and c=~a2m2+b2 and c>O 64 . aZ-a2 cmz>O and -a cn1 .sin 26) C f a Sill 2.---. we have _-..a2c2m2_(a2m2+b2)(e2_b2)=0. 2 2 e::.iS20 dB -a2(~6 .= GCOSe dB dx f~a2 -x2dx = Ja 2 cos2(J dB IA =a2 = II+C.a2c2m2_b2c2+b4_a2c2m2+a2b2m2=0.

.

ill 2 9g 9 9. . ill X3} 9-:::_dx 3 9 j2(6-x)dx d 2 =9 J/H~27-3x2 2 J..1 --.Solution Marks (2) Note that L touches ~ and s.. dx 3 27 . c--?9 ·2]2 ~ + -vtJ-x· X 3. I ~ J . The required area =9 _ 3J3n 2 lA 66 .•. . 3. = I J3 f"2. ./3 1M for using (a) ------2 3 2. I = F.[9 sm .j '. .x dr 2 .j ill 2 ..x. I· I I . 22 ~J and ./3 ~27-3x2 dx- 9 F g./3 dx =J3 IT ~9-x2dx J.. . at(~./3 =".. either one . The required area =( 2 (6-x-J27-3X')dx+ f~[6-X-J92 == F(6-x)dx1 2 9 JT 1 22 3.. 2 ~ .(~. 2 4 _IX. ' 22 ~J 1M for lower and upper limits + IA respectively.

a. r a S: f(b)dx < s: f(x)dx < S: f(a)cb: a . 1M for using tan 2B = 2 tan ~ I-tan IA e 2t -I = 0 . we have 2+. f(x)dx = ~ " Also note that J Therefore.tan a< --2 b-a l+a Thus. b ~ tan -I a b-a So..--~•••~(4) (b) (1) Let taog=t 31r . we have 1 -·-2 '"------ tan-1b-tan-1a 1+'.: 1+. a IM JA I + a~ ..--2 < tan . _I . < < -- --2 I l+a 1 tan-1b-tan-1a Thus:. we have Thus.a +b = tan " b .../8 2 or .r=-2 2-.S·rnce a <.a Let f(x) = _1_2 l+x I I + 02 . Therefore. we have Note that . b) such that 1M for all x E [a. -1-2 . h ave 4 Then. < b • we h ave . 31r tan -8 r. _I . 1 l+b < --2 1 1+'. f(a)dx = --. b .. there exists f'(~") = tan -I = -. S·tnce tan 3n-=. we have f'ex) I+x By Mean Value Theorem. b] Then.2 b. < -----1 + (. = -- Hence.-2 . b-a --2 . b) . we have 12 - 1-1 I = -1 . So. we have tan-1b-tan-1a b-a --·-2 l+b 1 < -1-+-a-.2 . we have --. 1M can be absorbed Note that f is continuous and strictly decreasing on [a .I .tan'" and = --2 Jb. . we have t = 1+ = J2 . b . 67 .x e Ia./8 (rejected since f > 0) . for all .I+b < f(b)dx . (a) Let f(x) '" tan -I X Marks 1M can be absorbed lA '.j. b1 . we have ~ So. we have _.we...1 b=a 1 h Iba l+x dx 2 b.Solution I I.E (a.

37r Hence. where 0 < () < 7r .J3-2 :: .....2) 1+.[6 +.3 .fi-..2 + 3-12 +.fi ../3)(./6 ::: 1+J3+.fi) 2 tane l-tan2() ~ 1-(1+2..fi -./6 +.2) 3..:.fi-J3 =.2. we have O<2()<7r 2 .fi .2./3 (I (1 +..J3 .J{ [1+...fi) ~ ~ 2(1 +.fi .. IA So. we have tan= 1+ v2 ./3)(.. 37r 4 ./3 +..J3 .[6 ./3 .../6 .J6 +.J3 -2J . we have tan 2e 2tan() 1~tan2 o 1M for using tan2() = 2(1+.fi ....[6 J2 . 8 Oi) tan~ :::tane:-f) 7r 24 1M 7r tan--tan8 37r 3 1M 1+./6 +. 2 Then.fi -J3J [./3 + 6 + 2. we have ()::: .fiy 1~(1+·J2/ 2(1 +.fi 2(1 + ./3-2· + 1M +. we have 2() ==..fi -...[6+12-.J2) +2) =~l Since 0 < () < 7r .1+.fi ../3 - 68 .fi .Solution Marks Let tan e = 1 +.. 8 37r t: 'Thus.

2 1M for using (b)(ii) ~=(.2(.j3 -1 (2Ji - -.2 2. 1+(v6+v2-v3-2).. 1M 4.J6 +.fi -. < tan-..13.. we have 3 (J6 .fi) I "./3-2 -------(7) 16+ J2 .fix.Jj -2 = c.J3 + J2 + 2 + J6 + .Ji) Then. < 1f 16+.fi .fi -J3 -2) < !!..J3 -1)(.../3-2 2J2 = .16+ J6-J2 a Hence.fi _ .fi) I _ =.fi 8 Thus.fi .2(./3 _2)2 I >0 a = 0 and b = ../3 .[6 +fi (c) Note that Putting 1 +(.J2) - _ 16--12 8 t: t. we have -~ + a .J2 -J3-2 (J6 +. we have (.fi .J3 ~._ <1 By (b)(ii)..fi .Solution Marks tan- 1r =tane: -~) tan--tan31r 24 1M 1r = 8 3 1M = 1+J2-J3 I+Jj+.: fi) (.[3 ../3 2 + 1) (J3-1)(Jj 2. we have ~ + a = J6 + .2 Therefore.J3 -.[6 + J2 .fi -.fi .d -IX.---- -+a '" J6-.J3 .2../6 -..fi-J3-2 r: < 24 '2 - 1 + a./6 =[::1:~)(::1~) = _.J3 .2 in (a).fi. 2 a 1 -:1..J3 -2 = 2( J6 + .J3 .J6 +..) .2) a 69 .4 =:. we have lA +.J6. we have .fi ~ 1)(.J2 + 1)(13 +.J3 -I .[6 + 2fi +1) .2 (16+.J6 +.J3 .2.f6 +Jj + J2 +2 So.Ii -2)2 = 24 < J6 + ..fi) a I 16 +. we have Let a:: 1+ 16+.

fi -.J6 +.fi 24 -.fi . we have I + (...fi -.[3. we have 3 (16 -. .J6 +.[6 16+8.fi) < 1C < 24(.J3 .fi -.fi -.16 (.fi -2 1+(../6 .2 = (fi -1)(J3 - fi) > 0 lA 1 I < =0 and b ./3 -2 .{i -6.2)1 < tan./2 2 -.J3 .fi 8 Thus..J6-..6.J3 - By (b)(H).[6 + J2 -.fi -.J6+fi-J3-2) .J3 .(.J3 .J6 + fi Putting a I + (....2 1M for using (b)(ii) ..fi -2)(.[6+. = .fi -.J6 +.fi -./6 + .J6 +./2 -.fi) IM for attempting to multiply ([6--!2) sJ6 + s.Ji) ..fi .sE .Ji.2) -_· ··---(4) __ 70 .2)2 < .fi-·1O.[6-.J6 + fi ~J3 I .Solution Marks Note that .J6 +..2 +.../3 -2)(.2 in (a).....fi = -J3 _2)2 = = [ 16 + 8.J6 + ./3 -2 )[...J6 .J6 =~--=-~~~~~ --/2) 8(./3 -IO.. we have 1 ~~~=----=-~ +.[6 -.fi -./6 (16 +.!!_ < .J6 .[6 +..J3 ..2) .J3 .

and hence failed to obtain the necessary cancellation of intermediate terms in the summation. Many candidates did this part with the incorrect assumption Poor. Most candidates were able to find the correct angle. . Most candidates could not write down the correct coordinates of Pn Fair. .-ne candidates only JC'~ ' .. Good. . Most candidates were able to resolve correctly the fraction into partial fractions. Fair. Many candidates could not evaluate 4(a) (b) (c) 5 (a) A 2007 correctly. Many candidates could not perform the correct grouping. Very good. s-ome candidates could 3 (a) (i) (ii) Very good. However. Most candidates were not able to give the important steps of the proof."_ " t iown n (1 wrote d '+X·' )n~1 "" C. Most candidates were able to find the correct value of k . Poor. Q1 P and p=) to (b) 6 (a) (b) (i) (ii) "" I 79 ."dtdatt·s gave directly the integrating constant (b) -. Many candidates were unable touse the result of(a) to complete the proof candidates failed to consider the coefficients of xn 2 (a) (b)(i) (ii) Good. Howevet: so. Most candidates could handle the proof properly. However. and r > I 1 Fair. n+l Some (ij) Fair. Only a few candidates could complete the proof. not find the remainder by considering the value of f(2) However.. Many candidates were unable to correctly find the derivative of I . _1_ without working steps. Very good. some candidates could not correctly consider the following two cases: o < r :::.~ . x(x+l)(x-l) (b) Fair. However. +_ :X+. .J "'C" 2 +"'+n C" "~l wnnout aay jusnneatron. Poor. Many candidates were able to find the correct answer.Candidates' Performance Paper 1 Section A (Compulsory) Question Number 1 (a) (i) Performance in General Very good. some candidates could not state the division algorithm correctly.. Fair. I 3'x' J1X Good. Good. Many candidates could not set up the scalar equations by multiplying the given matrix equation. Many candidates could handle the proof properly. sam" ca.

-2 or 0*-4 ' instead of ' a"* -2 and a 1" -4 ' . (b) (i) (ii) (c) 9 (a) 75 Fair. Most candidates were able to give a correct proof by putting a =-1 a2 (b)(i) a in the result of (a). Most candidates were able to find the correct answer. Many candidates were unable to choose t =A and hence failed to provide a correct proof. Moreover.4)2 correctly. 100 (ii) (b) (c) 8 (a) 94 Very good. 80 . Good. However. some candidates mistakenly rejected the complex roots of the equation. However. However. Very good. Good. some candidates failed to apply Gaussian elimination to find b = 1 . Many candidates were only able to write down the induction hypothesis but failed to use the result of (b)(ii) to complete the argument of the mathematical induction. Very good. Among those who knew the method. (ii) Fair. Many candidates jumped to the conclusion without expressing f'(I) in a form clear enough to justify their answers.Section B (A choice of 4 out of. some were unable. some candidates were unable to expand (4h3 + 2h . Very good.5 questions) Question Number 7 (a)(i) Popularity % Performance in General Good. Most candidates were able to find the correct answer. to find the real value of h . while some other candidates mistakenly used -A in the Cramer's rule. most candidates were able to give the condition A"* 0 . some candidates did not use (a)(i) to find the required result but solved the problem all over again by applying Gaussian elimination. However. Very good. Most candidates were able to give a correct proof. Most candidates were able to use the result of (a)(ii) correctly to find the required solution. some candidates did not know how to use the results in (a) and (b) to solve the equation. some candidates mistakenly stated ' a s. Good. Apart from manipulation errors. However. /32 in the inequality of(b)(i) (c) Fair. while some candidates could not find the general solution with the correct value of b .

( 4~· ) (a3. However.of them made the same mistake as stated in {b )(ii). (ii) (b) (c) (i) Fair. many . 1 7 some other candidates failed to write down the correct relations between coefficients and roots.a2.Question Number lO(a) (b)(i) Popularity % Performance in General Very good. II(a)(i) 44 Fair.. to use t h e property I ates laLe P oor. .. Many candidates failed to give a correct proof.+1 . Many candidates did not realise that an upper bound or a lower bound ofa monotonic sequence which has a limit must be a constant.al) . 8[ .nst = 7 -tan (7 . (ii) Fair. Many candidates were able to define a correct new sequence or realise that all the inequalities in (b) are reversed under the new assumption. M tan. (c) Fair. Many candidates failed to point out that the roots found are all distinct. Many candidates mistakenly claimed that a2"_1 and aln were an upper bound and a lower bound respectively. w hil e . Fair. Most can didates f ·1 d. Most candidates were able to give a correct proof. Fair. (ii) Poor.. Many candidates were unable to find the correct exponent in the expression .n)1r .-1 86 a2. Some of them wrongly applied De Moivre's theorem such as (1 + itane)" = 1 + itanne . Many candidates were unable to give the binomial coefficients C. Most candidates were unable to find the correct answer by using the relations between coefficients and roots.-1 =.

General recommendations 1. mathematical expressions and trigonometric 2. 6. Candidates should have more practice in matrix operations. Candidates should have a clear understanding about the meanings of' and' and 'or'. 7. Candidates should note that an upper bound or a lower bound in the monotonic sequence theorem must be constant. Candidates should have more practice in manipulating expressions. 4. expressions to formulate an 5. 82 . Candidates should have a thorough understanding about Gaussian elimination. Candidates should clearly define all variables when using mathematical assertion or a statement. 3. Candidates should have more practice in manipulating complex numbers.

find the answers. A few candidates wrongly put x = 0 in sin x -i. eli) (b) Fair. Some candidates tried to prove the proposition by mathematical induction instead of Leibniz's Theorem but most of them failed. Fair. Some candidates did not include the integration constant in the answer. Most candidates could obtain the limit by applying L'Hospital's Good. cumbersome calculation. . Number (a) (b) (i) rule correctly = x. Some candidates did not put x = 2 in the result of'(a) and thus.cos 2x considering the left.5)f Good.:! in x without (ii) not fi d In· I' un sin x+ cos Zx-c l while some other candidates . Good. Fair. G 00. hand limit and the right hand limit separately. . could not. Many candidates confused the meanings of injection and surjection. n-] . and hence could (b) 3 (a) (b) (c) (i) (ii) Fair.Candidates' Performance Paper2 Section A (Compulsory) Question Performance in General Very good. They expanded the integrand instead and thus led to . Most candidates could not work out the explicit expression for g(x) not correctly sketch the graph of y = g(x) . Some candidates took a "" ~3 or t "" -3 instead o~ b = -3 . Some candidates claimed that f(x) is an odd function without giving any proof. 4 (a) (b) Good. mistakenly thought that. in (a) by using the method of substitution. Many candidates did not prove the 'only if pan. Many candidates could not correctly sketch the graph. [0. Good.:f . Some candidates tried to evaluate the limit by considering the interval most of them forgot to divide the definite integral by 1r .the limit was co . 2 (a) Good. Some candidates could not correctly expand (x ~ 2)(.d S orne can did mates Call Jd . Some candidates gave the equation of the normal containing the parameter ( because they did not give 6 (a) (i) t in tenus of a. Good. but 5 (a) (b) Good. Some candidates were not aware that the integra! could be transformed into the integral. Good. Fair. .

Apart from manipulationerrors.. Fair.)k _(_1)" ~_l :. most candidates were able to answer this. Few candidates forgot to mention which extreme points were minimum points or maximum points. Very good.+1+ 41" as one single integral.+1 in terms of 1" . In the second part.. Most candidates could complete the first part.t e-21f(t)dt was [e-2If(t)r 0 (e) because they 85 Fair. Many candidates could not locale the correct positions of the extreme pomts. . part. Into (ii) Good."·.Section B (A choice of 4 outof 5 questions) Question Number 7(a) Popularity % Performance in General Very good. Few candidates failed to find the constant term of'the equation of the' (c) (d) oblique asymptote. (b) Good. the oblique asymptote. Many candidates could not find the correct expression for g(x) were wrong in finding the expression of f(x) 9 (a)(i) 8 (8) (b) (c) Some Jo r./" :::::> 0"5. Most candidates could write 6:' 4k __I (. (_I)" 4 (_I)·" J.or' in giving the answers to the so lutions of the inequal [ties. Most candidates could handle and apply the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to find f" (x) Very good. linear function.... (iii) Good. Very good.. (e) Fair. many candidates tried to prove the proposition by expressing 1. most of them did not know that they had to split each of the integrals I Ox I (x. In the second part. Saine candidates could not give the correct expression for g'(x) candidates wrongly thought that the derivative of instead of e-h·f(x) (d) Good. 99 (b) Very good. Few candidates wrongly used 'and' instead of .!. $4 1 1. Many candidates could deduce that e-Sx f(x) was a linear function of x but many of them failed to find the correct coeffici ents of the.:. One common mistake was ._1 and So on. 4 4 84 I /1+1 +41 0 and then . some candidates could not express 1". In the first part.and then in terms of 1.. Good. Few candidates wrongly calculated that the sum of 8 and 3 Was 12. 100 Very good. Some candidates did not understand the concept of asymptotes and misplaced the maximum point above. Some candidates made conceptual mistakes in handling inequalities. 1"+1 "5... However.'. most of them could not present in a rigorous way. 2 ± 2)dx ±2x+2 .

2 85 .J3-2 1+. Many candidates could not express 2_ in terms of Jl'r 24 8 angle. Poor. Fair. Quite a number of candidates failed to prove that I+. Some candidates were not aware that both x and y were positive.. a-m../6 + J2 - J3. Many candidates could not use the result of (b) twice to find the equation of the common tangent L.J . Most candidates could not observe that b =. (ii) (I) (2) 11 (a) (b) 0) 38 Very good./3+..? "2 but most of them did (c)(i) Very good. tan( l'r + l'r) and tanl'r ~ == 8 48 8 find the value of tan - J2 -I to 37t but most of them forgot to prove that tan!!""= J2 -I 8 8 . Many cand idates could not use the result of (a) to find the two definite integrals. and a special (ii) Fair.fi ...Question Number 10(a) Popularity % Performance in General Fair. Some candidates showed that they were weak in surd manipulations./3 ==. Many candidates could not use a suitable substitution to find the definite integral. some of them did not give the answer in terms of the original variable .J6 (e) Poor. Very good. Most candidates could not observe that the required area is the sum of two definite integrals. Many candidates could prove that c = ./6 +. Few candidates failed to mention f'(x) is strictly decreasing. Good. Some candidates used tan 3l'r. For those who had used the Correct substitution.+ b not prove that m < 0 78 (b) .fi -.

General recommendations I. 86 . Candidates should know that they have to give the answer of an indefinite integral in terms of the original variable. 4. Candidates should have clear labelling in sketching curves. 3. surjective function and bijective function. Candidates should know the meanings of injective function. Cand idates must be very careful when mu itiplying both sides of an inequal ity by an unknown quantity. 7. Candidates should have more practice in manipulating expressions with absolute values. 6. Candidates should check whether all conditions have been fulfilled before using proved results. 5. Candidates should know the methods of integration of elementary functions. 2.

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