IAS OUR DREAM

ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Compiled by IOD member ABHISHEK RANJAN ...!

What is Blue Carbon?
Blue carbon is the carbon stored by coastal and marine ecosystems. It is also an international effort to protect coastal wetlands by assigning them carbon credits:blue carbon is to mangroves, seagrasses and salt marshes – what carbon credits is to trees.

Integrated Pest management (IPM) ?
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.

NRAA (National Rain fed Area Authority) Scheme?
Set up in 2006 with an objective of overall holistic and integrated development of rainfed regions of the country..

The Livestock Insurance Scheme?
Centrally sponsored scheme..first introduced in 2005-06 and 2006-07 of the tenth five year plan...twin objective of providing protection to the farmers and cattle rearers against any eventual loss of their live stock and to demonstrate the benefit of insurance of livestock...the indigenous crossbred milch cattle and buffaloes are being insured at maximum of their current market price...

WHAT IS CARBON FOOTPRINT?
Carbon footprint is a measure of-The amount of CO2 emitted thru the combustion of fossil fuels; in case of an org, business or enterprise as a part of der everyday operation; in the case
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of an individual or household as a part of their daily lives; or in case of a product or commodity in reaching the market. the total amount of GHG emission caused directly or indirectly by an individual, organization, events or products is called "Carbon Footprint" of that entity. as far as carbon footprint is concerned India...contributes 4.7 percent f the total global output...wit US contributing 19.7 pc.

What is biomass???
Total mass of living matter in given unit area. how many tiger reserves are there in India ?

INDIA First Interstate Biosphere Reserve?
shivalik hills cz it will involve several states like Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttarakhand,”

JIM CORBETT NATIONAL PARK. DESCRIBE.
**Jim Corbett National Park India had the proud distinction of being chosen as the venue for the inauguration of Project Tiger in India; earlier part of Uttar Pradesh now comes under Uttaranchal, the newly found state. Jim Corbett National Park India is home to a variety of flora and fauna, Corbett park is famous for its wild population of Tigers, Leopards and Elephants. Corbett Tiger Reserve has...a great variety of fauna on account of habitat diversity. In the Jim Corbett National Park are found 110 tree species, 50 mammals' species, 580 bird species and 25 reptile species **Jim Corbett National Park India has always been famous for their resident tigers. Initially Jim Corbett National Park reserve was named as 'Hailey National Park' in 1936. Jim Corbett National Park was renamed in 1954-55 as 'Ramganga National Park' and again in 1955-56 as 'Jim Corbett National Park' after Jim Corbett who hunted down tigers that had turned maneaters, between 1907 to 1939. Jim Corbett National Park India is the 1st and oldest National Park of India. Jim Corbett National Park India was one of the nine Tiger Reserves created at the launch of the Project Tiger in 1973.

**Jim Corbett National Park India is a haven for Tigers as well as its prey, which include four kinds of Deer, Wild Boar and some lesser-known animals. Leopards are mostly found in the hilly areas of the Corbett park. Some nocturnal cats found here are the Leopard Cat, Jungle Cat and Fishing Cat. Sloth Bear is found in the lower regions of the park while the Himalayan Black Bear is seen in the higher hills only. The Dole or Wild Dog, though they can be seen in the southern areas of the park along with the Jackal. Some of the smaller residents of the park are Himalayan Palm Civet, Indian Gray Mongoose, Common Otter, Blacknaped Hare and Porcupine. Elephants are among one of the main attractions of Jim Corbett Park. Along the Ramganga River shores, one can spot the long-snouted, fish-eating Gharial Crocodile and the 'Mugger' Crocodile. Also seen on the rocky hillsides is the Ghoral or Goat Antelopes. The Langur and Rhesus Monkeys are well distributed through out the jim corbett national park and warning the whole Jungle with alarm calls when they see either a Tiger or Leopard from tree-top perches. NATIONAL HERITAGE ANIMAL???

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Elephant. Govt of India lauch project ELEPHANT in 1992 for conserve elephant in india. WHAT IS MULTIPURPOSE RIVER PROJECT??? Multi - purpose means Dam construct on river its water use for Irrigation, Hydro - Electricity project , fish farming, additional facilities may be added for such leisure activities as fishing and sailing. the newly created reservoir may have other uses and the water may then be utilised more efficiently by the local populace, water way and water use as domestic use and potable water it means multi- purpose river project like Sardar Sarovar Dam on Narmada river. WHAT IS BIOTOPE??? area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.

What is the most widely used traditional water conservation system ?
It is the rooftop rainwater harvesting system which was widely used in india.. its also being used in rajashthan, tamilnadu etc..

WHAT ARE UNCLASSED FORESTS?
An area recorded as forest but not included in reserved or protected forest. unclassed forests are managed by the local people and communities as in most of the parts of north-eastern states ..

WHO CLAIMED DAMS AS THE “TEMPLES OF MODERN INDIA” AND WHY?
pt nehru.. purposes of a dam include providing water for irrigation or town or city water supply, improving navigation, creating a reservoir of water to supply industrial uses, generating hydroelectric power, creating recreation areas or ha...bitat for fish and wildlife, flood control and containing effluent from industrial sites such as mines or factories. Few dams serve all of these purposes but some multi-purpose dams serve more than one.

WHAT IS BEEJ BACHAO ANDOLAN AND IT TOOK PLACE AT?
late 1980s as a group of activists from the Henwal River Valley in Tehri district (Uttarakhand, India), led by Vijay Jardhari. this andolan was basically for the protection desi seed varieties.. JOINT FOREST MANAGMENT? this programme vary from state to state and are known by different names in different Indian languages, usually a village committee known as the Forest Protection Committee (FPC) and the Forest Department enter into a JFM agreement. Villagers agree to assist in the safeguarding of forest resources through protection from fire, grazing, and illegal harvesting in exchange for which they receive non-timber forest products and a share of the revenue from the sale of timber products.

EXPLAIN ENDEMIC SPECIES?

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is the ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere... some of the examples are andaman teal, nicobar pigeons.. mithun in arunachal pradesh.. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs along with protection of the environment. THIS CONCEPT was developed burndtland commission in 1987. WORLDS FASTEST LAND MAMMAL? EXTINCT DECLARED IN YEAR? Its Asiatic cheetah , extinct declared in year 1952. WHAT IS AGENDA 21?? Blue print of U.N.O related to sustainable development and was formulated during earth summit in 1992. WHAT ARE KEYSTONE SPECIES? The species which play a significant role in maintainence of the structure of ecological community. WHAT ARE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES??
these are 1) protection of water resources as natural vegetation cover helps in maintaing hydrological cycles, regulatin n stabilisn run offsm acts as buffer agnst flood, drought,etc. 2) soil formation and protection as biodiversity hlps in maintaing soil structure n increases moisture reating capacity as well as nutrient level of soil. 3)Nutrient storage n cycling : as nutrient recycln is an essential event in maintainence f ecosystem so biological diversity is inevitble fr thz as b it micro organism in soil wch helps in decomposition or nitrate or nitryfyng bacteria al help in replinishn soil nutrients... 4)Pollution, Breakdown and absorption: as diverse components of ecosystem wit spcl mention of decomposers, breakdwn n assimilate wastes to mainatain balanc in ecosystm .... 5) climate stability: as vegetation influenc both micro n macro climate by be it maintain rainfall or trees absorbn co2 hence restorin a stable co2-o2 balance.

WHY OZONE HOLES ARE PREDOMINANTLY OVER ANTARTICA??

a) antartic stratosphere is much colder so enabls formtn f polar tratosphericcloud below 20km b) ozone absorbs lyt causin increase in temperature wid incrs in altitude bt if ozone depltd air is cooler addin to fav conditions fr formation f PSC n stabilisation of vortex...vortex is the ring of rapidly circulating air that confides ozone depletion.

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ASIAN BROWN CLOUD???
In a report publishd by united nations envirmnt programme it ws about a 3 km thick layer f pollutants ovr south asia. Its a cocktail f ash, aerosol n black soot fm diesel, dirty coal n biomass burning wit impact f oil refrnries along gulf coastline bng acceleratin factor. Bng strongly criticised by indian govt nw the changd name f thz blnket f pollution is Atmospheric Brown ClouD.

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PHYTOFILTRATION IS SOLUTION TO ARSENIC POISONING???
Use of pteris vittata, a fern plant, can easly hlp purify water poisond with arsenic, It reduces the concentration below safet limits the procedure is called phytofiltration wch unlyk arsenic remvl othr strategies doesnt produce any arsenic rich chemcl sludge wch z hard to dispose.

Farming is the largest source of man made greenhouse gases wen added to emissions frm agriculture directly...
the recnt measures to correct this menace z bya successful progm in ethiopia tht hs gvn cash n food to poor households in exchange fr labour on projects to improve soil quality n water supply infrastructure 2) australias Carbon Farming Initiative- the worlds first largest national legislation fr reducn co2 emissions fm farmin n forestry allown farmers n imvestors to generate n trade carbon credits fm farmin n forestry projcts... 3) reducin wastage f food

Seven of fifteen biosphere reserves in india are part of world netwrk f biosphr reservs based on UNESCO Man and Biosphere(MAB) program list. Name them??? Project panther?

nilgiri; nanda devi; sunderbans ; gulf of mannar ; pachmarhi ; nokrek ; simlipal....

Its a five year project launchd by govt f rajasthan to save panthers fm gettin poachd by buildng walls as well as hi embnkmnts arnd watr bodies... Its situatd in pali district's kumbhalgarh sanctuary...
  What z clean development mechanism?

Watever industries will b setup in an area..ld b after havng a clearance frm envio dept dat they will pursue susatinable development...n dat dere wld b minimal damage to te envio....

How transpiration fm trees n crops cn hlp lessening progression f global warming?
Enhancd surface evaporation in form f transpirtn causes an increase in low level clouds in atmsphere bng low these clouds scatter more solar radiation bck to space n hnce cools the planet as whole lessngn global warmng. nimbus means rain bearin cloud.... Nimbus f two typs cumulonimbus n nimbostratal clouds... These r formd at low atmosphere due to warm weather conditions surroundin surface evaporation, hence at low hgts the vapours condense n gv rise to rain bearin droplets in form f grayish clouds n also cn hv snow droplets if temp f coolin z below freezn temp near surface...

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Green revolution II objectives?
Pulses n oilseeds incresed production in eastrn region mainly wit hlp f hi yieldn seeds, additinal 300 crores bn gvn to promote 60000 'pulse villages' in rain fed areas fr incrzn crop prodctvty n strengthng market linkages so that by 2017 self reliance in productn f pulses n oilseeds cn b achievd..Promotin pulse villages espcly rain fed areA n equal no. Of villg clustr fr oilseeds thn to strengthns mrket links with high investmnts is newer approach...

Wildlife Protection Act of 1972
*The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 refers... to a sweeping package of legislation enacted in 1972 by the Government of India * Before 1972, India only had five designated national parks * It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildife act.

Definitions under the Act (Section 2) * "animal" includes amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles, and their young, and also includes, in the cases of birds and reptiles, their eggs. * "animal article" means an article made from any captive or wild animal, other than vermin, and includes an article or object in which the whole or any part of such animal has been used and an article made therefrom. * "hunting" includes (a) capturing, killing, poisoning, snaring, or trapping any wild animal, and every attempt to do so (b) driving any wild animal for any of the purposes specified in sub clause (c) injuring, destroying or taking any body part of any such animal, or in the case of wild birds or reptiles, disturbing or damaging the eggs or nests of such birds or reptiles. * "taxidermy" means the curing, preparation or preservation of trophies. * "trophy" means the whole or any part of any captive or wild animal (other than vermin) which has been kept or preserved by any means, whether artificial or natural. This includes: (a) rugs, skins, and specimens of such animals mounted in whole or in part through a process of taxidermy (b) antler, horn, rhinoceros horn, feather, nail, tooth, musk, eggs, and nests. * "uncured trophy" means the whole or any part of any captive animal (other than vermin) which has not undergone a process of taxidermy. This includes a freshly killed wild animal, ambergris, musk and other animal products. * "vermin" means any wild animal specified in Schedule V. * "wildlife" includes any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacean, fish and moths; and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat.

***Hunting (Section 9) This section describes what constitutes hunting and the intent to hunt.
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***Ownership (Section 40 & 42) Regarding ownership issues and trade licences. ***Penalties (Section 51) Penalties are prescribed in section 51. Enforcement can be performed by agencies such as the Forest Department, the Police, the Customs and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). Chargesheets can be filed directly by the Forest Department. Other enforcement agencies, often due to the lack of technical expertise, hand over cases to the Forest Department.

wat are bio-pesticides?
bio pesticidez r the eco friendly anti pest chemicals derived mainly frm genetic enggrn as in case by bacillus thuringenesis wch inhibits growth f pests by trnsferrn its bt gene to the genome of cotton n others so pests r inhibt fm goin on sch plants.... it helps in curbin menance f inorgnc n environmently hazardous vhemicls lyk ddt n al by promotin sustainable development...
A NOTE:

The Union Cabinet of India cleared the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of India Bill.The Bill envisages an Autonomous Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. A high-level panel have finalised the rules of implementation of nuclear liability law. The bill would pave way for setting up an authority that would subsume the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). The AERB was set up in 1983 and reports to the Atom...ic Energy Commission. The bill seeks to give the proposed Nuclear Regulatory Authority of India full power to stop construction work and order a shut down of an operating nuclear plant. The bill would give more powers to the country's nuclear regulator by making it a statutory body. It is also proposed that the NRAI order cannot be challenged in a court of law. The authority is likely to include persons of eminence from engineering, environment, social, nuclear and finance areas. Indian Government decided to set up NRAI in the backdrop of the Fukushima nuclear accident.....
NOTE 2:

Tibetan plateau's glaciers melting rapidly
* Glaciers in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, the source of many rivers that sustain China and the Indian subcontinent, are melting “faster than ever,” according to a five-year study by Chinese researchers. * The researchers had focused their study on glaciers and wetlands near the headwaters of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lancang rivers. * The melting of the glaciers could lead to a water shortage and even a dry-up of rivers in the long run, and consequent ecological disasters like wetland retreat and desertification...

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What is the Eco-Mark?
Eco-Mark is an eco-labelling scheme which was constituted... by the Government of India in 1991 for easy identification of environment-friendly products. Objectives of the Scheme: The specific objectives of the scheme are as follow: 1. To provide an incentive for manufacturers and importers to reduce adverse environmental impact of products. 2. To reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products. 3. To assist consumers to become environmentally responsible in their daily lives by providing information to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions. 4. To encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environmental impacts 5. Ultimately to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources. Ecomark label is shown in the figure

Scope of Eco-Mark: The Eco-Mark scheme initially covered about 16 product categories covering a wide range of products. i.e. the Criteria for evaluating products under these categories were initially analyzed and identified. At a later point, a 17th category was included. The product criteria were developed using a cradle-to-grave approach keeping in mind full life-cycle considerations of the environmental impact of the product i.e. all stages from raw materials to manufacturing, usage and disposal were analyzed and evaluated to determine the criteria. Unique feature of the Eco-Mark vis-a-vis other Eco-Labels Eco-Mark is unique when compared to other eco-labels in one aspect; it also necessitated meeting the quality requirements of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards)

Three Committees set-up for the Eco-Mark Scheme 1. A Steering Committee in the Ministry of Environments and Forests

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2. A Technical Committee in the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) 3. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for assessment and certification purposes

NOTE 3:
Schemes for Increasing per Capita Forest Cover in the Country
*The per capita f...orest cover of India is 0.06 hectare while the global per capita forest cover is 0.6 hectare. *To increase the per capita forest coverage in the country, the Ministry of Environment & Forests is implementing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Afforestation Programme (NAP) for regeneration of degraded forests and adjoining areas in the country. *The scheme is implemented through a decentralized mechanism of State Forest Department Agency (SFDA) at State level, Forest Department Agency (FDA) at Forest Division level and Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at village level. *The choice of species to be planted under NAP Scheme is decided by JFMCs, based on local preferences, suitability of land and agro climatic conditions. *Seven models of Afforestation have been recognized under the National Afforestation Programme (NAP) and teak could be one of the species. Besides NAP, the following steps have been taken to promote afforestation / tree planting in the country which will help to increase the per capita forest coverage in the country: · 1)Two new Eco-Task Force (ETF) Battalions have been operationalised by the Ministry for eco restoration of degraded areas in Assam, in addition to supporting the existing four ETF battalions in the country. An amount of Rs. 31.91 Crores has been released during the 201011. · 2)XIIIth Finance Commission has recommended Rs. 5000 crore for five years starting from 2010-11 for activities including conservation and development of forests. · 3)Additional Central assistance of Rs. 81.66 Crores has been released to the States during 2009-10 for Restoration and Regeneration of Forest Cover. · 4)Tree planting is also an approved activity under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

NOTE 4:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. Its main offices are in Lyon, France. The IARC categorizes agents, mixtures and exposures into five categories. Group 1: carcinogenic to humans. ... Group 2A: probably carcinogenic to humans. Group 2B: possibly carcinogenic to humans.

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Group 3: not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans. Group 4: probably not carcinogenic to humans. Only one substance – caprolactam – has both been assessed for carcinogenicity by the IARC and placed in this category,

Swarna Sub1: flood resistant rice variety..

In Tamil Nadu every year, out of the 15 lakh hectares (ha) of rice cultivated during samba season an area of 3 to 5 lakh hectares gets affected by flood during the North East monsoon. In particular, the flood-prone tail-end areas of delta districts and some of the coastal districts like Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam are often affected due to flood, and as a result very low rice production and productivity is recorded. Water stagnation Even though many high yielding improved rice varieties are available for cultivation, they suffer due to floods and continuous water stagnation. If the stagnation of flood water remains for more than a week, the present day varieties are unable to tolerate and thereby yield levels are drastically affected. Natural phenomena As this natural phenomenon is beyond human control, to overcome this problem, TNAU, Coimbatore has introduced Swarna Sub1, a rice variety that can resist floods and therefore will be a boon to these areas. The new variety can tolerate 14-17 days of water stagnation during floods. It is ideal for growing under SRI conditions. Submergence tolerance The Swarna Sub 1 variety is similar to Swarna rice variety grown in eastern parts of the country in all characteristic features except submergence tolerance.

WHAT IS ECOTONE???
Ecotone refers to the transitional zone b/w two different ecological unit which is gradual changing landscape. E.g. Desert changes into grassland or broadleaf forest changes into temperate forest.

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Write few words about Callophycus serratus, an effective agent in bioremediation??
Its a seaweed wch is an agent of bio remediation hvn bromophycolides compounds... These weeds adept in fighting of microbial infectns espclly wardin off malaria causin mosquitoes since malaris highly resistant to most f modern drugs...

A NOTE ON ENVIORNMENTAL LAWS IN INDIA:

Environmental protection has always been a part and parcel of Indian culture as evidenced by the stipulated responsibilities of the state as well as Citizens for the nature and living being the constitution of India under Article 48A and 51A(g). Article 48A : The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the natural environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. Article 51A(g): Fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests,lakes,rivers and wildlife and have to compassion for living creatures. In the Constitution of India it is clearly stated that it is the duty of the state to 'protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country'. It imposes a duty on every citizen' to protect and improve the natural environment including forests,lakes,rivers and wildlife'. Reference to the environment has also been made in the Directive Principles of State policy as well as the Fundamental Rights. The Department of Environment was established in India in 1980 to ensure a healthy environment for the country. This later became the Ministry of Environment and Forest in 1985. The Constitutional provision are backed by a number of laws - acts,rules,and notifications. The EPA(Environmental Protection Act), 1986 came into force soon after the Bhopal Gas Tragedy and is considered an umbrella legislation as it fills many gaps in the existing laws. Thereafter a large number of laws came into existence as the problems began arising, for example, Handling and Management of Hazardous Waste Rules in 1989. Following is a list of the environmental legislation that have come into effect : • General • Forest and Wildlife • Water • Air General :

Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA)
This Act is an umbrella legislation designed to provide a framework for the co-ordination of central and state authorities established under the Water (Prevention and Control) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control) Act, 1981. Under this Act, the central government is empowered to take measures necessary to protect and improve the quality of the environment by setting standards for emissions and discharges; regulating the location of industries; management of hazardous wastes, and protection of public health and welfare. From time to time the central government issues notifications under the EPA for the protection of ecologically-sensitive areas or issues guidelines for matters under the EPA. Some notifications issued under this Act are: • Doon Valley Notification (1989), which prohibits the setting up of an industry in which the daily

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consumption of coal/fuel is more than 24 MT (million tonnes) per day in the Doon Valley. • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification (1991), which regulates activities along coastal stretches. As per this notification, dumping ash or any other waste in the CRZ is prohibited. The thermal power plants (only foreshore facilities for transport of raw materials, facilities for intake of cooling water and outfall for discharge of treated waste water/cooling water) require clearance from the MoEF. • Dhanu Taluka Notification (1991), under which the district of Dhanu Taluka has been declared an ecologically fragile region and setting up power plants in its vicinity is prohibited. • Revdanda Creek Notification (1989), which prohibits setting up industries in the belt around the Revdanda Creek as per the rules laid down in the notification. • The Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects Notification, (1994 and as amended in 1997). As per this notification: • All projects listed under Schedule I require environmental clearance from the MoEF. • Projects under the delicenced category of the New Industrial Policy also require clearance from the MoEF. • All developmental projects whether or not under the Schedule I, if located in fragile regions must obtain MoEF clearance. • Industrial projects with investments above Rs 500 million must obtain MoEF clearance and are further required to obtain a LOI (Letter Of Intent) from the Ministry of Industry, and an NOC (No Objection Certificate) from the SPCB and the State Forest Department if the location involves forestland. Once the NOC is obtained, the LOI is converted into an industrial licence by the state authority. • The notification also stipulated procedural requirements for the establishment and operation of new power plants. As per this notification, two-stage clearance for site-specific projects such as pithead thermal power plants and valley projects is required. Site clearance is given in the first stage and final environmental clearance in the second. A public hearing has been made mandatory for projects covered by this notification. This is an important step in providing transparency and a greater role to local communities. • Ash Content Notification (1997), required the use of beneficiated coal with ash content not exceeding 34% with effect from June 2001, (the date later was extended to June 2002). This applies to all thermal plants located beyond one thousand kilometres from the pithead and any thermal plant located in an urban area or, sensitive area irrespective of the distance from the pithead except any pithead power plant. • Taj Trapezium Notification (1998), provided that no power plant could be set up within the geographical limit of the Taj Trapezium assigned by the Taj Trapezium Zone Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority. • Disposal of Fly Ash Notification (1999) the main objective of which is to conserve the topsoil, protect the environment and prevent the dumping and disposal of fly ash discharged from lignitebased power plants. The salient feature of this notification is that no person within a radius of 50 km from a coal-or lignite-based power plant shall manufacture clay bricks or tiles without mixing at least 25% of ash with soil on a weight-to-weight basis. For the thermal power plants the utilisation of the flyash would be as follows: • Every coal-or lignite-based power plant shall make available ash for at least ten years from the date of publication of the above notification without any payment or any other consideration, for the purpose of manufacturing ash-based products such as cement, concrete blocks, bricks, panels or any other material or for construction of roads, embankments, dams, dykes or for any other construction activity. Forest and Wildlife: The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Amendment 1991 The WPA (Wildlife Protection Act), 1972, provides for protection to listed species of flora and fauna and establishes a network of ecologically-important protected areas. The WPA empowers the central and state governments to declare any area a wildlife sanctuary, national park or closed area. There is a blanket ban on carrying out any industrial activity inside these protected areas. It provides for authorities to administer and implement the Act; regulate the hunting of wild animals; protect specified plants, sanctuaries, national parks and closed areas; restrict trade or commerce in wild

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animals or animal articles; and miscellaneous matters. The Act prohibits hunting of animals except with permission of authorized officer when an animal has become dangerous to human life or property or so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery (WWF-India, 1999). The near-total prohibition on hunting was made more effective by the Amendment Act of 1991. The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 This Act was adopted to protect and conserve forests. The Act restricts the powers of the state in respect of de-reservation of forests and use of forestland for non-forest purposes (the term non-forest purpose includes clearing any forestland for cultivation of cash crops, plantation crops, horticulture or any purpose other than re-afforestation). Water : Water quality standards especially those for drinking water are set by the Indian Council of Medical Research. These bear close resemblance to WHO standards. The discharge of industrial effluents is regulated by the Indian Standard Codes and recently, water quality standards for coastal water marine outfalls have also been specified. In addition to the general standards, certain specific standards have been developed for effluent discharges from industries such as, iron and steel, aluminium, pulp and paper, oil refineries, petrochemicals and thermal power plants. Legislation to control water pollution are listed below. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 This Act represented India's first attempts to comprehensively deal with environmental issues. The Act prohibits the discharge of pollutants into water bodies beyond a given standard, and lays down penalties for non-compliance. The Act was amended in 1988 to conform closely to the provisions of the EPA, 1986. It set up the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) which lays down standards for the prevention and control of water pollution. At the State level, the SPCBs (State Pollution Control Board) function under the direction of the CPCB and the state government. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 This Act provides for a levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by industries and local authorities. It aims at augmenting the resources of the central and state boards for prevention and control of water pollution. Following this Act, The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Rules were formulated in 1978 for defining standards and indications for the kind of and location of meters that every consumer of water is required to install. Air : To counter the problems associated with air pollution, ambient air quality standards were established, under the 1981 Act. The Act provides means for the control and abatement of air pollution. The Act seeks to combat air pollution by prohibiting the use of polluting fuels and substances, as well as by regulating appliances that give rise to air pollution. Under the Act establishing or operating of any industrial plant in the pollution control area requires consent from state boards. The boards are also expected to test the air in air pollution control areas, inspect pollution control equipment, and manufacturing processes. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for major pollutants were notified by the CPCB in April 1994. These are deemed to be levels of air quality necessary with an adequate margin of safety, to protect public health, vegetation and property (CPCB 1995 cited in Gupta, 1999). The NAAQS prescribe specific standards for industrial, residential, rural and other sensitive areas. Industry-specific emission standards have also been developed for iron and steel plants, cement plants, fertilizer plants, oil refineries and the aluminium industry. The ambient quality standards prescribed in India are similar to those prevailing in many developed and developing countries. To empower the central and state pollution boards to meet grave emergencies, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1987, was enacted. The boards were authorized to take immediate measures to tackle such emergencies and recover the expenses incurred from the offenders.

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The power to cancel consent for non-fulfilment of the conditions prescribed has also been emphasized in the Air Act Amendment. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules formulated in 1982, defined the procedures for conducting meetings of the boards, the powers of the presiding officers, decision-making, the quorum; manner in which the records of the meeting were to be set etc. They also prescribed the manner and the purpose of seeking assistance from specialists and the fee to be paid to them. Complementing the above Acts is the Atomic Energy Act of 1982, which was introduced to deal with radioactive waste. In 1988, the Motor Vehicles Act, was enacted to regulate vehicular traffic, besides ensuring proper packaging, labelling and transportation of the hazardous wastes. Various aspects of vehicular pollution have also been notified under the EPA of 1986. Mass emission standards were notified in 1990, which were made more stringent in 1996. In 2000 these standards were revised yet again and for the first time separate obligations for vehicle owners, manufacturers and enforcing agencies were stipulated. In addition, fairly stringent Euro I and II emission norms were notified by the Supreme Court on April 29, 1999 for the city of Delhi. The notification made it mandatory for car manufacturers to conform to the Euro I and Euro II norms by May 1999 and April 2000, respectively, for new non-commercial vehicle sold in Delhi.

“FOLLOWING IS THE LIST OF IMPORTANT QUESTIONS WHOSE ANSWERS ARE TO BE ANSWERED BY THE IAS ASPIRANTS OF IAS OUR DREAM FAMILY BY THEMSELVES N CAN ASSEMBLE IT IN THE ABOVE NOTES.”
1) What is REDD+? Hw wl india benefit from it. 2) Objectives of Rotterdam convention? 3) Ecological significanc f mangroves? 4) What are POPs? Name nine new POPs added as amendment to stockholm convention. 5) CITES? Itz features?

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6) Role of mothr of pearl clouds in ozone depletion??

7) What are the environmental impacts of open cast mining like recently in goa?

8) What is nagoya protcol tht india hd signd? 9) How mobile towers r detrimental to birds xistence? 10) What is green tribunal? Where it Is?

11)

What is e-waste disposal drive launchd recntly?

12) Which projct on publc land fr first tym in india has got registered by u.n. for carbon credits? 13) 14) 15) 16) First glaceology study centre in india wl b at? What z green india mission? Green Manufacturing Committee?? LEED certification?

17) Oryctes rhinoceros or the rhinoceros beetle, possible threats fm this n hw it bn controlld by ICMR??

18)

Ecological effects of migration of different species?

19) Ridley turtles...wats problems these endangered nocturnal species r facin? Possible remedies....

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20) Whats DEPA? 21) Wats causin vultures extinction? 22) Biodiversity in plants ws believd to be dependnt on primary productivity accrdn to biolgy text books bt hw thz theory debunked?

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