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• ABSTRACT: In this paper, the ground plans and reconstructions of early and middle Neolithic houses recently discovered in the Great Hungarian Plain will be studied in a chronological sequence. Their review offers an opportunity to outline trends in form and construction techniques, illustrating essential changes in the style of architecture.

Following the first comprehensive analysis of settlements and house forms associated with Linearband Pottery style ceramics in a European context (Schlette F., 1958), synthetic evaluations of the most characteristic house forms were also carried out (Moddermann P.J. R, 1970, 1986, 1988). Recently, this work has further been developed in the light of the latest research results (Lenneis 1997, 2000, Cladders M. - Stauble H., 2003, Stauble

Introduction Reconstructing the internal development of the so-

2005). Some archaeologists

studied the post-structured

called Balkan-Anatolian cultural complex in Anatolia and South-Eastern Europe (Garasanin M., 1954, 1998) has formed the core of the oeuvre by Milutin Carasanin throughout his life. He regarded areas north of his region of study - including the central Balkans, the Lower Danube Region and the southern section of the Carpathian Basin, also known as the "Balkan-Carpathian complex"an integral part of South-Eastern Europe that formed its northern frontier zone. In this model, the early Neolithic Koros-Starcevo-Cris cultures of the Balkan-Anatolian complex played a decisive role in the formation of Linearband Pottery cultures in Central Europe as well as in the Great Hungarian Plain (for summary see: Carasanin M., 1994). The same problem was also tackled from a Central European perspective. From the 1960s onwards, following in the footsteps of especially G. Childe (1929, 36-67), F. Schachermeyr (1953, 268-281, 1953-54, 1-39) by and R. Pittioni (1954, 126-128), studies published

long houses of the Central European Linearband Pottery culture from a purely architectural/technical point of view (Startin W., 1978; von Brandt D., 1980, 1988; Masuch A - Ziessow K.-H., 1983, 1985; Luley H., 1992). Changes in the buildings of the Linearband Pottery culture were analysed primarily within the framework of the Central and Western European Neolithic by A Coudart, on the basis of an impressive volume of information (Coudart A, 1998). Others developed a rather South-EasternEuropean approach to these constructions (Lichter


1993), sometimes comparing them directly to early Neolithic house types in the Balkans (Lenneis E., 1997, 2000). Continuing this chain of thoughts, most recently M. Lichardus-Itten - J. Lichardus have set out to trace back architectural techniques of the Central European Linearband Pottery culture to those observed in the houses of the Balkan-Carpathian complex. In their work they took data (Licharapextensive use of the latest archaeological

H. Quitta have made it clear to the researchers of European Prehistory that the roots of the European Linearband Pottery cultures should be sought after in the Carpathian Basin (Quitta H., 1960). Such formative asmaterial, semblages of ceramics in the archaeological garian Plain as well as Transdanubia

dus-Itten M. - Lichardus J., 2004). In addition to these, a more comprehensive proach must also be mentioned.

Some scholars have

viewed houses of the Linearband Pottery culture within the context of economic life, considering the houses with adjacent pits and various zones of activity as Hofplatz units (Boelicke

originating from the northern section of the Great Hun(western Hungary), were first outlined by N. Kalicz and J. Makkay during the 1970s (Kalici N. - Makkay J., 1972a; 1972b; 1977).

u., 1982, 18-28;

LUning J., 1988, 68-70). and settle-

The large scale analysis of both buildings

ments became possible only on the basis of large surface


the most prominent examples were discovered at the sites of Szentgyorgyvolgy-Pityerdomb. W.. On the basis of various studies in architectural techniques and settlement structure. 1966). 2003.. 104-106). These were aimed at exploring the general aspects of this set of problems (e. 1982. . 61-80. 1982-83.. several researchers arrived at this same conclusion (Lichardus-Itten M.. 1995. built on the ground surface were discovered here (Horvath 1. 184-185.). On the basis of this find it was concluded that this type of house had existed during the Early Neolithic of Eastern Hungary. On the other hand. Whittle A 1996. 2004.. In addition to these.put forward in accordance with the original theory by H.27-47). Jankuhn H. The interpretation of a pit excavated at the site of Bicske-Galagonyas as a dwelling had the potential of raising false hopes... until recently only a very small body of data on settlement history has been available from the aforementioned area representing the early and niddle Neolithic that would correspond in practice to the distribution area of the Koros-Starcevo-Cris band Pottery culture. 1989. 1-2. In spite of the long tradition of this theoretical stand. Of these. Tringham R. 1978.H. 2000.. Recent summaries of field data recorded at excavations in the Great Hungarian Plain have not substantially contributed to this picture (Horvath L. foreseen by F.. the western section of the Carpathian Basin) archaeological information concerning the subject of this study is even scantier. 1989. 72. 1997. cultures and the Linearthe Linearband Pottery culture were mostly characterstructure. this situation. only a few published house plans (Tiszajeno-Szarazerpart. Quitta (Quitta. Simon K 2004). . Papenfuss D.. some studies opened radically new vistas owing to their philosophical treatment of Neolithic houses and settlements (Chapman J.. 1972. 1997). researchers in Hungary maintained for a long time that dwellings of GARA~ANIN 380 HOMAGE TO MILUTIN . That is to say that. 2004. 1982. 1990. 9.pAL RACZKY excavation projects such as research carried out at Merzbachtal Aldenhovener Platte (for summary see: Luning J. This model had a broach roof of a pyramidal shape. Banffy E. Aspes et al. Meier-Arendt W 1989). A . 15--16). Until recently. built on the ground surface (Selmeczi 1. Beginning with the 1970s. Having summarised data available in the literature. 49-50. that in Transdanubia ("Dunanrul". Of the 7000 square kilometres distribution area of the Starcevoculture.. erdei-dulo Balatonszarszo-Kisfoldek (for and Mosonszentmiklos-Egyeni summaries see: Banffy E.. 2003. 678) . Fig.. the Central European Linearband located on site of the left bank of the Danube. Darvill T. only 18 sites are known in this region. 1997. 1961. Fig. it was again the large surface research preceding motorway constructions that first brought to Architectural history light houses and settlement sections in Western Hun- A fragmented house model was recovered from a Karas culture context at the site of Roszke-Ludvar (Trogmayer 0. upright walls and a square-shaped ground plan. Kalicz N. 1989. The remains of two long houses. to some extent. Subsequently. For the time being. that the occurrence of Central European long house types in the Tisza River region was. A. since this was the ised by a semi-subterranan only type known at the time (Makkay J. 2002.. 70-71) may be accepted. that post-structured houses built onto the ground surface were characteristic of the earliest period of the Alfold Linearband Pottery culture in the Great Hungarian Plain (Domboroczki L. . with no settlement features worth mentioning (Kalicz N. Raczky P. some information SzajolFelsofold) contributed on the archihouses of the gary that could be properly published. . Oross K. Horvath in one of his earlier studies (Horvath F. 296). 1982.g. Given. 161-165.Dimbleby G. It must also be added. Egry 1. 1996). as had been the case with similar features found in the Great Hungarian Plain (Makkay J. 29-47. 2004.Lichardus J... H.Tringham R. 1967. Raczky P. J. is the easternmost Pottery culture.Strocka V M.230). 2004.Koos J. 1971.44-140.. recent excavation results have confirmed the statement that house remains of the emerging Linearband Pottery culture in the northern part of the Carpathian Basin share features with Central European long house types. Hodder 1. several edited volumes were published discussing theoretical questions of settlement history during European and even global Prehistory. 2005). the hypothesis .226. especially through the examples of Fiizesabony-Cubakut and Mezokovesd-Mocsolyas.: Ucko P. 1977.that the formation area of the European Linearband Pottery culture house type may be sought after in the Carpathian Basin (Meier-ArendtW. tectural characteristics of wattle-and-daub Koros culture. . . 12-16. Bailey D. we had but very little information concerning the houses of the Dunantul Linearband Pottery culture as well. It may be said. It was only the large surface excavations of motorway rescue projects in the 1990s which have shown. 87)...Thomas H. the settlement of Dunakesziozekes-diilo.

On the other hand. 193). The post structure of the building could be clearly seen below the layer of rubble.. This uncertainty is clearly reflected by the contradiction in the most recent literature. as well as subsequent influences that shaped its known form. One may not rule out. indispensable in the historical interpretation of Neolithic house types in the Near East and Europe (Hodder I. longitudinal weight-bearing Recent results from Hungary In light of the aforementioned impressive research axis of the gable-saddle roof. but arched in every direction. Banffy. was attached to the south-western long side of the house. the Karas culture building from Szajol-Felsofold is different from other early Neolithic house constructions in the Balkans as has already been pointed out by E.... 2004. Stefanovic M. Hiller St. 11. 338-343. 2000). Fragments of the plastering preserved imprints of structural elements from the house. Jutting out from the ground plan. possibly the entrance. (In fact. Szajol-Felsofold weight of the entire roof was carried by the external The remains of a house whose ground plan measures 7. Fig. Lichardus (2004. 1973. with bundles of reed and sedge tucked in-between. on the other hand. All these reconfirm that data concerning the formation and architectural/technological changes of the post-structured house type are indeed few and far between in the southern section of the Carpathian Basin. whose long eaves rested on the daub walls. 1982-83. However. The frame of the external walls of this house of oblong shape was made of posts with diameters varying between 8-10 cm. 2001. During B.. The ridge purlin had been supported by two thicker posts whose holes were found at either end of the house's long axis. Lenneis (Lenneis E.. 6. considers the local Mesolithic the decisive factor in the development of this phenomenon (Banffy E. clearly marked the original shape of this building. 50-53) that influenced the "life cycles" as well as internal spaces of these buildings. questions concerning the genesis of this characteristic house type. especially erected for this purpose. This structure divided the dwelling into two rooms of moreor-less equal sizes. However. 1997. A dividing wall could be identified within the house that paralleled the short sides of the ground plan. 1-3.. It is of technical significance that the outer walls and the internal dividing walls are all 20-25 cm thick. 1997. Todorova H. Several Karanovo I period buildings of squareshaped ground plans were built with weight-bearing. Its burnt daub rubble. several preliminary reports have been published of this assemblage. It is possible that the house models well-known from Sesklo contexts at Crannon and Myrrini in Greece represent a third variety. Abb. 19. 1997. regardless of whether the roof itself was vaulted or flat.J. Abb. In these constructions.. In contrast to this external structure. g. S. The latest works by M. 1981. the ridge purlin was supported by two posts. 1989.. Fig. relationships between their mor- also raise a few new points concerning the origins of house types in the Alfold Linearband Pottery culture (Figure 1).. It is for this reason that in our region it is unfounded to speak of anything beyond simple practical interpretations. 17. Lichardus-Itten . Fig. This form may be considered transitional toward the single-peaked broach roof (Theocharis D. a type that may have been a roof without internal support. Fig. strengthened by smaller posts.158. 69-71).. a small room. naturally.HOUSE STRUCTURES UNDER CHANGE ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN .: Georgiev G. 130 on p. 192.). 1-4. these aspects of analysis should form a context. 1993. the first complete documentawalls. With this dualistic roof support system. 2004. Stauble (2005. 1998.. However. These buildings phological characteristics are interesting in and of themselves.. tions of the ground plan and of the reconstruction are found in three separate works: Raczky P. 1-18). Fig. remain unanswered. that HOMAGE TO MILUTIN GARASANIN 381 _I . Banffy E.. This arrangement is indicative of a "self supporting" wall system. the results and syntheses it was deemed especially important that some newly excavated house remains from early Neolithic settlements in the Tisza region be presented here. 1996. E. without characteristic roof support posts either in the walls or inside of the dwelling (e. Meyer-Arendt w. I. 8. Raczky P. 211-213) unambiguously state that the Linearband Pottery house type under discussion here originated in the early Neolithic of SouthEastern Europe. Ill. as well as by the dividing wall in-between. 49-50) and H.5 by 4. external wall structures formed of daub plastered between posts. 51-55).5 m were found at the Karas culture settlement of Szajol-Fels6fOld in 1976. such as social and sacral "fieds of force" (Bradley R. 4. and even part of the installation was preserved (Figure 2). a static design in which none of the walls had a particular weight bearing function.. 99-100. P. 2001. This means that the two major vertical posts and the ridge purlin formed the independent. deposited in a 25-30 em layer.1-8).

A . The skeleton of a young woman was found by the wall in the northwestern room. Pyke 1996. A structure in which the traces of one. two or three support posts may be found in the center between the weight-bearing walls of a square-shaped building is well known from several early Neolithic sites in the Balkans (e. where storage would not even have been possible inside. Such a roof with a very short ridge purlin. the early Neolithic building excavated at Szajol-Felsofold is different from the house type known from the Balkans. an independent support line of the ridge-purlin may be recognised. This created the so-called saddle roof variety of gable roof. accompanied by several other dishes. Nikolov 1989. was found here (Raczky P. A small. 1980. supported by two posts. Abb. Therefore. In this design. 96-97. on p. 1998. This example also dearly shows that the ridge is shorter than length of the house. A special feature of the Szajol-Felsofold house is that it is divided into two rooms by a light. adjacent to the south-eastern corner of the building. Modderman P. Actually. A storage vessel of similar shape with barbotine decoration also came to light inside the house. [ w. A. This observation made at SzajolFelsofold is evidently reminiscent of a function. that is the distance between the back side and the facade I entrance of the building. Coudart A. 9).. 1980. in which the roof's ridge spans the house's entire length. a longitudinal axis is created in these houses of a rectangular ground plan. Fig. decorated with an aplique human figure. Starlin 1978. 2).. buried under the burnt rubble. S. 1973. The Y post-setting observed in the houses of the Linearband Pottery culture may have been related to reinforcing the side entrance or the static stability of internal doors cut into the dividing wall.. this task was delegated to the external environment. have v. may be seen in the reconstruction of the early Neolithic dwelling excavated at the site of Nea Nikomedeia based on the work of R. J. The ground plans of Karas culture houses excavated at the sites of Tiszajeno-Szarazerpart and Szajol-Felsofold basically seem to represent this house type. 143. . 1989. In any case. Coudart A. Symmetrically positioned rafters are perpendicular to this line and reach the external weight-bearing walls aslope. It is a peculiar coincidence that a square-shaped. Luning J. The entrance that juts out from the long wall facing southwest was built in a way that it provided access to both rooms of the building..1).. P. It stood in the corner of the southeastern room. clay house model was recovered from the very narrow north- v. As wa~ mentioned in earlier publications (Raczky P. any opening the Szajol-Felsofold house may be recognised when the reconstructions of both the installations and the immediate external environment are considered. Stauble H. Buildings recovered at the site of Madzari (Moskalewska A 1. According to another version. other and were placed in the middle of the back and entrance walls. 5. 1989.. a weight-bearing daub wall would have significantly weakened the static construction of such a structure. It is suggested. 57) are representative of this type. fired working area was discovered. 104.3. i. 86). 18.. These new. cut into (door or window) GARASANIN 382 HOMAGE TO MILUTIN .pAL RACZKY such houses also had inner support posts. 1998. e. however. von Brandt D. oblong ground plan developed as the two internal support posts were distanced from each. 8. that the storage capacity associated with this house was divided: some must have been inside. where most mundane economic activity probably took place. which may indicate the special sacral significance of this space. whose southern sections often served as a storage facilities (von Brandt D. J. Another important find association in the house excavated at Szajol-Felsofold may contribute yet another piece of information concerning the functional division of the inner space in this building. however. similar to the use of Linearband Pottery culture houses.32.. 2000.57. It is emphasised here that the deceased was placed into the northern section of the house. Fig. . been contested (Meyer-Christian 1976. on p.: Moskalewska A 1. 3. but certain degree of storage as well as working activity also took place outside. Another important w. it is possible that the house was abandoned and burned down by its inhabitants as part of the mortuary ritual. These hypotheses. Fig. 157). The arrangement of posts that spanned the entrance hole in the dividing wall reminded Meier-Arendt of the roots of the Y configuration. 167). g. Mould C.Wardle K. 1-25. Fig. R. no traces of this structure could be detected on the ground.Sanev 1989. represent a rather short. hipped roof. 2005.. 1980. the two.. 185).Sanev V. Fig. a broach roof system. Fig. A large storage vessel. Rodden (Theocharis D. 1982-83. characteristic of Linearband Pottery culture houses (Meier-Arendt Indubitably.. 1988. weight-bearing transversal wall made from daub. 368-379. three or four inner posts that formed a row along the axis of symmetry within the otherwise quadratic houses. 1996. centrally located architectural ements may be indicative of a quadrilateral el- pyramid feature of the internal space of shaped structure. 2000. The hipped roof type of houses with a nearly squareshaped. Fig. 65-66.

PI.53). R. .I-roUSE STRUCTURES UNDER CHANGE ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN. the diameters of vertical posts must have ranged between 8-15 cm.. The ground plan of this house from Polgar-Kiraly-erpart is strongly reminiscent to that of the Karas culture house from Szajol-Felsofold. In this new wall structure..Guillaumet J. the weight of the roof is supported by the combination of the external wall. upright walls and a tripartite divi- sion.. whose architectural details are worth discussing within the context of this paper. but are not part of the primary support system. These traits outline a cell-like ground plan of oblong shape. This house had ditch. The ground plan measured approximately a foundation 25 by 8 metres (Figure 3). Abb.. 50--53).). Gy. it may be brought into association with environmental differences between the Carpathian Basin and the Balkans.. twigs and daub. 2005. an area that may be considered transitional between the two aforementioned regions (Gimbutas M. A detailed analysis of settlement features and artifactual assemblages at this site was carried out by E.. 1960. 1998. Stauble H. A support wall ran along the long axis of symmetry inside the house. wood and other raw materials play only a role in insulation. which had a 16 by 4 m side entrance adjacent to its southern. Fig. the ridge purlin. also similar to the Great Hungarian relevant to the functional sub-diviPlain. 2.Shimabuku D" 1989. predominantly made from daub. 83-85). sion of inner space in the building recovered at SzajolPelsofold may also be fundamentally associated with the spatial sub-division of long houses of the Linearband Pottery culture (Modderman P. . long side. 191-196).. Observations. 27-29. one may see a transition from the daub-dominated. The archaeological assemblage of this site represents the earliest (Szatmar II) phase of the Alfold Linearband Pottery culture (Szabo M. E. Nagy E. also had a foundation ditch. 1. 2001. 1997. 94--97. J. it may be said that: a. daub.. Summarising all circumstances relevant to the Karas culture building presented here. opening both into the central and eastern rooms of the house. serving as a weight-bearing frame. Abb.. This shows that such transitional areas. This entrance.29-35. and the group of support posts that are independent static elements in this arrangement. There is a well known open house / shrine model from Porodin (Macedonia) which represents a plastic oven at the opposite side of the entrance. The most recent radiocarbon dates obtained for the Karas culture find assemblage from Szajol-Pelsofold are indicative of the rather early intervals of 5720-5610 BC (VERA-3051). while HOMAGE TO MILUTIN GARASANIN 383 . 4.Winn Sh. A house of special form (Feature 676) was singled out for presentation here. is covered with wood. Estimated on the basis of traces found in the foundation ditch. therefore.12). 1989. 2005. contains some arbitrary elements). The most evident physical manifestation of this phenomenon is the tripartite sub-division of Linearband Pottery culture houses (Bradley R. A plastic decoration in the form of the "Horns of Consecration" may be seen on the top of this oven. a wooden frame that is independent of the external walls. 1997. In the background of this duality. 34: 2). These phenomena may confirm the hypothesis that separating the northern section of Linearband Pottery culture houses from everyday life and the precursors of this structure may be traced back to the spatial division observed in early Neolithic houses in the Balkans. c.Kriveczky B. and 56305480 BC (VERA-3534). Within this structure.Luning J.-P. 26). Polgar-Kiraly-erpart Rescue excavations that preceded the construction of the M3 Motorway in 1993--1994 brought to light a settlement complex at Polgar-Kiraly-erpart. (It must be noted that subsequent soil disturbance and ditches interfered with certain features of the ground plan. Technically. It had the same type of foundation ditch as the external walls. Gy. Nagy. The long axis of this building of key importance was oriented east to west. and reflects a relation between the shared mental backgrounds of these phenomena (Bradley R. forming the long axis of the roof. Thus. right below the ridge purlin. 87. in her PhD dissertation (Nagy. may have existed at several points of the Balkans. 5740-5630 BC (VERA-3531). weightbearing wall systems to a mode of construction in which a wooden frame with posts. 90. ern section of a rectangular building excavated at the site of Sofia-Slatina in Bulgaria (Nikolov V. It is suggested here that the beginnings of the same mental fields of force may be observed in the early Neolithic houses of South-Eastern Europe that later became a lot more obvious in the inner space use of Linearband Pottery culture buildings. It seems evident that the increasingly important use of wood as the raw material for weight bearing elements is determined by geographical and climatic conditions. . . The reconstruction shown in the drawing. and its two support posts represent a separate unit. 2001. 1988.. b. Buildings with vertical post structures and daub as well as stone walls could be identified at the site of Achilleion in northern Thessaly. so its surroundings might have been a special place of the building depicted (GrbiC et aI.

As most buildings at this settlement. two buildings will be briefly discussed here. It measures approximately The most important different habitation units very complicated at Neolithic and Copper Age tell settlements of South-Eastern Europe and the Near East (Chapman J. 19. adjacent to the north-eastern corner of the building. weight-bearing system of side. could also be identified at other Alfold Linearband Pottery culture settlements in the Great Hungarian Plain (Lichardus-Itten M. On the other hand. inner support walls with foundation ditches paralleling the external weight bearing walls are also known from the Balkans: it was exactly this structure that could be observed in the early Neolithic sanctuary excavated at Nea Nikomedeia (Rodden R. Such rubble. 1990. the two form an integral unit. rectangular buildings were sub-divided in rather complex ways (e. these houses should not be considered pit-dwellings. S. This layout consists of rows whose units contain houses. In the opinion of the excavator. and spanned the door opening. House 36-35 is oriented northeast-southwest and consists of two rooms. 40. 24). Pyke G.. In a broader context. Theocharis D.. 11. 9. cell-like between ground plan. Traces of rubble from such houses could be identified at the settlement of Mezokovesd-Mocsolyas (Kalicz N. 3.79-81). Summarising the traits of the house excavated at it may be said that its roof support characterised by the Balkan Polgar-Kiraly-erpart purlin of this house are supported by three posts.. 7. The may mark the base or outline of a smaller storage facility such as a shelf which was possibly incorporated in the wall supporting the ridge purlin. 1. Dombor6czki make it clear that in spite of their post structures and traces of fire in adjacent pits. 1973.. several summaries of research results by 1. . 6.K06s J..Lichardus J. P. 11-16). in which the inner spaces of large. pits and burials. Therefore the pit may be seen as a Uingsgrube. 1982. Another important observation is relevant to the functional interpretation of the eastern room in the house from Polgar-Kiraly-erpart: an oval storage pit was discovered on the outside. Meanwhile. however. Fuzesabcny-Gubakut Settlement features from Puzesabony-Cubakut alridge purlin and the inner dividing wall were constructed using the same foundation ditch system that was observed under the external. The only peculiar feature of the design observed at Polgar is that the elements supporting the 3. perpendicular type of weight-bearing walls. 12. is not surprising: numerous examples of similar ground plans are known from the Neolithic and the Copper Age of the Balkans. Todorova H. 2. This type of architecture was of decisive importance in the Koros culture and may be recognised by its thick layer of rubble left after destruction. whose compartments could have opened into each other only through narrow doorways. 1996. l i together give the impression of the crystallisation of a clearly ordered structure by the earliest (Szatmar II) phase of the Alfold Linearband Pottery culture. 126-127). Dombor6czki.. 2001. A small foundation ditch and a post hole were GARASANIN long axis of the building. It may be said between nine to the that the weight of the roof is distributed system is fundamentally posts that form a triple "module". Fig 182. structural feature is that the ridge 2001. M. They were found side by side in the centre of the excavated surface and may be considered contemporaneous on the basis of their positions (Dombor6czki 1. and two parallel rows of three posts carry the weight of the saddle-shaped gable roof along the edges. 11 by 5 ill (Figure 4).. 9).. This type of saddle roof (Pfettendach) was built by placing the ridge purlin (Pirstpfette) onto pairs of vertical support posts. external walls. Thus similar post / purlin (Pfosten-Pfette) units were created along the two long. - Rodden J. Moreover. No major posts of special static roles may be seen in the wall structure that would have carried the pressures resultant from the burdening of the roof. This settlement structure is essentially identical with the arrangement observed in the ground plans of Central European Linearband Pottery culture sites. 2003. Abb. however. Hiller to conclude that they may have supported an upper floor level (Hiller St. that is..pAL RACZKY the walls could be as thick as 20--40 em. 1997. 2003. weight-bearing walls. using classical terminology. This phenomenon. Map 3).1). 39). This lead to a cellular system in the internal layout. made access to and movement found in the northeastern corner. a. The orientation of this pit is identical to that of the house. 2004. Abb. The rafters (Rofen) slanted toward the eaves. were placed onto the purlins that pro- 384 HOMAGE TO MILUTIN . With the kind consent of the excavator. g. Fig. Fig. it may be said that daub houses built side-by-side in a tight. 22..and dividing walls. During B. 56-83. the elongated. 18. 10. Fig. Abb. tripartite ground plan shows features of Linearband Pottery culture long houses. 1964.. Most of the wall structure was made of daub that formed an altogether massive. These inner weight-bearing walls made S. 8. . 1997. J. the beginning of this site may be dated to approximately 5500 BC (Dombor6czki 1.

In this architectural less water-resistant daub is increasingly wood. In the case of this Fiizesabony building the oblong ground plan of Neolithic houses provides a framework within which old construction materials (wood and daub) form a new synthesis both in a qualitative and a technical sense. 53-55. House 35-74 at Fiizesabony-Cubakut south of the aforementioned was located building in a parallel posi- tion (Figure 5). paralleling the long axis of the building was dug near the entrance. a house of clearly defined ground plan (Feature 710) is most relevant here. It is suggested here that the usually clearly structured wooden frames of the houses recovered at Fiizesabony as well as the wattle and daub used in filling gaps between wall posts show an important phenomenon: the complete separation of static wall function from insulation by the beginning of the middle Neolithic Alfold Linearband Pottery culture. a. e. b. however. independent. A detailed analysis of the archaeological assemblage was carried out by E. 2. 179-180). 1. The only notewor- 385 . The long axis of this pit is parallel with the orientation of the house. This means that. 1993. more exactly. Stauble H. Its structure and architectural makeup was completely identical to the previously discussed House 36-35 (Dombor6czki L. 2005. c. were HOMAGE TO MILUTIN GARASANIN acteristic of Central Europe... adjacent to the north-eastern comer of the house (Domboroczki L. Meanwhile.. 1997.. According to this layout. Fig.36-42). 2005. 149). Map 3). From the viewpoint of this study.167-178) could be recognised outside the long walls. This dwelling measured approximately 14 by 5 m. The building was constructed in a most orderly fashion. 4. This should not be considered a surprise because aside from the long. Polgar-Kengyel-koz Rescue excavations that preceded the construction corner i. thereby representing C. The ground plan of the early Linearband Pottery houses from Fiizesabony consists of three parallel rows of posts. Typ 2. An oval refuse pit (Pit 36) was dug near the entrance. for summary see: Lichardus-Itten and Lichardus 2004.. 63. that is the feature seems analogous with the feature type called Uingsgrube in the Central European Linearband Pottery culture (LUning 1997. 417). 32-36. refers to the cross-section perpendicular to the building's long axis and reflects therefore formal logics. On the basis of the ground plan... A very narrow.e. 2003.. the essential correspondence between the orientation of this house / pit unit to the Polgar-Kiraly-erpart habitation unit may also be considered essential. No remains of Aussengraben so characteristic of the Central European Linearband Pottery culture (Cladders M.5 m wide section was built along the northern side of the main unit that consisted of two larger rooms. no additional weight bearing elements were found inside the building. 104-105). "roof construction on cross rows of three posts" (Rofendach auf Dreipfostenjochen). At the same time. in spite of its greater length. that differences in size should not be attributed to chronology.47. Typ 1c. Pressure exerted predominantly by rain.HOUSE STRUCTURES UNDER CHANGE ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN . 1997. Abb. It was oriented northwest-southeast (Figure 6).11. As a consequence of this arrangement. the houses may have had two "naves". a purely typological point of view (Lichter c. a Langsgrube of oval shape. Stauble H. the location of post holes it is clear that the building belongs to a type whose structure consisted of five rows of posts. Map 3). Abb. vided the long axis of the roof structure (von Brandt D. et al. however. 2003. i. Since no trace of other support structures was discovered. Gy.. one may presume that the two rows of post holes on the side marked the line of the walls. external walls and the row of posts placed under the ridge purlin. as a consequence of increasing loading. the logic of house construction could only follow a longitudinal direction along the ridge purlin. snow and wind may have lead to the development of a special structure in early Linearband Pottery culture houses often called "supporting wooden frame" (Traggeriist) (Luley H. 2003. 106... . 1993. Nagy (Nagy E.. Lenneis E. The traditional name for this structure. Lichter's Type AI (Lichter C. thy difference is that this building was divided into 3 rooms. the width of this building is largely identical to that of the aforementioned house. A). major wooden support posts had to be placed inside the walls in the northern frontier region that had not been necessary in the homogeneous wall structures of early Neolithic houses in South-Eastern Europe. The post holes marking this narrow section. owing to geographical/climatic complex by replaced influences char- of the M3 Motorway in 1993-1994 brought to light part of a settlement at the site of Polgar-Kengyel-koz that represented the Phase 2 of the Alf6ld Linearband Pottery culture. adjacent to the north-eastern of the house. 1980. This house had a post structure and was of an oblong shape and measured 15 by 6 m. This is indicative of the fact that two and three room houses coexisted at the site. 1992).Stauble H. Meanwhile. 2005. This contained the remains of two buildings with post-structures (Hajdu Zs..

manifested in the elongation of the ground plan and may reflect the necessity of roofed storage place under the conditions of the Great Hungarian Plain. but were also built independently into the daub wall structure. entrance wall were found inside the house at Polgar-Kengyelkoz. One of the changes is clearly shown in the case of the house from Polgar-Kiraly-erpart. They must have been accompanying elements of the mortuary rite. This means that in the Great Hungarian Plain. Bradley when discussing the "north section" in relation to the Linearband Pottery culture in Central Europe (Bradley R. It may be indicative of a symbolic connection as has been outlined by R. new forms may also be hypothesised in the third dimension: these concern the transformation of upright walls as well as the roof structure. 2000.. Discussion In this paper. These walls equally served as space dividers and roof supports J. Cladders M. This means that a narrow shelf may be reconstructed in the south-eastern inner room of the house. A child. The large vessel of ovoid shape that contained the fragmented remains of the skeleton lay on its side on top of a strongly fired. as well as in Central Europe (including Transdanubia in Western Hungary). Actually. that resulted in the general distribution of a relatively uniform type of house over a broad geographical area. the interaction of identical environmental and cultural factors may be hypothesised at the beginning of the Early Neolithic. whose bottoms were sealed using thin plastering. Two postholes. They were located symmetrically in relation to the building's long axis. This transformation is.. 1980.. single room buildings known from the Balkans. 1998. the ground plans and reconstructions of early and middle Neolithic houses recently discovered in the Great Hungarian Plain were studied in a chronological sequence.pAL RACZKY partially disturbed at its northern end. heavy posts not only supported the ridge purlin. In general. thereby indicating type seen in the Central European Linearband Pottery culture. Perhaps the physical proximity between this peculiar burial and the northwestern end of the house is not a coincidence. in which the traditional supporting walls are unusually thick and an inner dividing wall along the building's long axis also carry the weight of the roof. 2001. above all. The two nearly intact vessels that were found below must have formed part of the same burial assemblage. in the plane of the" attic" that may be considered a simple version of the Speicherboden described in the houses of the Linearband Pottery culture in Central Europe (von Brandt D. illustrating essential changes in the style of architecture (Figure 7).Stauble H. Characteristics of the building presented here show that the post structure in houses of the Aifold Linearband Pottery culture is quite similar to that of the house 386 HOMAGE TO MllUTIN GARASANIN . while the wattle and daub serve only for filling and insulation. Already during the time of the Koros culture. placed into a large vessel was once buried in the deeper.451-454. 72. In this wall structure. In this building. north-western end of this pit. basin-like surface. It seems that these pits of 10 to 50 em the depths served as food storage. The other noteworthy feature of the house discovered at Polgar-Kengyel-koz is its south-eastern room. This is the first instance in the history of the Alfold Linearband Pottery culture when food storage facilities may be seen within the house. Four basin-shaped pits were found within this nearly square-shaped area. 53). The end result of this process may be clearly seen in the Linearband houses represented Polgar-Kiraly-erpart Pottery by the examples of buildings from and Fiizesabony-Cubakut. Coudart A. Their review offered an opportunity to outline trends in form and construction techniques. At the beginnings of food producing economies a great variety of massive wall types combined stone.. 2003. may be perceived as the end station of a process whose beginning is represented by placing a storage vessel into the Koros culture house described from the site of Szajol-Felsofold. therefore some of them cannot be identified. In the proximity of this feature a 8 m long Langsgrube of oval shape paralleling the orientation of the house was discovered. whose ends fit onto the purlins corresponding to the side walls. well protected this phenomenon from precipitation. an increase in the ground plan may be observed relative to the small. daub and wood in both South-Eastern Europe and the Near East. thereby transmitting the weight of the roof into the ground. paralleling the south-eastern. They lead us to the conclusion that such posts may have supported a span of transversal direction. . the static function is taken over completely by the post structure. Another possibility is shown by the example of the house from Fiizesabony-Cubakut.157-158. 493-495). it may be said that changes in the building types under discussion here may be seen in three dimensions. Paral- function of this room within the house. Liming leling these changes in the ground plans.

and wood-based styles in the margins of the Northern Balkans. 1997. The immediate external environment of the Alfold Linearband shows similarities Pottery houses also types deto those of the building scribed in Transdanubia and the rest of Central Europe. Meanwhile. as manifested in the change of house structures. This stratigraphic sequence. This means that culture change.HOUSE STRUCTURES UNDER CHANGE ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN . It should be seen as part of a complex and comprehensive change in life-ways and mentality that embodies a new relationship between humans and their built environments (Watkins T. between levels 6 and 2. Given this short time span. Since. L. The magnitude of various forces that exerted pressure on the roof structure were clearly illustrated by the calculations published in an analysis rows by H. 2000.[ahrbuch des Romisch-Cermanishen MFME . the beginnings of change in the Carpathian Basin are represented by the occurrence of massive ridge posts in the house plans from SzajolFelsofold and Tiszajend (Lenneis E. Logically. 1990. Such antecedents. Absolute chronology is also worth considering in relation to the changes and influencing factors that characterise the emergence of the aforementioned building types in the Great Hungarian Plain. represents a longer. Lichardus. Luley (Luley H.. the wall may be considered a weight bearing structure. the internal subdivision of the inner space also shows the well known tripartite structure. Although. 1975..343-344). among others. no massive support posts were seen in this type. Thus. Redman Ch. of posts identified in the ground plans of houses from the house excavated at PolgarKengyel-koz represents the five-row ground plan structure well known from Central Europe. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbreviations JRGZM . In accordance with E. 51-55). 1992.. took a relatively short time of 100-200 years.. at this point it does not seem realistic to trace back houses of the Linearband Pottery culture to buildings of round ground plans known from the local Mesolithic. 57. thereby creating new types of houses in Linearband Pottery architecture. at the site of Beidha. approximately 500 years time interval within the PPNB Period (Mellaart 383-384). In this building. one may reckon with far-reaching local traditions. Thus. Staub Ie. In addition to the aforementioned effects. 12. In comparison with the triple. however. the wooden structure reflects the final development of a basic form that became an independent type throughout Europe. this may be the consequence of heavy erosion that had also significantly damaged the floor level.. In addition. however.Mora Ferenc Muzeum Evkonyve PZ . and its wall structures represent a transition between houses dominated by daub and/or wood respectively. Therefore arguments for local development from independent Mesolithic forms into an ultimate Linearband Pottery house type are difficult to support (Banffy E. Lichardus-Itten and J. no traces of the Aussengraben were found near the houses of the Alfold Linearband Pottery culture..Szolnok Megyei Muzeumok Evkonyve Zentralmuseum UPA. motives may also have played an important role in the emergence of this internal arrangement in Linearband Pottery culture buildings. 103142). 64-78). in the Near East. an increasing number of scholars emphasise that architectural change does not simply take place on a strictly utilitarian basis.. as well as H. 143-144. The Koros culture was distributed in the northern frontier zone of this "new universe". 2004. longitudinal Ftizesabony-Gubakut. "mental/ideological" environmental J.1978. Calibrated radiocarbon dates obtained for the Koros culture settlement of Szajol-Felsofold range between 5740 and 5480 BC.. one may argue.Prahistorische Zeitschrift SzMME . for example... while the estimated beginning of the Phase 1 Alfold Linerband Pottery settlement at Fuzesabony-Cubakut was 5500 BC (Dombor6czki L. 146-149). (for a time-tested summary see Aurenche 0. cultural. 24). are yet to be documented in the Carpathian Basin. A transformation from dwellings of round ground plans into rectangular houses could be observed. Lenneis. that it was the Kurus type architecture of remarkable technical and mental traditions that formed a new synthesis between the daub. by the second phase of the Alfold Linearband Pottery culture. until recently. 1981. it must have been the roof superstructure that made the strengthening of the weightbearing walls necessary as increasing precipitation and wind pressure posed a challenge to be reckoned with toward Central Europe. however.historischen Archaologie TO MILUTIN GARASANIN 387 .Universitatsforschungen HOMAGE zur prii. Conclusion In agreement with the most recent conclusions by M. 2003. the connection between the house and the Uingsgrube can be clearly detected.

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. . Gemeinde Aldenhoven.V. Aachen 1980.Thomas H.: Neolithic Houses in Northwest Europe and Beyond.The origins of house and home? World Archaeology 21. Whittle A. Exeter 1996. UNDER CHANGE Hauser des ON THE GREAT HUNGA~IAN PLAIN . K6ln 1988.. 1996 .Liming J... 1990.. Watkins T. von Brandt D. . . 13--26. 1990 . 36--288.Houses in context: Buildings as HOMAGE TO MILUTIN GARASANIN 391 . PALRACZKY Eotvos l. In: Boelicke U.Hauser.HOUSE STRUCTURES von Brandt D. In: Darwill T. 1988 . 1980 .Die linienbandkeramischen Siedlungsplatzes Langweiler 8. Neolithic Studies Group Seminar Papers I.. 336-347.Zimmermann A. Budapest raczky@ludens. .elte.Stehli P. Kreis Duren.: Der bandkeramische Siedhmgplatz Langweiler 8. Brandt D.orand University Institute of Archaeological Sciences. Oxbow Monographs 57.

4. 3. Polgar-Kinily-erpart. 2. Pclgar-Kengyel-koz 392 HOMAGE TO t-1ILUTIN GARJ·\. Fiizesabony-Gubakut.SANfN .pAL RACZKY FIGURE I Geographical distribution of the early and middle Neolithic sites discussed in the text: I. Szajcl-Felsofold.

HOUSE STRUCTURES UNDER CHANGE FIGURE 2 ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN . . .. ~~< b / c 3m a-c.. Ground plan and reconstruction of a house at the Keres culwre site of Szajol-Felsofeld HOMAGE TO r'1ILUTIN GARASANIN 393 ~. a ···. .'·· c ~: .

pAL RACZKY FIGURE 3 a b c o 3m a-c. Ground plan and reconstruction of a house at the earliest Alfald Linerband Pottery culture settlement of Polgar-Klraly-erpart 394 HOMAGE TO MILUTIN GARASANIN .

HOUSE STRUCTURES UNDER CHANGE ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN". '~" a • \ • o • • b • • • 3m a-b. Ground plan and reconstruction of a house at the earliest Alfold Linearband Pottery culture settlement of Fiizesabony-Gubakut. FIGURE 4 '-. HOi"iAGE TO "vJILUT.• • .IN GARASANIN 395 . ' 10 • . '".

• 3m GARASANiN a • b a-b. Ground plan and reconstruction of a house at the earliest Alfold Linearband Pottery culture settlement of Flizesabony-Gubakut TO MILUTIN . • o .pAL RACZKY FIGURE 5 • 396 HOMAGE .

Ground plan and reconstruction of a house at the earlier Alfold Linearband Pottery culture settlement of Polgar-Kengyel-koz HOMAGE TO I"IILUT'IN GARASANIN 397 • . FIGURE 6 a (!) (} I IJ (jI (j b c<j 0 li It @ II ~ri?rt ~ 8) @<f 1 0 \!>O 3m ~ 'J o 0(1) @~(JJ ~ (j) t) @ ~ c (j) (jl @\!> a-c."'1'~. .HOUSE STRUCTURES UNDER CHANGE ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN".

.~"'...l:: iJ ". " • (II ..-1._~" I_ _1 ..:ill Jj U.. Fuzesabcny-Gubakut (3)... !r. II ~ _... Polgar-Kengyel-koz (4). 7·i . j) • •••• I I .pAL RACZKY FIGURE 7 Constructions with supporting post .I. " \. \j...I I I ._.f " .• • " Constructions without supporting post Paleolithic •-------------------------- Mesolithic r-i r. Polgar-Kiraly-erpart (2)..'.11- I 4 Later Neolithic Il Hypothetical variation in house plans from circular hut to rectangular longhouses (LBK culture) in South-Eastern Europe with the building types of Szajol-Felsofold (I). :O'~ I ( •••• i-: •• r:' ••... 11 . li 'i Early Neolithic .'. 398 HOMAG E TO MILUTIN GARASANIN .-.1"..-°-"3 L~J. . rrn Ii.-. I 0 I !~::"Ir \.

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