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Darwinism Refuted

Darwinism Refuted

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Published by wercan

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Published by: wercan on Nov 26, 2008
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Another interesting example of the irreducibly complex organs in
living things is the human ear.
As is commonly known, the hearing process begins with vibrations in
the air. These vibrations are enhanced in the external ear. Research has
shown that that part of the external ear known as the concha works as a
kind of megaphone, and sound waves are intensified in the external
auditory canal. In this way, the volume of sound waves increases

Sound intensified in this way enters the external auditory canal. This
is the area from the external ear to the ear drum. One interesting feature of
the auditory canal, which is some three and a half centimeters long, is the
wax it constantly secretes. This liquid contains an antiseptic property
which keeps bacteria and insects out. Furthermore, the cells on the surface
of the auditory canal are aligned in a spiral form directed towards the
outside, so that the wax always flows towards the outside of the ear as it
is secreted.

Sound vibrations which pass down the auditory canal in this way
reach the ear drum. This membrane is so sensitive that it can even
perceive vibrations on the molecular level. Thanks to the exquisite
sensitivity of the ear drum, you can easily hear somebody whispering
from yards away. Or you can hear the vibration set up as you slowly rub
two fingers together. Another extraordinary feature of the ear drum is
that after receiving a vibration it returns to its normal state. Calculations
have revealed that, after perceiving the tiniest vibrations, the ear drum
becomes motionless again within up to four thousandths of a second. If it
did not become motionless again so quickly, every sound we hear would
echo in our ears.

The ear drum amplifies the vibrations which come to it, and sends
them on to the middle ear region. Here, there are three bones in an
extremely sensitive equilibrium with each other. These three bones are

Irreducible Complexity


known as the hammer, the anvil and the stirrup; their function is to
amplify the vibrations that reach them from the ear drum.
But the middle ear also possesses a kind of "buffer," to reduce
exceedingly high levels of sound. This feature is provided by two of the
body's smallest muscles, which control the hammer, anvil and stirrup
bones. These muscles enable exceptionally loud noises to be reduced
before they reach the inner ear. Thanks to this mechanism, we hear sounds
that are loud enough to shock the system at a reduced volume. These
muscles are involuntary, and come into operation automatically, in such a
way that even if we are asleep and there is a loud noise beside us, these
muscles immediately contract and reduce the intensity of the vibration
reaching the inner ear.

The middle ear, which possesses such a flawless design, needs to
maintain an important equilibrium. The air pressure inside the middle ear
has to be the same as that beyond the ear drum, in other words, the same
as the atmospheric air pressure. But this balance has been thought of, and
a canal between the middle ear and the outside world which allows an
exchange of air has been built in. This canal is the Eustachean tube, a
hollow tube running from the inner ear to the oral cavity.


Hammer, anvil and stirrup

Semicircular canals

Vestibular nerve


Eustachian tube



auditory canal


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