1. What is virtual constructors/destructors?

Virtual destructors: If an object (with a non-virtual destructor) is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to the object, the base-class destructor function (matching the pointer type) is called on the object. There is a simple solution to this problem – declare a virtual base-class destructor. This makes all derived-class destructors virtual even though they don’t have the same name as the base-class destructor. Now, if the object in the hierarchy is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to a derived-class object, the destructor for the appropriate class is called. Virtual constructor: Constructors cannot be virtual. Declaring a constructor as a virtual function is a syntax error. Does c++ support multilevel and multiple inheritance? Yes. 2. Why Garbage collection? Since C++ does not provide automatic garbage collection like some other languages, smart pointers can be used for that purpose. The simplest garbage collection scheme is reference counting or reference linking, but it is quite possible to implement more sophisticated garbage collection schemes with smart pointers. 3. How to write a swap( ) function which swaps the values of the variables using bitwise operators.? Ans: Here is the swap( ) function. swap ( int *x, int *y ) { *x ^= *y ; *y ^= *x ; *x ^= *y ; } The swap( ) function uses the bitwise XOR operator and does not require any temporary variable for swapping. 4. What are the advantages of inheritance? • It permits code reusability. • Reusability saves time in program development. • It encourages the reuse of proven and debugged high-quality software, thus reducing problem after a system becomes functional. 5. What is the difference between declaration and definition? The declaration tells the compiler that at some later point we plan to present the definition of this declaration. E.g.: void stars () //function declaration The definition contains the actual implementation. E.g.: void stars () // declarator { for(int j=10; j>=0; j--) //function body cout<<”*”; cout< function_declaration; template function_declaration; The only difference between both prototypes is the use of keyword class or typename, its use is indistinct since both expressions have exactly the same meaning and behave exactly the same way. 6. What do you mean by inline function? The idea behind inline functions is to insert the code of a called function at the point where the function is called. If done carefully, this can improve the application's performance in exchange for increased compile time and possibly (but not always) an increase in the size of the generated binary executables. 7. What is virtual class and friend class? Friend classes are used when two or more classes are designed to work together and need access

Difference between realloc() and free()? The free subroutine frees a block of memory previously allocated by the malloc subroutine. calloc. 15.to each other's implementation in ways that the rest of the world shouldn't be allowed to have. What is abstraction? Abstraction is of the process of hiding unwanted details from the user. types and order of the arguments in the call. This capability is called function overloading. . used for adding two integers or for using it to concatenate two strings. Every object belongs to a class and every class contains one or more related objects. Function overloading is commonly used to create several functions of the same name that perform similar tasks but on different data types. the C++ compiler selects the proper function by examining the number. but can add embellishments and refinements of its own. Objects are created and eventually destroyed. Ø An Object on the other hand has a limited lifespan. Ø A Class is static. 14. 11. called derived classes. Another example can be a plus ‘+’ sign. Overloaded operators are syntactic sugar for equivalent function calls. The realloc subroutine changes the size of the block of memory pointed to by the Pointer parameter to the number of bytes specified by the Size parameter and returns a new pointer to the block. They form a pleasant facade that doesn't add anything fundamental to the language (but they can improve understandability and reduce maintenance costs). What is the difference between an object and a class? Classes and objects are separate but related concepts. Polymorphism is the ability of an object (or reference) to assume (be replaced by) or become many different forms of object. What do you mean by inheritance? Inheritance is the process of creating new classes. 12. Operator overloading allows existing C++ operators to be redefined so that they work on objects of user-defined classes. during. What is encapsulation? Packaging an object’s variables within its methods is called encapsulation. it may be desirable for class DatabaseCursor to have more privilege to the internals of class Database than main() has. The derived class inherits all the capabilities of the base class. Undefined results occur if the Pointer parameter is not a valid pointer. and after the execution of a program. The pointer specified by the Pointer parameter must have been created with the malloc. 8. For instance. What do you mean by binding of data and functions? Encapsulation. Undefined results occur if the Pointer parameter is not a valid pointer 10. function overriding. 9. or realloc subroutines and not been deallocated with the free or realloc subroutines. In other words. What is polymorphism? Explain with an example? "Poly" means "many" and "morph" means "form". no action will occur. If the Pointer parameter is a null value. The attributes of a class don't change. Ø The class to which an object belongs is also (usually) static. the attributes of the object may undergo significant change. When an overloaded function is called. If a particular object belongs to a certain class at the time that it is created then it almost certainly will still belong to that class right up until the time that it is destroyed. 13. All of the attributes of a class are fixed before. from existing classes or base classes. as long as these functions have different sets of parameters (at least as far as their types are concerned). Also during that lifetime. Example: function overloading. virtual functions. they help keep private things private. What is function overloading and operator overloading? Student Resources Function overloading: C++ enables several functions of the same name to be defined.

0 but not in version 3. When this is done. This code is built into Turbo C++ 1. What is the difference between class and structure? Structure: Initially (in C) a structure was used to bundle different type of data types together to perform a particular functionality. By default all the members inside the class are private. However there is an exception can be using friend classes. A. Ø Protected data members and member functions are only available to derived classes.16. the compiler must be notified that the symbol is declared in an external module without type information tacked on to the symbol. Class: Class is a successor of Structure. private? Ø Public. 19. Ø Public data members and member functions are accessible outside the class. static members without definitions were given a default value of 0. A. After creation the user need not know the specifics of the working of a class. When linking C or Assembly language modules with C++ modules I get undefined symbol errors at link time. }.0. But it must be listed in the class definition. 20. A friend function is not a member of the class. Q. 21. protected. Objects have state and behavior. In order to support the language to its fullest. Turbo C++ must attach information to the symbols generated for function names and variables. 22. the symbol will no longer match the standard C style function name. it can access its private and protected members. even if the object is accessed by a base pointer rather than a derived pointer. C++ is a strongly typed language. This is done by prototyping the function as type extern "C". What is a class? Class is a user-defined data type in C++. protected and private are three access specifiers in C++. This allows algorithms in the base class to be replaced in the derived class. even if users don't know about the derived class. int. What is friend function? As the name suggests. // name altered See related comments under Linker Errors and in the Paradox Engine question in this section. Here is a quick example: extern "C" int normal_c_func( float. can be used to define the member functions of a class outside the class. What potential problems can arise from typecasting a base class pointer into a derived . char ). It appears that none of the C or Assembly public symbols can be found. But C++ extended the structure to contain functions also. Q. As a friend of a class.0 compiler. The programmer must now give an explicit definition for each static member. 18. Ø Private data members and member functions can’t be accessed outside the class. In order to link correctly. What is a scope resolution operator? A scope resolution operator (::). What is an object? Object is a software bundle of variables and related methods. 17. The major difference is that all declarations inside a structure are by default public. Here is a quick example: class A { static int i. This default definition will no longer be made in the compiler. Classes with static data members are getting linker errors ("undefined"). The compiler makes sure the replacement is always called whenever the object in question is actually of the derived class. Q. A linker error saying that A::i is not defined will result unless the source also contains a line such as: int A::i = 1. What is public. the function acts as a friend to a class. // name not altered void cplusplus_function( int ). It can be created to solve a particular kind of problem. What are virtual functions? A virtual function allows derived classes to replace the implementation provided by the base class. In the 1.

Use the scope (::) operator. Q. given two variables of the same name. To do this you need to prototype the Engine functions as extern "C". In the pxengine.class pointer so that the derived class's member functions can be called? A. its constructor will be called before any nonvirtual base class constructors. Q: What's the difference between the keywords STRUCT and CLASS? A: The members of a STRUCT are PUBLIC by default. Can I insure that one base class constructor will be called before all other constructors? A: If you declare the base class as a virtual base class. you will have to assure that the names of the functions do not get "mangled" by the C++ compiler. they default to PRIVATE. Q: I have declared a derived class from a base class. If they are protected. the method being called may not exist in the base class. Q: I have a class that is derived from three base classes. one local and one global. If they are public. but I can't access any of the base class members with the derived class function. friends. for(int x=0. /* inserted at line # 268 */ #ifdef __cplusplus extern "C" { #endif /* inserted at line # 732. while in CLASS. A: Derived classes DO NOT get access to private members of a base class. using #include functions such as printf() and scanf() will continue to be available.h header file insert the following code at the lines indicated. and any derived classes. x++) . using them in conjunction with stream oriented functions can lead to unpredictable behaviour. However. they are accessible by the class members. Q: Are the standard library I/O functions still available for use with the C++ iostreams library? A: Yes. just before the final #endif */ #ifdef __cplusplus } #endif Paradox Engine version 2. Otherwise the constructors are called in left-to-right order on the declaration line for the class. A: Because the Paradox Engine functions are all compiled as C functions. If this is typecast to a derived type. int x = 10. x < ::x. the base class members must be declared as either public or protected. you would be grabbing the address of a function that does not exist. In order to access members of a base class. There is always the possibility of a base pointer actually pointing to a base class. Q: How can I use the Paradox Engine 1. Therefore.0 is "aware" of C++ and thus does not require any modifications to its header file. Syntactically this is allowable. how do I access the global instance within the local scope? A. They are otherwise functionally equivalent.0 with C++?. In C++. then any portion of the program can access them.

The compiler will flag this as a redeclaration error because neither return types nor argument names are considered when determining unique signatures for overloading functions. Q. Q. . } or by including the function declaration and code body within a class: class test { tv public: void func(void) { cout << "inline function within a class. much like macros. // This will loop 10 times } Q. What does the _seg modifier do? A. double b). Only number and type of arguments are considered. For instance. Using _seg causes a pointer to become a storage place for a segment value. all members are private by default if neither public nor private sections are declared. You need to put parentheses around the expression to produce the expected results: new (int (*[10]()).\n"} }. They are declared by using the inline keyword when the function is declared: inline void func(void) { cout << "printing inline function \n". then when you use "*x". Q. If I pass a character to a function which only accepts an int. No. What are inline functions? What are their advantages? How are they declared? A. The new operator is a unary operator and binds first to the int keyword producing the following: (new int) (*[10])(). If I don't specify either public or private sections in a class. or will the compiler flag it as an error? Why? void test( int x. if "int _seg *x" contains the value 0x40. Q. rather than an offset ( or a segment/offset ).{ cout << "Loop # " << x << "\n". In a class. An inline function is a function which gets textually inserted by the compiler. The compiler will promote the char to an int and use the integer representation in the function instead of the character itself. Q. & int test( int a. what is the default? A. What's wrong? A. double y). A. The advantage is that execution time is shortened because linker overhead is minimized. I was trying to allocate an array of function pointers using the new operator but I keep getting declaration syntax errors using the following syntax: new int(*[10])(). what will the compiler do? Will it flag it as an error? A. Will the following two functions be overloaded by the compiler.

. If you add a value to the pointer. value = *(x + 20). value is assigned the value of the integer at 0x40:0x28 (Remember. x = (int _seg *)0x40. return 0. Q: How can I output hex values in upper case using the iostream libraries? A: You need to set the state of the stream using setf(). For instance.. char far array1[60000L]. If you do not want to define your entire class. cout << "\nUppercase : " << 255. What is a friend member function? A. offset 0. Q. int _seg *x. Far data items are now supported: .setf(ios::upper-case). and is combined with the segment value contained in the pointer. 20 * sizeof(int) = 40 = 0x28). Q.. char far array2[60000L]... For example. That new value is used as an offset. Q. Yes. the value is multiplied by the size of the pointer type. int value.the value pointed to will be at segment 0x40. } . Declaring a friend gives non-members of a class access to the non-public members of a class. cout << "\nNot upper-case : " << 255. you can simply have "class xxx". #include int main(void) { cout << hex. Why do I get a "Type name expected" error on my definition of a friend class in my new class? A You need to let the compiler know that the label you use for your friend class is another class. Can I statically allocate more than 64K of data in a single module? A. where xxx is your label. cout. For arrays larger than 64k use: char huge array3[100000L].

ios::binary). vfp _new_handler. how is this done? A: Use ios::binary as the open mode for the file: #include ifstream binfile.txt"). #include #define fstrno(s) (((s). cout << "handle is " << fstrno(test) << '\n'. The first argument is defined implicitly.Q. By default the type of 'this' is X *const ( a constant pointer). There is a pointer to the object for which a function is called known as the 'this' pointer. The const keyword changes the type to const X *const ( a constant pointer to constant data ). What is the const keyword doing here? A. The type of _new_handler is as follows. .rdbuf())->fd()) ifstream test("test. Looking through the class libraries there are definitions in classes which look like: class test { int funct( void ) const.bin". typedef void (*vfp)(void). Q: How can I get at the DOS file handle associated with my iostream? A: Using a combination of member functions fd() and rdbuf() you can get at the file handle. Q: I want to use _new_handler and set_new_handler. What is the "this" pointer? A. vfp set_new_handler( vfp ). It is a pointer to the object for which the function was invoked. Why does a binary member function only accept a single argument? A. Q. }. binfile. A: Turbo C++ supports _new_handler and set_new_handler. "this" is a local variable in the body of a non-static member function. Q: I would like to use C++ fstreams on a file opened in binary mode. It cannot be used outside of a class member function body. Q.open("myfile.

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