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either in the central system or at a particular zone. All-air systems can be classified into 2 categories:-Single duct systems -Dual duct systems System Advantages 1. They are further segregated to accomplish specific purposes by special equipment arrangement.arch. 2. normally with mechanical means. Maintenance cost For case studies.uwa.1 Fan-coil units 3. The central plant is located in unoccupied areas. Well suited to applications requiring unusual exhaust makeup. Heating and ventilation . Operating cost.html . Accessibility to terminals demands close cooperation between architectural. http://ug. . 3. Heating can be accomplished by the same air stream. Case studies See http://ug. consideration should also ven to the following:. heat radiation sometimes [e.arch.3 Dual Duct 1. air movement and air cleanliness. 10.hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt1/HVAC/index.hk/teaching/case.arch. and local requirements.Air Conditioning System Air conditioning for people is the control of temperature.html .e.5 Central chilled water air conditioning systems .4 Heat pumps 2 3 1. see http://arch.2 Variable Air Volume 1.hku. Adapts to winter humidification. humidity.g. flexibility. acceptability of components obtruding into the conditioned space . 7.html for thermal comfort and related topics. . hence facilitating operating and maintenance.4 Central chilled water air conditioning systems .All Water Systems. 3. Requires additional duct clearance which can reduce the usable floor space. 9. 5. Zoning requirements. acceptable noise level. 6. Allows the use of the greatest numbers of potential cooling seasons house with outside air in place of mechanical refrigeration.3 Water cooling tower 4 Direct expansion Systems [i.3 4. direct expansion of refrigerant. noise control and choice of suitable equipment.3 Two-pipe Three-pipe 2. draft control.2 Split type and package air conditioning systems 4. including cooling towers which can also be applied to systems 1. Seasonal changeover is simple and readily adaptable to climatic control.Architectural Constraints : Size and appearance of terminal devices. Heat recovery system may be readily incorporated. 8. 2. 4.hku. No piping.2 2. See http://fridge.System constraints : Cooling load. and humidity control under all operating conditions.1 Reheat 1.hku.1 Fan Coil 2.htm#case There are four basic system categories: 1 Central chilled water air conditioning systems . Allows good design flexibility for optimum air distribution.4 Multizone 1. In selecting a suitable air conditioning system for a particular application. mechanical and structural engineers. Air-balancing is difficult and requires great care. Gives a wide choice of zonability. without the chilled water cooling medium ] 4. by chilled ceiling ]. Air conditioning systems can be categorized according to the means by which the controllable cooling is accomplished in the conditioned space. Central chilled water air conditioning systems .2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices 3.1 Window air conditioners Unitary and Rooftop Air Conditioners 4.All Air Systems Single zone 1.All Air Systems An all-air system provides complete sensible and latent cooling capacity in the cold air supplied by the system. System Disadvantages 1.au/topics/thermal/index_thermal.hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt2/computer/air.edu. Infringes least on perimeter floor space.Financial Constraints : Capital cost.Air-and Water Systems Induction 2. 2 above 3. Space available to house equipment and its location relative to the conditioned space. to achieve human thermal comfort. electrical wiring and filters are located inside the conditioned space.
Boots connect ductwork to registers.hku. medium or high pressure. etc. Distribution systems have a number of important components: 1. or a flexible plastic and wire composite material located within the walls. If it is not insulated on the inside. 6. 9. Total kW going into room = Total kW going out of the room. shows the control of chilled cooling coil and fan These are components will bring about:-Heat balance: The amount of heat extracted out of the air conditioned room (by the cooling system. 7. Registers and Grilles are the coverings for duct openings into the conditioned space.hk/teaching/cases/shingmun/shingmun. -Air balance: The mass flow rate of the air going into the room = The mass flow rate of air going out of the room. or plenum box and air handler. and the vapor barrier installed on the outside of the insulation facing away from the duct. Typical applications include:-Space with uniform loads -Small spaces requiring precision control -Multiple systems for large areas . Fresh air coming into the room : 2. The insulation should be at least two inches thick. etc. exhaust air systems. Fig 1b.) i.hku. Both metal and fiberglass duct board are rigid and installed in pieces. The Ductwork is a branching network of round or rectangular tubes generally constructed of sheet metal. 8. All of the seams should be sealed before insulation is installed.hk/teaching/project/project502. or heat pump and the plenum and blower assembly that forces air through the ductwork. Rectangular metal duct.html . must be equal to the amount of heat generated inside the room (by human being. and flex-duct. proper design and installation is very important. Ductwork Joints join pieces of ductwork. The Return Ductwork carries air from the conditioned space back to the air handler. Most houses have only one or two main return ducts located in a central area. continuous piece. 5 l/s per person for smoking accommodation. Supply and Return Plenums are boxes made of duct board. 3. Typically each room has at least one supply duct and larger rooms may have several. metal ducts should be insulated on the outside using a fiberglass batt with an attached metal foil vapor retarder. 12. The Air Handling Unit is a cabinet that includes or houses the central furnace. fiberglass board. Fiberglass duct board. crawlspaces. fiberglass duct board. 5. and ceilings. in attics. air conditioner. the inner lining and outer insulated covering can tear or be pinched closed. good indoor air quality (IAQ) is important. for example. The seams in the insulation are usually stapled together around the duct and then taped. doors.html and http://arch. radiation via the glass. 1. metal. hot air leakage into the room through gaps in windows. Also longer flex-duct runs can restrict the flow of air. Normally. floors.) and transferred into the room (by conduction through the building envelope.http://arch. Flex-duct is installed between the register and plenum box. especially the kind used for plenums and larger trunk runs. fresh air introduced into the room. 2. The Supply Ductwork carries air from the air handler to the rooms in a house. All return and supply ducts located outside the conditioned space. building leakage.5 l/s per person. The seams in the duct board should be carefully sealed with mastic or high quality duct tape. drywall or wood that distribute air to individual ducts or registers. is often insulated on the inside with fiberglass duct liner. 11. While flexduct has fewer seams.1 Single Zone System The all-air single-zone air conditioning system is the basic central system which can supply a constant air volume or a variable air volume at low. like flex-duct. electrical appliances. is made of an insulation material. Ducts are built of sections of the duct board. usually in a single. should be sealed and insulated. non-smoking. 4. Elbows are manufactured pieces of duct used for turns.e. the equipment is located outside the conditioned space but can also be installed within the conditioned are if conditions permit. The three most common types of duct material used in home construction are metal. 10. or basements.
It provides:-Zone or space control for areas of unequal loading.2 Reheat System The reheat system is a modification of the single-zone system.2 1. Advantages : Closely controls space conditions Disadvantages : Expensive to operate Fig 1.3a Variable Air Volume – Reheat It integrates heating at or near the terminal units. In the reheat system. (a) Simple Variable Air Volume (VAV) Simple VAV systems typically cools only and have no requirement for simultaneous heating and cooling in various zones. The heating medium can be hot water. (b) Fig 1.3 Variable Air Volume System The variable air volume system compensates for varying cooling loads by regulating the volume of cooling air supplied through a single duct.1 1. -Close control for process or comfort applications. heat is added as a secondary process to either preconditioned primary air or recirculated room air. steam or electricity. Heating is turned on when the air flow reaches a predetermined minimum. -Heating or cooling of perimeter areas with different exposures.Fig 1. . It is applied to systems requiring full heating and cooling flexibility in interior and exterior zones.
Multi-zone System The multi-zone system applies to a relatively small number of zones served by a single. heating and pumping matches diversity of loads (ii) Unoccupied areas may be fully cut-off (iii) Reduced noise level when the system is running at off-peak loads.3b Advantages a) b) c) d) e) f) When combined with a perimeter heating system. 3.Fig 1. Lower operating cost because Fans run long hours at reduced volume (i) Refrigeration. 4. g) h) 1. Fig 1. Disadvantages 1. solar and equipment of as much as 30% are permitted. Allows simultaneous heating and cooling without seasonal changeover. it offers inexpensive temperature control for multiple zoning and a high degree of simultaneous heating-cooling flexibility.4 Dual Duct System The dual-duct system employs two air ducts to supply cold air and warm air to a mixing terminal unit which proportions the cold and warm air in response to a thermostat located in the conditioned space. Systems with terminal volume regulation are self-balancing. No seasonal changeover is necessary. central air-handling unit. Different zone requirements are met by . occupancy. No zoning is required in central equipment. 2. The system is well suited to provide temperature control for individual spaces or zones. 2. Virtually self-balancing.5 Initial cost is usually higher than other VAV systems. It is easy and inexpensive to subdivide into new zones and to handle increased loads with new tenancy or usage if load does not exceed the original design simultaneous peak. Capital cost is lower since diversities of loads from lights. Instant temperature response is achieved because of simultaneous availability of cold and warm air at each terminal unit. Zoning of central equipment is not required. Does not operate as economically as other VAV systems.4 Advantages (in addition to those common to all air systems) 1. 1.
multi-room building that may have reversing sensible heat characteristics.1 Induction System The inducting system is designed for use in perimeter rooms of multi-storey. a duct distribution system. The air side is comprised of central air conditioning equipment. In the induction system. 2. The maximum sensible cooling capacity following changeover to the winter cycle when chilled water is no longer circulated to the room terminal. 3. Some hotel rooms are provide with induction coils. The required sensible cooling capacity at maximum cooling load. Air transmission and distribution is simplified. and a room terminal. called primary air. 2. The ventilation requirement. The primary air is then delivered through nozzles as high velocity jets which induce secondary air from the room and over the secondary coil. It is especially adapted to handle the loads of skyscrapers with minimum space requirements for mechanical equipment. usually has a constant volume which is determined by: 1.Air-and-Water Systems An air-and-water system is one in which both air and water (cooled or heated in central plant room) are distributed to room terminals to perform cooling or heating function. Fig. 2. The plenum is acoustically treated to attenuate part of the noise generated in the duct system and in the unit.1 The induction system employs air ducts to convey treated air with higher pressure levels and of the right adjustable quantities to various cooling/heating coil units.mixing cold and warm air through zone dampers at the central air handler in response to zone thermostats. This inducted air stream is either cooled or heated after passing through the coil. Central chilled water A/C systems . Individual room temperature control is by regulation of either the water flow through it or the air flow over it. Easy to balance. These coil units are built in with induction nozzles such that when high pressure air goes through them. ducted primary air is fed into a small plenum chamber where its pressure is reduced by means of a suitable damper to the level required at the nozzles. The water side consists of a pump and piping to convey water to heat transfer surfaces within each conditioned space. The water is commonly cooled by the introduction of chilled water from the primary cooling system and is refereed to as the secondary water loop. 2. 1. Induction units are usually installed at a perimeter wall under a window. The supply air.5 Advantages (in addition to those common to all-air systems) 1. 2. and then mixed with the air coming out . Fig. air room the room is inducted across the fin surface of the water-circulated coils.
The primary air supply is usually constant with no provision for shutoff. 7. Auxiliary air may be delivered to the conditioned space for dehumidification and ventilation purposes. 3. 8. Outdoor air supply is positive. no fans Air duct dimensions are smaller than VAV systems or CAV systems Zoning of central equipment is not required. i.2a . 6.e. 5. 9. Separate sources of heating and cooling for each space available as needed to satisfy a wide range of load variations. Minimal maintenance required for individual induction units which have no moving parts.2 Limited to perimeter space. Higher energy consumption due to increased power required by the primary pressure drop in the terminal units. Reduced size of central air handling equipment. 4. Disadvantages 1. 2. Fig 2. The system is well suited to provide temperature control for individual spaces or zones. The basic elements of the fan-coil units are a finned-tube coil and a fan section. 8. Advantages 1. Fan-Coil System The fan-coil system is similar to the inducting system. making the conditioned space quiet. 2. Controls tend to be more complex than for all-air systems. No fan comes together with the coil. 4. Initial cost is usually higher than fan coil systems. Seasonal changeover is necessary. 3. 6. 7. Low distribution system space required as a result of reducing the air supply by use of secondary water for cooling and high velocity air design. The right quantity of high pressure air is adjusted automatically in response to a thermostat located in the conditioned space. 2. Not applicable to spaces with high exhaust requirement. 5. Individual room temperature control.of the nozzle. Dehumidification & filtration performed in a central plant room remote from conditioned space. The fan section recirculates air continuously from within the perimeter space through the coil which is supplied with either hot or chilled water. A low chilled water temperature is needed to control space humidity adequately. with the induction unit replaced by the fan-coil unit. 10.
Cumbersome to change over.html .hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt1/HVAC/index. the primary air is preheated and supplied at about 10°C to provide a source of cooling. fan-coil and radiant panel systems have three pipes to each terminal unit. Disadvantages 1. the water distribution circuit consists of one supply and one return pipe. These systems are rarely used today because they consume excess energy. fan-coil or radiant panel systems. The air velocity is fairly constant regardless of the primary air quantity.3 Advantages 1. The primary air quantity is fixed and the primary air temperature is varied in reverse proportion to outside temperature to provide the necessary amount of heating during summer and intermediate seasons. a warm water pipe and a common return.hku. Primary air can either connect directly to fan-coil unit or supply the room separately. The secondary water is cold in summer and intermediate seasons and warm in winter. During winter cycle operation. http://ug.arch. Case studies See http://ug. System can be operated with the primary air turned off. 3. a cold water pipe. More costly to operate than four-pipe systems. 3. Fig 2.Fig 2.4 ` Three-pipe Systems Three-pipe systems for induction coil.hku. 2. 2.3` Two-pipe Systems In two-pipe systems for induction coil.2b Advantages (in addition to those for induction units) 1. Usually less expensive to install than four pipe systems. 2.hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt2/computer/air. .html . 2. Less capable of handling widely varying loads or providing widely varying choice of room temperature than four-pipe systems.arch.
The terminal unit usually has two independent secondary water coils. Higher efficiency due to lower operating costs. warm water supply and warm water return. unit ventilator.All-water Systems All-water systems are those with fan-coil. 4. Disadvantages 1.5a Fig 2. Higher initial cost. More flexible and adaptable to widely varying loads. System Advantages 1. 3. or valance type room terminals with unconditioned ventilation air supplied by an opening through the wall or by infiltration. 2. 3. Fan-coil units . System Disadvantages 1. Simpler to operate (No summer-winter changeover and primary air reheat schedule). Fig 2. Provides individual room control. Flexible and readily adaptable to many building module requirements.Fig 2.1 No positive ventilation is provided unless wall openings are used.5b Advantages (as compared with two-pipe systems) 1. Heating is provided by supplying hot water through the same or a separate coil. one served by hot water. 3. Cooling and dehumidification is provided by circulating chilled water through a finned coil in the unit. No humidification is provided. 2. 3. 2. the other by cold water.4 2.5` Four pipe Systems Four-pipe systems have a cold water supply. Seasonal change over is required. Maintenance and service work has to be done in the occupied areas. cold water return. The primary air is cold and remains at the same temperature year-round. Central chilled water air conditioning systems .
htm 3. and . 35 deg. For cooling towers. of Architecture. nominally 7 deg .1a Fig 3.chilled water flow .CH. nominally 30 deg . -refrigerant circuit – refrigerant compressors move the refrigerant through this circuit -cooling water circuit .2 Water cooling tower A water cooling tower cools the water entering it from 35 deg. The fan recirculates air continuously from the space through the coil. C leaving these devices – chilled water pumps move water through this circuit – CH.C entering water chiller. Condenser water pumps move condenser water through this circuit.com.engnet. the following circuits do not mix with each other. 30 deg. The warmer water is sprayed inside the cooling tower admidst the stream of an upward air flow produced by the fan at the top of the tower. Water in this circuit has to be treated.C entering fan coil units [FCU] /air handling unit[AHU] /primary handling unit[PAU].nominally 35 deg .A fan-coil unit basically consists of a finned tube coil. i. F.ekingair. W. C leaving chiller. and heat exchange is performed via various metal surfaces:-the chilled water circuit – nominally 12 deg .HTM . Fig 3. C nominally.for treating fresh air.chilled water flow return.e. 12 deg. Knowles Building HKU Fig 3. The air stream going out carries water particles. to avoid Legionnaire disease to occur. W. There is water loss to atmosphere in using cooling towers.C entering water cooling tower .files/frame. See attached diagram and See http://www.C entering condenser of chiller assembly. C to 30 deg.tw/lc/A2. see http://www. Dept. R.1b Ceiling Building Services in 2/F Staff area. 7 deg. a filter and a fan section. which contains either hot or chilled water. i. C leaving condenser of chiller assembly – Condenser water pumps move condenser water through this circuit. C leaving cooling tower.e.2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices In this system.1c 3. .com/Screw. These water particles should not be taken into buildings.
engnet.e. means for circulating and cleaning air. direct expansion of refrigerant . These units are designed for comfort cooling and to provide delivery of conditioned air to a room either without ducts or with very short ducts. and/or exhausting and heating. Fig 4.http://www.1 Direct expansion Systems [i.HTM 4. dehumidification. They include a prime source of refrigeration.com.tw/lc/LRC-SAS. and may also include means for ventilating. without the chilled water cooling medium ] -Window Air Conditioners A window unit is an encased assembly designed primarily for mounting in a window. without the chilled water cooling medium ] Direct expansion Systems [i.1b Fig 4.1a Fig 4. through a wall. direct expansion of refrigerant. 4. or as a console.e.1c .
residences. detached from the church hall building. direct expansion of refrigerant . middle and rear part of the hall. Fresh air exchange for the room can be provided by :-(1) setting the “ventilator” switch of the window air conditioner to “open” position -(2) installing a ventilating extract fan in the room to extract room air to outside – caution.aep. incorporating a temperature selection switch & thermostat. with the condenser remotely placed outdoor . the window unit will make the room acoustically inferior to other air conditioning systems. among other components. etc . A supply air duct and a return air duct are to be connected to the cooling unit. allowing partial operation of the hall with minimum use of air conditioning -fresh air mixes with return air before going through the air conditioner.e. factories. controls.htm 4. containing direct expansion coil. schools. placed indoor. with no air conditioning -Air conditioning added to the church in 1990 with minimum interior change – only small portions of the windows inside the church hall were changed for fitting supply air grilles and return air louvers . the indoor unit and outdoor unit of the split system is put into one single unit. café shops.3 large unitary air conditioners were installed respectively to serve the front.Fig 4.htm and http://www. A case study of installing large unitary air conditioners for a church [ See photos and diagrams ] -church building built in 1945-1950. Application: For general air conditioning of stores. The refrigerant compressor now is part of the machine locating at the window area. particularly suitable for single flat building with extensive floor areas.e. A remote controller should be installed on an easily accessible wall. commonly used in Hong Kong for restaurants. . Since this compressor gives out most noise.com/energyinfo/res_html/recrefr. without the chilled water cooling medium ] -Unitary and Rooftop Air Conditioners Fig 4.1d In a window air conditioner. Part of the cooled air coming out of the air conditioner will exhaust into the entrance hall before leaving the church building. without the chilled water cooling medium ] .2 Direct expansion Systems [i. offices.aep. direct expansion of refrigerant .Split type and package air conditioning systems • package air conditioning systems .2 • These are commonly air-cooled units. fan and compressor.not to oversize the fan -(3) naturally leaking of air in and out of the room See http://www.com/energyinfo/res_html/recroom.the large unitary air conditioners were supported by s mild steel frame from the ground. • • • • The units are the floor – standing type designed for installation outdoors or on the roof.Factory assembled (floor mounting) package. giving practically no structural loading problem and machinery vibration problem to the church hall -the fan power and the grilles were selected to prevent the use of distributing dir ducting inside the church hall. etc. 4.3 Direct expansion Systems [i.
3b split air conditioning systems .htm b. and rejects energy to the outside atmosphere as it goes through the outdoor unit. small offices.1. by firstly having heat of the room air absorbed into the refrigerant via an airrefrigerant heat exchanger which is the indoor unit. [ In the split system therefore the compressor – generating noise when pumping refrigerant. A small part of room air is extracted to outside by an exhaust fan. rise in temperature. commonly used in Hong Kong for café shops. d. The outdoor unit The refrigerant then takes the heat from the indoor unit to the outdoor unit. with the condensing unit [i.aep. controls.Fig 4. 2 parts of the system] to take heat from indoor to outdoor. and if pipe joints are well installed . A large part of air heated up in the room. The fan pulls or pushes air around the outer surfaces of the coil inside the indoor unit.com/energyinfo/res_html/reccent. which usually is installed inside the outdoor unit.e. etc Case study – see http://arch. The refrigerant does not have direct contact with air.e. Refrigerant going through this outdoor coil is losing its energy across the metal surface of the coil to the atmosphere. See http://www. by normally about 5 deg.3. inside the outdoor unit] The refrigerant takes up energy as it goes through the indoor unit.daikin. Energy rejected is the sum of the energy taken indoor plus the energy consumed by the compressor in pumping the refrigerant through the refrigerant circuit. By passing through this finned coil. A split air conditioning system consists of an indoor unit and an outdoor unit connected together by refrigerant pipes. Inside the coil. before recirculated back to the room. some domestic units. a unit for refrigerant to condense] In an air-cooled outdoor unit. in addition to having a finned coil and motor-driven fan. as outside air is drawn pass the surface of the finned coil by the fan.daikin. The refrigerant has no direct contact with air. and the indoor unit is therefore commonly called an evaporator by the engineers.hku. heat exchange occurs in the same way as the indoor unit.nsf/fFRM?ReadForm The refrigerant compressor.e.be/home. The indoor unit is wallmount or ceiling mount unit. See http://www.hk/teaching/project/project302. That is. no leakage of refrigerant should occur. with an amount of fresh outside air coming in to replenish this • .is located outdoor. air path is not recirculated. [ i.3a Fig 4. is pumping the refrigerant through the indoor unit and the outdoor unit. So the heat of the room air is transferred into the refrigerant in the indoor unit. See http://www.nsf/fFRM?ReadForm c. then conveying the heat to the outdoor unit for disposal.Factory assembled (ceiling mounting) indoor unit of fan and direct expansion coil. refrigerant evaporates. say to 15 deg. taking warm air from the room and injecting cooled air into the room in summer.html 4. The refrigerant circulates between these 2 units [i.be/home. This refrigerant circuit is a closed circuit. However. which is commonly called a condensing unit. The air passing through the indoor unit is cooled. The basic concepts of a split air conditioning system [ Small system] a. say to 25 deg. C. compressor and condensing coil ] remotely placed outdoor . the outside air is heated up. The indoor unit comprises a finned coil and a fan which is driven by an electric motor. Refrigerant is circulated inside the finned coil to the outside unit and then back to the indoor unit. [ Note : Design room temperature is 23 deg C in general for human comfort ] then goes back to the indoor unit for cooling. Air circuits for the indoor environment. The outside air passing through the outdoor unit is an open circuit. the outdoor unit contains a refrigerant compressor.
water is used as the heat sink.nsf/fFRM?ReadForm See also http://www. attic.heatpumpcentre. water is used as the heat source and the equipment operates as a water chiller. or for use with forced air furnace. Energy saving options If heat rejection in the outdoor unit is taken care by cooling water . basements.A packaged system If the refrigerant compressor of the outdoor unit of the split air conditioning system is installed together with the indoor unit. commonly denotes a system in which refrigeration equipment is used in such a manner that heat is taken from a heat source and given up to the conditioned space when heating service is wanted. Size and configuration. When cooling.heatpumpcentre. wall-mounted.Exposed with plenums or furred in ductwork.ca/irc/cbd/cbd195e. Advantages 1. schools. forced convection heat transfer coils are normally employed to transfer the heat between the air and the refrigerant. Type of thermodynamic cycle. which then will be floor-mount usually. h. It is particularly suitable for factory-built unitary heat pumps. 5. For heat pumps. i. Air is used as the heat source and heat sink. and rejecting it to the indoor environment. 6. cooling water can be provided by fresh water cooling towers. water-cooled. The water cooling tower can be placed at the top of a building.daikin. 4. Indoor air: vertical upflow.org/tutorial/buildings. The compressor now is put indoor.3. condensing water is circulated back to the cooling tower for cooling again. Heat pumps for air conditioning service may be classified according to a) b) c) d) e) type of heat source and sink. Unit exterior: decorative for in-space applications. http://www. functional for equipment room and ducts. However this will allow a larger cooling capacity for the indoor unit. 2. . The water-source heat pump is suitable for many types of multi-room buildings.ambthair. wall-mounted or on ground. is put on the roof top. two factors in particular must be taken into consideration: 1) 2) the variation in temperature experienced in a given locality. 3. into the room. 90° and 180° degree turns. Another efficient option is to have a few additional valves and controls added to the basic split system to make it to serve as a heat pump system in winter.org/winter. with an increase of unusually 5 deg. Heat rejection: air-cooled. Placement: floor standing. In urban areas. with a pump drawing water from it to circulate the condensing water to the outdoor units of the split system. see http://www. A variant of split air conditioning system . Heating and cooling distribution fluid.totally 5 units of energy. making the machine less quite than the split system. hotels. .com/multisplit.be/home. the refrigerant will do a reverse job in taking heat from outside . http://www. http://www. manufacturing facilities and hospitals. it is called a packaged system. Of course the finned coil f the outdoor unit has to be replaced by a water –cooled condenser.htm . When heating. 4.nrc. A packaged system is needed if the outdoor unit. After taking up heat from the outdoor unit. ceiling suspended. with fan. Direct expansion air conditioning equipments consist of factory-matched refrigeration cycle components for inclusion is air-conditioning systems which are field designed to meet the needs of the user. That is. horizontal.spec-net. and is removed from the space and discharged to a heat sink when cooling and dehumidification are desired.iaheatpump.1 Air-to-Air Heat Pumps The air-to-air heat pump is the most common type of heat pumps. Extended surface. there would be a saving of 30% of energy. concealed in closets. Type of building structure. as applied to a year-round air conditioning system. The following list of variations is indicative of the vast number of types of unitary air conditioners presently available. window. counterflow. transom. apartment buildings. One unit of energy for pumping the refrigerant will cause 4 units of energy to be taken from outside. Thus the refrigerant goes through a reversed cycle by taking heat from outside and rejecting heat to the room.com. evaporative condenser. Single splits and multiple splits -single split – one indoor unit is connected to one outdoor unit by insulated copper refrigerant pipes -multiple splits– several indoor units are connected to one outdoor unit by insulated copper refrigerant pipes See http://www. weatherproofed for outdoors. See “water cooling tower” below. Locations: Indoor . roof-mounted. Wall . and has been widely used for residential and commercial application.html . C. crawl spaces. garages or equipment room. g. http://www. Arrangement: single or split. Outdoor -Rooftop.au/hitachi/reverse1.2 Water-source Heat Pumps The water-source heat pump uses water and air as the heat source or heat sink depending on the mode of operation.4 Heat Pumps The term ‘heat pump’.html for a design guide f.e. including office buildings. the formation of frost. 4. with the indoor unit a few floors below. and the heat pump operates as a water-cooled air conditioner. Now this make up air can be supplied by connecting a small air duct from an external opening to the indoor unit.. 1.amount exhausted. Affords opportunity for energy conservation by recovering heat from interior zones and/or waste heat and by storing excess heat from daytime cooling for night time heating.Built-in. 4. When selecting or designing an air-source heat pup. See diagram attached e.htm.3.html .org/tutorial . now called a condenser.
5.2. pumps and heat rejector. Lower noise level because condenser fans are eliminated. 2. 4. Space required for boiler. Good filter maintenance is imperative. Longer expected life than air-cooled heat pumps. . operating costs. 3. 3. and system life. 6. heat exchanger. Energy for the heat pumps can be metered directly to each tenant. No wall openings required. Reduced air flow can cause the heat pump to cycle cutout. Higher initial cost than for most other multiple-packaged unit systems. Total life cycle cost frequently compares favourably to central systems when considering relative installed cost. Disadvantages 1.
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