UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

LIBRARY

Gift of

JOSEPH M. KITAGAWA

THE LANKAVATAKA SUTRA

BODHIDHAEMA
By SessM (U20-1506)

-ti-J-ILti.4.. i I I.J. 1932 .^~M BUDDHIST LIBRARY LONDON GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND BROADWAY HOUSE: SONS. THE LANKAVATATfrA XVa^.rV-i y J~. E. C./>? .>* . i 'j _i. 68-74 CARTER LANE. LTD. KJ STTTTTA U _Lt/xL I A MAHAYANA TEXT TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME FROM THE ORIGINAL SANSKRIT BY DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI EASTERN \&.

COPYRIGHT \ \-i CH1CW30I tlSUXf \ FEINTED AT THE SANSHUSHA PEESS. TOKYO .

Says Confucius. a corporation organised to help research work of scholars in various fields of culture . of life have been kind now send obscure passages in the Sutra. U. Vermont. even though this Mahayana may be only to a very slight degree. A. which I have been unable to unravel to my own satisfaction.PREFACE It is more than seven years now quite since I began the study of the LanMvatara Sutra seriously. who again helped me by typing the entire manuscript of the present book. for without it his work might have dragged on yet for some . S. I shall be fullyif I have made the understanding of this significant text easier than before. It was fortunate for the writer that he could secure the support and help of the Keimeikwai. rendering these have helped immensely the present translator. May about two hundred and his also prove a stepping board however feeble towards a fuller interpretation of the Sutra! The present English translation edition of is based on the Sanskrit Bunyu Nan jo's grateful to published by the Otani University Press in 1923. All such imperfections are to be content corrected by competent scholars.. Is it not delightful to have a friend come from afar?" The saying applies most appro' ' priately to this case. I am most Mr Dwight Goddard of Thetf ord. and I out to the perusal of the English-reading public There are yet many difficult and this humble work of mine. My friends in different fields and generous in various ways. In China Buddhist scholars profoundly learned and endowed with spiritual insights made three or four attempts extending over a period of fifty years to give an intelligible It goes without saying that of the Lankavatara. but owing to various interruptions I have not been able to carry out my plan as speedily as I wished. To assist me in this way was indeed part of the object of his third visit to this side of the Pacific.

no visible results can be expected of this kind of undertaking. 1931 (the sixth year of Showa) . Materially. DAISETZ TEITAEO SUZUKI Kyoto. I have tried to do my part to the full extent of my power. Yakichi Ataka. Whatever literary work the present author is able to put before the reader. he cannot pass on without mentioning in it the name of his good. Until then. "Here is my work.. unselfish. public-minded Buddhist friend. many obstacles are sure to bar the passage of those who would attempt things of no commercial value. which in its English garb readers ? now lies before his friend as well as to the writer's wife all other Thanks are also due who went over the whole manuscript to give it whatever literary improvement it possesses. who is always willing to help him in every possible way.. humble though it is. the author could never have carried out his plans to the extent he has so far accomplished. There is so much to be accomplished before he has to appear at the court of Emma Daiwo. and to Professor Yenga Teramoto for his ungrudging cooperation along the line of Tibetan knowledge. to Mr Hokei Idzumi who gave helpful suggestions in the reading of the original text. and yet a scholar has his worldly needs to meet. November. And is this not the teaching of the Lankavatara Sutra. If not for him.vi PREFACE time to come. Unless we create one of these fine days an ideal community in which every member of it can put forth all his or her natural endowments and moral energies in the direction best fitted to develop them and in the way most useful to all other members generally and individually. Bodhisattvas of all kinds are sorely needed everywhere. to whom he could say." The writer renders his grateful acknowledgment here to all the advisers of the Society who kindly voted for the speedy culmination of this literary task a task which he tenderly wishes would do something towards a better appreciation by the West of the sources of Eastern life and culture.

36 39 VIII. ASKS FOE INSTEUCTION CHAPTEE TWO. III. and the Philosophers' Wrong Views regarding the Mind Eejeeted Erroneous Views held by Some Brahmans and Sramanas Concerning Causation. XVII. Gradual Nishyanda-Buddha. The Eternal-Unthinkable Nirvana and Alayavijnana All Things are Unborn The Five Classes of Spiritual Insight Verses on the Triple Vehicle 53 55 55 56 58 . of the Outflows. . X. VI. $ on the Alaya-ocean and Vijnana-waves The Bodhisattva is to Understand the Signification of Mind-only The Three Aspects of Noble Wisdom (dryajnana) 39 44 44 XIII. XX. etc. XII. XVI. The Bodhisattva's Biscipling himself in Self- realisation IX. and Nir- mana-Buddha The Sravaka's Eealisation and Attachment Notion of Self -nature 52 XIX. II. EAVANA. Mind-only. Subjects as Alayavijnana. The Attainment of the Tathagatakaya Logic on the Hare's Horns Verses on the Alayavijnana and Mind-only Purification 45 46 : 49 49 51 to the XIV. Dharmata-Buddha.. V. Verses .CONTENTS BODHIDHAEMA. Nirvana. XI (a). Mahamati Praises the Buddha with Verses Mahamati's "One Hundred and Eight Questions" "The One Hundred and Eight Negations" Concerning the Vijnanas Seven Kinds of Self -nature (svabTiava) Seven Kinds of First Principle (paramartfia) . by Sesshu (1420-1506) Frontispiece PEERAGE INTEODUCTION CHAPTEE ONE. 35 35 VII. The Buddhist Views Concerning Such etc. LOED OF LANKA. XVIII. XXI. Page v si 3 22 22 23 31 33 I. XI (b). Continuation. Instantaneous and XV. The Evolution and Function of the Vijnanas. The Spiritual Discipline of the Bodhisattva. Attainments of the Bodhisattva IV. . COLLECTION OF ALL THE DHAEMAS .

XLIII. XXVII. XLI. Four Kinds of Dhyana 85 86 $ XXXVIII. and Non65 68 70 The Tathagata-Garbha and the Ego-soul XXIX. 91 QZ 95 $ $ tf XLIV.. on the Three Knots 100 (J)uddhi). XLVII. Srotaapanna. A Verse on the Philosophers' Discriminations . and Perversion (viparyasa) 87 87 90 On . LII. .vm XXII. (samyojani) L. On Nirvana XXXIX. . XLIX. The Bodhisattva Assumes Various Personalities . Syllable... Primary and Secondary The Five Skandhas Four Kinds of Nirvana and the Eight Vijnanas The False Imagination Regarding Twelve Subjects . $ CONTENTS Two Classes of the Icchantika 58 59 60 XXIV. the Nature of Error (bhranta). XXIII.. XLVIII. Assertion and Eefutation (samaropapavada) . Anagamin. No-birth. 107 108 110 . Sentence.. and Their Meaning On Inexplicable Statements (vyalmtdni*) All Things are and are not (Verses on Four of Explanation) 98 99 Forms On the Sravakas. The Intellect Examining and Diserim105 106 nating LI. and Analogies. The Elements. $ LIII. XXVI. 62 64 On Emptiness duality (Siinyata). Sakridagamin.. Multitudinousuess. The Three Forms of Svabhava The Twofold Egolessness (nairatmyadvayalalcshana) $ XXV. with an Interpolation on the Dualistie Notion of Existence of the Tathagatas 78 84: $ XXXVI. XLV. XXXIII.. The Four Things Needed for the Constitution of Bodhisattvahood 70 On Causation Existence (Six Kinds). On the Nature of Maya That All Things are Unborn 96 97 XL VI. The Teaching (dharmadeSana) XXXVII. XXXV. (adMshthana) the Chain of Causation (pratityasamtutpada) Words (abhilapa) and Realities (bhava) On Eternality of Sound (nityaabda). XXXI. Representations 77 Mind-only. LIV. Two Characteristics of Self -nature Two Kinds of the Buddha's Sustaining Power XL. and the Rise of 72 Four Forms of Word-discrimination On Word and Discrimination and the Highest Eeality Verses on Reality and its 75 76 XXXIV. XXVIII. XXX.. On Name. and Arhat. XLII. XXXII.

....... an External World.. to Knowledge 161 $ The Tathagata Variously Designated..... Pratyekabuddhas.. etc ................ Verses on No-birth and Causation ..... ...... ............ Permanency of Tathagatahood .. 190 The Tathagata-garbha and the Alayavijnana ____ 190 . 122 ... ON THE DEDUCTION OF THE PEEMANENCT OF TATHAGATAHOOD ... Eealisatiou and Word-teaching ........... Bealism and Nihilism..... 135 (avtlia) LXVIIL LXIX..... LXVII.. 112 The One Vehicle and the Triple Vehicle ....... Self-realisation and the Discoursing on it ......................... .... LXXI... Truth of Solitude...................... Causation......................... Nirvana ...... and Parinishpanna ... LIX...... Imagination. Self -realisation and an Eternally-abiding Reality .. LXIV....... Not a Word Uttered by the Buddha ....... Various Views of Nirvana ........ and Bodhisattvas ..... Eelation Between Words and Meaning......... The Deep-seated Attachment to Existence .. LXX.......... The Eelation between Words (ruta) and Meaning ............. Not a Word Uttered by the Buddha.CONTENTS LV.... 164 170 172 176 182 CHAPTEE FOUE......... CHAPTEE THEEE... LXXVII...... ...... 122 123 125 127 129 On Knowledge.................... On Being and Non-Being........... LXXVI. 149 LXXIV..... Paratantra... The Identity (samata) of Buddhahood and its Four Aspects ........................... IX Verses on the Citta............. LXVI... ON IMPEEMANENCY LVII.. 120 The Buddha-nature (buddliata) ................. LXIL LXIII.. Parikalpita....... LXXV..... ON MOMBNTAEINESS .. LXXII......... 137 138 141 144 146 148 On Is the Lokayatika ... LXI. LXXVIII.. ON INTUITIVE UNDEESTANDING LXXX......... LXXIX........... 118 118 Three Forms of the Will-body (manomayaMya} The Five Immediacies (pancanantaryani) Desire as Mother and Ignorance as Father .......... Nine Transformations (parinama) .. The Thesis of No-birth .. Dualism.. SIX...... LXV.... ..... Various Views of Impermanency ... Absolute .......... 133 (jnana) and Eelative (vijnana) ............. LXXIII........ to Emancipation...... 182 CHAPTEE FIVE. 187 CHAPTEB LXXXII.............. Beality. and Attachment ... LVI........ 187 LXXXI........ Perfect Traiiquillisation Attained by Sravakas... 157 Tathagatahood Something Made? Its Eelation to the Skandhas.. Discrimination. True Knowledge and Ignorance ..... Self-nature........................ No-birth... Stages of Bodhisattvahood . Self -mind. LX.. LVIII.

On Transformation CHAPTER EIGHT. The Five Dharmas LXXXV. and Three Svabhavas Their Eelation to the 193 LXXXIV. ON TRANSFORMATION LXXXIX. ON MEAT-EATING CHAPTER NINE. Three Kinds of the Paramitas LXXXVIII.s CONTENTS. THE DHARANlS 211 223 226 297 SAGATHAKAM APPENDIX . LXXXIII. 197 198 202 204: Discrimination 206 207 207 CHAPTER SEVEN. Views on Momentariness . The Five Dharmas. Tathagata and Sands of the Gaiiga LXXXVI. the Bight Vijnanas LXXXVII. Momentariness.

sxxii + 464. or people of ordinary type. For thoughts of deep signification are presented in a most unsystematic manner. 1930. in which he put down perhaps all the teachings of importance accepted by the Mahayana followers of his day. and prithagjana "people differ- ent" from the enlightened. that is. whose minds are found engrossed in the 1 Published by George Boutledge and Sons. The introduction that follows may also serve as one to Mahayana Buddhism generally. and it is possible that the later redactors were not very careful in keeping faithfully whatever order there was in the beginning. designation of bala or balaprithagjana "puerile". London. it will be difficult to comprehend the text intelligently. Arhats. Pp. 1 no special words are needed here. the multitudes. The Classification of Beings From into the Mahayana point : of view. thus giving the text a still more disorderly appearance.INTRODUCTION For those who have already read my Studies in the Lankdvatdra Sutra. As I said in my Studies. But to those who are not yet quite familiar with the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism an expository introduction to the principal theses of the Lanka may be welcome. beings are divisible two heads those that are enlightened and those that are ignorant. is a memorandum kept by a Mahayana master. the Lanka. Without something of preliminary knowledge as to what the Sutra proposes to teach. He apparently did not try to give them any order. . bala meaning "undeveloped". and Pratyekabuddhas while the latter comprise all the rest of beings under the general. or "ignorant". The former are called Buddhas including also Bodhisattvas.

wisdom is not always abiding in this high altitude. nor is enlightenment. he realises that this world of particulars has no reality. hence the Buddhist teaching and discipline. Love and compassion is what essentially constitutes the self -nature of the . The Buddha All the Buddhist teachings unfold themselves around When this is adequately grasped. the Buddha is endowed with transcendental knowledge (prajna) With the former and a great compassionate heart (karuna) . a will-force which desires and acts in the realm of twofold rises it is above the dualism of being and non-being. it manifests itself in the conduct of purposelessness (anabhogacarya) . It is the Tathagata's great love (mahakaruna) of all beings. or sentient beings. who are ignorant and lost in the Nirvana is not the ultimate darkness of the passions (klesa) abode of Buddhahood. "What is the Buddha 1 the conception of Buddhahood. is devoid of an ego-substance (anatman) and that in this sense it resembles Maya or a visionary flower in the air. According to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. which never ceases until everyone of them is happily led to the final asylum of Nirvana. he comes down among us and lives with us. The Buddha wants to help the ignorant. it is declared to be pure (visuddlia] and absolute (vivikta) and free from But the Buddha's transcendental conditions (animitta}. because being instigated by an irresistible power which innerly pushes him back into a region of birth and death. for he refuses as long as there . who is the interlocutor of the Buddha in the Lanka. all beings of life. All-knowing One (sarvajna). As thus it is above the category of being and non-being. from a heart of non-discrimination. Buddhist philosophy with all its complications and superadditions will become luminous. The Buddha as Love It is The Buddha's egolessness.xii THE LANKAVATAEA SUTRA ' ' ' ' pursuit of egotistic pleasures and unawakened to the meaning This class is also known as Sarvasattva. it love is not something ego-centered.

the Buddha treats his fellow-beings as an expert physician treats his patients suffering from various forms of . When Love worries itself over the destiny of . and to this the Buddha's love is no exception. endowed with a heart of all-embracing love and compassion. For this reason. he is willing to sacrifice his enjoyment of absolute reality siikhabhutakotya vinivarya) and self -absorption (samadhi- Skilful Means The essential nature of love is to devise. to create. By Upaya thus the oneness of reality wherein the Buddha's enlightened mind the ignorant. no work will be done in the world where discrimination (vikalpa) goes on and multitudinousness (vicitrata) prevails. weaves a net of Skilful Means whereby to catch them up from the depths of the ocean called Birth-and-Death (samsara). to his disposition (dsaya). If he himself enters into Nirvana. . There is a gem known as Mani which itself. He is ever devising for the enlightenment and emancipation of all sentient beings. it is perfectly transthis parent and colourless in characteristic and just because of reflects in it varieties of colours (vicitra. for whom . all his thoughts are directed towards the ignorant and suffering masses of beings.INTRODUCTION is xiii a single unsaved soul to enjoy the bliss of Samadhi to is entitled is which he Tathagata by his long spiritual discipline. illness. Wisdom. rupa} in the In the same way the Buddha is conceived by beings same way his teaching is interpreted by them that is. propensity (adhimuldi} and circumstance (gati] Again. each one recognises the Buddha and his teaching according . to accommodate itself to varying changing circumstances. This is technically known as the working of Skilful Means (upayakausalya) Upaya is the outcome of PrajM and Karuna. so to speak. prejudice (anusaya). . regards all beings as if they were his only child. but as ailments . abides transforms itself into the manifoldness of particular existences. he refuses to leave this world of relativity. The indeed the one who. understanding (citta). The ultimate aim is to cure them.

Nirvana. they beings. as he is like the moon in This simile is water neither immersed nor emerging. Reality. etc. The Lanka here does not forget to add that though the Buddha is known by so many different names. Vipaka-buddha. they are the same as far as their inner enlightenment. he is thereby neither fattened nor emaciated. Transformation-bodies of the Buddha While the Trikaya dogma is not yet fully developed in the Lanka. But when they wish to train beings according to their characters. Emptiness. Upaya may thus be con- sidered in a way due to the infinite differentiation of indivi- dual characters rather than to the deliberate contrivance of transcendental wisdom on the part of the Buddha. of one absolute reality and this world of names and forms. and their being furnished with the thirty-two major and the eighty minor marks of excellence are concerned. Eternity. their Dharmakaya. One Buddha with Many Names All the Buddhas are of one essence. Cessation. it is For this reason said that the Buddha speaks one language of enlightenment. Sameness. and Nirmanabuddha. Suehness. which reverberates in the ears of his hearers in all possible sounds. Trueness. such as No-birth. each member of the trinity is treaeeable in such ideas as Dharmata-buddha. generally regarded as best describing the relation of unity and multiplicity. follows from the The notion of the transformation-body inevitably Buddha's desire to save the ignorant whose to see straightway into the minds are not enlightened enough . The Buddha is thus personal as well as metaphysical.xiv differ THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA medicines and treatments cannot be the same. is that he is not only known in various personal names but also given a number of abstract titles . assume varieties of forms appearing differently to different and thus there are many titles and appellations of the Buddha as to be beyond calculation (asamkhyeya) One noteworthy fact about this the Buddha's assuming so many names.

something is to be devised to lead them to the right path. are not capable of grasping Buddhata as it is. and ever ready to be our confidant. The Bodhisattva and His Ten Vows In Mahayana Buddhism the Buddha is not the only agent is engaged in the work of enlightening or saving the world. The of world-salvation. The theory of Upaya heart. and If this something must be in accord with their mentalities. for he by us to share the same passions. is carried on spiritual soldiers under the leadership of the latter is sometimes felt to be too remote. they are sure to go astray farther and farther. In fact. The will-body is a part of the Buddha's plan of world-salvation. and aspirations which are such great disturbing. If they not. impulses. As they are not clear-sighted. and who are thus capable of extending . and his sight is often lost in the serene. wishes As the incarnation of a great compassionate the Buddha ought to be able to take any form he when he sees the sufferings of sentient beings. This is one of the reasons why Buddhism is often regarded as polytheistic and at the same time pantheistic. let them have something of it and gradually be developed. "While he is able to transform himself into as many forms as are required by sentient beings. (skilful means) is also the theory of Manomayakaya. sentient beings are all Bodhisattvas. midst of our worldly struggles. however ignorant and ready to err they may be. we can say. though ennobling too. To state the truth.INTRODUCTION essence xv of Buddhahood. work by these Buddha. as they Bodhisattvas are thus themselves most arduously and most assiduously the actual to the cause of Buddhism.. suta. will-body. too too superhuman. he is also assisted who by his followers or "sons" (putra. The Bodhisattvas who have gone up successively all the rungs of the Bhumi ladder. and harbour in themselves every possibility of attaining enlightenment. But the Bodhisattva is always with us. or aurasa} are called in the the sons of the Mahayana Buddha and apply sutras. the sons of the Victorious. They are all Jinaputras.. is felt forces of our human life.

to bring all his fellow-beings up to the same level of thought and feeling where he himself is. Our desires are thwarted. he is always inspiring the Bodhisattvas with his them sovereign power (prabhava) and sustaining (adhishthdna) in their efforts to bring enlightenment in the whole triple world. This is is the Bodhisattva. The Buddha being surrounded by these noble-minded cannot fail finally to release all sons beings from the bondage of karma and ignorance and thirst for life. altruistic nature of humankind.xvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA their help over us. etc. and infatuation. Therefore. Mahamati of the Lanka opens his questions generally with this: "I and other Bodhisattvas." Mahamati is our mouthpiece voicing our wants and aspirations. The Ignorant of us is a painful business. The Bodhisattva is a man of "inexhausvows ( dasmishthdpada) Without these he is not him' ' . With this in view. not to enter into Nirvana until this is accomplished. are really our own brethren. and the worst is that we do not know how to get out of this whirlpool of greed. To save the world. Vowing to save all beings. cannot even for a technically as which known moment be separated from the life of the Bodhisattva. Purvapranidhana in Mahayana terminology. tible self. But we can state this that the essence of Bodhisattvahood is an unequivocal affirmation of the social. in various ways. and not to rest. how infinitely long and how inexpressively arduous the task may be. Thus is not the place to consider historically how the conception evolved in Buddhism whose primitive object seems to have consisted in the realisation of Arhatship. our wishes are crushed. We are at the extreme end of ex- istence opposed to that of the Buddha. Whatever enlightenment one gains. This idea is classically expressed in the Mahayana by the so-called "Ten Vows of Samantabhadra". it must be shared by one's fellow-beings. Life as it is lived by most for we have to endure much anger. How can we leap over the abyss and reach the other shore? .

life and determine its course. according to the Lanka. which is assumed to exist behind our individual empirical consciousnesses. And here rises Mahayana system The Turning ~back (paravritti) a special paragraph is devoted below. they must put activities of this dualistie poisoning. and anger (rdga). The Alaya is a metaphysical entity. . it is a spiritual change or transformation which takes place in the mind. What we ordinarily know as the Alaya is its working through a relative mind. which. It is significant that the its Mahayana has been insistent to followers to experience this psychological transurge formation in their practical life. To I wish here to say a in my Studies m the Lankavatara. The Buddhist question is "How is emancipation possible?" of philosophy.INTRODUCTION The Mahayana diagnosis sentient beings are placed desire (trishna) as mother is xvii of the conditions in which all that they are all nursed is by who accompanied by pleasure (nandi) father. personally experienced. takes place in the Alaya-vijnana or All-conserving Mind. to it somewhat corresponds what is known as will be seen. for then it will be distilled into . few words concerning the important psychological event known as Paravritti in the Lanka. Paravritti literally means "turning up" or "turning back" or "change". This Paravritti. technically. and other Mahayana literature. mere intellectual under- A standing of the truth is not enough in the life of a Buddhist the truth must be directly grasped. therefore. "conversion" among the psychological students of religion. and no psychological analysis can reach it. while ignorance (avidya) is To be cured of the disease. is an end to the continuous When thus: the this is done. there a state called emancipation (vimoksha) which is full of bliss. especially suddenly. intuitively penetrated into. The Mahayana calls this phase of the Alaya tainted or denied (klishta} and tells us to be cleansed of it in order to experience a Paravritti for the attainment of ultimate reality. and I have called it "revulsion" this philosophy.

all the wonders that are to take place by the of a Bodhisattva's original as being derived . The power vows may also be judged from the Buddha. that the Tathagata has effected his work of purification in the mind of a sentient being. palaces. when the Buddha so wishes. they would speedily fall into the group of the philosophers and Sravakas. important role in the Buddhist This is insisted upon Lanka as is illustrated in the use of such phrases as "Do not rely on others" (apa/rapraneya) . will resound with the voice of the Buddha. But at the same time we must not forget the fact that the Lanka also emphasises the neces. it still (svabliava) retains its intellectual flavour as most Buddhist terms do. and they would never be able to attain supreme enlightenment and preach the doctrine of universal emancipation. sity of the to the Bodhisattvas. which has so far failed to perceive its own oneness and allness. in the it not mere is evident that self-discipline plays an life. . therefore. . woods. "Strive yourselves" (siksMtavyam} etc.xviii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA Paravritti in another sense. that is. Being pure is to remain in its own selfhood or self -nature While Paravritti is psychological. Indeed. is purification In Buddhism terms of colouring are much used. (visuddhi) and becoming pure. how much more inheritors ! the Bodhisattvas who all are his spiritual The doctrine of Adhishthana gains ance the more signific- when we consider the development of Mahayana Buddhism into the doctrine of salvation by faith alone. If they were not thus so constantly sustained by the miraculous Buddha's power being added in their upward power of the Buddha. etc. free from all pigment. even such inanimate objects as mountains. course of spiritual development and in the accomplishment of their great task of world-salvation. 8 elf-discipline and the Buddha's Power As long as Paravritti is an experience and understanding. If the possibility of enlightenment is due to the Adhishthana or Prabhava of the Buddha. means that the Alaya is thoroughly washed off its dualistic accretion or outflow (asrava).

rate the At any Mahayana idea of the Buddha being marks one of those epochpower making deviations which set off the Mahayana from so-called primitive or original Buddhism. Giving power to another is a positive idea while suffering for another may be said to be a negative one. if at all traceable in the Lanka. To suffer or atone vicariously is negative and fails to entirely satisfy our spiritual needs. nor to the Gandavyuha or Avatamsaka. This is the true meaning of Parinamana. the next step his devotees are logically led to take would be the idea of vicarious suffering or atonement. of the to issue xix enlightenment must be inferred ultimately from the fountain-head of Buddhahood itself. When the Buddha comes able to impart his to others to be considered capable of Adhishthana. animate and inanimate. As I said elsewhere. thus enabling easily life. him to advance more and successfully towards the attainment of the blissful But really religious This goes quite against the idea of individual respon- sibility. this notion of why this absence? How can this be explained? .. According to this doctrine. that is. So the Mahayanists accumulate stocks of merit not only for the material of their own enlightenment but for the general cultivation of merit which can be shared equally by their fellow-beings. minds require still this vicarious suffering for their spiritual life. so. others for their spiritual interest. the Gandavyuha as well as the Prajnapdramita are quite eloquent in elucidating the doctrine of vicarious suffering. whatever suffering one is enduring may be transferred on to another if the latter sincerely desires out of his unselfish and all-embracing love for others. turning one's merit over to Parinamana is not which is strange.INTRODUCTION strength. The Lanka cannot be imagined to have been compiled prior to the Prajnapdramita. in the Though this latter is strangely absent Lanka. to take these sufferings upon himself so that the real sufferers may not only be relieved of them but escape their evil consequences. The latter demand that more good must be done in order to suppress the evils which are found claiming this world for their own glorification.

He is seen among sentient beings. for ultimate reality. and deeds (Jcarma) following from the blind assertion of life-impulse these are the factors that enter into the nature of Sarvasattva. he is disturbed. extends his arms to help the other unable to extricate himself from entanglements looks up in despair. unfold them- Buddhist soul. Transcendental wisdom (prajna) and a heart of embracing love (mahakaruna) constitute the very reason of Buddhahood. the Tathagata. they are conscious of their condition reflect and not at all satisfied with it. while the desire or thirst for life (trishna). and blissful enlightenment. greedy for worldly things. The Buddha leaves his transcendental abode. The one who . and finding the helping arms stretches his own to take hold of them. each one of whom recognises him all- according to his own light. when they they find themselves quite forlorn inwardly. .xx THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA Buddha the Enlightened- and Sarvasattva the Ignorant To conclude this section. looking downward. And from this scene the following narratives psychological. who are ignorant. literally "all beings". the Arhat. they long for real happiness. all ignorant and infatuated ones. : and the other is generally designated as Sarvasattva. where the Buddha sits rapt in his meditation serenely regarding them with his trans- As he looks down at his fellow-beings tormented with their greed and ignorance and inexplicably egotism. and ignorance as to the meaning of life (avidya). for he feels an inextinguishable cendental wisdom. selves to the and ontological. feeling of love stirring within himself the feeling now perfectly purified of all the defilements of selfishness. In spite of their hankering for worldly enjoyments. which embraces the whole world in pity though not attached to it. Buddhism is the story of relationship between the two groups of beings the one is called Buddha who is the enlightened. and therefore in perpetual torment. They look upwards. is above. logical.

nose-vijnana for odour. it is perceived and judged as a red apple or a piece of white linen the faculty . of doing this is called eye-vijnana. Thus. and alayavijnana. meaning "to divide". Citt a comes from the root is cit. and the root jnd which means "to perceive". to judge. has a double sense. and this dividing ends in existence dualistically. for it is also a strong power of attaching itself to the result of thinking. Vijnana is the : faculty of distinguishing or discerning or judging. Manas roughly corresponds to mind as an organ of thought. In the same way. vijnana. tonguevijnana for taste.INTRODUCTION II xxi Psychology be termed Buddhist psychology in the Lanka consists in the analysis of mind. "to -arrange in order". Lanka the derivation made from "to think". "to pile up". to even be considered subordinate to this power The Manas first wills. the Manojivnana is the most important as it is directly related to an inner faculty known as Manas. ma/nas. The Gitta is thus a storehouse where the seeds of all thoughts and deeds are accumulated and stored up. there are ear-vijnana for sound. altogether six forms of Vijnana for distinguishing the various aspects of world Of these six Vijnanas. general and specific. When an object is presented before the eye. and thought- vijnana (manovijnana) for ideas external or internal. however. in the classification To understand thus the psychology of Budof the Vijnanas. Vijnana is composed of the prefix vi. Willing and thinking are inextricably woven into the texture of Manas. The Citta. What may dhism properly the knowledge of these terms is necessary citta. To begin with Vijnana. "to know". ' The latter may of attachment. then it discriminates judge is to divide. but in fact it is more than that. manovijnana. body-vijnana for touch. but in the the root ci. When it is used in the general sense it means . Hence the Manas' tenacious viewing attachment to the dualistic interpretation of existence. that is.

indifferent. for it is then neither simply mentation nor intellection. "ideas". can say that Citta appears here in its highest possible sense. We it acquires still another connotation. mentation". When these eight Vijvijnana. Strictly speaking. that is. Citta and Vijnana are here used synonymously. Relation Between the Various Functions Having explained what the various important terms functions are indicated by them. When. Alayavijnana is alaya+vijnana. as discrimination has already taken is place here. When an individual object etc. is perceived as such. or as coloured. including the activities of Manas and Manovijnana. let us proceed to see in what relationship they stand to one another. the Alaya is not a Vijnana. for perceiving is discriminating. has no discerning power in it. indeed without the latter. however. and does not offer to give judgments. the former sible impos- and conversely. It is identifiable with the Alaya in its absolute aspect. it indiscriminately harbours all that is poured into it through the channel of the Vijnanas. nor perception as a function of consciousness. it is used in the form of Cittainatra. solid..Vijnana (perceiving Vijnanas) and the other as Vastuprativikalpa-vijnana (object-discriminating Vijnana) into these But in fact the Vijnanas are not separable two groups. The whole system of mental functions is called in the Lanka Cittakulapa or Vijnanakaya.xxii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA " "mind". The Alaya is perfectly neutral. . the one group is known as Khyati. and distinguishable from all the rest of the mental faculties. and also of the Vijnanas. This will become clearer later on. while specifically it is a synonym of Alayavijnana in its relative aspects. Every Vijnana performs these two . Mind-only. mean and what : nanas are grouped together under two general heads. The Citta as a cumulative faculty is thus identified with the Alayavijnana. In this mental system eight modes of activity are distinguished Alayavijnana. Manas. and alaya is a store where things are hoarded for future use. Manoand the five sense-Vijnanas.

has two aspects: the Alaya as it is in itself. Manas is conscious of the presence behind itself of Alaya and also of the latter's uninterrupted working on entire system of the Vijnanas. tinguishable as evolving (pravritti) as performing deeds (karma). The Alaya. and performing deeds for some reason. and the Alaya as mental representation called Vijnaptir Alaya. perceiving and discriminating. and as retaining their own original nature (jati). according to the Lanka. but the Alaya ing ever remains itself. we can as being absolute in one respect Alaya is conceived in the and in the other as being subject to "evolution" (pravritti). From Lanka this. the Reflecting on the Alaya clings to it as if it imagining reality it to be an ego. These two aspects are also known Prabandha (incessant) and the Lakshana The Alaya is incessant because of its uninter. which is to say. The notion of an . it is cease working at once when the Alaya is taken out of the existence. rupted existence it is manifested because of see that the its activity being by the mind. for the latter will by itself. Manas is the individual will to live and the principle of discrimination. But it is to be observed that this double activity does not belong to the Alayavijnana. It is this evolving aspect of the Alaya that lends itself to the treacherous interpretation of Manas. of which three are dis. Manas and were and disposes of the reports of the six Vijnanas accordingly. respectively as the (manifested) perceptible .INTRODUCTION xxiii functions simultaneously. it is almost like Emptiness itself although it ever lies behind all the Vijnana-activities. In other words. their Another way of classifying the Vijnanas is according to Lakshana or modes of being. all the Vijnanas are evolving and deed- performing Vijnanas except the Alaya which always abides For the Vijnanas may cease from evolvin its self-nature. which is in the Sagathakam called Paramalaya-vijnana. empirical consciousness. one functioning is analysable into two ideas. From this viewpoint. As long as the Alaya remains in and beyond the grasp of an individual.

The orders are then faithfully executed. Thus. The Manas is not of course an independent worker. and also the acceptance of a world external to itself and distinct from itself. mechanically when the conditions are satisfied and are not conscious of their own doings. the one face looks towards the Alaya and the other towards the Vijnanas. With one swing of the sword the pluralities are cut asunder and the Alaya is seen in its native form (svalakskana) . Discrimination being one of his fundamental functions. This relation- minds altogether too subtle to be perceived by ordinary that are found choked with defilements and false ideas since beginningless time. For it is he who shifts and arranges the reports and gives orders again to the reporters according to Ms own will and intelligence. without which it has no reason of being itself. the entire arrangement of things in the Vijnanakaya or Citta- But the Manas is also kalapa changes. from the first beyond discrimination. They have no intelligence outside their They are not organised in themrespective fields of activity. he sees multitudinousness there and clings to it as final. as solitary reality (viviktadharma). is father. selves and have no theory for their existence and doings. When there takes place a "turning-back" (paravritU} in it. Manas sits at the headquarters and like a great general gathers up all the information coming from the six Vijnanas. The clinging now binds him to a world of particulars. but this oneness gains significance only when it is realised by the Manas and which is recognised as ship is its own supporter (alamba). The Manas is a double-headed monster. The Alaya is absolutely one.xxiv THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA ego-substance is herein established. The six Vijnanas function. What they experience is reported to the headquarters with no comment or interpretation. The Manas backed by the Alaya has been the seat of . He does not understand what the Alaya really is. but at the same time the Alaya is also depending on the Manas. that is. and ignorance rise. it is always depending on the Alaya. and this existence takes its a double-edged sword. desire is mother. as it were.

and ignorance. "With this "turning-back" in the Alaya. The latter are no more as reporters of an external world which is characregarded terised with individuality is and manifoldness. Alaya is as responsible as the Manas for if refused to take the seeds in that are sent up from the Alaya the region of the Vijnana. Manas may not have opportunities are all living. But two fundamental functions. . Hence the doctrine of Mind-only now abandoned. (viviktadharma) and (2) as subject comes from the Mahayana idea of If Buddhahood (luddhoM). the to exercise its criminating. willing and disat the same time it is due to the Alaya's self -purifying nature that there takes place a great catastrophe in it known as "turning-back". The Alaya is thus known on the one hand as Tathagata-garbha. all that the Tathagata wants to do for sentient beings would never have its opportunity to reach them. Signification of conceiving Alaya in its double aspect. This position is no more adhered to as such. the external world . When grow the waves are stirred up in the Alaya-oeean by the wind of objectivity a constant so interpreted by the Manas these seeds give waters. Manas so intimately in relation with it also experiences a transformation in its fundamental attitude towards the Vijnanas. (cittamatra) . There must be something commonly shared by each so that when a note is struck at one end a corresponding one will answer at the other. and are deposited in the Alaya. In other words. supply to the uninterrupted flow of the VijnanaIn this general turmoil in which we sentient beings . There has been from the very first nothing other than itself. that is. The Alaya has been looking at itself in the Manas' mirror. as reality for it is no more than a mere reflection of the Alaya. The Religious The necessity (1) as absolute reality to causation (hetuka). The seeds out of them. or the Alaya-only. solitary. xxv karma.INTRODUCTION desire or thirst (trishna). all Buddhahood is something the efforts put forward by sentient absolutely beings to realise enlightenment would be of no avail whatever. the womb of Tathagatahood.

no sentient beings would ever be a Buddha. no enlightenment would be experienced by any human beings. in its self-nature. Therefore. whose psychological name is Alayavijnana. And as this ness is is to be illogical- practically possible. Mind (citta) here does not mean our individual mind which is Absolute subject to the law of causation (hetupratyaya) . If the Tathagata-garbha or Alaya-vijnana were not a mysterious mixture of purity and defilement. this abrupt transformation (paravritti) of an entire personality would be an impossibility. we have to be careful not to understand this term psychologically. and the whole system of the Vijnanas goes through a revolution. is a reservoir of things good and bad. immaculate. an intuitive penetration into the primitive purity (pmkritiparisuddhi) of the Tathagata-garbha. it allows itself to transmigrate through the six paths of existence. That is to say. if the Garbha or the Alaya while absolutely neutral and colourless in itself did not yet harbour in itself a certain irrationality. the Tathagatagarbha is originally. pure and defiled. When this is impossible as is the case with the philosophers and ignorant masses. Let there be. it belongs neither to the Vijnana-system nor to our objective world (vishaya). and which is the state generally found in all sentient beings an intuitive penetration (pratyaksha) is impossible. however.xxvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA as and on the other hand imagined by the ignorant soul (pudgala or atman) . in the Lanka this Citta quently described in ontological terms. is fre- . good and evil. the . Mahayana establishes the theory of Mind-only (cittamatra) Ontology and the Twofold Egolessness In considering the theory of Mind-only. Logicalness transcended somewhere and somehow. but because of its external dirt (dgantuklesa) it is soiled. As it is so believed. therefore. Citta transcends the dualistic conception of existence. the Garbha is believed sometimes to be a creator (Tcarana) and sometimes to be an soiled when ego-substance (atmari). ah ego- The Tathagata-garbha. Expressed differently.

To be above changes means to remain in one's own abode. it must mean the highest reality. which points to a similar . As it is the most ancient reality. line 4). as gold is embedded in the mine. the a. and for this reason reality is known as "self-abiding" (svastha. case. Tathata "suchness". 1. 124. 199. not to move away from it. p. It is again Ekagra. solitary. which to be rendered either is a term most frequently used in the Mahayana texts to designate the highest reality ever approachable by Prajna. or (pauranasthitidharmata. 1 To keep one's own abode it to be single. must be a modifier here. 5 and 9). Vastu and Tathata are synonymously used. In Zen Buddhism. this reality is something dry to be described as arya. there- The highest reality fore. line 6) ) and with In the first Arya in another place (p. p. . The ever-enduring reality (sthitita dharmata) is above changes. 178. 143. its realisation means returning to one 's own original abode in which everything one sees around is an old familiar object. In the second case in which Arya is affixed to Vastu. because this is gained only 1 when one makes a final leap beyond the mahifoldness of things. p. "noble". 1. 11. But evidently in this connection where is Buddhism Vastu is Tathata. 164. no-limit. lines 9 and 10) . Cf. is also called "something that has been in existence since the very first" (purvadharmasthitita. or "worthy". which is found coupled with Tathata in one place (p. in usually an individual object regarded as existing externally to the Vijnanas. limit of reality. that is. line 1. or "thatness". or "remaining in its own abode" (svastMne 'vatishthate. p. summit or limit (Iwti) is at the same time no-summit. a thing of soliBhutakoti. are all abiding here tso). what is is Tathata. "holy". kuei-chia wenThe Buddhas. tude absolute: hence Reality is Viviktadharma.INTRODUCTION xxvii The most significant one is Vastu. 241. 14). enlightened ones. p. that is Vastu. mode and this of thinking. and so is it in most cases in the Lanka also. 15). the summit of oneness. the experience is compared to the visiting one's native home and quietly getting settled (llfl^iil^fe. 147. transcendental wisdom Vastu .

Cessation (nirodha). the One (advaya). Sameness (samata). 61-62 of this translation. we can say that one of the principal theses of the LanM is to establish the Absolute which makes a world of particulars possible but which is not to be grasped by means of being and non-being (astinastitva). From these descriptions it is found natural for Mahayanists psychologically to deny the existence of an ego-soul or ego-substance in the Alaya.xxviii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA to The more ordinary expressions given reality the highest "suehness" or "thusness". This Absolute is the Middle Way of the Madhya- maka school. But when one understands what is ultimately meant by Cittamatra (Mind-only) or by Viviktadharma (the Solitary). "realm of truth". etc. The term "the Middle" (madhyama). In fact. See xxvin. 1 . the one denies the reality of an ego-soul and the other the ultimacy of an individual object. see especially pp. Bhutata. that it is beyond the category of being and non-being. Satyata. the negations are on the plane of relativity and intellection. the Formless (anwuitta) as Citta are Tathata. meaning "the Middle Way". Dharmadhatu. "the state of being true". the Permanent (nitya). egolessness of things . For the non-existence of a personal ego-soul and the non-reality of an individual object. known Emptiness (sunyata). The conception of the Tathagata-gavbha is not to be confused with that of a Pudgala or Atman. this denial of an Atman in persons and individual objects sounds negative and productive of no moral signification. is technically called the doctrine of Pudgalanairatmya. Superficially. Nirvana. ego- lessness of persons. does not occur in the LanM proper except in its Sagathakam portion. "the state of being real". But the idea that the truth is not found in the dualistic way of interpreting existence. is everywhere emphasised in the LanM. . and ontologieally to insist that the tragedy of life comes from believing in the subThe former stantiality or finality of an individual object. 1 and the latter that of Dharmanairatmya.

it will turn into something standing in opposition to this world of relativity. it is outside and yet within. whether as being and non-being. or as purity and defilement. We must therefore endeavour to take hold of reality. however differently it may be expressed. There is nothing real as long as we remain entangled in the skein of relativity. or as assertion and negation. The Lanka is quite . that is. or as ignorance and knowledge. The subtlest world is beyond description. This aspect of reality is described as "unobtainable" or "unattainable" tion And just because it is unobtainable in a (anupalabdha) world of particulars. or as worldly and super-worldly. for it is that "Beyond which is also Within". and so on. therefore. ad infinitum this going beyond a world of oppositions and contrasts constitutes one of the most significant thoughts of the Mahayana.INTRODUCTION Unobtainability xxix This going beyond all forms of dualism. or as work and no-work. and our sufferings will never come to an end. it yields its secrets only to him who has actually realised it in himself by means of noble wisdom (aryajnana or prajna). or as this and that. The Lanka compares it to the moon in water or a flower in a mirror. Thus. Mahayana philosophy becomes incomprehensible. It is within and yet outside. like Epistemology Without a theory of cognition. the latter from the point of view of . or as oneness and manyness. or as ego and non-ego. and if we had. according to Buddhist philosophy. of us will be able to have even a glimpse of it. or as good and evil. or as form and no-form. the solitary now forms part of this world. reality must be grasped in this world and by this world. reality is like a relation of reality to the a mirage. but this reality For in this case no one is not something altogether solitary. dream. This realisation is also a kind of knowledge though different from what is generally known by this name. which means the loss of solitariness. or as Samsara and Nirvaria. or as causa- and no-causation.

To distinguish these two forms of knowledge most essential in Buddhist philosophy. is This transcendental Jnana the Lanka. Nirabhasa. Nirvikalpa. is The Lanka is decidedly partial to the use of Aryajnana instead of Prajna. generally coupled with Pratyatma. upon the ultimate ground beyond all It is an insight fixed Svabuddhi. or Anabhasa (imagelessness) . This psychological emphasis so distinctive of the Lanka . inner self. showing that supreme wisdom is a mental function operating in the depths of our being. noble wisdom. but in the Lanka the weight of the discourse is placed upon the realisation by means of Aryajnana of ultimate reality which is Mind-only. forms of tangibility. although the latter has been in use since the early days of Buddhism. As it is concerned with the highest reality or the ultimate truth of things. ting through the surface of existence. is designated Discrimination (vikalpa) in the the former transcendental wisdom or knowledge The latter Lanka and (prajna). that of existence. for this understanding is a fundamental intuition into the truth of Mind-only and constitutes the Buddhist enlightenment with which truly starts the religious life of a Bodhisattva. Pravieayabuddhi. innate in oneself. it is no superficial knowledge dealing with particular objects and their It is an intuitive understanding which. is this noble. penetrarelations. beyond discrimination. which therefore is not at all expressible by means of words (vac or rut a).xxx THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA explicit in assuming two forms of knowledge: the one for grasping the absolute or entering into the realm of Mind- only. meaning direct empirical knowledge before analysis starts in any form whatever. The awaking of supreme knowledge (anuttarasamyaksambodhi) is the theme of the Prajnaparamita-sutras. sees into that which is the reason of everything logically and ontologically. The Lanka is never tired of impressing upon its readers the importance of this understanding in the attainment of spiritual freedom. It is variously designated in is. tic aspect in and the other for understanding existence in its dualiswhich logic prevails and the Vijnanas are active. Aryajnana.

By us existence is always divided into pairs of conception. for it is one we have condiscrimination. 1. 3). . and also This kind of knowledge does not help us to have an insight into the depths of being. wrong judgments go on adding complexities upon The habit-energy (vasana) thus created takes complete hold on the Alayavijnana. worldly experience. truth slips off our grasp. creating libitum. whereby judgment is made possible. of the how. birth and death. The Twofold Truth (satya) The distinction between the highest truth (paramarthaand conventional truth (samvriti-satya) is not exheld in the Lanka. according to which we talk of things being born and destroyed. Another word for convensatya) tionalism is Vyavahara. thesis and antithesis. being and non-being. (vijnapti) but our Buddhi which seeks after pluralities fails to understand this fact and makes us cling to appearances as realities. permanent and impermanent. Eternal transmigration to no purpose must be our destiny. of existence. Nirvana and Samsara. it may be called the principle of dichotomy. false views ac- cumulate. this and that. It is relative knowledge working on the plane of dualism. and it is said that false discrimination belongs to conventionalism (p. complexities. etc. it is our own thought-construction As the result. which I have translated "discrimination". The knowledge that stands contrasted to Prajna or Aryajnana is Vikalpabuddhi. 131. ad is due to the working of Vikalpa. the world in which we now find ourselves it is living- ceases to be what in itself. what. that is.INTRODUCTION xxxi makes this sutra occupy a unique position in Mahayana literature. real nature. The to Lakshana (form) of existence thus presented its us is not . but allusions are occasionally made plicitly to them. where. or simply Vikalpa. and Alaya the Absolute is forever unable to extricate itself from these encumbrances. structed according to our own ignorance and Reality escapes us.. Me and not-Me. and This created.

is. It is like seeing a mirage which vanishes as one approaches. which allows us to become truly acquainted with reality as it is. the existence of which in some form is popularly The first form of knowledge by which the reality accepted. Budis a kind of scientific knowledge based on analysis. that Modern there scientists declare that mathematical formulae. to perceive rightly what is meant by Svabhava. there is nothing self -existing in the world. is. called Pari- nishpanna. the svabhavatva of According to them. that This is an illusion. The second form of knowledge by which we examine This existence is Paratantra. This is a generally recognised classification in all the schools of Mahay ana Buddhism. things are universally mutually conditioned. no objective reality. It is this "perfected" knowledge whereby we are enabled to see really into the nature of existence. where does our boat of enlightenment get anchored? The Lanka. means "self -nature" or "self-reality" or "selfsubstance". dhists make use of this knowledge to disprove the subthings. existence is no more than The Mahay anists would say that is no Svabhava in anything appealing as such to the Vijnanas when it is examined from the Paratantra point of view. everything is depending for its existence on something else. Svabhava. . of things is assumed is called Parikalpita. "imagined". "depending upon another". Imagined (parikalpita) objects have. and the relativity view (paratantra) reduces it into nothingness: if so. and it dissolves itself into airy nothingness. imagination in its ordinary sense. for things are imagined to exist really where in fact there are none.xxxii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA The Three Svabhavas Another way of classifying knowledge is known as three Svabhavas in the Lanka. "perfected". Dissect an object considered final. endlessly related to one another. stantiality of individual objects. tells us that there is a third way of viewing existence. The imagined view (parikalpita) of reality does not give us a true knowledge of it. therefore.

as is thought by some scholars. It perceives things as they are. i. The first three correspond to the two of the Three Svabhavas. one cannot have even the remotest idea of true emptiness or what in the this is designated also of the seven Emptinesses (p. the principle of dichotomisation. Lanka. does not mean "relativity". seeing into the suchness of things. because going beyond the realm of being and non-being which or belongs to discrimination. Aryajnana. we must not forget to mention what is known as the Five Dharmas in the Lanka making up one of the main topics of discourses. that as the wise see reality with their eye of Prajna. . 94). kind of Sunyata mentioned as one as The Lanka has Sunyata is great void of noble Paramartha-aryajnana-mahasunyata. . This is again called seeing into the emptiness of things. transcendental knowledge. while the Mahayana Pmjndparamita Mahasunyata. they ascertain definitely what it is. the wisdom which is the highest reality. or sometimes simply Jnana. and Suchness (tathatd).INTRODUCTION and to declare that there the ignorant is xxxiii as is . Names (nama). that is. As long as one stays in the world of relativity where logic rules supreme. . however. so called corresponds Relativity-emptiness to the first of the seven Emptinesses. no Svabhava imagined by and that all is empty (sunya) Perfect or "perfected" knowledge issues from Prajna. Relativity-emptiness is on the lower plane of knowledge and does not reveal the real view of existence as it is. e. Emptiness taught in the Mahayana It is the object of texts goes far deeper into the matter. Emptiness (sunyata). (nimitta). Discrimination (samJcalpa) Eight Knowledge (samyagjndna). it dives into the abyss where there are no shadows (analhasa) So states the This is called self-realisation (svasiddhi) . The Five Dharmas and the Three Svabhavas are different ways of The Five are: Appearances classifying the same material. The Five Dharmas Before concluding this section. in its self -nature eye (bhdvasvabhdva) and not as is seen by the ignorant whose is never raised beyond the horizon of relativity.

Eight Knowledge (samyagjnana) is not to be had here. Then the worst thing comes upon us as we begin to persuade ourselves and think that by giving Names existence has been successfully disposed of. not immersed in it. while the last two belong to the Parinishpanna.xxxiv THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA Parikalpita and Paratantra. in the water. and feel comfortable about the problems of Although without naming no knowledge is posreligion. For naming is impossible without some form of discrimination. We can say that discrimination has been with us from the first even when what is called perception has not taken place. Ill The Message of the Lanka There are many other thoughts of interest in the Lanka which may be discussed in this Introduction. it most emphatically advises us not relative Our ances to which Names to attach ourselves to words. In this the Lanka permits no equivocation. the Lanka will immediately retort. too unreal for our religious aspirations. for it is a mere reflection. as not conditioned The object of Right Knowledge is Suchness of things by the category of being and non-being. Tathata is the most real thing and a term most fittingly applied as far as our power of designation is concerned. But as I have . Names are then thought real and discrimination is carried on. knowledge starts with perceiving Appearare given. but we cannot say that it is not there. For this is the inexpressible. declares such reality as maintained by the Mahayana is too too phantom-like. it is It is in this sense that ultimate reality is said to be like the moon it." When the Aryajnana is awakened. Plurality of objects is not real from the point of view of relativity as well as from the point of view of Suchness. nor is it outside cannot say that the moon is in water. for We a reflection though it may be it is really before us. the unnamable. sible. If some one ethereal. it is the meaning (arfha) not to be grasped by words. "You are still on the plane of relativity.

jOne of the main theses of this inspiring scripture is the announcement that the Buddha never died. and that what must have developed during several hundred years after his death was taken in a wholesale manner for a system fully matured in his life-time extending over a period of about half a century after his Enlightenment. I will say just a few words about the position of this Sutra texts. and Bodhisattvas. (2) The Avalokitesvaror-vikurvana-nirdesa. and that the Buddha has just one vehicle (yana) for all beings. who are no less beings than ourselves. and when the only thing that was left behind after his Nirvana was his Dharma. Pratyekabuddhas. it was already regarded as directly coming from the Buddha's own golden mouth. Avalokites- . The following are the most important Mahayana texts that thus served to move the still religious feelings of the Far-eastern so. in which his followers were asked to find their Master.. peoples and are (1) continuing to do The Saddharma-pundanka-sutra. This is commonly known as Kwcmnon-gyo in Japan and forms the twenty-fourth chapter of the Sanskrit Saddharma-pundarika. among the general Mahayana Buddhist "While we are still in the dark as to how Mahayana Buddhism developed in India. This must have been a revolutionary teaching at the time when the Buddha was thought to be just as transient and mortal as ourselves.INTRODUCTION xxxv already given up many pages to it and as the reader who wishes to know more about the Sutra may go to my Studies in the Lankavatara. they profoundly stirred the Chinese and then the Japanese mind awakening their religious consciousness to its very depths. but it will be better to treat it as a separate document as it has quite an independent message and has been so considered though not always consciously by its devotees.D. the first of which appeared in 68 A. we know that when it was introduced into China by the missionaries from India and central Asia. that he is forever living on the Mount of the HolyVulture and preaching to a group of the Sravakas. As the sutras were translated into Chinese.

more feminine. of the text. he cannot help but be deeply pursuit impressed with its underlying spirit whose grandeur of outlook almost surpasses human comprehension. however. The huge rockcut figure of Vairocana at Lung-men and the bronze figure in Nara are respectively the Chinese and the Japanese artistic response to the spiritual stimulation caused by the Avatamsaka. modern point of view as the main theme is not so succinctly presented.)." He would not enter into Nirvana. plants. This is an encyclopedic (3) The Avatamsakd-sutra. And this doctrine of transformation is one of the characteristic features of Mahayana Buddhism. and by Prajna (40 fas. that coveted object of all the Buddhists. and it takes some time before the reader can get After a quiet and patient into the mood of the sutra itself. That he can assume various forms (vikurvana) in order to achieve his ends appeals very much to the religious imagination of the Eastern peoples. here represented as a god of mercy who will help finds himself in trouble spiritually as well as In popular minds the god is no more masculine than feminine if anything. It was the vow of Samantabhadra to release animals. and even .xxxvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA is vara anybody who materially. The sutra as we have it now contains many sutras which may be considered independent though they no doubt belong to the same The reading may be tedious from the class of literature. so-called Interpenetration which constitutes the central thought of the sutra is symbolically and effectively treated in the Chinese translations by Buddhabhadra (60 fas. by Sikshananda (80 fas. The influenced the Chinese and the Japanese mind profoundly. because of mercy being more reality associated with eternal femininity.). And by this "soul" was meant not only human soul but the soul of every being animate or inanimate. because he would not have one single soul unsaved behind him. sutra of which we find the Gandavyuha and the Desabhumika forming a part. It is another Mahayana sutra that has .). or the G-andavyuha which is the same thing. Another profound effect produced by this sutra on the Eastern mind is the conception of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra with his "ten inexhaustible vows.

a (5) The Vimalakirti-sutra. drama with great literary merit. waters. most Mahayana scholars to have been one of the first Maha- yana literature that was declared against the hair-splitting scholastic philosophy of early Buddhist doctors. The latter proved a good match for the eloquence of the lay-disciple of the Buddha. If we stagger at this by the Prajna-paramita. not to be taken aback by this vast Void. This is a masterpiece. His universe. from the bondage of ignorance and karma. and because of this fact it is read more generally than other Buddhist sutras by the The signification of this sutra lies in taking our soiled laity. etc. coat of attachment off our back which we have been wearing ever since we became aware of an external existence. earths. gospel of absolute Emptiness. was far wider and more spiritualistic than our ordinary one This is regarded by (4) The Prajna-paramita-sutra. gives us the doctrine of Emptiness or Void (sunyata). While the Avatamsaka filled the universe with things of imagination even to its minutest particle. Another significant feature of the sutra is that its chief figure of interest is not the Buddha but a wealthy layman called Vimalaklrti.. moreover.INTRODUCTION xxxvii such inanimate existences as mountains. It appealed greatly to intellectual minds as well as the mystical. except Manjusri. the Prajnaparamita swept everything away from the universe which now becomes a vast Void indeed. And in six hundred fascicles of the sutra we are warned not to be afraid of. "What we have to notice especially in this Maha- yana text is that Buddhism does not require us to lead a . the head of the Bodhisattvas. whereby every To be possible straw of attachment is taken away from us. we are told by the Buddha that we cannot be good followers of the Mahayana. left alone in the Void. is the method of perfect emancipation proposed This was quite a direct straightforward proposition on the part of the Mahayanist. even with this Void vanishing from around us. It is this crafty old gentleman-philosopher who puts to shame all the Sravakas and Bodhisattvas coming to argue with him about the deepest truths of Buddhism.

eternal. In Japan this school has achieved a unique development marking a spiritual epoch in the history of religious faith in the Bast. Before the arrival of this sutra in China it was generally believed that there was a class of people known as Icchanti who had no Buddhanature in them and therefore who were eternally barred from attaining enlightenment. though quite different from changing what is generally known as such by the philosophers. Superficially. saying that when a statement to the contrary was found "There is something in all beings self-governing. the Tathagata-garbha. for it has awakened the faith-aspect of their religious consciousness. (6) In this respect the Srimala-sutra is also significant. Its main assertion is that the Buddhanature is present in every one of us. and forever unthis is called Ego. (8) The Parinirvanu-sutra. The Mahayana may be said to be the revolt of laymen and laywomen against the ascetic spirit of exclusion pervading among early advocates of Buddhism. The Jodo school could not take its rise from any other soil than Maha- yana Buddhism. but the underlying thoughts are not at all the same. for Srimala the queen inspired by the wisdom and power of the Buddha delivers a great sermon on the Tathagata-garbha. and purity. may bliss. This belief was entirely expelled. a Bhikshu in order to attain enlightenment. in the sutra. however. life is as the householder's good and pure as the mendicant's. the faith of Amitabha looks very much like Christian faith in Christ. Ego as is in every one of us. This once formed the foundation of the Nirvana school in the early history of Chinese Buddhism. freedom. real." All these and other sutras of Mahayana Buddhism (9) seem to exhaust the many-sided aspects of this school. This which is true. which is established on the general basis of Mahayana philosophy. Buddha-nature.xxxviii THE LANKAVATAEA SUTEA life as homeless that is. which exists and is characterised with such virtues permanency. The influence of this (7) The Sukhavati-vyuhor-sutra. . sutra on Oriental people is quite different from that of the other sutras.

father of Zen Buddhism. however.. inspired by the same spirit which pervades the Lanka. the Parinirvana. it to touch lightly upon the characteristic features of the Sutra. there was surely a great Buddhist mind. that without self-realisation all intellection amounts to nothing. made use of the text quite effectively . Some scholars contend that The Awakening is a Chinese work. Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra. To tell us this is the of the Lankavatara-sutra. While this lies in ordinary people defiled by the evil passions and does not shine out in its native purity. who. which constitute its special message as distinguished from the other sutras already referred to.INTEODUCTION xxxix but another is needed to tell us that mere understanding is not enough in the Buddhist life. is In fact. the spirit itself flows quite unchanged in the Bast. we cannot deny its existence in them. for it was through him that a special school of Buddhism under office Zen or Ch'an has come to develop in China and While Zen as we have it now is not the same in many respects as Bodhidharma first proclaimed it about fifteen centuries ago. While he may not have been the author of this most important treatise of Mahayana philosophy. In a way The Awakening is an attempt to systematise the Lanka. Suffice kavatara-sutra. poured out his thoughts in The Awakening. for all the principal teachings of the latter are found there developed in due order. When the external wrappage of impurities is peeled off we all become Buddhas and Tathagatas. the birth of a Tathagata nowhere else than in this Garbha. but this is not well grounded. for the point has been fully dwelt upon in my recent work. the Avatariisaka. necessary here for us to enter into details. It is not. both teach the existence of th Garbha as ultimate reality. etc. and Bodhidharma. There is no doubt that the Lanka is closely connected in time as well as in doctrine with The Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana generally ascribed to Asvaghosha. As far as the theoretical side is concerned. And this is eloquently embodied in the Lanthe title of in Japan. The Garbha is from the psychological point of view the .

Lanka joins hands with the Madhyamaka. Logic does not lead one to self-realisation. which belongs to the Lanka. there are no realities behind them but the Cittamatra states that there is nothing but Citta. that is. is to separate the is one from the other. The one is pure idealism and the other idealistic difference is this : . But the Alayavijnana not the same as that of Lanka and the Yogacara Awakening of Faith. and Awakening of Faith. But . Why by evil thoughts and desires? it come out in this world ? the Alaya found contaminated What is the evil? How does is How the truth to be realised ? These questions are answered by postulating a system of Vijnanas and by the doctrine of Discrimination (viJcalpa). in the world and that the world is the objectifieation of Mind. one seeks the truth who by means of self -discipline. the Yogaeara upholds the theory of Vijnaptimatra and not that of Cittamatra. This is the point where the Lanka comes in contact with the Yogaeara school. the world nothing but ideas. and the work of the Yogin. Thus we see that the end of the religious discipline is to go beyond intellectualism. Hence Nagarjuna's hair-split- ting dialectics. Further. The Yogacara is essentially psychological standing in contrast in this respect to the Madhya- maka school which is is epistemological. in which good and are mingled. The former conceives the Alaya to be of the itself with nothing defiled in it whereas the Lanka and the Awakening make it the cause of purity and defilement. Avatamsaka. as has already been expounded above.xl THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA bad Alayavijiiana. for to discriminate. tais is done when Discrimination when a state is discarded. The doctrine of the Void is indeed the foundation of Mahayana philosophy. is the function of the intellect. His idea is to prove the ineffectiveness of This is where the logic in the domain of our spiritual life. To and realise the Cittamatra is the object of the Lainka. Mind. The purity is According to the Vijnaptimatra. that is. Discrimination is a logical term and belongs to the intellect. realism. to divide. of non-discrimination is attained in one's spiritual life. all-conserving mind.

but according Mahayana be transferred upon anything the doer wishes. and for this reason they are called Not only are his vows inexhaustible but means" he uses for the emancipation of all beings know no limits. to the expedite the latter 's attainment of its merit is sure this is the doctrine of come back to the doer himself the recipient need not always be the doer himself. .INTRODUCTION this is not to be understood in the xli manner reasoning. he may be anybody. This idea comes from the philosophical teaching of Interpenetration as upheld in the Avatamsaka. The one significant Mahayana thought. Parvnamana means to turn one's merit over to somebody Nirvana. He knows how to make the best use of his inexhaustible resources intellectual and practical for this single purpose. The Lanka is quite explicit and not of analytical to be mis- taken in this respect. the In the Lanka all the most fundamental conceptions of Mahayana are thrown in without any attempt on the part of the compiler or compilers to give them a system. he may be the whole world. the "skilful space. This is left to the thoughtful reader himself who will pick them up from the medley and string them into a garland of pearls out of his own religious experience. the Lanka may seem to be only a philosophical with nothing religious in it. Here we may say that the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra of the Avatamsaka or the G-andavyuha is reflected. merit being of universal character can Karma. So treatise far. however. the Bodhisattva would not enter into Nirvana because of his vows to save all sentient beings. and his vows are not limited in time and "inexhaustible". to else so as to If anybody does anything good. the turning over of one's good work to somebody else. For instance. This transferability is known as the doctrine of Parinamana. but the fact is that the Sutra is deeply tinged with religious sentiments. which is not expressly touched upon in the Sutra is that of Parinamana.

for it was not surely written from the beginning as one complete piece of work as we write a book in these modern days. all the statements are more or less of the character of Lanka or All that we can say is this that the not a discourse directly given by the founder of Buddhism. the compiler or compilers began to collect passages as he or they came across in their study of the Mahayana. arguments from the contents as to the date are of very doubtful character. The one thing that is certain is that it was compiled before 443 A. As is the ease with. since there is no doubt that it of added passages. the Meat-eating chapter also suffered certain modifications. when the first Chinese translation is does not mean reported to have been attempted.D. other Buddhist texts it is quite impossible with our present knowledge of Indian history to decide the age of the Lanka. the contents may give a clue to the age of the text. especially in the 513 (Wei) one. is that Agamas which also developed some time when Mahayana thoughts began to after the Buddha. crystallise in the Northern as well as in the Southern part of India probably about the Christian era or even earlier. As long as we have practically no knowledge of historical circumstances in which the Buddhist texts were produced one after another in India or somewhere else. that it is a later composition than the Nikayas an ingenious surmise. Even with the text that was in existence before 443 A. but because of the difficulty of separating one part from another from the point of view of textual criticism. we do not know how it developed.xlii THE LANKAVATAEA SUTEA The Date of the Lanka. Some parts of it must be older than has others. which finally resulted in the . that the whole text as we have it But this now was then already in existence. Further. many layers To a certain extent. for we know that the later translations done in 513 and 700-704 contain the Dharani and the Sagathakam section which are missing in the 443 one (Sung).D.

"Chapter One Known as Havana-invita- Chapter II Collection of All the "Here Ends Chapter Two Known as the Dharmas in the 36. . "Here Ends Chapter Five on the Permaand Impermanency of the Tathagata". p. title of xliii Lankavatara- Some Remarks Concerning the Text Certain irregularities of the chapter-endings are to be noticed in this connection. Generally these endings show that the chapters are composite parts of a sutra and belong to it.INTRODUCTION Buddhist text now known under the sutra. at least in one case. Chapter VIII "Here Ends Chapter Eight on Meateating from the Lankavatara which is the Essence of All the Buddha-Teachings" . 42. a chapter known as the "Essence of all the Buddha-teachings" which is indeed a sort of sub1 Suggested by Mr Hokei Idzumi. mency Chapter VI "Here Ends Chapter Six on MomentariChapter ness". or contained. Chapter III "Here Ends Chapter Three on Impermanency in the Lankavatara. show that there was a larger Lanka containing 36. Chapter VII "Here Ends Chapter Seven on Egolessness"." Known as These irregularities.000 (sloka) Lankavatara". V Chapter IX "Here Ends Chapter Nine Dharani in the Lankavatara. Chapter IV "Here Ends Chapter Four on Bealisation". See my Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra. and their relation to the text is not at all definite. but in the case of the Lanka some endings are quite of an independent character.000 slokas1 as referred to in Fa-tsang's notices. also 2 and in another case that the Lanka was known. a Mahayana Sutra". For instance : Chapter I tion".

. and they give sometimes no sense when they are separately considered. Composed And This in verse-gems.D. The verses are generally meant for memorising the principal doctrines. are all these verses as a whole to be regarded as belonging to the same 3 These are systematically excluded in the T'ang. the Sagathakam begins with this "Listen to the wonderful Mahayana doctrine. ' ' may be asked: If there were a larger Lanka containing all these verses in the Sagathakam in the body of the text. must have been naturally much fuller than the existing Lanka perhaps something like the one containing 36.000 slokas. more complete text of the Lanka in Sagathakam verses were incorporated in the which. hints at the existence of a larger or which all these prose section. But the fact that both the Wei version and the Sanskrit edition contain not only the verses properly belonging to the Sagathakam but those 1 already appearing in the prose section. therefore. that is to say. for it means the But in this case the following questions one with verses. There are many verses in the Sagathakam which are too obscure to be intelligently interpreted without their corresponding prose passages. 443 A. As the earliest Chinese translation by Gunabhadra does not contain it. for some watch-words only are rhythmically arranged to facilitate the memory.xliv title THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA given to the four-volume Chinese Lanka by Gunabhadra (Sung). or if there were a Lanka with the verses alone and as a separete text which was later on put together with the present one. ' ' The term sagathakam also suggests this. In the Sanskrit stanza : text. Declared in this Lankavatara Sutra. destroying a net of the philosophical views. The Gatha section called "Sagathakam" presents peculiar difficulties." may be understood to mean that this section is that part of the Lanka which is made up with the verses. the verses taken from the entire text of the Lanka. it is highly probable that it was not then included in the Lanka text.

each of which is presumably concerned with one many theme. For after all there is but one highest truth in the Lanka. and the Meat-eating chapter. which are surely of later development. But the mnemonic. of which all others are so aspects viewed at various angles of thought. in the conception of the Sambhogakaya (verse 384) and of the ninth Vijnana (verse 13). one finds verses being too concise and often merely it too risky to cut them up into groups and to take the latter as containing so many definite sets of thoughts. the Dharani. nor are they complete. ding figures . for instance. In is This cutting indicated in the following translation Roman by the running consecutively through the entire text except the Eavana. The solution of these and some other possible questions is to be left to some future time when all the circum- stances leading to the production of the Buddhist sutras Mahayana and Hinayana in various districts of India are ascertained. what caused the disappearance of the prose passages which accompanied the verses now retained in the Sagathakam only? Is there no possibility of some of the verses added later to the text independently ? There is some evidence of such additions as we can see. As we notice in the cases of repetition occurring so frequently in the Sagathakam the verses are not from the text. dictory notions harmoniously. they are not always found in the Sagathakam in the same order as they are in the text proper. by dividing the whole portion into so many groups of verses. that is. is to cut the whole text into as many pieces as the sense allows and to regard each piece as completely expressing one chief thought in the philosophy of Mahayana Bud- conflict In some cases the pieces so severed may seem to with one another. Sometimes one solidly transferred single verse is taken out of the the main text group where it belongs in and inserted in an unexpected connection. where no such diviis necessary. In such cases a higher principle will be found somewhere else that unifies the two contradhism.INTEODUCTION period ? xlv If so. The best way of reading the Lamka. as I said in my 1 Studies. I thought I would treat the Sagathakam in a similar manner.

the considers Gunabhadra. 434). Such subjects are those historical narratives concerning Vyasa. etc. of the most valuable documents for the historical students . Katyayana. for in his day there was yet no independent school which later came to be known as "Zen". In fact. thirty-six Buddhas (v. Ching-ehueh. For instance. Nagahvaya. and not Bodhidharma Ching-chueh belonged to the school of Hsiian-tse CSHt) and Shen-hsiu (Jjif^fP) who upheld the Lanka in opposition to This book is one their rival Hui-neng'sJSfg Vajracched/ika. 59). And then there are some passages in the Sagathakam which may be regarded as later additions. and monachical history.xlvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA these circumstances I thought it wise to leave the Sagathakam as it stands and not to arrange the verses into groups until we know more exactly about the historical evolution of this portion of the Lanka. Fathers of the Lanka transmission are also those of Zen Buddhism. He Sung or four volume Lanka.. the translator of the first Father of Zen in China.. and also from the point of doctrinal. The Sagathakam requires more study from the point of text criticism. etc. The Transmission History of the Lanka In the book called ^HflJ&WfE. the Sagathakam is a curious mixture where subjects not at all referred to in the prose section are in juxtaposition with those that have to my view no proper bearing in the Lanka. and whatever represented this movement at the time was no more than the study of the Lamka. 380). they are evidently later incorporations. In this the author may be in the right. literary. and those relating to the monastery life. as is generally done by Zen historians. when it refers to eight or nine several Vijnanas (verse 13). the triple body (v. for his recorded. Moreover. living probably early in the eighth century apparently identified Zen Buddhism with the teaching of the Lanka." which is one of the Tung-huang is findings. "Record of Master and Disciple in [the Transmission of] the Lanka. two forms of Alaya (v. the transmission line of the Lanka The author ^J1.

who is the owner of Hu .INTRODUCTION of early xlvii Zen Buddhism in China. a librarian attached to Peking University and published in Peking. As belong here. sheds an abundance of light on the early pages of Zen history in China. the attempt. which is the "Dharma-treasure". 1 It contains so much information of definite character concerning its Fathers whose sayings and teachings have so far been shrouded in obscurity. together with the Sayings of 8hen-huif TJ^OfWuik) which was edited by f^jH. Therefore." This was evidently written to contend the position of the ^KHJ^iji^fB. precious stones may remain buried unknown except to a few scholars. And then which he was not born. He was able to do this helped by Professor Hsi. The author evidently belongs to the school of Hui- neng. a detailed discussion of the subject does not it for my Essays in Zen Buddhism. I reserve Series II. with his able critical notes. It is a bold attempt on the part of the translator to try to render some of the deepest thoughts that have been nourished in the East into a language to his idea is that if somebody however poor and defective. should properly begin with Bodhidharma. I have it out to the public all its many imperfections. for it insists that the first Father of the Lanka as representing the Dharma-treasure lator was Bodhidharma and not Gunabhadra who was mere transand not the revealer of the inner meaning of the Sutra. " Record of the Succession of the It is entitled JHf^feilf f& Dharma-treasure. 1930. But did not make a first The "book has been quite recently edited by Kin Kyukei. Professor Hu Hsi of Peking University. and this perhaps longer than necessary. The Present English Translation As regards the English translation decided after much hesitation to send with of the Sutra. There is another equally valuable history of Zen Buddhism which was also discovered in the Tung-huang cave. the history of Zen Buddhism in China. The discovery of these two important historical works on Zen.

we are to be grateful to the editor who made the text more accessible to the public than ever before. however. The T'ang version could not perhaps be so perfect as it is unless it had two or three predecessors. I have done all I could to make intelligible as possible to literal. "Echoes of the Desert". and the first shows many when compared with the third. the four-volume text by Gunabhadra for their this fact and the Sagathakam has thus inevitably been left out. and there is no doubt that Nanjo's edition requires many corrections in order to yield a more intelligible reading. There are still pression many obscure passages which I. Even with it. Chinese and Japanese scholars have chosen. study. A MS .xlviii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA things develop. I have not always followed Nanjo in the reading of the I have used own judgment in several cases when my the photographic copies of the original Manuscripts of ^flB&PKiS preserved in the British Museum and in the Bibliotheque Nationale. because the verses presuppose much knowledge of the matter treated therein. the Sagathakam. The modes of exare so different in the Sanskrit. there must be several attempts before the work assumes something of There are at present three Chinese translations finality. whatever shortcomings it may have. The Sagathakam has never had any Chinese commentaries. -which is not so complete as the collotype impression of the London Paris MS. traces of immaturity and one Tibetan of the Lamka. If I tried to be too would be quite unintelligible. and this knowledge involves at present much more scholarship and intellectual perspicuity than the present translator can command. it my translation as my readers. 1930. The Sanskrit text itself as we have it is still far from being perfect. and adds more to the difficulties already in existence. We can easily understand the difficulties Chinese scholars encountered in trying to master the translations. entitled R|$&f|. in his collection of the Tunhuang MSS.failed to interpret satis- These obscurities are found more in factorily to myself. probably for brevity's sake. As it is illustrated in the long history of the Chinese translations of the Buddhist texts. though it is very much more legible than the latter. text. was published by Professor Keiki Yabuki of Japan.

I have quite also frequently followed the T'ang reading. the great teacher of philosophy of the Avatctmsaka. and there are some passages which have forced their way in wrong places where they do not belong. When difficulties were encountered in the course of my English translation of the Sanskrit text. As I said in my Studies. the Lamka is a highly chaotic text. The T* ang version in this respect gives on the whole the best rendering of the Lanka. though the fact has not regularly been noted. In paragraphing too I have often disregarded Nanjo.INTRODUCTION I xlix thought the sense became thereby clearer. the finishing touch was given by Fa-tsang. special index to the Sutra is being prepared and will be issued before long as a separate volume. "While a first draft of the translation was prepared by Sikshananda. A . with which the Lanka is in the closest relationship.

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THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA .

.

according to the various mentalities and behaviours of beings. headed by the Bodhisattva Castle of Mahamati. the [ten] powers. teachings. the [three] Svabhavas. they objective world they all well understood the significance of the own Mind. * 3 Much more fully described in Bodhiruci (Wei). The Blessed One once stayed in the Lanka which is situated on the peak of Mount Malaya on the great ocean. Thus have I heard. the [tenfold] self-mastery. The Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. and the [six] psychic faculties . the [eight] Vijnanas. At that time. "By the Tathagatas of the past.[CHAPTER ONE] 1 Om! Salutation to the Triple Treasure! Saluta(I) tion to all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ! Here is carefully written down the Lankavatara Sutra in which the Lord of the Dharma discourses on the egolessness of all things. they were thoroughly versed in as the manifestation of their knew how the five Dharmas. the Blessed One who had been preaching in the palace of the King of Sea-serpents came out at the expiration of seven days and was greeted host of Nagakanyas including Sakra by an innumerable and Brahma. who were Arhats and FullyThese Gothic numerals in parentheses refer to pages of the Sanskrit edition. (2) to maintain [various] forms. and looking at Lanka on Mount Malaya smiled and said. and disciplinary measures. 2 He was with a large assembly of Bhikshus and with a great multitude of Bodhisattvas. . Literally. and which is adorned with flowers made of jewels of various kinds. and the twofold Non-atman. who had come together from various Buddha-lands. were 3 perfect masters of the various Samadhis. "sporting" (wfcndita). they were anointed by the hands of all the all Buddhas.

Eishabha. which was inlaid with the choicest lapis lazuli and supported by [a ribbon of] priceless cloth. heard [his voice]. Walking around the Blessed One three times from left to right. came out of the palace of the King of Sea-serpents. do good.4 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA . they played on a musical instrument. beating it with a stick of blue Indra (saphire). Lord of the Eakshasas. which were 1 The Sanskrit text is here certainly at fault. Nishada.discourse. there ought to be a negative particle somewhere in this passage. for this long night he would probably profit. Kaisika.white like Priyangu. and looking at the waves of the ocean and also at the mental agitations going on in those assembled. Eavana saw him and] uttered a joyous cry. Eavana. and hanging the lute at one side. would now for the is which sake of Eavana. discourse on this Truth. the Blessed One. saying: "I will go and request of the Blessed One to enter into Lanka. Madyama. too. beyond the reasoning knowledge of the philosophers as well as the state of consciousness of the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. . 2 Dhaivata. While he was standing there [thus absorbed in contemplation. Eavana. which is the case in the Chinese translations. and having arrived there he and his attendants came out of the chariot. 2 Neither Bodhiruci nor Sikshananda refers so specifically to these various notes. Lord of the Eakshasas. Overlord of the Yakshas. yellowish. the Truth realisable by noble Enlightened Ones. with his attendants. and " gladden (3) the gods as well as human beings Thereupon. came up where the Blessed One was. at that castle of Lanka on the Malaya. riding in his floral celestial chariot. this Truth was made the subject of their mountain-peak of wisdom in one's inmost self. Indeed. surrounded and accompanied by an innumerable host of Nagakanyas including Sakra and Brahma. [he thought of] the ocean of the Alayavijnana where the evolving Vijnanas [like the waves] are stirred by the wind of objectivity. 1 I." [Inspired] by the spiritual power of the Tathagata. and Gandhara. they sang with various notes such as Saharshya.

the Lord of Lanka. "The truth-treasure whose principle . the tenheaded king of the Rakshasas. and stands by the Lord. "In this city. makes him offerings. the inmost realised. Ravana. 5. Miraculously goes over to the place where the Lord Alighting from the floral vehicle. . too. 1. 7. Lord. indeed. now disclose the Truth immaculate on . 6. further adapting the Totaka rhythm sang this in the measure of the Gatha. may he visit Lanka. "I who have come here. After seven nights. he enjoys the Truth realised in his inmost self 3. is the self- nature of Mind. accompanied by 4. and the Yakshas who are endowed with many forms (4) will listen. surrounded by sons of the Victorious One. leading to the Truth. in him are manifested [bodies] transforming and transformed. by Suka. the voice in accompaniment with the flute beautifully blended with the measure of the Gatha. of consciousness (5) by the Enlightened Ones of the past was disclosed on this peak studded with precious stones. "The Sugata is the body in whom are stored im- maculate virtues. Murchana. ocean which the Apsaras learned men. has no selfhood (nairatmyam) all stands above reasoning. 8. "Let the Blessed One. it points to the knowledge attained in one 's inmost self Lord. and [they were] accompanied by their sons who were owners of many forms. the way 2. mayest thou graciously receive state me with Lanka and all its residents.CHAPTER ONE 5 melodiously modulated in Grama. am called Ravana. show me now the highest Truth. etc. sea-king. show me here . and is free from impurities. and standing. Now is the time. Ravana. . is and Yakshas numerous. he greets the he Tathagata reverentially. ' ' Thereupon. Sarana. the Blessed One leaving the is the abode of the Makara. tells him who is. the palace of the now stands on the shore. Just as the Buddha rises. Muni ! "This Lanka was inhabited by the Buddhas of the past. 9.

as they are devoted to the Mahayana. there will be Buddhas and 12. wish. necklaces of various sorts. give myself is up to serve the Buddhas and their sons. who are residing in the city. for compassion's [thy] sons.6 this LANKAVATAEA SUTEA . "They have made [in the past] offerings Buddhas and are to-day going sake. with Kumbhakarna at their head. "In the time to come. there their sake] 20. 17. the Leaders will discourse on this magnificent doctrine on the peak adorned with precious stones. and the delightful Asoka garden. the Lord of the Triple . Blessed One. reflecting on [the Truth] realised in one 's inmost self and making offerings to the Buddhas of the past. "There are younger Yakshas. desir15. Come. girls and boys. peak embellished with precious stones the residents of Lanka. the company of the Apsaras. Buddha-Sons pitying the Yakshas. ing "Blessed One. will speak. One. 13. [surrounded] by peaks. desire to listen. from faults of greed. here are the Yakshas who are free 14. have compassion on me!" Hearing him speak thus. together with "The Lankavatara Sutra which of the past [discloses] Buddhas is praised by the the inmost state of conis seiousiness realised by them. "I recollect the by sons of the Victorious Buddhas of the past surrounded One recite this Sutra the Blessed . 19. "This magnificent city of Lanka is adorned with varieties of precious stones. they are believers in the teaching of the Mahayana and intent on disciplining one another. we. accept my mansion. to the assiduously to the to do the same. 11. 16. which not founded on any system of doctrine. refreshand beautiful and canopied by a net of jewels. "I . come to Lanka on Mount Malaya. Come. too. Lanka. to hear about this inmost realisation. (6) "The Eakshasas. nothing with me that I do not give up [for Great Muni. ing to know the Mahayana. together with 18. "Mahamati. who art our Teacher. 10.

The Blessed One accepting the request [of the silent and undisturbed. (7) honoured by the Apsaras singing and dancing. dhas of] the future time will proclaim [the same] on this jewel-adorned mountain. 22. the sons of the Buddha. are here. wise sons of the Vic- the floral chariot offered by Eavana. stones 21. Thus Eavana and torious One. King] remained 24. girls and boys." 23.CHAPTER ONE World 7 said. request this of thee. Arriving in the delightful city [the Buddha was] again the recipient of honours. "Thou art the most eloquent of speakers. self. 30. King of the Yakshas. A net of jewels was offered to the Buddha by the younger Yakshas. and necklaces beautifully ornamented with jewels were placed by Eavana about the neck of the Buddha and those of the sons of the Buddha. The Buddhas together with the sons of the Buddha and the wise men. I. and the Verses 20-28. 27. 25. . reached the city. are in prose in T'ang. they discoursed on the Truth revealed in their inmost [consciousness] [The Bud. "Thou art the asker of the Buddha concerning the state of consciousness realised in their we inmost selves. the Honouring [him as] the best speaker. discoursed on the Truth which is the state of consciousness realised in the inmost 28. 26. Eavana and company of the Yakshas honoured Mahamati and requested of him again and again :* 29. and the wise men. you have the compassion of the Sugatas and myself. this mountain of precious was visited by the Leaders in the past. together with the Yakshas. inclusive. ''King of Yakshas. "This [inmost Truth] is the abode of those Yogins who stand in the presence of the Truth. accepting the offerings. he was honoured by the group of Yakshas including Eavana and by the Yaksha women. taking pity on you. "And. desirous of hearing. he now mounted others. of which Yakshas as well as the sons of the Buddha.

the Truth leading to the inmost realisation on the mountainpeak he delivered a complete sutra with an exquisite voice varied in hundreds of thousands of ways. Pratyekabuddhas and Sravakas is (8) the Truth of the inmost consciousness. "Free from the faults of the philosophers and 31. 39. 1 Buddha? "Where From this verse T'ang to is in prose again. and on each mountain-peak Mahamati was making a request of the Buddha. also was found standing there. and the Laftka created rivaling [the real one] . the Asoka with its shining woods. On the summit of each mountain the Buddha 33. . and Ravana. and in each there also was a Leader." . 1 Buddhahood. the Yaksha. tain-peak. immaculate and culminating in the stage of 32. Thus the entire assembly was seen on each mounand all the countries were there. Thought he. [After this] the teacher in Buddha vanished away the air." Thereupon the Blessed One created jewel-adorned mountains and other objects magnificently embellished with jewels in an immense number. was the King of the Rakshasas and the by the Buddha Other things were there. Here 35. "Who discoursed for the sake of the Yakshas on 37. vision? or is it a castle conjured up by the Gandharvas? 40. ! most strenuous of the Yogins with faith I beg of thee. 2 Thus according BodMruei and Sikshananda.8 LANKAVATARA SUTRA . "How is this? What means this? and by whom was it heard? What was it that was seen? and by whom was it seen ? Where is the city ? and where is the are those countries. The Sanskrit text has: "hundreds of thousands of perfect sutras. Ask thou the proficient one [the Buddha] about the doctrine. 34. residents of Lanka. too. and the sons of the leaving Ravana the Yaksha himself standing [above] in his mansion. 38. those jewel-shining those Sugatas? (9) Is it a dream then? or a Buddhas. 2 36. himself was visible.

and it is not comprehended by the ignorant as they are confused by every form of imagination. great in all excellent forms. a discriminating mind. obtained the faculty of seeing things as they are. "Those who see things such as were seen before. he is the one who sees the Tathagata. The Lord of Lanka was then immediately awakened [from his reflection]. If a man T'ang has : [things]. the form and usage of the Buddha and his Dharma they are nothing but discrimination. the Buddha being is seen where the world itself is not fully-enlightened evolved. was no more dependent upon others. gained the insight that was not of discursive reasoning. 9 "Or is it dust in the eye. is the seeing. feeling a revulsion (paravriti) in his mind and realising that the world was nothing but his own mind he was : settled in the realm of non-discrimination. or the dream-child of a barren wheel. [even] when discrimination is not 1 aroused. 2 became a Yogin of the discipline. neither the speaker nor the spoken." is able thus to see When This does not appear in T'ang. . acquired the cleverness of understanding all the texts. or the smoke of a firesaw here?" 42. indeed. nor in Wei. "This is the nature as it is (dharmata) of all things. they are transformed assuming an exquisite body this is the Enlightenment [attained by] the Buddha. or a fata morgana. which belongs to the realm of Mind. he does not see the Buddha.CHAPTER ONE 41. cannot Buddha. was able to manifest himself "He who sees in the way as was seen before. that which I woman. one does not see the Buddha. had the knowledge of the characteristic aspects see the was no more dependent upon others. Then [Havana reflected]. observed things excellently with his own wisdom (buddhi). was urged by the stock of his past good deeds. he cannot see the Buddha." According to Wei: "If he sees things and takes them for Even when he is not abiding in realities. the wise observe all experiences in this manner. Not seeing anything doing [in the world] this is said to be seeing the Buddha. got thoroughly acquainted with all skilful means. this. 43. 44. do not see the Buddha. when no discrimination is aroused. "There is neither the seer nor the seen.

conceptions. conducting thyself in this manner. found himself abiding in the Buddha-knowledge [when suddenly] a voice was heard from . Wei and T'ang Do not : hold the views maintained in the Vedas. for once more! The Yogin is to The Tathagatas and all discipline himself as thou doest. Lord of Lafrka." "Well done. Pratyekabuddhas. to crush mischievous views in pieces. saying. views. nor dwell on such Dhyanas . All things are to be compre- hended by transcending the Citta. as belong to the six Dhyanas. Manas. In order to enter upon the stage of way is of the self-realisation as attained by the Tathagatas. to cause a revulsion in the depths of the mind fittingly by means of an exquisite knowledge. by which he would surmount it skilfully. had the knowledge of disposing of every argument of (10) the philosophers on causation. Manas. the stage of Buddhahood. the sky. got a view whereby he could cut himself loose from the triple continuation. 2 nor have any thought for the vainglory of rulership. 1 to be 2 Tang: to go beyond. to keep themselves pro- "Lord perly away from ego-centered notions. and Vijnana as is done by thee. thou shouldst not fall into the attainments. this is the realisation of the great Yogins: to destroy the discourses advanced by others. let thee be further purified in the way thou hast attained. Mano- vijnana. the inmost self. and Samadhis of the Sravakas. . thou shouldst not cherish the notion of self -substance. of Lanka. the discipline pursued by thee. experiences. and philosophers thou shouldst not have any liking for small talk and witticism. "It is to be known by oneself. it is nihilism. are to be viewed as they are viewed by thee. Thou shouldst look inwardly and not become attached to the letter and a superficial view of things. (11) by disciplining thyself well in Samadhi and Samapatti. Such are sons of the Buddha who walk in the Mahayana. indeed. otherthings wise viewed. etc. Lord of Lanka! Well done. was 1 delighted to look into the self-nature of Citta.10 LANKAVATAEA SUTEA of every stage. thoroughly understood the Tathagata-garbha. "Lord of Lanka. well done.

"Lord their own egotistic attachments. they cling to discrimination they fall into the way of thinking where obtains [as real] . they maintain such notions as element. "Lord of Lanka. he is the realisation attained by those who enjoy the perfect bliss of the Samadhi which they gain by coming to an intuitive understanding through meditation. this is what makes one grow aware of the inmost [the This will attainment. this is the Mahayana realisation. they become confused by cherishing the idea of birth where prevails emptiness. and who is beyond [the dualism He is the knowof] the transformed and the transforming. they cling tenaciously to views originating from ignorance. dualism of] qualifying and qualified. to dualistie views concerning the self -nature "Well done. Their ugly practice arises from adhering of the Vijnana." : At that time it occurred to Ravana "I wish to see the Blessed One again. Lord of Lanka. for indeed. who has all the disciplinary practices at his command. this is what leads to various excellent attainments. who is born of the state of realisation in the inmost consciousness. cipline the veils [of ignorance] are destroyed. result in the acquirement of an excellent condition of existence. May I see thus [again] the Compassionate One by means of his miraculous powers in whom . and philosophers. and substance. They cling to the individual forms of the world created by their egotistical ideas. the philosophers' practice starts from of Lanka. by entering upon the Mahayana disand one turns away from the multitudinous waves of the Vijnana and falls not into the refuge and practice of the philosophers.CHAPTER ONE follow not the state realised and enjoyed 11 by the Sravakas. who has turned away from the practices of the philosophers. is seeing the Tathagata. ledge (12) realised by the Yogins. "Lord of Lanka. of this as this. quality. Pratyekabuddhas. which rises from the imagination of those who discipline themselves according to the practices of the puerile philosophers. reflect on the signification you did when seeing the Tathagata before.

mountain-woods. in front of the Tathagata. wives. he saw all the Buddha-lands and 1 "In all the kings thinking of the transitoriness of the body." Wei is quite different and has the following: "Besides. concubines. horses. who knows work (kriya) what I have not yet who moves about everywho keeps himself away from and form (lakshcma) seeing him may I attain all beings. who is surrounded by sons of the Buddha. abide in the joy of Samadhi and Sarnapatti. and discrimination is destroyed. Those (13) 1 [Buddha] -lands were seen with the Leaders." At that moment. He thus sees the Bodhisattvas reading and reciting the sutras under a tree in the woods and discoursing on them for others. . as seen before on the mountain-peak. [he saw] the again Tathagata. attained. and. the Blessed One recognising that the Lord of Lanka is to attain the Anutpattikadharmakshanti showed his glorious compassion for the ten-headed one by making himself visible once more on the mountain-peak studded with many jewels and enveloped in a net-work of The ten-headed King of Lanka saw the splendour jewels. leaving their homes and wishing to study the doctrine. together with Mahamati. giving them all up to the Buddha and his Brotherhood. There is surely a discrepancy here in the test. conversing on the verbal teachings and stories [of the Buddha]. and also saw himself on each mountainpeak. and relatives. everything. who has penetrated into the minds and thoughts of where. they abandon their dominions. even to the extent of throwing themselves to the hungry tiger. the Fully-Enlightened One. wives. T'ang reads: the Buddha-lands in the ten quarters were also seen such events going on. with the thirty-two marks of excellence beautifully adorning his person. and Rakshasas. elephants. and in these make progress. They now retreat into the cipation. [retain] what I have already gained. surrounded by the Yakshas. who was the Arhat and the Fully-Enlightened One.12 LANKAVATARA SUTRA the fuel of passion. As they are covetously attached to their thrones. seeking thereby the . palaces. putting forward his discourse on the realisation experienced by the Tathagata in his inmost self. they find themselves bound by the five passions and have no time for emanall Seeing this. and there was no difference whatever. may I conduct myself with non-discrimination. and precious treasures. children. and attain the ground where the Tathagatas walk. He [Eavana] then sees the Bodhisattvas in the mountain woods strenuously applying themseves to the mastery of the truth. lion.

and absorbed deeply and showing no surprise in the bliss of Samadhi. He then sees the Bodhisattvas seated under the Bodhi-tree in the Bodhi-mandala thinking of the suffering beings and meditating on the truth of the Buddha. dharma-vasavartin) after smiling first. At that time the Bodhisattvas together with assembly Brahma. Emitting rays of light from the tuft of hair between the 1 eyebrows. laughed loudly and most vigorously like the lion-king. the one who sat on the peak [of Lanka] vying with Mount Sumeru laughed the of loudest laugh. blazing brilliantly." This last sentence is evidently the translation of the Sanskrit desanapathaJcatliam. emitting rays of light which shone flaming like the fire taking place at the end of a kalpa.CHAPTER ONE 13 Then the Blessed One beholding again this great assembly with his wisdom-eye. with the realisation [of the Truth] in his inmost self. from the ribs. from the loins. from the Srivatsa on the breast. which is contrasted in the Lankavatara throughout with pratyatmaryajnanagocara (the spiritual realm realised by noble wisdom in one's inmost consciousness). like the rising sun. does he remain silent. (14) and knowing the minds and thoughts of the assembly of the truth of the Buddha. and paragraphs. feeling pity on him. I wonder. and reviewing the [ten] quarters. which is not the human eye. This is wanting in the Chinese translations. laugh the loudest laugh ? Why does he emit rays of light from his own body ? Why. phrases. emitting [rays of light]. and performance of Ravana?" At that time. from what cause does the One who is the master of all the world (sarva2 . attainment. gloriously which were observed from the sky by Sakra. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who was previously requested by Ravana [to ask the Buddha king. . concerning his self-realisation]. like a luminous rainbow. each thought within himself the : Sakra and Blessed "For what reason. and also sees [the Bodhisattva] surrounded by all the Yakshas and families and talking about names. Brahma. words. and the guardians of the world. looking around like the lion- and thinking only of the discipline. 1 Swastika. and from every pore of the skin. He then sees the venerable Mahamati the Bodhisattva before each Buddha preaching about the spiritual discipline of one's inner life.

abide in . thus: "Ask. the Tathagata has given thee permission [to ask]. and philosophers. the Blessed Ones. Mahamati! Well done. indeed. thou undertakest to ask me the question. observe well what to be from [false] dissubdued at each stage. even in their transcendental state of consciousness should burst out into loudest laughter Mahamati the Bodhisattva asked the Buddha in order to put a stop to their inquisitiveness the following question: "For what reason. for what cause did this laughter take place?" Said the Blessed One: "Well done. and philosophers. delay not. Mahamati! Viewing the world as it is in itself and wishing to enlighten the people in the world who are fallen into a wrong view of things in the past. Pratyekabuddhas. present. and the same will be asked by the question-loving ten-headed one of the Buddhas to come. Eavana. Keeping thy seat of thought free is crimination. well done. ponder things with wisdom. I will answer each of them (15) with judgment to the satisfaction of your heart. asked a twofold question of the Tathagatas of the past who are Arhats and perfect Buddhas. thou Lord of Lanka. [seeing into] the nature of the inner principle in thyself. attainment. and scope ascertained this is what is never tasted by those who practise the meditation of the Sravakas. and observing that beings to be born in the future would be confused in their minds because of their delight in the verbal teaching (desanapatha) because of their clinging to the letter as [fully in accordance with] the . embraced by the Buddhas in Samadhi. Thus should it be with the wise men who want to ask questions for both themselves and others." Knowing that. the Blessed One said to the Lord of Lanka.14 LANKAVATAEA SUTEA Bodhisattvas. which might lead them to think how it were that the Tathagatas. and future. because of their clinging to the disciplinary powers of the Sravakas. Lord of Lanka. spirit (artha). whatever questions thou desirest to have answered. and he wishes now to ask me too a twofold question in order to have its distinction. Mahamati. Pratyekabuddhas. for once more. abide in the bliss of Samadhi.

Literally translated it reads: "There by the becoming lotuses. Brahma. Upendra. There are innumerable families of lotus-kings and innumerable families of Bodhisattvas there. and which something never seen before by the Sravakas. necklaces. and Dharmamegha. The following sentence is done by the aid of T'ang. as the Sanskrit does not seem to give any sense. each one of whom is sitting on a lotus-throne. thou wilt before long see thy person. diadems. rose mountain which shone on the peak of the jewelimmaculate and shining in splendour. too.jewels. perfumes. were created music was played surpassing . ' ' philosophers. on a lotus and each one of the Bodhisattvas looking at thee This is a realm beyond the imagination. 15 the bliss of tranquillisation going beyond the Samadhi and understanding attained by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. flags. half -necklaces. so that thou comest to realm which is beyond imagination. (16) and other ornaments whose splendour and excellence were never heard of or seen before. thus sitting on the lotus-throne and continuing to abide there in a most natural manner. be anointed by the Buddhas in Samadhi at the great palace of lotus. and surrounded by those thou wilt find thyself and looking face to face at one another. banners. Thou shouldst plan out an adequate plan and establish thyself at a stage of discipline by planning out such a plan as shall include [all realise that kinds of] skilful means.CHAPTER ONE . incense. grasp well the egolessness of all things in its true significance. and the Blessed One. abide in [the attainment of the Bodhisattvas] in the stages of Aeala. Surrounded by the Bodhisattvas who are on lotuses of various sorts each supported by the gracious power of the Buddhas. by those lotuses that are " blessed variously by the benediction of his own person Wei has: "O King of Lanka. thou shalt find thyself sitting sitting face to face. others. and each one of them will before long come to abide in a realm beyond the understanding. umbrellas. Sadhumati. and all kinds of garlands. unguents." 1 . he was surrounded by a large company of celestial maidens. tiaras. seat like the jewel-lotus At that moment the Lord from his Lanka being permitted by flowers. of Indra. Pratyekabuddhas. and thou is is shouldst attain the stage of Tathagatahood in which one able to manifest oneself in various forms.

a variety of dresses and high banners was made rising high in the air as high as seven tala trees to great [the Buddha]. with a diadem.16 LANKAVATARA SUTRA anything that could be had by the gods. playing music which resounded [all around]." . and it was by them. Thou art thyself a master of all things. solved who were Arhats. tell me what you mean by duality?" The Lord of the Rakshasas. The sons of Buddha and myself are anxious to listen to it. now I ask of thee. [of the past]. Kinnaras. or pratyatmagati in the Laiikavatara. DeSanapatha stands in contrast with siddlianta. 2 In T'ang and Wei: "Original Tathagatas. [the request] will certainly be complied with by thee as far as verbal instruction is concerned 1 as it was by the Buddhas Blessed One. musical instruments were created equal to anything that could be had in all the world of desire and also such superior musical instruments were created as were to be seen in the Buddha-lands. Blessed One. a Tathagata. Mahoragas. thou assuredly wilt discourse on this subject of duality. Yakshas. as far as the teaching could be conveyed in words. "Lord of Lanka. "It is 1 That is. (17) who was renewed in the his ornaments. the Blessed One and the Bodhisattvas were enveloped in a net of jewels. full of splendour bracelet. and men. showering great clouds of offerings. an Arhat. Rakshasas. said. nor do they discourse on it. [the Lord of Lanka] sat down on the peak of the jewel-mountain ornamented with magnificent jewel-lotus whose splendour was second only to the sun and lightning. Gandharvas. and necklace strung with vajra thread. and then descending from the air. duality was discoursed upon the Transformed Tathagatas and Tathagatas of Transby 2 The formation. Sitting he made courtesy smiling first to the Blessed One for his permission and proposed him a twofold question: "It was asked of the Tathagatas of the past. and beauty. Fully-Enlightened Ones. but not by the Tathagatas of Silence. Tathagatas of Silence are absorbed in the blissful state of Samadhi. they do not discriminate concerning this state." The Blessed One said. Nagas. Blessed One.

"Lord of Lanka. are produced. Dhatus. from discriminating self-substance where there is none. is not to be realised by Lord of Lanka. flowers. . be any abandonment [of dharmas and adharmas] ?" Said the Blessed One. Not only is there seen a fire-flame spreading out in one continuity and yet showing a variety of flames. fruit. the ignorant who follow the particularised aspect of existence that there are such objects as jars. [the notion of dualism] belongs to the realm of intellection not exhaustively purThis being the case as it should be. leaves. branches. why (18) is it not to be so understood? The duality of dharma and adharma thus comes into existence. because the non-differentiating nature of the Alayavijnana is circle as really existing in not recognised? Like the seeing of a hairthe air. This being so. Blessed One. is it not to be so understood ? there exists the due to discrimination [cherished by] the ignorant that differentiation of dharma and adharma. such as is perceived in jars and other breakable objects whose nature it is to perish in time. takes place in a realm of discrimination [cherished by] the ignorant ? This being so. mansions. but it is not so with the wise. and how much more adharmas.. parks. etc. all individualised. stems. shoots. seest thou not that the differentiation of things. knots. Noble wisdom (aryajnwna) however. but from one seed. so also with internal objects. and terraces. etc.CHAPTER ONE 17 said that even dharmas are to be abandoned. how could there gated. petals. why does this dualism exist that we are called upon to abandon ? What are adharmas ? and what are dharmas? How can there be a duality of things to abandon a duality that arises from falling into discrimination. let it be so with seeing [things this way] It is . with all kinds of . As it is with every external object from which grows [a variety of] From ignorance there objects. magnitude. and burns them down while a difference in the flames is seen according . Ayatanas. develop the Skandhas. also in one continuity. Lord of Lanka. to the power of each burning material which varies in length. from [the idea of] things created (bhautika) and uncreated. One flame of uniform nature rises up depend- ing on houses.

They are dharmas the nature of which is unattainable. things good. of things from this viewpoint is known as their abandon- ment. The oneness of the Vijnana is grasped variously according to the evolution of an objective world. they are discriminated by the discriminations cherished by the philosophers. "Lord of Lanka. they are not . The viewing (dharmata).18 LANKAVATAKA SUTRA objects accompanying. happiness. . things defiled and free from defile- ment. Not only. non-reality. or a horse. and behaviour. as we see. [dharmas] are unattainable as to their selfhood. they exist not their substances are not attainable. Sravakas. each differentiating [infinitely]. superior. the differentiation of dharma and adharma comes from discrimination. or a child conceived by a barren woman. are adharmas? Lord of Lanka. How dharma and adharma do we not see in a world of particulars which is evolved by discrimination? Indeed. etc. which grow out in the triple world where we have. to be thought [as real] because they are appearances. thus there are seen things inferior. and middling. They think that the dharmas headed by quality and substance are produced by causes [these are the notions] to be abandoned. and ignorant people. then. Lord of Lanka. form. is there such a difference of conditions in things generally. or a camel. they are not appearances born of discrimination. are products of discrimination conceived by the ignorant. they are above causality there is in them no such [dualistic] happening as is seen as reality and This is known as the abandoning of dharmas. Such are not to be regarded [as real] because they are appearances It comes from one's clinging [to appearances] (Icbkshana) . what are dharmas ? That is. "What. we do. What again is meant by the unattainability of dharmas? That is. it is like horns of a hare. speech.. Lord of Lanka. and bad. They . Pratyekabuddhas. that the manifestations of his reality own Mind are regarded as (19) Such things as jars. or an ass. there is also seen a variety of realisations attained innerly by each Yogin constitutes his as he treads the path of discipline which much more difference in practice.

by them. etc. perhaps excepting "Lord T'ang. therefore. when I speak of the real nature of suchness as being real. even so are the [ideas] of the future and Because of reality (dharmata) the Tathagatas do not discriminate. thou sayest again that thou hast asked [this question] of the Tathagatas of the past who were Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones and that it was solved. Lord of Lanka. also of discrimination. of them nothing is heard. If one wishes to realise the bliss of real wisdom. [etc. the teaching of all the . the edification of the happiness. do not cherish such [discriminations]. 1 1 It is unknowing and for the sake of their by transcendental wisdom (prajna) that This is one of the most important sections in this first introductory chapter. your question as to the way of abandoning dharmas and adharmas is hereby answered. with them there are no acts. Lord of Lanka. [Is this to be read. it is like discriminating forms as the ultimate limit. present some difficulties for clear understanding. soul. so is the future. Do not cling in [thy] will to such notions as ego. too. all sentient beings are such. Lord of Lanka. How not to discriminate? It is in the Manovijnana that various conditions are cherished such as forms. they are not to be adhered to as in the ease of jars. they do not follow (20) the individuationaspect of forms (rupa) except when [reality] is disclosed for criminated [idea] . but singularly all the three texts. and so are the future and the present. Do not discriminate nor be discriminated. Lord of Lanka. nothing talked "Lord of Lanka. personality. no deeds. etc. Wei: of Lanka. Lord of Lanka.] . As these [unrealities] are to be abandoned as not comprehensible by the mind (vijnana). all sentient beings are like grasses and trees.CHAPTER ONE 19 are only talked about in popular parlance if they have any sense at all. what you speak of as past is a form of discrimination. Lord of Lanka. I too am like him. This is called the abandoning of dharmas and adharmas. it also belongs to discrimination. is like it"?] Lord of Lanka. Do not cherish any discrimination in [thy] mind. figures. as the past is thus a dis- the present. what you speak of as past is no more than T'ang discrimination. it is like various forms painted on the wall. do not discriminate the Tathagatas as having knowledge-body or wisdom-essence. that which is spoken of as the past belongs to discrimination. so are things (bhava) of discrimination also to be abandoned. : "the present. let him discipline himself in the knowledge that transcends forms. "Lord of Lanka. Further. they go beyond discrimination and futile reasoning. all " dharmas and adharmas.

no acts. nor are they discriminated. Lord of Lanka. figures painted of Lanka. not discriminate him after the notion of ego. or one's own shadow in the water. or being. and there is that is nothing heard. Lord of Lanka. Therefore. beings are appearances. not comprehended by the philosophers and the ignorant." Lanka. Therefore. conditions. it is not a form of particularisation. the Tathagata has his essence.20 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA the Tathagata performs deeds transcending forms (animittacara) therefore. what constitutes the Tathagatas in essence . discrimination and non-discrimination must be transcended. no preaching. So are all the teachings. all in the world is like an image magically transformed. Wherefore do they not discriminate the Manas? Because discrimination is of the as well as in . That [this absolute] teaching is at all discoursed about is for the sake of giving bliss to all sentient beings. as they depend on discrimination. nothing hearing. all that is in the world is devoid sciousness] of work and action because all things have no reality. is the This is one who sees truthfully. How The Manovi jnana is meant for the do they not discriminate ? objective world where causality prevails as regards forms. Those who see things otherwise walk in discrimination. Why this impossibility of discrimination? because the Manovijnana is aroused on account of an objective world wherein it attaches itself to forms and figures. therefore. nor is he to be discriminated. personality. it is like beings sensibility [or intelligence]. body is wisdom (jnana) They do not discriminate. It is like seeing one's own image reflected in a mirror. of personality. . they have no sensibility [or con- Lord of Lanka. "Lord . and figures. Lord of Do painted in colours on a wall. they have no Sentient beings in the world are also like them. or seeing one's shadow in the house. or hearing an echo in the valley. The discoursing is done by the wisdom transcending forms. he who thus sees things. it is realised only by wisdom. appearances. Ms body in this . no hearing. It is called the Tathagata. they cling to dualism. [the Tathagata] is outside the discriminating [view] as well as the discriminated [idea]. People grasping their own shadows of discrimination (21) uphold the discrimination of Buddhas is outside discrimination as it goes beyond all discriminations and futile reasonings. self 5 of soul. they are like on the wall. or in the moonlight. wisdom. no rewards [are with them]. He thus does not discriminate.

they go on discriminating and never attain tranquillity. which is gained by entering into the womb of Tathagatahood. reference is made to the Sutra itself at the end of a chapter. By tranquillity is meant oneness and oneness gives birth to the highest Samadhi." 1 It is noteworthy that the chapter endings are not the same throughout the entire text. and again seeing that the rest of the text makes no further reference to Ravana. While there is no doubt about its being a later addition. which is the realm of noble wisdom realised in one's inmost self." The First Chapter Called "Ravana Asking for Instruction. stating that the chapter bears such a title belonging to such a Sutra. (eMgra). the trend of the discourse as presented by the Buddha shows that it is closely related to the Sutra. by a . Generally. especially when it emphasises at the end the importance of self-realisation against the 1 inanity or futility of the verbal teaching ordinarily given out master. But in the present case there is no mention at all of the Lankavatara Sutra as if this Bavaria section were something quite independent. seeing what a complete piece of narrative it forms by itself.CHAPTER ONE 21 dharma and adharma and. failing to carry out the abandonment of the dualism.

drawing his upper garment over one shoulder. As thou knowledge and compassion. respectfully saluted him. 3. how Muni? With thy transcendental knowledge and compassion This division is made by the translator to facilitate the understanding of the text in -which divers subjects are promiscuously treated. whose is self-nature is like a vision or a dream. then there is 5. as [the category of] being and non-being is inapplicable to it. 4.[CHAPTER TWO] I (22) 1 At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who had visited all the Buddha-lands. it is to thee always like a dream. turning in the direction of the Blessed One. and non-being As thou reviewest all things with thy transcendental 2. as [the category of] being applicable to it. of which one cannot say whether it is permanent or destructible. placing his right knee on the ground and with folded hands. they are to thee like visions. 6. what thought arises as to existence or as to not-having-self-nature. 1 Of a thing whose appearance is not visible because and their objects (23). of its being beyond the senses can it be praised or blamed. they are beyond the reach of intellectual grasp. rose from his seat by the power of the Buddhas. flower. there to praise ? When no praise. knowledge and compassion. together with all the Bodhisattvas. reviewest the world with thy transcendental it is to thee like an ethereal of which one cannot say whether it is born or is in- destroyed. As thou reviewest the world with thy transcendental knowledge and compassion. as [the category of] being and non-being is inapplicable to them. In the Dharmakaya. . and praised him with the following verses: 1.

his words the Buddha.CHAPTER TWO 23 which are above form. and art thyself always clean and free from the hindrances of passion and knowledge. I wish to ask one hundred and eight ques- tions of thee 10. the best knower of the world. Mahayana. and whence are the sons of the Victorious ? Where is the is bondage? By what who ? way of emancipation? Who is in he redeemed? What is the mental Dhyanas? state of those triple vehicle 15. stainless both in this world and in the other. the At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva made his I am Mahamati. of being and non-being. sons ask and I will instruct of the Victorious. who Hearing art most eloquent. it transcends the duality of knowing and known and 8. nor is Nirvana 7. own name known to the Blessed One. transformation. Blessed One. and Mahamati. prostrated himself at the feet of the Blessed One and asked : (24) 12. the gradations. thou comprehendest the egolessness of things and persons. and am well versed in 9. II praising the Blessed One with such verses as these. Those who see the Muni so serene and beyond birth [and death] will be cleansed of attachment. abiding in thee for . appearance. Thou dost not vanish in Nirvana. Wherefore is the state of imagelessness. Ask me. Whence come and philosophers? 14. practise the Whence is the effect? What is that which is born of causation ? What is What is cause [or that which works] ? Whence the doctrine of duality ? Whence does it arise ? . spoke to the son of the Sugata thus : 11. you At that moment Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who was given by the Blessed One the opportunity to speak. can one be cleansed of false intellection ? arise? How can one perceive errors? lands. you in self-realisation. looking over the whole assembly. How Whence does it Whence do they arise? 13.

Whence are families and no-families? What is meant by Mind-only? The setting up of marks? And whence [the doctrine of] egolessness? 22. Who me. ? How is it that you do not differ ophers as regards appearance? Tell me. the Samadhis? is How psychic faculties. What the Alaya? And whence the Mano- (25) How does the visible [world] rise? vijnana? does it cease from being visible ? How 21. Why is the world like Pray tell a vision and a dream? How resemble the city of the Gandharvas ? Why it is to be regarded as like a mirage. the conditions? Whence [this] visible [world] ? Whence the entrance upon the Who is is it What which is the abode? that breaks through this triple existence ? What is the body? Where does that abiding arise? Whence comes the son of the Buddha? 19. stand by momentary destruction? Whence is the Womb? And whence is the stability of the world? 25. Why is there no being ? What kind of teaching is in accordance with popular thinking? How can one cease and nihilism cherishing eternalism (sasvatardarshana) (ucchedor-darshana) 23. of the Nyaya school? Its future? from the philoswhence is the rise What is meant by emptiness ? What do you under24. and the disturbance of a kingdom? And how does its rise? the realistic view of existence (bhavadrishti) take . How does action rise? Whence is the behaviour of those who hold the body ? Whence stages ? 18. or like the moon reflected in does it water ? 26. me. LANKAVATARA SUTRA Wherefore ness? And is the tranquilising exercise of formlessthat of complete extinction! Wherefore the extinction of thoughts? And how is one awakened from it? 17. the selfis the mind tranquilised ? Pray tell Bull-like Victor? 20.24 16. attains the masteries. are the are the elements of enlightenment ? Whence constituents of enlightenment? Wherefore is a What revolution.

of the Jataka Tales? How numerous are the is numerous are the heretics ? What is meant by [the doctrine] that there noth- ing but thought-construction? Pray tell me. arts ? and by whom are they made manifest? 32. like the sky? the state of imagelessness ? egolessness? (26) Wherefore is the twofold How is one cleansed of [the hindrance of] knowledge ? 30. and the sun? How How many kinds many Yogins ? How the masters? 36. exegesis ? 33. stars. constellations. sovereigns.no.} ? moral precepts are there? and forms Whence are the families born of gold and jewel and pearl? tiation of beings ? is speech born? Whence is the differenWhence are the sciences. How many varieties of food and drink Whence does sexual desire originate? Whence kings. does a king protect his dominion? Of how are heavenly beings? Whence are the earth. are there? are there many groups 35. Of how many sorts are gathas? What is prose? What is metre? Of how many sorts is reasoning and 31. the moon. of emancipation are there ? of the kinds of discipleship ? And how about How many How kinds of Buddhahood are there ? And evil how many ones ? 37.CHAPTER TWO 25 What is meant by the world being above birth and 27. and provincial rulers? 34. thou Most Eloquent One? (27) 38. Whence are the clouds in the sky ? the wind ? What is meant by recollection? by wisdom (medM) ? Whence . death? or being like the flower in the air? How do you understand it? Why do you regard it as being beyond words? 28. offices. Of how many kinds Leader! of being? How many Of whom is knowledge (jna. it How is it not subject to discrimination? How is Of how many sorts is suchness? How manifold is the Mind? How many Paramitas are there? Whence is the gradation of the stages? What is 29.

sized 49. surrounded that thou art thus apparent everywhere by such Bodhisattvas of such various names and forms ? 45. Wherefore are there fools and despicable people ? Pray tell me.26 are trees LANKAVATAEA SUTEA and vines? Pray tell me. (28) 47. Why is meat not to be eaten ? Why is it forbidden ? Why Whence was 46. the sun. of a hermaphrodite ? How are tell does one retrograde in the Yoga exercises? make progress in them ? How many exercises there? and how are men kept abiding in them? Pray How does one me. thou who art like the their specific of Ikshvaku? is Whence is the !akya family? And the one born Whence is the Eishi Long-Penance? What him ? taught by 43. elephants. the lotus. what are sky? Beings are born in the various paths of existence. who eats meat? are the lands shaped like the moon. Whence Whence are the are the Buddhas of Transformation? Buddhas of Maturity [or Eecompense] ? are the Buddhas who are endowed with trans- Whence cendental knowledge of suchness? Pray tell me. the carnivorous race born. How is it in every land. marks and forms ? How is abundance of wealth acquired? Pray tell me. Wherefore are the lands shaped like a capand upturned net of Indra which is composed of all sorts of jewels? Pray tell me why? 48. the Sumeru. thou Charioteer of the Mind? Wherefore are the six seasons mentioned? What 40. 42. 44. Wherefore are [the lands] shaped in the form of a lute or a drum ? Like various flowers and fruits ? Like the sun and the moon which are so stainless? Pray tell me. is meant by the Icchantika [one who is without Buddhanature] ? Pray tell me whence is the birth of a man ? of a woman ? 41. and the lion? Pray tell me. Lord of the Triple World? How do horses. and deer get caught! 39. the swatika. .

27 Why world of desire? the passions ? 51. Hearing this [which constitutes] the wonderful doctrine of the Mahayana and also the most excellent heart of the Buddhas. Among these. (29) 56. mind are the psychic powers of this world the super-worldly ones ? By what means enter upon the seven stages'? Pray tell me. the Buddha. How many You kinds of Brotherhood are there? And how does a dissension take place in a Brotherhood ? are medical treatises for beings? Pray tell me. and ra- vakas ? 54. attained ? By whom What are does the 55. Cakravada. [spoke thus] : . How many sorts of established truths are there? And how many of philosophical views ? Whence is morality ? And what constitutes the being of a Bhikshu? Pray tell me. Kasyapa. whence are the mountains decorated with various sorts of jewels and filled with Rishis and Gan- And by the forest of Karltaki dharvas? 60. the One Most Excelled in the Knowledge of the World. the Great Hero. Bodhisattvas. and Vajrasamhanana? 59. does not one attain enlightenment in the Pray tell me. and Kanakamuni Great Muni! so. ? tell me wherefore beings tion? Wherefore Whence Whence is the doctrine that there is no ego-soul in is the doctrine of eternity. Pray tell me. Whence say that you were among the Buddhas . sasana] ? teacher abide ? How long should the teaching continue ? 52. and of annihilado you not everywhere announce the doctrine of Mind-only as the truth? 58. 53. back] ? What is meant by a Whence is a state state of revulsion [or turning- of imagelessness.CHAPTER TWO 50. 57. What is the meaning of off all your being enlightened in the Akanishtha by shaking After my passing who will be the upholder of the How long should the Discipline [or Doctrine. [which is realised] by the Pratyekabuddhas. What is meant by the forest of men and women? and Amall? Whence are the mountains Kailasa. Krakuchanda.

LANKAVATARA SUTRA Well done! Well done! tell mati! 62. What also reason ? [Why the statement that there is] nothing but Mind. tell How are horses. sons of the Paramitas. powers. the stirrings of mind. stars. crafts. . And also and teachings? what are the measurements of the moun- Not found in T'ang. the discriminated. deer caught? Pray a proposition. 64. the extinctions. and I will Mahaprajna-Mahayou in order regarding emptiness. enlightenment. that there is no ascending of the stages? 71. the Meru. The extinctions of the elements 66. and pearls ? The Icchantika. knowledge. Birth. those are capable of formless deeds. 65. the Samadhis. is me how. and the existence and non-exist68. the Citta.28 61. and the paths. (30) emancipations. jewels. Buddhas. transmigra- your questions. the wanderone Buddhahood. Self-nature. 63. the sun. Samapattis. the the self-masteries. lands. Dhyanas. Whence is cause and effect? Various errors? and 69. the philosophers. islands. faculties. moon. mountains. the earth. the known. Manas. Nirvana. the visible [world]. those born of gold. the aggregates (skandhas]. families. seen] world. 1 arts. ing-about. dualism whence are they? Various forms of vehicles. explanations in words. the five Dharmas. the attainment. the unmeasurables. the original elements. tion. the psychic Asura. sciences. ence of beings? elephants. and the comings-and-goings. 72. who The Sravakas. no-birth. oceans. Likewise about medical treatises. egolessness. 67. having-no-self-nature. that there is no objective [literally. the marching. Listen well. the Dhyanas. Bodhisattvas. the philosophers. the The the supernatural (nirodha). a teaching established by the conjunction of reason and illustration ? 70. and Vijnanas. the discriminating. Whence is the state of imagelessness and revulsion which is a hundredfold? 1 You tell me.

You should ask me thus. and a Whence is the arising of clouds? And whence la do See the AibhidharmaJcoSa. (31) 73. and of the middle ones? dust in every land ? How many in every dhanva ? 74. a krosa. 29 of the ocean.CHAPTEE TWO tains. 178. body of a being? How many particles of dust are there in the How many of the coarser ones. 1 of window-dust. a half-yojana? How many of rabbit-hairs. and of a Bodhisattva? do you not ask me in this wise? (32) Why 79. Why is sexual Whence is the variety of foods the man-woman forest? are they like a vision. a dream. in a mashaka ? 77. of a Sravaka. whence desire universally cherished ? and drinks? 82. Sumeru. translated Poussin. How many atoms are there in a mustard-seed? mustard-seeds are there in a rakshika? How many many How How in a bean. a yojana. a vimvana ? 76. and the earth? moon. And how Tell about their emancipation? prose and metre. or ram-hairs. a koti. Tell me whence. In measuring distance how much is a hasta. many many How many grains of barley in a prastha? How grains of barley in a half -prastha? Likewise how in a drona. a laksha. a dhanu. of the How many particles of finer ones. in a dharana. son Why do you ask me otherwise? How many atoms are there in the body of ! a Pratyekabuddha. kings. the kingdom taken care of by them? 81. How many How many sense-organ? atoms are there at the top of a flame? atoms are in the wind? How many in each How many in a pore of the skin? in the eye- brows ? 80. Whence are these men great sovereigns? How is is of immense wealth. Whence Wherefore are the mountains of Yajrasamhanana? . of barley? 75. and sun? What are the measurements Tell me. louse-eggs. in a kharya. Ill. many dharanas are there in a karsha? How many karshas in a pala? and how many palas are there in Mount Sumeru which is a huge accumulation [of masses] ? 78. of a Buddha. by Louis de Valise . p. Ch. wherefore f ata-morgana ? 83.

and the statement that is What there is nothing but the thought-constructed? 92. about eternalism and nihilism? son of the Victor? How is the mind tranquillised ? Again [how about] speech. How is And what 88. Whence are the adornments and the Bodhisattvas ? Ask me. my son! Whence are the divine mountains embellished by the Rishis and Gandharvas? 85. knowledge. and about Long-Penance the Rishi? What me. Whence is the way of emancipation? Who is in bondage ? By whom is he delivered ? one who practises tranquillisation ? What is the state of What is transformation. and hermaphrodite? 84. by manifoldness of beings. meant by reasoning and illustrating. What do you son of the Victor? 93. Whence does Whence Tell me. sky. 1 despised? truth. food and drink. effect? and nocan false Whence arises the visible world? (33) How one be cleansed of false intellection? intellection arise? 87. highest . evil ones. Who are the people who are How is it that in the Yoga you do not attain is Samvritya deSana contrasted to paramarfhctrsatya. tell ask me concerning trees and vines. How son of the Victor? philosophers. intelligence. existence. 91. arises action ? And whence its departure ? does the extinction of thought take place? meant by a Samadhi ? is is Who What the one that breaks through the triple the position ? What is the body ? fore the doctrine that beings have no ego-soul? world ? Where- What is meant by a teaching in accordance with the world ? x 89. and who are those philosophers ? 86. family. man. about the Nyaya 90.30 the seasons rise is LANKAVATARA SUTRA ? Whence is the nature of taste ? Whence woman. is your family? Who is your master ? You son of the Victor. Do you ask me about the marks? Do you ask me about egolessness? Do you ask me about the womb. What is meant by non-existence. by master and disciple. morality. What about diversity of lands.

What strikes one in both the Questions and the Negations is that trivial subjects are mixed up with important ones as equally constituting the content of self-realisation. 1 I will instruct teaching. Buddhas of Maturity [or Recompense] ? About Buddhas of the Knowledge of Suehness? And whence is the Bodhisattva? son of the Victor. a drum." "a matter of talk. son. I do not think there is any organic relationship between the two sections. You ask me such and many marks [of other questions. 95. Some subjects are common to the Questions and the Negations." etc. The Sutra proper which is supposed to concern itself with them is also devoid of an intimate connection with it 1 them. Ill 98.CHAPTER TWO 31 enlightenment in the world of desire. 2 . I will give you an explana- you tion of the statements. that are devoid of light." "a footing." "a position. Here is one of the most mysterious and unintelligible portions of the Lankavatara Sutra. "foot-step. but others are not. What do you ask me about reasoning? (34) What about the psychic faculties belonging to this world." "a portion of a line in a stanza. and about the nature of a Bhikshu? Do you ask me about Buddhas of Transformation. listen to me as regards realisation and its intently. The one hundred and eight questions (praSna) so called are not to be necessarily identified with the one hundred and eight statements (pada) which are unif ormely negated in the paragraph that comes after. and about the mind abiding in the seven stages? 97. At that said to the Blessed moment Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva One What is meant by the one hundred : and eight statements? 2 This verse is probably to be separated from the foregoing ones as forms a sort of introduction to what follows. but that in the Akanishtha there is realisation? 94. which literally means. resembling a lute. You ask me. in regard to the one hundred and eight statements as recounted by the Buddhas. and a flower." "an abode. about the lands 96." "a subject. which are in accordance with the Truth?] and free from erroneous views. The Sanskrit word for "statement" is pada. listen to me.

purity. self-nature. but it is to be understood in the sense of "a proposition. clouds. death is no-death. the psychic powers. the passions. annihilation. self-nature. cause. illustration. (36) a mirage. and not more or less? 1 To avoid repetitions. Birth stands against death. dream. self -nature." and each sentence containing this word in the following negations means that each subject referred to is not properly conceived. Therefore. realisation. because. a circle made in the dark by a fire-brand. Another mystery here concerns the number of padas: why 108. duality of being and non-being. the mysterious fact about them is the reference to so many trite subjects which are evidently in no direct connection with the teachings of the Mahayana. a disciple. a sciences. Even of such notions as truth. the sky. a master. a bow. For the Sanskrit pada the Chinese translators have "fa". . "f-fe". inferis ence [or conclusion]. the arts and crafts and the earth. thinking. effect. the middle. that which is known. any statement that might be made concerning birth are not at all true. the triple vehicle. But is to falsify it. imagelessness. thus negated are as follows: 1 ] the characteristic marks. the same can be said. contrivance. -fa] is perhaps the best in retaining the original sense. causation. numbers and mathematics. form. but as they stand these translations do not give any sense to the general context. morality." "a statement. the philosophers. the subjects alone are mentioned which are systematically negated in the text. permanence. thought-constructhe aggregates. There must be something historical about these references of which the translator is at present quite ignorant. disorder. to make a statement about anything Hence the series of negations as illustrated here. mind. abiding and changing. bothness. a statement concerning [The topics eternity is no statement concerning eternity. the city of the G-andharvas. vows. sexuality. the heavens. lands. tions. food and drink."&" . the concept of birth is not in accordance with the true understanding of reality. the Paramitas. the wind. being. truth. water.32 LANKAVATARA SUTRA The Blessed One said: A statement concerning birth no statement concerning birth. and so on. (35) means. a reflection. Nirvana. a vision. mind. desire. atoms. paramitas. "&". moment. insight. the moon and the sun and stars. reality. the bliss of the present world. philosophical views. and do not apply to a world where things are perceived in their absolute aspect. emptiness. they are relative notions. the triple circle. birth is no-birth. the noble wisdom of self-realisation. a family. for instance.

taste. man.33 and origination. the characmarks. the perceiving reflects and the object-discriminating. also. and hermaphrodite. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva In how many ways.CHAPTER TWO annihilation teristic . the body. the Icehantika. the 2 Kanishtha. dynasty. [Further. Mahawhich the rise. explanation. Eishi. Blessed One and ceasing of the Vijnanas take abiding. (2) the Vijnana as producing effects. : and [Further. the powers added [by the Buddha]. IV At that moment. these two [are discernible] the one taking place as regards continuation the other as regards form. sense-organs. the limbs. medical treatment. and (3) the Vijnana as remaining in its original nature. treasure. the ceasing takes place as regards continuation and form. vines and shrubs. That is to say. abiding. : The Blessed One replied: There are two ways. and this is not understood by the philosophers. the lutes. protection. apprehension. in rise. .] three modes are distinguishable in the Vijnanas: (1) the Vijnana as evolving. In the rise of the Vijnanas.] Mahamati. action. systems of morality. the Bhikshus. As a mirror forms. false intellection. which are said two functions generally are distinguishable. the perceiving Vijnana perceives effect. does the place ? mati. in the Vijnanas. kingdom. Dhyana. In the abiding. cause and effect. the seen [world] . said again to the Blessed One. the seasons. (37) multiplicity. a luxuriant growth of trees. arts and sciences. to be eight. These are the one hundred and eight statements recounted by the Buddhas of the past. and ceasing of the Vijnanas take place. Mahamati. Anything that produces an A class of deities. entering into the teaching. also. error. the Samskrita. 1 motives. these two are recognisable: the rise as regards continuation and the rise as regards form. woman.

the Alaya of it. between the two. Mahamati. there is no Then. Again. By that which supports [the Vijnanas] is meant the habit-energy [or memory] which has been accumulated by erroneous reasoning since beginningless time and by that which is comprehended [by the Vijnanas] is meant the objective world perceived and discriminated by the Vijnanas. no But as it comes out of cannot be their cause. the lump will be indistinguishable from its particles. if there is no difference between the two. while. Therefore. dust making up its not-different. Mahamati. Mahadifference. Mahamati. Again. Mahamati. Even so. particles of dust. if they are not different the cessation of the evolving Vijnanas will mean the cessation of the Alayavijnana. Mahamati. Mahamati.34 LANKAVATARA SUTRA [objects]. the cessation of the continuationaspect of the Vijnanas takes place in this wise: that is to discriminated. however. which is. even in its original form. say. Again. when both that which supports [the Vijnanas] and that which is comprehended [by the Vijnanas] cease to function. they are mutually conditioning. but there is no cessation of its original form. substance. by the cessation of all the senseVijnanas is meant the cessation of the Alayavijnana's variously accumulating habit-energy which is generated when unrealities are known as the cessation This. what ceases to function is not . Mahamati. mati. If. the lump of clay is different from lump will ever come out of them. Again. no more than Mind itself. if the evolving Vijnana are different from the Alayavijnana. the perceiving Vijnana and the object-discriminating Vijnana. again. them it is not different from the particles of dust. the perciving Vijnana functions because of transformation's taking place [in the mind] by reason of a mysterious habit-energy. it is like a lump of clay and the particles of . they are neither different nor it is like gold and various ornaments made its Mahamati. the object-discriminating Vijnana (38) functions because of the mind's discriminating an objective world and because of the habit-energy accumulated by erroneous reasoning since beginningless time. is of the form-aspect of the Vijnanas. Mahamati. Mahamati.

the world of dualistic views (drishti-). the world beyond dualistic views. the world of super-knowledge (prajna-). being (bhdva). the philosophers maintain that there there is a first cause from which continuation takes place. but is the effect-producing form of the Vijnanas. ditionality (pratyaya) and perfection (nishpatU) 1 - VI ple [or highest reality. time. or atom. . V Again. and when is no more of this continuation in the Vijnanas. Mahamati. Again. But we can state that they are so many different kinds of Paramartha. What is this cause.CHAPTEE TWO the 35 Alaya in its original self -form. however. con. These seven principles or realities are not explained in the text. Mahamati? Their first cause is known as spirit (pradhana). Mahamati. Mahamati. lord (isvara). 2 What is exactly meant by these concepts regarded as self -nature (svabhava} is difficult to define as far as the Lahlcavatara is concerned. causality (hetu). soul (purusha). so considered by different schools of philosophers or Buddhists. the continuation that has been going on since beginningless time is also destroyed. there are seven kinds of first principaramdrtha] the world of thought : (citta-gocara} the world of knowledge (jndna-). then there will indeed be the cessation of the Alaya(39) If. vijnana.Bodhisattva-stages. as it is held by the philosophers. there are seven kinds of self -nature collection : (samudaya) . . they do not maintain that the eye-Vijnana arises from the interaction of form and light. the world beyond the. they assume another cause. characteristic marks (lakshana. there is the cessation of the Alayavijnana. is this: When the grasping of an objective world ceases the continuation of the Vijnanas is stopped . Mahamati. . and a world where the Tatha- gata attains his self-realisation. as in the case of Svabhava. this doctrine will in no wise differ nihilistic doctrine of the philosophers. When this original self-form ceases to exist.} elements (mahdbhuta). from the This doctrine.

individual and general. Mahamati. And what is thus established by them is not to be confused with the erroneous teachings generally held by the philosophers. who hold a destructive and view concerning such subjects as continuation. and causality. and truth. the essence. my teaching consists in the cessation of sufferings arising from the discrimination of the triple world. after thus a substance which time. in the cessation of ignorance. and Ayatanas have their genesis and continuation in causation and. Again. like a vision. they. and future. this is the self-nature. rising. deed. fruition. again. desire. whereby. Fully-Enlightened Ones of the past. there are some Brahmans and Sramanas who assume something out of nothing. they cherish the dualism of being and non-being where there is but [one] self -nature and [one] first principle. Nirvana. perfecting things of this world and of a world beyond this. like simple-minded ones that they are. not understanding the nature of the Vijnanas which are also no more than manifestations of Mind. present. which constitutes the being of the Tathagatas. because they have no fundamental insight of things. Dhatus. is the manifestation of Mind itself. existence. and in the recognition that an objective world. activity. it is like a burnt seed which is . it is like a jar broken in pieces which is unable to function as a jar. pass away. breaking-up. enter into various phases of existence. (41) Why? Because they have not attained an intuitive understanding [of the Truth]. what are these erroneous teachings accepted generally by the philosophers! [Their error lies in this] that they do not recognise an objective world to be of Mind itself which is erroneously discriminated. They nihilistic are those. the path. and establish them. by means of a noble eye of transcendental wisdom. Arhats. and.36 LANKAVATARA SUTRA (40) Mahamati. Mahamati. the first principle. VII Mahamati. Mahamati. existing. saying that there exists is bound up in causation and abides in and that the Skandhas. karma. Mahamati.

simple-minded ones. 1 Mahamati. we can say the same of is a non-existing thing. In this case we cannot talk of anything coming to an end or cessation. by the principle that something comes out of something and not of nothing] and thus there are [such things as] As long past. their Skandhas. declare the incorrect way of thinking taught by the ignorant One. 1 Thus. [As this is impossible] this proposition does not avail. and Ayatanas which they regard as subject to changes are really incapable of uninterrupted transformation because their views do not originate from the perception of an objective world as a manifestation of Mind itself which is erroneously discriminated. for the . however.CHAPTER TWO incapable of sprouting. The fault with the philosophers is that they have no fundamental intuition into the essential nature of an objective world a world of particulars which is really the projection of mind by reason of memory or the habit-energy accumulated since beginningless time. and being and non-being. poisoned by an erroneous view. that a tortoise would grow hair and sands produce oil. Mahamati. When this thought is thoroughly grasped. . all the logical superstructure they build is essentially an error. If again. Mahamati. their demonstration will be by means of their logic and text-books. memory of erroneous intellection will ever cling to them. present. it ends in affirming nothing. and cause [of which they no use. the philosopher's point of view may also hold good as far as it goes. and so also with their reference being and non-being. Mahamati. it speak] will be of to follows that deed. they do this by the principle of cause and effect [which is to there say. there are some Brahmans and The reasoning here may be a little difficult to follow. as they remain on their philosophic ground. work. the fundamental intuition. Mahamati. And. As they lack. Even so. Mahamati. something comes out of nothing and there the rise of the Vijnanas by reason of a combination of the three effect-producing causes. to be the one presented by the All-Knowing Again. and future. when they argue that is a combination of the three effect-producing causes. The general idea maintained by the LanJcavatdra is that as long as a world of relativity is asserted there is an ever-reeurring chain of causation which cannot be denied in any circumstance. 37 Dhatus.

This clause does not appear in T'ang. [there is one thing which is] not bound by causabeing beyond the distinction of subject and object. that body. will before long attain to the understanding that Nirvana and Samsara are one. itself. in itself has nothing to do with discrimination and causation. 1 2 -After achieving a revulsion The translator here follows the T'ang reading. abiding. The Bodhisattvas entering into the state of iinagelessness where they see into the truth of Mindonly. property. arriving at the abode of the Paramitas. and terms of qualification (laJcshyalaksliana. and that tion. they will by degrees pass through the various stages of Bodhisattva- hood and will is by will experience the various states of Samadhi. knowing that all beings have the nature of being like a vision or a reflection.} . a mirage. discourses of imagination. . and destruction. a vision. firebrand. will be in accordance a great loving heart that in- geniously contrives means [of salvation]. and keeping themselves away from the thought of genesis. Mahamati.38 Siramanas wlio LANKAVATABA SUTRA (42) is of which Mind itself is recognising that the external world seen as such owing to the dis- less time. tions of the Alayavijnana. they will attain the Samadhi Vajravimbopama which is in compliance with the Tathagatakaya and with the of transformations of suchness. Mahamati. that the state of imagelessis in compliance with the awakening of Mind 2 is not affected by such changes as arising. and discipline. deed. [and further] seeing that there is nothing outside Mind. . The Bodhisattvas-Mahasattvas. with the effortless exhibition of Their conduct. a ring produced by a the castle of the Gandharvas. crimination and false intellection practised since beginningknow that the world has no self-nature and has it is like a cloud. 1 and abode are objeetifieawhich is in itself above [the ness which dualism of] subject and object. and thus understanding will attain the Samadhi Mayopama. and virtue of their faith understand that the triple world Mind itself. the moon as reflected in the ocean. and a dream that Mind never been born. and in accordance with a position of unconditionality.

by following the Tathagatakaya. and which. concerning that most subtle doctrine which explains the Citta. will. and rising. Mahamati. love. and. and destruction. the five Dharmas. will become a perfect master of his own mind. to realise it. abiding. thought. Manas.CHAPTER TWO in 39 the abode [of the Vijnanas]. will conduct himself without effort. desist from discriminating and reasoning erroneously on such notions as Skandhas. will be able to assume the to enter into the subtle body of transformation. they will gradually realise the Tathagatakaya. should exercise themselves. Manovijnana. Dhatus. . discipline. Mahamati. by gradually ascending the stages. and means which can enter into . become established in Buddhahood. causation. and which is beyond the realm of (43) Citta-mano-manovijnana. constitutes the essence of the teachsaid : Then Mahamati . will be able minds of all beings. to fore. all the Buddha-lands and into the sanctuaries of the philosophers. in compliance with the truth of Mind-only. the psychic faculties. VIII Perceiving that the triple existence is by reason of the habit-energy of erroneous discrimination and false reasoning that has been going on since beginningless time. will be like a gem reflecting a variety of colours. There- Mahamati. breaking down all the so-called truths established by words and reasonings. and the Lakshanas which is put in practice by the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas which is separated from the state of mind which recognises a world as something outside Mind itself. because of his firm belief in the truth of Mind-only. deed. Therefore. compassion. the Svabhavas. self-control. [the Bodhisattva] will become thoroughly conversant with the noble truth of self-realisation. and also thinking of the state of Buddhahood which is imageless and unborn. . Ayatanas. these Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who wish. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva be well disciplined in self-realisation. which is endowed with the powers. Blessed One. IX Teach me.

etc. By the other sense-consciousnesses] as of the eye-consciousness. and because the self-nature of form. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. not knowing that it is of Mind itself. the functioning Vijnanas and the organ including original Vijnana are thus inextricably bound-up together. there is what is known as Manovijnana [i. deed. Pray teach this assembly headed by the Bodhisattvas gathering on Mount Malaya in the city of Lanka. (4) The eagerness for multiple forms and appearthese four reasons. the thinking function of consciousness]. . similarly the waves of the mind-ocean are stirred uninterruptedly by the wind of objectivity. Thus the Vijnanas go on functioning mutually related in a most intimate manner and discriminating a world of representations. What are they? are (1) The clinging to an external world. (2) The attaching to form and habit: energy accumulated since beginningless time by false reasoning and erroneous views. (3) The self -nature inherent in the Vijnana .. e. like the ocean swept over by a wind. whereby the objective world is distinguished and individual appearances are dis- and in this the physical body has its the Manovijnana and other Vijnanas have no thought that they are mutually conditioned and that they grow out of their attachment to the discrimination which is tinctly determined. genesis. Then the Blessed One again speaking to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this The reasons whereby the : They eye-consciousness arises are four.40 LANKAVATARA SUTRA ings of all the Buddhas. the senseapprehended like a mirror reflecting objects. teach them regarding the Dharmakaya which is praised by the Tathagatas and which is the realm of (44) the Alayavijnana which resembles the ocean with its waves. cause. Along with this system of the five Vijnanas. The same [can be said of ances. and appearance condition one another inseparably.. the waves of the evolving Vijnanas are stirred on the Alayavijnana which resembles the waters of a flood. This consciousness arises at once or by degrees in every sensefield is its atoms and pores of the skin. the system of the five consciousnesses (vijnanas) comes to function. But applied to the projections of Mind itself. is not comprehended.

Pratyekabuddhas. by the Buddhas living in the lands without and of realising the self-control. either high. with the subtle working of the Alayavijnana. is not easy to comprehend. Only those who. But [in fact] they are in this state without extinguishing the Vijnanas which still subsist because the seeds of habit-energy have not been extinguished and [what they . Manas. psychic Surrounded by good friends and faculties. Manovijnana. and ignorance. except for the Tathagata and those Bodhisattvas who are established on the stages. of being baptised limits. . is really imagine to be] an extinction which. Mahamati. only those are capable of obtaining an insight into the flowing of Mind itself in a world of discrimination. and keeping themselves away from the discriminations and false reasonings that arise sing an external world into a secluded which is of Mind itself. planting roots of goodness in the Buddha-lands that know no limits. the non-functioning of So the external world to which they are no more attached. desire. acquiring a definite cognition as regards the meaning of the separate fully all propositions. from recogniwould retire abode in the forest and devote themselves to the practice of the spiritual discipline. the Yogins ought to exercise . [especially] by those who practise the discipline belonging to the Sravakas. Mahamati. it is difficult to distinguish. is of Mind they are capable of crossing the ocean of birth and death which arises by reason of deed. or middling. it is. even with their powers of Samadhi and transcendental knowledge. and philosophers. understanding the aspects of the different stages of Bodhisattvahood by the aid of their transcendental knowledge. which are the discriminating agents of an external world whose self-nature itself. they are capable of knowing the Citta. powers. and Samadhis. or low. Mahamati. so the Yogins while entering upon a state of tranquillisation (samapatti) are not aware of the workings of the subtle habit-energy [or memory] within themselves for they think that they would enter upon a state of tranquillisation by extinguishing the Vijnanas. For this reason.^ CHAPTER TWO 41 (45) As the Vijnanas thus go on functioning [without being conscious of their own doings]. the Buddhas.

and recognised by the Manovijnana. are the waves of multiplicity. 99. how are presented to our Vijiiana. milk. As the waves in their variety are stirred on the ocean. 102. and is seen dancing about with the Vijnanas which. reflected upon by the Manas. 110. (46) At that time the Blessed One recited the following verses : Like waves that rise on the ocean stirred by the dancing and without interruption.42 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA themselves in the discipline which has been given them by their good friends and the Buddhas. property. Dark-blue. wind. with salt. so in the Citta there . The Citta. its no distinction between the ocean and is no evolution of the Vijnanas. it is for the sake of the simple-minded that the Citta 109. [and other colours]. Varieties of colour such as dark-blue.. There is no such evolving in the Citta itself. Manas. Where there is comprehension there is that which comprehends as in the case of waves [and is ocean] . stirred by the winds of objectivity. etc. and the visible world is discriminated by the five Vijnanas. and Vijnanas are discriminated . They are neither different relation is like that between the ocean and nor not-different: the its waves. So are the seven Vijnanas joined with the Citta(mind). is said to be evolving as regards form. conch-shell. 106. 101. (47) 107. there are these varieties of colour like waves [on the ocean] ? There are no such varieties of colour in the waves 108. Karma is accumulated by the Citta. and rays of sunlight. red. Great Muni. The Alaya-oeean in a similar manner is constantly 100. 104. and abode are presented as such . as regards their form to be separated one 105. fragrance of fruits and flowers. for there [but in substance] the eight are not is neither qualified nor qualifying. Tell me. which beyond comprehension. Body. from another. 103. so in the Alaya is produced the variety of what is known as the Vijnanas. there is As waves. honey.

In that which follows.CHAPTER TWO to 43 our Vijnanas. but Wei gives both 113 and 114 to Mahamati. 2 As the waves appear instantly on the ocean. and thus they are seen as evolving in the same way as are the waves. ekagra may be understood as synonymous. Samahita. There . the truth is not in the mind. the Manovijnana upon. denoting a state of consciousness where the mind is most It is the receptive state of intensely concentrated on one thought. or his pupils. 3 This must have found its way here by mistake. the reader is asked simply to look for the to pay no attention to the division of verses. how is it that the evolving of the Alaya is not 1 recognised by the intellect even as the ocean is? 112. so the mind is reflected in its own sense-fields. samapatti. 117. and not in connection with the of perception as in this case of the mirror-images simile. the translator has followed the text. or 115. samadM. 113. 111. for the oceanwaves simile in this text is generally used to illustrate the Alaya's 2 1 relation to the other Vijnanas. Not wishing. 113 and the first part of 114 are ascribed to Mahamati in Sung and T'ang. 114. intuition. high and low (48) so sun rises it shines impartially on people thou who art the light of the world shouldst is it announce the truth (tattvam) to the ignorant. [images] in a mirror or a dream. How Dharma thou announcest not that in establishing thyself in the the truth? If the truth is announced by me. 3 116. [of the Owing to a deficiency in conditions the evolution to recognise 4 Vijnanas] takes place by degrees. sense and 5 . rather than the active state of thinking. The ocean is manifestly seen dancing in the state of waveness. the likeness of the waves in motion is [only] brought out by way of illustration. * immediacy This ought to belong to the preceding verse. to disturb the original notation. This question according to Sung and Tang is Mahamati's. That the Alaya is compared to the ocean is [only] for the sake of the discriminating intellect of the ignorant . When the . is and that of the The function Manas is of to reflect presents of five Vijnanas the actual world no gradation when one is in a state collectedness (samahita) 5 Like unto a master of painting While to the is itself. how- ever.

I preach the In order to make is truth for the Yogins. is of Mind itself. What one teaches. and sleep. 122. a in colours. for the truth (tattva) is beyond words. 124. According to the nature of a disease the healer . let him be kept away from the treatises and writings of the philosophers. is The truth is the state of self-realisabeyond categories of discrimination. social intercourse. arrange colours to produce a picture. The teaching 123. what leaders is the realm of self-realisation. taught by the X Further. 1 LANKAVATARA SUTRA Who is . the teach- ing is not meant for the ignorant. . from things belonging to the vehicles of Sravakahood and Pratyekabuddhahood . not in the colours. if the Bodhisattva should wish to understand fully that an external world to be subsumed under categories of discrimination. tion and 121. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva be thoroughly acquainted with objects of discrimination itself. seen as multi- to transgression if it is itself is thus variously given. 120. nor in it attractive to all beings. The picture the plate 119. 1 Follow the sense and not necessarily the verse division as before. let him be kept away from such hindrances as turmoil. What tudinous is a vision which exists not. . Mahamati.44 118. which are to be seen as of -Mind XI(a) when the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Further. it I teach to the sons of the Victorious is . such as the grasping (subject) and the grasped (object). This is indeed not a mental realm to be reached is by the philosophers and the Sravakas. Mahamati. gives its medicine even so the Buddhas teach beings in accordance with their mentalities. subject the teaching is no teaching whatever (49) not to the point in each case. I teach. transpicture presented gresses. 'nor in the canvas. Establishing myself in the Dharma.

of noble wisdom. Blessed One. (50) the Yogin should abandon his knowledge of Mind gained by means of transcendental wisdom. Mahamati. and empowered by the power added to him by all the Buddhas. Mahamati. its triple Mahamati. he should further discipline himself in these three aspects of noble wisdom. Furnished with this noble ones will attain the state of self-realisation the outcome of noble wisdom. as to the power added. Then comes forth when all as to the self-realisation aspect of noble wisdom. Tell me. he should later discipline himself in the cultivation of noble wisdom in its triple aspect. realises the Samadhi-body whereby he surveys the world as like unto a vision. the doctrine of examining into the reality of noble wisdom. and further goes on a Bodhisattva. asked the Blessed One concerning the doctrine known as examining into the reality At that moment. Having mastered them. and (3) the self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. and entering upon the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood. in which he has to discipline himself later? They are: (1) imagelessness. again. this of the noble life.CHAPTER TWO 45 establishes himself in the abode where he has gained a thorough understanding 'of Mind by means of his transcendental knowledge. the aspect of imagelessness things belonging to the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas and philosophers are thoroughly mastered. you should cultivate noble wisdom in aspect. which still resembles a lame donkey . triplicity. which For this reason. XI(b) Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva knowing what was going on in the minds of the Bodhisattvas who were gathered there. "What are the three aspects of noble wisdom. Mahamati. it comes from the original vows made by all the Buddhas. Mahamati. it rises when from viewing all things in their phenomenality. Again. detaching himself to is the the triplicity is attainment of the Buddha-stage. (2) the their original power added by all the Buddhas by reason of vows. Mahamati. Again. depending on .

substances. XII Said the Blessed One Mahamati. is. Mahamati. and positions. further.46 LANKAVATARA SUTRA which the one hundred and eight statements are to be distinguished the doctrine depending on which the Tathagatas. there are some philosophers who are addicted to negativism. according to whose philosophical view the non-existence of the hare's horns is : ascertained by means of the discriminating intellect which affirms that the self -nature of things ceases to exist with the destruction of their causes . Again. There 1 are. qualities. Thus the Bodhisattvas will be instructed in the analysis and thorough examination of false imagination. assert that the bull has horns. entering into the realm of Maya. those who have fallen into the samapatti. will Dharmakaya of the Tathagata. and thereby they will have the passage purified which leads to the egolessness of things and persons. That which practically . there are others who. atoms. That is to say. Mahamati. . and the abode of the Akanishtha. seeing distinctions existing in things as regards the elements. Pratyekabuddhas. 1 going beyond the bliss of the tranquillisations belonging to all attain the the Sravakas. and which. attached to the notion that the hare's horns are non-existent. Fully-Enlightened Ones will analyse and disclose the nature and course of false imagination for the sake of (51) the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who have fallen into the way of looking at things from their aspects of generality and individuality. reaches all the Buddha-lands. and get an illumination on the stages of Bodhisattvahood and. dhydna. and they say that all things are non-existent just like the hare's horns. which belongs to the realm and course of Tathagatahood transcending thought and in which there is no rising of the five Dharmas. formations. and. and philosophers. Arhats. samddJii and belong to the same category. the heavenly mansions of Tushita. they will attain the Tathagata-body which is the Dharma intimately bound up with the understanding born of transcendental knowledge.

(53) it will not take place by reason of the horns [and therefore the one is not different from the other] but if it is not different ((many a). existence of the horns has Why is it Mahamati. Mahamati. being unable to comprehend the of Mind-only.CHAPTER TWO dualistie 47 way of thinking. Mahamati. So it is. Mahamati. body. those who have gone beyond being and non-being. property. ! being. of . that. Mahamati. If again. the nonno reference to the non-rising of not so ? Because there is discrimi- nation owing to the idea of the horns. Mahamati. nor do they think that the bull has horns because no ultimate substance is to be obtained however minutely the analysis of the horns may go on even to the subtlest particle known as atom: [that is. depending upon the idea of the horns. which neither being nor non-being can be predicated have no discrimination about them Again. Blessed One. Indeed. At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said Blessed One Is it not this way. there is . and abode have their existence only when measured in discrimination. (52) The hare's horns neither are nor are not. no made about them. they desire to discriminate a world truth which is of Mind itself. we proceed to refer this to the : this to the non-rising of discrimination and infer that the horns exist not? The Blessed One discrimination.] the state in which noble wisdom is realised is beyond being and nondiscrimination is to be with all things. a discrimination taking place by reason of the horns [and Literally different and not-different. said: No. discrimination takes place. indeed. And upon the idea because of this dependence of discrimination of the horns. no more cherish the thought that the hare has no horns. and because of this 1 relationship of dependence and apart from the awydnanya relationship. one talks of the non-existence of the hare's horns. seeing how discrimination takes place. . for they never think that the hare has no horns because of mutual reference. discrimination is different (anyd) from the hare's horns. Mahamati. surely not because of the reference [to the horns of the bull].

whose is asserted in reference to the bull's horns. It is non-existence the same with the hare's horns. But. and figure. Mahfuuati. which in turn are further analysed. Agaixx. they existences. there is The non-existence after all nothing to be known as atoms. Mahamati. true. and space is not non-existent in them. space penetrates relation of sup- porting and supported. is to be affirmed.48 LANKAVATA1U SUTRA is cliff event therefore the one from the other]. too. no horn [-substance] is obtainable. To establish the from form. the Blessed One said this to Mahathe Bodhisatrva-Mahisattva Mahamati. there are other philosophers affected with erroneous views. Mahtimati. the bull's nor the hare's] are existent. not fully understanding the nature and seeing that space is disjoined o. when the elements begin to evolve [a world] they are distinguishable one from another: they do not abide in space. Mahamati. ilahlsiatl & hare and a bull. space and form. this reasoning from reference (54) does not hold. who are attached to such notions as form. milly a horn itself has no existence from the beginning] have therefore no discrimination abont it! Mahamati.f space proceed to discriminate about their separate Mahjimati. However minutely the atoms are analysed. when the bull's liorns are analysed to their minutest atoms. you should . And also. and. with space and form. Mahamati. discard the views and discriminations that are concerned vrrJi the horns of. the reasoning by reference as regards the non-existence of the hare 's horns The non-existence of the hare's horns is is of no avail. form is space. the notion oi' the hows itself is not available when thus reasoned. space is form. asserted in reference to their existence [on the bull. other things. as into form. in reference to what should we talk at' nan-existence? Therefore. Mahamati. lei von and other Bodhisattvas reflect . cause. but . of what. there obtains the separation of the two. At that Eiati time. in reference to what? As to the But. As neither oi' them [that is. the dualism of being and non-being as held by the philosophers does not obtain as we see in the reasoning of horns. again. ilahamati.

is the outflow purified that takes place from recognising an external world which is of Mind itself? Is sattva the purification instantaneous or gradual ? The outflow that takes place Replied the Blessed One from recognising an external world which is of Mind itself is : Mahamati. 1. exist is Long and is is when exigence non-oxistonee 128. : . pluralities of. the [triple] 8 vabh. etc. How. Mind being seen [externally] body. Manas.I'rom tho property. mutually bound. there is indeed no form to be discriminated as such. be established is the [truth of] Mind-only. there existence. down to atoms.il va.imo the Blo/ined Tho world [as things WHO . .. assorted. (55) the Buddhas dis- way of self-realisation. it is which ripens gradually and not instantaneously. [Mano- j vijfinna. and abode are manifested to u vijfiana. Analysed. Mahamati the BodMsattva-Mah. XIV At that time again. and purification. the two- fold ogoloHsnoHS. an of! the Alaya- Tho leaders talk about the Citta. 129. Blessed One.CHAPTER TWO on tlio 49 nature of discrimination which they have of the Mind in itself. Mahamati. reticians close the which is not believed by those who cherish erroneous views. the purification of like the gradually purified and not instantaneously. and where assorted.126'. saying. amra fruit . in the same way. the five Dharman. One recited thene veraew wo see it] exists not. up. short.27.amade a request of the Blessed One regarding the purification of the outflow which comes from recognising an objective world which is of Mind itself. there in non-existence. This does not belong to the realm of the theonor to that of the 6ravaka. what can. at tlint l. and lot thoin go into tlio nil tho Bodhiflattva-1 rinds where oi! they Hhoiild disoloHo tho man i formations of way Mind disciplining theinelve XIII Then 125.

music. in the it is like the Dharmata-Buddha shining forth instantaneously with the rays that issue from the NishyandaNirmana [-Buddha] in the same way. the Tathagata. in the same way. the purification by the Tathagata of beings is gradual and not instantaneous and trees. that . in the same way. which is what is seen of Mind same way. Mahamati. is Mahamati. and abode. . herbs. instantaneously reveals to all beings the realm of unthinkable knowledge which belongs to Buddhahood. it is like grass. Mahamati. the purification of beings by the Tathagata. which is done gradually and not instantaneously. Mahamati. the purification by the Tathagata of all beings gradual and not instantaneous. . itself. It is like the Alayavijnana making instantaneously a world of body. Mahamati. Mahamati. it is like a mirror indiscriminately and instantaneously reflecting in it forms and images. lute-playing. places them in the palatial abode of the Akanishtha mansion where they will become practisers of various spiritual exercises. it is like the mastery of comedy. Mahamati. writing. (56) in the same way. and [other] arts. by making all beings discard the habit-energy which issues from the erroneous views they entertain in regard to an external world which is of the Mind. Mahamati. dancing. singing. in the same way. it is like the sun or the moon revealing all forms instantaneously by illuminating them with its light. 1 Abbreviated from "the outflowing that takes place in beings when they recognise an external world as real which is of Mind itself" (svaoittadrisyadhara sattvanam) . shrubs. it is like the potter making pots. the noble truth of self-realisation instantaneously shines out when the Mahamati. the purification by the Tathagata of all beings is instantaneous. Mahamati. who makes them free from discrimination and leads them to the state of imagelessness. . property. grow up gradually from the earth and not instantaneously in the same way. the Nishyanda-Buddha. which is gained gradually and not instantaneously. Mahamati. is gradual and not instantaneous. Mahamati. instantaneously maturing the mentality of beings.50 LANKAVATARA SUTRA 1 beings is gradual and not instantaneous. Mahamati.

Mahamati. there habit-energy. which resemble the various scenes and persons created magically and imagined as really in existence. so long as the fancying goes on we have here all that is needed to constitute the selfis nature of the false imagination.CHAPTEE TWO false 51 [dualistic] views of existence and non-existence are discarded. based on the notion of relativity the false are distinguished is imagination recognises a variety of appearances which by a discriminating mind. XV And absolute yet again. and they are variously and While they are thus manifesting fancifully discriminated. various forms of transcendental knowledge and of under- standing. emancipa- . this course of the Nishyanda Buddha. tranquillisation. the dis- Again. exercises his upon art. what the Nirmita-Nirmana-Buddha [or Buddha of transformation] establishes concerns such matters as charity. themselves. Mahamati.take shape. all (57) wood. mati. that by reason of clinging to these false imaginations there is multitudinousness of unrealities. And as their individual appearances are imagined and adhered to. the Skandhas. Mahato the notion of from clinging the To illustrate: when magician depending creepers. Mahamati. and Ayatanas. what the Dharmata- Nishyanda-Buddha sible [that the Buddha that flows out of the Dharma] teaches is that all things are comprehenunder the aspects of individuality and generality. it is the doing of the Dharmata- Buddha to establish the exalted state of self-realisation which transcends the phenomena of the [empirical] mind. Mahamati. Mahamati. which appear endowed with individuality and material body. for they are bound up with causes and conditions of habit-energy which is accumulated by not recognising an external world as of Mind itself. and beings and forms . shrubs. and. grass. Dhatus. meditation. Further again. Mahamati. magically-created persons are produced. Mahamati. Again. morality. there is no substantiality in them. false imaginations arise relativity. Likewise. is.

Mahamati. notions belonging to the externality of things. free is uncondi- from conditions. Mahamati. egolessness. and measurements. who are always clinging to the notion of an For this reason. self in the excellent and exalted way leading to self-realisation. the excellent and exalted state of self-realisation. Ayatanas. and the deliverance of a Samapatti.52 LANKAVATARA SUTRA tion. has nothing to do with all doings. and generality. and the truth that is when one annihilates ity and impermanence. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva may . Mahamati. free from passions and is ever serene . in the life of the Sravakavehicle. the forms which they take. but in which there is as yet no discarding of habit-energy and no escape from the imperceivable transformation of death. and the attachment to the notion of self-nature arising from discrimination. the Vijnanas. and the ways in which they function. such as the Skandhas. there are two aspects to be distinguished. suffering. the path and fruit of a Samadhi. and when one has an insight into reality Entering upon this state of mental concentration the Sravakas will attain the blissful abode of exalted selfrealisation in which there is the emancipation belonging to a Dhyana. The Buddha discloses against the philosophical views that which surpasses forms. Pratyekabuddhas. (58) you should keep yourself away from the views that recognise the reality of an external world apart from the Mind itself. Having attained and blissful condition of self-realisation as realised by the not Sravakas. you should discipline yourego. their distinctions and their performances. and does not belong to the world of the ignorant. This. Dhatus. senses. is the Sravaka's this exalted exalted state of self-realisation. Again Mahamati. namely. XVI Further again. and philosophers. the Dharmata-Buddha tioned. Sravakas. What is realisation belonging to the Sravakas? the excellent. individualas it is. exalted state of selfThis is a state of is mental concentration which attained when one realises states of emptiness. Mahamati.

if what is claimed to be the eternal-unthinkable is in conformity with the idea of a cause [which is eternal] in itself. Mahamati. the eternalunthinkable considered by the philosophers to be characteristic of their creator is untenable. When. warmth. what is meant by the attachment to the notion of self -nature arising from discrimination? This attachment takes place when a man. but should think compassionately of other beings and keep ever fresh his original vows. Conforming himself to the egolessness of things and holding back the wrong views regarding the egolessness of a person. Mahamati. Mahamati. the eternal-unthinkable is the exalted condition of and also of highest reality. XVII At this to that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said the Blessed One: According to the Blessed One's teaching. yet clings to the notions of individuality and generality in accordance with the measures laid down in books of logic. Now. but since . the bliss of Samapatti. seeing that the elements and the qualities such as blue. Why? Because. tenable? this eternal-unthinkable is not in conitself formity with the idea of a cause how can this be proved (60) Again.CHAPTER TWO 53 enjoy by himself the bliss of cessation. the Bodhisattva. the eternal-unthinkable as held by the philosophers is not in conformity with the idea of a cause itself. (59) Mahamati. knowing what this is. Mahamati. he should never exert himself in the exalted and blissful state of self-realisation as attained by the Sravakas. yellow. Mahamati. motility. it can be eternal . humidity. do not the philosophers also talk about the creative agent being the eternal-unthinkable ? self-realisation The Blessed One replied: No. Mahamati. and rigidity. the Bodhisattva should keep himself on the continuously-ascending journey along the stages. have never been created by a creator. must abandon it. This is the Sravaka's attachment to the notion of self-nature arising from the discrimination of existence. in whatever exalted and blissful state of self-realisation the Bodhisattva may find himself.

indeed. If again. it is not characterised with the power that can create If again. is Mahamati. Mahamati. the hare's horns. Mahamati. on account of their having no characteristic of a self-cause. this reason. further. Mahamati. Why? Because. no more than a verbal discrimination.54 LANKAVATARA SUTRA is the idea of a creator it based upon that of a [further] cause. character. Therefore. the philosophers' fault consists. because it has its causation because . their eternal-unthinkable philosophers is . it eternal-unthinkable is really eternal finds its cause in the exalted state of self-realisait my and because has nothing to do with a creator. Again. Mahamati. with . Because state of self-realisation it is it it is the exalted has its own the cause of the highest reality it has nothing to do with existence . it is Mahamati. Mahamati. mere verbal discriminations are. the eternal-unthinkable of the philosophers is not characterised with eternality because it has a cause which is not eternal. and cessation it is eternal. because tion. the philosophers prove the eternality of their eternal-unthinkable in contradistinction to the becoming and therefore the non-eternality of things created. what they regard as eternal is not eternal as itself. cannot be the eternal-unthinkable. But. not the same as the eternal-unthinkable of the philosophers. what they regard as characteristic of a cause is a non-entity like the horns of a hare and. Mahamati. it is to and non-existence it be classed under the same head is as Nirvana. no doer because space. the eternal-unthinkable of the Tathagatas For is thatness realised by noble wisdom within themselves. moreover. Mahamati. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva dis- cipline himself in order to attain by means of noble wisdom the truth of self-realisation which is the eternal-unthinkable. my highest reality is the eternalunthinkable since it conforms to the idea of a cause and is beyond existence and non-existence. in which. owing the eternal-unthinkable of the in conformity with the idea of a cause. Mahamati. Mahamati. by the same reasoning (61) I can prove that their eternality has no reason to be known as such just because things created are non-eternal to their becoming.

Mahamati. being manifestations of Mind itself. Why ? Because they have no reality. donkey. we can say of this kind of the. and. Mahamati. of eternity and non-eternity. Mahamati. (62) They are not aware. all things are unborn. XIX Further. Mahamati. things are like the horns of the hare. seek for Nirvana. that Nirvana consists in the future annihilation of the senses and their fields. their discourse is not to the point. go on rolling themselves along the wheel of birthand-death. do not know that birth-and-death and Nirvana are not to be separated the one from the other and. If the eternal- unthinkable is eternal in consideration of the non-existence and eternality of external things. Therefore. Therefore. those who are stupid talk of the trinity of vehicles and not of the state of Mind-only where there are no images. but the ignorant and simple-minded who are given up to their false and erroneous imaginations. Mahamati. Mahamati. Its eternality is not derived from the reasoning which is based upon the external notion of being and non-being. afraid of sufferings arising from the discrimination of birth-and-death. discriminate all . cling to the notion that there is a world outside what is seen of the Mind and. imagine . according to the teaching of the Tathagatas of the past. they are unborn. and future. XVIII Further. those who. or camel. those who do not understand the teachings of the Tathagatas of the past. horse. of the fact that Nirvana is the Alayavijnana where a revulsion takes place by self-realisation.eternal-unthinkable that the philosophers do not know what is meant by characteristically self-caused. present. Mahamati. Mahamati.CHAPTER TWO 55 being and non-being. as they are not born of being and non-being. present. seeing that all things subject to discrimination have no reality. Mahamati. and future. are outside the state of self-realisation attainable As they by noble wisdom. concerning the external world. which is of Mind itself.

: group of people whose insight belongs to the Tathagata-vehiele . my morality is established. Mahamati. each of whom attains its own [spiritual] insight. and disappearance. (63) Therefore. Mahamati. abiding. such ones. cherishing the idea that all things are born and subject to discrimination and non-being. and [what is meant by] generality and individuality. Mahamati. as to being XX Again further. you should discipline yourself therein [i. belongs to the realm of self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. they have not yet passed beyond the inconceivable transformation-death. and (5) the group of people to whom no insight is possible. there are five groups of people. of body. therefore. etc. Mahamati. their intellect will leap with joy on knowing and practising what belongs to appearance and not on practising what they know (3) the of the uninterrupted chain of causation. "My destroyed. and abode evolve when the Alayavijnana is conceived by the ignorant as grasping and grasped. they will . What are the five? They are (1) the group of people whose insight belongs to the Sravaka-vehicle . (4) the group of indefinite character. how does one know the group of people whose There are people insight belongs to the Sravaka vehicle? the hair of whose body will stand on end when they know and realise the nature of the Skandhas. property. life is and their lion-roar is. Mahamati. they abide at the fifth or the sixth stage where they do away with the rising of the passions. are said to be of the group whose insight belongs to the Sravaka vehicle. Dhatus. Ayatanas. and discrimination then they fall into a dualistic view of existence where they recognise its rise. (2) the group of people whose insight belongs to the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle . and does not belong essentially to the realm of dualistic cherished by the ignorant and The self-nature and the characteristic marks simple-minded. all things are unborn. That all things are in their self-nature unborn.".e in self-realisation]. but not with the habit-energy.56 LANKAVATARA SUTRA things where they are not . Having had an insight into their own vehicle.

there is no emancipation for them. you ought to discipline yourself in order to escape this wrong view. and (3) an insight into the immensity of the external Buddha-lands. This. When the teaching to keep themselves away from social relations and entanglements. there are others who. Again. Mahamati. property. supreme will seek Nirvana in them. they are thereby entreated. is disclosed to them. to perform miraculous powers by which they can divide their own body and appear double or perform the transformations. a man will not is disclosed. Mahamati. Mahamati. is where those of the Sravaka-vehicle and the philosophers make the mistake in their insight by regarding non-deliverance as deliverance. This. Recogni- sing that they are of the group whose insight belong to the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. Again. Now. spirit. vital principle. . Mahamati. (64) But. and abode are be the manifestation of Mind itself. three aspects are distinguishable in the insight belonging to the group of the Tathagata-vehicle. which is no self -nature.CHAPTEE TWO 57 then discipline themselves in the egolessness of persons and finally gain the knowledge of Nirvana. Mahamati. seeing that all things exist by depending upon causes. not to become attached to the external world and its manifold form. Mahamati. as they have no insight into the egolessness of things. Mahamati. Mahamati. nonrisher. being. their discourses will be in con- formity with the insight of the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. or personal soul. (2) an exalted which is the attainment of self-realisation. Therefore. there are still others who. will recognise in this the way to Nirvana. believing in such things as ego. Now. these three aspects are disclosed one after insight another and also when the inconceivable realm of the Alaya- vijnana seen to where body. they belong to the group of the Prattheir is yekabuddha-vehiele who will shed tears and feel the hair of body stand on end when the Pratyekabuddha's insight shown to them. Mahamati. When. is the characteristic feature of the group of people whose insight belongs to the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. They are: (1) an insight whereby one sees into the selfnature of things.

. is the stage of preparation for the establishment of his own group. The triple vehicle. there is this establishment. disclosed to a who Again. 2 Those who are destitute of the Buddha-nature. vehicle. Mahamati. the two forms of thought-construction [subject and object] Where the imageless stands. be frightened. will settle himself in the bliss of the Samadhi 1 finally will attain the body of Tathagatahood. when these three forms of insight are man. for the wise. nor terrified. The Dhyanas. and the noform Samadhis. he may thereby be pursuaded to disThis. The gate of highest reality has nothing to do with . the Blessed One recited these verses : The Once-to-come . [also] and the noand 132. why should we establish the triple vehicles? 133. the immeasurables. of these I talk. XXII Again. cipline himself in them. nor show any sign of fear then such a one is to be known as of the group of people whose insight belongs to the Tathagata-vehicle. and the thought-cessation all these are not at all found in Mind-only. This is. the one vehicle. But the Sravaka who will purify his own tion into the habit-energy of passions by attaining an inner percepAlaya and by seeing into 'the egolessness of things. all fruit of the Stream-entered. and that of the the fruit of the Not-to-come and Arhatship these are due to mental perturbation. Mahamati. 131. the characteristic feature of the insight of those belong to the Tathagata-vehicle. and XXI Then 130. (65) Mahamati. Mahamati. solitude-loving ones.58 LANKAVATAKA SUTRA . how is it that the Icchantika2 never (66) Because they have is awaken the 1 desire for emancipation? is What stated about the group of indefinite character not quite clear. In order that he may go up to the stage of imagelessness. for the sake of the dull-witted.

as having forms. the BodhisattvaIcchantika would never enter Nirvana.] form? In [the consideration of] the relativity aspect of Svabhava. and (3) perfect Now. aside moment to foster the stock Why ? Because. who have abandoned the Bodhisattva colfalse accusation making the that they are not in conformity with the sutras. By this they have forsaken all the stock of merit and will not enter into Nirvana. Secondly again. Mahamati. I will beings. Mahamati. XXIII Further. who have forsaken all the stock of merit might some day be influenced by the power of the Tathagatas and be induced at any of merit. But those Icchanenter : tikas who have forsaken all the stock of merit [finally] do. Mahamati. not attain it myself. Mahamati. Those Icehantikas. Blessed One. realities appear in various ways. is the reason of their not entering into Nirvana. and the emancipation. For this reason. there are Bodhisattva-Mahaon account of their original vows made for all So long as they do not attain Nirvana. knowledge. false discrimination rises from form (nimitta). . Who. Mahamati. no beings are left the by the Tathagatas. Again. and because of this they go on the way of the This. saying. Mahamati. does it rise from crimination. the codes of morality. is meant by abandoning all the stock of merit ? It refers to [those Buddhists] lection [of the canonical texts]. Mahamati." keep themselves away from Nirvana. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva be well acquainted with the three kinds of Svabhava (1) (self- [What (2) are the three? They are false dis- knowledge of relativity. Mahamati said. Mahamati. Icchantika. it is Bodhisattva-Icchantika (67) who never enters into Nirvana. How. ' ' sattvas who.CHAPTER TWO 59 abandoned all the stock of merit. nature). and because they cherish What certain vows for all beings since beginningless time. would never Nirvana ? The Blessed One replied Knowing that all things are in Nirvana itself from the very beginning.

these objects. and constitutes the state of self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. Mahamati. Name. By the attachment to names is meant to recognise in these inner and external things the characteristic marks of individuality and generality and to regard them as definitely belonging to the objects. this adherence takes place in two ways. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva have a thorough understanding as to the nature of the twofold egolessness. Mahamati. is casts aside the discriminating notions of reality. and character . and in this you and other Bodhisattvas are to discipline yourselves. and Right Knowledge and Such134. forms. when. The knowledge . XXIV Further again. Mahamati.60 signs. what is this twofold egolessness? persons and the egolessness meant by egolessness of persons? It means that] in the collection of the Skandhas. constitute false discrimination. the essence of the Tathagata-garbha. The Tathagatas. nor anything belonging to it. and [It is the egolessness of of things. and signs are adhered to [as real]. Mahamati. Mahamati. This. By the attachment to objects is meant. and Discrimination [correspond to] the two forms of Svabhava. and Ayatanas there is no ego-substance. What is . Mahamati. Arhats. These two modes of attachment. is called the doctrine that examines into the nature of the five Dharmas and the two Svabhavas (self- nature). Dhatus. Then the Blessed One recited this verse : Form. deed. it is the inner realisation by noble wisdom. Mahamati. ness [correspond to] the Perfect Knowledge aspect. what realised is perfect knowledge? It is when one form. and Fully-Enlightened Ones thus declare false discrimination to consist in attachment to names and attachment to objects. LANKAVATARA SUTRA and shapes. of the relativity-aspect (paratantra) rises from the separation of subject (asraya) and object (alanibana) Now. the Vijnana is originated by ignorance. Mahamati. name. to get attached to inner and external things [as realities]. This (68) perfect knowledge.

since the Skandhas. and Ayatanas are characterised with the nature of false discrimination. before long he will attain the first stage [of Bodhisattva- .e. and subject to the conditions of mutual origination which are causally bound up with the string of desire and deed and since thus there is no creating agent in them. what things? is meant by the egolessness of Skandhas. in the Alayavijnana. imagine here the multiplicity of phenomena. Manas. By reason of the habit-energy stored up by false imagination since beginningiess time. owing to their erroneous discrimination. a seed. do not. and by clinging to them as real. Mahamati. when the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva has a good understanding as regards the egolessness of things. Mahamati. even destitute of the marks of individuality and generality . it [i. this world (vishaya) is is in the subject to change and destruction from moment to moment . Mahamati. Again. it a water-drawing wheel or a machine. Mahamati. such as the eye. and keeps up its function by grasping objects by means of the sense-organs. Recognising. wind.. that all things are devoid of the Citta. the Skandhas are It is to realise that the . Mahamati. and the [three] Svabhavas. being no more than an aggregation of the Skandhas. [while the Vijnana itself is] like is a monkey who is always restless. causing the wooden figures to move about as a magician moves them. resuscitating the dead the demon Vetala. carryplaces.CHAPTER TWO 61 desire. while a world of objects and bodies manifested owing to the discrimination that takes place world which is of Mind itself. a lamp. the five Dharmas. Dhatus. a thorough understanding concerning these phenomena is called com- prehending the egolessness of persons. Now. Mahamati.. that is. like a fly who ever in search of unclean things and denied (69) which is never satisfied. the Vijuana] goes on rolling the wheel of transmigration. etc. and Ayatanas are destitute of an ego-substance. Manovijnana. the wise. Again. Dhatus. however. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva will well understand what is meant by the egolessness of things. a cloud. like a fire is like like ing varieties of bodies and forms. it is like a river. and the ignorant.

(70) he will be seated in the great jewel palace known as "Great Lotus Throne" which is in the shape of a lotus and is adorned with various and pearls . When a definite acquisition is obtained regarding the aspect of the stages [of Bodhisattvahood] the Bodhisattva will ex. attain the noble truth of self-realisation. will reach the ninth stage where his insight is perfected. he will then acquire and complete a world of Maya-nature . he will go beyond the last stage of Bodhisattvahood.62 LANKAVATABA SUTBA hood] when he gets a definite cognition of the imageless. and. getting rid of the erroneous views that may rise from assertion and refutation. understanding the request Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. of Then the Blessed One again. property. Assertions and refutations are not to be found in : the Mind-only. and [finally the tenth stage known as] Great Dharma- megha. said this to the Blessed : At unrefuted. and in this you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should well exercise yourselves. Mahamati. gradually and successively going up the scale. and abode. because of his insight into the egolessness of things. wander about with assertions and refutations. is what is meant by the egolessness of all things. Having been enlightened they would keep themselves away from the eternalistic assertions as well as from the nihilistic refutations.. may at once realise supreme enlightenment. and become a Tathagata endowed with the perfect freedom of the Dharmakaya. surrounded by Bodhisattvas of the same character and anointed like the son of the Cakravarti sorts of jewels by the hands of the Buddhas coming from all the Buddhalands. This. . XXV Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva One Pray teach me about making an assertion and refuting it so that I and other Bodhisattvas.the ignorant who understand not that the Mind is [seen in] the form of body. recited this verse 135. Establishing himself here. perience joy. and leave your enlightenment eye that time.

which later comes to have This is repeated below and is evidently a clerical error. Again. a living This is said. what is meant by the refutation? It and (4) means not examining properly. wise. Mahamati. Dhatus and Ayatanas.CHAPTER TWO 63 At that moment the Blessed One said this to (71) Mahamati. 1 Again. since beginningless time. Mahamati. This. [some philosophers] assume the existence of an ego. Mahamati. Mahamati.e.. is what characterises assertion and refutation. Mahamati. be the assertion of some philosophical views which are nonexistent [i. by the assertion of a cause that is nonexistent is meant that [some philosophers] assume the causeless birth of a first (72) Vijnana.. not (3) the assertion about a cause which is non-existent true] . Mahamati. are the four assertions. Mahamati. rises from one's attachment to the habit-energy which is amassed. (2) the assertion about philosophical views which are non-existent [i. characterises the assertion of indiviThis assertion and discrimination. Further. and Ayatanas. Mahamati. Again. by varieties of erroneous views issuing from false imagination. because of ignorance. there are elucidate the meaning of this verse: four forms of assertion made concerning things not in existence. what are the characteristics of the assertion made about individual marks that have no existence ? It concerns the marks of individuality and generality in the Skandhas. This. a soul.e. not true] . not true]. a man may affirm that they are just so and not otherMahamati. Dhatus. a nourisher..e. Mahamati. a being. . the assertion about objects that are non-existent. or a spirit. is meant that in the Skandhas. characterises the assertion of individual marks which are non-existent. to being. These. individual What are the four? (1) The assertion about marks that are non-existent. This. . dual marks which are non-existent. any assertions based on errors. which do not really exist. concerning individual marks that are not existent. but taking 'them for realities and getting attached to them. by the assertion of philosophical views which are non-existent [i.

tinction. and of the twofold Egolessness. eternality. They will then attain a hundred thousand Samadhis. as the horns of a hare. Mahamati. is for This. form. will listen to their discourses on the truth that does not belong to the Sravaka. Mahamati. for all things are devoid of the alternatives of being and non-being and are to be known. will assume various personalities for the sake of benefitting others. the Bodhisattvas. Going over to all the Buddha-lands and assemblages. such non-working existences as space. and again. a hundred thousand niyutas of kotis of Samadhis. light. and Manovijnana.64 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA a Maya-like non-existence. of the five Dharmas. For this reason.and Pratyekabuddha-vehiele. of the [three] Svabhavas. the Bodhisattvas who are thoroughly acquainted with the nature of the Citta. the Bodhisattvas will listen to the Buddhas. is the characteristic point of the assertion about objects which are non-existent. discourse on the nature of all thmgs~which are like a vision. thus facing the Tathagatas. a horse. Mahamati. This. are neither existent nor nonexistent . They are discriminated as realities by the ignorant who are addicted to assertions and refutations as their intelligence has not penetrated into the truth that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. a dream. It is otherwise with the wise. that is to say. (73) indeed. ceases. a while and then the assertion of not-existent is Again. one should avoid the views based on assertion and refutation. the originally unborn Vijnana begins to function under the conditions of eye. like the mysterious gem that reflects varieties of colours. or like a hair-net. Mahamati. and which have nothing to do with birth-and-death. an illu- a reflection. The functioning goes on Mahamati. and exsion. just like the imagination that evolves from the seat of the relativity knowledge. the assertion about objects that are an assertion arising from the attachment to vana. cessation. and the lunar vision in water. and by . Mahamati. Mahamati. XXVI Further. and memory. a cause that is non-existent. or a camel. and NirThese. Manas.

(74) The Blessed One said Empti: ness. on the Triple Treasure. . Because of one's attachto false imagination. indeed! Mahamati. and self-control. emptiness. and. and absence of self -nature. and the absence of self-nature. Eeplied Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. Mahamati. where they will discourse . (4) the emptiness of work (2) the emptiness of self-nature . In short. non-duality. (l)Mvasvcib~bava) (3) the emptiness of no-work (apracaritd). Tell me. listen well Mahamati the Bodhiand reflect upon what I tell you. quickly realise sattva the highest enlightenment. Then the Blesesd One sattva-Mahasattva well : said this to Now. the When is those who are born of the Buddha see that no more than Mind itself. quitting the discrimination of being and non-being. surrounded by Sravakas and Bodhisattvas. At that time the Blessed One recited this verse 136. how all things are empty. I will indeed. they will obtain a of transformation. Blessed One. non-dual. unborn. manifesting Buddha-bodies. Blessed One. them to understand thoroughly what is meant by an objective world which is nothing but Mind itself and in : which there are no realities. they will. it is a term whose self -nature is false imagination. Mahamati. but which is endowed with the powers. no-birth. in order to free instruct them from the alternatives of being and non-being. psychic faculties. and have no self -nature. be born in all the celestial mansions. no-birth. which has nothing to do with effectbody producing works. Mahamati. non-duality. so that I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas might be awakened in the teaching of emptiness.CHAPTBE TWO 65 means of these Samadhis they will go around from one country to another they will do homage to the Buddhas. we have to talk of emptiness. and. then. there are seven kinds of empti- ment ness: (1) The emptiness of individual marks (lakshana). world XXVII At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahamade a request of the Blessed One.

Mahamati. one speaks of the emptiness of no-work. Again. hence the emptiness of ity. the individual marks no longer obtain. and go on functioning when there is a mutual conjunction of cause and action.work? It is that the Skandhas are Nirvana itself and there is no work doing in them from the beginning. Mahamati. and not predicable with individuality and generality. (pracarita) (5) the emptiness of all things in the sense that they are unpredicable (nirabhilapya) (6) the emptiness in its highest sense of ultimate reality realisable only by noble wisdom. Mahamati. Mahamati. they are non-existent. things in the sense of their unpredicabilof the emptiness of unpredieability. but when they are further investigated and analysed. it is meant by the emptiness of that all things in their self- nature are unborn. (75) Again. what self -nature? is Mahamati. hence the emptiness of self-nature. and (7) the emptiness of mutuality (itaretara) which is the seventh. In consideration of mutuality and accumulation. what then is the emptiness of individual marks ? It is that all things have no [such distinguishing] marks of individuality and generality. what is meant by the emptiness in its highest sense of ultimate reality realisable by noble wisdom ? all Thus one speaks It is that in the attainment of an inner realisation by means is of noble wisdom there no trace of habit-energy generated [of beginningless past]. what is meant by the emptiness of Again. Mahamati. Mahamati. and because thus no self. Thereit is therefore said that things are fore. Mahamati. what is meant by the emptiness of all things in the sense that they are unpredieable ? It is that the nature of the false imagination is not expressible. and empty in their self -nature. So it is said that all things are empty as to their self-marks. no. [things are thought to be realities]. Mahamati. Thus one speaks of the its emptiness of work.66 . Again. such ideas as Again. other. LANKAVATAEA SUTEA . or both. what is meant by the emptiness of work ? It is that the Skandhas are devoid of an ego and belongings. hold good. by all the erroneous conceptions .

Again. Mahamati. all things are . for the condition of ex- Again. no sheep. except when seen in the state of Samadhi this is what is meant by "all things unborn. but from the point of view of mutuality (itaretara) some things do not exist somewhere. are the seven kinds of emptiness of which mutuality ranks the lowest of all and is to be put . There is no Nirvana except where is Samsara. 1 1 Therefore. elephants. Further. but that they are not born of themselves. in the lecture-hall of the Mrigarama there are no Mahamati. That all things are devoid of self-nature means that there is a constant and are uninterrupted becoming. black and white. here. Mahamati. but as to the Bhikshus I can say that the hall is not devoid of them. nor that the Bhikshu is devoid of this Bhi- kshuhood. what is meant by the emptiness of : mutual [non-existence] ? It is this when a thing is missing For instance.CHAPTER TWO realisable 67 Thus one speaks of the highest emptiness of ultimate reality by noble wisdom. So one speaks of all things having no self-nature. one speaks of its being empty there. Mahamati.e. are relative terms. according to the deeper sense. no bulls. elephants. means that is meant by non-duality? It and shade. Mahamati. Mahamati. here one sees all things in their aspect of individuality and generality. not that things are not born. nor that in some other places. there is no Samsara except where is Nirvana. and sheep are not to be found." To have no self -nature is. away by you. long and short. as Nirvana and Samsara are. Bead after T'ang. (76) Again. bulls. it is empty only as far as they [i. Mahamati. to be unborn. it is not that the lecture-hall is devoid of its own characteristics. Thus one speaks of the emptiness of mutual [non-existence] These. Mahamati. Mahamati. what light istence is not of mutually-exclusive character. . the animals] are concerned. a momentary change from one state of existence to another seeing this. Mahamati. too. and not independent of each other. all things are not-two. destitute of self-nature.

duality. the springs are not there but the deer are attached. So with the teachings disclosed in all the sutras. Mahamati. and karma vanishes not. Samsara is like a dream and a vision. endowed with the thirty-two marks of excellence. Space. they are for all beings for the gratification of their discriminating minds. 138. you should discipline [the realisation of] emptiness. non- and no-self-nature. but the wise stand above being and non- being. For this reason. be in conformity with the sense and be own not engrossed in the word-teaching. the sutras are the teaching in conformity with the dispositions of all beings and deviate from the [real] sense. and not the truthpreserving statement. and no-self-nature is found in all the sutras of all the Buddhas. as primarily unspotted. They are not the truth-preserving statements meant for noble wisdom to grasp. Mahamati. hidden in the body of every being like a gem of great value. and this doctrine is recog- nised in every one of them. Nirvana. non-duality. no-birth. However. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One Now the Blessed One makes mention : At Tathagata-garbha in the sutras. and the two forms of cessation thus (77) the ignorant discriminate the things which are not effect-producing. XXVIII that time. no-birth. Mahamati. imagining them to be real. Then at that time the Blessed One recited this couplet of verses: 137. it is like unto the mirage which entices the deer with its treacherous springs. I always preach emptiness which is beyond eternalism and nihilism. For yourself in this reason..68 it is LANKAVATARA SUTRA said that all things are non-dual as are Nirvana and Samsara. enveloped in the . the Blessed One said this to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. Mahamati. At that time again. This [teaching of] emptiness. and verily it is described by you as by nature bright and pure. of the which is enwrapped in a dirty garment.

that it is emptiness. water. the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha is disawaken the philosophers from. unomnipresent. my Tathagatagarbha is not the same as the ego taught by the philosophers for what the Tathagatas teach is the Tathagata-garbha in qualified. like a potter. and unchangeable. Thus. Mahamati. the philosophers' doctrine of an ego-substance is not the same (79) as the teaching of the Tathagata-garbha. Dhatus. so that those minds that have fallen into the views imagining the non-existent ego as real. reality-limit. that is. and thread. times sometimes by the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha. with the dirt of greed. sense. and Ayatanas. Mahamati. taught by the Blessed One the same as the egogata-garbha substance taught by the philosophers? The ego as taught in the systems of the philosophers is an eternal creator. may rapidly be awakened to the state of supreme enlightenment. Mahamati. Mahamati. and devoid of will-effort the reason why the Tathagatas who are Arhats and FullyEnlightened Ones. teach the doctrine pointing to the Tatha- the . listen to the teaching of egolessness realise the state of non-discrimination and to have and imageless- I also wish. . an ego [imagining it to be a soul] Mahamati. by means of various terms.CHAPTER TWO 69 and soiled garment of the Skandhas. their clinging to the idea of the ego. unqualified. and imperishable. folly. Nirvana. that the Bodhisattva-Mahaand future would not attach themselves . and. a potter who manufactures various vessels out of a mass of clay of one sort by his own manual skill and labour like the combined with a rod. it is described by the Blessed One to be eternal. auspicious. and closed in order to also into the notion that the triple emancipation is final. (78) while Is not this Tathapermanent. and synonyms. someby that of egolessness. sattvas of the present to the idea of it is Mahamati. being unborn. The Blessed One replied No. and false imagination. anger. expressions. gata-garbha is to make the ignorant cast aside their fear when they them ness. Mahamati. : . that Tathagatas preach the egolessness of things which removes all the traces of discrimination by various skilful means issuing from their transcendental wisdom. For this reason.

the Tathagatas who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones disclose the doctrine of the Tatha- gata-garbha which is thus not to be known as identical with the philosopher's notion of an ego-substance. (3) to look into [the truth] that no external world obtains. The Buddhist idea of interpreting existence idealistically is more religious than logical. noble wisdom. you must strive after the teaching egolessness and the Tathagata-garbha. that moment then the Blessed One recited this verse -. the creator. the ruler. of XXIX At tion. Mahamati. continuity. The Blessed One replied There are four things. Blessed One. The personal soul. This verse has strangely found its way here. objective world. Mahamati. which according to the LahMvatara is a manifestation of Mind itself. and (4) to seek for the attainment of inner realisation by : mati.70 LANKAVATARA SUTRA Accordingly. XXX Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva in consideration of future generations made this request again of the Blessed One Pray tell me. causaatoms. [they 1 are] discriminations in the Mind-only. the Skandhas. in order to abandon the misconception cherished by the philosophers. or this external. about the that time : At perfecting of the discipline whereby the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas become great Yogins. Therefore. for Buddhists want to elevate the value of spirit absolutely above matter so that the latter will be amenable to all the commands to be given by the former. (80) abiding. Mahaby fulfilling which the Bodhisattvas become great Yogins. the objective world loses its reality as such. ~ 1 . and we no more cling to it as if it were a final irreducible fact which stands oppressively against the mind. 139. this visible world. and disappearance. Drisya is "what is seen. This is rather a clumsy translation of svacitta-drisya. What are the four? They are: (1) To have a 2 clear understanding as to what is seen of Mind itself. Provided with these four things the Bodhi- sattva-Mahasattvas become great Yogins. the supreme spirit." that is. When this truth is realised. (2) to discard the notions of birth.

Mahamati. devoid of an ego and its belongthat this ings. . Mahamati. does the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva come what is seen of Mind He comes to it by recognising that this triple world nothing but Mind itself.CHAPTER TWO to have a clear understanding as to itself ? is 71 How. abiding. and the five Dharmas. they will experience a re- vulsion [in their consciousness] by transcending the Citta. . and thereby they will conform themselves to the insight that things are of the nature of a vision. and attain to the recognition dicability. Thus. and disappearance. and Manovijnana. [The Bodhisattvas] will see that the external world exists only in conformity with Mind-only and seeing that there is no stirring of the Vijnanas and that the triple world is a complicated network of causation and owes its rise to discrimination. such as body. and disappearance? By this it is meant that all things are to be regarded as forms born of a vision or a dream and have never been created since there are no such things as self. inner and external. [three] Svabhavas. are beyond pre- nothing to be seen as self-nature. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva will discard the notion of birth. abiding. 1 1 The proper place of found in the Sanskrit text near the end of page this last sentence is here as restored. no comings-and-goings world is manifested and imagined as real. Mahasattva acquires a thoroughly clear understanding as to what is seen of Mind itself. they find that all things. and the Manas. the Bodhisattvaproperty. and abode. and that [the world] is not to be viewed as born. that there is that things are unborn. under the triple influence of the habit-energy accumulated since beginningless time by false reasoning and imagination. etc. with no strivings. and with the multi. and thereby attain the mind-made body (manomayakaya) Thus. How again. does the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva discard notions of birth.. plicity of objects and actions in close relationship. Mahamati. Mahamati. or bothness. the other. (81) . Establishing themselves on the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood. and in conformity with the ideas of discrimination. and the twofold Egolessness. it is 81.

furnished with these four things. p. Therefore. walls. Mahamati. his body without the least interruption or In the same fashion. Blessed One. mind] travels unobstructed over mountains. in these. XXXI Mahamati again made a request of the Blessed One Pray tell me. a dream. Mahamati. Blessed It means that one [in this One ? The Blessed One replied body] can speedily move unobstructed as he wills hence the will-body. trees. For instance. and the self-control. while his own mind keeps on functioning in hindrance. the Bodhisattvas will seek after the attainment of self-realisation by their noble wisdom. that all things are of external objects? like unto a mirage. is again referred to later on. rivers. Mahamati. as he recalls his original vows and worlds in order to bring all beings to maturity. Mahamati. about the causation of all things. 1 what is meant by the will-body. many a hundred thousand yojanas they may be away. a hair-net and seeing that all things are here essentially because of our attachment to the habit-energy of discrimination which has been maturing since beginningless time on account of false imagination and . what is meant by the BodhisattvaMahasattva (82) having a good insight into the non-existence It means. erroneous speculation. moving about as freely as he wishes. when a man recollects the scenes which had previously come into his perception. a digression. the will [or .72 LANKAVAT AKA SUTRA : Said Mahamati.. a sort of explanatory note. Mahamati. the will-body. Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas become great Yogins. 115 et . in the attainment of the Samadhi called Maya-like and adorned with such marks as the powers. and by getting rid of that time : At 1 This whole paragraph is The will-body (manomayalcaya) seq. whereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas can see into the nature of causation. Mahamati. you should exercise yourself. will be born in the noble paths and assemblies. etc. Mahamati. Then. the psychic faculties.

there is the manifestation of the Skandhas. factors of causation. Mahamati. Mahamati. that when a cause to be becomes effective there is the rising of things inner and outer. Mahamati. which perhaps was also the idea of the T'ang. there are two : factors of causation lay which all things come into existence external and inner. Mahamati. which make up our idea of separable ignorant. /f0ff (Wei). water. which made of a lump of clay. The dependence-cause means. cause.CHAPTER TWO of] 73 the discrimination [which issues in the philosophical views as to the eternalism and nihilism. Mahamati. or a matting made of fragrant grass. "mutual ^ . Born of these. thread. etc. 1 [realities] but discriminated [as such] by the are six causes: (3) (1) possibility- Now. In this case. we may no more discriminate gradual or simultaneous rising of all things. the combination of a wheel. or fresh is produced from sour milk by a man churning with his own labour. that when conditions to be. while T'ang omits the whole sentence together with the foregoing. and (6) indifferencepossibility-cause means. (4) agency-cause. or a piece of cloth made of thread. a stick. causation. 2 The Chinese U^ points to apeksha rather reference" is better. The manifesting-cause. his labour. become effective there is the rising of the Skandha-seeds. a worker. governed by external causes. they are of such kind as and action. (T'ang). there cause. Wei reads this without the negative particle. Replied the Blessed One: Mahamati. inner and outer. the external factors are a lump of clay. or simply (Sung) than to upekslia. that bound by the objecworld [the Vijnana] keeps up 1 tive its continuous activity. This latter is also omitted in this translation as the translator regards its insertion here as a clerical error. (5) objectivity-cause. (83) so it is. Dhatus. and Ayatanas. with all things which. desire. appear one after butter which it another in continuous succession. Mahamati. Mahamati. is As with the jar. Further. or the sprout growing out of a seed. 2 (2) dependence-cause. They are not Mahamati. Mahamati.. and all of which produces a jar. the objectivity-cause means. As regards the inner ignorance. pratlityasamutpadasamjnanam pratilabhante.

These. the indifference-cause means that when there is a dissolution (84) the power of combination discontinues. are the outcome of discrimination carried on by the ignorant and simple-minded. there is no substance that holds together individual signs. and abode are cherished in is nothing but the manifestation of Mind itself. however. a gradual rising is admitted . When what and the [ideas of] body. The logician argues that there is that which is born and that which gives birth by the mutual functioning of such causal factors as cause. neither a gradual nor a simultaneous rising external world of things is possible. and there is no gradual nor simultaneous rising of existence. property. there would be no distinction between cause and effect. 1 Mahamati. Mahamati. this gradual rising does not obtain except by reason of their attachment to the notion of self-nature. are not realities . if there is a simultaneous rising of existence. the term father has no significance. the is perceived under the aspects of individuality generality. the agency-cause means that like a sovereign king a cause invested with supreme authority asserts itself. and there rises a state of non-discrimination. 1 In this and what follows the translator has adopted the reading of T'ang. While a child is not yet born.74: LANKAVATARA SUTRA Again. . But. Mind For this reason. and therefore. and there would be nothing If to characterise a cause as such. you notions of gradation and simultaneity in the combination of the causal activities. subsistence. continuity. which. Mahamati. It is only when the Vijnana evolves by reason of discrimination which discriminates the manifesta- come into view] must strive to get rid of Mahamati. Lastly. the manif esting-eause means that when the discriminating faculty rises. Mahamati. acceleration. Why? Because. Thus it is said: tion of itself [that existence is said to . and they conclude that there is a gradual rising of existence. as the result it reveals individual marks as a lamp does forms. Mahamati. Mahamati. Again. etc. which makes gradual rising impossible. and others.

and. 144. The being and non-being of things subject to 142. They are: (1) . listen well you about it. about the teaching known as the essence of discrimina- tion as regards words. four kinds of word-discrimination. causation has no reality the triple world owes its existence . There is XXXII At that moment again Mahamati One: the Bodhisattva-Maha- sattva said this to the Blessed Pray tell me. The Blessed One said this to him: There are. thereby immediately attaining supreme enlightenment. nor is there that has been born. when causation is birth and cessation. even causation is not. Mind put effect-producing objects (samskrita) are regarded as like unto a barren woman's child or a flower in the sky. Not ever being in existence. Blessed One. will explain the signification of these two things. what things are there that are born? [but] in causation nothing is lost. Well done! said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and listened to the Blessed One. expression and expressed. to the by reason of habit-energy. (86) for I will tell Then. Blessed One. will be thoroughly informed of the signification of two things. I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. whereby. which is cherished by the ignorant. (85) 141. when into confusion 143. one perceives that grasping (subject) and grasped (object) are an error and desists [from committing the same error] . comprehending and becoming well acquainted with the essence of discrimination as regards words. 75 exist Nothing whatever is born or ceases to is by reason of causation. it is to keep disappearance off the wrong imagination as to causation. discriminated there It is not to keep off the idea of birth and which takes place in causation. Mahamati. expression and expressed. Eeplied the Blessed One : and reflect well. for the purification of all beings. nothing that is to be born. it is anything because of wordly usage that things are talked of as existing. Mahamati.CHAPTER TWO 140.

throat. nose. Mahamati. (2) Words denoting dream-words. Now. and by whom do words indicating discrimination take place among the people ? Said the Blessed One Mahamati. Mahamati. Blessed One. rise from the unreal surroundings which words. tongue. (3) words growing out of the attachment to erroneous speculations and discriminations. rise from recollecting deeds once previously committed. about the conditions : At whereby the word-discrimination manifests itself. Mahamati. and (4) words growing out of the discrimination that knows no beginning. four features of word-discrimination. The words growing out of the discrimination that has been functioning since beginningless time. Why? Because words rise. and teeth. Again. Mahamati. Said Mahamati. the word-discrimina: tion goes on taking place by the coordination of the head. Mahamati. The words growing out of the attachment to erroneous speculations and discriminations. lips. the words denoting individual marks rise from discriminating forms and characteristic signs as real The dreamin themselves and becoming attached to them. Then from discrimination. reveal themselves [before the mind] when it recollects its previous experience. XXXIII that time again. discrimination ? Replied the Blessed One: Mahamati. If. Mahamati. (87) are words to be considered different (any a) or not-different (ananya) from chest. Where. they are neither nor not-different. palate. Mahadifferent mati. Blessed One. they cannot if they are not different. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva requested of the Blessed One to speak on this subject Pray tell me again. words are it different have for cause. which is the answer to your question. these are the since beginningless time. rise from the habit-energy whose seeds have been growing out of the clinging to erroneous speculations and false imaginations I say. how. words . whence.76 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA individual marks. with discrimination as their cause.

yes. XXXIV Thus it is said : 145. they are mere words of people that which is discriminated has no reality [even] Nirvana is like a dream. giving his . In all things there is no self-nature. . by emptiness. Therefore. state of bliss. nothing is seen to be in transmigration. they wander about. Therefore. and as it cannot be entered into by mere statements regarding it. are is words themselves the highest reality? or words the highest reality? : what is expressed in The Blessed One replied Mahamati. discrimination does not express the birth highest reality. they are unsteady. In all things there is no self-nature. words are subject to and destruction . nor does anything ever enter into Nirvana. And again. which they do. words are not the highest reality. as the ignorant understand not what is meant by emptiness. Then Mahamati said: Again. the highest reality is to be attained by the inner realisation of noble wisdom . Mahamati. you must try to keep yourself away from the various forms of word-discrimination. 147. Why? Because the highest reality is an exalted reality. (88) Further. Mahamati.CHAPTER TWO 77 cannot express the sense. it is not a state of word-discri- mination. words are not the nor is what is expressed in words the highest highest reality. the Mahamati. words and discrimination are neither different nor not-different. word-discrimination cannot express the highest reality. And then. Mahamati. Blessed One. and only appear before us as something revealed out of Mind itself. therefore. words are these indications and do not express [the highest reality]. As a king or a wealthy householder. ing. 146. because the indications [pointing to the distinction between] self and not-self are non-existent. . what is mutually conditioning and produced by law of causation cannot express the highest reality. Mahamati. for external objects with their multitudinous individual marks are non-existent. Mahamati. words too are devoid of reality. mutually conditionand are produced by the law of causation.

. for the benefit of many : benefit. and thereby I virtues. which. MahaReplied the Blessed One mati! and again. listen well and truly. making use of various forms and images of . and non-existence. going up continuously by degrees the stages of purification. things. instruct my sons. and realm and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are enabled to survey things from the point of view which is not hampered by marks of individuality and generality nor by anything of the false imagination. will perform its works in infinite worlds like a gem reflecting a variety of colours and which is manifested [when one perceives how] signs of individua. enters upon the stage of Tathagatahood . existence eternity . as the truth of highest reality . eternity and nonwhich has nothing to do with the false imagination. . Mahamati. Therefore. about the attainment of self-realisation by noble wisdom. well done. for I will tell you. Well done. happiness of many people. you present yourself before me and make this request. but the limit of reality ffiiutakoti) can [only] be realised within oneself. XXXV At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva again (89) said this to the Blessed One: Pray tell me. which does not belong to the path and the usage of the philosophers . for the welfare. and reflect. indeed. Mahamati. and may quickly attain supreme enlightenment and enable all beings to achieve the perfection of all their tion rise in all things as one realises the course of what is seen of Mind itself. oneness and otherness. well done. because of the original vows unattended by any striving. nor with individuality and generality which manifests itself . Mahamati! Because of your compassion for the world. which is devoid of [all such predicates as] being and non-being. Blessed One.78 LANKAVATARA SUTRA children various clay-made animals. both of celestial beings and humankind. pleases them and makes them play [with the toys] but later gives them real ones 148. So. I. which. people. bothness and not-bothness. for the happiness of many people.

pedestrians. existence and non-existence. they hold fast to ideas such as oneness and being and non-being. as being characterised by self-nature which rises from discrimination based on habit-energy. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. cows. it is like a man. This city is thus neither existent nor non-existent. cars. the ignorant and simple-minded with their minds impressed by various erroneous speculations and discriminations since beginningless time with their minds burning with the fire of greed. who. In the same way. destruction. . clinging to the memory of erroneous speculations (vasana) otherness. they are addicted to false imaginings. oneness and otherness. it is like a mirage in which the springs are seen as if they were real. cling to the notions of being and non-being. since the ignorant 79 Assuredly. by inner and outer. and subsistence not understanding well and non-existent. eternity and noneternity. horses. (91) Mahamati. thirsty from the heat of the season. it is like the city of the Gandharvas which the of birth. is . elephants. and the simple-minded. bothness and not-bothness. Not knowing that the springs are their own mental hallucinations. and their thoughts are not at all clear about what is seen of Mind-only. would run after them. the animals do not realise that there are no such springs. In the same way. mansions. villages. delighted in a world of multitudinous forms with their thoughts saturated with the ideas . . anger. though it is not so in fact.CHAPTER TWO and gave ear to the Blessed One. men. hamlets. and doctrines since beginningless time. the The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati.. Mahamati. not knowing that world is what is seen of Mind itself. being and non-being. They are imagined so by the animals who. and folly. Mahamati. towns. dreaming in his sleep of a country variously filled with women. Mahamati.the ignorant and simple-minded fall into the way of grasping at oneness and otherness. woods. This city appears in essence owing to their attachment to the memory of a city preserved in seed from beginningless time. what meant by existent unwitted take for a real city. cling to the (90) multitudinousness of external objects. Mahamati. buffalos.

he is not. they may declare those people nihilists who hold the doctrine of no-birth apart from and non-being. Mahamati. who is recol- lecting the various unrealities he has seen in his dream? Said Mahamati Indeed. In the same way. What do you think. bothness and not-bothness. because it is seen and not seen.80 LANKAVATARA SUTRA mountains. it is like the dim-eyed ones who. and imagination based on the of . mentality. will contradict the good Dharma. Mahamati. Mahamati'? Is this person to be regarded as wise. canvas on which there is philosophers' erroneous views. While awakened thus. and lakes enters into its inner appartments and is awakened. and are held fast by the notions of oneness and otherness. and hell will be their final refuge. are for things excellent. They [argue they are followers of the wicked views whereby they uproot meritorious causes of unstained purity. oneness and otherness. he recollects the city and its inner apartments. seeing a hair-net. They are those whose thoughts are entangled in the errors of self. saying It is wonderful it is wonderful! Look. they may bring themselves and others to ruin . ending in the . (92) in the imagining being and non-being. They are to be kept far away by those whose desires the alternatives of being against] cause and effect. there may be in the future some people brought up in the habit-energy.being and non-being. and both. rivers. assertion and refutation. and who are also given up to the realistic ideas of being and non-being. those whose minds are addicted to discrimination of the erroneous views as cherished by the philosophers. : The Blessed One continued: In the same way the ignorant and simple-minded who are bitten by erroneous views and are inclined toward the philosophers. would ex" claim to one another. other. it is like the painter's no depression nor elevation as imagined by the ignorant. Mahamati. In errors of : ! the same manner. of bothness and not-bothness. Blessed One. clinging to the ideas of oneness and otherness. honourable sirs!" And the said hair-net has never been brought into existence. It is in fact neither an entity nor a non-entity. Mahamati. do not recognise that things seen of the Mind itself are like a dream.

and entering the Tathagata-stage attain the realisation of noble wisdom. Further. Mahamati. a supreme soul. Mahamati. is that of the Transformation Buddha and non-existence. bothness and not-bothness. those whose minds the wise. Again. are they not-gems. Mahamati. Mahamati. In the same manner. or a person.CHAPTER TWO destruction of themselves a 81 and others. Mahamati. This whole paragraph must be independently treated. firebrand-wheel which have fallen into the erroneous views of the philosophers will falsely imagine in the rise of all beings oneness and otherness. there will be in them the grasping of an ego. which is attained by the realisation of noble wisdom. when a [psychological] revulsion takes Yogins [by the transcendence of] the Citta. the teaching pointing to self-nature. and Vijnana. they cast grasped and grasping in what the [dualistic] discriminais seen of Mind itself. it is like is no real wheel but which is imagined to be of such character by the ignorant. those whose minds are impressed by the habit-energy of the philosophical views and discriminations will regard things born as nonexistent 1 and those destroyed by causation as existent. Mahamati. Mahamati. if there is the graspof existence and non-existence in the realm attained by ing the Yogins. and in this there is no thought of existence Again. and the ignorant them for real crystal gems run after them. because of their being so comprenor mati. [This disBuddhist doctrine crimination however is] not right. they are hended [by one party] and being not so comprehended [by another]. and not that of the Dharmata Buddha. [The is this :] place in the tion of Mahamati. 1 Again. (93) [the philosophers] make the discrimination that there is a reality existing by itself. off Manas. Maha- no more than water-bubbles. a nourisher. Mahamati. . individuality and generality of things. but not by In the same manner. and devoid of the two Svabhavas. it is like those water-bubbles in a rainfall taking which have the appearance of crystal gems. by setting up the three forms of measure and the [five] members of a syllogism. they are not gems.

fails to reveal the truth of self-realisation to he attained by noble wisdom and the blissful abode of the Samadhi. it is like the trees reflected in water . according to the desire for its absence. oneness and otherness. voice. it is neither existent nor non-existent. it is like an echo giving the sound of a human wind. the discriminating Vijnana of the ignorant which is impressed with the habit-energy of false imaginations and speculations since beginningless time. the trees are [real] and yet In the same manner. or of the non-being. Mahamati. Mahamati. their way of thinking and viewing things. the same manner. bothness and not-bothness. is stirred like a mirage even in the midst them or . it is like a mirror reflecting all colours and images (94) as afforded by the conditions and without discrimination. are reflections figures. They are neither existent nor non-existent. shrubs. it is like a mirage which in conjunction with the sun appears with its flowing waves on the earth where there are no grass. Mahamati. for their minds are not enlightened as regards what is seen of Mind-only. which are known to the ignorant as images. any establishment that favours the way of self- nature. being and nonbeing. and they are neither images nor not-images. of a river. those are impressed by the habit-energy of the philosophical views carry on their discrimination regarding oneness who and otherness. In the same way. are reflected images of Self-Mind while they appear as if real. bothness and not-bothness. not-refleetions.82 LANKAVATARA SUTRA such teaching is meant for the ignorant. Mahamati. they and yet are no-figures. Mahamati. And. Mahamati. they are discriminated forms of what is seen of Mind In itself. and trees. In the same way. because it is heard as a voice and yet as not a voice. being in conformity with their mentality. Mahamati. bothness and not-bothness are the discriminations of Self-Mind and habit-energy. the notions of being and Mahamati. because they are seen as images and also as not-images. vines. Mahamati. oneness and otherness.

Mahamati. or a lightning. ness. 151. it is The Skandhas. is torn asunder and one is emancipated. Since beginningless time. Maya and make no a dream. the ignorant are found comes into view transmigrating through the paths. 154. Like a mirage in the spring-time. Thus the Vijnana-seed .CHAPTER TWO of reality revealed of birth. . which the Vijnana . but their assertion is not at all well grounded. Mahamati. in a . 153. Maya and by thus regarding it one is emancipated. For this reason. of oneness you should cast off the discrimina- tions leading to the notions of birth. subsistence. Therefore. 152. being and non-being. in order to attain the noble reality attainable within yourself. 149. abiding. views are thoroughly devoted to the ideas of oneness and otherness. like a (96) the triple continuation dream. just like the dim-eyed ones perceive things in the darkness. animals imagine water but there is no reality to it. . or water . 83 by means of noble wisdom. said: of being and non-being. as a wedge is induced by another wedge. bothness and not-bothness. tion. resemble the reflections of the trees in water they are to be regarded as construction 150. is evolved and the world the ignorant imagine it is born. or a machine. by the waves and destruction. Mahamati. it is like Pisaca who by means of his spell makes a corpse or a wooden image throb with life though but here the ignorant cling to the it has no power of its own non-existent imagining them to have the power of movement. enwrapped in their attachment to existence . they are so ! by thought- discriminations This triple world resembles a hair-net. is the fifth. of oneness and otherbothness and not-bothness. and destrucand otherness. the mind is found bewildered. In the same way. (95) the ignorant and simpleminded committing themselves to the erroneous philosophical . mirage which is agitated it is like a dream. By regarding the world as always like a magically- moving corpse. they are led to the abandonment [of their wrappage]. or or a cloud .

in order to purify them from the two hindrances of passion and knowledge. That is. but are like a child in a barren woman's dream. Isvara. path leading to emancipation. of the 1 Bead cittram. . 159. a vision. will establish them in the one hundred and eight statements of imagelessness and also in the characteristic distinctions of the vehicles. is not fastened to these ideas Prakriti. it is [a wheel made by] a firebrand. 158. in an eye.84: LANKAVATAEA SUTEA 155. atoms. There is here nothing of thought-construction. so is 160. the [twelvefold] chain of origination. [the Tathagatas. in a vessel. in water. name. only an appearis like . who are confused in mind and bound up by errors since beginningless time. leading beings] successively forwards like the leader of a caravan. it an image in the air when they thus understand all there is nothing to know. ance to people. Mahamati. spon[the eightfold noble] The : taneity. is free and refutation. Mahamati. You seek in vain for individual signs the Skandhas are like a hair-net wherein discrimination goes on. Like a mirage in the . of bothness and not-bothness. and assertion from being and non-being. Again. dream. a mirage it is a non-entity. In a mirror. bothness as well: these are discriminated by the . and on a gem. a variety of things mere appearance they are seen in diversity of forms. . images are seen . Eternity and non-eternity and not-bothness ignorant oneness. . too. but in them there are no images [i. Mahamati. A world of multitudes1 is a hair-net. instead of cittam. causelessness. realities] anywhere to take hold of. air. a 157. and the city of the Gandharvas.e. time and self -nature. the religious teaching of the Tathagatas is headed by the [four noble] truths. (97) religious teaching of the Tathagatas. it is devoid of oneness and otherness. the religious teaching of the Tathagatas is free from the four statements. XXXVI Further. Here is nothing but thought-construction and 156.

practised by the ignorant. that things are characterised with individuality and generality. persistently cling to these notions which are regarded as just so and not otherwise. (98) What. who It is What is meant by the Dhyana perceiving that there is no ego-substance. and of the constituents [of . entering upon the stage . full of suffering and is impure. there are four kinds of Dhyanas. (2) the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning. and who starting from them successively advance until they reach the This is called the cessation where there are no thoughts. is the Dhyana of the Tathagata? [the Yogin].CHAPTER TWO stages [of 85 Bodhisattvahood] . individuality and generality. Mahamati. the untenability of such ideas as self. practised by the ignorant ? the one resorted to by the Yogins exercising themselves in the discipline of the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. (3) the Dhyana with Tathata (suchness) for its object. Mahamati. and (4) the Dhyana of the Tathagatas. that the body is a shadow and a skeleton which is transient. and both. what then is the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning? It is the one [practised by those who. other. I call it the Dhyana with Tathata for its object. This is the Dhyana devoted the to the examination What. of meaning.of Tathagatahood and abiding in the triple bliss which characterises self- When . Mahamati. which are held by the philosophers. are the four? They are: (1) The Dhyana practised by the ignorant. enlightenment] XXXVII What Further. proceed to examine and follow up the meaning of the [various] aspects of the egolessness of things and the stages of Bodhi- Dhyana sattvahood. Mahamati.] having gone beyond the egolessness of things. and that where he establishes himself in the reality of s"uchness (yatkabhuta) there is no rising of discrimination. is Dhyana with Tathata for its object? When [the Yogins recognise that] the discrimination of the two forms of egolessness is mere imagination.

sees the form of the sun or the moon. it not eternality. present. or the underworld. existence and How is it not eternality? Because it has cast off the discrimination of individuality is is and generality. fore. way of the philosophers they throw him down into the state of Sravakahood. I call it the Dhyana of the Tathagatas. How about its not being annihilation? It because all the wise men of the past. There are the Dhyana for the examination of . Manas. Nirvana is the realm of selfrealisation attained by noble wisdom. What is meant by this term Nirvana? vana. it is said : 161. I and all the Buddhas declare that there is Nirvana. etc. which is free from the non-existence. discrimination of eternality and annihilation. into the realm of the Pratyekabuddhas. and future .86 LANKAVATARA SUTRA / realisation attained by noble wisdom. and the pure Dhyana of the Tathagata. fire. including the Alaya. 164. from which issues the habit-energy of all wrong speculations when all these go through a revulsion. When the self -nature and the Replied the Blessed One again said this to the Blessed : habit-energy of and the Vijnanas. All these appearances lead him to the . which is the state of reality. devotes himself for the sake of all beings to the [accomplishment of] incomprehenTheresible works. When all these are tossed aside and there is a state of imagelessness. 163. 162. or something looking like a lotus. (99) Further. or various forms like sky. then a condition in conformity with Tathata presents itself . while in his exercise. the Dhyana practised by the ignorant the Dhyana with Tathata for its object. and the way and the self -nature of this Nirvana is emptiness. XXXVIII At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva : One Thou speakest of NirBlessed One. The Yogin. Mahamati. from all their countries and the Buddhas will come together and with their shining hands will stroke the head of this benefactor. Manovijnana. meaning.

the great Parinirvana is neither destruction nor death. there are two kinds of characteristic signs of self -nature. This is their notion of Nirvana. (100) "What are these two kinds? They are the attachment to words as having self -nature. takes place from not knowing that the external world is no more than Self-Mind. in not having a perverted view of the world. XL Further. Again. the great Parinirvana is neither destruction nor death. neither is it of one meaning nor of nomeaning this is said to be Nirvana. Mahamati. Neither has it 1 anything to do with vanishing it is the goal of the Yogins. and not raising discrimina. then it will be a birth it destruction. and the The attachment words as having self-nature. Therefore. Mahamati. Mahamati the great Parinirvana is neither abandonAgain. . For this reason. Mahamati. Further. Mahamati.CHAPTER TWO 87 have attained realisation. Nirvana conceived by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas consists in recognising individuality and generality. Mahamati. takes place owing to one's clinging to the habit-energy of words and false imaginings since beginningless time. What is this sustains the Bodhisattvas ? The one is they are sustained to go through the Samadhis and Sama1 twofold power that the power by which Ma/ranam repeated here in the text is a mistake. in escaping social intercourse. tion. is death. there are two kinds of the sustaining power which issues from the Tathagatas who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones. then Mahamati. and sustained by this power [the Bodhisattvas] would prostrate themselves at their feet and ask them questions. XXXIX Further. attachment to objects as having to self -nature. if the great Parinirvana and continuation. If it is will assume the character of an effect- producing deed. it is not annihilation. Mahamati. j ment nor attainment. Mahamati. And the attachment to objects as having self-nature.

to be sustained by the Buddhas' power. who come from all the different abodes in the ten quarters of the world and who now facing the Bodhisattvas will impart to them their sustaining power displayed with the body. this is the twofold sustaining power imparted to the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. Mahamati. mouth. Fully-Enlightened Ones appearing before them personally. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas at their first stage will attain the Bodhisattva- Samadhi. shines brilliantly like the of the Campaka flower. They will immediately see the Tathagatas. successively going up the stages and getting thoroughly acquainted with what they should do and should not do. sustained by the power of the Buddhas. their moon in the yellowish gold colour The Buddhas now come from worlds in the ten quarters. being thus baptised by [their] hands. Mahamati. By virtue of their stock of merit ac- cumulated for a hundred thousand kalpas.88 LANKAVATARA SUTRA power whereby the Buddhas pattis. Then. . and his body 1 . sus1 According to the Chinese translations. with the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas at the first stage. sprinkle the forehead of the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who is seated on the throne in the Lotus Palace . as is the case with Vajragarbha the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. while the other is the manifest themselves in person before the Bodhisattvas and baptise them with their own hands. Arhats. Mahamati. finally reach the stage of Bodhisattvahood called Dharmamegha. known as the Light of Mahayana. they will attain the Tathagatas' power sustaining them in their Samadhis and Samapattis. which belongs to the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. so. and with other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who are in possession of similar character and (101) virtue. and with their lotus-like hands. who. Mahamati. they will. Here the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva finds himself seated on a throne in the Lotus Palace. the Buddhas thus give him a baptism personally by hand as when a great king invested with supreme authority [baptises his crownThis Bodhisattva and these Bodhisattvas are said prince]. and words. and surrounded by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas of a similar class a tiara decorated and ornamented with all kinds of precious stones is on his head.

blind. karma. Such. Arhats. Fully-Enlightened Ones to be interviewed. trees. the ignorant and simple-minded will also show their eloquence. is the great extraordinary virtue of the sustaining power imparted by the Tathagatas. It is in order to make them Replied the Blessed One stage. Mahamati. houses. : exalted avoid the evil ones. Fully-Enbestow their sustaining power on them ? lightened Ones. Mahamati. faculties. If they were not thus sustained. the Tathagatas. and passions. and will enjoy their shrubs. Where the Tathagatas enter with their sustaining power there will be music not only in various musical instruments and vessels but also even in grass. they are sustained by the twofold sustaining power of all the Buddhas. to keep them from the Dhyana and stage of the Sravakahood. Further. fall into the way of thinking and feeling by the wrong philosophers. In no other way are the Tathagatas. and mountains. that when the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are established in the Samadhis and Samapattis. personally come into the presence of all the Buddhas. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are upheld by the . and royal abodes. Arhats. Mahamati. Blessed One. Mahamati. Mahamati. For would this reason. : Further. in towns indeed. and deaf will be endowed with sentiency cured of their deficiencies. the Bodhisattva- Mahasattvas show their eloquence without the Buddhas' sustaining power. If. psychic and teachings are exhibited by the Bodhisattva- Mahasattvas. How much more those palaces. Mahamati said Why is it. yes. The mute.CHAPTER TWO tained 89 by this twofold sustaining power. (103) they as cherished ones. (102) whatever Samadhis. to have realise the stage of away them in the Tathagatahood. [But the latter do not. Mahamati. and when they are baptised at the most the Tathagatas. Fully-Enlightened Ones sustain with their power the BodhisattvaMahasattvas. Arhats. Sravakas. For this reason.] Why? Because of the sustaining power [on the one hand] and its absence [on the other]. and to make them grow truth and experience already attained. Mahamati. or evil and would not attain the highest enlightenment. ! emancipation.

and that : At it is not a theory established on the principle of a selforiginating substance. "That being so. When people talk about. a personal soul. This is according to the Chinese translations. it is not right. [the Bodhisattvas are in the embrace of the Buddhas] . according to the Blessed One. There. 2 "that being so. this is. thy cause has refer- its effect and the effect to its cause. and from this mutuality follows the fault of non-finality. 1 . vows. and thus there an interconnection of causal links. Why? The cause assumed by the philosophers is and produces ence to is effects.90 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA Thus it is : Tathagatas. Blessed One. Samadhis. this is" if this is simul- taneous conditionality and not successive mutuality. Blessed One. the philosophers. the philos- ophers explain birth from being and non-being. all things coming into existence from 1 nothingness pass away by causation. or atom. Isvara." there is a state of causelessness. time. not dependent upon the chain of origination But. 2 The T'ang reading seems to give the best sense. According to the Blessed One. This teaching as explained by the Blessed One is the doctrine of no-causation and not that of causation. How is it that the rise of all things is explained by the Blessed One in another terminology bearing on causation but in its meaning not different? Blessed One. in the Sanskrit text there is apparently an omission. (104) teaching excels. said The sustaining power is purified by the Buddhas' 165. the Blessed One has Ignorance from which there rises Mental Conformation until we reach Old Age and Death. The philosophers also proclaim a causal origination when they say that all things rise condi- tioned by a supreme spirit. Fully-Enlightened Ones. in the baptism. that is to say. from the first to the tenth [stage].. Arhats. XLI that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva said thus The chain of origination as told by the to the Blessed One Blessed One depends on a cause producing an effect. and not thine. etc. while.

(105) they are not at all visible in the world but the words are. is by reason of the Said the Blessed One: Even when there are no [cor- responding] objects there are words. you say that because of the reality of words the objects are. Mahamati. by laughing. Fully-Enlightened One. Mahamati. by them committed as they recognise the external world real with its beings and non-beings. a barren woman 's child. XLII Blessed One.CHAPTER TWO Replied the Blessed One: 91 Mahamati. "Words are not known in all the Buddha-lands . are an artificial creation. in still others by a frown. in the worlds of the Steady-Looking and in those of Exquisite Odours. and in the Buddha-land of Samanta- bhadra the Tathagata. mine is Not so. there would be no rising of things. but not by my theory of causation. by the movement of the eyes. when people clinging to the notion of grasped and grasping fail to understand the world as the fault is as something seen of Mind itself. Mahamati. If. and. of the throat. they are neither entities nor nonentities but expressed in words. for instance. the hare 's horns. Mahamati said words that all things are 1 If not for words. "That being because of (subject). or by trembling. this talk lacks in sense. is it not because Further. so. Maha- . or by the clearing words. this is" because of is my seeing into the nature of the external its world which nothing but Self -Mind and unreality of grasped (object) and grasping However. Mahamati . the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas by steadily looking without a wink attain the recognition of all things as unborn and also various most excellent Samadhis. : of the reality of Blessed One. Hence. Blessed One. Arhat. in others by gestures. Mahamati. by yawning. Mahamati. the tortoise 's hair. For this reason. for instance. etc. the existence of all things reality of words. In some Buddha-lands ideas are indicated by looking steadily. or by recollection. not a causeless theory of causation which results in an [endI speak of less] interconnection of causes and conditions. Mahamati.

Maha- is this error.. even in this reality of words. though it does not mean that those illusions do not appear to them. though to this error the idea of impermanence is inapplicable. a firebrand wheel. and an Aksha-purusha. And for this reason. Maya.the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva again said this to the Blessed One: Blessed One. Thus to the wise. only that they are free from perversion. the error-existence [or this world of illusion] people it the error is is not. a reflected image. XLIII At that time Mahamati . but seen [by others] For this reason. Mahamati. since even to the wise there ing a mirage. child are non-entities except as expressed in words. but as this water is manifest to other not a non-existence either. diversities of forms are seen. they carry it is on their work without words. 167.92 LANKAVATARA SUTRA mati. Why? Because it cannot be characterised with the ideas of being and non-being. is neither a perversion nor a non-perversion. Mahamati. the ignorant imagine the birth [of this world] fail to (106) as they understand this reason. and a barren woman's 166. but with the knowing it is not so. etc. how this error? are the ideas of being and non-being inapplicable to Because all the ignorant take in varieties of situations. they wander about in the triple world which is their dwelling. Mahamati. like the waves of the ocean and the waters of the . where dost thou pronounce sound to be eternal? The Blessed One replied: According to error. Thus said : As space. Mahamati. bees. Mahamati. Mahamati. When. Ganges which are not seen by the Pretas. so is this existence imagined. When causes and conditions are in combination . a hair-net. the error in itself is characterised . it is like the unwitted in the world who conceive a perverted idea regard- mati. the validity of all things has nothing to do with the It is observed. a dream. the city of the Gandharvas. world that in the kingdom of such special beings as ants. the hare's horns. there is this error. Again.

one of which is the family of the wise.CHAPTER TWO far as its 93 with permanency. it is thing at all here it is the prattling of the ignorant. Again. Mahamati. Mahamati. how does the Pratyekabuddhayana family rise as the error is dis- criminated? to to the notions of individuality Mahamati. Mahamati. for this reason that as regards this error the wise cherish neither a perverted knowledge nor an unperverted knowledge. is this is the Again. Mahamati. how is the error to be considered reality? Mahamati. the wise should any thought whatever in this error. Now. It is [such as it is and] to cherish In case. it gives rise to two classes of family. how is there the rise of the Buddhayana family when this error is discriminated by the intelligent? Mahamati. Mahamati. there is the rise of the Sravakayana family where the attachment to the notions of individuality and generality is kept up. being discriminated as regards its diversified individual signs. meant by the family. that what is family. that is. and the Buddhas. the Pratyekabuddhas. and there is the rise of the Buddhayana is. there rises the Pratye- buddhayana family. error. the family of the wise is divisible into three kinds. when the error discriminated by . Thus the (107) the error is perceived as differentiated. family. Mahamati. This is the way. the existence and non-existence of external objects ceases to be discriminated. when the error is discriminated according to a perverted and an unperverted view. Mahamati. when in this error the attachment and generality (108) leads one a retirement from social life. and the other the family of the ignorant and simple-minded. not Again. Mahamati. this error gives rise to the Sravakayana family. Mahamati. having the nature of non-distinction [as own appearance is concerned]. is characterised with permanency. the talk of the wise. when the world is understood to be nothing but Mind itself. Mahamati. how does the Sravakayana family rise from the discrimination whereby the ignorant conceive the error? Mahamati. the Sravakas. it goes contrary the reality attainable by noble wisdom. [as far as its own nature is concerned]. If there is anynot otherwise.

there is the manifestation of varieties of objects which calls forth the assertion [on their part] that this is and not otherwise. is the error an entity or The Blessed One replied: It is like Maya. its Maya cannot the cause of the error. said. the error is so discriminated by the ignorant as characterised by multitudinousness. [three] Svabhavas. itself . if the error is like Maya. incapability of produ- cing evils and faults and thus. it. cipated. and the wise have nothing to do with it. Maya rises when invoked by the magical charm of a certain person. Thus. For this reason. Mahamati. be will thereby be the cause of another error. . the error had any character in it making for attachment. the chain of origination would be understood in the sense of creation as held by the philosophers. The Blessed One said : No. whence rises the family of the transmigration vehicle. issuing from selfdiscrimination. the meaning of this statement is here thus clearly expressed by me. Mahamati. So much for this statement. habit-energy. and the [five] Dharmas. by the discarding of discrimination is meant the abandonment of all discriminations.] there are no faults in due to the confused view fondly cherished only by the ignorant regarding Mind. Mahamati. Thus. Mahamati. there is this -statement that Tathata is Mind emanCitta. Blessed Mahamati not? One. Mahamati. this error being discriminated by the wise turns into Tathata (suchness) with them. [Therefore. Mahamati. the error has no character in it making for attachment if. Mahamati. has no discrimination of it Again. So it is said This is : .94 LANKAVATARA SUTRA the ignorant. by virtue of a revulsion which takes place in them concerning the the Manas. It has in itself no habitenergy of evil thoughts and faults that. rise to evil Maya does not give thoughts and faults. Manovijnana. (109) no liberation would be possible from the attachment to existence. because of . Mahamati. that is. and this error is neither a reality nor an unreality. affect it. false reasoning. Mahamati it said : Blessed One. Mahamati.

95 The wise do not . that things are like Maya is not because they [i. a lightning appears and disappears in quick succession as is manifest to the ignorant. Mahamati. . For this reason. and all things have the nature of Maya. all things and Maya] are both alike in being imagined and clung to as having multitudinousness of individual signs. [the( ?) ] error If there is the rising of individual forms (nimitta) 169. in the same way. the denied is 1 like darkness. assuming the multi- tudinousness of individual signs and shapes. If they ever appear without due causes. if truth see [the(?)] error. things are not like Maya. any truth in its midst would be truth. nor is there is in its midst. Blessed One. XLIV Further. Is it. then see. because has the appearance of reality. Blessed One. especially the latter. this will indeed be error. is difficult ~ to find in this connection.e. apart from all error. Mahamati. Maya is not an unreality. According to T'ang. Blessed One. Said the Blessed One: It is not. that all things are Maya because they are both alike in being imagined and clung to as having multitudinousness of individual signs. but that all things are like Maya because they are unreal and like a lightning-flash which is seen as quickly disappearing. Mahamati. that all things are Said Mahamati it : like to as Maya is something imagined and clung multitudinousness of individual forms? (110) having Or is it due to the incorrect imagining of individual forms ? Maya because If all things have the likeness of Maya because Maya is something imagined and clung to as having multitudinousness of individual forms. Mahamati. Why ? Because forms are seen in the multitudinousness of individual signs not without due causes. [then] they would be like Maya. all things assume individuality and generality according to the discrimination itself. 1 [of the is Mind] When What is the state of imagelessness 2 recognised.CHAPTER TWO 168. exactly meant by these two verses.

foster the notion of deriving the birth of all things it from that regard caused by the attachment to the multidinousness which [of the of being and non-being. when it is recognised that the world that presents itself before us is no more than Mind itself. and as to all external objects of which we state that they are or are not. the philosophers who are the gathering of the deluded. is there not the fault of contradiction between : the previous statement and the later one ? It is asserted by thee that that all things are unborn is due to their having the nature of Maya. [by making this statement] Mahamati. says: said by the Tathagata that 2 their being unborn.96 LANKAVATARA SUTKA : objects which are imagined and clung to as in possession of individual signs cease to assert themselves. in order to cast aside the philosophers' thesis on birth by causation. and therefore they XLV Now according to the Blessed Further. because it has something resembling it the reality of all things is talked of [in a similar manner] . and thus. Mahamati. Blessed One. but. the term "unborn" is to be understood. [appearing and disappearing] quickly. But. Why ? Because birth is no-birth. when all things are asserted to be unborn because of their having the nature no fault of contradiction between my my later one. of Maya. Thus it is said not without reality. it is asserted that all things are like Maya and unborn. Mahamati. they are to be seen as non-existent and unborn. whereas Wei has all things are unlike maya. Mahamati said One. 1 The Blessed One replied: Mahamati. there is previous statement and Mahamati. are regarded as resembling Maya. 1 me This last sentence T'ang. they are unreal like a lightning-flash 170. "It is missing in T'ang. and fail to as rises from the discrimination fear rises in Mind] itself. there is here no fault of contradiction between my previous statement and my later one. Mahamati. no 2 In this light. all things are unborn (111) and resemble Maya." I say that all things are non-existent because of Wei: I say that all things are unborn when exis : . Maya is . .

causation is not accepted where existence is ac[as is maintained by the ignorant] . by name-body is meant the object depending on which a name obtains. etc. Mahamati. birth. sentence-body. and the syllable-body. simple-minded cast aside the idea of self-nature in anything (112) as they cherish the thoughts characterised with error. So it is said: 171. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas conformable to the signification of a sentence and a syllable will quickly realise supreme enlightenment and thereby awaken all beings to it. the teaching that all things are characterised with the self-nature of Maya is meant to make the ignorant and . this body of a name.. Mahamati.CHAPTER TWO 97 Again. as they do not clearly grasp the meaning of the world which is no more than the Mind itself. and individual signs. for by admitting the terminology of existence we admit transmigration. one does not discriminate individual signs. that the existent . Mahamati. cepted transmigration prevails. work. seeing that [all things] are like Maya. the body is this object. the teaching that all things exist is given in order to admit transmigration. I do not [say] istent. Mahamati. and syllable-body are well understood. to see all things as they really and truly are means to realise that there is nothing to be seen but Mind itself. Sung: and the non-existent are born. to check nihilism which says "Nothing is. for when name-body. they imagine and cling to causation. in order to check this I teach that all things are characterised in their with the nature of self -nature Maya and a dream." and to make my disciples accept the doctrine that asserts the reality of karma in various forms and birth in the various worlds. in another sense the is the body means substance (sarira). Attached to erroneous thoughts they contradict both themselves and others by not seeing all things as they really and truly are. By the body of a sentence is meant unborn when non-existent. we of will explain the characteristics name-body. Mahamati. Mahamati. the sentence-body. In the theory of no-birth. XLVI Further.

or lengthy.98 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA it < what signifies. regarding that which is from the dualistic conceptions of things such as oneness and otherness. a name (or a letter. the meaning of the body of a (pada). letter distinguished as to its self -nature nama} means each separate from a to ha. and vyanjana. Mahamati. cows. Nirvana and the Skandhas. Mahamati. Maha. regarding the sentence (pada} -body the idea of it is obtained from the foot-prints left 011 the road by elephants. names (nama} and syllables (vyanjana) belong to the four Skandhas which being formless are indicated by names thus are names made. Mahamati. long. Mahamati. is By the syllable-body (113) and sentences are indicated it is meant that by which names a symbol. Mahamati. the question Are form. of the differently characterised . a syllable (vyanjana} is short. Again. my completes its reference. a sign . . etc. goats. Again. By rams. Again. it is in another sense. Again. In another sense. etc. horses. the sentence (pada) -body means the completion of the meaning expressed in the sentence. saying. "It is no question it is not at all properly put that is to say. name (nama) a sentence You should endeavour It is thus to have a thorough understanding of these terms. bothness and not-bothness and thus asked. : . lables (vyanjana} is thus are syllables made. names there are sylThis. stick to them XLVII (114) Further. teaching as regards the sentence-body. something indicated. the like the elephant in deep mud. said: 172. in the time to come. Again. this is Mahamati. the ignorant. cattle. buffalos. dull-witted. and a syllable (vyanjana). and transiency to be considered one or different?" In the same way. . pada. indices cause may . the real object. people. those wrong-headed ones who are inclined to false speculations owing to their deficiency of knowledge concerning truth and liberated be asked by the wise. deer. they may answer. j means mati. Mahamati. Because of the distinction between nama. it dietermining its sense definitely.

Mahamati. to those who are addicted to grasped and grasping.CHAPTER TWO 99 and indicated. However. these things to all beings because of their wish to keep the from the fear-inspiring phrases. In (115) How could there be any setting aside here? But. they are made use of by me on some other occasions for those whose senses are not yet fully matured but for those of matured senses there . Arhats. these they body is another. entirely bewildered by the idea of a creator. Mahamati. the world itself. Arhats. which is is no more than what is seen of the Mind there something to be set aside [as inexplicable]. Mahamati. as they do not have a thorough understanding of ing. but that is not found in my teach- my teaching. the Tathagatas. or life is one thing. of questioning and answering. and those who are asked about these unexplainable questions would declare that they were put aside by the Blessed One as impossible to answer. all things being devoid of doing and . Fully-Enlightened Ones teach the Dharma to all beings by means of the four forms Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened Buddha] because of their deficiency of knowledge. the philosophers make an inexplicable statement. the philosophers may declare thus: what life is latter that is the body. make inexplicable statements. realities and the elementSj seen and seeing. Mahamati. discrimination does not take place because I teach to stand above grasped and grasping. qualities and qualified. these deluded people are unable to realise [the meaning of] what they heard [from the The Ones do not explain Tathagatas. Mahamati. Mahamati. knowledge and the Such Yogins [are these to be considered one or different ?] questions concerning the various aspects of existence lead successively from one thing to another without end. these inexplicables(^a/intfam) are not taken up for consideration by the Tathagatas in order to keep the philosophers away from their wrong views and theories. are set aside [as inexplicable] As to the propositions that . dust and atoms. XLVIII Further. In. Mahamati. is nothing to set aside.

Again.100 LANKAVATARA SUTEA is doer are unborn . it is 1 said : The four kinds of explanation are: direct statement. fore. therefore. Why ? Because the rising of individual signs is no-rising and is non-existent. Blessed . all things are said to have no self-nature. is examined by knowledge. Why? (116) Because the rising individual signs is characterised with non-eternality. all things are said never to be annihilated. therefore. all that are pro- claimed by them are the inexplicables. it is beyond reach self -nature and unattainable. Again. The Sankha and the Vaiseshika philosophers teach birth from a being or from a non-being. whereby the philosophers are kept away. all things are never annihilated. no going-out. Mahamati. and all There- Thus 173. ual signs that make up the and all all of things are not eternal. Mahamati. 174. all Therefore. Why ? Because. questioning. the signs of individuality and generality are seen as existing and yet they are non-existent they are seen as going out. again said this to the Blessed One: These three verses ought to follow tell me. nor are they going out. For . in all things there is no taking birth. things Therefore. Why ? For this reason that the individthis reason. no doer. When the self-nature [of all things] . 175. they are without XLIX At 1 that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Pray 47. all things are said not to be eternal. existent. discernment. Again. Mahamati. all things are therefore Mahamati. all things are said to be eternal. things are eternal because of their non-eternality. self -nature of things are nonare beyond reach. Mahamati. all things are without selfnature. Mahamati. there are no such signs obtainable which characterise them with individuality and generality. Mahamati. Why? Because. things are eternal. Mahamati. when they are examined by self-knowledge. and yet they do not go out. as there said to be unborn. Again. and setting aside. Mahamati. all things are neither taking birth.

and strong. for these three . and enjoyment. The Blessed One then said this Mahamati. and the highest. Mahamati. the highest will attain Nirvana in this birth. What are these three knots. there are two kinds of the view of an individual personality. attained classes [of the Stream-entered] there are three kinds of knots: weak. and take well to heart . in the fruit : : by the Sravakas. providing them with every teaching. whereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas thoroughly be- coming acquainted with the Stream-entered and their special attainment characterising the state of the Stream-entered. and attaining Tathagatahood whose spiritual realm is beyond conceivability. Mahamati? They are: (1) the view of an individual (2) doubt. and Arhatship. practices. and they will then explain the Dharma to all beings in this manner. personality. I will tell yoii. What are the three? They are graded. Having understood the twofold form of egolessness and (117) having cleansed themselves of the twofold hindrance. will proceed to know the means and conduct which characterises the state of the Once-returning. they will be like a multicoloured gem and will accomplish what is good for the lives of all beings. three kinds are distinguishable.CHAPTER TWO 101 One. and (3) the holding-on to moral Mahamati. when all these three knots are in succession promoted to the higher stage there will be the attainment of Arhatship. condition. Mahamati. Blessed One. they will by degrees go through the stages of Bodhisattvahood each of which has its own characteristics. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva answering him said Very well. The low ones will be reborn seven times when their existence will come to an end the middling will attain Nirvana in three or five births. Replied the Blessed One: Listen well Mahamati. deportment. it is like [the relation between] . Mahamati. Never-returning. regarding the Stream-entered and their special attainment which characterises the state of the Stream-entered. body. (1) the inborn one and (2) the one due to the false imagination . middle. middling. that is. low.

Mahamati. This. Mahamati. Mahamati. assumes varieties of individual signs to which they are strongly attached just as the deer does to a mirage. is what is meant by doubt [discarded] (119) by the is no thought to follow the lead of Stream-entered. Mahamati. it is perceived that it consists of form and the other four Skandhas. But this [existence] is neither a being. the view of individual personality is destroyed. the inborn view of an individual personality by the Stream-entered [is destroyed in this way]. is what characterises the view of individual personality. the Dharma Again. stood as to and when the twofold view of individual personality is destroyed as previously described. And there [in the minds of the Stream-entered] any other teacher because of [the difference between] purity and non-purity. being discriminated by the ignorant. covetousness will never assert itself. Again. how is it that the Stream-entered do .102 LANKAVATARA SUTRA the relativity view and the false imagination [of the three] Svabhavas. and realised. that the elements are mutually conditioning. no doubt is cherished in the teaching [of the Buddhas]. as regards the nature of doubt. When the view of individual personality is tlras destroyed. depending on the relativity view of things there arise varieties of attachments to the false imagination. and that hence there is no aggregate known as as held form. and. When this body which belongs equally to each of us is considered. This. . nor a non-being. this individual personality falsely imagined is the view of an by the Streamby entered. nor a being-and-non-being it is not a reality because of the false imagination. When thus the Stream-entered realise that the idea of being and non-being is a partial view [of truth]. (118) For instance. is destroyed when which the clinging Mahamati. when is attained. which has been accumulated for a long time This their ignorance and attachment. Mahamati. the egolessness of a person is attained by ceases. and thoroughly underits characteristics. Mahamati. that form takes its rise from the elements and their belongings.

by thus breaking up the three knots the Stream-entered will discard covetousness. This. and folly. lookingsidewise. signs. Mahamati. what is the fruit of the Oncereturning? There is once in them the discrimination of forms. (120) Again. to attain worldly enjoyments and happinesses.. piety. ing. that the ignorant their thoughts are turning only self-realisation. is because they desire thereby morality. i.CHAPTER TWO * 103 not hold themselves to the morality? They do not because they clearly see into the nature of suffering wherever they may be reborn. the discrimination does not return with is means that while there objects as characterised . : slapping. what It is meant by Never-returning? yet the viewing of individual by being^ and non-being in the past. Why but not of the desire for Nirvana.e. and simple-minded observe the rules of and penance. the desire for sexual embrace. ? Because they are abiding in the bliss of the Samadhi which they have attained. Hence this casting aside. they cherish And [the the hope of being born in agreeable conditions. realise Nirvana." Again. and as they know well what marks the attainment of the Dhyana. Stream-entered] do not hold [to the rules of morality]. showing itself in beating. is the way in which the Stream- entered Ones hold to morality and piety. they once come back into the world. kissing. Mahamati said Many kinds of covetousness are taught by the Blessed One whieh one of them is to be cast aside ? : . suggesting. embracing. Mahamati. and appearances but as they learn not to view individual objects under the aspect of qualified and qualify. anger. present. and putting an end to suffering. Mahamati. and future. or gazing may give one momentary pleasures but is productive of future grief. smelling. [With the Stream-entered] there is no greed for such. [What is meant by] the holding ? Mahamati. The Blessed One replied The world where love grows. Mahamati. Hence the appellation "Once-returning. for towards the exalted state of and the reason why they devote themselves to the details of morality is that they wish to master such truths as are in conformity with non-discrimination and undefiled outflows.

the Dhyanas. Hence the appellation "Arhat. all they discourse on the fruit attained [for the Further. neglects all his accumulated stock of merit for the sake of Or to one who is a form of his vow to enlighten others? the Transformation [Buddha] ? Eeplied the Blessed One: Mahamati." they commit a double fault: they engaged still hold to the vices of the ego. [the term "Arhat"] applies to the Sravaka who makes straightway for the path of cessation. they are forms of the Transformation Buddha. and to no others. With skilful means born of their fundamental and original vows (121)." Again. Further. emancipations.104 its errors LANKAVATAEA SUTEA f and faults. sake of "These are the fetters. they manifest themselves among the multitudes in order to adorn the assemblages of the Buddhas. and as they that this world is no more than what is seen of the itself. sufferings. the signs of this visible world which is Mind itself should be discarded. powers. . Samadhis. that is to say. the Blessed One declares that there are three kinds of Arhats: to which one of the three is this term "Arhat" to be applied? To one who makes straightway for the path of cessation? Or to one who faculties. in order to go beyond the Dhyanas. here in these paths and abodes of existence they give out varieties of teachings which are based on discrimination. or subjects for meditation. and they have not freed themselves from the fetters. Mahamati. the dormant passions do not assert themselves. beings] entered should think. Mahamati. as they are above such things as the attainment of the fruit. Mahamati. Hence the appellation "Never-returning. if the Stream- The Samapatti leading to the extinction of thought and ." Mahamati said: Now. and the knots are completely cut off never to return. but I am disfrom them. the Arhat is the one who has attained the Dhyanas. they are those' who have finished practising the deeds of a Bodhisattva. the know Mind Dhyana-praetisers. and the formless world. psychic and with whom there are no more passions. as for the others. Mahamati. and discriminations. the immeasurables. Mahamati.

What. This.GHAPTBE TWO 105 sensation does not enable one to transcend the world of So it is said particulars. fluidity. these are no it. Mahamati. bothness ity is meant by [being devoid of] the four means to be devoid of oneness and otherand not-bothness. finding it to be devoid of the four proposiThis is known as the intellect that tions. and the intellect which functions in connection with the attachment to ideas : of discrimination. Mind alone is. : 176. leads to the assertion of a non-entity [as entity]. being and non-being. there are two kinds of intelthe intellect as an examining function. the formless. the The Dhyanas. Mahamati. ship for these are the bewildered states of mind. definition. regards these four propositions. mati. the immeasurables. is the and non-eternity. and unattainable. and the complete extinction of thought these do not exist where the (nirodha) 177. This is called the intellect that functions in connection with the attachment to ideas of discrimination. motility. 178. examines. L lect (122) Further. Mahamati. the Dhyana. Mahathat act of intellect which examines into the self- nature of things. for there is nothing but Mind. reason. etern- It These are called the four propositions. when this is recognised there is emancipation. and that of the Once-returning. The Dhyana-praetiser. the subject the destruction. and that of the Never-returning. and solidity as intellect to ideas of discrimination? . it is As for the intellect that examines. the seeing of the truth. characterising the gross elements. and Arhat- The fruit of the Stream-entered. which functions in connection with the attachment It is the intellect with which the Mind is discriminated and the ideas arising therefrom are adhered to [as real] and this adherence gives rise to the conceptions of warmth. is what characterises the two kinds of . What propositions? ness. Samadhis. and illustration. while the tenacious hold- ing to proposition. train yourself to examine carefully all things as Mahamati. more than discriminations.

(123) and. they will be baptised by [the Buddhas] when they reach the stage of Dharmamegha (law-cloud) . and. LI Further. external objects cease to be realities. the Bodhisattvasecondary elements? Mahasattvas are to know this that the truth is that the primary elements have never come into existence. will see one hundred Buddhas and BodhiSamadhis. How do the Bodhisattvas know the primary and the Mahamati. Thus understood. Mahamati. powers. and realising the inmost realm of the Tathagatas. they will be provided with things which are closely connected with the ten inexhaustible vows and. they sattvas. and there is nothing but what is discriminated by the mind and perceived [as external]. That is to say. will attain the first stage [of Bodhisattvahood] and Attaining the excellent acquire one hundred Dhyanas. thoroughly mastering the signs of egolessness of persons and by means of knowledge of imagelessness. in order to bring all beings into maturity. there is nothing in the world but what is discriminated When it is recognised that the visible [by our imagination] world is no more than Mind itself. intellect.106 LANKAVATARA SUTRA in accordance with which the Bodhisattvas. . illuminating one hundred Buddha-lands. they will understand the signs belonging to the higher stages and by virtue of the most exalted vows they will manifest wonderful things. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are to be well acquainted with the primary and the secondary elements. . they will shine out in various forms with the rays of transformation they will be quite absorbed in the bliss . these elements are unborn. let it be understood that the triple world has nothing to do with the primary and the secondary elements. and that. they will enter into one hundred kalpas that were prior to the present and also into those that will follow the present. of self-realisation. they will illuminate one hundred Buddha-lands. Mahamati. . (124) that it is removed from the four propositions and philosophical . becoming conversant with the stage of examination and practice.

the secondary ele. of things endowed with being. marks. Mahamati. what is meant by the elements derived from The element discriminated as primary elements? vascidity produces the realm of water. the Vijnana has its cause in our attachment to and the desire for the multitudinousness of statements and objective fields and it continues to evolve in another path of existence. Again. characteristics. four of these have no material forms sensation. what are the Skandhas? They are form. Because. one can say that they are born of the combination of various effect-producing [elements] But not of things which are devoid of characteristic marks. it has nothing to do with a personal ego and and that it establishes itself in the abode . the elements j primary and secondary are the discriminations of the philosophers and not mine. it is where seen in its own form. Mahamati. five I will explain the self-nature of the Skandhas. belongs to what is of the four primary elements. inner and outer. abode. thought. [are said] to have their cause in the primary elements which. . Mahamati. what characterises Mahamati. that it 107 what belongs to of real reality.e. and these elements differ from one another in their individual signs. Mahamati. But the four and consciousness. (125) sensation. . made Form. the element discriminated as divisibility of form gives birth to the realm of earth together with space. Mahamati. LII Further. thought. are non-existent. ments such as earth. conformation. inner and outer the element discriminated as energy produces the realm of fire. conformation. and work. inner and outer. inner and outer. the element discriminated as motility produces the realm of air. For this reason. Mahamati. in its unborn the state. Mahamati. Because of the attachment to the incorrect truths there is the aggregation of the five Skandhas giving rise to the elements primary and secondary. Mahamati. perceivableness. however.CHAPTER TWO systems. and consciousness. i.. etc.

the truth of solitude Keeping back the views held by the philosophers. Mahamati. For instance. Mahamati. there are four kinds of Nirvana. is what characterises the self-nature of the Skandhas. solitude. Mahamati. psychic faculties. Mahamati. and thereby the teaching of the egolessness of things is purified and you will enter upon the stage of Far-going (diiramgama). (2) the Nirvana which is attained when varieties of individual marks characterising all things are seen as non- . This discrimination must be discarded by you. and having discarded this. there is what is known as the Skandha-diserimination. and selfcontrol. devoid of [dualisties such as] otherness and not-otherness for they are like varieties of forms and objects in a vision. which is attained when the self-nature of all things is seen as nonentity. but not so to the wise. but to the designated ignorant they are described as subject to numeration. and are beyond the four propositions. in the same way. you will be the supporter of all beings like the earth. you should declare the truth of in a dream. are the four? They are: (1) the Nirvana. space cannot be numbered. by the wise the five Skandhas are regarded as thought-constructions. like images and persons . is to be announced in all the Buddhaassemblies. Again.108 LANKAVATARA SUTKA four. support. Mahamati. attaining the will-body as (126) you will realise the Samadhi known Mayopama (Maya-like). are not to be predicated as existing and nonexisting. as the great earth is the supporter of all beings. Thoroughly conversant with the powers. This. and it is due to our discrimination that it is as such. so is the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva the supporter of all beings. Mahamati. As they have no better substance for their and as they obstruct the passage of noble wisdom. Entering upon the stage of Diiramgama you will become the master of many Samadhis. Mahamati. Skandhas that are without form cannot be reckoned as they are like space. and. LIII What Further. the Skandhas that are beyond calculability as they have no number-marks.

So it is said: 179. (3) the 109 Nirvana wliicli is attained when there is the recognition of the non-existence of a being endowed with its own specific attributes. why refer to the getting-rid of the Manovijnana and not and supporter. Mahamati eight Vijnanas? said: Does not the Blessed One establish The Blessed One Mahamati said : do you of the seven [other] Vijnanas [as well] ? The Blessed One said: With the Manovijnana as cause I do. Thus. and by means of manifold habit-energy [or memory] (127) it nourishes the Alayavijfiana. the seven Vijnanas are also got rid of. the getting rid of the discriminating Manovijnana this is said to be Nirvana. Again. is the Mind itself is Mahamati. its cause and support. Mahamati. of individual signs. I enter into Nirvana when the Vijnana which is caused by discrimination ceases.CHAPTER TWO entities. as it discerns a world of objects and becomes attached to it. Mahamati. to which it It has no body of its own. it evolves and dissolves. 181. the world which is the mind-manifested. Like the waves of the ocean. Mahamati. when the Manovijnana is got rid of. Mahamati. Because the world which imagined real and attached to as such.e. replied: If eight Vijnanas are established. Mahamati. According to my teaching. Mahamati. With it [i. own marks the Alayavijfiana is . and is supported [by it]. there rise the seven Vijnanas. is stirred up by the wind of objectivity. the Manovijnana is kept functioning. 180. The Manas its is evolved along with the notion of an ego and clings nor its and on which it reflects. and (4) the Nirvana which is at- tained when there takes place the severance of the bondage conditioning the continuation of individuality and generality of the Skandhas. these four views of Nirvana belong to the philosophers and are not my teaching. the whole psychic system evolves mutually conditioning. of work. I enter not into Nirvana by means of being. the Manovijnana] for its cause and support. the Manas secures its use. Like a great flood where no waves are stirred . belongings. the Vijnana causes the Citta to function.

(7) philosophical views. These. tions as regards (1) Mahamati? They are the discrimina(2) words (abhildpa). meaning. What to is the discrimination of individual marks! It is imagine in whatever is denoted by words the multitudinousness of individual marks which are like a mirage. Now. Mahamati. (4) property. (128) you will cast off discrimination. to discriminate all things according to these categories warmth. (6) cause. the Vijnana [-system] in its various forms ceases to work when there is the annihilation Manovijnana] . and. of the false imagination. fluidity. I will tell you about the various features of the false imagination (parikalpita) . (3) individual marks. and (12) bondage and emancipation. What is the discrimination of property ? It is to desire . (10) nobirth. Mahamati. (11) dependence. (9) birth. what That is the discrimination of words? the becoming attached to various sweet voices and singing this is the discrimination as regards words. and will not be induced to discriminate in respect to the multiple aspects of relativity-knowledge (paratantra) as well as the forms . What are the various features of the false imagination. and which subjects one regards as self-existent and belonging to the realisation of noble wisdom. (5) self-nature.110 because of [of the LANKAVATARA SUTRA its being dried up. clinging tenaciously to them. speculation by the philosophers. are the various features of the false is imagination. motility. you will get away from discrimination and seeing well and knowing the way of inner realisation by noble wisdom and also the ways of . Mahamati. and : solidity.? such as grasped and grasping. LIV Further. (8) reasoning. and when you and the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are well acquainted with each of them in its specific form. What is the discrimination of meaning? It is the dis- crimination by which one imagines that words rise depending on whatever subjects they express.

What is the discrimination o no-birth? It is to dis- criminate that all things are from the beginning unborn. "What the discrimination of self -nature ? make discrimination according to the imaginary views of the all things philosophers in reference to the self-nature of which they stoutly maintain. that the causeless substances which were not. is silver." it. What is the discrimination of philosophical views? That means getting attached to the philosophers' wrong views and discriminations concerning such notions as being and non-being. Mahamati. "This is just there is no other. is What It is like the discrimination of bondage and emancipaimagining that there is something bound because of something binding as in the case of a by the help of a cord ties a knot or loosens it. the discrimination of dependence? It means the mutual dependence of gold and the filament [which is What made tion? of gold]. What is the discrimination of birth? It means getting attached to the notion that things come into existence and go out of it according to causation. bothness and not-bothness. saying. are the various features of the false imagination. to distinguish the notion of causation in reference to being and non-being and to imagine that there are cause-signs -this (129) is the discrimination of cause. Those attached to the notion of relativity are attached to the notion of multitudinousness of things rising from the false . oneness and otherness. and What is the discrimination of cause? That is. What is the discrimination of reasoning ? It means the teaching whose reasoning is based on the grasping of the notion of an ego-substance and what belongs to it. imagining that things are or are not. to which all the ignorant and simple-minded ones cling. come into existence by reason of is causation. and various precious It is to stones.CHAPTER TWO a state of 111 wealth such as gold. man who These.

The Citta is the intellect's function is bound up with the objective world. 186. . varieties of objects would not have Maya for their cause. but being like Maya they obtain not varieties of individual forms are discriminated as such. If Maya were one with varieties of objects. there would be no distinction between the two. Multitudinousness of differentiations imagined by the ignorant]. LANKAVATAEA SUTKA It is like seeing varieties of objects depending on Maya. (paramartha) Conventional truth (samvriti) and ultimate truth if there be a third. and in the excellent state of imagelessness there is the evolving of transcendental wisdom (prajna. discriminated. is grasped [as real] 184. . The existence thus subjected to discrimination is no other than its relativity aspect. tion is carried on. . [To imagine] individual forms is wrong. 187. LV So it is said : 182. non-entity is its cause. (130) Now. For this reason you and the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should never give yourselves up to the notion of being and non-being. Maya one. (131) the false imagination is of various forms based on the relativity. 185. they are born of Mind due to the false imagination of the ignorant based on the relativity they are [as real . but from the point of view of relativity (paratantra) it is not owing to perversion. 183.112 imagination. it puts one in bondage. According to the false imagination. discrimina. to speculate. what is discriminated . but they [really] do not obtain.). [self-sub- stance] is. but these varieties thus revealing themselves are discriminated by the ignorant as something other than Maya itself according to their way of thinking. Mahaand varieties of objects are neither different nor mati. If they were different. in the relativity there is no discriminais tion. but as there is the distinction these two Maya and varieties of objects are neither one nor different.

196." but here the term is evidently used as negating the function of Jcalpita which stands in these verses for parikalpita. imagined while the dimness itself is neither a form (rupa) nor a no-form (arupa). . the sky without a cloud. so is [the Mind] pure when detached 1 from the false imagination. 191. Truth consists in [knowing] the five Dharmas and Svabhavas when the Yogin thus comprehends [the truth] he does not transgress Tathata. All the Chinese texts have "twelve" instead of "ten. As by the dim-eyed a variety of objects is seen and 189. is relativity point of view assertion not. ledge (nishpanna) itself] . False imagination can never be perfect knowit is not productive of anything else [but . water free from dirt.CHAPTER TWO the false imagination belongs to the conventional cut asunder. 195. . Falsely-imagined existence it is. itself as . (132) then one knows what truth whose self -nature is purity. in the knowledge of Tathata innerly attained there is no differentiation. According to the form of relativity. Depending on the false imagination there obtains imagination the relativity-aspect of existence. there are those names that belong to false imagination and the various aspects of false imagination arise from relativity. 194. 190. vfkalpa is translated "discrimination" or imagination. 197. so is the nature of the false imagination. while the is not. Throughout the text. 113 when it is As to the Yogins there is one reality which reveals multiplicity and yet there is no multiplicity in it. is. 193. this means that there is a being apart from being and that a being is born of a non-being." . As is pure gold. so is the relativity [discriminated] by the unknowing ones. is meant by ultimate There are ten kinds 2 of false imagination and sis kinds of relativity. there is the realm of the wise. but from the and refutation are destroyed 192. 188. when one is If the relativity-aspect of existence freed from the imagination. from the conjunction of form and name there rises false imagination. also the three .

Mahamati. there indeed is perfect knowledge. listen well and : reflect 1 within yourself as I tell you. which are discriminated under the aspect of relativity if otherwise discriminated. This whole section treats of the threefold Svabhava. which is the But to dualistic view of existence. how can there be these two Svabhavas? 200. 1 202. and which is valid as far as it goes. What . attached to the teachings of the philosophers. Because of false imagination. the main point is clear enough. chiefly explaining where Parikalpita (false imagination) is differentiated from Paratantra (relativity view). which being purified the [spiritual] condition of the wise obtains. the existent cannot be qualified with being and non-being. whereby. LANKAVATARA SUTRA When well pondered with intelligence (buddhi) . Where there is false imagination there is multi- tudinousness of objects. about the one vehicle that characterises the inner realisation of noble wisdom. there neither relativity nor false imagination where perfect knowledge is. (133) when the dualistic discrimination is got rid of. the two Svabhavas are established. . is imagined being subjected to further there are various views from which rises the imagination. LVI Further. Blessed One. vehicle which. is for how with intelligence can discrimination take place? 199. Blessed One. Said the Blessed One Then. where there is false imagination multitudinousness of things is recognised. there is nothing [dualistically] existent. in what cannot be qualified with being and non-being. for the Paratantra is by no means ultimate truth. net of wrong interpretations woven about the Paratantra. doctrine of causal origination. one becomes . I and other Bodhiwith the sattva-Mahasattvas. becoming conversant one marks the inner attainment of noble wisdom. Where perfect knowledge is. While the explanation sometimes appears The Kalpita is a quite complicated. 201. reach the Nishpanna (perfect knowledge) it is necessary to transcend all forms of dualism.114 198. Mahamati said: Pray tell me. may be established without depending on anybody else in the teaching of the Buddha.

segregated. self. Mahamati. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva retire by himself to a quiet secluded place. Yes. is the one vehicle to be recognised and realised? tion of the one vehicle is obtained when there this is known as the one vehicle. Further. Thus. For this reason. One and gave ear to the Blessed One. Mahamati. Sravakas. : said For what reason is it that the Blessed One speaks of the triple vehicle and not of the one vehicle? The Blessed One replied Because there is no teaching the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas can realise whereby : Mahamati Nirvana by themselves. (134) except by the Tathagata himself.CHAPTER TWO Blessed 115 Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. has never been obtained before by anybody else the philosophers. Mahamati. Brahmans. but by means of his own inner intelligence. I will. Thereupon the Blessed One said In accordance with the . the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas are disciplined. I preach to the Sravakas . make successive advances and exert himself to finally enter is upon the stage of Tathagatahood. What characterises the way of the one vehicle it ? I call the one vehicle because thereby one recognises and realises the path leading to the one vehicle. the characteristic feature of the inner realisa- tion to be gained by means of noble wisdom. : authoritative teachings in which there are no discriminations. I do not speak of the one vehicle. in order to discard erroneous views and discriminations. This. Mahamati. and not by themselves. where he may reflect within him- not relying on anybody else. and trained in meditation according to the discourse of the Tathagata. all the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas are unable to realise the egolessness of things and have not attained the inconceivable transformation-death. whereby they are led to emancipation. as they have not yet destroyed the habit-energy (memory) of karma and the hindrance of knowledge. this recognition of the one vehicle. Pratyekabuddhas. How is this path of The recognino rising of discrimination by doing away with the notion of grasped and grasping and by abiding in the reality of suchness (yatMbhuta). etc. Mahamati. Mahamati.

. they [the habit-energy of the passions intoxicated with the liquor of the Samadhi. himself] in the attainment of the not at all awakened even to the end of Like unto the drunkard who. So long as there is a mind making conscious there can be no culmination as regards the various vehicles when a revulsion takes place in the mind. who is rides in it. being awakened from 1 2 his intoxication. actively-functioning ravakas] are still bound up with the passions. and the Tathaefforts. of these I speak. There are three emancipations. they still have their abode in the realm of out.116 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA 1 [and Pratyekabuddhas] the triple vehicle and not the one When. will be awakened into the realm of taken into a super-world which is the realm of no-evil-outflows. they who are now free from the evil habit-energy will not be intoxicated vehicle. when [one is] emancipated they are discarded. there is neither a vehicle nor one 205. There and really no establishment of various 2 so I speak of the one vehicle. the ravaka (135) the Pratyekabuddha vehicle. but in order to carry the ignorant I talk of a variety of vehicles. According to the Chinese translations. the Sravaka obsessed with individual marks is driven . destroying all the evil habitenergy. The Deva vehicle. he kalpas. and in all things there is no ego-substance knowledge and passions are of the same nature. Mahamati. 210. 204. . regains his intelligence. Like a piece of wood floating on the waves of the ocean. Though disengaged from the flows. 207. . So it is said : Now being 203. they realise the egolessness of things. gata vehicle. nor retrogres- sion either. along [the stream of existence] 208. vehicle. 206. the Brahma vehicle. by the Samadhis and no-evil-outflows. In this there [losing is is no course of finality. [the Sravakas] Transfer naikaydnam (line 9) to line 10 after yanatrayam. vehicles. 209. they will gather up all the material for the attainment of the Dharmakaya which is of severeign power and beyond conception. Samadhi-body.

have the realisation of the Buddha's truth. [Known as] the "ColDharmas. which his own body. lection of All the of 36." Taken from the Lankavatara [&okas]. Here Ends the Second Chapter.000 .CHAPTER TWO will 117 is.

about the various forms of the will-body. the bliss of which 1 It will be interesting for the Chinese readers of the Lanhavatara compound. is here read ways by the three Chinese translators.[CHAPTER THREE] LVII (136) At that time again the Blessed : One I said this to tell Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva will you. the mind is quiet and immovable. showing how variously a Sanskrit compound allows itself to be interpreted. what is the will-body attained in the enjoyment of the Samadhi? It is this: when [the Yogin] in the third. I will tell you. Mahamati. 1 the waves of consciousness are no more stirred in the Mind-ocean and is the Vijnana functions are quieted. Mahamati. (2) the will-body obtained by recognising the self-nature of the Dharma. Wei: gifrS^frSStfif. Sung: SliillJfySJi?5sc'(. listen well and reflect well within yourself. the Yogin will experience own them [all]. Now. The mind itself. and (3) the will-body which is assumed [by a Bodhisattva according to] the class of beings [to be saved] and which perfects and achieves [without a thought of its achievement]. This is one of numerous such examples to be met with throughout the text. T'ang: H?|fi)lSiJ$t'FJi&. and gave ear to the Blessed One. variously [discriminating]. fourth. . Blessed One. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva : said. grows quiet and finds its rest. The Blessed One then said this There are three kinds of will-body. Mahamati. Discarding various [mentations]. The mind itself is quiet and practises in three different to notice that the various deeds. I will. By realising the higher stages successively after the first is attained. fifth stages removes the various discriminations going on in his mind and is at rest. What are the three ? They are : (1) the will-body obtained in the enjoyment of the Samadhi. svacitta-vividJia-viveTca-vihara.

Mahamati. So it is said 1.CHAPTER THEEE enjoyed by 119 Mm. the several forms of the will-body are adorned with the flowers of the sovereign will. nor words. he (137) the self-nature of the 1 said to have the will-body. a dream. Now what is the will-body which is born in accordance with the class and which perfects and achieves ? When [the Yogin] is thoroughly conversant with all the characteristics of self-realisation and its bliss which pervades the teachings of the Buddha. he is said to have the body which is willmade. and which is not a product of the elements but has something analogous to what is produced of the entering which is furnished with all the differences apperworld of forms and yet is able to follow up all the assemblages in the Buddha-lands. born with [the class]. . taining to the : realm of imagelessness. 2. nor emancipation. nor a sound. and when he thus recognises the nonwhich is no more than his own mind. it is neither the truth. Page 136. nor the elements. of things which By exhibits various upon the Samadhis he gains a body which powers of self-mastery and supernatural activity. and a reflected image. which moves according to his wish as quickly as a flower opens up. delete abMva and manaso. line 14. you should exert yourself in order to have a thoroughly penetrating knowledge of these three marks of the will-body. which resembles Maya. Yet the Mahayana is a vehicle on which the Samadhis are carried leading to various creative activities. perfecting and achieving. What is the will-body obtained by recognising [the Yogin] of the eighth stage has a thoroughgoing penetration into the nature Dharma? When is like Maya and not image-producing. This is the body which has a thoroughgoing knowledge of the self -nature of the Dharma and for this reason is called will-body. he a revulsion at the seat of consciousness and experiences obtains the Samadhi known as Maya-like and other Samadhis. is existence of the external world. My Mahay ana is neither a vehicle.

when the body of the eight Vijnanas. and what are these five. which being committed by a son or a daughter of a good family cause them to fall into the Avici hell? The Blessed One replied: and reflect. and (5) causing the body of the Tathagata They to bleed from malice. (2) of the father. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. When there it is is sions such as anger. (4) the brealdng-up of the Brotherhood. (139) Mahamati. that is. by means of the triple emancipation and the non-outflows.. said that mother and father are murdered. which erroneously recognises individualwhich is seen ity and generality as being outside the Mind is split [by the ignorant] in the form of an external world is com- pletely extirpated by means of faulty discriminations. (3) of the Arhat. Blessed One. it is known as an immediacy-deed. . Then. the is a complete extermination of the subordinate group of pasetc.120 LANKAVATARA SUTRA LVIII (138) At that time again Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva said this to the Blessed One: The five im- mediacies are preached by the Blessed One. What meant by the breaking-up of the Brotherhood? When there is a complete fundamental breaking-up of the combination of the Skandhas whose characteristic mark is a state of mutual dependence among dissimilarities. Mahamati. going together with joy and anger and upholding all with motherliness. Blessed One. presenting fatherhood brings about one's rebirth in the six When there takes place a complete destruction of both roots. listen well for I will tell you. It is is meant by the mother of all beings ? desire which is procreative. rat. and when thus the faulty mentality of the Vijnana-Buddha is made to bleed. and gave ear to the Blessed One. which are like an enemy. a venomous murdering of the Arhat is said to take place. These. it is said that the Brotherhood up. fatherhood and motherhood. The Blessed One said thus immediacies? to him: What are the five are: (1) the murdering of the mother. Ignorance re- Now what v villages of the sense-world. Certainly.

and being born in some other path of existence. else may see somebody practising deeds of wickedness. 1 immediately they are known as immediacyWiavana is Page 140. and to make him realise the non-reality of wickedness and faulty views by laying down his burden. line 1: to be deleted. the amassing of the five Skandhas the Brotherhood as these are : . which are described in the canonical texts. by an immediacy-deed of realisation as regards the Dharma. already attained a realisation. or at any time. Mahamati. or. The secondary group of passions is the Arhat. are the are experienced five 121 there is inner immediacies. The Sravakas of transformaMahamati. to be destroyed deeds. no realisation for those the immediacies. property. the fault of self-discrimination when they are released from by encountering a good friend at some time or other. the sustaining power. and they will repeatedly make great efforts to turn him away from his wickness and faulty views.of 'the transformation. . there are five external immediacies which I will point out to you. So it is said 3. and those who commit these crimes can never experience any one of these manifestations. and that the notion of an ego and its belongitself. Desire is said to be the mother and ignorance the father the Vijnana which recognises an objective world is [compared to] the Buddha. This isithe way I demonstrate facts . (140) except tion of the truth that who are sheer offenders of when they come to the recogniis 1 nothing but the an external world Mind seeing that body. and when they a son or a daughter of a good family. Mahamati. ings are to be kept away. who are sustained by the sustaining power either of the Bodhisattvas or Tathagatas. and abiding place are discriminations. however. in order that you and other Bodhisattvas in the future may thereby be saved from ignorWhat are these five? They are those immediacies ance. except those Transformation [-Buddhas] who are sustained by the power [of the Tathagatas] and have tion.CHAPTER THEEE Mahamati. there is. Further. and the realisation. 4. .

Kanakamuni. what Again Mahamati said makes the Buddhas and the Blessed Ones such as they are: 1 that is. and (4) sameness of the body. line 10. according to the deeper sense.122 LANKAVATARA SUTRA LIX Pray tell me. LX that time again. Parrot. there. when the knowledge of the twofold hindrance is thoroughly taken hold of. When these teachings are experienced by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. there is the Tathagata." and this I have gone through many a birth in varieties of forms. when the twofold death (cyuti) is accomplished. the twofold group of pasthe twofold hindrance. Elephant. So it is said: 5. Arhats. Vyasa. There is no reference to this in Wei and Sung. may better lie dropped. and other beings in my one hundred that ' ' thousand births?" Said the Blessed One: There are. that you make "I am all announcement before the the Buddhas of the past. Sunetra. Blessed One. when these are attained. and Kasyapa. What are the four kinds of sameness which are distinguished according to the deeper sense? They are: (1) sameness of letters. and the inconceivable transsions. and the Tathagatas. 2 Samdhaya. According to this fourfold sameness in 1 Bhagavan buddhanam. four kinds of sameness distinguished. [what is] the Buddha-nature of the Buddhas? Said the Blessed One when the egolessness of things as : : understood. formation-death. Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened Ones make this assertion: I was thus at that time the Buddha Krakucchanda. (3) sameness of teachings. is the Buddda-nature of the Buddhas and the Blessed Ones. Mahamati the Bodhisattva(141) Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One According to what : At 2 deeper sense did congregation. Mahamati. . being thus at times the king Mandhatri. and when the twofold well as of persons is group of passions is destroyed. special sense here The term has a and elsewhere in the Lahlcavatara. Indra. page 140. this is their Buddha-nature. (2) sameness of words. The twofold egolessness.

' ' concerned with this fourfold sameness. the Tathagatas. what is the sameness of words with and (142) Fully-EnOnes? It is that sixty-four sounds of the Brahlightened man language are distinguished by me. what is the sameness of the body? It and other Tathagatas. what is the sameness of letters ? that also 123 the deeper sense. what It is that I as well as is the sameness of the teaching? they [other Tathagatas] are all con- versant with the teachings belonging to the thirty-seven branches of enlightenment. and Fully-Enlightened Ones. this I preach who come out of the sameness for the sake of the sons of the Buddha. According to the deeper sense which is gatas. is the sameness of letters. Mahamati. Mahamati. and their Kalavinka-like notes are the same with all of us. by varieties of means. Mahamati. Arhats. Mahamati. Now. Arhats. is Now. Arhats. Fully-Enlightened It is [spelt] B-u-d-d-h-a. is my name these letters in their nature are not to be distinguished one from another therefore. are indistinguishable in this respect. Arhats. and these letters are used for other Buddhas and Blessed Ones. Now. and Kanakamuni" . I am Kasyapa. So it is said 6. who are to be disciplined Now. except that the Tathagatas manifest varieties of forms according to the different dispositions of beings. the TathaFully-Enlightened Ones make their announce: ment before the congregation. Fully-Enlightened Ones are the same as regards our Dharmakaya and the [thirty-two] signs and the [eighty] minor excellencies of that I bodily perfection no distinction existing among us. as we regard to the Tathagatas. and these identical sixty-four sounds of the Brahman language are also uttered by the Tathagatas. LXI Again Mahamati said: It is said by the Blessed One that from the night of the Enlightenment till the night of .CHAPTER THEEE Ones make the announcement before the eongragation. there . Krakucchanda. Mahamati. Arhats. Mahamati.

he has not in the meantime uttered. an ancient For instance. Mahamati. and also the various things in the city ? Mahamati said: No. and having entered into it. Mahamati. whether the Tathagata appears in the world or not as the Tathagata eternally abides so does the reason (dharmata. What are the two things: They are the truth of self-realisation and an eternally-abiding reality. . Of what deeper sense is the truth of self-realisation ? What has been realised by the Tathagatas. For this reason. tions. the Tathagata (143) in the meantime has not uttered even a word. it is stated by me that from the night of the Tathagata 's Enlightenment till the night of his entrance into Nirvana. the truth itself (satyaia). nor will he ever utter. and enjoy all the pleasures accruing therefrom. for not- speaking is the Buddha's speaking.} of all things reality foreover the Dharmadhata . nor ever will utter. what has been realised by myself and other Tathagatas is this reality. the self-regulating reality (niyamata). the realness of things (bhutata). this statement is made. abides. has been here all the time. reality keeps its order. one word. What like gold. or pearl preserved in the mine. that is my own realisation. having nothing to do with dualistic terminology. Mahamati. in which there is neither decreasing nor increasing for the realm of self-realisation is free from words and discrimina. the road along which he enters into the city. a man who is walking in a forest and discovering an ancient city with its orderly streets may enter into the city. the suchness of things (tathata'). So it is said : . silver. like the roads in city. Blessed One. abides foreover. According to what deeper sense is it that not-speaking is the Buddha's speaking? The Blessed One replied By reason of two things of : the deeper sense. conduct himself like a citizen. According to these two things of the deeper sense the statement is made by me. The Blessed One said: Just so. Mahamati. Mahamati? Did this man make (144) What do you think. Mahamati. Mahamati.LANKAVATARA SUTRA the Parinirvana. The is meant by an eternally-abiding reality? ancient road of reality. he may have a rest. the eternally-abiding reality (stMtita).

Blessed One. I have not in the meantime made any proclamation whaever. Mahamati. Certainly. and gave ear to the Blessed One. This is the realistic view of causation as held by some people. Mahamati. they are dependent on the idea of being and on that of non-being. Mahamati. and. This will not be in nihilism or in realism. (145) The Blessed One replied Then. may we quickly attain supreme enlightenment. Then the Blessed One said: People of this world are dependent on two things. and that the actually existing and becoming world does not take its rise from causation which is non-existent. what makes up greed. Mahamati. who are the people dependent on the notion of being? It means this that they regard the world as rising from causation which is really existent. 8. At that time. the case if the world is something non-existing. and is meant by being dependent upon means. and yet discriminating as regards the non- It folly . that is. Mahamati. reality of and folly. tell Mahamati made One : . anger. in this respect. Now. .CHAPTER THREE 7. Now. Maha- The Zen masters frequently refer to this important declaration. . there is no distinction whatever. They thus talk of the really-existing world as arising from the reality of causation. LXII this request of the Blessed Blessed One. being of all things and when myself and other BodhisattvaMahasattvas are freed of the notions of being and non-being. 125 till From 1 the night of Enlightenment that of Nir- vana. admitting greed. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. It is oh account of the deeper meaning that the eternally-abiding reality of self-realisation is talked of by me and between myself and [all the other] Buddhas. listen well and reflect well within yourself I will tell you. and they there is fall into the views whereby they take pleasure either They imagine emancipation where no emancipation. : . about the being and nonPray me. what the idea of non-being ? anger.

understand this] is the one who ruins the character of the Sravaka. The Buddha.] where there is a state of being bound there are the binding and the cause of bondage. anger. : ! and folly. Sravakas. this characterises nihilism and realism. Sravaka. and the Pratyekabuddha. greed. [And yet there is] one who talks thus. Blessed One. anger. Mahamati. because is of all things being devoid of individual marks. but he ruins even the character of the Buddha. and folly. and folly. as there is no reality in the nature of greed. The Blessed One he who.126 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA mati. . admitting yet refuses to admit them. Mahamati only is he himself doomed to ruin because of his notion of greed. anger. MahaNot Again thou hast indeed spoken well. One who is conceited in the view of being and non-being is indeed doomed to ruin. because they are neither different nor not-different. anger. (146) ! mati said Well said indeed. anger. there is one who does not admit the reality of things because of their being devoid of individual marks and there . [he who fails to . seeing that the Buddhas. and folly as existent and yet as not-existent. and folly] do not exist. Buddha. Those who are delighted in cherishing notions of individuality and generality fail to understand that an external world is nothing but Mind itself and has no . Mahamati. is Now. an ego-substance as much as Mount Sumeru than to have the notion of emptiness derived from the self-conceited view of being and non-being. and folly too are not to be taken hold of innerly as well as outwardly they have no substance of their own and they are not to be admitted Mahamati. [on the other hand. Pratyekabuddha. and Pratyekabuddhas are free from greed. This stated by me It is better to cherish the notion of in accordance with the deeper sense. such is is doomed to ruin. [think that greed. Mahamati. "Why ? Because the passions are not to be taken hold of innerly and outwardly. denies causation] . the Sravaka. another who. who greed. and Mahamati. of these the one it is doomed to ruin ? Said Mahamati. [that is. and Pratyekabuddha are by nature emancipated as there is in them no cause for being bound and binding. anger.

talk of non-being? being obtains by causation. Arhat. while the Skandhas. Tathagata. 14. . Dhatus. Sugata. . They who thus regarding words of the scriptures are given up to wrong criminations are also doomed to ruin. 127 and as they do not understand this they regard things external as transient. may quickly attain the highest enlightenment. and. is . by myself. Those who believe in the birth of something that has never been in existence and. noth- ing passing away. 11. LXIII At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva requested of the Blessed One.CHAPTER THREE reality. coming to exist. now dividing. but by causation that being obtains. 10. saying Pray point out to me. now splitting. according to causation. 13. finally vanishes away. things pass away. As tends. It is not by the philosophers. Fully-Enlightened One Pray tell me. Blessed One. not by the Buddhas. not 12. Most Excellent One (148) What is the characteristic of the realisation by which I and other Bodhisattva! ! Mahasattvas. when this realm the external world is . there is no way to admit its being and not-being the world is to be regarded as quiescent. there far as the duality of being and non-being exis the realm of intellection. who can bring about non-being ? By reason of the wrong views based on the how can one When doctrine of birth. vanishes. When it is realised that there is nothing born. such people have no foothold in my teaching. intellection completely ceases. becoming thoroughly conversant with its meaning. pray point out to me. and Ayatanas succeed- ing one another and combining with one another. So it is said : 9. being and non-being are discriminated. now come disdis- forward and (147) now pass away. pray : point out to me. When not grasped [as real] there neither causation nor reality there is the essence of suchness (thatata) which is the [spiritual] realm of the wise. not by anybody else. which leads them to assert that things come to exist. for they suffer every moment changes which follow one after another..

128

LANKAVATARA SUTKA
away by any
specula-

relying upon themselves, will not be led tions or philosophies?

Said the Blessed One

:

Then
;

listen well,

Mahamati, and

well reflect within yourself I will tell you. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said; Certainly, I will and gave ear to the Blessed One.
;

Thereupon the Blessed One said this: There are two ways of characterising the realisation attained by all the Sravakas, the Pratyekabuddhas, and the Bodhisattvas the realisation itself and the teaching [about it]. Now, Mahamati, by the realisation itself is meant that it is the realm of
:

inner attainment;

its characteristic

features are that

it

has

do with words, discriminations, and letters; that it leads one up to the realm of non-outflows; that it is the state of an inner experience that it is entirely devoid of
nothing to
;

philosophical speculations and [the doings of] evil beings;
that, destroying philosophical speculations and [the doings of] evil beings, it shines out in its own inner light of attainment. These, Mahamati, are the characteristics of

and

the realisation.

Now, Mahamati, what
1

is

meant by the teaching

[con-

cerning it] the doctrinal works; it keeps one away from the dualistic notions of being and non-being, of oneness and otherness; first making use of skilful means and expedients, it induces
all

It is variously given in the nine divisions of

whoever
This,

beings to have a perception [of this teaching] so that is inclined towards it, may be instructed in it.

Mahamati, is the characteristic of the teaching. Let, therefore, Mahamati, you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas
(149) exert yourselves in this. 15. Eealisation and teaching, self-attainment and doctrinal instruction those who have an insight into the differ-

ence will not be led away by philosophical authorities. 16. There is no truth in any object that is imagined by the ignorant; deliverance is where there is no objective

world;
17.

why

is this

The world

not sought by the speculators? of the Samskritas is observed as the con-

tinuation of birth-and-death, whereby dualisms are nour-

CHAPTER THREE
ished,

129
[the truth]
is

and because of

this perversion

not

perceived.

There is just one truth, which is Nirvana it has 18. nothing to do with the Manas (intellection) the world seen as subject to discrimination resembles a plantain tree, a 1 dream, a vision.
;

No greed there is, no anger, nor folly either, and no personal ego; from desire start the Skandhas, again, which resemble a dream.
19.

LXIV
sattva requested of the Blessed One, saying

At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-MahaPray tell me,
: .

Blessed One, pray tell me, Sugata, regarding what characBlessed terises wrong discrimination (abkutaparikalpa)

wrong diswhen rising and going on, constitutes crimination, which, what is known as wrong discrimination that is to say, to what kind of thought is the term wrong discrimination applicable ? or what kind of discrimination is to be called wrong ? (150) The Blessed One said: Well said, well said,
One,
tell
;

me

as to the how, what, why,

and who

of

Mahamati and again, well said, indeed, Mahamati! You who have been admitted [into the order of Bodhisattvas] Mahamati, think of this matter which is worth asking about,
;
,

many people, for the happiness of many because of your compassion for the world, for the people, benefit of the multitudes, for the welfare and happiness of
celestial

for the welfare of

listen well

Therefore, Mahamati, within yourself as I tell you. Certainly, Blessed One said Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva, and gave ear to the Blessed One.

beings

and humankind.

and

reflect well

;

Then the Blessed One

said thus to him:

When
;

the

inultitudinousness of objects is wrongly imagined [as real] and attached to, discrimination goes on evolving and, Mahamati, as people are attached tenaciously to the notion of

grasping, as they have not ascertained in their
the nature of the objective world
1

which

is

minds as to no more than the

The

text has sTcandha; but svapna seems to be better.

130

LANKAVATARA SUTRA

Mind itself, as they have fallen into the dualistie view of being and non-being, and, Mahamati, as they are nourished by the habit-energy of the views and discriminations of the
philosophers, they perceive the multitudinousness of external objects [as real] and become attached to them; and for this

reason a system of mentation mind and what belongs to it is discriminated and is spoken of [as real], and with the
assertion of an ego-soul

and

its

belongings, the system goes

As you say, Blessed One, when the multitudinousness of external objects is wrongly imagined [as real] and attached to by people, discrimination goes
evolving on; and they fall into the dualistie view of being and non-being, 1 they nourish the views and discriminations

on functioning. Said Mahamati:

which are based on the notion of grasped and grasping; (151) and as they perceive the multitudinousness of external objects [as real] and become attached to them, a system of mentation mind and what belongs to it is discriminated and is spoken of [as real] and goes on
of the philosophers

functioning owing to the fact that the external world is not recognised as nothing but the Mind itself, and that the multitudinousness of things is tenaciously clung to as subject
to

being and non-being. This being the Blessed One, the multitudinousness of external objects case, which is characterised with the dualism of being and nonbeing, is to be said neither existent nor non-existent, and
[the notion of]

does not render
views.

itself to

the formation of the philosophical

[Inasmuch as the external world owes its existence to discrimination, it in itself must be said to be devoid of all forms of dualism.] Blessed One, in the same way the highest reality is declared to be devoid of [all forms of logical analysis such as] the means of proof, sense-perception, sylarguments, illustration, reasoning, etc. How is it, Blessed One, that while, on the one hand, the discrimination of multiplicity is said to go on operating on the strength of
the attachment which attaches itself to the multiplicity of external unrealities, the attachment, on the other hand, to
1

logistic

This

is

omitted in T'ang.

CHAPTER THREE

131

the highest reality does not give rise to discrimination which Is it not, Blessed One, goes on functioning in its own way ?

unfair reasoning on your part to say, "It gives rise [to dis" in one place, and to say in another place, "It crimination]
does

not"? According to the Blessed One, depending on and attaching to the dualism of being and non-being, there evolve views characteristic of wrong discrimination as when
real

magician produces varieties of people that are not at all and complete objects. Thus signs of existence and nonexistence are falsely imagined and go on so imagined; [but If so, in fact existence itself is] devoid of discrimination. how does one come to cherish the dualism as held by a man
the
of the

world ?
the

Said

Blessed

One:

Mahamati,

discrimination,

? Because indeed, does not evolve, nor is it put away. there is no evolving of discrimination as regards being and

Why

non-being; because the perception of objective realities is not real because all that is seen is to be recognised as nothing but the Mind itself. (152) Mahamati, discrimination does
;

not evolve, nor is it put away. But, Mahamati, for the sake of the ignorant who are addicted to discriminating the multiplicity of things

which are of their own Mind,
first

it is

said

by

me that discrimination whose
effects

function

is

to

produce

takes

its rise

owing

to the attachment to the aspect of

multiplicity

as charactersitic

of

objects.

How

otherwise,

Mahamati, can the ignorant and simple-minded have an insight into the Mind itself which they discriminate, and see themselves freed from the notion of an ego and what belongs
of cause and And, again, how can they recognise that there is nothing but Mind itself and cause a revulsion at the inmost
to
it,

and

also freed

from the wrong conception

effect?

seat of consciousness

(cittasraya)

?

How

can they have a

clear perception of all the stages and attain the inner realisation of the Tathagatas, which transcends the five Dharmas,

The whole passage below does not appear in Sung. The text seems to be confused and it is difficult to make out what it really means. The present translation is merely tentative. It mainly follows the T'ang interpretation; Wei gives no sense as far as one can see.

132

LANKAVATAEA SUTRA
disdis-

the three Svahhavas, and the idea of reality as well as crimination? For this reason, Mahamati, I state that

from our attachment to the multiplicity of objects which are not real, and that emancipation comes from our thoroughly understanding the meaning of reality as it is and also the meaning of multiplicity of things which evolve from discrimination. So it is said
crimination takes
its rise
:

20.

Those who, regarding the world as evolving from

causes and conditions, are attached to these notions as well as
to the fourfold proposition, fail to understand
21.

my

teaching.
as being,

The world cannot be predicated anywhere

or as non-being, or as being-and-non-being, as is discriminated by the ignorant who regard it as subject to causes and
conditions.
22. When the world is seen [to be unpredieable with such notions as] being, non-being, or being-and-non-being,

(153) a change takes place in the mind, and egolessness
attained.
23.

is

causation

All things are unborn because they are born of anything that is born of causation is an effect, and
;

from an
24.
this,]

effect

nothing

is

produced.

effect

effect is produced [if you assert commit the fault of a double effect and this double you being untenable, no existence comes from an effect.
effect
; ;

From an

no

25. When the Samskrita [i.e. anything produced] is regarded as free from [the dualism of] depended and depending, there decidedly is Mind-only, and hence my

teaching of Mind-only.
26. The [Mind as] norm is the abode of self-nature which has nothing to do with a world of causation of this norm which is perfect existence and the highest Brahma, 1
;

I speak.

An ego-soul is a truth belonging to thought-con27. struction, in which there is no real reality ; the self -nature of the Skandhas is also a thought-construction, as there is no
reality in
1

it.

The Chinese

all

have "the Pure" for
all dualistie

this.

Does

it

mean

"the

Absolute" cleansed of

impurities?

CHAPTER THEEE
28.

133

The sameness
:

is

of four kinds: individual forms,
is

cause, the

1 coming into being, and the sameness of non-ego

the fourth
29.

these are subjects of discipline for the Yogins.
is

[There

a state which

is]

removed from

all philos-

ophical views, free from imagined and imagining, attainment, and of no birth this I call Mind-norm.

of

no

Of neither existence nor non-existence do I speak, 30. but of Mind-only which has nothing to do with existence and 2 non-existence, and which is thus free from intellection.
Suchness (tathata}, emptiness, realm of (154) 31. truth (dharmadhdtu') the various forms of the will-body
,

these I call Mind-only.
32.

Multiplicity of objects evolves from the conjunc-

tion of habit-energy

and discrimination;

but

is

regarded by

people as existing

born of Mind, outwardly: this I call
it is

Mind-only.
33.

objects

is

The external world is not, and multiplicity of what is seen of Mind; body, property, and abode

these I call Mind-only.

LXV
At
this

that

Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said to the Blessed One: This is said by the Blessed One the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and others should not grasp
that time
[or
reality,

meaning

Blessed One,

why

artha], according to words. But, should not the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva

grasp meaning from words? What are words? What is meaning ? Said the Blessed One: Then, Mahamati, listen well and reflect within yourself well; I will tell you.
Certainly, Blessed

Thereupon said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva, One; and gave ear to the Blessed One. The Blessed One then said this to him: Now, Maha-

mati,

how is speech produced ? Depending on discrimination and habit-energy [or memory] as the cause, there is the eonjunction and the distinction of sounds and letters, which,
Bhavaja, coming into existence. TatM, not tatliata, according to the Chinese versions.

134
issuing

LANKAVATAEA SUTRA
from the
speech.
all

teeth, jaws, palate, tongue, lips,

and

the

cavity of the mouth,

make mutual conversations
is is

possible.

This

is

Now, Mahamati, what
said to

The Bodhisattva-Mahasattva
well,

meaning? (155) have grasped meaning

alone in a lonely place, he walks the path leading to Nirvana, by means of his transcendental wisdom (prajna) which grows from learning, thinking, and medita-

when,

tion,

and causing a revulsion first at the source of habitenergy by his self-knowledge (svabuddhi) abides on the stages of self-realisation where he leads a life full of ex,

cellent deeds.

Further, Mahamati, the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who is conversant with words and meaning observes that words are
neither different nor not-different from meaning and that meaning stands in the same relation to words. If, Mahamati,

meaning is different from words, it will not be made manifest by means of words; but meaning is entered into by words as things [are revealed] by a lamp. It is, Mahamati, like a man carrying a lamp to look after his property. [By means of this light] he can say: This is my property and so is kept in this place. Just so, Mahamati, by means of the lamp of words and speech originating from discrimination, the
Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas can enter into the exalted state of

from speech-discrimination. man becomes attached to the Further, Mahamati, of words and holds fast to their agreement [literal] meaning in regard to the original state of Nirvana which is unborn and undying, the triple vehicle, the one vehicle, the five
self-realisation
is

which

free
if

a

[Dharmas], mentation, the [three] Svabhavas,

etc.,

he will

As to cherish views either affirmative or negative. varieties of objects are seen in Maya and are discriminated
come
[as real], statements are erroneously

made, discriminations

(156) criminations thus go on; it So it is said
:

erroneously go on.

It is
is

by the ignorant that disotherwise with the wise. 1

is more or less after T'ang. AbMnivesam praffitya mayadropped, and tad yatlia mahamate anyatlid vaicitryam drashtavyam anyatlia (p. 155, line 17 p. 156, line 1) does not

1

The reading

(p. 155, line 15) is

M

They are not as they are discriminated.CHAPTER THREE 34. and transcendental. seeing the truth. 157. and assert various notions. LXVI Further. things are not as they are seen. Transcendental knowledge which is free from the dualism of being and non-being. There are three kinds of Jnana worldly. nor are the Skandhas in the ego-soul. worldly knowledge" and "Tathagatahood" which is restored here according to T'ang and Sung. partly a repetition of what precedes. there is neither defilement nor purity. As all things are unreal. p. prajna. and realise egolessness at the stage of Tathagatahood. aryajnana. According to the Chinese versions. 11. 3 The passage between "Now. Mahamati. 37. worldly knowledge belongs to the philosophers and to the ignorant and simple-minded who are attached to the dualistic views of being and non-being. nor are they otherwise. you will quickly realise supreme enlightenment. a 135 discriminate Those who following words. Now. super-worldly. belongs to the Bodhisattvas and takes its rise when they thoroughly examine things of imagelessness. . I will of tell you about the features Jnana 2 . 8-13. by the ignorant if it were so as they are seen. and as to it is speak of 1 2 its making the whole passage obscure. Super-worldly knowledge belongs to all the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas who are attached to the notions of individuality and generality. The use of vijnana in this sense is unusual in the LahJca. while Jnana. and tuddhi are frequently used as synonyms. is found in the Sanskrit text inserted after the next paragraph. nor are they otherwise. are assertions. all would be . 3 appear in T'ang. see into the state of nobirth and no-annihilation. 35. bound for hell because of their The ego-soul is not with the Skandhas. not it is omitted in this translation. The reality of objects is seen being discriminated 36. ledge) are well conversant with these distinctive features of (absolute knowledge) and Yijnana (relative knowand when you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas Jnana and Vijnana.

and not subject to birth and destruction. Mahamati. [resting] in qui. Karma is accumulated by Citta. that which assertains birth and decay. and is characterised with multiplicity but Jnana is marked with the transcendence of [the . 2 T'ang and Sung have inserted here: Vijnana is characterised with attainability. has nothing to do with combination or concordance. it is like the moon in water. Vijnana falls into [the dualism of] form and no- Jnana is form. 3 Is this in accord with the general drift of thought maintained in the text? T'ang and Sung have: Citta. Further. 3 it is the Sravakas and not the Bodhisattvas that try to reach reality by means of discrimination. Manas. Again. according to Sung and T'ang. it is said: 38. being and non-being. Vijnana is characterised with accumulation and Jnana with nonaccumulation. Vijnana attaches itself to the multitudinousness of objects. Jnana evolves with reflection. Citta. 40. and asamgatiyogasva (line 16). Mahamati. . in its self -nature. Vijnana is 1 j . and discriminated Jnana and one acquires by Prajna the state of imagelessby ness and the powers. 2 Jnana is characterised with unattainability it is the inner state of self-realisation by noble wisdom. Further. and Vijnaua. So Again. dualism of] form and no-form. Further.136 LANKAVATARA SUTRA (157) Vijnana is subject to birth and destruction. Mahamati. Manas. Mahamati. 41. this belongs to the Bodhisattvas and not to the Sravabas. (158) and as it neither enters nor goes out. and Vijnana are devoid of thoughts and discriminations. Bead trisamgatyutpadayogalaTcsaiiam (lines 15-16). triple combination produced from the concordance of the Jnana. Citta is bound up with an objective world. and that which assertains no-birth and notains decay. and Prajna evolves in the exalted state of imagelessness and in the excellent conditions. attain the state of non-diserimination. 39. when devoid of thought and discrimination. Jnana is devoid of attachment. The Tathagata's Jnana is pure. Jnana is of three kinds: that which asserindividuality and generality. etude in the most excellent patience [or recognition of truth] 1 .

All differentiation in transformation is to be as due to discrimination. or . 43. wise all Prajna. it My Prajna has nothing to 2 do with the two vehicles. varieties [made of it] are all different in form. For example seen made into a bracelet. in their transformations. what not though the gold itself remains the same. Mahamati. Mahamati. In the same way. whereby the grow powerful. and (9) the trans- formation of manifest work. They are not right. and 1 things are manifested. is devoid of purposive- ness (samudacarctrvarijitam) 42. (4) the transformation of con- cordance. the transformation of characteristics. (3) the transformation of cause. are the nine views of transformation expounded by all the philosophers in accordance with their secret teaching. excludes the world of beings. Now. there is a general transformation of things which is discriminated by other philosophers as coming from a causal agency. a fylfot. LXVII tion as held Further. is of three kinds. not mata. (159) (2) They are: (1) the transformation of form. . (8) the transformation of manifest conditions. that is. individual signs are discriminated. (6) the transformation of origin. Mahamati. regarded such as the thickening of milk into curds and the ripening of articles 1 After T'ang. the Tathagata's Prajna is spotless because of its being in accord with Mind-only. These. (7) the transformation of nature. (5) the transformation of view. that of the Sravakas evolves from their attachment to the world of beings. nor are they otherwise. with me. there are nine kinds of transformaby the philosophers endorsing the doctrine of transformation. by the transformation of form the alteration of is meant : form in appearance as gold takes various shapes gold is when made into all kinds of ornament. Bead amala. a necklace.CHAPTEE THREE it is 137 productive of excellent sense and . Mahamati. and they are all founded upon the dualism of being and non-being.

the same way. and the embracing [of the soul] in the elements and sense-organs. So it is said: The transformation of the form in time. Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened One. are what In is seen of Mind itself and have no reality of their own. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva asked the Blessed One to explain concerning the deep-seated attachment to the existence of all things and the way of At that emancipation. it is like perceiving the rise and disappearance of is like things in a dream . (160) Mahamati. and shall no more become attached to words according to which we grasp meaning. really there is nothing transformed. of fruit into a liquor. When I and other BodhisattvaMahasattvas understand well the distinction between attach- ment and detachment. nothing disappearing. LXVIII time. for the external objects which being and non-being are discriminated. pray tell Tathagata. what is regarded by the ignorant and simple-minded as the evolving of objects is no more than of the discrimination of their own mind. Arhat. 45. as seeing things that evolve in a vision and a dream. child. which is in its middle-way existence (antarabhava) they who [thus] imagine [the birth of a child] are not wise men. but they regard the causation which rules this world as something like the city of the Gaiidharvas. When we understand well what is meant by attachment to the existence of all things and the detachment from them. it is like the birth and death of a barren woman's 44.138 LANKAVATARA SUTRA Mahamati. it there is really nothing evolving. and. by means of . Mahamati. which is discriminated by the philosophers. we shall know what is the skilful means concerning them. concerning the characteristics of our deep attachment to existence and of : our detachment from it. The Buddhas do not discriminate the world as subject to the chain of origination. and. like this thickening and each transformation is a transformation rising from ripening discrimination. we shall destroy our discrimination of words and letters. saying me Pray tell me. Blessed One.

the self-control. of Samskrita and Asamskrita. and hold such views at every stage as are free from all all the signs of self -discrimination . immeasurable is our deep-seated attachment to the existence of things the significance of which we try to understand For instance. to the discrimination of cessation and no-cessation. [shall be able to] establish ourselves where there is a revulsion at the deepest recesses [of our consciousness]. well furnished with the wisdom (buddhi) in the ten inexhaustible vows and shining with varieties of rays per- taining to the Transformation Body. and the elements. to the discrimination of birth and no-birth. and free them also from the false discrimination of birth and destruction and. enter into all the Buddha-lands and assemblies. to the notion all after words. of being and non-being. The Blessed One said to him thus: Mahamati. and the Dharams. and gave ear to the Blessed One. of the characteristics of the stages and noand the attachment to discrimination itself. which are discriminated. and. and deliver dis- Dharma in the world of all beings and in accordance with their needs..CHAPTER THREE 139 our wisdom (buddhi]. Well said. the attachment to the discrimination of being and non-being on which the philosophers are so dependent. Mahamati Listen well to me then. the jewel. I will. stages. be well stamped with the stamp of the powers. Blessed One. there are the deep-seated attachments to signs of individuality. and free them from the dualistic notion of being and non-being in the contemplation of all courses on the things which are like a dream and Maya. more than words [can express]. (161) behave ourselves with effortlessness like the moon. well said. [shall be able to] enter the stage and abode of Buddhahood. to the discrimination of vehicle and no-vehicle. and. . to causation. seeing that things are like a dream. and to that arising from enlightenment. like Maya. etc. and reflect well within which is Said the Blessed One : ! yourself. finally. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. . I will tell you. the sun. Certainly. the psychic faculties. and the attachment to the triple vehicle and the one vehicle. Mahamati.

attached to this there takes place a succession of closely births in the [five] paths. [the Bodhisattva] can enter upon the state of imagelessness where Mind-only is. This being so. nobody in emancipation. there are in all things no signs of a deep-rooted attachment discrimination of or of detachment. (163) no signs will be seen indicative of attachof non-attachment. Thus there are the five paths of is existence for all beings who greed. When are found closley attached [to one is cut off from this ment or 1 attachment.140 LANKAVATARA SUTEA These and others. and [there] see into the solitude all which characterises the things as being and non-being and the deep-seated attachments resulting therefrom. Mahamati. discrimination. Mahamati. is nobody in bondage. They are greed. instead of ludhya. with their own thread of distheir discriminations. Mahamati. and thus they are ever tenaciously attached to the notions of existence and non- [But really] Mahamati. . and folly]. and folly. Mahamati. anger. when the existence and non-existence of the external world are understood to be due to the seeing of the Mind itself in these signs. there are three attachments deepseated in the minds of the ignorant and simple-minded. Why ? Because in all things neither being nor non-being is to be taken hold of. and thus there is desire which procreative and is accompanied by joy and greed. Here. except those who by reason of their 1 perverted wisdom recognise bondage and emancipation. there are no signs here All things are to of deep-seated attachment or detachment. Further. Mahamati. anger. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva all should have his abode where he can see things from the viewpoint of solitude. Bead buddhya. enwrap not only themselves but others and are charmed with the thread. are the deep-seated attachments cherished by the ignorant and simple-minded (162) to Tenaciously attaching themselves to these the ignorant and simple-minded go on ever discriminating like the silk-worms who. Further. crimination and attachment. be seen as abiding in solitude where there is 110 evolving of existence.

and it is not as it is discriminated by them. characteristic of attachment when the truth of this is [deeply seated in all beings] thoroughly understood. is come to this. it is but [the creation of] false imagination and there is nothing in the world which is to be conceived as indicative of self. because all neither defilement nor purificaare of the nature of false imaginathings tion! Said the Blessed One Mahamati. there 46. LXIX Further. the net of attachment 47. Mahamati. The ignorant take hold of the knowledge of existence according to words and are bound up like the silk-worm with their own discriminations. Blessed One. cleared away. But.CHAPTER THREE 141 Further. there is the continuation of the Vijnanas incessantly functioning. depending upon and attaching to the triple combination which works in unison. there is the self -nature of things such as is ascertained by the wise. by their wise transcendental vision. as it is nothing but [the creation of] false imagination (parikalpita) if. it is just as you say. that there tion. by their wise insight. there is the triple emancipation. in all things that are variously discriminated by discrimination there is no self -nature. it is the creation of false imagina: tion. by their wise knowledge. is no rising of any combination. Mahamati said : According to the Blessed One. does it not. and when this is kept in view. Blessed One. Said Mahamati : Blessed One. nature. if there is the self -nature of things such as is ascertained by the wise. (164) Mahamati. according to your statement. When the triple combination which causes the functioning of the Vijnanas no more takes place. of So it is said this : The imagining is things not existent is . and because of the attachment there is a continued and deep-felt assertion of existence. nothing indicative of self -nature is to be ascertained. by their wise . The self -nature of things is the discrimination of the ignorant and simple-minded. hence their ignorance of attachment [deeply seated in their minds]. Mahamati.

[it is true that] according to the way the is carried on. and if there is no such self-nature as is discriminated by the ignorant and simple-minded. parilcalpa. because the aspect of reality as it is in itself cannot be an object [of discrimination by .LANKAVATARA SUTRA knowledge. can the ignorant and the simple-minded abandon their discriminations. How is it (165) that while things are said to exist owing to the imagination 2 [or discrimination]. how. [that is. as the self -nature of reality is no anybody] what appears to the wise more than the creation of their imagination. for thus what constitutes the selfnature of reality becomes impossible to know. And Blessed One. and prativi- Icalpa are used interchangeably . they are said again not to be such as are imagined? imagination Blessed One. vikalpa. Blessed One. which is . because they see the course of things in the aspect of being and non1 being. by their wise insight. Blessed One. But according that the reason 1 why it is said that things are not really such reality. the reality cannot be such as is discriminated even by the wise. "Why? Because they are unable to have an insight into the self-nature of exalted reality. to you. the self -nature of reality conceived may vary. the latter alone fail to see reality as it is and yet you tell us . Blessed One. the notion of reality that thus comes to be cherished may not be alike. Blessed One. as they have no way to recognise the presence of an For they are neither exalted reality (aryabhavavastu) 1 nor unperverted. by their wise transcendental vision which is neither human nor celestial vision. they are perverted what they are]. causation and no-causation predicable with the notion of that is. what is derived from the imagination cannot be the selfnature of reality. while the imagination is kept on going with the wise as well as with the ignorant. because. Blessed One. for when the cause is not alike. they also cherish in their own way the idea of a being with self -nature. [And they would say] that this is a realm that belongs to somebody This is committing else and is not that [of the ignorant]. the fault of non-finality. pratikalpa. Vastu and Wiava are both used here in the sense of 2 Throughout this text.

. This whole passage ascribed to Mahamati is one of the most difficult passages in the Lankavatara.CHAPTER THREE as are 143 imagined by the imagination is to make all beings discard their imagination. which is gained by the triple emancipation. Not abhinivesannastitvadrislitih (lines 8-9) as it staiids in the but abhinivesadastitva according to T'ang and Sung. Now. whereby they are led to cling to the realm of noble wisdom? Why . do you deny the truth of solitude by teaching the doctrine of reality whose self-nature is [according to you] noble wisdom ? 2 I Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. Chinese and Tibetan. But. after by means of noble wisdom that reality self -nature is made the subject of attachment [by the it is told realise Mahamati. The translator is not at all satisfied with the result. will see that [this existence of] error has no form. partly due to discrepancies. they will have an intuition into the self -nature of all things by the wisdom which is acquired within themselves. who are addicted from beginningiess past to the notion of selfnature. and thereby knowing that what is seen is nothing but the Mind (166) they are kept away from [dualistically] 3 viewing an external world under the aspect of being and non-being they are stamped well with the stamp of suchness itself. nor that I fall into a realistic view by upholding the noble doctrine of self -existing reality. is it that in order to have all beings free from the notion of being [which is realism] and of non-being [which is nihilism] you in turn make them cherish a realistic view of existence 1 by telling them to uphold the idea of the self-nature of reality. those who have realised by themselves truth of solitude as it really is and are abiding in it. Blessed One. Mahamati. 3 Viviktadharma yatliatathya (lines 2-3) being a curious text. them that there is truth of solitude. it is not true that deny truth of solitude. and thus get away from such ideas of reality as to lead themselves to realism and nihilism. in its making them ignorant]. " 1 repetition of the preceding lines is dropped in the translation. . lu the Appendix the whole section 69 is given in the original Sanskrit together with all the four versions. But in order to save all beings from becoming frightened. the doctrine of self -nature is not taught by me.

If. and that the reason for this thesis is characterised with the quality of birth while it is being asserted by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva that all things are .144 LANKAVATARA SUTRA LXX "All things are unFurther. unborn. Because many faults come out in con- nection with the members of the syllogism. "is not born. are like But. for they are in one way per- ceived [as existing] and in another 1 " way are not perceived Literally. the notion of no-birth cannot hold itself in it. and because in these syllogistic members there is a mutual mixing-up of reasons. the thesis. this thesis is not to be upheld. the thesis: born" is not to be maintained by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva as valid. of being and non-being. Mahamati. this thesis is not to be upheld. that things in their self-nature Maya. must be within the limits of existence itself. Even when this thesis of no-birth is to be maintained within the extent of existence itself. as it does not add to the clearing up of the meaning. but there is As regards the no aspect of existence which can be regarded either as being or as non-being. Mahamati. . Why ? Of this thesis it is to be stated that anything' of which something is asserted partakes thereby of the nature of being. Therefore. that all things are unborn is destroyed since it is dependent on the members of the thesis maintaining the no-birth1 syllogism. As with [the thesis that] all things are unborn. like a dream. this thesis. this is to be pointed out by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. and the statement. the very assertion destroys his thesis. Mahamati. so with [the thesis that] all things are empty and have no self- nature neither is to be maintained by the Bodhisattva- Mahasattva." Pratijnayain pratijna "bliavati (lines 1-4) is omitted in the translation following T'ang and Sung. the no-birth of all things is to be asserted by this thesis of no-birth. The thesis that all things are unborn acts against the one who holds it because it is born of the principle of mutuality. (167) the 2 very attempt defeats the thesis itself. to be valid. Mahamati.

thought-construction. by the is wise. 53. As a hair-net is what is wrongly perceived by those 51. Individual form. criminations cherished by the ignorant who like a corpse are bad logicians.CHAPTER THREE 145 all things are thus seen in [two] ways. All established all All things are unborn no such discrimination is 50. these are [only] a my mental disturbance. even a state of imagelessness ceases to exist for the Yogins . Let it be pointed out that all things are like Maya and a dream. so things are seen by the ignorant otherwise than 55. reality. let them not from the Mahayana. are so many distremble [at our teaching] . is released 56. The triple world is no more than thought-construc- tion (prajnapti). is things are unborn [this thesis] the philosophers. there is no sound judgment in it. except when the feeling of fear is aroused in the minds of the ignorant. the ignorant and the simple-minded and non-being. [no establishment is needed. in the sameness all Where . 54. there is no reality in its self -nature. liable to are addicted to the views of being Mahamati. transcending all this. is born of the triple emanbirth and destruction. so existence discriminated [as real] is due to the 52. from pure. The insight of the wise. things are wiped away.] things are all linked by causation. [but] nothing whatever by is ever born. As cherished where there in a mirage in the air. So it is said away There is no self -nature. wrong discrimination of the ignorant. and accordance either with knowledge or ignorance. by means of this thought-constructed reality. indeed. no no Alaya-vijnana these. in [as such]. no thought-construction. Mahamati. made by transcendental knowledge. who are dim-eyed. : be frightened 48. cipation. (168) 49. sons will walk where there is no discrimination. and are . logicians go on discriminating. the thought of water is is no water. reality. who move about in the realm of imagelessness. when a certain conclusion is made depending on a cause.

and whatever statements one makes about it are no more than thought-construction. their unities? ideas as] individuality. Where Blessed One. Blessed One. it is of the fact that objects to be to be called ignorance (ajnana). itself ceases. unity and plurality. it is not [transcendental] there is something to be known. or by earth. generality. Again. [how is transcendental knowledge unobtainable because of our not recognis- unobtainable ?] Is ing the generality and individuality of things. multiplicity. a mountain. . (170) knowledge. knowledge was not obtainable because of our not recognising individuality. such is ignorance (ajnana). Blessed One. is and when there is knowledge which it known as discrimination thus no no more evolves. Blessed . . knowledge evolves where there is nothing. a rampart. multiplicity. then. wind. generality. their pluraliOr is it unobtainable because [such ties. knowledge is unobtainable because [such ideas as] individuality. LXXI by the Blessed One. and self- nature overpower one another? Or is it unobtainable because of the obstructions presented by a wall. Mahamati It is told again. Blessed One. an earth-work. LANKAVATARA SUTRA and non-existence. that [true] knowledge is this thought-construction is not to be seized as real. with the cessation the [of the disturbance] mind sees the sameness. water.146 of existence to the wise. gained independent of any object supporting it. and that as said : Further. none evolves . How does existence cease to exist? How does the sameness take place? When the mind fails to understand [the truth] there is disturbance inside. the seiz- ing act of the seizer seizing. or blindness ? If. and in the middle. for in spite known are before us we do not if know them. One. age. the fruit [of wisdom] is born (169) 57. such cannot be [transcendental] knowledge. Now. generality. or fire? Or because of remoteness or nearness? Or does the knowledge fail to obtain its object of cognition because o_f [the imperfection of] the sense-organs due to youth. outside. and self-nature overpower one another.

And because of go their discriminating knowing and known. Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. earthwork.CHAPTER THKEE 147 knowledge is possible [only] where there is a correspondence with that which is known. knowledge there is not ignorance. such [knowledge as unobtainable] . existence and non-existence. for the object to be is there but the knowing faculty is lacking. and that these external objects to which being and non-being are of the deeper sense that I say this. it is not ignorance. they are concerned with [such notions as] external objects. and the blind. if knowledge is unobtainable because of the obstruction presented by a wall. As they are tenaciously clinging to the thought of an ego-soul and all that belongs to it. As this [knowledge] is unobtainable. But logicians being under the habit-energy of the wrong reasoning which has been carried on since beginning-less time as to existence and non-existence are unable to know all this. it is ignorance. or fire. That [transcendental] knowledge is unobtainable is due to the recognition that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind. substances. mountain. and. due to farness or nearness. predicated are non-existent. such as is unattainable is not [transor known is cendental] knowledge. So it is said : . whatever statements we make about it are no more than thought-constructions. wind. water. there is no evolving of knowing and known. It is not because is but when [we know that] knowledge gained independent of any supporting object. and emancipation is realised. they think of what things as existent and non-existent. they are really unable to understand is meant by the doctrine of Mind-only. the aged. or by earth. (171) and on discriminating knowing and known. abide in nihilism. indications. and declaring that [transcendental knowledge] is unobtainable. while not knowing it. and yet they declare that the cessation of able as thus the triple discrimination is [the state of] the Mind-only. Again. rampart. there is unattainknowledge [which is transcendental]. or on account of the imperfection of the sense-organs as in the case of an infant. such is [transcendental] Mahamati. forms.

Blessed One said Mahamati the Bodhisattva. they cling to the study of the dis- courses which are a means and do not know properly how to assertain the truth of self-realisation which is the truth un- spoiled by the fourfold proposition. Mahamati. falsehoods. the ignorant and simple-minded keep on dancing and leaping fascinated with their wrong reasonings. such is to be called wrong knowledge. old age. Certainly. clinging to the external world which is seen of the Mind itself. may keep ourselves away from the wrong logicians such as the philosophers and those who belong buddha. and future. Fully-Enlightened Ones of the past. whereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas in future time. me. about the characteristic features of the truth of self-realisation and about the discourses on it. If [transcendental] knowledge fails to see. and the teach: : . and self-discriminations. I will tell you. and blindness. They are the teaching by discourses. 60. its own object which is present. If [transcendental] knowledge fails to know. such is ignorance and not knowledge this teaching belongs to the logicians. its own unique object that does not present itself [as an object]. Blessed One. listen well and reflect well within yourself . to the vehicles of the Sravaka and the Pratyeka- (172) Said the Blessed One: Then. and are unable to understand the truth of self-realisation and its discourse in words. LXXII Further.148 58. Pray Blessed One. present. LANKAVATAEA SUTEA If [transcendental] lies tive world which . there are two forms of teaching the truth attained by the Tathagatas. such is to be called wrong knowledge. Arhats. Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. various obstructions far and near. though 59. before knowledge fails to see an objecit. tell Said Mahamati: understanding what they are. The Blessed One said this to him Mahamati. it is just as you say. on account of defective senses such as infancy. Mahamati.

CHAPTER THREE : 149 ing by the establishment of self-realisation. the FullyEnlightened One. by the philosophers. this said. the Arhat. and Pratyekabuddhas. LXXIII that time again. which has never been tasted by any bad logicians. Manas. adored. who have fallen into the dualistic views of being and non-being . This. realisation and discoursing. reasoning. Blessed One. puts the minds of the ignorant in utter confusion . that the Lokayatika who is [skilled in] various forms of incantation and in the art of eloquence is not to be honoured. and Manovijiiana which has nothing to do with logic. I discourse with the ignorant in this and [disclose] self-realisation to the Yogins. Sravakas. Mahamati the Bodhisattva(173) Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One It was told at one : At time by the Blessed One. What Mind then itself? is the truth of self- realisation by which the Yogins turn away from discriminais ting seen of the There is state of inner attainment which does not fall into the an exalted dualism . this I call self -realisation. of bothness and not-bothness which goes beyond the Citta. Mahamati there are various materials and canonical texts and discourses by which sentient beings are taught according to their dispositions and what inclinations. is what characand discoursing on it. and you and the other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are to So it is said: discipline themselves. what one gains from such devotions is worldly enjoyments and not the Dharma [or Truth] For what reason is for . and illustrating. the Tathagata. Mahamati. of oneness and otherness. What is meant by the studying of the discourses is this. theorising. that by devoting ourselves to the in varieties of incantations Lokayatika who not the is skilled and in the art of eloquence. and reverently attended upon . I have two forms of teaching the truth: self61. terises the truth of self-realisation Mahamati. worldly enjoyments are gained but Dharma [or Truth] 1 Said the Blessed One: The Lokayatika who is skilled in varieties of incantations and in the art of eloquence.

and despair. thus ruining himself. Not being released of the transition from one path to another. [the Lokayatika] has composed of various reasonings and exemplifications. by his dualistic views. knowing well even the minds of the animal world. he puts the minds of the ignorant into utter confusion teaching. by [clever manipulation of] words and phrases. attracts the ignorant by making [but] he never leads them to the clever use of various words. The disciple then came down again to this world. Indra was a brilliant [Lokayatika] whose knowledge made him master of many treatises and who was himself the author of a work on sound. the Lokayatika who is clever in various incantations (174) and in the art of eloquence. and. In such a way. being thus never emancipated from such calami1 ties as birth.150 LANKAVATABA SUTRA by means of various reasonings. Making up a thesis he challenged the god: Either your one-thousand-spoked chariot be smashed to pieces. Mahamati. reasons. the Lokayatika is said to be skilled in He varieties of incantations and in the art of eloquence. pain. the Lokayatika knows no deliverance from discrimination. in external things. Mahamati. Mahamati. and conclusions. whereupon the one-thousand-spoked chariot was smashed to pieces. lamentation. and what he teaches being the mere prattle of a child as far as one can make out is not at all in accordance with truth nor in unison with sense. Mahamati. he then makes them a system 1 Read apayasa instead of upayasa. For this reason. disease. sorrow. way of truth and right As he himself does not understand what all things mean. or every one of my own serpent- hoods be cut off. not is nothing but what is seen of the and attaching himself to the idea of self-nature itself. In the argument the Lokayatika disciple who had assumed the form of a serpent defeated [the godopponent]. puts the gods and fighting demons in utter confusion by means of various words and phrases. . He had a disciple who assuming the body of a serpent went up to heaven and understanding that there Mind got into the society of the god Indra. leads the ignorant into bewilderment by means of various words. examples. For this reason. age. phrases.

no service is to be shown him. who come from various countries I say. divisions will abound because of this. it is born of accumulation. divisions will take place [among his followers] leading them to wrong reasonings and demonstrations. recognise stupidity. materialism which is not the truth of self-realisation but is something like the discourses of all the philosophers? The Blessed One said: I do not teach materialism. . not being able to hold disciples. asserted under various disguises which are a hundred thousand different methods. 151 adhere to the notion of coming ! and going (ayavyaya) how much more human beings For this reason. Mahamati. though he may explain his materialism by using varieties of words and phrases (175) amounting to a hundred thousand. Thus. Mahamati. Mahamati. materialism splitting into reasonings is parties and adhering to varieties of explained by the philosophers. demons. there them 1 [also] no truth existing by theirs is itself. each of whom many clings to his way of reasoning as he knows no truth existing by itself. Now. Mahamati. that which is not eoming-and-going. after five hundred years. phrases. ing means production and mass. to the assemblages of the gods. does not the by means of various words and phrases. no reverence. While is this is not at all the case with [all] the philosophers materialism in who have explained by is their own treatises and doctrines. that materialism and they do not because of their Said Mahamati If all the philosophers teach materialism by means of various words. which are not the truth as it is. examples.CHAPTER THREE tenaciously . That which is not 1 Bead mohat instead of inolioliat. com. means destruction. and human beings. but are their : own selfish assertions tenaciously Blessed One too teach materialism maintained. nor coming-and-going (ayavywya) But I teach. for he carries with him the cause leading to the birth of pain. Going. Mahamati. the Lokayatika is to be shunned. No homage. the attainment of the Lokayatika does not go beyond the realm of the body and knowledge belonging to it. and conclusions. Mahamati. But in after times.

or is eternal. For what reason? Because there are no external objects. Brahman. is the tenth school of materialism. there is nothing to get attached to. the sixth school of materialism. that all this. remember. Gautama. and for these reasons the discrimination of what seen of the Mind is itself does not take place. I emptiness.152 LANKAVATARA SUTRA coming-and-going is designated unborn. . or that all is unborn. Again. or that all is born. a Brahman Lokayatika approached where I was and having approached suddenly asked me. this is the first school of materialism. Mahamati. is all one? Is all different? Is all characIs all characterised with not-bothterised with bothness? ness? is Is all to be regarded as subject to causation since seen as born of varieties of causes? This. one enters into the triple emancipation where the state of noit form. and effortlessness. all Brahman. Hence is called deliver enee. uncreated ? uncreated. I do not teach anything approaching the discrimination of the philosophers. Brahman. is all created? I said this to him : Brahman. Thus is all is non-eternal. the Brahman Lokayatika said this to me: Gautama. when one abides in Mind-only. one comes to recognise that there is nothing . dualism ceases as there is no realm of form based on discrimination. but what is seen of the Mind is itself. Owing to the cessation of discrimination. Again. Mahamati. is all Guatama. saying: Gaiitama. (176) Mahamati. when I was staying in a certain place. if all is created. this [to state that] is if all is the second school of materialism. is all explainable? Is all unexplainIs there an ego-soul ? able ? Is there no ego-soul ? Is this world real? (177) Is this world not-real? Is there another world ? Is there no other world ? Is another world existent or non-existent ? 1 Is there cipation 1 ? Is all momentary ? emancipation ? Is there no emanIs all not momentary ? Are The Chinese translations omit this question. beyond which there is no external world.

do not belong to the school of causation. Hence the question whether they are created or not requires no answering. worldly philosophy. Apratisamkhya-nirodha. Brahman. it is your Brahman. Nirvana. and causation exist in enumeration. are all things to be conceived (178) under the aspect of individuality and generality? So long This. there is materialism. belongs to materialism. senseorgans. I explain. This is not understood by you and others who cherish the notion of an ego-soul and its continuity. that the triple wrong reasoning: for discrimination takes place. there is a triple concordance of an ego-soul. Further. world ? there any philosophy that is not of the All the truth that is taught by all the philosophers is "Annihilation taking place without premeditation" three non-effect-producing objects (asamsTcrita) . as there is a mental perturbation which makes one cling to an objective world of discrimination. and not because an external world is seen as the object of cognition. this to Brahman materialist said this me 1 : Gautama. Mahamati. desire. According to the philosophers. and action! or this is it causeless? Brahman. are they created or uncreated Is there ? 153 1 and Nirvana. It is Mahamati: not mine. the Brahman Lokayatika said this: world to be regarded as caused by ignorance. one of the . Is the triple Again. but such I is not mine. Mahamati. this is materialism. and an objective world.CHAPTER THREE space. Mahamati. Brahman. twofold question again belongs to Gautama. nor to the school of no-causation. as realities they are unobtainable. space. world has its cause in the habit-energy of discrimination going on since beginningiess time on account of error and Brahman. Is there the Gautama. Brahman. materialism. except that I teach the chain of origination as far as the thought-constructed world of grasped and grasping exists depending on discrimination. too. Brahman. no middle existence? I then said this to him. middle existence ? If so. because it is not recognised that there is no external world but the Mind itself.

" That by this self -abode is meant the self-abode of reality is gathered from such phrases as yatMbhutarthastMna-darsanatn (p. it is said to have ceased to evolve.6). and it is not out of accord with reason. 1.3). there Brahman. etc. Brahman. does not belong to you. and A better reading of the Nanjo text may be to follow the T'ang and the Wei. as discrimination is no more it own abode. a theory.154= LANKAVATARA SUTRA of varieties of by means words and phrases.e.6). . a touch. the discrimination of being and non-being ceases as thus there is no external world as the object of perception. an abode. 112. 1 born. discrimination abides in its This is not of materialism. a solicitation. or as something solitary (vivilctadharma) . assemblage. and one abides in the self -abode. an intense affection. This. by that of the philosophers who and wrong reasonings as they external objects. Brahman. 124. the clinging to various signs. according to T'ang and Sung. examples. By abiding in its own abode is meant that it ceases to evolve. an attachment. thus: "Discrimination ceases. according to which vilcdtpafi (1. desire (trisfama. reasons. as the suchness of existence. continuity.) 1 2 .1). it belongs to me. vilcalpasyapravritteh svastho. 1. by general consent.16) is negated and svasthane 'vatislitliate forms a separate sentence. " Scmtatih instead of sattvanam. nor independent of varieties of words and phrases. though it is not beyond the truth of general consent. crimination. 199. loTco nislikriyah (p. there is that which does not belong to materialism and which is not reached by your wisdom nor further. by means of and conclusions. 1. there is something that does not belong to you. a philosophical view. [The Brahman asked. Gautama. 1. is is any coming-and-going of the Vijnanas. the cessation of disthat there is nothing beyond what is seen of the Mind itself. or i. absolute. yatliaWmtasvalakslianavastlianavasthitam (p. (179) a vanishing-audappearing. if not of materialism. 200. yathabMtavastMnadarganam (p. belongs to me. cling to false discriminations fail to see the unreality of By this is meant When it is recognised .] Is there any philosophy that is not of the world and yet belongs to the general opinion of the world? Brahman. In short. The self -abode of reality is where reality is seen as it is in itself.

Brahman. there are worldly enjoyments and not the attainment of the Dharma. You have thought Certainty. called Krishiiapakshaka. The young man thus refuted and put to silence made himself invisible without asking me anything about my own 1 teaching. Mahamati. The Blessed One said this to him: What a worldly object of enjoyment. I will tell you. And. I who came was thus questioned by the Brahman to me. . well said. said Mahamati the Bodhisattvais Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. and when he was thus sent off he silently departed. he belongs to the which holds the cessation of signs and causes. for one who incantations and serves the Lokayatika skilled in various in the art of eloquence. At that time there came to the Blessed One the King of the Nagas. Then. he is a pitiable fellow. having in view present and future generations. Mahamati! deeply about this twofold meaning. he talks of the cessation of discrimination which will take place when there is the cognition of an external world as something seen of one's own discrimination. What is meant.CHAPTER THREE attachment to a cause. Blessed One. 155 Brahman. this. listen well and reflect well within yourself . is materialism of yours Mahamati. is there not another world? Now. Said Mahamati. you too ask me how. I am come from White Isle. materialist. that is another world. Blessed One . which stands in opposition to his. who assumed the body of a Brahman and said thus: Gautama. he thought within himself: This son of the Sakyas stands outside of my own school system. "the objects of worldly enjoyment" and "the Dharma"? (180) Said the Blessed One: Well said. whence do you come? Gautama. young man. Mahamati? It meant by means that this dialogue There is no allusion in the Chinese versions to between Krishuapakshaka and the Buddha. by the words. Mahamati. but not mine.

while nihilism rises from believ- ing in the annihilation of causal conditions and in the nonexistence of a cause. handled. owing to the procreative force of desire. and tasted . catvari samgraha- vastuni: charity. . however. the Citta. when the various stages of Bodhisattvahood are thoroughly perceived one after another. lamentation. the Dharma so called which is [subject to] the conditions of rising. where. benevolent deeds. etc. attracted by. as one is thereby released from all philosophical views. upon the path of baptism by the wisdom and takes hold of the [ten] inexhaustible 1 one becomes (181) sovereign master of all things by virtue of a life of effortlessness. and destruction. when the nature of the egolessness of things and persons is seen into. Mahamati. kindly spirit. there arise all kinds of disaster such as birth. is the attainment of worldly enjoyments and not that of the Truth. that is. So it is said: 2 Beings are subdued by the reception (sumgraha).156 LANKAVATARA SUTRA which can be touched. and impartiality. by myself and other Buddhas. Mahamati. 1 ~ Read anishthapada. Manas. I teach. It is materialism which one learns by serving the Lokayatika. what is meant by the attainment of the Dharma (Truth) ? When the truth of Self-mind and the two- fold egolessness are understood. enter into a dualism on account of a wrong view. and when one vows. enters of all the Buddhas. pain. and are brought into subjection by the moral precepts (sHa) they are removed from philosophical views by transcendental to worldly 62. dis- crimination ceases to assert itself . and further. discriminations. sorrow. is the conclusion with regard enjoyment and the Dharma. Mahamati. This is called the object of worldly enjoyment despair. Mahamati. age. though not the wise. This. wiped off. There are four ways of receiving others. As a rule. Hence it is called the Dharma. Bternalism rises from embracing a doctrine of no-causation. to a dualism. death. to nihilism and eternalism. This. . and dualistic notions. instead of anadishtMpada. unsound reasonings. the philosophical views lead the ignorant. disease. and it is that which makes one get attached to an external world. appear again in the Skandhas. abiding. and Manovijnana are turned away.

the ' ' coming-and-going. 68. itself. is is I teach to my group of disciples one self-realisation 64. Certainly.CHAPTER THREE tions. which has nothing to do with cause and effect. 63. AbMvenaC$) in Sung. the itself. LXXIV At that time again. Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. . as is mentation goes on. this Eternity and non-eternity. objective 3 seeing of the effect ' ' ''Coming" (ciyam) means the originating of the world as effect. The Blessed One said as are discriminated this to him As to such Nirvanas by the philosophers. all world and that world these and other [ideas] belong to materialism. Blessed One said Mahamati the Bodhisattva: . there are really : Missing in Sung. has nothing to do with eternalism or nihilism. there is no rising of discrimination. According to the Chinese translations. where the realistic view of cause and effect cherished. being free from materialism. (182) 66. there is no self-realisation. when one thoroughly understands discrimination ceases. . 1 157 knowledge (prajnu) and are nourished by the emancipaAll that is taught by the philosophers to no purpose materialism. Nirvana is talked of by the Blessed One what does . There is nothing but that which is seen of the Mind is it the duality too is of the Mind while existence 2 [observed as divided into] the grasped and the grasping. this term designate ? all What is the Nirvana that is discriminated by the philos- ophers! Said the Blessed One Then. Mahamati. the made and not-made. listen well and reflect well within yourself I will tell you. and "going" (vyayam] is the not. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Nirvana. . when there world is seen as of Mind 67. As long materialism. 65.

Again some conceive that Nirvana vital force. and Ayatanas. Again. 1 Again some conceive this to be Nirvana: that in concessation of discrimination where one sees sideration of generality and individuality recognisable in all things inner and outer. or when a fire goes out. or when a seed is burnt. Mahamati. and future. when the discrimination of objects ceases. a supreme t ability an ego-soul. some philosophers explain deliverance by the getting-rid of the [dualistic] view of knower and known. or to the recognition that all things are impermanent. as when a wind stops blowing. a being. nimitto be cancelled. and seek their happiness in formlessIn this they cherish the notion of Nirvana. some philosophers owing to their foolishness declare this to be Nirvana that there is a primary : a supreme soul. and yet not understanding that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself.of discrimination. substance. a nourisher. Again. (183) or where there is no recollection of the past and present. But. Nirvana does not consist in mere annihilation. some explain deliverance by going to another quarter and abode. and the indestrueis of all things. Again. there is Some 1 conceive Nirvana to consist in the extinction of (line 10) is to According to the Chinese translations. and that they produce all things from the transformations of the qualities. . are alarmed by the notion of form. Again. Some conceive deliverance to be the permanence and impermanence. present. a spirit. which is explained by the philosophers as the non-rising. maintaining their being throughout the past. or to the indifference to the objective world. Dhatus. Mahamati.158 LANKAVATAEA SUTEA none in existence. some explain the discrimination of various forms as the bearer of pain. they are never destroyed. and they are seen differently by each. just as when a lamp is extinguished. because then there is the cessation of all the substrate. ness. Some philosophers conceive Nirvana to be found where a system of mentation no more operates owing to the cessation of the Skandhas.

but there is nothing rising. By these discriminations.] Mahamati. because [the truth] is not such as is imagined by him. Mahamati. Mahamati. examines [the subject] and sins against [the truth]. they all conceive Nirvana dualistically and in a causal connection. seeing that time is a creator and that the rise of the world depends on time. Again. Mahamati. such as the variegated feathers of the peacock. conceive that Nirvana consists in recognising this fact. Mahamati. nothing disappearing here. roaring with . becoming confused. nor are they acceptable to the wise. there are others who. [his reasoning] ends in setting the mind to wandering about and as Nirvana is not to be found anywhere. all philosophers imagine Nirvana. Mahamati. All these views of Nirvana severally advanced by the philosophers with their reasonings are not in accord with logic. Again. from Some cherish the attaining of the true path. some non-being. where there is the union of qualities which there is bothness and not-bothness. some in the destruction of the passions by means of knowledge. that Nirvana is where they see the self-nature of things existing all by its nature. some philosophers conceive Nirvana to be the thought of Nirvana as and their owner. [and there is no room for discrimination. Mahamati.CHAPTER THREE 159 merit and demerit. (184) some in regarding Isvara as the free creator of the world. some in the king's observance of the teaching of the six virtues. variously formed precious stones. each philosopher relying on his own text-book from which he draws his understanding and intelligence. Again. or the pointedness of a own thorn. Some think that the world is born of interaction and that there is no [special] cause other than this cause. Some imagine oneness and otherness. some conceive being to be Nirvana. Some. and they conceive Nirvana to consist in this non-awakening. and clinging to it they have no awakening because of stupidity. Some. conceive Nirvana in the recognition of the twenty-five Tattvas (truths) . while some conceive that all things and Nirvana are not to be distinguished one from the other.

where. upon as it is realised that they never assert themselves where the idea of truth not adhered to but treated with indifference because of its causing a bewilderment. recog- nising the nature of the Self -mind. of emancipation. 185. existent or non- is existent. Nirvana is where it is recognised that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. where. where. of their imagination stupidly carried on. and Manovijnana are put away: 1 [here indeed they say Nirvana is to be found] . way 70. and their is thus no emancipation for them who are of the dualistie school of being and non-being. . 1. 72. the two forms of passions subsided. where grasped and grasping are no seized more obtainable. . Released of bound and binding and free from all expediencies. where is all logical measures are not . (185) one does not cherish the dualism of discrimination. explain following wise that is. and the two kinds of hindrance cleared away. 1 . and the Citta. it is not the (186) 69. where there is no attachment to external objects. 73. because 71. by the attainment of the exalted Dharma which lies within the inmost recesses of one's being. is put after the paragraph preceding the last one in the Sanskrit text and also in Sung. all Wrongly imbued with the ideas of cause and effect. The ignorant are delighted with discoursing and This whole paragraph which ought to be where it is in the present translation. Delete Icalpayanti (p. Manas. the philosophers imagine they are emancipated. where the stages of Bodhisattvahood are passed one after another until the stage of Tathagatahood is attained. but emancipation is not to be found there. the two forms of egolessness are recognised. there an insight into the abode of reality as it is . Nirvana is severally conceived by the philosophers but theirs is no more than imagination. Divided into many a school are the systems of the philosophers there is thus no emancipation in them. in which all the Samadhis beginning with the Mayopama (Maya-like) are realised. the philosophers are beguiled.160 LANKAVATARA SUTRA Nirvana in the : their all-knowledge as a lion roars. getting rid of the four propositions. 6).

discrimination sees multiplicity. 74. Blessed One. discrimination ceases. instead of . 77. have both ourselves and others awakened [in the truth] what . LXXV this At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said to him Tell me. there are no external objects. the Arhat. or not? Tafhagata-si)abliavakuala. understand- may constitutes the self-nature 1 of the Tathagata. forms are visible but not in the way as seen discriminated by the ignorant. The triple world is no other than discrimination. the Mind Like an image seen in a mirror. Mahamati. Tathagata. the Fully-Enlightened One to be considered unmade or made. is seen by the ignorant in a dualistic form in the mirror of habit-energy. knowledge or that which is knowable? Is the Blessed One different from all : these expressions. this is not understood by the ignorant. Fully: Enlightened One. ask me as you desire. whereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. according to which I will answer. is the Tathagata. Arhat. concerning the ing well self -nature of Buddhahood. [The truth] is told [differently] discriminated in the different sutras because of names and notions . while truth is the extinguisher of suffering. an expression or that which is expressed. that there is when it is thoroughly understood nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. The Blessed One said Then. Mind is no other than multiplicity. When it is not thoroughly understood that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. (187) 78. 76.CHAPTER THREE false reasoning 161 [but] intelligence towards truth (tattva) they are unable to raise any great discoursing is a source of . [and yet it is] devoid of qualified and qualifying . 75. Mahamati replied: Blessed One. an effect or a cause. which is not real. [yet] apart from words no meaning is attainable. dualistic discriminations take place. suffering in the triple world. predicated or predicating.

all by me that all things are egoless. hence this egolessness. because of their never having been made. For example. Mahamati. attainment. and is Mahamati. he is impermanent. Each of them is not without its own In individuality. the Tathagata is something made. is neither a being nor a non-being. What I mean is that all things have each own individuality which does not belong to another. and that which is neither a being nor a non-being is outside the four propositions. the being of a cow is not of horse-nature. he neither made nor unmade. by this is meant. Mahamati. realisation of Tathagatahood] will be useless. things are not each without its own individuality. nor is the being of its a horse of cow-nature. Mahamati. Arhat. his self-essence being gatas. and . Mahamati. all the preparations brought forward [for the If. So is the meaning of It is told the terms concerning the Tathagata to be understood by the wise. (188) like a hare's horns.162 LANKAVATARA SUTRA The Blessed One is Enlightened One is to be described said: If the Tathagata. they are such as they are. like a barren woman's child. Fullyby those expressions. unborn. The same is to be known exactly about all things being empty. a barren woman's child beyond the four propositions. if he is impermanent. This [exemplifies] the ease of neither being nor non-being. measurement. As it is is a mere word the wise know it to be not subject to beyond them. The four propositions. . the same way. Mahamati. That which is outside the four propositions is no more than a word. and thus the ignorant and simple-minded fail to understand the signification of egolessness they are not free by reason of their discrimination indeed. from discrimination. without self-nature. neither an effect nor a cause. that they are devoid of selfhood. which is not desired by myself and other TathaIf he is something unmade. each is such as it is by its own nature. as in the case of a cow and a horse. anything made would be a Tathagata. belong to worldly usage. Why ? Because the error of dualism would here be committed. That which is neither an effect nor a cause. or a barren woman's child. Mahamati.

he can be described in terms If the Tathagata is different from emanof emancipation. That. this is something removed from all measurement that which is removed from all measurement 1 1 is not expressible in words. neither predicated nor predicating. are neither different nor not-different the one from the other. [the Tathagata] is neither different nor not-different [from emancipation] not-different . neither effect nor cause. the Tathagata is neither different nor not-different from emancipation. Mahamati. with bothness and not-bothness. That which is neither an effect nor a cause is something unconditioned. that which is unborn is not subject to destruction that which is not subject to destruction (190) is like space. . he does he is impermanent. Mahamati. and. neither effect-producing nor not-effect-producing. 163 In the same way the Tathagata and the Skandhas are If he is not different from the Skandhas. knowledge is neither different nor from that which is known. which is neither eternal nor not-eternal. space is neither an effect nor a cause. as the one is short and the other long. In the same way. . Mahamati. . things. they are different. the case is like a cow's horns. he is impermanent as (189) the Skandhas are something made. they are not different. If they are different.CHAPTEE THREE neither not-different nor different. As they look alike. a distinction is seen in the Yogins. nor from the Skandhas. 1 After Sung. . they are two separate entities. The same can be said of Thus the Tathagata and the Skandhas varieties of colours. from her left horn so is the left from the right the one is . there will . neither that which is expressed nor exbound-up with oneness and otherness. [This can be said] of all the right horn of a cow is thus different Mahamati. longer or shorter than the other. be no distinction in the attainments of the Yogins. neither the Skandhas nor different pression. In the same way. That which is unconditioned . neither knowledge nor that which is knowable. that which is not expressible is something unborn. and. therefore. If he is not different. he partakes of the nature of a material object if cipation.

80. this is the essence of perfect enlightenment. When world-leaders. existent 83. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One Tell me. Mention is made in the canonical books of the Blessed One's being subject neither to birth nor to destruction. it is neither 81. they do not defile the detriments. . what description can we make ? It is not something made nor unmade. LXXVI At that time again. and it is declared by you that this being subject neither to birth nor to destruction is an epithet of the Tathagata. Blessed One : . Blessed One. So it 79. being being is not to be discriminated. non-being. it is neither the Skandhas nor notSkandhas. such is the self-essence of all things. as thus non-being is not is 84. tell me. There is something which is nowhere to be seen by anybody as the Skandhas. That which is said: is released from senses and measurements is neither an effect nor a cause it has nothing to do with knowledge and that which is to be known. Sugata. by this being subject neither to . nor is it to be known as non. causation. idle reasonings. enlightenment of that which is nowhere to be seen by anybody. . Now. there is . this is the self-nature of Buddhahood which is removed from all senses and measurements. There is something that is not to be seen by the discrimination of its being. accom- known [by itself]. 82. That which goes beyond all Mahamati. all they see my religion liberated from behold properly. it is free from predicated and predicating.164 goes beyond LANKAVATARA SUTRA all idle reasonings. Those who cling to mere words. nor is it other than the combination. they (191) 85. is Accompanied by panied by non-being there to be being. are immersed in dualism they are corrupted and lead the ignorant to corrup. that is the Tathagata. an effect nor a cause. not knowing what meant by an ego-soul and egolessness. tion.

(192) : . For instance. pani-. listen well and . Certainly. Mahamati. the Tathagata is not a non-entity nor is he to be conceived as all things are. The unborn. Of these. akasa. Mahamati. and those Bodhisattvas still abiding in the seventh stage. is synonymous with the Tathagata. nor are they without their self -nature. Mahamati. what can this something be. Blessed One. Blessed reflect One ? The Blessed One said : Then. as neither born nor disappearing. as is declared by the Blessed One? It is taught by the Blessed One that all things are subject neither to birth nor to destruction because they are not to be seen in the dualistic aspect of being and non-being. Pratyekubuddhas. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva- Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. Indra Sakra. can be said of myself. is [sometimes known as] Purandara. nor is he to look around for causation [in order to appear before others] nor is he without signification. Sravakas. no one can take hold of anything because nothing has ever been born . If all things are unborn. under many names.CHAPTEE THREE 165 birth nor to destruction. and if that is another name of something. hand is hasta. vasumdhara. and they address me by these names not knowing that they are all other names of the Tathagata. synonymously used and discriminated. well within yourself I will tell you. the sky is kha. The same. kara. in this world of patience. gagana. some as the . the earth is prithim. Mahamati. objects each in its Mahamati. but on account of these different names different objects are not to be imagined. some recognise me as the Tathagata. ~bkumi. sanra. is a non-entity meant? And is it another name for the Tathagata. This is what goes beyond the comprehension of the philosophers. I refer to him as unborn. there is another name for the Tathagata when his Dharmakaya assumes a will-body. deha. the body is tmu. Mahamati. all these [sometimes? as] way are designated with many names. Blessed One. The Blessed One said this to him Mahamati. Nevertheless. amounting to a hundred thousand times three asamkhyeyas. . for I come within the range of hearing of ignorant people.

as the Doctrine of Buddha-cause. Sakra. They have no confidence in the texts where the self -standing truth is revealed. they do not distinguish ideas. in this world and in other worlds. as Vinayaka (Remover). Mahamati. Mahamati. these deluded ones would declare that words are so is meaning. as Suchness. as Rishi (Ascetic). as Vyasa. 1 Though they honour. as Balin. But this is not understood by the ignorant who have fallen into the dualistic conception of continuity. praise. is due to their ignorance as to the self-nature of words. as Suka. as Bhutanta (End of Reality). as Truth. and fail to see that it is one of the many names of the Tathagata as in the case of Indra. as the Eternal. they imagine that not being subject to birth and destruction means a non-entity. as the All-Knower. thus in full possession of one hundred thousand times three asamkhyeyas of appellations. they do not have their own truth. as the Victor. that words (194) are subject as 1 This is missing in T'ang and Sung. (193) as the Dharmadhatu. like the moon in water which is neither in it nor out of it. they do not understand well the meaning of words and definitions. as Parinayaka (Guide). as Nemina. as Rama. as Brahma. as Emptiness. as Reality. that meaning is not otherwise than words. . as Buddha. That the unintelligent declare words to be identical with meaning. as the Truth of the Path. as Indra. as Bull-king. as Isvara. as Non-duality. neither more nor less. as is known to some while others recognise me as One who is never born and never passes away. as the Sun. as the Will-made Mind. as Emancipation. as Soma (moon). as Limit of Reality.166 LANKAVATARA SUTRA some as Leader. Thus. . as Nirvana. I am known to the peoples. and. as Varuna. as Kapila. as Vishnu. as Arishta. Mahamati. Self -existent One. They do not know. as Causation. Purandara. as Original Source (pradhana). as the Formless. For what reason? Because meaning has no body of its own and cannot be different from words. and revere me. as Sameness. as the Undying. since in their study of all things they follow mere words as expressed in the texts trying thereby to gain into the meaning. esteem. clinging to the words of the canonical books.

. Arhats. the Tathagatas do not teach the doctrine that is dependent upon letters. their being or non-being is not attainable. . Mahamati. . is according to the discrimination [of all beings]. and not for the attainment and establishment of self-realisation which issues from noble wisdom. Mahamati. and Bodhisattvas and when there is no one [to teach] what is to be taught and to whom ? For this reason. For this reason. there is the discarding of the dualistic discrimination. remove them from [the bondage of] the Citta. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva According to the Chinese versions. Manas and Manovijnana. Mahamati. When there is the recognition of the fact that all in order to things are characterised with imagelessness and that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva is not to become attached to the words of the canonical texts. Sravakas. and when the scriptures disappear there will be no Buddhas. Fully-Enlightened Ones in response to varieties of faiths on the part of beings. . Mahamati. It is not that they never declare what is it in conformity with meaning when they declare anything. Pratyekabuddhas. Mahamati. it has no substratum. If. And. but meaning is not. Mahamati. As to letters. religious discourses are given by myself and other Tathagatas. Again. the canonical texts sometimes deviate from their straightforward course. For what reason? Because truths are not dependent on letters. Mahamati. anyone that discourses on a truth that is dependent on letters is a mere prattler because truth is beyond letters. words are dependent on letters. As meaning is freed from existence and non-existence.CHAPTER THEEE to birth 167 and death whereas meaning is not. connection is Upadayaniipadayat in this not quite intelligible. then. the truth tures containing all is not declared 1 [in words] the scriptruths will disappear. owing to the functioning of the minds of sentient beings. it is otherwise with the thought that is never dependent on letters. Mahamati. Therefore. it is not born. it is declared in the canonical text by myself and other Buddhas and Bodhisattvas that not a letter is uttered or answered by the Tathagatas.

and it is called the truth (tattvam] . Embracing all embrace the good Dharma. Being embraced by characterises all the stages of the the Buddhas. If they well understand what . and fortifyyana. and with a thorough knowledge of various wishes and charac- Dharma teristics of beings. is Now the true nature of things (tatMtv a] trueness. Dharma and are adequately equipped with the interpretation of words and expressions. When thus these excellent abodes are attained. it puts a stop to all idle reasonings. family take good heed not to get attached to words as being in perfect conformity with meaning. and have a good understanding of the meaning and reason of all things. Pratyekabuddhas. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas . Mahamati. it characterised by non-differentiation and is neither coming nor departing. Sravakas. Bodhisattvas. and who have no adequate knowledge as to the interpretation of words. because the truth is not let 1 Bead paramartha after Sung and Wei. Mahamati. be in the embrace of the Buddhas. will see to it that [all beings] being established in the Mahaare born there [in the excellent abodes]. (196) they will discourse on the in conformity to its true nature (tathdtva). they will properly enjoy by themselves the bliss of formlessness while others are properly established in the Mahayana. Being properly embraced in the Mahayana they will. Pratyekabuddhas. and Sravakas.168 LANKAVATARA SUTRA be in conformity with the meaning (195) and not with the letter. son or daughter of a good Therefore. The good beings they Dharma being embraced. When the Buddha-seeds are not destroyed. the [in turn] will excellent abodes will be attained. and Bodhisattvas. ing themselves with the tenfold supernatural power and assuming various forms. . a son or a daughter of a good family who conforms himself or herself to the letter will ruin his or her 1 understanding of ultimate reality and will cause others to fail to recognise [the truth] Continuing to cherish wrong one's own assertion is confounded by the philosophers views. Mahamati. they will embrace all beings. the Buddha-seeds will not be destroyed. who do not understand well what characterises all the stages of the Dharma. Mahamati.

and will not grasp ultimate reality because of their intent clinging to words which are no more than the finger-tip to them. Mahamati. tration. to [suppose] somebody gave uncooked food to eat. To give another illusinstance.CHAPTER THREE of the letter. Meaning. In this case. . perly. 169 Be not like the one who looks at the finger-tip. Mahamati : boiled rice is the proper food for infants. Words are bound up with discrimination and are the carrier of transmigration. when a man with his finger-tip points at something to sombody. . you should most assuredly in this and not be like one who grasping discipline yourself his own finger-tip sees the meaning there. Mahamati. Mahamati. is attained from much learning. the people belonging to the class of the ignorant and simpleminded. Mahamati. this is said to be learned much in meaning. Therefore. To be conversant with meaning means [to ascertain] the view which is not at all associated with any philosophical school and which will keep not only yourself but others from falling into [the false views] Being so. let seekers for meaning reverently . it. the finger-tip may be taken wrongly for the thing pointed at in like manner. the meaning is alone with itself (vivikta) and is the cause of Nirvana. (197) you should energetically discipline yourself to get at the meaning itself. approach those [who are much learned in it]. and this much learning. this one is to be considered to be oxit of his sense because of his not knowing how to prepare food proSo it is with that which is neither born nor destroyed. Mahamati it will not manifest itself to anybody unless he is . whom well disciplined in Therefore. they are to be left to themselves and to be shunned by truthseekers. but those who are attached to words as being in accord with meaning. Mahamati. like those of a childish group. For this reason. are unable even unto their death to abandon the idea that in the finger-tip of words there is the meaning itself. Mahamati. means to be conversant with meaning and not with words. For Mahamati.

annihilated . So with the rise of external objects. that the world rises from causal agencies and causation. Blessed One. while the Blessed One too declares that the world takes its rise from ignorance. pray tell me. in your gatas are not born simultaneously in the same district in . there is no distinction between your teaching. The philosophers declare. discrimination. too. their causes to be unborn and not to be and you. we can say that there is something of Buddhahood in the teaching of all the philosophers. Blessed One. deed. you assert that all things are neither born nor annihilated as their being and non-being supreme soul (pradhana) . distinctive. (198) while. Blessed One. If there is anything distinctive by which the teaching of the Tathagata excels that of the philosophers.170 LANKAVATARA SUTRA LXXVII Further. because in them there is a cause pointing to no-birth and no-annihilaIt was declared by the Blessed One that many Tathation. what constitutes lowing their essential nature is not abandoned. Apratisamkhyanirodha (annihilation). regarded as unborn and not to be annihilated: atoms. while folvarious courses of transformation. which work in accordance with the law of causation. and Nirvana to be unborn and not to be annihilated. "Why? Because all the philosophers also declare. Blessed One. the difference being in names only. Thus. Both thus refer to causation. creator (prajapati). Isvara. said: There is nothing specially distinguishable in the Buddha's teaching of no-birth and noannihilation. Mahamati to whom the Buddha's spiritual powers were added. declare space. desire. is unattainable. Blessed One. neither born nor annihilated.. if there is nothing distinctive own teaching. Blessed One. it is what has been imagined by all the philosophers as well as by yourFor this reason this teaching of yours has nothingself. both you and they assume external causation. and that of the philos[With them] there are nine substances which are ophers. Though your notion their self -nature of the elements may differ in form. Blessed One. Now is as the elements are indestructible. etc.

here is a city of the Gandharvas where children see magicallycreated people. How is it not existent? Because there are no characteristic signs to be perceived as belonging to the self -nature of things they are seen [in one . . again they are [something in one sense] graspable [and in another sense] ungraspable. and destruction is neither existent nor non-existent. Mahamati. realities conare like the city of the Gandharvas. merchants. must be many the same time and in the same : The Blessed One said Mahamati. sense as individual objects] and not seen [as such in another sense] . . How is it not non-existent? Because (199) multitudinousness of objects is to be seen as like Maya and a dream. there Tathagatas locality] . Mahamati.CHAPTER THREE one world to 171 effect But if the rule of cause and with regard teaching being and non-being holds true. To illustrate. The ignorant work and discriminate but not the wise. going in or coming out. I say that it is not non-existent. and imagine that they are really people going in and coming out. abiding. and many others. with the ignorant that they have a con- . But when it is understood that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. It is the same. are existent For this reason. they are magically-created figures. It is owing to this discrimination characterised by perturbation that such takes place. Mahamati. discrimination no more rises. that to which the philosophers ascribe the characteristics of no-birth and no-change is the self -nature of all things. and one is thus established in his own abode which is the realm of no-work. my [teaching of] nobirth and no-annihilation is not like that of philosophers who also speak of no-birth and no-annihilation nor is it like their doctrine of birth and impermanency. Mine. . Mahamati. goes beyond the dualism of being and non-being has nothing to do with birth. and your [rising at own leaves nothing contradicting behind. Why ? Because. [the doings of the ignorant] unrealities discriminated. But mine is not that which falls into the dualism of being and non-being. Mahamati. things and non-existent. like founded.

is meant that objects are not judged as they They are nothing else. 1 this I call Nirvana. an insight into formlessness excels. which belongs to the Tathagatas. 1 Added after the Chinese translations. it is said: In order to remove [the notion of] birth and to accomplish [that of] no-birth. objects are here. No-birth and no-annihilation. there are no objects. along with the turning-back of the entire system of mentation (citta-caittakalapa) there is the attainment of self-realisation by means of noble wisdom. I call it . except that the ignorant cherishing false ideas imagine the birth and annihilation of objects. and when what is alone by itself is this reason. it excels not. By Nirvana. I teach the doctrine of nocause but this is not understood by the ignorant. Nirvana. By formlessness. a dream. Mahamati. is meant the dis- not seen there . Gandharvas. they are seen to be like the city of the . and not an insight into form as form causes another birth. appearance of discrimination. and when. By false ideas it is are in themselves. . LANKAVATARA SUTRA There is fused perception of birth and no-birth. For Mahamati. because here is no question whatever as to their existence or non-existence. but that does not mean that 87. "When [reality] discriminated other than it is. there is the clinging to the idea that all things have their self-nature (200) and what is alone by itself is not seen. It is. is no disappearance of discrimination. for magically-created people are neither born nor annihilated. however. like the rising of magically-created people. really nothing made or unmade. In like manner. 2 LXXVIII So 86.172 . but Wei has animitta its instead of anirodha. all things have nothing to do with birth and destruction. Mahamati. and Maya. This all is unborn. but causeless. not so with the wise. 2 This digression on Nirvana somehow found way here. is meant the looking into the abode of reality as it really is in itself.

keeping down the theory of no-causation. 95. and a mirage. this 96. then the view maintained by the philosophers of birth and destruction 93. the world appears to not as is it is exist." . "theory of causation. 1 2 is what characterises no-birth. 89. the city of the 90. when the theory of no-birth is de3 clared. the philosophers are horrified. non-being no-birth? or does name without a [corme.] look for causation? or a being's responding] reality? Pray tell 94. When things are seen by [transcendental] knowledge. but nothing is really existing. Non-being is not nor does it look for causation. nor is it a being's name. so is the multitudinousness of the world. The doing away with the notion of cause and eon- According to Sung and Tang. therefore. By 2 . nobirth is demonstrated." Netrl. is pointed out.] no-birth. Is is it [Mahamati asked. unborn. it is conceived by the philosophers . no-cause 92. Maya. [The Blessed One answered. are perceived as neither subject to causation nor above it. nothing is left to be seen.] [Mahamati asked]. Tell me how things are unborn. nor is it a name without a [corresponding] object. "my law. Here is a reality which does not belong to the Sravakas. according to T'ang . Gandharvas. a hair-net. they are not subject to combination and are unobtainable. (201) which rise into view causelessly. by whom. I declare that they are empty. dissolved. According to Tang and Sung. where. Considered one by one combination is there. Sung has "law-stream" and Wei According to Sung. without selfnature 1 and empty. 4 How. Pratyekabuddhas. and without self-nature. my law-eye is never destroyed when the theory of 91. when combination As is a dream. the seventh stage.CHAPTER THREE 173 88. it is done away with. nor to the philosophers neither does it belong to the Bodhisattvas who have entered upon . and wherefore does the theory of no-cause make its appearance ? 4 When things (samskrita) [The Blessed One answered.

100. A system [of mentality] may have is its rise and owing 102. Nothing is born. No the grasping of external existence. the abandonment of all the philosophical views. and this is not intelligible to the ignorant. (202) the being liberated from the alternatives of being and non-being this I state to be no-birth. imagining. . As there free from the is nothing generating. The mind liberated from its objective world. 99. dition. fall [the world] is being empty. [the city of] Gandharvas. a hair-net. 1 Maya. such existence ceases as is discriminated by the philosophers by means of [such categories When members as] oneness and separateness. but because being empty in the sense of being unborn. faults of the philosophers . this is what charac- terises no-birth. I talk of this con- ventionally according [to the theory of] concatenation. is when there a dissolution of the system. non-being is not. a turning-up at the seat of mentation this I state to be no-birth. 98. Thus too all these words its will be understood. (203) birth has no sense when the chain of dependence is severed.174 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA up of a causal agency. there neither birth nor annihilation. because of of its 101. 1 2 This line may better be dropped as an interpolation. is nowhere being-and-non-being except that where there a system. having no self-nature. is 103. the getting-rid of the twofold Svabhava [parikalpita and paratantra]. there is the rising of things and their dissolution. to causation. The getting-rid of [the idea that] things are the removal of [the dualism of] imagined and caused. not even mind [things are like] a dream. no non-existence. is not. indeed. that emptiness. the a dissolution somewhere takes place among of the system. that a chain 2 of mutual dependence is talked of. etc. the establishment this I state to be no-birth. It is only in accordance with general convention 104. Samkata. . the giving of the Mind-only 97. there is no-birth. is. 105. not.. a mirage. being . empty.

CHAPTER THREE

175

106. If there is anything born somewhere apart from concatenation, here is one who is to be recognised as an advocate of no-causation as he destroys concatenation. 107. If concatenation works [from outside] like a lamp revealing all kinds of things, this means the presence of something outside concatenation itself. 108. All things are devoid of self-nature, have never been born, and in their original nature are like the sky; things separated from concatenation belong to the dis-

crimination of the ignorant. There is another kind of no-birth which 109.
self -essence of

is

the

things realised by the wise; its birth is noand in this no-birth there is a recognition. 1 birth, When this entire world is regarded as concatena110.
tion, as

nothing else but concatenation, then the mind gains

tranquillity.

111. Ignorance, desire, karma, etc. these are the inner concatenation a ladle, clay, a vessel, a wheel, etc., or seeds, the elements, etc. these are external concatenations.
;

112.

If there

is

tion, this goes against the

any other existence born of concatenalaw of concatenation; those [who

hold this view] are not established in the principles of correct
reasoning.

(204) 113. yet
is

If there

is

an object coming

to exist

and

non-existent, by what law of causation is there the recognition of it? Things here are of mutual origination, and for this reason causation is declared.
114. Heat, fluidity, motility, solidity such notions are discriminated by the ignorant ; there is a system of relations,

no individual objects
115.
diseases

exist; hence the denial of self -nature

[as constituting the realness of objects].

The physician varies
though there
;

his treatment according to

no difference in the principle [of healing] the difference comes from varieties of diseases. 116. In like manner, [in order to save] generations of
is

This is what constitutes anutpattiJcadharmaTcshanti, the "recognition of all things as unborn," which is considered the supreme spiritual attainment of Bodhisattvas.

176

LANKAVATARA SUTRA

beings from their disease of passions with which they are ill, I teach people with my doctrines, knowing the power of
their senses.
-

117.

My

doctrine does not vary, but the passions and
is

powers are differentiated; there picious is the eightfold path.

just one vehicle; aus-

LXXIX
At that time again, Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Impermanence, impermanence
this is the discrimination of the philosophers,

Blessed One, and you, too, declare in the canonical texts that all composite things are impermanent, to be subject to birth

and destruction
is

is

this right

or wrong?

the nature of things; but, Blessed One, And how many kinds of im-

permanency
of

[are there], Blessed
:

One?

Said the Blessed One

1 Mahamati, there are eight kinds

not by me.

by the philosophers, but eight kinds? (1) Some say (205) that there is origination and then cessation this is impermanency: that is to say, Mahamati, in the beginning
impermanency
as discriminated

What

are the

there

is

something born which ceases to exist

this is im-

permanency. (2) Some explain impermanency as the chang2 ing of shape. (3) Some say, form itself is impermanent. (4) Some regard impermanency to consist in the changing

form (rupa), saying that in a continuous, uninterrupted existence of all things there takes place a change in their natural flavour; for instance, milk going through a transof

formation turns into sour milk, and that such an invisible decomposition happens to all things; this is called impermanency. (5) Some imagine that there is an objective
existence (bhava) which is called impermanency. (6) Some imagine that existence and non-existence this is impermanency. (7) Some say that not being born is impermanency;

Both T'ang and Sung have seven, not eight. The present text also enumerates only seven; the missing one is supplied in a footnote

1

from Wei. 2 Or matter, rupa.

CHAPTER THREE
because of
all
1

177

things being impermanent, and because of

impermaneney being inherent in them. Now, Mahamati, by impermanency that exists in existence and non-existence, is meant that things made of the 2 elements are by nature subject to destruction and have nothing in them one can take hold of, while the elements
themselves are never set in motion. By impermanency that is no-birth
is

is meant that there permanency nor impermanency that in all things there is no [dualistic] evolution of being and non-being, and that nothing is seen to exist, even when they are examined

neither 3

;

into the last atom.

name
is

This not seeing of anything is another for no-birth, and not for birth. This, Mahamati, is the nature of impermanency that is no-birth, and as this
not understood,
all

the philosophers cherish the view of

impermanency that is based on birth. Further, Mahamati, by the conception of impermanency as objective existence is meant that there is a discrimination in [the philosopher's] own mind as to that which is not permanent and that which is not impermanent. What is the sense of this? (206) It means that there is a thing called impermanency which in itself is not subject to destruction, but by whose ^working there is the disappearance of all things; and if not for impermanency there will be no
disappearance of
or like a
all things.

It is like

a stick or a stone,

other things to pieces while itself remains unbroken. is the philosopher's meaning but] [This as we actually see things about us, there is no such mutual
differentiation which compels us to say that here is impermanency the cause, and there is the disappearance of all things as the effect there is no such differentiation of cause
;

hammer breaking

This is the eighth in Wei, and for the seventh Wei has this: Again there are other philosophers according to whom impermanency consists in not being That [existent] at first but coming later to exist. is to say, when things born of the elements cease to exist, nothing is seen, nothing is born, as they are seperated from the substances that subsist this is called impermanency." *

BMta

before bJiautfka (line 10)
particle

may

better be dropped.

The negative

na

is

inserted here according to Sung.

178

LANKAVATARA SUTRA
effect,

and we cannot say: Here is impermanency as "When there is thus no differenis the effect. tiation of cause and effect, all things are permanent since no cause exists to render them otherwise. Mahamati, as to the

and

cause and there

disappearance of all things, there is a cause, but it is not in the understanding of the ignorant and simple-minded. When the cause is of a dissimilar nature, the [same] effect

In case it does, the impermanency of all an example of dissimilar effect, and there is no things distinction between cause and effect. But the distinction between cause and effect is observed in them. If there is an [objective] existence to be known as impermanence, it will be characterised with the nature of an effect-producing cause, and there will be one entity contained in all things.
is

not produced.
is

When
this

the notion

is

cherished of a cause-producing
is

effect,

means that impermanence the cause
it

because

impermanent partakes of the nature of the effect which is imAll things then are not to be regarded as
all

permanent.

impermanent but as permanent. If impermanency [as the cause] resides within things, it will come under the three divisions of time.
; ;

It

passes away together with things past its future is not yet here as things of the future are still unborn in the present it breaks up together with things of the present.
[or matter] results from the combination of the elements; as the primary elements and the secondary elements are neither different nor not-different,

(207)

Form

and variation

they are by nature not subject to destruction, because according to the philosophers the elements are indestructible. [But, Mahamati,] it is an established fact that the entire triple world with its elements primary and secondary is
born, abides, and disappears. ceive a separate existence of

How

do the philosophers conimpermanency which is in-

dependent of the elements primary and secondary, while the elements themselves are neither set in motion nor destroyed
because they cling to the notion of self -nature [as eternally

unchangeable]

?

The conception of impermanency

as existing in the first

CHAPTER THREE
reasons]

179

origination which ceases to continue [is not tenable for three the elements cannot produce one another, because ; each has its self-nature different from the others. Each

individual one cannot produce itself because there is no The [mutually] separated origination differentiation in it. of the elements is impossible because there is no correspondence between the two.

Hence the conclusion that the

con-

ception of origination-impermanency is untenable. By the conception of impermanency in consideration of

changes taking place in external form is meant that the elements primary and secondary are not subject to dissoluWhat is known as dissolution, Mahamati, even when tion.
closely

tion of the elements

examined until atoms are reached, is not the destrucprimary and secondary but of their external forms whereby the elements assume different ap;

pearances as short or long but, in fact, nothing is destroyed in the elemental atoms. What is seen as ceased to exist is
the

external

formation

of

the

elements.

This

view

is

cherished by the Samkhya school. By the impermanency of external shapes

impermanency
is

is meant the form (rupa) (208) what is impermanent thus the external shape and not the elements. If the

of

;

elements themselves are impermanent

all

our everyday ex-

periences come to naught. This is cherishing the view of the Lokayatika, according to which all things are reducible
to

mere words because their

self -nature is
is

never seen as born.

By

the

impermanency

of changes

meant the changing

of forms (rupa) and not the changing of the elements themselves as is seen in various ornamental articles of gold which

assume various forms. While there is no disappearance in the nature of gold, the ornamental articles variously change in form.
These and other views of impermanency as changes are variously by the philosophers as is here described. Fire may burn all the elements but their selfnature can never be burned; when each goes asunder by
discriminated
itself,

there is the destruction of what elements primary and secondary.

constitutes

the

180

LANKAVATARA SUTRA

for

However, Mahamati, I am neither for permanency nor impermanency. Why? For these reasons: external objects are not admitted; the triple world is taught as not
else

being anything

but the

Mind

itself; multiplicities of

external existences are not accepted; there is no rising of the elements, nor their disappearance, nor their continua-

nor their differentiation; there are no such things as the elements primary and secondary; because of discrimination there evolve the dualistic indications of perceived and perceiving ; when it is recognised that because of discrimination,

tion there

is a duality, the discussion concerning the existence and non-existence of the external world ceases because is

Mind-only

understood.

Discrimination (209) rises from

discriminating a world of effect-producing works; no discrimination takes place when this world is not recognised. 1 Then a man ceases to cherish the discrimination of existence

and non-existence which

rises out of his

own mind, he

sees

that things, either of this world or of a higher world, or of the highest, are not to be described as permanent or im-

permanent, because he does not understand the truth that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind As [the meaning of] discrimination is not underitself.
stood by all the philosophers who have fallen into wrong ideas of dualism and who are people of no [spiritual]

attainment, impermanency comes up to them as a subject for 2 discussion. Mahamati, the triple aspect of all things as
highest,

distinguished as of this world, of a higher world, and of the is the outcome of word-discrimination, but this is

not understood by the ignorant and simple-minded.
is

So

it

said:
118.

By

permanency

is

the deluded philosophers the notion of imdiscriminated as origination-cessation, as

transformation of external forms, as an [independent] existence, as form.
119. There is no destruction of things; the elements abide for ever as regards their self -essence immersed in
;

1 2

Bead

after the Chinese.
is

Sarvatirfhakara (line 6)

dropped, according to the Chinese.

CHAPTER THREE
varieties of views the philosophers discriminate

181 imperma-

neney.
these philosophers there is no destruction, no elements are permanent as regards their selfbirth; the [This is essence; who ever discriminates impermaneney ?
120.

To

the position of the philosophers.] 121. [According to the Buddha,] there
the world but the
its rise

is

nothing in

from the

Mind itself, and all that is of duality has Mind and is seen as perceived and perceivit

ing; an ego-soul and what belongs to
122.
all to
etc.,

they exist not.
etc.

The abode and realm

of

Brahma,

I declare

be of Mind-only, (210) outside Mind-only, Brahma, are not attainable.
' '

Here Ends the Third Chapter,
the

On Impermaneney,

' '

in

and Pratyekabuddhas for when this further development is thoroughly understood by myself and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas all may be saved from being confounded by the happiness which comes from the attainment of perfect tranquillisation and also from falling into the confused state of mind of the Sravakas. the view of self -nature as subsisting in all things. viction of] an undifferentiated state of all things (212) and the cessation of [all] multiplicities. The Blessed One said this to him: Those BodhisattvaMahasattvas who have reached the sixth stage as well as all the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas attain perfect tranquillisation.[CHAPTER FOUE] LXXX (211) At Mahasattva said Blessed One. Blessed One. the seventh stage. of grasped and Therefore. Pratyekabuddhas. (nirodha) and that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattvathis to the Blessed One: Pray tell me. . said Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. giving up attain perfect tranquillisation in every minute of their At mental lives. Certainly. and philosophers. Bodhisattvas. They cannot attain to [the clear con- grasping. quillisation there and in is a trace their attainment of perfect tran[of dualism]. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. which is not however the case with the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. Sravakas. about the state of perfect tranquillisation its further development as attained by all the . for with them there is something effect-producing. Their attainment is due to understanding the aspect of all things in which their . they do not attain perfect tranquillisation in every minute of their mental lives which is possible at the seventh stage. Then listen well and reflect well Said the Blessed One : within yourself I will tell you.

and Pratyekabuddhas cease cherishing discriminative ideas that arise from the Citta. lives. Manas. and thereby they will not enter into Nirvana. at the eighth stage the Bodhisattva-Maha- Sravakas. point out the virtues of Buddhahood which are beyond conception. for there is the working of habit-energy which has been accumulating since beginningless time owing to false The ignorant turning reasoning and discrimination. When the stage of Tathagatahood is not fulfilled there would be the cessation of all doings. he examines into [such subjects as] ego-soul and what belongs to it. Manas. From the first stage up to the sixth. seventh stage there is not a well-established fore. At the seventh stage. Mahamati. engrossed in the bliss of the Samadhis. [the Bodhisattvas] do not enter into Nirvana. towards the dualism of grasped and grasping fail to understand. but the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. that as it is born of a discrimina- ting mind there is no ego-soul and what belongs to it. Bodhisattvas are kept away by the power of all the Buddhas 1 from [being intoxicated by] the bliss of the Samadhi. and that there is no falling into the multitudinousness of external objects except through [the discrimination of] the Mind their self -knowledge (svajnana) itself. (213) Therefore. Mahamati. the egolessness of persons and things. the Blessed Ones. Manas. and Manovijnana. individuality Bead according to T'ang. the Buddhas. the Bodhisattva properly examines into the nature of the Citta. at the eighth stage there is Nirvana for the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas and Bodhisattvas but the . Mahamati. they perceive that the triple world is no more than the Citta. until the attainment of tranquillisation in every minute of their mental sattvas.CHAPTER FOUR self-nature is 183 There- discriminated as good and as not-good. Therefore. and if [the Bodhisattvas] were not supported [by the Buddhas] the Tathagata-family would become extinct. grasped and grasping. and Manovijnana. therein cherish the thought of Nirvana. rising and disappearing. and Manovijnana. .

not knowing' what is meant by individuality and generality and failing to understand the continuous development of the way successive stages. The Chinese reading is here adopted. Further. This is not understood by the ignorant. The grading of the stages is arranged by me lest the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. . failing to understand fully that there nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. they are thus unable to overcome the hindrances and habitis energy growing out of their notions of generality and individuality and adhering to the egolessness of persons and things and (214) cherishing views arising therefrom. But the fact is that they are already in Nirvana because in them there is no rising of discrimination. should fall into the philosophers' of viewing things.184 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA skilfully ascertains the fourfold logical analysis. I and all the Buddhas1 establish the doctrine of the stages which develop successively as do all the doings of the triple world. what is seen of the Mind itself. they do not enter Nirvana. Maha- mati. nothing disappearing. he in the various elements of enlightenment. that nothing except the continuous development of the successive stages and all the multiple doings of the triple world [ they are all of Mind itself]. the &ravakas and Pratyekabuddhas at the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood are so intoxicated with the happiness that comes from the attainment of perfect tranquillisation. . there is all is is. when the Bodhisattvas face and perceive the happiness of the Samadhi of perfect tranquillisation. wrong really nothing rising. they have the discriminating idea and knowledge of Nirvana. With them the discrimination of grasped and grasping no more takes place there 1 is as they [now] recognise that nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind . Mahamati. he enjoys the bliss of self-mastery. he knows the differences obtaining and generality. they are moved with the feeling of love and sympathy owing to their original vows. Thus. which is not that of the truth of absolute solitude. and they become aware of the part they are to perform as regards the [ten] inexhaustible vows. and. But. he enters successively upon the stages . Mahamati.

observe that there all is no more rising in them of discrimination since things are seen as like Maya. he is awakened from the dream. there is the cessation of all things as to grasped and grasping which rise from one's ardent desire for things. when they have an intuitive understanding of the [true] nature of all things. Manas. (215) after passing through the first up to the seventh stage. objects." In the same way. and being awakened he thinks: "Is this He thinks again: "No. it is neither real real or unreal?" nor unreal. Mahamati. and [further] observing that. and external .CHAPTER FOUR itself. For the Bodhisattvas. as multiplicities of forms and conditions are seen. therefore. even in a dream all that has been seen by myself. and also observing how the mind and what belongs to it carry on their discrimination. and recognised. and for this reason my Manovijnana experiences . they will exercise themselves to make those who have not yet attained the truth attain it. suppose that while sleeping a man dreams that he is in the midst of a great river which he earnestly endeavours with all his might to cross by himself but before he succeeds in crossing the stream. whatever they do all issues It is like a from their transcendental knowledge. For instance. there is the perception and discrimination of all things as existent and nonexistent. man crossing a stream in a dream. and Manovijnana. Mahamati. they have done away with the thought of discriminaThey have abandoned adhering to and discriminating about such notions as the Citta. the Bodhisattva-Maha- sattvas of the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood. etc. and self -nature . and Mano- .. Manas. as they have abandoned thoughts of discrimination evolving from the Citta. they have not given up the things promoting the cause of Buddhism because of their attainment of the inner insight which belongs to the stage of Tathagatahood. By reason of the habit-energy of discrimination which has been accumulated by experience ever since beginningless time. thought. Mahamati. Nirvana does not mean extinction. heard. however. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas never relax their efforts to practise the teachings of the Buddhas. 185 tion concerning all things.

and the third is the sixth. "On Intuitive Understanding. and the first is the eighth. Its rays of light move forward like a mass of fire. there is for them the attainment of the recognition that all things are unborn. Some worlds are being transformed. 2. and the seventh is the eighth. and the fourth is the v fifth. The [first] seven stages are [still] of the mind. and auspicious transform the triple world. And the second is the third. 5. But [from the absolute point of view] the tenth is the first. while others have already been transformed 2 there I preach the various . 7. has cittamatram nirabliasam. [the ninth and the tenth. it is the highest station of Mahesvara. nishtha [heaven] shining brilliantly.186 LANKAVATARA SUTRA vijnana. but here the eighth is imageless the two stages. 4. in ultimate reality there is neither gradation nor continuous succession . . and the ninth is the seventh. what gradation is there where imagelessness prevails? The Fourth Chapter. charming. And. (216) 6. they who are bright-coloured. the Aka. . 2 1 According to T'ang. [only] the truth of absolute solitude (viviktadharma) taught here in which the discrimination of all the images quieted. V. Self-realisation and absolute purity this stage is my own. 3. is told.] have [still] something to rest themselves on. is is So it is said: 1. 105. the [highest] stage that is left belongs to me." The Sagathakam. The abodes and the stages of Buddhahood are estab1 lished in the Mind-only which is imageless this was told. Mahamati. and will be told by the Buddhas. instead of cittamatre nirabhase as it stands here. vehicles which belong to my own stage.

Why ? Because either way there is a fault connected with it. Mahamati. straw. a piece reason. For. Mahamati. etc. Mahamati the BodhisattvaIs the Blessed this. indeed. space is neither permanent nor impermanent as it excludes [the idea of] permanence and impermanence.[CHAPTER FIVE] LXXXI (217) At Mahasattva said that time again. a garment. If he is impermanent. is permanent. . But the Tathagata is not permanent [in the same sense] as the uncreated are permanent. the Fully-Enlightened One. what 1 If the Tathagata fault is connected with either assertion? he will be connected with the creating agencies. according to all the philosophers the creating agencies are something uncreated and permanent. and the preparations one makes for Tathagatahood would be useless. (218) and 1 it is improper to speak of it Following T'ang. to the Blessed One: One. and because the Skandhas are subject to annihilation. the Arhat. would be something created. Mahamati. the Tathagata is neither permanent nor impermanent. destructibility is their nature. created is as is a jug. Thus all the preparations for the knowledge of the All-Knowing One will become useless as they are things created. all that is impermanent which are all connected with impermanency. permanent or impermanent? Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. the Tathagata. he will be connected with things created. Mahamati. For this of wood. On account of no distinction being made. a brick. Because the Skandhas which are predicable as qualified and qualifying are nonexistent. That is to say. the Tathagata. the Tathagata is not permanent for the reason that [if he were] he would be like space. Again.. Mahamati. the Tathagata is neither permanent nor impermanent.

which is the regulative and sustaining principle to be discoverable in the enlightenment of all the Sravakas. there is permanency and impermanency because of its not being one. or a horse. Arhats. or or a camel. . or a fish . this Dharmata. Further. non-dualistic because things are characterised with non-duality and no-birth. and Manovijnana. the [ Tathagata is permanent. it is like the horns of a hare. or a frog. as it is attained intuitively by the Tathagatas. Mahamati. an no-birth. [the truth all of] absolute solitude 1 indeed. there is another sense in which the Tathagata can be said to be permanent. this knowledge. (219) there follows the faulty notion permanency and impermanency. Pratyekabuddhas. or a snake. and Ayatanas. permanent. and philosophers. Dhatus. not dvayam. Mahamati. which. this . Mahamati. is. Manas. criminating of unrealities. or a fly.188 LANKAVATAEA SUTEA and otherness. the Tathagata cannot be permanent. abides. The triple world originates from the discriminating of unrealities. Because of this fault of the permanency of ass. Mahamati. However. is not understood by the ignorant and simple-minded. and this sustaining principle of exist- ence is not like the emptiness of space. Arhats. however. Mahamati. the Tathagatas. as long as there is of word-discrimination. of permanence and impermanence. is. and the Skandhas. Fully-Enlightened Ones are neither permanent nor impermanent. How? Because the knowledge arising from the attainment of enlightenment = an intuitive understanding] is of a permanent nature. For this reason. FullyEnlightened Ones. The destruction of the 1 Bead advayam. the Tathagata] as with them here is the permanency [with of no-birth. but the Tathagatas do not originate from the dismati. Mahamati. Maha- knowledge of enlightenment belonging to the Tathagatas comes forth from transcendental knowledge (prajnajnana) Mahamati. of as characterised with the faults of oneness bothness and not-bothness. "Whether the Tathagatas are born or not. Mahamati. FullyEnlightened Ones do not come forth from the habit-energy of ignorance which is concerned with the Citta. the Tathagatas. Where duality obtains. indeed. Arhats.

When permanency and impermanency are adhered 2.CHAPTER FIVE 189 notion of permanency and impermanency as held by the comes from the getting rid of the knowignorant. [the idea of] and impermanency is kept back. those who always see the Buddhas will not expose themselves to the power of the philosophical doctrines. As soon as an assertion is made. disputes never arise. [one makes for the attainment of by destroying the knowledge that is based on discrimination. " . permanency . and not from the ledge that getting rid of the knowledge So it is said solitude. Mahamati. [and yet] by keeping permanency and impermanency in sight. when it is understood that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. Here Ends the Fifth Chapter. Permanency and Impermanency "On the Deduction of the of Tathagatahood. all is in confusion 3. : is based on the insight of 1. to all the accumulation reality] will be of no avail. that is based on discrimination. By keeping away permanency and impermanency.

Mahamati. and Ayatanas. what here goes under the name of Alayavijnana is accompanied by the seven Vijnanas which give birth to a state known as the abode of ignorance. Blessed One and gave ear to the Blessed One. there is the functioning together of the triple combination from which effects take place. |Hn itself] As this is not understood. fail to understand the extinction of pain. Mahamati the Bodhisattva- Mahasattva made a request of the Blessed One. But the philos- ophers not knowing this are tenaciously attached to the idea Because of the influence of a cause [or a creating agency] . The Blessed One said this to him: Tathagata-garbha holds within it the cause for and evil.[CHAPTER SIX] LXXXII (220) At that time again. the both good produced. what is it that comes to exist and The ignorant who are attached to the notion of rising and disappearing. : reflect well . listen well and within yourself I will tell you. saying: Blessed One. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said Certainly. tell me. It is like a great ocean in which the waves roll on permanently but the [deeps remain unmoved. the Alaya-] body itself subsists uninterruptedly. tell me about the rising and disappearing of the Skandhas. unconcerned with the doctrine of ego-substance. and (221) thoroughly pure in that its essential nature. quite free from fault of impermanence. Sugata. and thus they know not what Nirvana is. Dhatus. and is devoid of an ego-soul and what belongs to it. of habit-energy that has been accumulating variously by false reasoning since beginningless time. . In case there is to disappear no ? ego-soul. : . and by it all the forms of existence are Like an actor it takes on a variety of forms. Mahamati. is. Said the Blessed One Then.

CHAPTER SIX As to the 191 other seven Vijnanas beginning with the Manas and Manovijnana. by setting up names and forms which originate from greed. and the egolessness of all is obtained. as they accept the individuality and generality of the Skandhas. thus mutually conditioned and conditioning. Pratyekabuddhas. the other things immediately cease to function. When an insight into the five things Dharmas. thus there is the attainment of perfect tranquillisation in which thoughts and sensations are quieted. [only] know the egolessness of the self -soul. Why ? Because the evolution of the Vijnanas is depending on this cause. . whereupon the Yogins are led to cherish herein the notion of [true] emancipation. they are born with false discrimination as cause. they do not give exact information regarding pleasure and pain. and there is no recognition of pleasure and pain which are the self-discrimination of knowledge. there is the evolving of the Tathagata-garbha. they do not realise individual forms are no 1 more than what is as conditions emancipation . Dhatus. but this does not belong to the realm of the Sravakas. the three Svabhavas. or there is the realisation of the four Dhyanas. As they [only] disciplining themselves in the exercises of the philosophers. greed is begotten in turn. in which truths of emancipation are well understood. [the Bodhisattva] may not be led astray in the path those who [of enlightenment] by philosophers According to T'ang and Sung. and those who are . and with forms and appearances and objectivity together. When the sense-organs which seize [upon the objective world] are destroyed and annihilated. the Tathagata-garbha becomes quiescent. adhering to that objective seen of the Mind itself. By causing a revulsion in the continuous development of the graded stages. and Ayatanas. because of the not-rising [of the Vijnanas] [But] when a revulsion [or turning-back] has not taken place in the Alayavijnana known under the name of Tathagata-garbha. they are not the cause of which are intimately linked names and forms. they have their rise and complete ending from moment to moment. there is no cessation of the seven evolving Vijnanas.

while walking in the noble path of self-realisation and abiding in the enjoyment of things as they are. This is not the case with the Tathagatas. Pratyekabuddhas. pure knowledge. observing the truths of the Buddha which go beyond thought and his own original vows. Mahamati. [Therefore]. as it is undertakings]. let those Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who are seeking after the exalted truth effect the purification of the Tathagata-garbha which is known as Alayavijnana. and philosophers. Mahamati. For this reason. not entering into the happiness of the Samadhi which is the limit of reality. if you say that there is no Tathagata-garbha known as Alayavijnana. there will be neither the rising nor the disappearing [of an external world of multiplicities] in the absence of the Tathagata-garbha known as Alayavijnana. Mahamati. the Yogins. Mahamati. fine. but by means of the self-realisation which is not generally gained by the paths of discipline belonging to the Sravakas. supported [by my spiritual powers [ that the Tathagatagarbha known as Alayavijnana evolves together with the . are This. and philosophers. do not abandon working hard and are never frustrated [in their Mahamati.192 hold different LANKAVATARA SUTRA views. but it appears to them devoid of purity. endowed with subtle. garbha is soiled by these external defilements. (222) he obtains the paths leading to the happiness of the ten Samadhis. with the Tathagatas it is an intuitive experience as if it were an Amalaka fruit held in the palm of the hand. (223) and in another where the Bodhisattvas. Supported by the Buddhas in Samadhi. and [also obtains] the knowledge-body created by the will which is removed from the [premeditated] workings of Samadhi. was told by me in the canonical text relating to Queen Srimala. this realm. he obtains the ten paths of discipline which belong to the noble family [of the Tathagatas]. Mahamati. there is the rising and disappearing of the ignorant as well as the holy ones. of the Tathagataprimarily undefiled and is beyond all the speculative theories of the Sravakas. Thus establishing himself at the Bodhisattva stage of Aeala (immovable). But. Pratyekabuddhas.

saying: Pray tell me. fine. the [Mano-] vijnana together with the five [Vijnanas] creates an objective world which is like a stage. pray tell me. let you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas discipline yoursattvas who like selves in the realm of Tathagatahood. but 2. there arises when The mind. 1 LXXXIII At that time. may not The Garbha the seven Vijnanas. concerning the distinSung and T'ang seem verse. of the Tathagatas is indeed united with when this is adhered to. spiritual power was added. Mahamati. 4. the [pure] realm of TathagataThis does not belong to the realm of ravakas.CHAPTER SIX 193 seven Vijnanas. This is meant for the Sravakas who are not free from attachment. Pratyekait is hood was expounded. Sravakas. which rightly understood. so that you rest contented with mere learning. is the product of intellection since beginningless time. the ignorant grasp the finger-tip and not the moon. such as philosophers. is seen like a mere image. that this realm of Tathagatahood which is the realm of the Tathagatagarbha-Alayavijnana is meant for those Bodhisattva-Maha- you are endowed with subtle. penetrating thought-power and whose understanding is in accordance with the meaning. to be incorrect in their reading of this . the Manas resembles a jester. to make them see into the egolessness of things and for Queen frlmala to whom the Buddha's . Mahamati. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva made a request of the Blessed One. and other philosophers. nor its As truth. So it is said: 1. except. who are attached to the letters of the canonical texts. duality. and Pratyekabuddhas. duality ceases. there is neither objectivity appearance. in the understanding of this Tathagata-garbha-Alayavijnana. when things are viewed as they are in themselves. Sugata. speculation as carried on by the buddhas. (224) so those who cling to the letter. know not my 3. The Citta dances like a dancer. and it is not for others. For this reason. Blessed One.

194 LANKAVATARA SUTRA guishing aspects of the five Dharmas. Blessed One. the ignorant cling to names. and (225) where they come face to face with the abode of happiness belonging to the present existence as well as to the Samapatti (tranquillisaBut. where they are kept away from such views as eternalism and nihilism. form. the [eight] Vijnanas. reflect well Said the Blessed One Then. listen well and within yourself I will tell you. the [eight] tion). and the twofold egolessness. I [recognising] the distinguishing aspects of the twofold egoand other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas will be able to establish those truths while effecting a continuous develop- ment through the various stages of Bodhisattvahood. realism and negativism. disegolessness. Mahamati. It is said that by these truths we can enter into all the Buddhatruths. and the twofold egolessness. the [three] Svabhavas. : . Certainly. I will you about the distinguishing aspects of the five Dharmas. their minds move along [these channels]. as the ignorant do not understand that the five Dharmas. the [eight] Vijnanas. [When these tell are thoroughly comprehended] by the Yogins. and suchness. the [three] Svabhavas. Vijnanas. they enter into the course of the Tathagata's inner realisation. right knowledge. but wise with the wise. the [three] Svabhavas. Said Mahamati : it is other- How is it that the ignorant are given and the wise are not? Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. As thus they move along. ideas. they feed on multiplicities of objects. and the twofold The five Dharmas are: name. together with the external objects which are regarded as existent and nonexistent [all these are no more than] what is seen of the Mind itself they are given to discrimination. and that by entering into all the Buddha-truths we can enter even into the ground of the Tathagata's inner realisation. and signs. crimination. said Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. By lessness. and fall into the notion of an ego-soul up to discrimination . Mahamati. The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati.

and destruction that they are born of the discrimination of what is only seen of the Mind itself. . there is no more rising of the : Vijnanas. 195 and is As thus they cling. taste. Mahamati. karma born of greed. sense of hearing. and they become tainted. smelling. a horse. Mahamati. it is of . atoms. And because of folly. transmigrating in the ocean of birthand-death (gati). understand that all things are like Maya. time. Saying that this is such and no t all this I call ' ' other. or a man. . the ignorant move along with appearances. is accumulated. their minds become swathed in the cocoon of discrimination as the silk. and there is thus the indicating of [various] appearances. they are unable. Mahamati. a wheel. . there cling to salutary appearances.CHAPTER SIX and what belongs to it. Further. Mahamati. a mirage. nothing abides everlastingly. Further.worm and. According to T'ang and Wei. abiding. Further. the philosophers. tactility. anger. a reversion to ignorance. to move forward. odour. each idea thus discriminated is so determined. appearing to the . tasting. and ' ' appearance. idea. saying that this is an elephant. they do not . for they follow names and appearances. like the water-drawing wheel. and have no self-substance to be imagined as an ego-soul and its belongings that things rise from their false discrimination that they are devoid of qualified and qualifying and have nothing to do with the course of birth. by "appearance" is meant that which reveals itself to the visual sense (226) and is perceived as form. Further. is perceived as sound. and folly As karma is accumulated again and again. the body. and Pratyekasaid that there is right knowledge. for instance. Sravakas. and in like manner that which. by "discrimination" is meant that by which names are declared. or a supreme spirit. and when there is thus no falling back into the stage buddhas. the moon in water. for nothing comes to annihilation. and assert 1 that they are born of Isvara. and the Mano- vijnana. by "right knowledge" is meant this when names and appearances are seen as unobtainable owing to their mutual conditioning. a woman. a pedestrian.

self-control. have entered into suchness. he is kept away from all the evil courses belonging to the philos- ophers and enters upon the path of supra-worldly truths. and the twofold 1 ~ The three Svabhavas. T'ang and Wei have citta-mano-manovijnanaraMtam. he preaches the Dharma to all beings according to their various understandings. and when the Vijnanas cease to names and as regards the objective world of appearances. in order to bring all beings to maturity. After reaching here. When [all] the conditions [of truth] are brought to consummation. . and psychic faculties are in bloom. After being at Dharma-Cloud (dharmamegM) the stage of Dharma-Cloud. and after the attainment of the noble truth of self-realisation. or as having their own characteristics complete in themselves? : The Blessed One said Vijnanas. this I call "suchness. he discerns that the course of all things starts with the notion of Maya. the egolessness eight they are all included According to Sung and T'ang. he reaches as far as the stage of Tathagatahood where the flowers of the Samadhis. a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who is established on suehness attains the state of imagelessness and thereby . 'powers. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva does not regard name as reality and appearance as non-reality." Mahamati. he earnestly desires to put a stop to speculative theorisation (227) and going up . attains the Bodhisattva-stage of Joy (pramudita} When [the Bodhisattva] attains the stage of Joy. he shines like the moon in water. Mahamati. in succession through the finally reaches the stage of stages of Bodhisattvahood he . etc. Perfectly fulfilling the [ten] inexhaustible vows. is free from the will and thought- Again.196 LANKAVATAEA SUTEA Mahamati. 2 sattva-Mahasattvas. When erroneous views based on the dualistie notion of assertion and negation are gotten rid rise of. by reason of this right knowledge. . As the Bodhi- they attain the body which constructions. Mahamati said regarded as included in the : Are the three Svabhavas five to be Dharmas. with varieties 1 of rays of transformation.

Mahamati. suchness.CHAPTER SIX [in the five 197 are Dharmas] . distinctive features. Further. probably to be dropped . discrimination. [in which all things are determined] is Samadliarmeti va that follows here the strength of the Chinese versions. by adhering to what is seen of the Mind an eightfold discrimination." saying this is mind and this is what belongs to it. LXXXIV Dharmas name. known rnati. as the Parikalpita [false imagination] Then. by which one can say. and no other. Mahamati. Of these. appearances are determined and there this is is "discrimination. like the rising of the sun and its rays. Maha- discrimination which rises depending upon them. This conies from imagining unreal individual appearances [as real]. right knowledge. is the notion of an ego-soul and what belongs to it. and suchness appearance is that which is seen as having such characterisFurther. name and appearance . Bodhisattvas. colours. etc. and Tathagatas into the state of self-realisation by means of their noble wisdom. of the five tics as form. "appearance. and thus they are known as Parinishpanna [perfect knowledge]. images. appearance. this is such and such. etc. the notion and the discrimination are of simultaneous occurrence. in these five Dharmas are included all the Buddha-truths and also the differentiation and succession of the [Bodhisattva-] stages." When names are 1 thus pronounced. shape. is called the Paratantra Right knowledge and [dependence on another]. and the entrance of the Sravakas. there is the birth of the twofold Mahamati. Mahamati. it is stopped. That these names and appearances are after all unobtainable because when intellection is put away the aspect of mutuality on." Out of this appearance ideas are formed such as a jar. Pratyekabuddhas. the dis- crimination thus supporting the notion of self -nature which subsists in the multiplicities of objects. are indestructible.. (228) When the twofold clinging to an ego-soul and what itself there is belongs to egolessness. this is "name. Mahamati.

discrimination ceases to rise. in agreement with this. Sravakas. appearance." (229) These are. Arhats. [the When. the five Dharmas. in the canonical text the Tathagatas of the past. and Pratyekabuddhas . and there is a state conTathagatas. is Why ? Because an analogy which superior to anything of the world and surpasses it cannot be called an analogy. for. (230) The Tathagatas. formable to self-realisation by means of noble wisdom. future are like the sands of the river Ganga. suchness are the Parinishpanna. Mahamati. since there is in it something resembling and something not resembling. and in them are included the three Svabhavas. So it is said : The five Dharmas. self-substance. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-MahaIt is told by the Blessed sattva said this to the Blessed One : One and One. while right knowledge and to] 5. present. which is not the course of controversy pertaining to the philosphers. LXXXV At that time again. source. this is "right knowledge. In this. and all the Buddha-truths. and discrimination [correspond the first two Svabhavas. and widely shown. Blessed is this to distinct be accepted literally? or is there another meaning? Pray tell me. recognised. truth] is rightly understood as neither negative nor affirmative. the eight Vijiianas. This has been realised by myself and the made public. said: The Blessed One its literal Mahamati. the eight Vijnanas.198 LANKAVATARA SUTRA ceases to be perceived and imagined this is called the "suchness" of things. the unattainable. the Buddhas of the three divisions of time are not measurable by the measurement of the sands of the Ganga. the twofold egolessness. truthfully pointed out. exact knowledge. Mahamati. 6. reality. Name. And this suchness may be characterised as truth. Blessed One. limit. do not take it in sense. reflect well with your own wisdom and let others do [the same] and do not allow yourself to be led by another. Mahamati. . and the twofold egolessness they are all embraced in the Mahayana. the Svabhavas.

however. to be led by me. follow up the wheel of transmigration. by myself and the Tathagatas. those who. The is the Tathagatas. Fully-Enlightened Ones are said to be like the sands of the it. therefore. Mahamati. the establishment of the truth itself is pointed out. [sometimes] a comparison made use . because [the ignorant] are incapable of believing. and Manovijnana. in which the Tathagatas. it surpasses beyond measure anything in the world that can be offered as an analogy to it. seek after the excellent state. and giving themselves up river Ganga. them there is But. anxious to escape the intricacies of the wheel this could of existence. (231) There of is self-realisation indeed no room for analogies to enter in the realm which is effected by means of noble wisdom. thinking how be realised. Tathagatas appear as rarely as the Udumbara this is in consideration of those people and who are Mahamati. To say that the Tathagatas appear as rarely as the Udumbara flower has [really] no reference to the establishment of the truth itself. And thus there is an unbelief on the part of the ignorant and simple-minded. Mahamati. they were seen and are to be seen. no one has ever seen the Udumbara flower blooming. while. the Tathagatas are at present in the world. because they will thereby see that the attainment of Buddhahood is not a difficult undertaking and will put forward their energy. the idea to the ways of thinking and the erroneous views of the To philosophers. it is told them that the appearance of is the Tathagatas not like the blooming of the Udumbara flower. nor will anyone. Mahamati. Arhats. Manas. Mahamati. in nothing deseribable by analogy. But it is told in the canonical text that the flower. truth is The truth transcends all the notions that are characteristic of the Citta. tenaciously clinging to the idea of simple-minded permanency and impermanency. When. and. is to terrify those ignorant and ones who.CHAPTER SIX that has in 199 Fully-Enlightened Ones do not give out such an analogy it something resembling and something not resembling and that is superior to the world and surpasses But this comparison is only given out.

the Tathagatas are said to be like the sands of the river Ganga. the Tathagatas. realisation of noble wisdom which has been attained by the is like Tathagatas. porbut they are are not. crocodiles. lions. (232) and it is only the ignorant and simple-minded that on account of their falling into false ideas imagine the earth being consumed by fire. never Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga In the same way. Mahamati. Mahamati. the conflagration that will break out at the end of the Kalpa may burn the earth but does not destroy its self-nature. like discriminations. are immeasurable. and self-control are like the sands and however much they are tossed about .200 of . the Tathagatas [whose hearts are] filled with all the happiness of the Samapatti are not troubled by imaginations and discriminations with regard to beings. the sands of the by the fishes. Arhats. like the sands of the river Ganga. tortoises. because they are free from imagination and discrimination. they are not troubled by the ignorant who belong by imaginations and Because of their original vows. psychic faculties. To illustrate. because they are the same and impartial [to all things]. To . Mahamati. In the same way. to other schools. separated In the same way. free from imagination and discrimination. the Dharmakaya is of the Tathagatas. Mahamati : as the sands of the river Ganga partake of the character of the earth. But as it supplies the material cause to the element fire. by the fishes of the philosophers.. the rays of light of the Tathagatas are beyond measure. elephants. "We are down-trodden. destroyed. saying. Mahamati. the sands of the river Ganga. the river Ganga. Therefore. LANKAVATARA SUTRA that is to say." poises. and their powers. it is never consumed." or "We They from are non-discriminative. etc. for they do not resent. river Ganga are tossed about For example. pure in themselves. which are emitted by them in all the Buddha-assemblies in order to illustrate. the selfdefilement. Fully-Enlightened Ones. are free from partiality because of their being devoid of likes and dislikes. buffalos. the earth is not consumed because of its being inseparably connected with the element of fire. Mahamati.

Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened Ones are neither evolving nor disappearing in transmigration because in them the cause of making them come into existence is destroyed. how can I talk of the sense 1 sense of After T'ang. the primary limit of transmigration is unknown. (233) Mahamati. In the same way. the Tathagatas never abandon their deep con: and original vows and happiness as regards the Dharmadhatu. To illustrate. cerns 1 are To illustrate. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga drawn along with the flow of the stream. and for this reason the Tathagatas are said to be like the sands of the river Ganga. that which has a physical body is subject to annihilation. . In. and the Dharma is not a physical body. 201 [to the knowledge To illustrate. the Tatha- gata's teaching in regard to all the Buddha-truths takes place along the flow of the Nirvana-stream. In the same way. Not being known. Mahamati. who are endowed with a great compassionate heart.CHAPTER SIX bring beings to maturity and arouse them of the truth] . the same way. Mahamati. however hard they are oppressed with pain for the sake of beings. the knowledge of the Tathagatas which is exercised for the maturing of beings is neither exhausted nor augmented. but not that which has no physical body. as long as all beings have not yet been led into Nirvana by the Tathagatas. Mahamati. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga are unconcerned whether they are carried away or whether more is added into them. Mahamati. in tathagata ("thus come") there is no "going away". Mahamati. however much they are compressed for the sake of the ghee and oil. "going away" means destruction. the Tathagatas. In the same way. but not where is there no water. because the Dharma is without a physical body. To illustrate. Arhats. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga do not assume another nature than itself remaining forever the same. are destitute of them. Mahamati the sands of the river Ganga. Mahamati.

what is meant by all things distinctive signs. Blessed One. there cannot be any talk about endlessness. Tathagata. and so is the essence [or nature] of Buddhahood. But when it is not recognised that all things rise from the discrimination of the Mind itself. Mind beginningless time is removed. tell At me. the ignorant and simple-minded. transmigration of all beings Blessed One. discrimination asserts itself. and there is a revulsion [or turning-back] at the basis of discrimination this is emancipation. being momentary ? The Blessed One replied: Then. Mahamati. is another name for disfrom discriminations (234) there are Apart limit. Tell me. no other beings. how is the emanit cipation of beings knowable? The Blessed One said: Mahamati. Mahamati. Therefore. 7. as neither destroyed nor departed for ever.202 of LANKAVATARA SUTRA The sense of "gong away"? and said: is annihilation. Sugata. LXXXVI that time again. knowing and known are found to be quiescent.. Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened One. 8. the primary limit of is unknowable. Like the sands of the Ganga they are devoid of all error: they flow along the stream and are permanent. listen well and reflect well within yourself." Mahamati. Mahamati. So it is said Buddhas] Those who regard the removers of obstruction [i. like the sands of the Ganga. e. regarding the momentary destruction of all things and their Blessed One. Arhat. and not annihilation. When all things external or internal are examined with intelligence. Mahamati. I will tell you. Mahamati If. when stood that the objective world is nothing but of the is underis what seen the habit-energy of false speculations and erroneous discriminations which have been going on since itself. this is not known by "going away. see the Tathagata. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One. . To be endless in crimination. When : this is understood discrimination ceases.

CHAPTER SIX

.

203

Certainly, Blessed One ; said Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One.

all

The Blessed One said this to him Mahamati, all things, things we speak of, and they are good or bad, effect:

producing or not effect-producing, of this world (235) or of super- world, faulty or faultless, of evil Sowings or the nonIn short, Mahamati, flowings, receptive or non-receptive. 1 the five appropriating Skandhas have their rise from the
habit-energy of the Citta, Manas, and Manovijnana, they are imagined good or bad. Mahamati, the happiness of the

Samadhi and the attainments [resulting therefrom], which belong to the wise by reason of their abiding in the happiness
of the existing world, are called the non-outflowing goods. Again, Mahamati, by good and bad are meant the eight

Vijnanas.

What

are the eight?

They

are the Tathagata-

garbha known as the Alayavijnana, Manas, Manovijnana, and the system of the five Vijnanas as described by the
philosophers. Now, Mahamati, the system of the five Vijnanas is together with the Manovijnana, and there is an undivided succession and differentiation of good and bad,

and the entire body moves on continuously and closely bound together; moving on, it comes to an end; but as it fails to understand that there is nothing in the world but what is
seen of Mind-only, there is the rising of another Vijnana [-system] following the cessation of the first ; and the Mano-

vijnana in union with the system of the five Vijnanas, perceiving the difference of forms and figures, is set in motion, not remaining still even for a moment this I call

Mahamati, momentary is the Alayavijnana known as the Tathagata-garbha, which is together with the Manas and with the habit-energy of the evolving Vijnanas this is momentary. But [the Alayavijnana which is together] with the habit-energy of the non-outflows (anasrava) (236) is not momentary. This is not understood by the
All the Skandhas are self-appropriating, or self -grasping, as long as there is attachment to the notion of an ego-soul. When that
is

momentariness.

got rid of, the Skandhas are anasrava,

i.e.

not tainted with

evil

outflows.

204

LANKAVATARA SUTRA

ignorant and simple-minded who are addicted to the doctrine of momentariness. Not understanding the momentariness
all things, they cherish nihilism even try to destroy the unmade (usamsknta) whereby they Mahamati, the system itself of the five Vijnanas is not subject to transmigration, nor does it suffer pleasure and pain, nor is it conducive to Nirvana. But, Mahamati, the
.

and non-momentariness of

Tathagata-garbha
pleasure and pain;
to

is

together with the cause that suffers
this that is set in

it is

work;

it is

stupefied

motion and ceases by the fourfold habit-energy. But

the ignorant do not understand it, as their thoughts are infused with the habit-energy of discrimination which
cherishes the view of momentariness.

Buddha,

Further, Mahamati, gold, vajra, and the relics of the owing to their specific character, are never

destroyed but remain the same until the end of time. If, Mahamati, the nature of enlightenment is momentary, the wise would lose their wiseness (aryatva), but they have never
lost

the

Mahamati, gold and vajra remain the same until end of time; remaining the same they are neither diminished nor increased. How is it that the ignorant, failing to recognise the hidden meaning of all things internal and external, discriminate in the sense of momentariness ?
it.

LXXXVII
Further, Mahamati said: It is again said by the Blessed One that by fulfilling the six Paramitas Buddha-

hood

is realised.

What

are the six (237) Paramitas?

And

how

are they fulfilled? The Blessed One replied:

kinds of Paramitas.

Mahamati, there are three "What are the three? They are the

worldly, the super-worldly, and the highest super-wordly. Of these, Mahamati, the worldly Paramitas [are practised thus] Adhering tenaciously to the notion of an ego-soul
:

to it and holding fast to dualism, those are desirous for this world of form, etc., will practise the Paramita of charity in order to obtain the various

and what belongs

who

realms

of

existence.

In the same way, Mahamati, the

CHAPTBE SIX

205

ignorant will practise the Paramitas of morality, patience, energy, Dhyana, and Prajna. Attaining the psychic powers they will be born in Brahma's heaven.

As to the super-worldly Paramitas, they are practised the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas whose thoughts are by possessed by the notion of Nirvana; the Paramitas of
charity,
etc.

are thus performed

by them, who,

like the

ignorant, are desirous of enjoying Nirvana for themselves. Again, Mahamati, as to the highest super-worldly Paramitas, [they are practised] by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who are the practisers of the highest form of spiritual discipline
;

that
is

but what

perceiving that there is nothing in the world only seen of the Mind itself, on account of disis,

crimination,
itself,

and understanding that duality is of the Mind they see that discrimination ceases to function; and,

that seizing and holding is non-existent; and, free from all thoughts of attachment to individual objects which are of the Mind itself, and in order to benefit and give happiness
to all sentient beings, [the Bodhisattvas] practise the

Para-

mita of charity. "While dealing with an objective world there is no rising in them of discrimination; they just practise

To practise morality and this is the Paramita [of morality] patience with no thought of discrimination rising in them
.

and yet with full knowledge of grasped and grasping Paramita of patience. To exert oneself with energy from the first part of the night to its end and in conformity with the disciplinary measures and not to give rise to discrimination this is the Paramita of energy. Not
(238)
this is the to cherish discrimination, not to fall into the philosopher's notion of Nirvana this is the Paramita of Dhyana. As to

the Paramita of Prajna:

Mind

itself ceases,

when the discrimination of the when things are thoroughly examined by

means

of intelligence, there is no falling into dualism, and a revulsion takes place at the basis, while previous karma is

not destroyed ; when [transcendental knowledge] is exercised for the accomplishment of self-realisation, then there is the

Paramita of Prajna. and their meanings.

These, Mahamati, are the Paramitas

206

LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LXXXVIII 1
So
9.
it is

said:

The created (samskrita) are empty, impermanent, momentary so the ignorant discriminate; the meaning of momentariness is discriminated by means of the analogies of a river, a lamp, and seeds.
All things are non-existent, they are not-momen10. tary, quiescent, not subject to destruction, and unborn this, I say, is the meaning of momentariness.
this I

Birth and death succeed without interruption do not point out for the ignorant. Owing to the uninterrupted succession of existence, discrimination moves on in the [six] paths.
11.

12.

Ignorance

is

the cause and there

is

rising of minds, when form is not yet born, where abode of the middle existence?
13.

the general is the

If another

mind

is

set in

motion in an uninterit

rupted succesion of deaths, (239) where does dependence as form is not established in time ?
14.

find its

If

mind

is set
;

in motion, somewhere, somehow, the
it is

cause
of its

is

an unreal one

not complete

;

how can one know

momentary disappearances? 15. The attainment of the Yogins, gold, the Buddharelics, and the heavenly palace of Abhasvara are indestructible

by any worldly agencies. Ever abiding are the truths attained by the Buddhas and their perfect knowledge; the nature of Buddhahood as realised [by them] how can there be momentariness in them ? 17. The city of the Gandharvas, Maya-like forms how
16.

can they be
agencies ?

otherwise

characterised with unreality, and

than momentary? Realities are how can they be causal

Here Ends the Sixth Chapter
1

"On

Momentariness."

The proper place for this section is after the section on "Momentary" and before the "Paramita," or what is the same thing
the latter is -wrongly inserted "where
it is

found in in the

text.

[CHAPTER SEVEN]
LXXXIX
(240) At that time again, Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva said this to the Blessed One [How was it that] the Arhats were given assurance by the Blessed One of
:

their attainment of
all

supreme enlightenment? [How can] beings attain Tathagatahood without realising the truths of Parinirvana? [What does it mean that] from the night
the Tathagata was awakened to supreme enlightenuntil the night when he entered into Parinirvana, between these times the Tathagata has not uttered, has not [What is the meaning of this] that pronounced, a word.

when ment

being always in Samadhi the Tathagatas neither deliberate nor contemplate? [How do] Buddhas of transformation, in the state of transformation, execute the works of being
the Tathagatas?

How

is

the succession of

momentary

de-

composition explained which takes place in the Vijnanas? [Further, what do these statements mean] that Vajrapani
is

is
;

guard

constantly with [the Tathagata] that the primary limit is unknown

as his personal

and yet

cessation

knowable; that there are evil ones, their activities, and left-over karma? Blessed One, [facts of] karma-hindrance are said to be shown [by the Tathagata in the incident of]

Canea the daughter of a Brahmin, of Sundari the daughter of a mendicant, an empty bowl, etc.; how can the Blessed One with these unexhausted evils attain all-knowledge? The Blessed One replied: Then, Mahamati, listen well and reflect well within yourself; I will tell you.
Certainly, Blessed

One; (241) said Mahamati the Bod:

hisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. The Blessed One said this to him The realm of Nirvana

where no substratum is left behind is according to the hidden meaning and for the sake of the practisers who are

208

LANKAVATARA SUTRA

thereby inspired to exert themselves in the work of the Bodhisattvas. Mahamati, there are Bodhisattvas practising
the

work

of the Bodhisattva here

and in other Buddha-

lands, who, however, are desirous of attaining the Nirvana In order to turn their inclination away of the Slravakayana.

from the Sravakayana and to make them exert themselves Mahayana, the Sravakas in transformation are given assurance [as to their future Buddhahood] by the Body of Transformation but this is not done by the Dharmata-Buddha. This giving assurance to the Sravakas,
in the course of the
;

Mahamati, is declared according to the hidden meaning. Mahamati, that the abandonment of passion-hindrance by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas is not different [from that by the Tathagatas] is due to the sameness of the taste of emancipation, but this does not apply to the abandonment
of knowledge-hindrance.
is

Knowledge-hindrance, Mahamati,

is distinctly perceived; but passion-hindrance is destroyed when first the egolessness of persons is perceived and acted upon, for [then]

purified

when

the egolessness of things

the

to function. Further, dharmagiven up because of the disappearance of the habit-energy [accumulated in] the Alayavijnana, it is now

Manovijnana ceases
is

hindrance

thoroughly purified. There is an eternally-abiding reality [which is to be understood] according to the hidden meaning, because it

something that has neither antecedents nor consequents. The Tathagata points out the Dharma without deliberation, without contemplation, and by means of such words that are original and independent. Because of his right thinking and because of his unfailing memory, he neither deliberates nor contemplates, he is no more at the stage of the fourfold habit-energy, (242) he is free from the twofold death, he has relinquished the twofold hindrance of passion and
is

knowledge.

Mahamati, the seven Vijnanas, that

is,

Manas, Mano-

vijnana,, eye-vijnana, etc., are characterised with momentariness because they originate from habit-energy, they are destitute of the good non-flowing factors, and are not trans-

CHAPTER SEVEN
migratory.

209

What transmigrates, Mahamati, is the Tathagatawhich is the cause of Nirvana as well as that of garbha This is not understood by the ignorant pleasure and pain. whose minds are torn asunder by the notion of emptiness.
Mahamati,
the

Tathagatas who are accompanied by

Vajrapani are the Tathagatas transformed in transformation and are not the original Tathagatas, Arhats, FullyEnlightened Ones. The original Tathagatas, Mahamati, are
indeed beyond
all

sense

and measurement, beyond the reach

of all ignorant ones, Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and philo[These Tathagatas] are abiding in the joy of exsophers.
istence as it is, as they have reached the truth of intuitive knowledge by means of Jnanakshanti. Thus Vajrapani is not attached to them. All the Buddhas of Transformation do not owe their existence to karma; in them there is no

Tathagatahood, but apart from them there is no Tathagatahood either. Like the potter who is dependent on various combinations, [the Buddha of Transformation] does his work for sentient beings; he teaches the doctrine meeting conditions, but not the doctrine that will establish the truth as it is, which belongs to the noble realm of self-realisation. Further, Mahamati, on account of the cessation of the
six

ism,

Vijnanas the ignorant and simple-minded look for nihiland on account of their not understanding the Alaya-

vijnana they have eternalism.
discrimination of their
mati.
of

own minds
obtained

The primary limit of the (243) is unknown, Maha-

Emancipation
itself ceases.

is

when

this discrimination

Mind

With

the abandonment of the fourof all faults takes place.

fold habit-energy the So it is said 1
i

abandonment

1.

The three
is

vehicles are no- vehicle; there is no Nir;

vana with the Buddhas
of

it is

Buddhahood

given to

all

pointed out that the assurance that are freed from faults.

2. Ultimate intuitive knowledge, Nirvana that leaves no remnant, this is told according to the hidden meaning

in order to give
to the prose section.

encouragement to the timid.
to have

The following gathas do not seem

any

specific relation

210
3. is

LANKAVATARA SUTRA
Knowledge
is

produced by the Buddhas, and the

path pointed out by them: they move in it and not in anything else, therefore there is no Nirvana with them.
4. Existence, desire, form (rupa), theorising this is the fourfold habit-energy; this is where the Manovijnana takes its rise and the Alaya and Manas abide.
5.

Nihilism and the idea of impermanency rise be-

cause of the Manovijnana, the eye-vijnana, etc.; eternalism rises from [the thought that] there is no beginning in Nirvana, intelligence, and theorisation.

Here Ends the Seventh Chapter,
tion."

"On

Transforma-

[CHAPTER EIGHT]
(244)

1

At

that time

sattvt asked the Blessed

Mahamati the Bodhisattva-MahaOne in verse and again made a

Pray tell me, Blessed One, Tathagata, Arhat, Fully-Enlightened One regarding the merit and vice of meateating thereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas of the present and future may teach the Dharma to make those
request, saying
:

;

beings abandon their greed for meat, who, under the influence of the habit-energy belonging to the carnivorous
existence, strongly crave meat-food.

These meat-eaters thus

abandoning their desire for [its] taste will seek the Dharma for their food and enjoyment, and, regarding all beings with love as if they were an only child, will cherish great compassion towards them. Cherishing [great compassion]
,

they will discipline themselves at the stages of Bodhisattvahood and will quickly be awakened in supreme enlighten-

ment; or staying a while at the stage of Sravakahood and Pratyekabuddhahood, they will finally reach the highest stage of Tathagatahood. Blessed One, even those philosophers who hold erroneous doctrines and are addicted to the views of the Lokayata such as the dualism of being and non-being, nihilism, and
eternalism, will prohibit meat-eating and will themselves refrain from eating it. much more, O World Leader,

How

he

who promotes one

taste for

Enlightened One; (245)
text,

why

mercy and is the Fullynot prohibit in his teachings

This chapter on meat-eating is another later addition to the which was probably done earlier than the Bavana chapter. It already appears in the Sung, but of the three Chinese versions it appears here in its shortest form, the proportion being S = l, T = 2, = 3. It is quite likely that meat-eating was practised more or less among the earlier Buddhists, which was made a subject of severe criticism by their opponents. The Buddhists at the time of the LahTcavatara did not like it, hence this addition in which an apologetic

W

tone

is

noticeable.

212

LANKAVATARA SUTRA

the eating of flesh, not only by himself but by others? Indeed, let the Blessed One who at heart is filled with pity for the entire world, who regards all beings as his only
child, and who possesses great compassion in compliance with his sympathetic feelings, teach us as to the merit and

vice

of meat-eating,

so

that

I

and

other

Bodhisattva-

Mahasattvas may teach the Dharma. Said the Blessed One Then, Mahamati, listen well and reflect well within yourself; I will tell you.
:

Certainly, Blessed

One

;

said

Mahamati the Bodhisattva-

Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. The Blessed One said this to him: For innumerable reasons, Mahamati, the Boddhisattva, whose nature is compassion, is not to eat any meat; I will explain them:

Mahamati, in
is

this long course of transmigration here, there not one living being that, having assumed the form of a living being, has not been your mother, or father, or

brother, or sister, or son, or daughter, or the one or the other, in various degrees of kinship; and when acquiring another form of life may live as a beast, as a domestic

animal, as a bird, or as a womb-born, or as something standing in some relationship to you; [this being so] how can the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who desires to approach all
living beings as if they were himself

and to practise the

Buddha-truths, of the same nature as himself?

eat the flesh of

shasa, listening to essence of the Dharma, attained the notion of protecting [Buddhism], and, feeling pity, (246) refrains from eating
flesh;

any living being that is Even, Mahamati, the Rakthe Tathagata's discourse on the highest

how much more those who love the Dharma! Thus, Mahamati, wherever there is the evolution of living beings, let people cherish the thought of kinship with them, and,
thinking that
all

an only

child, let

beings are [to be loved as if they were] them refrain from eating meat. So with

Bodhisattvas whose nature

meat
it is

is compassion, [the eating of] be avoided by him. Even in exceptional cases, not [compassionate] of a Bodhisattva of good standing

is to

to eat meat.

The

flesh of

a dog, an

ass,

a buffalo, a horse,

CHAPTER BIGHT
,

213

a bull, or man, or any other [being] Mahamati, that is not is sold on the roadside as mutton generally eaten by people, of money and therefore, Mahamati, the Bodhifor the sake
;

sattva should not eat meat. For the sake of love of purity, Mahamati, the Bodhisattva should refrain from eating flesh which is born of

semen, blood,
beings,

etc.

For fear
let

of causing terror

to

living

Mahamati,

the Bodhisattva

who

is

disciplining

himself to attain compassion, refrain from eating flesh. To When a dog sees, even from a disillustrate, Mahamati: a pariah, a fisherman, etc., whose desires tance, a hunter,
are for meat-eating, he is terrified with fear, thinking, "They In the same are death-dealers, they will even kill me."

way, Mahamati, even those minute animals that are living in the air, on earth, and in water, seeing meat-eaters at a
distance, will perceive in them,

by

their keen sense of smell,

(247) the odour of the Rakshasa and will run away from such people as quickly as possible ; for they are to them the
threat of death.
sattva,

For
of

this reason,

Mahamati,

let

the Bodhi-

who

is

disciplining himself, to abide in great comits

passion,

because

terrifying living beings, refrain

Mahamati, meat which is liked by unwise people is full of bad smell and its eating gives one a bad reputation which turns wise people away; let the

from eating meat.

Bodhisattva refrain from eating meat. The food of the wise, Mahamati, is what is eaten by the Rishis it does not
;

meat and blood. Therefore, Mahamati, let the Bodhisattva refrain from eating meat. In order to guard the minds of all people, Mahamati, let the Bodhisattva whose nature is holy and who is desirous of avoiding censure on the tea.ching of the Buddha, refrain from eating meat. For instance, Mahamati, there are some
consist of

in the world
[they

who speak

ill

of the teaching of the

Buddha;

would say,] "Why are those who are living the life of a Sramana or a Brahmin reject such food as was enjoyed by the ancient Rishis, and like the carnivorous animals, living in the air, on earth, or in the water? Why do they go wandering about in the world thoroughly terrifying living

214

LANKAVATARA SUTKA
Sramana and destroying no Dharma, no discipline
people

beings, disregarding the life of a the vow of a Brahmin? There is

in them."

There are
ill

many such adverse-minded

who thus speak

of the teaching of the Buddha. For this reason, Mahamati, in order to guard the minds of all people, (248) let the Bodhisattva whose nature is full of

pity and who is desirous of avoiding censure on the teaching of the Buddha, refrain from eating meat.

Mahamati, there is generally an offensive odour to a corpse, which goes against nature; therefore, let the Bodhisattva refrain from eating meat. Mahamati, when flesh is burned, whether it be that of a dead man or of some other living creature, there is no distinction in the odour. "When flesh of either kind is burned, the odour emitted is equally
Therefore, Mahamati, let the Bodhisattva, who is ever desirous of purity in his discipline, wholly refrain from eating meat.
noxious.

Mahamati, when sons or daughters of good family, wishing to exercise themselves in various disciplines such as the attainment of a compassionate heart, the holding a magical formula, or the perfecting of magical knowledge, or starting on a pilgrimage to the Mahayana, retire into a cemetery, or to a wilderness, or a forest, where demons gather or frequently approach or when they attempt to sit on a couch or a seat for the exercise; they are hindered [because of
;

their meat-eating]

from gaining magical powers or from obtaining emancipation. Mahamati, seeing that thus there are obstacles to the accomplishing of all the practices, let the

Bodhisattva,

who

is

desirous of benefiting himself as well

from eating meat. the sight of objective forms gives rise to the desire for tasting their delicious flavour, let the Bodhisattva,
as others, wholly refrain

As even

is pity and who regards all beings as his only wholly refrain from eating meat. (249) Eecognising that his mouth smells most obnoxiously, even while living

whose nature
child,

this life, let the Bodhisattva

whose nature

is

pity, wholly

refrain from eating meat.

[The meat-eater] sleeps uneasily and when awakened

Mahamati. who being Delete pitaTcMdita (line 7). honey. lentils. meant by proper taste. who are sons and daughters of good family. life. under the influence of the habit-energy belonging to the carnivorous races.CHAPTER EIGHT is distressed. molasses. who have no attachment to body. (250) It comprises rice. and who. which brings many evils and keeps away many merits. oil. and nourishment. food prepared with these is proper food. this is the food I urge for the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who have made offerings to the previous Buddhas. Mahamati. who are possessed of faith. When I teach to regard food as if it were eating the flesh of one's own child. he trembles without knowing why. are not at 1 all greedy. kidney beans. etc. it keeps away many evils. to eat food consisting of flesh and blood. there may be some irrational people in the future who will discriminate and establish new rules of moral discipline. who crimination. and it has been prescribed by the ancient Eishis. barley. which is gratifying to the unwise but is abhorred by the wise. sugar cane. His visceras are filled with worms and other impure creatures his hair rise and harbour the cause of leprosy. and which was not offered to the Eishis and is altogether unsuitable ? Now. and property.. how can I permit my disciples. He is left alone in an empty hut. it is productive of many merits. the food I have permitted [my is dis- ciples to take] is gratifying to all wise people but avoided by the unwise. devoid of dis- who are all men and women belonging to the Sakya family. .. etc. and his spirit is seized by demons. 215 He dreams of dreadful events. who have planted roots of goodness. or taking a drug. He ceases to entertain any thoughts of aversion towards all diseases. Mahamati. Mahamati. do not covet delicacies. digestion. clarified butter. treacle. which makes on end. he leads a solitary life. wheat. he is In his eating 1 he never knows what is never satisfied. there is no regularity in his eating. coarse sugar. will it is not for these greedily desire the taste [of meat] : people that the above food is prescribed. beans. Frequently he is struck with terror.

Mahamati. and children were born to her. After wandering about in away by ! it. In consequence he had to renounce his throne and dominion and to suffer great calamities because of his passion for meat. counsellors. there was another king who was carried his horse into a forest. society of his friends. is liable to bring misfortune both upon himself and others. in the past when their food had been king. meat for food in a previous exhe then chased Visvakarma appearing in the guise of a pigeon. His excessive fondness for meat. Because of their des- cending from the union with a lioness. Mahamati. his greed to be served with it. even Indra who obtained sovereignty over the gods had once to assume the form of a hawk owing to his habit-energy of eating istence . Mahamati. (251) stimulated his taste for it to the highest degree so that he [even] ate human In consequence of this he was alienated from the flesh. in this life they lived in a village called Kutiraka they ate meat even [after becoming] ("seven huts"). who had thus to place himself on the scale. Mahamati.216 LANKAVATARA SUTRA compassionate desire to embrace all living beings as their own person. and who regard all beings with affection as if they were an only child. kinsmen. Mahamati. relatives. there lived a king whose name was Simhasaudasa. he committed evil deeds with a lioness out of fear for his life. not to speak of his townsmen and countrymen. fice King ivi feeling pity for the innocent [pigeon had to sacrihimself to the hawk and thus] to suffer great pain. Dakas and In the life of transmigration. such ones will fall into the wombs of such excessive flesh-devouring creatures as the 1 The text has all this in the plural. etc. On account of their evil habit-energy flesh. . how much more those who are not Indra 1 Mahamati. and. after going through many a birth. (252) the royal children were called the Spotted-Feet. Even a god who became Indra the Powerful. Long ago in the past. and because they were excessively attached and devoted Dakims who were to meat-eating they gave birth to terrible eaters of human flesh.

etc. that are moving about in the air. the ignorant and simple-minded are not aware of all this and other evils and merits [in connection . was not specially meant for him. tiger. with meat-eating]. when he did not order others to kill it. 217 panther. Mahamati. in most cases nets and other de- vices are lost their sense prepared in various places by people who have on account of their appetite for meat-taste. and thereby many innocent victims are destroyed for the such as birds. Mahamati. that seeing these evils and merits the Bodhisattva whose nature is pity should eat no meat. effect: 2 Both T'ang and Wei have here a sentence to the following "Those who do not eat meat acquire a large sum of merit. wolf. wild-eat.CHAPTER EIGHT lion. Mahamati. hyena. one human addicted to the love of [meat-] taste should eat flesh! Mahamati. Kaivarta. who are sake of the price like Rakshasas hard-hearted and used to practising 2 cruelties. who. I tell you. being so devoid of compassion. owl. Again. would now and then look at living beings as meant for food and destruction no compassion is awakened in them.. how much more [difficult] attaining Nirvana! Such as these. It is not true. that meat for the permissible killed is proper food and Sravaka when [the victim] was not when it by himself. and in water. jackal. Mahamati. If. special may be said of eating the flesh of living creatures such as animals and birds. There are even some.. are the evils of meat-eating. Mahamati. Mahamati. Kaura[they bring in] bhraka. Mahamati. Mahamati. there will be no destroyer of life. . how much more numerous [evil] qualities that are born of 1 the perverted minds of those devoted to [meat-eating] And. meat is not eaten by anybody for any reason. they will fall into the wombs of still more greedily fleshdevouring and still more terrible Rakshasas. Mahamati. alas. in the majority of cases (253) the slaughtering of innocent living beings is Though nothing that done for pride and very rarely for other causes. on land." According to T'ang. Falling into a such. it will be with difficulty that they can ever obtain human womb. etc.

conceive the idea of regarding all beings as an only child. nor it is referred to as proper among the foods prescribed [for the Buddha's followers]. and are on their way to the Mahayana. mortification. [they conclude that] the Blessed One permits meat as proper food. or Yogins who are practising the exercises. and one joined to another in a re- gular and methodical manner. nowhere in the sutras is meat permitted as some- thing enjoyable. after explaining each point . Mahamati. who. but who are in thought They may talk evilly affected by erroneous reasonings. in order to accomplish the end of their discipline. I had the mind to permit [meateating]. Imagining that this fact allows this interpretation. the sons and daughters of good family. I would not have forbidden. (255) In the canonical texts here and there the process Dharma and any vehicle. if they wish the are on the way to the mastery of and being possessed of compassion. I would not forbid. are possessed of compassion.218 there LANKAVATARA SUTRA may be some unwitted people in the future time. practise contemplation. whether they are cemetery-ascetics of forestascetics. all meat-eating for these Yogins. and that it is mentioned among permitted foods and that probably the Tathagata himself partook of it. And. beginning to lead the homeless life according to my teaching. or if I said it was proper for the Sravakas [to eat meat]. and carry the Kashaya robe about them as a badge. Being under the influence of the will string together in various thirst for [meat-] taste. about various discriminations which they make in their moral discipline. of discipline is developed in orderly sequence like a ladder going up step by step. are acknowledged as sons of the Sakya. If however. Mahamati. being addicted to -the view of a personal soul. they ways (254) some sophistic arguments to defend meat-eating. But. They think they are giving me an unprecedented calumny when they discriminate and talk about facts that are capable of various interpretations. who. wishing to cherish the idea that all beings are to them like an only child. Mahamati. the interdiction not to eat any kind of meat is here given to all sons and daughters of good family.

the thought of an only child for all beings. he is thoroughly emanci- He pated in mind and knowledge. permit the Sravakas to eat the flesh of their own child? How much less my eating it! That I have permitted the Sravakas as well as myself to partake of [meat-eating]. I will not permit. . is unconditionally all.CHAPTER EIGHT meat obtained in these dicted. fuller explanation. is not proper for homeless monks. There that meat was eaten caluminate him. Mahamati. in any manner. 2 The Tathagata flesh -f ood how much more the Tathagata is the Dharmakaya. such as I am. how much less the food of flesh and blood. by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas Victor-heroes. proThus. Mahamati. and will fall into such regions without profit Sravakas do not eat the food taken properly by [ordinary] men. he regards all beings impartially as an only child he is a great compassionate heart. (256) he is All-seer. has ejected the habit-energy of thirst and desire which sustain all existence. 1 219 is specific circumstances not inter- Further. Mahamati. I do not permit. Maha- mati. 1 2 and those who are The text as it stands requires Amigra (mixed) in T'ang. . Meat-eating. in any flesh-food. I tell you. it is said : Liquor. Mahamati. has no foundation whatever. may will follow the evil course of their own karma-hindrance. who would say by the Tathagata thinking this would Such unwitted people as these. Mahamati. Mahamati he abides in the Dharma as food his is not a body feeding on flesh he does not abide altogether improper. how can I. . be some. So 1. But in the present sutra all and in any hibited for place. a tenfold prohibition is given as regards the flesh of animals found dead by themselves. the noble Mahamati. . having . Mahamati. meat. [meat-eating] in any form. and onions are to be avoided. Mahamati. ! . he keeps away the habit-energy of all evil passions. the food for my Sravakas. which is where long nights are passed and without happiness. and Bodhisattvas is the Dharma and not Pratyekabuddhas. meat-eating I have not permitted to anyone. and once for all. he is the All-knower.

2 eating [meat] arrogance is born. therefore. Let the Yogin refrain from eating flesh as born of -himself. not asked for. There is no meat to be regarded as pure in three ways: not premeditated. Raurava (screaming). cavities may be terribly frightened. for flesh is paid out. . allium. etc. and garlic. To those who eat [meat] there are detrimental efit fects.220 2. onions. and from imagination gance is born greed and for this reason refrain from eating [meat] . 5. refrain from eating meat. do not sleep on a bed. meat-eaters are matured in the terrific hells such as Raurava. perforated with spikes . money profit sentient beings are destroyed. greed is born. that meat-eaters bring detrimental effects you should upon themit is 4. 12. akya as the destroyer of the welfare of the two 11. I say this. From imagination. 6. (257) for the living beings who find their shelter in the cavities and in places where there are no 7. 1 Srumi. eats flesh. 3. various kinds of liquor. Do not anoint the body with sesamum oil. instead of 'bruM as in the text. etc. from arroerroneous imaginations issue. . it is food for the ting odour. Let the Yogin always refrain from meat. as [the eating] involves transgression. he is pointed out in the teach- ings of the worlds. Those evil-doers go to the most horrifying hell. as [flesh] is produced of semen and blood. it is not to be eaten. Mahamati. trespassing against the words is evil-minded. merits. and not impelled. Mahamati. One who of the Muni. and there is no emancipation from birth [and death] 8. LANKAVATAEA SUTRA Meat is : not aggreeable to the wise it lias a nauseacauses a bad reputation. 2 Unintelligible as far as the translator can see. and by greed the mind it stupefied. . and as [the killing of ani- mals] causes terror to living beings. they are both evil-doers and [the deed] hells called For matures in the 10. From 9. there is attachment to stupefaction. to those know selves. 1 carnivorous. who do not.

in the family of the Brahmins or of the Yogins. ] [not to eat meat this is the mark of the wise. etc. and the Domba. the Pukkasa. 18. and Sravakas. and the Lankdvatara. From .CHAPTER BIGHT 13. [he who eats meat] will be born in the same place as the lion. if one devours [meat] out of shamelessness he will always be devoid of sense. and born deprived of intelligence. and then into the womb of a Rakshasi and a cat he belongs to the lowest class of men.as the Hastikakshya. liquor. "Meat is proper unobjectionable. contemptuous. the Anglimdlika." Meat-eating (259) is 22. etc. follow a medicine. [The meat-eater] is ill-smelling.. will be born. Bodhisattvas. etc. Yogin go about begging. [Meat-eating] is forbidden by me everywhere and all the time for those who are abiding in compassion. among Therefore. endowed with knowledge and wealth. again. the womb of Dakini he will be born in the meat-eaters' family. 15. and suspecting. (258) he will be born again and again among the families of the Candala. hearing. foolish to eat. it is like a the proper measure and be averse [to meat. 20.. is forbidden by myself as well as by the Buddhas. As greed is meat-eating. [Meat-eating] is condemned by the Buddhas. the Mahamegha. the Nirvana. 24. saying. tiger. 221 it Let not the Yogin eat meat. those sentient beings who feed on one another will be reborn among the carnivorous animals. 21. . and thus] let the 23. the hindrance to emancipation. child's flesh. Meat-eating 17. 16. do not eat meat which will cause terror people. so are hindrances. 19. One who avoids meat. because it hinders the truth of emancipation . these theorisers born in a carnivorous family understand this not. is rejected by me in such sutras . because of this fact. and permitted by the Buddha. wolf. 14. Let one avoid all meat-eating [whatever they may say about] witnessing. There may be in time to come people who make remarks about meat-eating.

39-40. "On Meat-eating." from the LanJcavatara. . 1 1 For the phrase "The essence of the teaching of the Buddhas (sarvabuddTiapravacanahridaya).222 LANKAVATABA SUTRA Here Ends the Eighth Chapter. the Essence of the Teaching of All the Buddhas." see pp.

patare arkke. . present. In India where all kinds of what may be termed abnormalities in religious symbology are profusely thriving. tu tu tu tu (4) (4) du du du du svaha. are recited. pace badhe. and future. cakre. sputte patte ance. (4) ru ru ru ru (4) phu phu phu phu (261) These. vutte jnette. katte latte. I will recite benefit of the proclaimers of the them here for the Dharma. matte vatte. vutte. Dharani has also attained a high degree of development as in the case of Mudra (holding the fingers). arkke hime sarkke sarkke. you should hold forth these magical phrases of the Lankavatara. hime atte. kale katte. dime hime. The mystery of an articulate sound which infinitely fascinated the imagination of the primitive man has come to create a string of meaningless sounds in the form of a Dharani. and Kalpa (mystic rite). and the symbolism itself begins to gain which has never been thought of before in connection with the original idea. patte katte. and will be recited by the Buddhas of the past. no one should ever be able to effect his Another later addition probably when Dharani was extensively taken into the body of Buddhist literature just before its disappearance from the land of its birth. kale. tutte kale. realise these magical phrases. Asana (sitting). Its recitation is now considered by its followers to produce mysterious a new signification effects in various ways in life. cakre dime. vimale nime. which were recited. tutte amale. katte vimale. amale vame. it pursues its own' course regardless of its original 1 meaning. Dharani is a study by itself. retain. nime hime. Mahamati. dime dime cale. pace. When a religious symbolism takes a start in a certain direction. are the magical phrases of the Lankavatara Mahayana Sutra If sons and daughters of good : family should hold forth. proclaim. kale. dutare patare. vame cale patte. who will retain them in memory. They are: Tutte.[CHAPTEE NINE] : 1 (260) At that time the Blessed One addressed Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva Mahamati. bandhe mance dutare.

or a Kumbhandi. yula. or a Rakshasa. or a Kumbhandi. or a Nagi. yule munee. Mahamati. or a Pisara. phula. or a Daka. or an Aujohara. any son or daughter of good family should hold forth. or a Bhuti. or a Gandharvi. or an Amanushya. or a Kinnara. or an Apasmara. or an Amanushyi. turn away and go in . or a Kinnari. hine. or an Asura. wailing and crying. and realise these magical phrases. or a Rakshasi. or a Rakshasa. or a Dakini. or an Austaraka. or a Gandharvi. or a Yaksha. or a MahoragI. or a Naga. or a MahoragI. or an Asuri. pramarde. or a YakshI. bhinde. or a Dakini. or a Gandharva. proclaim. or an Apasmari. or a Kataputani. or an Asurl. . or a Garudi. or a Apasmara. or a Naga. Whether it be a god. or an Asura. pale svaha. or a Yaksha. padmadeve cule (262) ghule. or an Aujohari. cule. phule yule. ghula. retain. or a Gandharva. or an Amanushya. ghule hine cu. other magical phrases. or a Bhuti. or a Kumbhanda. Whether it be a god. are: Padme. bhanje. phale. munce. dinakare pale. or a goddess. or a Garudi. or an Austaraki. or a Rakshasi. (263) These magic . They culu. or a Pisaci. or a Kannari. I will tell you. marde. or a Mahoraga. or an Austaraki. Mahamati. or a goddess. or a Bhuta. let him recite the magical phrases for one hundred and eight times. pala. or a Kataputana. or a Kataputana. munce cchinde.224= LANKAVATARA SUTKA descent upon them. If. or a Pisael. or a Mahoraga. and [the evil ones] will. or an Aujohari. or a YakshI. ghule. on him or her no [evil beings] should be able to make their descent. a Garuda. If another direction. or a Kataputani. or a Daka. or an Aujohara. the [whole] Lankavatara Sutra will be recited. to effect his or her descent no one of these will be able [upon the holder of these magical phrases] any misfortune should befall. or an Austaraka. or a Garuda. or an Amanushyi no one of these will be able to effect his or her descent upon [the holder of these magical phrases] By him who will recite these magic phrases. hini. or a Kinnara. or a Kumbhanda. or a Bhuta. or a Nagi. or an Apasmari. or a Pisaca.

225 One to guard against the Here Ends the Ninth Chapter Called "Dharani" in the LanMvatara.CHAPTER NINE phrases are given by the Blessed interference of the Rakshasas. .

) 3 6. out of which about 208 are repetitions of those which have already appeared in the main text. too. Composed And At 1. destroying a net of the philosophical views. including those that have never appeared in the text. verses 6. (265) (Chapter II.) (Chapter II. 8. The verses are in a most confused condition. with a few exceptions. into verse-gems. 10.7. The Chinese "At that time the Blessed One translations have here the following: wishing to declare again the deep signification of the Sutra uttered the following verses." The verses enumerated in the Sanskrit text are 884.5. 2 This remark refers only to the first six verses. 9. 3 These verses are not repeated in the same order as they are in the prose section of the text. There are some omissions. verse 2. treated are many and varied." consists entirely of verses. The reader may use his own judgment in the matter. and it is frequently quite difficult to disentangle them and give them a semblance of order. verse 3. Declared in this Lankdvatara Sutra. In this English translation I have followed the method of T'ang.) These individual objects are not solid " [realities] .) (Chapter II. . verse 178. Sagathakam. This section entitled.[SAGATHAKAM] (264) 1 Listen to the wonderful Mahay ana doctrine.) (Chapter II. These repetitions are systematically excluded in T'ang.) 7. while Wei. verses 151. (Chapter II. These irregularities take place throughout the "Sagathakam. When we know more about the historical circumstances of the compilation of the various sutras we may be able to see how these repetitions came to be inserted here and also may learn something regarding the relation which this "Sagathakam" section stands to the preceding part of the Sutra. 152. (Chapter II. verse 1." showing that the verses were originally an independent body. verse 8. 1 (Chapter II. repeats them all. The subjects It is probable that it was added later into the text. that time this to the Blessed Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said One 2 : 2. 3.) 4.

21. the Skandha-continuity. one abides permanently in the palace of lotus-form. and not a ninefold one. as the imagination is empty. which is a later development. like a many-coloured jewel. 12. . beyond the ten stages of Bodhisattvaship one who is removed from thought and knowledge perceives the Mind-king. what is imagined is empty. one goes 16. Abiding in it one attains a life of imagelessness. firmly attached to the seat (266) the mind moves along with an objective world as iron is drawn by the loadstone. 19. there is neither Sam(or things made) nor Asamskrita (or things not the ignorant hold on to them as a barren woman .) 1 By wrong discrimination the Vijnana [-system] like rises. . . verse 149. . the ignorant because of their attachment to existence seize on signified and signifying. what fools they are be known that without self -nature. The original source on which all sentient beings 15. all beings. the Dhatus. causation. 22. unborn. severally as eightfold. The root is constantly nourished by habit-energy. and. The Sutra itself maintains a system of eight Vijnanas. 14. all. but I do not teach external signs. are dependent is beyond theorisation all doings cease and emancipation obtains. and [the notion of] existence and Let it non-existence. is A knower of all things is not an all-knower. as ninefold. When a "turning-back" takes place in the mind. To me teaching is an expedient. and empty are a personal soul.SAGATHAKAM they rise because of imagination. waves on the great ocean. and all not within the ignorant discriminate and [think] "I This requires attention. verse 154. In the Samadhi known as Maya-like. 11. which is born of the realm of Maya. 227 itself (Chapter (Chapter II. skrita made) Except for discrimination. 18. 13.) II. knowing and known are transcended. ! does to the child of her dream 20. performs religious deeds for . 17.

a mirage in the air . multiplicities of things in 1 2 it . itself is and brick. verse 179. removed from the two Svabhavas [i. then he is accomplished in his contemplation. the Parikalpita and 28.) These things are empty.) 24. 23. they appear to the intoxicated as like fire-fies because of their constitutional disturbance . When the truth-seeker sees [the truth] devoid of discrimination and free from impurities. like a dream. those who thus see all things. things do not originate. This verse and the following one do not appear in T'ang. ) (Chapter II. like- wise is the world essentially [appearance] . verse 143 and the first half of 144. and their being and non26. like Maya. like a mirage. neither bound 31. wood. and so are the 35. (Chapter II. all is like an affected eye.) J 25. being is unobtainable. Omit the line in parentheses. verse 156. and they are also missing in the prose section.. [the wise] see property. 30. like a dream. like Maya. therefore multiplicities appear. and unborn. nor binding. he sees me. so are all things essentially [mere appearances]. which is removed from speculation and thought-construction. (267) (Chapter II. 2 see nothing whatever. the Paratantra] . 32. (Chapter II. There is neither seizing nor seized. 33. 29. The world is the same as a dream. without self-nature. 27. in the triple world the mind is perturbed.228 LANKAVATARA SUTRA the enlightened one in the world".e. which belongs to the exquisite [spiritual] realm of the wise. though Maya non-existent. . touch. there is no doubt. (268) Though multitudinousness of things has no [real] existence as such. As Maya is manifested depending on grass. In this there is nothing of thought-construction. it is like In causation which governs being and non-being 34. verse 181. but I ain not en- am lightened nor do I enlighten others. One self-nature (svabhava) I teaeh.

a world-teacher. [There is one thing which is] released from [such conditions of existence as] beginning. and are there [in the heaven] awakened to enlightenment. are 40." 2 Gotra ( jft1) according to T'ang. transcendental knowledge sees it neither rising nor disappearing. immovable.SAGATHAKAM death. are in the celestial palace of Akanishtha where all evils are discarded. because of perversion there is Maya. Maya. but he [a wise 37. The ignorant because of their stupidity see [an objective world] as taking its rise and disappearing. all-pervading. man] does not discriminate a world. and endling." T'ang: "The person who perceives this well will be honoured by the world. 42. and everywhere the ignorant following them listen to the Dharma. 2 vijfiana. the powers. The world is no more than thought-con- For the last quarter Wei has: "The honoured one of the world preaches these doings. 39. as it is non-existent. pure. 1 This mind is the source of the triple world when 36. psychic faculties. 41. there is a somewhat [perceived as real] being bound up with the two Svabhavas there is the transformation of the Alaya. and thoroughly adept in the Samadhis. and [yet] producing multiplicity. Even because of the mind being deluded. but the transformed ones are awakened here [on earth]. . There is an essence entirely covered by thoughtconstructions and hidden inside all that has body. [however]. Such attain self-control. in conwith truth. . 229 and work as of the same nature. the mind goes astray there appears this world and that. 43. Those who are always above discrimination. (270) 44. The Buddhas appear on earth in their innumerable transformation-bodies beyond calculation. who has 38. (269) recognising the world as such. middle. is not the cause of perversion. and removed from mind and its belongformity ings. removed from existence and non-existence. and above multiplicity.

form . and there rages an ocean of views as regards ego and things (dharma) when the world is clearly perceived as such and there takes place a revulsion 1 [in the mind]. verses 147 and 148. they go astray in this abode of . it is false imagination rising from delusion. 51. 50. When the field of mentation gets confused. or turning-up. they imagine that there is something [real] to take hold of. 53.) flood of the Alayavijnana is always 2 Paravritti. LANKAVATABA SUTKA . 1 So the verse 99. 52. (Chapter II. verse 146. When (Chapter II. . released from conditions. Things are discriminated by the ignorant as heat. II. and solidity they are. 54 and 55. however. all When bound when in conditions there evolves a mind in beings.) is (271) What known . as multiplicity-seeds is multiply in the mind (citta) in what revealed. supported to me there is no objective world. I see no [mind rising]. motility. unrealities there is neither signified nor signifying.) 56. and karma they are the causes of mind and its belongings 2 . turning-over. or turning-back. 45. I say. released from conditions and unby thought of self. the 47. Ignorance. . in this imagination there is no perfect knowledge. fluidity. Bead cittacaittanam loarakam. But this body. (swriisthana) and senses are made of the eight substances deluded in the cage of trans- migration. 48. (Chapter 49. the mind. ignorant imagine the birth [of all things] but as they do not understand the truth. the ignorant thus discriminate this phenomenal world (rupa). they are [recognised] by me to be Paratantric. asserted. (272) 57. the ignorant imagine birth and are delighted with dualism. abides no longer in the body. In the intermingling of causes and conditions. as they evolve thus [relatively] .230 struetion. 46. this [one] is my child who is devoted to the truth of perfect knowledge. the triple world. desire.

verses 79 A proposition [is established] and 80. (Chapter III. and examples. the sun.SAGATHAKAM stirred . reality] there is nothing of the sort in it . 231 by the winds of objectivity (vishaya) and goes on dancing with the various Vijnana-waves. and again there 59. empty. nor a being. the By world which is something imagined. etc. Because there is that which is seized and that 58. 1 Here I have followed T'ang. there grows a full acceptance of the truth that nothing 68. seeing that all beings are unborn. He will then attain the Samadhi called Maya-like. fire-] wheel. so in things existent is there is thingness seen [as real] while there the sort in them. 69. Neither an ego. mind rises in all beings there are no such signs . the various powers belonging to the Mind. or Maya. it is thus [homeless] . 67. empty like a dream.) by means of condi- tions. in accordance with conditions. hair. is ever born (ksMnti-anutpatti) . either within nor without. the Gandharvas and that of fata morgana. the self-mastery. self -substance All things existent are unborn. is error. I teach that 1 something not to be recognised really as such. (273) such as a dream. the moon.. . visible [in the world] as are imagined by the ignorant. mirage. reasons. but it does not thus exist to the transcendental wisdom [of the wise]. 63 and 64. and without and the delusion about them rises and ceases . such examples as flame. 60. birth is [castle. The triple world has nowhere to place itself. it is to be regarded as such. There is the highest Alayavijnana. the psychic faculties. when] the Vijnana ceases. in the Skandhas and [cessation 61. is . which seizes. The visible world (drisyam) has always the appearance of the city of. nor a person exists [there is birth when] the Vijnana is born. the Gaudharva's 66. nothing of 62. I teach the Alaya as thought-construction (vijnapU) suchness (tathata) that is above seized and seizing. the will-body. 65. As a picture shows highness and lowness while [in .

so by the ignorant who do not know. if. the Buddha-image. distinguish the discriminating from the discriminated so long they do not see [the truth] of suchness. (dharma) and the ego-soul (pudgala) takes then we have [the truth of] suchness (tathata). sense-objects 78. This heap of bones. LANKAVATAEA SUTRA Depending upon the Mind. and the gems. the lamp-light. [the desire] to hold. by of mental images (prajnapti) good students handle the various aspects of the world. he thus attains calmness and establishes himself in the state of no-form (animitta) 75. the moon. When the Yogin by means of his transcendental wisdom understands that all things existent have no selfsubstance. of a Sravaka. place. 74. 71. As an There are no Sravakas. each functions in its own way without discrimination. . . a mind this the ignorant. the analysis elements [these are subjects of meditation] . The triple world of existence is no more than thought-construction. this is a transformed manifestation of the Bodhisattva whose nature is compassion itself. abode. without a world of individual objects (rupina) and no other is an external world which is imagined by . one recognises the form of a Buddha. no Pratyekabuddhas here. the triple vehicle is understood in like manner. there appears [within] and. 73. and property are three representa- tions (vijnapti) seized upon [as objects] . . 77. of the means 72. the discrimination of these representations are the seizing agents. As long as those philosophers who get eon(274) fused in their reasonings and who are unable to go beyond the realm of words. and so does the Buddha's nature work on its own accord.232 70. which is discriminated by the twofold Svabhava [of imagination and relative knowledge] but when [within the mind] a turning-away from the course of 76. the elements. The sun. Body. the will. however. object painted black is taken by the unwise to be a cock.

verse 52.) 90. When one seed . (Chapter (Chapter II. verse 141. The first line (bljd) require fuller explana- of verse 94 properly belongs to the preceding verse. and mind you see multi- 84. seed also. seeing thus one is released. verse 48.SAGATHAKAM 79. or as eternity and non-eternity. verse 140. and disappearance. 233 (Chapter II. 91. 2 tion to The two verses 83 and 84 on "seed" make them more intelligible. (Chapter II. 87. (Chapter II. . . 93. (276) 89. then the Yogin by his transcendental wisdom sees the world shorn of its appearances (abkdsa). to [the accumulation of] delusions since beginningless past is evolved.) Things known as defiled or as pure are like hairnets [that is. It is like a drugged man whoever he is. for him the earth has changed into gold. apprehend existing abiding. 81. -verse 51. really [if] . 1 hence the designation 85.) is III. no forms the mind is due . though there is no gold. things to be really such as they appear to be they owe their origin to Maya or a mirage. into a state of no-seed is made pure. there is a turning the sameness comes from non-discrim- ination. verse 170. from superabundance there is birth and general confusion from which there grows a multitude of seeds.) (Chapter III.) When the mind themselves . forms begin to manifest no minds. and in one are of the same stamp. The ignorant. verse 136. though in fact One seed and no-seed all one seed and plicity. verse 144. all-seed. wrongly perceived by the dim-eyed] (275) they [really] have nothing to do with such notions as birth. 80. no-birth the self -nature of existence. thus defiled since beginningless time 82. who sees the world in golden colours. .) (Chapter II. 92. 86.) When the self-nature of existence off understood is there is no need of keeping the delusion . 83. 88. with the mind and what belongs to it.) (Chapter II.

An individual mind is evolved by clinging to Mind . LANKAVATARA SUTRA (Chapter III. the ignorant things are delighted with the dualism of discrimination. 2 Citta which is generally translated "mind. is used in this text in two different senses. it means the empirical mind. that which has reflection as its characteristic nature. it apprehends the various sense-fields. it is due to delusion that are imagined to have come into existence. a hairthey are non-entities yet they circle. called a Vijnana. is no evolving of Mind. memory (habitenergy) has no existence in [mind which is like] the sky. The Gandharva's air-castle. vasana] grows in Mind is evolved like the waves. Manas. that seen before us 97. memory 98. and Vijnanas. This gatha may be regarded as a question to which the following few verses are a reply.234 94. 101. citta has an absolute sense denoting something that goes beyond the realm of relativity and yet that lies at the foundation of this world of particulars. Maya. various forms the As memory [or habit-energy." it refers to this something defined here. all is delusion. just as a painting depends upon the wall [on which it is painted] . I have followed the T'ang. Mind is grasped by mind. in itself there [it is is no visible world outside [Mind itself] . Nothing has ever been brought into existence. verse 53. The Sanskrit as it stands is unintelligible. is if is they were entities. if otherwise why is not the painting is there is The Mind 1 produced in the air! If Mind evolves at all depending on individual 99.) (277) 95. and the doctrine of Mind-only will not be held true. forms as conditions. and a fata morgana. appear as existence 96. It is also used in a general sense meaning mentation. It is important to keep this . Besides this. is Manas (278) 102. when cut off. evolved dependent upon a variety of conditions. . Mind (citta2 ) is the Alayavijnana. When it stands in the series of Citta. therefore. then Mind is condition-born. the nature of an objective thus to be regarded." either with the "m" capitalised or not. it is not a something produced by a cause Mind is by nature pure. When the Lanka speaks of "Mind-only. 100. for which reason it is 1 declared that] Mind-only exists.

and.) (Chapter II. (Chapter II. indeed. v. v. they are distinction in mind. (Chapter II. (Chapter IV. all [in reality] exist. (Chapter II. is due to erroneous attachment of the it is ignorant . v. 130. (279) it goes beyond all the realms belonging to the [-limts] various stages.) 116 (280) -117. . of no-appearance. there are no individual forms (vastu) (rupani). vv. 1 (Chapter II. 176 This verse is missing in Wei. there rises something which one perceives [as objective reality] 119. That non-existence 111. See also and elsewhere. transcending the measure of thought. in ultimate truth. if 121. v. 174. because of Mind.) 115. v. and existence is recognised. 104. the functioning Vijnana is either good or bad. The sense-organs are to be known as Maya.) In self-realisation itself there are no time 110. 133. 177. 173.) 105-109. they exist because of their being so designated in words . one sees that all things are devoid of self-substance. 1 my Studies in the Lamkavatara. therefore. 9 and 10. the sense-fields resemble a dream. this is called 118. words to designate their existence. worldly knowledge. . verse 132. but in ultimate truth (paramartha) none exists. the error [is to see] multiplicity. we speak of non-discriminative [knowledge] 113. and acting they do not at 114. and multiplicity too. According to worldly knowledge (samvriti) everything exists. 112. Manas functions in two 103. actor. verses 1-5. 176. it establishes itself as the result [of discipline in the realm] . act. If things are regarded as existing by themselves. p. there were no not. v.) (Chapter II. If there is non-discriminative knowledge.) 120. Although there is no self -substance. ways.SAGATHAKAM 235 Citta is always neutral. in accord with reason to not say that [individual] realities exist.

There are no stages [of Bodhisattvaship]. this comes from the nature of reality being erroneously understood. is really no self- What is seen as multiplicity .236 122. truths. 37. and the setting up of discrimination. the truth of emptiness non-discriminating discrimination. LANKAVATARA SUTRA is such That which. As a (Chapter II. (Chapter II. Discrimination. 36. like golden leaves in a painting. no bodies of transformation. there are no [recognisable] marks where Mind-only 135-137. 129. Sravakas are [products of] 132. w.) body . Discrimination is ting discrimination. 150. The constructing of appearances (nimitta) created . Buddhas. 125. it would not be possible to talk about the non-existenee of self-substance . and its cause: these six are conditions of liberation. 123. 139. (281) as the nature of reality is erroneously understood. it is found everywhere and in every is by the evil-minded that multiplicity is recognised. (Chapter III. so the ignorant perceive an objective world rising with its various aspects. no no [Buddha-] lands.) (282) 131. that which is bound. for no such perception is possible. binding. is the mind saturated with the forms of evil habits because of mental delusions one clings to forms and appearances regarding them as objective [realities] . 168 and 169. is. 133. v. Pratyekabuddhas. imagination. 130. 35. (Chapter II. 134.) 138. Like an elephant magically created.) man whose eye is affected with a cataract perceives a hair-circle because of his delusion. exists only as word and not as reality not to be found even in worldly knowledge. there is substance . something perceived where there all is indeed non-existent. w. 127-128. that which is discriminated. it Mind is all. v. If such errors were granted. cut asunder by non-discriminais seen into by 126. the visible world is to the people whose minds are saturated with the forms of ignorance. 124.

is liberated. and magical crea. uttered Maturity. 145. 3 (284) in Mind-only there no objective following: takes place this is the Generally parikalpita. tions. Nairmanika. Transformation [-Buddhas] and those that appear transformed they all come forth from Amitabha's Land of Bliss. 146. something like objective reality. Dharma [-Buddhas]. but here viJcalpita. The world is everywhere filled with Buddhas of 3 Buddhas of Transformation. 142. we have the characteristic mark of per- fected knowledge (parinishpanna) 140. (283) the giving of names to these appearances [regarding them as real individual existences] is 1 characteristic of the imagination.SAGATHAKAM by delusion is 237 of Paratantra (de- the characteristic mark pendence) knowledge. but I suggest the "When the constructing of names and appearances no more in it. 4 beings. sattvas. 139. The Issuing 5 [-Buddhas]. 2 . What is uttered by the Bodhisattvas and what is by the teachers they are both what is uttered by the Buddhas of Transformation and not by the Buddhas of 143. there are only causal signs indicative of reality characteristic mark of perfected knowledge. What is uttered by Buddhas of Transformation and what is uttered by Buddhas of Maturity constitute the doctrine fully developed in the sutras. and mind mind rises in no other way. B Nisyanda." Both Wei here understand sanketa in the sense of "union. When the constructing of appearances and names. and [Buddha-] lands. and mind thus The mind of all beings is ceases. whose secret meaning you should know. 144." 3 * and T'ang VaipakiTca. 141. Mind is set in motion in various ways. a dream. which come from the union of conditions and realities. and this that which perceives mind is the product is of imagination. but they are not exactly non-existent either they resemble the Gandharva's castle. This is the reading of T'ang. BodhiMaturity. . no more takes place. All these individual objects (dharmas) have never been born.

discrimination asserts itself. 135 et seq. Imagining by this imagination. not discriminate discrimination.238 LANKAVATABA SUTKA is world. when one liberation. 161. 149. there is truth in discrimination is no world of] delusion is discrim[this inated as to that which is perceived and that which perceives. Brought together by the evil habit of erroneous reasoning. by the the ignorant. as people take refuge in relative knowledge their discriminations. By reason of false imagination (parikalpita) all (paratankra) . they get confused in 151. [Relative] knowledge (vijnana) tabes place where there is something resembling an external world. there . . When a turning-back (paravritta) takes place. itself aloof When relative knowledge is purified by keeping from discrimination. When Mind cendental] knowledge (jnana). Do a turning-back to the abode of suehness. the separation between that which perceives and that which is perceived ceases. released from discrimination there is 147. . the 1 As to the distinction between Jnana and Vijfiaua see p. there is no such external world as is discriminated 155. self-sub(285) stance is conceived to rise by the conditions of origination (pratyayodbhava) the Mind. there is a state of imagelessness. things existent are declared unborn. tortion. 153. 152. 154. v. which is the realm of the wise. the realm of suehness.) 150. (Chapter II. there is [in fact] an external world is recognised in disno such external world. but in reality there is no such dualism in it. 148. it is an error to recognise an external world. [trans* cendental] knowledge (jnana) belongs to the realm of Suchness. hence the evolution of this fallacious world. and detatched from imagina- tion. is agitated by habit-energy (or memory) there rises what appears to be an external world when the dualistic imagination ceases there grows [trans. [the conception of] selfsubstance is due to imagination. but just To those who see [the world] clearly and properly.

it is worm growing in the dung increasing. nine. is past after the Sugata's entrance In Vedali. v. and hair are supplied. first line of verse 156 is a part of the preceding one. lips. 2 163-164. v. the five. human speech produced from the combination of the palate. but the Mahayana [or Great Vehicle] is not definite. and discrimination goes on knowledge gained by discrimination. Chap. Ghana. The 148. VI. (286) nails. wrongly. Of. The five. 161. 162. v. With is like a man waking from sleep. 134. teeth. 160. the Alaya 157. The vehicle realised within my own inner self not the realm that can be reached by dialecticians. The verses are wrongly divided here. which thought.) the union of mother and father. the red together with the white grows up. . for this line properly belongs to 162 and not to 163. 156. (Chap.SAGATHAKAM realm of the wise. 165. to spring forth it is born. it comes to maturity like a fruit. pray tell the bearer [of the Mahayana] ? Mahamati. Through the stages of Pesi. illustrious . the boil grows an unclean mass bearing a variety of karma . 158. nourished by the wind of karma and the four elements. a Bhikshu most and distinguished [will be born] his name is Nagahvaya. and the five and the sores are 159. he is the destroyer of the one-sided views based on being and non-being. and Arbuda. and cavity. the eye begins to distinguish forms. 1 239 is free from appearances and beyond II. . when ready like a When [the baby] is just born. like a rat in a pot of ghee. and discrimination goes on like a parrot. From gets connected with Manas. Philosophical doctrines are definite. when sometime into Nirvana. is After the passing of the Teacher. . thou shouldst know that there will be one who bears the me who will be Dharma. in the southern part. it is set in motion by the thoughts of beings it is not an abode for those who see . 3.

attaining the stage of Joy he will Mahayana. suchness. essence (dharmata). "there is" and "there is not" do not take place. "there is" and "there is not. 176-177. therefore. [The philosophers argue that] the primary elements are unborn and like the sky are imperishable . teach as belonging to the aspect of perfected knowledge (parinishpanna) 175. Non-duality. 175. the truth becomes [thus] wrongly [represented] transcendental knowledge (prajna) being discriminated by thought falls . all born in the same manner. . and from the [the notion of] being born. 167. ultimate all these I limit. v. LANKAVATAEA SUTEA He will declare my Vehicle. like Maya. an endless mutual discrimination is thus taking place. the Gandharva's [castle]. (288) 174. 9 and 10. (Chap. The giving names to all things order to get rid of confusion. the whole world falls into confusion. those who imagine something real in the midst of conditional origination say. is being repeated constantly. (Chapter II. from conditional origination. in the threefold Things existent are discriminated by the ignorant form of discrimination. 171.) .) In the realm of conditional origination. a dream. transcendental knowledge is some- thing not imagined. 170. go to the 168. away from my teaching. [Individual existences are] appearances." but these philosophical views (287) are far existent has always been going on for hundreds of generations past this has been repeated. emptiness.240 166. If this designating does not take place. Ill. an echo they are [itself] 173. vv. into a duality . there is delusion from discriminating names. like a mirage. thus names are established in 169. images. a wheel made by a revolving fire-brand. but [in reality] there are no individual self-substances and the notion belongs to discrimination. . Language belongs to the realm of thought. the unsurpassed to the world. 172. Land of Bliss. non-discrimination.

179. Sutras. . 193. the limit. so all things are imagined by those who reason wrongly. follow books and not the inner meaning. to come into existence in the future. no end they are abiding in the aspect of reality. 194-196. Ill.) and This [world] is just a sign 1 indicative of reality apart from the sign. . [because] emptiness Suchness. 45. these I point out as synonymous. v. (290) 190. nothing is produced. visible . 186-187. emptiness. has no marks [of individuation] it is . 180. 241 rant as is The whole existence is not perceived by the ignoperceived by the wise the whole existence as it perceived by the wise. the various will-made bodies. Satiketa.) 1 in (Chap. Ill. Existence w. (dharmata) . 182.) world is likened to the hare's horns as long as all beings go on discriminating those who discriminate are deluded just like a deer running after a 197. cessation. (Chap. 183-184. (Chap. Ill. and destruction. As a spurious (Chapter III. 192. vv. Those who discriminate purity according to the and Abhidharmas. Vinayas. not of gold though looking like it. Emptiness unborn is another. 11. necklace. II. but the logicians do not understand. 191. emptiness unborn born leads to destruction. vv. The mirage. 12-14. nothing is destroyed.SAGATHAKAM 178.) conditional relations cannot be [described] as unity or diversity. 181. emptiness born is the better. (289) there is no creator. it is just in a general way of speaking that there is birth. 159 and 160. all such are unborn. and the Dharmadhatu. (291) (Chap. they are not established in egolessness. w. Nirvana. or to be in existence at present.) Things have no beginning. see also verse 139. . 188-189. "Whatever things that are thought to have been in existence in the past. is imagined by the ignorant to be of [genuine] gold. is one thing. nothing doing in the world. 44 185. and its 2.

those endowed with corporeality are dependent on relative knowledge being deluded they see not themselves. The psychic power which is obtained in a dream. [more] discriminawhen the cause of discrimination is put away. Transcendental knowledge is deep.) There are four psychic powers ciplinary exercises] . Bead after the Chinese and Tibetan versions. (Chap. The triple existence is transitory. it is said that there 1 is the birth [of realities] . IV.) 201. it .) . (bhavabhasa) . knowing the fruit of Pratyekabuddhahood which is above speculation is what I teach. 204. that which comes from the maturing [of the disciplinary exercises]. 6 and 7. vv. teach transitoriness. 213. 202. exalted. 203. 210. far- reaching. therefore a mind is evolved. one is disengaged therefrom. and that which is obtained in a dream. that which comes from the power of the Buddhas. verse 153. as the ignorant do not understand. verses 56 and 57. but 'bJiijna na vipaJcajah. (Chap. External objects are imagined. is to walk all alone. empty. tion goes on clinging to discrimination.) (Chapter II.242 198. and perceives all the Buddha-countries. truly what the truth of solitude is. 209. of the ego and what belongs to of generality to the Sravakas. devoid thus I teach the doctrine Not to be attached to anything existent. this I teach for the sons of the Victorious One for the Sravakas I . verse 150. 199-200. (Chapter III. 212. The mind being influenced by habit(293) there rises a something resembling real existence energy. LANKAVATARA SUTRA t By . vipakajah. that which comes from the sustaining power of the Buddhas. Ill.) 207 and 208. that which rises from entering into the various paths of living beings. 205(292)-206. Not vijnana- . 211. . and that which has its birth by entering the various paths of beings these powers are not 1 born of the maturing [of the dis: (Chapter II. vv. 54 and 55.

" according to BJiranti. a per(294) sonal ego. an objective world exists not when one thus perceives [that existence is] an error. The Alaya [various] is the from the body. the mind is con2 fused (vimuhyate) being unable to see its own delusion. 221. the Manas paths of existence. 2 grow in enlighten- After the Chinese. 3 * Pralubliyate.SAGATHAKAM 214. The two vehicles7 and the philosophers are one in their dependence on [wrong] views. 4 one even gets into suchness. "Why is ceived world spoken of ? 216. Arhatship. The enlightenment attained by the Pratyekabuddhas." mean is difficult to gather from the contents of the Laiikavatara as we have it here. who belong to the Nikaya. but 1 these are the secret seeds that it is 8 accomplished in a dream. it is befooled. 243 1 long as external objects (bahyam) are discriminated as possessing individual marks. the and the Manas is with the Vijnanas. NailcayiTcas. the Vijnana is released deluded with something resembling an objective world. is yet perceived as existing. literally. Nirvana. karma. and perceiving 218. "greedily attached. According to the Chinese. [space 6 ] words." Should be jnana. The existence of such verses as this. of these I talk because of worldly . Buddhahood. The past and the future. What devotees. As birth spoken of? Why is not the perWhen the perceived world. and the seeing of the Buddhas ment. 3 is seen is one's own mind. Manas energy solicits is is denied. which has no existence. After Wei. 222. "a delusion. The [spiritual] realm attained by Dhyana. convention. they are confused in regard to Mind-only. habit[its seeds]." "an external world. they belong to the Vijnana-5 realm that surpasses thought. 220. and imagine an external existence. "they What this verse purports to . and there are quite a number of them in the Sagathakam. but ultimate reality is beyond the letter. and the exalted state of the Buddhas these three are beyond thought. or does it refer to the Alaya? Wei and T'ang. The Citta in its essence is thoroughly pure. 219. what is that which is spoken of ? To whom is it ? and why ? 215. always casting out 217.

Citta (mind). to permanency and impermanency is the view maintained by followers of birth and not by those of no-birth. error no more . 225. 230. time. or from a supreme spirit. being and non-being. the Dhatus. 1 Maya. when and birth and death are linked together [as one]. to those who are confused in the teaching of Mind-only . of bothness [and not-bothness] and [to have risen] from Isvara. they are all like a dream. 2 3 Asmara. or from . When all false speculation subsides. 1 The Chinese read gati (path or course). Seeing the world as like Maya and a dream. 226. When the Citta. and the all things. mind seeds (cittabija) take their rise in the way images [appear in a mirror] or [waves roll on] the ocean-waters. rises.. like a hair-net. or spontaneously. is discriminative knowledge.244: LANKAVATARA SUTRA 223. thought-construction. T'ang. from indivi- dual marks. talk of 232. as long as there rising. 8 error keeps on 231. qualified qualifying are removed. (295) then there is the attainment of the will-body and of the Buddha-stage. . 229. suggests in one way that this verse section has no organic relation with the main text. are these teachthe dualism of being and non-being where ings ? for whom ? whence ? wherefore ? and of what significa- tion? Pray tell me. Skandhas. the truth. etc. and it goes along with the five Vijnanas. or other causal agency. self- nature of and mind 228. Another name for Manas is discrimination (vikalpa). 224. intelligence. The world is empty and has no self -nature. [The philosophers] imagine the world to be of oneness and otherness. removed from speculative reasoning. I teach such things as Maya. Causation. 227. Vijnana cease to rise. Jnana for prajna. Manas. and not mati. one is free abides with the truth . tranquillity. indeed. The inner realisation attained by the wise always abides in a state of no-memory 2 it leads the world to the truth as it is not confused with speculative reasoning. a personal soul.

244. is the Alaya in the body. is 245 The Vijnana which is the seed of transmigration is not evolved when this visible it world [truly] recognised [its . 241. and Nirvana are in this body. like a picture on a wall. when the Mind itself understood.SAGATHAKAM 233. 246. the remaining [two] stages and the Buddha-stage are the Nishpanna ("perfected knowledge"). Removed from the triple continuity. 245. Buddha. which is a perfectly white garment. vritta) When the Manovijnana is "turned over" (vyathe Citta frees itself from turbidity by understanding [the nature of] all things. well as of non-existence. so As long as there is something attained. of no-form. The world of form. The duality of the world. things subject to causation by distinctly understanding what they 236. individual . nor 237. not separate from habitthough enveloped with habit-energy the remains undifferentiated. and 235. I 240. much thoroughly (Chapter (Chapter II. verse 171. there is is error rising. Like figures in Maya. . are. one is established in imagelessness. and the world of desire. verse 131. all things (bhava) are always like Maya. As space is neither existent nor non-existent. die . devoid of being and non-being. The [first] seven stages are mind-born and belong two Svabhabas. error neither rises nor ceases. say. people are born and way the ignorant because of their stupidity [imagine] there really is bondage and release. together with it.) Two things are established by me. (citta) is The mind is it energy. . born of the Manovijnana is like dirt Habit-energy wherewith the Citta. to the 243. released from the four propositions. so 238. (296) in the same disappears when nature] is recognised. is itself mind enveloped and fails to display itself. all is told to belong to the realm of Mind. (297) 242. I say it is devoid of existence as .) II. the mind (citta) becomes 239. 234. inner and outer.

self- nature is [truly understood in] the realm of the wise.. truth . one is emancipated. a dream. The world is born of causation. since a mind purified leaves traces of defilement. is which con- stitute the 247. the essence making up the self -nature of things (298) and suchness is devoid of discrimination. removed from discrimination and as resembling etc. As long as discrimination is carried on. it is regarded as 252. "When the Samskrita is seen as devoid of qualified and qualifying.246 objects LANKAVATAEA SUTRA and realisation. seen as characterised with varieties of forms and figures when names and forms are removed self-nature becomes pure which is the realm of the wise. 1 Cittamatram here and in the following verse is rendered in HsinT'ang as *?i|fc (fain-Hang) and not the usual Bft'J!]> (wei-Jisin) . but it is where Samskara is observed [in its proper bearings] 255. he will cease discriminating an external world establishing himself where suchness has its asylum he will pass on to Mind-only. but as what is imagined by discrimination has no reality. The essence of mind . Delusion itself is no more than truth. 249. 248. [absolutely] pure. The mind emancipated is truth constant and everlasting. but reality is the truth that is . is not perceived. and the essence of mind is (cittasya dharmata) 253. when 251. the Pari- kalpita (false imagination) continues to take place. objects externally existing. When the [Yogin] enters upon Mind-only. 256. Maya. neither in Samskara nor anywhere else. pure but not the mind that is is born of error error rises from error. There is reality (vastu) it is not to be qualified as pure. therefore Mind is not perceived. . 250. belonging to the realm of the wise. all predicates are discarded and thus the world is seen as of Mind itself. 1 . it is The error [or the world] discriminated when . nor is it to be said defiled. Varieties of habit-energy growing out of error are united with the mind they are perceived by the ignorant as . 254. there are four principles dogmas of logic.

for in the days of Sung wei-shin had not been thought of. light. The eye. name Imagining himself to be standing on a truth. of Name . nor grasping. 260. space. The attainment of the fruits. 258. he passes on to the (299) when he establishes himself in . he Hang means "mind-measurement. Nirvana. the [remaining] two truths and the are where transcendental knowledge functions. There 264. nor one there are no names. verse 145." the term used in Sung throughout for cittamatram. is not born of meaning. (vijnana) in people. 262.SAGATHAKAM 257. But why does T'ang use hsin-liang for wei-shin in this particular case while wei-shin is used in the preceding line? Does cittamatram mean here simply "mental or intellectual measurement" and is not used in the technical sense in which the term is found elsewhere in this sutra? 1 "Not" (no) is replaced by "he" (so) in one MS. have no discrimination 265. The state of non-striving (anabhoga) is quiescent and thoroughly purified with the [original] vows. let him review the realm of knowledge. Pain belongs to mind. no objects.) 266. 259. form. and attention (manas) out of this [combination] there is the birth of consciousness when all these truths are thus understood. and the eightfold path there is Buddha-knowledge thoroughly purified. Buddha-stage 261. accumulation is the realm 2 of knowledge (jnana) . such is discrimination . the most excellent knowledge of egolessness sees no [duality in the world] because of imagelessness. . 247 By state of imagelessness passing on to Mind-only. May this "be a better reading? 2 Referring to the Four Noble Truths. (Chapter II. he sees not [even] the Mahayana. nor is meaning born ! (300) whether things are born of cause or of nocause. with transcendental knowledge (prajna). Let him review the realm of mind. those who carry on their groundless discriminative way of thinking lack 263. consciousness is indeed born of the Alaya. who grasps. and he will not be confounded with individual signs. let him review the realm. intelligence. 1 the state of imagelessness. is nothing grasped.

270. There is neither a speaker nor speaking nor . There is no primarily working fire. the Vijnana from Alaya. 268. 274. the world. the Dharma is seen when cessation takes place. Delusion (prapcmca) is the evil one who is to be broken down. being and non-being is to be transcended. [The philosophers imagine] a permanently exist- ing creator engaged in mere verbalism. as one sees into [the truth of] egolessness. 272. no Sanskrita. "karma in work. 276. no bondage. There are there is no rising of the causation [-chain] nor any sense-organs. 2 no working done. is clearly perceived. individual signs. They do not discriminate duality. and and reality . no evil thought of. the Yogin attains the knowledge of Mind-only." . What . no-birth. no effects produced. oneness is not attained 1 in five ways. while Wei has. (301) the oneness of meaning thus takingplace is not to be known by a dually operating mind. and thus the truth is abandoned. Let one not think of the Manas. he has no longing for. 267. since the Mind is seen but when the Mind is not seen there rises a net of philosophical doctrines. no deliverance. There is no state of being to be called neutral [or there is no duality of dharma inexplicable] (a/vyakrita) 1 2 The reference is not clear. evolved. depending on the Citta and Leanig on the Alaya for support the Manas is Manas the Vijnanais system is is evolved. emptiness. from the point of view of permanency and impermanency nor let him think in his meditation of birth 271. established is a proposition suchness by a proposition (samaropa) the essence of mind when this . no Dhatus. no Skandhas. no power. 275. no final limit. rises 273.248 LANKAVATARA SUTRA discourses on thought-construction . no . "karma and its effects". highest truth is beyond words. 269. greed. T'ang has.

as invisible when revealed within purity but purity itself the sky is veiled with clouds. This and abode. is Mind it and abode. is 249 no time. no passing away. neither a being nor a non-being. property. no birth. no dharma- 277. 279. the idea of reality removed by establishing the Mind-only permanency and annihilation are seen [in their proper relationship].) III. of limit then there are no twelve elements (anga). does not reveal is is 284. Mind is not born of the visible world therefore. Mind . property. no causal agents. no perversion. and no-limit because of the . that brings out into view body. . The . It is the habit-energy of people that brings out into view something resembling body.) (303) 290. no Nirvana. And there are no Buddhas. And and no duality either. maintaining the Mind-only. 1 first a repetition of the latter half of verse 282 and the . cessation of all the notions [that are cherished ophers] I declare [there is] Mind-only. one escapes from becoming attached to . is By . it is the habit-energy of people . (Chapter ( ( ( III. 287. 41. It is error (dosha) that causes the world to be 282. path of karma. nor is there the an ego-soul. Mind is Mind is nowhere is to be seen not born of the elements (&Ma). there essence. 278. 182. by the philos- fruitions passions. 289. creators. they are like a fata morgana and a dream they are like a city of the Gandharvas. no truths. nor any individual signs (302) by entering into Mind-only. Mind is not visible.) II. 286. 283. II. 288.) 183. Dirt is not soiled. III. 281. emancipation.SAGATHAKAM and adharma. [when ( defiled with error] 285. itself because of habit-energy. externally perceived as it is manifested to people.) 40. verse 38. 280. the body. no fruition. There are no Skandhas in Nirvana. no Nirvana.

verses 184-190. (Chapter II. Maya. Another reading is: "There are As to the Buddhas. There are three kinds.) and non-reality can be predicated of existence that originates from causation. The elements are devoid of selfhood. half of 283. they have no three kinds of Bodhisattvas. 296-302. of the Bodhisattvas : those yet reached Buddhahood. 304. but fearing to cause greater confusion in the numbering of the whole "Sagathakam" I have followed Nanjo. verse 42. a dream. 313. verses 191-196." . a sun and what is thus perceived by them is born of habit-energy. those who manifest themselves according to the thoughts of sentient who have not beings. The elements are uniform. a moon. . also. and also of the second half of 282 and the first half of 283. (305) II. verse 43. the view of oneness and otherness definitely belongs to them. and born of the Dharma. LANKAVATARA SUTRA All that is element-made is not form and form is not element-made. 2 The first half of 292 and the second half of 293 correspond to Chapter III. but something looking like a Buddha may be seen according to the thoughts of each sentient being. these are not element-made. (Chapter III. and those who are seen (Chapter 311. 1 The first half of this corresponds to the first half of Chapter III. 3 This is the T'ang reading. an image. and the Sravakas disengaged from greed and anger. 2 294.250 291. neither qualified nor qualifying in them if all element-made objects were the elements. while the second half of 292 and the first half of 293 are practically a repetition of 290. there are no element.) man's mind that is perceived as something resembling (samnibliam) the form of a star. a cloud. showing that the insertion is probably due to a clerical mistake. Nanjo's verse divisions are to be revised I think in some places. the city of the Gandharvas. 292. It is a in the likeness of the Buddha. the born of the vows. 1 293. there is 312. 295. There are three kinds of my Sravakas: (304) the transformed. [tangible] form. form (rupa) would be elementmade. This is omitted in both T'ang and Wei. 3 305-310. verse 42.) reality As 303.

the birth. 321. there are seven forms of emancipation. and 317. Likewise with emancipation. are three my egoless- 319. twenty-four Buddhas. and six kinds of Nirvana. is There are no such things as the past. There are one hundred and eight doctrines. whether the attainment it is instantaneous or successive. present. Dhyana divided into six. a mirage and a fifth. Sravakas. 323. the elements are the cause earth. Is prajnaptirupam (form of thought-construction) the same as vijnaptirupam of the AbJiidharmafcosa? . and a city of the Gandharvas. there . three kinds of Sravakas. are the result. Thus the abode in the Tushita heaven. removed from faulty theories. there are eight kinds of form. and 316. The Skandhas are divided into twenty-five. one realisation. there is one land of the Buddhas. etc. From beginning to end the Buddhas. is the knowledge of self-realisation. 324. being always a Maya-like 322. existence.SAGATHAKAM made objects in the elements . immovable and highest. and with the Pratyekabuddhas and Buddha-sons. and there are two kinds of Buddha-sons. they are 1 315. and Buddha-sons have never been born (307) the mind is removed from what is visible. there forms. the revolving The text gives no clue to this. so and 318. six kinds of ness. like things . 251 the Substances and forms of thought-construction are born of Maya (306) they appear like a dream . and is neither permanency nor impermanency doing. the leaving. Disjoined from causal agencies. the worldly life. There are eight worlds of formlessness. and also four kinds of knowledge. which is the Mahayana. with the Buddha. future. work. so with the families which are five. . there is one. Of birth and no-birth there are eight and nine is kinds . there are five vehicles and novehicle. 314. the con- ception. There are five kinds of the Icehantika. and fruition all is no more than a dream-event. water. four kinds of mind-streams. 320.

abodes of the gods. Worlds. is [still] Inconceivable transformation-death the net of passions in union with habit-energy. the inconceivable realm of fruition. is let him have an exact According to the Chinese The source unknown to the translator. Let the Yogin have white cloth 331. Dhyanas. the science of mechanics. born of karma and are born of desire. they are 328. the wandering about in all the countries. death stop to. ele- phants. or quartz. . The Yogin whose final aim is to discipline himself carry a curved knife four fingers long for cutting cloth he who is intent on disciplining himself may not learn may . silver. nor horses. 333. 332. the Alaya. gold. goods. He is he to smear the ground with not to sleep on a perforated couch. 335. or leaves. and the rising of things by causation. brass. or fruits. guarding his senses. Thus. 325. philosophers. emancipation is taught. made of gold. is destroyed. families of the Yakshas and Gandharvas. . The Yogin is permitted to carry a bowl (308) of full Magadha measure made of either stone. [A Buddha] is seen [doing all these things] but he is not one born of the womb. or iron. land. Families of the all moon and stars. is The Yogin who disciplines himself in the exercises not to be engaged in buying and selling. 327. not to keep 1 money. kine and sheep. islands. the attainments. grain. when interrupted. slaves. or copper. 334. 1 ~ Thus. 330. the knowledge of the [Buddha-] land. families of kings. the vehicles. [The Bodhisattva] etc. 326. dyed in dark blue or brownish-red with cow-dung. forests. is is put a 329. wanderings. for the sake of sentient beings who are wandering and moving about from one place to another. or shell. nor is mud 2 he is not to have a bowl . the truth. or clay. egolessness. [if necessary] let the attendant see to it these are the regulations I teach. or mud.252 LANKAVATARA SUTRA of the wheel.

(309) is not to approach for his food kings. or in an open place. company. From self-discrimination the world is imagined. The Yogin should not cherish the thought that the world exists from such causal agents as atoms. or where Bhikshus and Bhikshunis are mixed together. way bees treat flowers. or in the houses of friends not proper for the Yogins to take their food. or among the straw. In houses where a death or a birth has taken 341. 337. such I call the Yogin. . himself in the 339. or with Bhikshunis [womenmendicants] this is not a desirable relationship for Yogins for it means to share a livelihood with them. 346. or a cemetery. When the Yogin the exercise. The Yogin should regard the world as removed from birth and death. the psychic faculties. When he goes about begging food. which is born of varieties of habit-energy. or persons of rank. the Yogin before long will attain the Samadhi. 343. or supreme soul nor that it is born of causes and conditions. 340. When birth [and death] is not discriminated.SAGATHAKAM 253 understanding in the meaning of the Sutras and the Vinaya. 342. 344. and the self-mastery. time. as exempt from the alternation of being and non-being. let the Yogin . . princes. whether in the cemetery or any other place if anyone should voluntarily give him a garment let him accept it. and let him not associate with men of the world. it is place. finds himself in a large in the confusion of a . 338. or under a tree. it is not proper for the Yogins to take their food. and relatives. the powers. The Yogin. or in a cavern. Let [the Yogin] dress himself in three garments. ministers of state. whose aim is to discipline himself in . In the monasteries food is always regularly cooked. company. and when it is purposely prepared [somewhere else]. 336. 345. let him look ahead not more than the length of a yoke let him conduct . Let the Yogin prepare his abode in an empty house. though it is seen in the aspect of qualified and qualifying.

let him pay homage over and over again to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. 348. let the Yogin have a clear insight into the five distinct understanding of the undefiled truth of self-realisation and as to what the stages [of Bodhisattvahood] and the Buddha-stage are and be anointed on the great lotus [seat]. as there is no visible world. 347. he becomes averse to existence. When Mind-only is understood. Mind itself. "Wandering through all the paths. let not [the Yogin] discriminate the triple world which appears as body. (310) 351.254 LANKAVATARA SUTRA Maya and a dream. verses 162-164. perceive existence as always like unto tions as well as removed from asserfrom negations. 359. and directing his steps toward some quiet cemetery he will begin various practices. property." No rising of a visible -world? . 356. The Yogin should have a 350. and this is imagined by them to be the Middle Path. tion. 349. neither permanent nor subject to annihila355. and abode. external objects are abandoned and discrimination no more takes place. Dharmas. there is no visible world. here the Middle Path is reached. being and non-being. (311) 358. The attachment to existence is not abandoned for no-cause the fear of being nihilistic. these 1 After T'ang. but holding his body upright. of no-cause but their as they fail to understand [the real nature of] external objects they destroy the Middle Path. and removed from the alternatives of being and nonbeing. Not thinking how to obtain food and drink.) [According to the philosophers] there is a reality born of no-cause. Birth and no-birth. Wei has: "Apart from Mind there is no rising. (Chapter II. from the teach- The [true] insight is always ings in the Sutras. 352-354. and egolessness. Gathering truth from the Vinaya. There is Mind-only. 357. They imagine the theory is nihilistic. [Mind] is not risen 1 this is taught j by myself and other [Tathagatas] to be the Middle Path. and they try to teach the Middle Path by means of assertion and negation. 360.

suchness is removed from intellection (citta). By assuming Sravaka-forms. when understood varieties of forms and appearances are of Mind-only. nothing but what is seen of the Mind. not to be cherished. Nothing is born. and the "Sagathakam. 369." verse 651. Of. [other] if there any other discrimination one committed to the philos- ophers' views. (312) all over millions of worlds what is seen simultaneously is like a lunar reflection in water. not the destruction of the discriminated. because of . no-mind is also born of Mind. To realise this is said Buddhas is to be [the attainment of] is by myself and Buddhahood. is the abandonment. ceives that 2 man. its not being annihilation. nothing dies and yet things are passing away. discrimination ceases . Where is there no possibility of discrimination is taking but as there its rise. the duality 361. .SAGATHAKAM are all 255 all empty. For the sake of beings [the Buddhas] show forms * Buddha [-forms]. knowledge. Mind is of Mind-only. Pratyekabuddha-appearances. and yet things are being born. verses 25. and fire Unity being transformed into plurality. the attachment to duality is destroyed . Chapter III. indeed. there is is no is self-nature in things. is As it becomes thoroughly known that there is 363. 365. The text as it stands is difficult to understand. how can they destroy their attachment to duality? 362. seeing the rise [of all things] yet perNirvana is devoid of the faults of the philosophers. If a 364. 370. is Mind-only. I follow T'ang. 366. 367. and varieties of other forms. . the ignorant imagine there emancipation . as discrimination ceases. rain falls burns as a mind is changed into [many] thoughts. this is' the Nirvana as held by the wise. no understanding [in them] as to the rise of 1 a mind. they declare Mind-only. As it is understood that there is nothing but what seen of the Mind. they declare that there 368.

256 LANKAVATARA SUTRA of no-form. discrimination is set in motion. The Dharma-Buddha is the true Buddha and the rest are his transformations of their 383. I never enter into Nirvana. hells by means down to the from the world of no-form and of form where hell-dwellers are. verses 199-202.) (313) 379. think. or understand. 373. 384. (Chapter II. own .) The Buddhas in [every] land are those of transformation. for all things are empty being devoid of birth [and death]. On account of self-discrimination which causes errors and sets false reasonings in motion.) II. which in reality exists not. the ignorant are bound up with ideas in what they see. sentient beings see their Buddha-forms. 381. in like manner the Dharma-Buddha's world may appear in its multiplicity. According . according to a continuous flow 1 seeds. 2 1 2 they are all After T'ang and Wei. 374. the Enjoyment Buddha. the will-body. The five transformation bodies (pancanirmita) may mean those transformation Buddhas who manifest themselves in the five (sometimes six) paths of existence in order to save the sentient beings that are suffering there in the endless wheel of transformation. the self-mastery. (Chapter (Chapter II. and all this [spiritual] originates 371. 372. from Mind-only. where [the doctrine of] the one vehicle and the triple vehicle is taught . There are thirty-six different Buddhas. the ten stages. the Transformation Buddha. (314) suchness is no other than discrimination and discrimination is no other than appearance. verse 197. 375-378. each ten different ones. verse 198. and a group of thirty-six Buddhas of the Self -nature Buddha. 382. in accordance with the thought of all beings they share their lands. When a revulsion [takes place in them]. When existence is discriminated there are varieties of appearances. The Self -nature Buddha. the five Transformation Buddhas. and in 380. When [the mind is] bound up with error and appearance. they will attain the Samadhi called Maya-like. hear.

one of the Indian Shingon Fathers. Vijnana are devoid of self-nature.) 407. thing externally appearing. . 409. and there is no third cause. or things seen in a dream.or Nirmita-kaya. their behaviour. and 2 that which is grasped is variously imagined. This verse is quoted by Amoghavajra (704-774). 257 101-123. No. " KalpitampariTcal'pitam. I owe this information to Professor Shoun Toganowo. 411. 1433). Nanjo Catalogue. of] [When it is understood that things are because the combination of self-seeds and an external world 410. [As they are] like the city of the Gandharvas. Manas. of Koya Buddhist College. The unintelligent imagine the Samskrita and Asamskrita to be permanent. or if Maya. 870. No. of 408. but the Citta. Owing to seeds of habit-energy [that grow from an outer world. yet they are perceived [as so is the relativity aspect of existence (paratantra) of a triple mentality I teach the self. Depending on that and from that cause error is (317) recognises . By means and to the Shingon doctrine of the fourfold Dharmakaya. 412. as they are like the stars.(315-316) -406. they . (grahya). are not. Because of the Alayavijnana the Vijfiana [-system] is evolved because of inner support there is some. they were real] 414. The fourth one thus in the Shingon is known as the Nishyandakaya. and thereby the relativity aspect is grasped. 1 Tantram = paratantram. a hair-net. discrimination takes the recognition] 1 place. the ego-attachment is abandoned. with (Chapter II.SAGATHAKAM 385. 413. the twelve (dyatanas). distinguishing it from the third which is Nirmana. . produced. the six (indryas). a mirage. while they are not. in one of his works called G&S&felllBiftfll! ^iJUflifiigiSFIS (the Taisho Tripitaka. an echo. are thus said by me to be of the Mind. and senses. this last transformation or manifestation is distinguished from the generally accepted transformation-Buddha and is given a special position by itself. who settled in China. error is produced error takes place from these two [causes]. When one depending upon the mind an external world. the eighteen (dliatus]. verses verse-divisions occasionally varying.

1 When the Citta-form gatahood.258 415. and thought the essence of Tathagatahood (gotram tatMgatam) being pure is devoid of doings. is put aside. from cause and form (hetulakshana) to attain the eighth stage and the Buddha-stage this is the essence of Tathagatahood. Svabhavas abandoned. speech. the Good-Wisdom. is not obtained by body. 423. and the [three] Vijnana removed. then one attains the essence of Tatha- my essence. (318) this is the way in which a picture of one colour appears variously on the wall. the final (319) 1 425. Habit-energy as cause is one. To be pure by means of the psychic faculties. the [three] Svabhavas they do lessness. "family. The twofold egolessness. and Vijnana. The Par-Going. belong to the realm of the Buddhas. the [three] Svabhavas. the Citta. and the self-mastery. 419. abode [of conseems to him like having crossed a great river at the eighth. and thought. 420. and the Tathagata-stage they belong to the essence of Buddhahood. Since sentient beings are differentiated as to their mentality and individuality. but as far as form (lakshana) goes it is triple. To be undefiled in inner realisation. in a dream. the five Dharmas. body these belong to the pure essence of Tathagatahood. The pure [essence of Tathagatahood] . lit. At the seventh it stage no faults arise as to body. 416. Vijnana. the twofold egothese Dharmas. LANKAVATAEA SUTRA The Citta. the Law-Cloud. the Buddhas who have achieved self-mastery over their minds teach the ignorant the seven stages. 424. the Manas and and the [five] Dharmas." . while the rest are taken up by the two vehicles. speech. to be provided with varieties of the will421. to be embellished with the Samadhis and the powers. Manas. to be released . and 417. 422. the five not belong to 418. Manas. At the fifth and the eighth stage the Gotra. sciousness] .

1 After T'ang. There is neither being-and-non-being. this is true. both being and non-being are merely imagined. to be confused in things not having self -nature this belongs to conventional truth. As no pictures are separable from the wall. verses 123 and 129.SAGATHAKAM 259 Bodhisattvas acquire proficiency in mechanical arts and philosophy and attain kingship in the triple world. ) (Chapter II. self -nature Birth and no-birth. [by To discriminate.) 438-439. the 435-436. for there is no reality coris or saying again. and no-self-nature. ( Chapter II. . Do not discriminate. 427. It is taught that (320) [-Buddha] comes the Nishyanda. 429. (Chapter II. verses 127-128. whatever expressions and experiences that belong to the ignorant are not of the truth as (tattva) . tive Things born of words seem to belong to an objecrealm. I establish thought-constructions where all things 430. tions (prajnapti) . (Chapter VI." no emptiness". 437. verses 125-126. from the Dharma from the Nishyanda rest are Buddhas. it is 431.) 434. saying This is true. there are neither thought-construcnor substances (dravya) . are non-existent. 426. and the Nirmita. According to conventional truth (samvriti) are. things but not in the highest truth. ' ' this." is teaching meant for the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. so are no [Vijnana-] waves stirred when the Alaya [-ocean] 433. 1 these are the original transformed bodies. they become non-existent.) 440. no shadow from the post. 432. aspect of momentariness. emptiness and no-emptiness. nothing obtains in Mind-only. verse 4. "Here responding to the imagined. and not for the sons of the Buddha. is pure [and quiet]. these are not discriminated the knowing one] in Mind-only [no such things] obtain. saying "Here is emptiness. . nor the 428. but when it is perceived that they are born of words. is false.

460. and yet they are spoken of [as if real] . verse 172. all that which sets the triple world in motion.260 LANKAVATARA SUTRA 441. the vital principle. warmth. Manovijnana. verse 135. or atoms. nor is there its negation.) (Chapter 451. 456. and. they are nothing but the Mind itself. . 454. is Parinishpanna this (Chapter II. mutuality Paritantra. verses 157-158. (Chapter Citta. II. (Chapter III. 450. but there is is not a single atom in existence. the Manas always cognitates. there no external world. 442.) (Chapter II. The world originates from habit-energy. so the Sravakas. and suchness is always taught by me in the sutra. 203-204. the Alaya. those who see into this are emancipated. the Vijfiana. 455. Life.) mud is unable to move 452. verses 457-458. Vijnana.) The Manas. 445-447.) Space. the hare's horns. 453. are synonyms of Mind. 461. verse 210. these are the names for dis- crimination.) II. as they understand the egolessness of things. and. (321) there is nothing to be seen externally. 449. [Of the three Svabhavas] is one is Parikalpita. verse 209. thought-construction. The ignorant imagine that things originate from the accumulation of qualities. and a barren woman's child are unrealities.) (Chapter II. discrimination. verses 205-207. 448. the [Mano-jvijnana together with the Vijnanas cuts the world in pieces as objects of Citta. The body is maintained by the Citta. 459. stand still. or substances. 443-444. there is no external world. the elephant who is immersed in deep about. therefore. . (322) As (Chapter II. verse 208. Manas. Forms seen as external are due to the imagination of people.) (Chapter II. who are deeply intoxicated with the liquor of Samadhi. there is nothing whatever to be designated as being and non-being. (323) the Alaya. so are all things imagined. therefore.

to discrimof the Parikalpita (imagination) . verses 15-19. not knowing what the nature of the external world is. they imagine the 490. illustra- 491. are brought to light. ternal to is No what is external forms are in existence. and the fourfold proposition.) 465-469 (324). (327) as dualism is [primarily] external to people's minds. sufferings. There are no reasons. (Chapter II. there is 494. depending on the imagination. (Chapter II. one's doings. together with the passions primary and secondary. discrimination is evolved. no syllogistic to the intelligent that the external world is the reflection of their 492. yekabuddhas and Bodhisattvas all takes place by getting rid of the passions. as the ignorant fail understand as regards the Samskrita [as real] . Because of mind and what belongs to it. there is discrimination. verses 7-8. are under bondage to [the idea] of causation. Mind itself. inate is no members who know own Mind. and [that] of the PratSravakas. 493. tions. which is from the Skandha-appearance. [the ignorant] are comfortably established in the triple world. When 474-487 (325-326). . that an external world of appearances is evolved 495. no rising of it. (Chapter HI. '(Chapter II. Do characteristic not discriminate by discrimination.) 261 [Some say that] an ego-soul really is. no statements. verses 20-33. or that the Skandhas separate really exist [but] there is after all no ego-soul in them. The 489. Because of the combination of appearances and .) attained by the extinction-knowledge the birth of the Buddhas. is due to the discrimination of self -nature. one perceives the world to be the Mind itself and is released from all 473. 472. One's habit-energy is the origin [of all things] which are mutually and uninterruptedly knitted together. verses 3-5. is The insight that pluralities are of the Mind itself withheld from the bewildered who.) 470-471. 488. what is exseen of the Mind itself .SAGATHAKAM 462-464.

verses 82-83. (328) (Chapter III. to the dim-eyed. it [really] take place? 503. If people discriminate erroneously regarding the 504. mind to the ignorant is seen enveloped in habit- 497. 498..) 502. one nor the other Mind rope. Samskrita since the beginningless past. like a hair-net. but there is no external world as it is discriminated by the philosophers. 1 To the wise there is nothing erroneous. Form (rupam. imagination itself has no reality. in the world. how is the self -nature of beings 505. is an error ? Pray tell me. it take 499. Like images in a mirror. not knowing that it is of Mind itself. is said that there are no such things it means that there is not recognised by the intellect. . is non-existent. a garment. something which 507. Thus the rope . or matter) has no reality of its own. Like the ignorant who not recognising the rope for a snake. 508. therefore Airaya and alambana. and what seen [as external] is nothing but the Mind. itself. depended and depending. 506. If it is this is not what said that something exists with the wise. how does While the imagined is being imagined. is discriminated by the ignorant. as is the case with a jar. however. which has no real existence. the has no reality seeing that discrimination . when the itself is not perceived discrimination is evolved. etc. that which real] with the wise must be a falsehood. 1 I talk of doings. Mind When it is imagined as the ignorant imagine.262 LANKAVATARA SUTRA seeds there are the twelve Ayatanas. The nature of all beings Muni. because of the com- bination of subject and object. 496. discrimination is carried on. people imagine an external world. in its own nature is neither the but owing to the fault of not recognising people go on with their discrimination over the 500-501. Discrimination goes on in the world imagined by self-discrimination. the energy. if the [is wise and the ignorant walk the same way.

but without which this world of cause and effect is impossible . they go astray from reality. "0 son. The supreme Mahayana is beyond the realm of words. It is like the mother who fetches for her child a fruit from the In air. of many like saying. its is primarily unborn and yet born. tlie ignorant whose mind is uninterruptedly defiled goes on imagining the imagined. and yet in another sense it is the reason of this existence subject to causation. there are so 510. self -nature. subject to causation. 1 not united with causation. while essence is not The unobtainable essence (alabdhatmaka) is indeed unborn. and yet it is nowhere separated from causation. they understand not that the world. [The doctrines] thus advanced by the Sravakas and philosophers are tainted with jealousy." manner I make all imagined fruit (329) whereby I [lead that goes beyond the antithesis of being 511. 518.SAGATHAKAM their 263 mind is undefiled. name. nor is it notexistent-and-non-existent putting itself under causation. of them. Appearance. by the wise] having it never been in existence obtainable. . 514. its meaning is well elucidated by me. 516. 513. reality is not the subject of discrimination to the wise. When the visible world is thus approached. because their doctrines are false theorisings. but the ignorant do not comprehend. don't cry. beings covet varieties them to] the truth The being [which is is realised and non-being. The philosophers cherishing wrong ideas and the ignorant have theories of oneness and otherness . it is anywhere neither existent nor non-existent. x Those who believe in the oneness or the manyness this and what follow is this: there is an absolute being which precludes all form of qualification. 515. The meaning of . 509. 512. the absolute is thus in one sense unobtainable. imagination are carried on. pick the fruit. form (samsthanam) and depending on these four conditions all kinds of . 517. is like Maya and a dream. nor are things as they are for this moment anywhere separated from causation.

karma-succession being thus destroyed. those who imagine Brahma god or the authority of Isvara. and matter are neither different nor not-different from discrimination. 1 Apart from oneness and otherness the verse is not at all clear. no attainment of Nirvana. they are mutually condi- then subsist as 526.264 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA [of cause] . Vijnanas. If people's karma which is in combination with them destroyed. is 525. there is no distinction of all things as they are removed from being and non-being. When shaken this transformation takes place. it differs Mind (citta) tioning. This 520. the idea of off. removed from coming and going. it is released from existence and non-existence. matter is released space-relations are banished. 524. thus with matter and impermanency. those sons is who [have embraced] my the seal of emancipation belonging to teaching. permanence and impermanence no more obtain. [Pari-] The whole . abides with the being of the Alaya which is not destroyed. know well how to turn over ideas and reach the other shore of the Vijnana. whereby there is the union of matter and 523. and transmigration If 522. 527. are thoroughly conversant with the suchness of reality. 1 Those who are equipped with a noble insight and 519. and yet destroyed together with matter and subject to transmigration. 521. If karma is is Vijnanas. in the world of matter (rupa] ceases. karma disappears by causing a transformation and the Vijnanas. (330) those who take the sun and the moon for an element they are not my sons. matter will in no way from karma. there will be no transmigration. karma While matter and Vijnanas pass into annihilation. but karma from the fault of being and non-being abides with the Alaya. 528. The Parikalpita and the Paratantra are (331) mutually dependent and are not to be differentiated.

As their insight is bound up with being and nonwhat appears to their imagination resembles a hairnet. then. it has nothing to do with karma. he [i. people 2 537. Maya. When the Parikalpita is destroyed my Dharma1 is destroyed. the Paratantra is not born. {ft or read after Wei. a Buddhist] may associate with them [i. rise intelligent. Wei. from the imagination (332) and released from existence and non-existence. there is no karma. If things are not existent as discriminated by the self-being. When is the Parikalpita is thoroughly understood [as to its nature]. none of whom are worth talking with as they are destroyers of my Dharma-eye. precious stones mine in the earth producing gold and strife in it. He who studies under the Buddhas may not live together with those who cherish dualism and are destroyers being. the Gandharva's city. as the visible world is non-existent. there will 531. . eye (netrl) disparagers of the Dharma. they are engaged in controversies asserting 533. In this way. Likewise. e. understood. of others. kalpita is not knowable . But if there are Yogins who see a being separated 535. etc. it . 14 . As they are not taken into the company of the 532. all things have no It is like a . harbours no cause of but according to the discriminations of the ignorant things appear to exist. 534. and there takes place within my teaching [the controversy of] assertion and negation. and as they destroy the Parikalpita. and negating. 538. e. so witli matter and impermanency how can one speak of their being and non-being? 529. a dream. when the Paratantra 530. 539. the Parikalpita becomes suchness. nor is the path born of karma. a mirage.SAGATHAKAM 265 . As is understood by the wise. though the essence (gotra) of all beings appears various. such Yogins] 536. and yet it furnishes with various means of subsistence. they abandon the life of the Bhikshu . and at that time. .

there are no defilements for any one. suchness of these I talk for the sake of the Bodhisattvas. the Bodhisattvahood] the inner realisation. there will be no evolving of the sense-organs in these beings. my In the time to come there will be disparagers of 546. (333) 544. is Things born of causation are non-existent this a thing imagined has no reality. causation. no-signs. 549. all things being non-existent. the powers (vibhuti). and will ruin the people with the realm of the wise . atoms are and there are nine permanent substances such they teach.266 LANKAVATARA SUTRA ignorant. teaching who. If beings themselves are not and yet they become 542. The world is originated from atoms. will talk about being-and-non-being and its works. evolution of beings possessed of a body. 540. 547. If beings are not existent as discriminated by the ignorant. pure . Because of varieties of defilement cherished by beings there is transmigration. If beings are non-existent to you. The Skandhas. stances. and the sense-organs are completed being bound up by ignorance and desire there is the . personal soul. 541. . ignorant people headed by] Kanabhuj they will talk about the non-existence of work. and they destroy the it is self-being of all things [saying that] another being. yet are imagined by the theorisers. be any is independent of people's strivings. which is not the Yogin's [view]. then there will be an emancipa- tion which 543. [They say that] substances are produced by suband so qualities by qualities. their evil theories. . doctrines. individuality and generality. things In the time to come there will be [a class of 548. 545. how can there distinction between the wise and the ignorant ? Nor will there be anything characterising the wise who are dis- ciplining themselves for the triple emancipation. evil theories 550. causeless. putting on the Kashaya robe. Mind-only. the cause of transmigration. stages [of No-cause. and senses of these I talk for the sake of the Sravakas.

If the eye. this is what the school of Kapita teaches its disciples but it is not the right way of thinking. by That the world is born of a supreme soul and that changes are due to the qualities. 560. a hair-net. let not my disciples be disturbed [my] drawing on the dualism of being and non-being. etc. philosophical systems. 557. would be produced from lumps of clay. . . no non-reality. or a donkey. me [as untrue] The statement has been made first [against the philosophers] and their views are warded off. (334) world were not and then evolved. exempt from cause and condition. there is no rising of imagination. There is no reality. and now they are. 562.SAGATHAKAM 551. A straw-mat is not found in cloth. evolved all such controversies as this have been declared by . as there nothing to be characterised as causation. (335) and eternally causeless. has nothing to do with birth and destruction. I will make my own statement. a mirage. My statement is free from the alternatives of being and non-being. and as free . crowns. While I [first] make a statement in behalf of the 556. If it is it If all the innumerable things in the triple 552. 561. is not produced from any other thing? That life and the body so called were not and then 555. their views being warded off. form (rupa). 267 then evolved. or a she-camel. 559. 558. straw matting why is it that by some combination anything . non-reality never has its rise. straw-mats. but my statethat there is no primary limit to transmigration. is removed from cause and condition. and is removed from qualified [and qualifying]. cloth. When the world is regarded as like Maya and a dream. and Vijnana were not 553. nor is there any [world is of] causation conditioned by causation . nobody would doubt if horns grow on a bitch. nor cloth in a 554. ment is said that originally the world was not and must have had a beginning. When existence is always regarded as resembling the Gandharva's [city].

is seen under the aspect of duality. 572. 571. five 569. 564. how can there be a mind without a cause? [The doctrine of] Mind-only 565. 567. After T'ang. 2 is no reality. [The philosophers may say that] if there is no external reality. 563. in [that of] a hare's horns. when I speak of the giving-birth of things that have no self-nature. If a mind is said to evolve on account of perceived perceiving. a mind. are realities belong- But suehness and Mind-only 1 . indeed. no mind. its As a sword cannot cut itself. T'ang has fiftlj^ instead of Bftift. The dualism of giving-birth and beingborn belongs to the nature of things. 1 is [therefore] untenable. ing to the teaching of the wise those neither those who deny nor and Mind-only obtains not. how can Mind exist without objective reality? 1 The [doctrine of] Mind-only [therefore] is untenable. and abode produced in a dream-like manner. Mind-only too will be non-existent . and not for cittaHfiiit m&tra. this reality narily 2 For these cittamatra. and causeless. no twofold (336) 570. 566. it is on account of a hidden meaning. then the who affirm comprehend my When it is said that there is something resembling body. In this respect Wei is consistent. for it has l$=i(l> throughout. Ordiis for mjnanamatra or vijnaptimatra. there will be something of objectivity in space. this is the mind that is of the world . [Further they may say that] on account of an objective world of realities. or own tip. people's minds are aroused. If multiplicities of forms are born of imagination. removed from cause and condition. teachings.268 LANKAVATARA SUTRA from the alternatives of being and non-being. Dharmas. Mind cannot see itself. then the mind flows clear of defilements. as a finger cannot 568. 1 [the notion of] When an objective reality is of mind. but Mind touch itself is not dualistic. property. . In the state of imagelessness there no Parikalpita. no Paratantra.

all things are causeless and 578. self-being these 576. how does individualisation ever come to exist? . [reality-] limit. The Mind is manifested. Suchness. vieslia here evidently citta. and a horn. Muni. there is no objective world of pluralities whose cause is in the beginningless past (337) if there is no objective world since the beginningless 1 past. an world nowhere obtains. As all this is causless. If anything grows from nothingness. verses 86-117. In a transmigration that has no beginning. According to T'ang. is 615. who cherish [the notion of] being and non-being. . a crown. no-birth of all things. 581-613 (338-341). where there is no complete cause. where there is no objective world. non-existence does prove non-existence. so there was 575. the triple world devoid of doings. the poor will become rich. thinkgrow ing that something grows out of nothing. 579. a garment. horns on a hare let no discrimination take place. are unable to understand that unborn. how can a mind which is bound up with an objective world take its rise ? 574. by imagining causes and conditions. There non-existence when proof not is of existence [is produced]. The ignorant. when there is no nourishing mind. emptiness. The statement that a hare has no horns is made out of the reasonings concerning a jar. . when there is no objective world. there is neither mind nor is objective world as the mind is not born. characterise the highest truth. 577. but reality born of imagination is something other than mind and is unobtainable. (Chapter III. 580. objective its rise ? will If there is any growth from nothingness. As there is nothing existing now.) 614. there is no [real] existence. . Nirvana. thus you should know. nothing existing previously. how can a mind be born? Pray tell me.SAGATHAKAM 269 does not belong to imagination . where can an objective semblance take 573. the Dharmadhatu.

The discriminated by discrimination exist not. The magical net is neither the leaves nor the pieces of wood. pieces of wood. discrimination being thus unobtainable. nor the pebbles. tlien this must have still another [reality to depend on] this is commiting the fault of non-finality may it not end in reaching nowhere? 618. . When . in like manner. 619. discrimination not being aroused. it is not aroused. how will there be anything of discrimination? 621. Discrimination now being unobtainable. that something appears 616. is depended on. they look for each other and are mutually conditioned. 624. how can a mind rise ? Mind-only then is not tenable. looks for non-existence. All things are unborn and have nothing to do 625. to the people. pluralities of objects depending on some [other] objects are manifested .. again. . becomes pure where the wise have their abode. is neither transmigration nor 622. the something thus depended upon must be causeless. not for the wise it For the ignorant things are said to be causal. nor is there multitudinousness of objects. with being and non-being: all is nothing but Mind and is delivered from discrimination. If [it is said that] there is another reality which 617. 626. dualism ceases at the moment of seeing. and discrimination itself does not obtain. there no emancipation. depending on something else. indeed. there Nirvana. If it is thought.270 LANKAVATARA SUTRA existence. the magical charm is effected. Depending on leaves. thought is lacks in validity is and owing divided into many. . but there is nothing that is causeless. but when the self-nature of Mind is liberated. when the Mind goes astray on account of habit-energy. it manifests itself like images. (342) it is owing to the magician that the magic scene is perceived by the people. etc. Thus when something [of magic] depending on some objects is destroyed. 623. 620. There is no such objective world as is discriminated by the ignorant. the teaching to the absence of validity.

635. discipline (yoga) is taught by the Buddhas who spiritual are free from theories and speculations. Maya. their rise is due to discrimination. being empty. moving on earth. which is. Objectivity discriminated makes the world. Amitabha Buddha pursues sentient beings. the Samkhya. and such is also 628. as if 632. the (343) cherishing views based on being and non-being. 629. the naked Brahmin theologians. Body. a Why mind takes it is its rise clearly perceived that from [recognising] what is seen objectivity. followers of Siva. Having no self -nature. the Mind discrimination ceases. are destitute of the truth of solitude. looking like body. and one is released of the Samskrita. Mind. 630. in the air. itself like moving along. . as is taught in Shin Buddhism. 1 me how something rises from. is when itself. the Vaiseshika. in spite of their struggle to run away from his allembracing love. erty. being unborn. property. and abode are appearances and their rise is due to habit-energy. philosophers. This means that in spite of our discriminations and imaginings we cannot get away from the control of Mind-only.SAGATHAKAM 627. the Mind. appearances are born of irrationality (ayukta). being free from defilements to whom is this being taught by the Buddhas as well as by yourself ? For the sake of the Yogins who are pure in mind. without depending on anything. When discrimination is seen name and [as to its true noticed that] . So people with Tell all their discrimination a bird move walk about in the Mind 633. This is the reading of T'ang. like proclaimed by me. this verse gives us a new outlook in the philosophy of the 2 Lankavatara. Thus interpreted. If all this stand 1 Why As 631. propHow does appearance take its rise? Mind-only? Pray tell me. religiously expressed. (344) nature. it is 636. where the world do^s seen coming and going on earth ? a bird moves in the air according to its fancy is are men without abiding anywhere. 271 Thus. the is and abode 634. sense are to be disjoined will be dis- 2 (visamyuMa) then both knowledge and knower carded.

ligent reading. Four of the Skandhas are formless (arupina). the 645. 647. 646. 638. the elements differ from one another. oneness and otherness being discarded. but when imagelessness obtains they all cease. discrimination evolves. this is the way of all the to get enlightened in any other way nor for others. and the Vijnanas when this is penetratingly perceived. s 3 Bead The Sanskrit text too obscure for intel- Not clear. primary and secondary. those who wish sense.272 637. senses. By seeing into [the nature of] Mind there is the cessation of discrimination as regards works and words by .) 639. the Alaya sets up in Manas the consciousness of an ego and its belongings. seen detatched from knowledge no meaning to it. LANKAVATAEA SUTEA To abandon both name and 1 Buddhas. 'When dualism is cherished. then the mind is liberated because of seeing the egolessness of things. From world and the . there is no growth. there tion ceases to go forth. nor is is there after T'ang. and discriminais 640. That Svabhavalakshana. is. they cannot be numbered. When we have no that] form Skandhas? 2 [the notion of] individuality is abandoned. will not attain enlightenment for themselves. (345) 644. if [we say is produced by other qualities. When the immovable is seen. 641. how can they produce such pluralities of forms (rupa) 1 642. (Chapter VI. When one is emancipated from the Ayatanas and Skandhas. verse 5. 1 Nothing evolving. When the world is and knowability. seeing them as free of individual signs. why not by the 643. the Vijfiana is set in the differentiation of an objective motion in eight ways thus the aspects 3 [of self -nature] are three. . they . not seeing into [the true nature of] Self-mind. then there will be no more discriminating of the two. elements. ego and its belongings. all subside.

how is it that this does not give rise to realism (astitvadrishti) ? 651. Different expressions are distinguished but none is . when things are regarded as subject to causation. is are discriminated . made to belong to the next .) Not verse. 648. . 655. . [but] the Mind being asserted. when a conditions. 650. verifiable rises . of Mindonly. in all these there is a necessary implication which of a primary causal agency. Discrimination not rising. and of the world. When [the world] is not understood with intel- ligence there is nihilism. from the notion 654. 1 (Second line only. the fourfold proposition obstructs [the way of truth] 653. there is a turning-back (paravritti] and there is no dependence on anything (346) 652. is III. Why is the world said to be disjoined from causes. work and cause cessation and nothing is aroused. there is not clearly perceived that what is something other than the Mind. therefore. realism does not arise. 1 maintaining the combination of causes and a primary causal agency is warded off. what 2 is seen [as real] is due to [the idea of] a causal agency. There is neither birth nor destruction where the ignorant see impermanency nothing is ever destroyed. 656. In the Sanskrit text this line which is wrong. Pray tell me the why of discrimination. Discrimination is neither existent it nor non- existent. chain of causes is held to be impermanent. as it is seen is of the Mind. verse 62. the fault of By permanency is avoided. because [the dualism of] a mind and an external world is clung to. discarding qualified and qualifying? The Mind is seen as manifold when visible forms 649. no discrimina- to work. Chapter quite clear. as is clearly understood that what tion is set is seen is of Mind-only.SAGATHAKAM any cause to set tlie 273 being removed. there Vijnanas in action. How is the unseen [born] ? By what does the impermanent world come into existence? .

[and-death] takes place. there are etc. 672. neither birth nor death. there is no difference between the philosophers this is your teaching as well as that of [other] Buddhas. the attaining of cessation. (348) moment there is a disjunction. called causation. (Chapter III. outside of it there are no living beings. where there is discrimination. and the path (praUpad) this I teach to sons of the Victor. [one will attain] an excellent emancipation. inferior. there 669. In like manner discrimination also rises and disappears with every single form. ignorance and suehness. be dualistic 670. where sentient beings are born. 671. the objects. or middling. The company of the Bhikshus is taught by you 665. so is the mind born and broken up thence I tell my disciples how uninter666. As one form changes into another. 673. At every 668.) gods. mankind. verses 62-68. The measure of two extended arms. the cause of its rising. is Within the body. is When is dualism and no-causation-born.. me meaning. as the notion of cause and effect is upheld. pray tell The . there rise causation-born etc.274 LANKAVATARA SUTEA 657-662 (347). 663. be it superior. According to one's karma. there are living beings. 664. cause. perceived [or [or grasping] are manifested. When permanency. one is bprn in these [six] paths guarding all that is good. Mahamuni. and Yama's abode these six paths of existence are enumerated. the Asuras. 667. [are upheld. such are not the wise ones. and causation. that there is birth and death at every moment.. the animals. things are differentiated. By grasped] and perceiving clinging to the three Svabhavas. hungry ghosts. As long there are effect. its ruptedly and momentarily birth. 1 there a world. . . not to suehness. as simple-minded discriminate belonging to the world and 1 to the super-world. this is when one is liberated from the notion is of form (rupa). measuring one vyana. causation [-born] and no-causation-born distinguished]. .

the principle is 675. (349) 676. unenlightened. for the fault of non-finality is committed . Maya. not to be born. but when true nature]. not established. desire. 275 the viewpoint of relativity the notion of Svabhava has been upheld. about the truth in order to check dualistie views. The fourfold destruction of things is told by the 677. enlightenment as realised by the Buddhas. When one [in fact. [the ignorant] are bewildered by them. Pray tell me. non-duality is . nor is the mind [properly] set to work this is due to the rising of dualistie notions. [If one should think that] the Vijnana. this is wrong. a hair-net. Discrimination its seen [in . 2 and non-being. this is owing 678. That which follows forms the first half of verse 678 in the Sanskrit text. let one not discriminate. a multitude of a rainbow. for in all things not being born there is the awakening of intel1 ligence but where there is the birth of things. committed. they are like a vision.] there is no existence. 1 . this being etc. and being one these are synonyms . lose the life of 681. 682. the rise of the world becomes impossible. Lord. it will never rise [again] . From As faults and defects are sought. [so that] I and others may not cherish the [dualism of] being 680. one abandons dualism. 2 The verse 679 here is composed of the second half of 679 and the first line of 680 in the Sanskrit text. it is may rise in two ways. no non-existence. 679. discrimination is said to rise in two ways. is released from the fourfold proposition. are originated by ignorance. clouds. suchness. To be delivered from [the notion of] cause and no-cause. And [thus] we may keep ourselves away from the philosophers' teachings and also from the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas for it behoves the Bodhisattvas not to .SAGATHAKAM 674. but the wise always rise above them. and karma. All things appear like a cloud. but in order to ward off one-sided views the Svabhava is not to be discriminated. to discrimination.

snchness. 683. Emptiness is no other than form. reality. 689.276 etc. and [the latter is] imagined to be indistinguishable [from theirs]. faulty views will follow. and particular discrimination is to the Manovijnana. a nothing. noPray tell. General discrimination belongs to the Citta. imagination to the Manas. not imagine it to (350) 684. and yet the philosophers discriminate the world as born of a self-creating agency. I teach the doctrine of no-birth. square and round. being born is said to mean not having any abode. is neither the qualified nor What is regarded by the philosophers as unborn teaching wrongly viewed.. if one does. or not ? 691. The doctrine of causelessness. there Because of objective appearances being asserted. one should not imagine anything different from this. One should discard numbered 692 in the Sanskrit text The first half of this verse . in the same way [there are many synonyms] for this exand one should not imagine it to mean a nothing. In the world [another [is also mean name of] hasta (hand) istence. 1 (351) 692. 685. Indra called] akra and Purandara. [but reality] the qualifying. etc. is kara. general discrimination (samkalpa) and particular distrimination (vikalpa} because of imagination (parikalpa) there are long and short. In order to crush the philosophical views. Those who have acquired the knowledge of proper reasoning by making use of [the idea of] no-birth and its meaning. Not being born. birth. so is no-birth. Mahamuni. and emptithese are other names for form (rupa) one should . 688. I teach all these are held by the philosophers. 686. LANKAVATARA SUTRA they are born of self -discrimination . is . but this is my own submitting a faulty argument. ness. 687. not 690. the rising of existence. limit. 1 [the dualism of] being Mind-only which is removed from and non-being. Are all things to be regarded as unborn. are said to have an understanding of my doctrine. knowing what dualism means.

and coming back into existence. for the world cherishes dualism bewildered with wrong views. 277 philos- and no-birth. how Sentient beings do not understand is this? it. no-birth. 697. etc. have no chance to discourse on the nature of being. of no-birth. which causes various In the doctrine of causelessness. there is neither evolution nor cessation the mind is born as views are cherished as regards . (352) 700. tell Things are said to be unborn. 693. of birth. etc. means. been born. and the half of the following verse is brought over here to complete 691. and is not translated. so it to be explained. By separating when all things are not? oneself from [the dualism of] perceived and perceiving. Most Excellent of Teachers. in order to be released from being and non-being. Pray tell regarding cessation 699. there is no society [of the holy ones] for me. There is error where dualism is maintained. original vows. PaSma ITcshanal according to T'ang. For on account of [the wrong views concerning] birth. the notion of a causal agency [is involved] on which they depend. Effortless deeds come from nothingness. therefore. Pray ought me.. Pray tell me as to the graded succession of the and is 1 Lotus-eyed One. one existence or another. the cause of serenity is not recognised. and the I 701. Mahamuni.SAGATHAKAM [the view of] birth ophical theories. Tell me the [right] view that goes with skilful 694. . ones] come into existence 695. stages. from dualism. me. but free Buddhas are thoroughly are empty. and deeds [as ordinarily performed] are mixed with motives. all the con- tradictions [involved in the statements made] before and after. from 692 to 694 is altered in this translation. is momentary. all things and have never first evidently inserted here by mistake. The numbering. how does the society [of the holy . have no self -nature. Pray explain to me. to escape the errors of the philosophers and to be released from the perverted theory of causation. and yet not to destroy cause and effect. 698. 696.

there is a combination of varieties of appearances [and Vijnanas] whereby [each Vijnana] takes in an objective field according to its . those who are Arhats. when Maya is made to be born of no-causation. 706. hearers] generally. those who are attached to the doctrine of causation. appearing in a mirror. etc. LANKAVATARA SUTRA Discriminations are carried on by those who are enveloped by evil theories and doctrines.. . seen as 705. discrimination is set as this is understood and the meaning of reality it is. but this is not clearly understood by the ignorant so that [the thought of] an ego-soul and individual objects is cherished. 710. Like the Gandharvas' city.278 702. carried on. there is no birth of but as the elements as appearances are always the things. the mind conforms set in itself to the nature of the wise and is no more motion. 704. which appear depending upon causes and conditions. but not by the Tathagatas. in motion is Recognising external forms. The elements being rejected. the birth of all things is not no-birth [in a relative sense]. Mind. 707. There are five [classes of] Sravakas. class. Maya is seen and destroyed. the wise are those is who are free from discrimination when discrimination . the lravakas 711. The mind is to be regarded as a reflected image originating in the beginningless past it is something .. one should realise it truly as The nature of birth [or existence] is like an image 709. 712. this injures the truth of the statement. It is discrimination is set [that is. while it is devoid of oneness and otherness. is not altogether non-existent. Maya. Accumulated by false reasonings. on account of general usage that a dualistic up as regards persons and things. which. Do not discriminate discrimination. pray tell me about the rise and cessation of discrimination. there is dualism which does not lead to Nirvana. (353) 708. By the statement of no-birth. one understands what is meant by no-birth. those who are . of reality but not reality itself it is in itself. 703.

719. is not element-made.SAGATHAKAM dependent upon their own power. it. The ignorant addicted to dualism cherish [such 714. (354) 716. Effect and effecting and effected. and how can they produce this world of matter [Each of] the elements has its own seat. Manas and the six Vijnanas are by nature united and removed from oneness and otherness they are evolved from the Alaya. and white to blue cause and effect being produced [in the same mutual way]. . because they adhere to the alternatives of being and nonbeing. and fail to understand the means of emancipation. matter is mind [-made]. etc. and those who dependent upon [the power of] the Buddha. By the separation of mind from what belongs to (-Skandha) . atoms. both being and non-being are emptiness. and 720. cold and heat. 715. . 721. 1 After T'ang. [various] forms [of matter] are inseparably conjoined with one another. 279 are Time-interruption. (Chapter VI. destruction. original matter.. Blue. 713. the present world evolves. qualified . the highest reality. how can matter be produced are of by the natures] 718. verse 3. Fire burns matter (rupa). . such-like and all [other things] are not to be explained away by theories. 722. elements ? [when they such contradicting The Rupa-skandha (matter) and the Vijnana there are these two Skandhas and not five they are different names for the Skandhas of this I have talked in a hundred ways. The Citta.) The primary elements are of different 1 qualities. the nature of water is 717. thoughts as] dualities. and mutuality these four are imagined as involved in the idea of impermanency by the ignorant who are not endowed with intelligence. to wet. are to be referred to white. the wind scatters matter . and qualifying. and primary cause. what are (rupa} ? [regarded as] secondary elements are not made by them.

The Vijnana. The Saihkhya and the Vaiseshika followers. 1 a 3 A repetition of verse 627.280 LANKAVATARA SUTRA 723. If karma is form (rupa). this is no doubt a philosopher's theory. they do not understand. of the lessness. is united with 733. the naked philosophers. as there are no beings.] a being born in the world of formlessness is of no-form what else is there ? . The theorisers wish to see the Skandhas in the 730. [they wish. no Vijnanas arise.} characterised by purity 726. and the advocates of Isvara the creator. united with the Citta but disunited with the Manas. (356) non-existence contradicts the 8 truth. no Vij[If 731. beings without attachment will not be abiding [even] in the world of form- 727. are addicted to the dualism of being and non-being. and do not know what solitary reality is. 732. Varieties of forms (sansthana) and figures (akriti) are not produced by the primary elements. . The statements about form here are not quite intelligible. abides with knowledge. cutting off (chela). and because of stupidity they uphold the dualism of being and non-being. them to originate from the elements primary and secondary. middle existence. causing even the cessation of the Vrjnana. Literally. the theorisers do not understand. one says fianas. likewise. ness. the advocate of non-ego is a 2 destroyer. there is neither a vehicle nor a driver. the philosophers imagine causes other than the unborn. etc. 1 (355) 724. . There are four abodes of of it. 728. That egolessness is the true doctrine follows from the non-existence of beings. how does it arise from the non-existence form ? As there is nothing existent innerly or outwardly. but the philosophers declare 725. born of habit-energy. that] emancipation is attained without exerting oneself. it is As it There is a truth (tattva. it is If form is to be found in the world of formlessits not visible. 729. it will be the cause Skandhas and the objective world. .

karma. 740. for the stupid but not for the wise. Probably they contain allusions to Dana T'ang.. 735. etc. 739. the Asamskrita. This is not clear. How Vijnana take its rise ? without determining form (rupa} can the How without the rising of knowledge can transmigration take place? To pass away instantly after birth. The sixth [Vijnana] is not to be understood as 738. are characterised with momentariness. attainment. 1 2 By clear. [Some imagine the ego-soul] to be one with the Citta.SAGATHAKAM the senses . reason of attachment. one is born in the various paths. If attachment it is determined and mind and what are designated. 734. When form is not evolved. the senses are not the senses. The senses and their objective worlds are meant 737. as discrimination moves about. non-attachment. etc. 281 there are eight kinds of 1 it. 3 741. as is understood by However. the Abhidharma doctrines. A number of verses in these pages that give no sense as far as we can see in their several connections are not at all in cognation with the general thoughts of the Lamka. and the ego-soul. this is not 736. (357) the ignorant are unable to distinguish between the Samskrita. the wise who are devoid of the fault of being are not committed to a definite theory. nor is there the uninterruptedness of all things. the teaching of the Buddhas . the wise comprehend the meaning. how is it that on account of the attachment there is the determination by oneness ? 4 belongs to 742. this and the following two or three stanzas are difficult to understand very clearly as there are no references in the text to the ideas discussed here. 3 Bead after T'ang. attach- ment 2 exists in oneness as well as in otherness. Not evidently stands here for upadana. they do not grasp one field all at once. the Blessed One declares that the senses. therefore. Those theorisers who are without knowledge are frightened at eternalism and nihilism. Are they later additions taken from somewhere else? . [others] to be different from the Manas. or as attachment . the ignorant grasp after names.

what illustrations will the theorisers produce to prove their notion of an ego-soul? 745. The Alaya where the Garbha(womb) is stationed is thought in union with the ego declared by the philosophers to be [the seat of] but this is not the doctrine . The Mind. there As when fire burns.. As the beautiful colour of gold and gold among 751. effect. passions. seeking to establish the theory of an ego-soul. The Mind primarily pure is the Tathagata's 750. with the Manas. 747. Is this correct? . I take refuge in him. to be eternally serene. By distinctly understanding it [i. 1 resemblance and non-resemblance in the principle. what are simultaneously there. 752.282 LANKAVATARA SUTRA is birth. the mind shines the time. . is with the secondary 753. Those theorisers who are destitute of the principle forth all are lost in the forest of Vijnanas. so is attachment to an ego-soul.. he is knowledge free from evil outflows clearly perceiving him . primarily pure. is the Tathagata's womb (ga/rbJia) which does not belong to the realm of the theorisers. "Whether there is birth or no-birth. approved [by the Buddhas].e. they wander about here and there. is it that is not seized by the theorisers? 744. state The ego (atma) characterised with purity self-realisation. etc. and purification from the passions which are abandoned by means of contemplation and insight. (358) 748. pebbles become visible by purification. they are brought to the goal like fire. The Buddha is neither a soul nor the Skandhas. etc. there rises the knowledge of the principle. so is the Alaya among the Skandhas of a being. the burned and the burning 743. and in union with the egothis is my soul * what is taught by the best of speakers. When one thus knows what are the characteristics of this is the of attached and attaching by the analysis of the Skandhas. the doctrine] there is emancipation and insight into the truth. 746. Garbha which is good but is attached to [as an ego-soul] by sentient beings it is free from limitation and non-limitation. 749.

(359) garment and what has been added from outside to be washed off. ' ' ' The statements so far made here regarding an ego-soul (atmati or pudgala) as they stand seem to contradict one another. Trying to find permanency and emptiness in all them. is like a [soiled] 756. so [they cannot find] an ego-soul in the Skandhas. or in a kettle-drum. or underneath the ground. fire in the kindling. lute. 763. As the unintelligent cannot take hold of a mind and what belongs to it as a group. "When there is no true ego-soul. the womb is not visible to the woman herself who has to those 761. 758. those 762. so do [they seek] a soul in the Skandhas. As it. defilements. so the ego-soul is not visible within the Skandhas who have no wisdom." a sage would Show me your own discrimination. (360) 764. or when gold its removed from its impurities. so with the ego- stages. 759. or like who have no wisdom do not see the ego-soul within the Skandhas. show it to me. no psychic faculties. karma are accumulated by them. and thus there are defilements giving rise to dualism. the unenlightened cannot see soul within the Skandhas. they are not destroyed but remain as they are so is the ego freed from . As when a garment is is cleansed of its dirt. where they are invisible. 757. and some . no excellent Samadhis. Imagining that a melodious sound obtains in a a conch-shell. things. account of the external passions since the beginningless past. 283 The Mind . The ego [primarily] pure has been defiled on 755. 760. the unintelligent thus seek something of an ego-soul within the Skandhas. If a destroyer should come around and say. Like the essence of the medicinal herb. or in water. there are no no self-mastery.SAGATHAKAM 754.. As one tries to find precious stones in the treasure- house. etc. is are other than that varieties of primarily pure. n declare. no highest anointing. but the Manas. "If there is an ego. and their functions which are connected with the Skandhas.

they are given up to the dualistie views of being and non-being they are to be ejected by the . 767. the unintelligent fail to see it. etc. Things are differentiated but the Mind . sugar-cane. convocation of the Bhikshus and are never to be spoken to. Trying to seek in five ways for an ego-soul in the accumulation of the Skandhas. . sesame oil. When Mind not see the the Yogin reflects upon the mind. he does in the mind. ing from the Suddhavasa. 768. descendI teach the Dharma in order to lead sentient beings to the city of Nirvana. burning up the forest of egolessness. Non-atman as far as we know.284 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA Those who hold the theory of non-ego are injurers 765. the perceived [i. but the wise seeing it are liberated. 769. really violate the Buddhist doctrine of . This and the following verse again seem to contradict the BudIt is not easy to determine the purport of dhist doctrine of non-ego. these verses as they stand all by themselves without any explanatory prose. are mostly difficult to know precisely what they intend to signify. gatas have generally disclosed the meaning of Nirvana in three thousands of the sutras. but one who has not tasted will not know what it is. By means the of is illustrations furnished by the not accurately determined. the rising of the world-end fire. of the Buddhist doctrines. 1 The doctrine of an ego-soul shines brilliantly like 766.e. whence is the rising of this perceived [world] (361) 772. and honey sour milk. Not in the world of desire nor in is no-form 1 Buddhahood [the world of] but at the Akanishtha in attained. except those that are quite obvious in meaning. 773. and ghee it each has its own taste. the meaning contained in it.. the theorisers [imagine it] to be causenot-functioning. sugar. how can one accurately deter- mind mine it ? 770. 774. is one this is not perceived less and 771. which is a mistake. This is the course of the past I and those Tatha. as to sciences. an insight conies forth from the world] ? . In fact these verses in the Sagathakam which have no direct connection with the main text. wiping away the faults of the philosophers. Molasses. I belong to the Katyayana family.

Maya. clearly recognised by the ignorant. the passions are destroyed by knowledge. the birth of all by means of a light.) . etc. 776. The creating agencies are unborn 778. After the passing of the Leader of the Sakyas. the Buddhas are not so named because of these [marks] 781. and this is not . who are deaf. young. 1 How is How reveals itself 777. Kapila. it is removed from all defects. The world-ruler is endowed with the celestial marks and the secondary characteristics though not manifested. non-ego possible? How are things like about being and non-being 1 If suchness to the ignorant. . The objective world is not the cause of bondage . not the producer all is unborn. however. . Then one hundred years after my passing. 785. one-eyed. how is non-ego non-existent? 1 the cause is Because of things done and of things not done. dumb. it is it devoid of the defects of intellection (drishti- dosha) . a disciple. imagina- The told simultaneity of antecedent things is theorisers explain a cause to consist in the and consequent. Kanada. nor in those who are given up to the feeling of enmity. both the created is and the conditions of causality are unborn why tion carried on as regards creating agencies? 779. etc. They become. a jar. The religious life (l>rahmacarya) is not found in those especially. and : others. (jnana. these will follow me Vyasa. aged. Eishabha. 784. 783. . manifested in some of the homeless monks and not in anybody else so it is declared. What characterises the Buddhas is knowledge 780. which is a sharp sword gained by discipline. is an insight attained by self-realisation. the cause is bound up in the objective world. . but are endowed with the marks [of excellence] (362) they belong to the nature of a Cakravartin. Vyasa's Is this correct reading? . 782. 775.SAGATHAKAM the world of 285 form one is awakened to Buddhahood by getting rid of greed. The Buddhas are not Samskrita-made. blind.

cleaned. 791. so that the body may be covered with robes in every way different from the ap790. the age of two. . together with its four castes. let him drink water filtered through a cloth and carry the hip-string. pearance of the philosophers. the Kauravas. etc. and then the Mleccha who are bad kings. In the abode of light he enjoys the four worlds 793. 787. He will be born in a heaven light. with deco- and the other two will appear among mankind rated with precious stones he will be born as a god and a world-lord. The Vedas. 794. (364) 792. in due time let him go about begging and keep away from things vile. the world will [again] fall into confusion.. the world of desire will be consumed. have it further dyed with bluish mud and cow-dung making it nondescript in colour.286 LANKAVATAEA SUTEA Bharata will appear. "So indeed it Literally. by narratives. but after a long reign over the worlds he will retrograde on account of desire. the Gupta. I and others in the golden age. commentaries. The heavens will again be restituted and therein the world will take its rise. 788. fire and the sun being united. Eishis. the good Dharma will no more prevail in the world. and the Dharma. worship. 786. annotations. After passing through these ages the world will be thrown into confusion like a wheel. thus-I-haveheard's. Rama. Thus there are the golden age. with the revival of the Dharma. 789. the Pandavas. Vishnu. was. have the cloth Preparing properly-coloured cloth. 795. after the Mleccha will rage a warfare. and charity will again prevail ." . the Nanda. which is the badge of the Buddhas. 1 histories. 1 Siddhartha of the Sakya family. and then the Maurya. filled . and then the age of vice (363) and after this age of vice. Let the Yogin preach the doctrine. and the age of vice the Lion of the Sakyas will appear in the age of vice. The Maurya. Vyasa. the age of triads. by means of the teaching based on the Dharma. prose-compositions. kings.

"The Moon-Protected" (somagupia) (365) 800. not in the age of vice. not in the age of triads. without cutting it have the upper garment patched with spots like the eyes in the tail of a peacock. 805. 796. my father is the wise Prajapati is I belong to the I Katyayana family. Making vows. into tens. Let the space between the eyes be two or three fingers apart . 1 Without removing the marks. who is a great hero (mahavira) well acquainted with the five forms of knowledge. Kasyapa. into Nirvana.SAGATHAKAM Mahesvara passing. Is this right? . After the golden age there will appear a leader by the name of Mati. and attain Buddhahood. was born in Campa. and I. mother is Vasranati. things like this will take place after my passing. if the patches are otherwise distributed it will excite in the ignorant 1 a desire to possess. 803. to . who are the removers. 806. I shall become a homeless mendicant and teach the doctrine in a thousand ways. and Kanaka. [my family name] . but in the golden age world-teachers will appear. and as is my father grandfather. 804. and that of Vyasa in the narratives (so-indeed-it-was). Mahamati being given assurance and anointed. and my name and Viraja the Victor. I shall enter Dharma Mat! will hand [the doctrine] over to Dharma and Mekhala but Mekhala and his disciple being too weak [the doctrine] will disappear at the end of the Kalpa. 797. 799. 802. 287 such other philosophers will appear after my There will be the teaching of the Lion of the Sakyas told in the thus-I-have-heard's. Viraja. and the past events. Not in the age of two. being descendants of the lunar race (soma- vwmsa). and others these Buddhas all 801. My . belong to the golden age. Krakucchanda. 798. which will come after. Vishnu and Mahesvara will teach about the creation of the world.

Masuraksha. all would be without 810. The one cannot be the many. . and practise control. would diversities be seen. this is the teaching of the theorisers. author of the Sabdanetri. wheat does not produce corn. he will be the . be the many? how can 813. Valmika. the happiness of mankind. Siddhartha of the Sakya family. Let all receivers be like the wind. or a piece of wood. because of similitude. and Asvalayana. LANKAVATAEA SUTRA Let the Yogin always keep the fire of greed under be bathed in the water of knowledge. [Their teaching] will be like a lamp. which a causal agency. Bhudhuka will write astronomical works they will appear in the age of vice. and . Medhavin will appear in the times that follow. is good . and donors be like the land. Katyayana will be the author of a sutra. 817. 819. one hits and another falls so it is with good and bad. The great Yogin will be called Viraja the Muni. (366) 808. the triple refuge. and exert himself diligently throughout the three periods. is sent forth by means of a bow or sling. If the one were the many. but where are the many? If the one becomes the many. Brahma. protector of all that ruler. who " are highly virtuous Kishis. Akshapada. is the teaching of the theorisers. Pancacudaka. will give me the hairy skin of a deer.288 807. a staff made of wood. There will be Panini. Vrihaspati Pranetri the Lokayata will be found in Brahma-garbha. Balin will appear to promote the welfare of the world. a girdle. Kautilya. this is the destruction of a causal agency. or a stone. Vagbaliratha. 811. chief of the gods. Bhutanta. When an arrow. (367) 815. . like a seed. rice is not the cause the one of barley. 814. and a discus. 818. When I take my abode in the forest-ground. Balin the king will be a great 816. 812. for then nowhere 809. Yajnavalka will be like him. From sesame no beans grow. will appear in the future.

The Samkhya philosophy is twofold. give Brahma with his retinues and many gods will me an antelope's skin from the sky. Otherness is not otherness. 1 Sagathakam may independent . being the seat of all sentient beings. but this is done in words only. When I am in the forest-ground. various are effects qualities and causes. so the Alaya pure. and pointer of emancipation he is the badge of the Munis. and are regarded as differentiated. 833. the like the does not [each] evolve seed? 834. It is noteworthy that the repetitions grow less as we approach the end and that the subjects referred to are less congruous with those of the text. The onion-odour of onion. 830. and action is self-originating. there is neither non-being nor the Samskrita. Indra and 821. )* That the mind is set in motion by ignorance which has been accumulated by thought since beginningless past. etc. woman. [and imagine that] the no-birth [theory] is [thereby] established. There is transformation owing to primary matter (369) in primary matter there is action.SAGATHAKAM the teacher all 289 . 831. will give me most exquisite garments and a begging bowl. birth. too. The be an collection. but there is no self-nature. (368) 822. no transformation takes place. (Chapter VI. is 832. 820. accompanied by the celestial beings. and then the ruler will vanish. like 835. 829. so is bothness not bothness. Primary matter is with all existing beings. the womb of a pregnant saltiness of salt. may 823-828. verses 12-17. which has nothing to do with it . Virudhaka and others. . As quicksilver is pure and not soiled dy dirt. that it is bound to birth and destruction this is the imagination of the theorisers. [one Seeking for a cause in the doctrine of nosay that] that which is unborn is born. we may speak of the Samskrita and the Asamskrita. to be is not to be attached to. [To say that] an ego is found in the Skandhas is saying that the horse-nature is in the cow-nature.

Defiled by logic. and other various bodies of sentient beings are born of the middle existence and descend into the [six] 1 paths of existence. by speculation. 843. or in an 838. in . and the insight (darsana). As an image is seen in a mirror. the egg845. 2 3 Bead after T'ang. (370) so is the soul in the Skandhas devoid of oneness and otherness. they have a truer insight. mind the ignorant view Nirvana as the disappearance of the existent but since the wise see into reality (sadWiava) as it abides in itself. in water. perceivable along with the Skandhas by reason of oneness does not exist in any way and otherness. existence] is to be ascertained as nothing to 844. eye. . As sun passes through a a flash of lightning is seen and unseen as the slit of a door. of all things . if it were not for the middle existence. "With the [pleasant] touches of the gods and the harassings of the hells. by the traditional teachings (agama)* by wrong views. 839. Transformation is to be ascertained as having do with the philosophical doctrines. and giving an abode 2 to views of an inner ego. After T'ang. which they say is but . the truth (satya). It is certainly their mistake to think that the ego 837. according to T'ang. "Destroying". born. released from qualified and qualifying. Let it be known that those who reflect and practise meditation can be released from the evil theories by training themselves in the three things: the path (margo). Being confused 842. 840. Transformation [which is the actual state of removed from birth and destruction. with names and forms.290 LANKAVATARA SUTRA 836. it is other than clinging. it is not as it 841. 3 It should be known that the womb-born. the theorisers are not enlightened. no Vijnanas would ever evolve. devoid of existence and non-existence. they are not able to ascertain definitely about the ego. so is the transformation is imagined by the ignorant. the moisture-born.

this is what is known to the Buddhas [only. which is not to be practised by the intelligent. It is seen that [beings] are distinguished as ugly849. to try to go beyond without an examination is of no more worth than a barren. The wind. there is no Vijnana. That being so. The Vijnana not being born there is no ignorance ignorance being absent. born. 855.SAGATHAKAM 846. this is. indeed. fifth is . as emancipated and unemancipated. 850. I have the . 856. how does this evolving come about? Is it not said that its appearing is like a river. I observe with a divine eye is cendental wisdom and which is of transremoved from the flesh. though] mentioned by the theorisers. body that goes about in the [six] paths of existence theorisers. it this does not belong to the realm of the is goes beyond the human world and and the mind is not the possession of the theorisers. 851. Knowledge that is the cause of the Samskara is not to be described by the Samskara knowledge that 2 is known as the Samskara seizes the Samskara-path. [with this I observe] sentient beings. (371) is the view and discourse of the philosophers. Is this the right reading? . causal agencies. they are [only] symbolically pointed out. because of this absence there are no 853. as heavenly and free from the Samskara. coloured and beautifully-coloured. and as abiding with the Saahskara. 848. The ego-soul is not. and how can succession take place? . a lamp. (372) 854. The three divisions of time and no-time. One should first examine into the nature of an ego-soul and keep oneself away from attachment. and a seed? 852. the physical bodies of all living 1 creatures as devoid of the Saahskara and Skandhas. but it only * Bead after T'ang. 847. 291 To say that the passions are quieted and destroyed apart from right reasoning and scriptural teaching.woman's child. and the beyond description. makes fire burn. causal conditions [everywhere] but no causes.

the rising of a sentient being [i. are primarily pure.e. there is the ac- cumulation of the Skandhas and Ayatanas. by the bad theories of the philosare wrapped end enveloped with Those who see [reality] as it is in itself will see their passions burst asunder . Fire comes to exist in this world supported by the strength of mutuality. [the false discriminations of] the Manovijnana.. how can The [the ego of] a sentient being be estab- Saaiiskrita . fire does not establish them. than imagined to be something other knower and known the by dull-witted do not understand it. so is [true] knowledge [to be distinguished] from that of the theorisers. leaving the forest of bad analogies behind. and what is beyond descrip[reality] is itself Thus the differentiation of . accomplish the most excellent discipline. lished? 857. it the fire goes out. As the ignorant make a sandal-wood drum by taking something else which appears like sandal-wood and aloe wood. tion is talked about. they imagine fire. if it is imagined to be like fire. but defiled by faults of the beginningless past. 860. whence is 859. etc. Hastisayya. they reach the realm of the wise. . 864. Defiled ophers.292 incites LANKAVATARA SUTRA and does not produce further. 865. 863. etc. an ego-soul] ? By reason of the Manas. on this truth will attain serenity of mind. is to He who reflects rationally conduct himself thus towards food. as devoid of attachment how is and the Asamskrita are spoken of fire imagined by the ignorant for the establishment [of their ego] 1 858. (373) 862. injurious matter.. sentient beings. non-ego like a wealthy merchant moves on with mentation (citta). they are like space. and the theorisers fail to understand. The mind. he 867. Having eaten he will rise holding the bowl empty he will have his mouth well cleansed of offensive and .. incited by . they are not differentiated. 866. and Nirvana these 861. etc. are purifying. effect These two like the sun are always removed from and cause.

transformations take place. the Manas is born of the Alaya. when these philosviews are born. Bound up by the faults [of speculation] since beginningless past. (374) others who are not wise abide in nihilism because of their negation of causation and reality. With that as cause tion. he is washed of the pigment and besprinkled 869. such . 873. and the Vijnana comes from the Manas. There are transformations maturing from [the 870. All things are like Maya and a dream and the [the Vijnana system] is Gandharvas' city. by the Buddhas [with their own] hands. others are perturbed over conditions of causality . Some philosophers are confused about the direc- tion [of truth] because of their theory of causation. there is the growth of habit-energy which gives rise to something like an external world. From the splitting-up of moral conduct. are taken hold of as real while they are of Mind itself. there is suchness and the right knowledge dependent on it. etc. 874. 876. From the Alaya all mental activities take their rise like the waves. activities of] the Manas and the Vljnanas . with habit-energy as cause all things are born in accordance with conditions of causation.SAGATHAKAM 293 and be above imagination. and with that other evolved. 868. vice. as a lunar reflection in water. but are the product of Manas and the eye- Vijnana. When he who is possessed of stupidity and imagination rising from his views of being and non-being is freed from the net of bad theories tainted thereby. [All things] momentarily divided but bound up in a continuous chain. and from greed. be it known that it is all due to selfdiscrimination. ophical 875. they appear as a mirage. 871. and thus he will light up the golden path of the Dharma. 872. he will be released from attachment and realise the highest meaning. they appear in varieties of forms and characters. and anger. it is Mind which is seen as manif oldness when it is hindered by wrong as condi- philosophical theories.

By "text" (|J. which is . (375) 878. into the truth of self-realisation will be purified at every stage. ^ Wei and T'ang. 879. The text has "hare's hair" -which in this connection yields no sense. 880. By entering into the [various] stages..294 LANKAVATAEA SUTRA Samadhis of superior grade as the Maya-like. Grantlia is here contrasted to yukti as de&ana or deanapatha is to siddhanta or pratyatmagati. 1 and a [multicoloured] gem. sciousness. 882. one will even pass over the seventh stage. Wei has which does not yield any sense in this connection. a hare's horns. and [finally] they will reach Buddhahood. are quoted in full: 1 . the psychic powers. [is completed] by reason. or as ruta is to artJia. the mind ceases and the [first] stage of Joy is attained. he performs deeds [of beneficence] for sentient beings in the same way as the moon reflects itself in water. H. and the self-masteries. (yukti) is expounded. 2 This is the reading of T'ang. and there is anointment by the Buddhas. let there be no other discrimination than reason. and releasing himself from externality as well as from the philosophers. The two versions. [As he goes up through the stages] his insight . The truth of emptiness may be in a manner compared to a hare's horns and not to its hair. etc. there is neither bothness nor not-bothness and going beyond Sravakahood and Pratyekabuddhahood. [are attained]. so is reason [revealed] by the text. When the world is seen as quiescent. let there be reason [and the text] . the Surangama. When the dualism of being and non-being is abandoned. 881. the knowledge of the Mayalikeness of existence and the [will-] body [are obtained]. one is removed from death and destruction let discourse on the truth of the emancipated ones. When there is a revulsion (paravritti) from dis- him like crimination. A a revulsion taking place at the seat man becomes] like a multicoloured [of con- gem. he will discourse on the Mahay ana. topics of the LahJcavatara. 2 As the text After Wei and T'ang. grantha) is meant 1 any literary production in which a principle or reason. 877. This contrasting the letter to spirit or meaning has been one of the main for grantha and #BI|S for yukti. 883. therefore.

for such a passage is ordinarily regarded as the regular conclusion for a sutra . And their cause has been told by the Tathagata And the Great Muni tells . ignorance. Manas Here Ends "The Mahayana Sutra Called the AryaSaddharma-Lankavatara. Wei further adds: "When the Bnddha preached this exquisite Sutra. and in relation to the eye [-conform. 1 This is missing in T'ang. the Takshas. other Bakshasas.SAGATHAKAM 884. Kumbakarna. the Gandharvas." This addition shows that Wei as a whole may be a much later production even than T'ang. the Asuras." (376) All things are born of causation. Bavana the King. the Devas. nd when this was found missing in the earlier copy of the Lankavatara. Together with the Verses. the writer of the Wei original added it to complete the form. 1 desire. and . Sarana. Holy Mahamati the Bodhiuka. 295 Such are the and the Yogins. such is the Manas in relation to the eye. such is the sciousness] defiled. the Bhikshus were all delighted and accepted [the teaching]. the Nagas. That their cessation takes place thus. the sattva-Mahasattva. the gods. karma.

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APPENDIX .

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which is in the possession of a wise man. 3^&' 2f and ^W whereas aryajnanasva'bliavavastu . The reality is here designated as Aryabhavavastu or Aryavastubhavasvabhava. For T'ang's $fJL generally Jp. In the reading of the Tibetan ver- LXIX) sion I have entirely relied of Otani Buddhist College. to be called the truth of Solitude. for vastu and ^ (drisya) there is nothing corresponding in the Sanskrit. and as it can be recognised only when our spiritual eye looks beyond the realm of discriminations which is ruled by laws of being and non-being. though it has for bhava. "Wei Kg AHtfr> and T'ang Hfi?^. that the One thing Lamka in this section. For aryabhdvavastu. and T'ang !?A The Sung and the Nanjo text must have been the J5fJlLi. is asserts the existence of a reality which is perceivable only by the eye of transcendental knowledge.fesame as far as these two terms go. which is most striking. upon Professor Yenga Teramoto. due to whatever causes textual or personal. Sung has Hi^jJ. while for aryavastubhavasvabMva Sung has g^tegfe Wei ^A^Jf#nJfigl. I have herewith appended a comparative table of these versions which are accompanied with their respective English translations. it is also is. while T'ang has one $s probably for both vastu and 'bhwua. It is the exalted ultimate self -nature of all things.APPENDIX In order to show how varied are the three Chinese and one Tibetan translations. Viviktadharma. but Wei evidently had vishaya for vastu and &/mta(?) for bhdva. The passage chosen for this purpose is one of the most sections ( difficult and at the same time most important in the Lanka. chiefly from the point of doctrinal interpretation. that the Absolute. The Tibetan for aryabliavavastu and aryavastubMvasvabhava is respectively i^opr q^ Ef j.

towards the end.300 is APPENDIX ^pl^'wr^'g'^rq. thus making them interchangeable. But vastu is used in another sense in the Lanka.$fl Vastu to be characterised as suchness and the : realm where the wise have their abode. line 6(Nanjo) Vidyate tathatdvastu drydnam gocaro yathd. sometimes the case with the In paragraph 5. cannot be a particular object of discriminating knowledge. Generally in the Lanka the Tibetan ' has ^^T^T^'^dj for bhdvasvabhdva. there is another reference to Aryajnanasvabhavavastu for which . in the sense of absolute reality.$!J^$9.both Sung and T'ang have quite literally '^^. that is. whereas Wei gives vastu and bhdva are used both to Ordinarily. . is and ^PST^I and R are synonymously used as Chinese. We have on p. The following comparison will be I hope of some interest to Chinese and Sanskrit students of Buddhism. for which Sung has: ^f^^^n^B: ^BK^M^j Wei ^nH^B^-lIf : ^SMff -A- t^Jl-ife-SI^ > an(l T' ang 'If jf|. Tibetan equivalent for vastu is ^"^ and this is missing in the last combination. ilHa'iifefa- H^ designate particular objects of discrmination. Evidently in this ease th^ . 147.

is aspect of the self -nature of things because. TTTT II And as is discriminated Blessed One. non-finality [committed]. they are said again not to be such as are imagined? . in this Others : [imagined] by them. as imagination? do [the wise tell u be done thus and reality. because the not teach causatioi tion. things there a realm World-honoured One. committing the fault of non-finality. Why Because th own way the idea of a being with [And they would say] that this that belongs to somebody else and [of the self-nature. what appears to the wise as the self-nature of reality is no more than the creation of their imagination. to How is it that while things are said [or dis- exist owing to the imagination crimination]. be an object [of discrimination by anybody] because. the nature is Avise too imagine World-honoured reality the self -nature of things and [think] this self- of things the aspect of reality as in itself cannot . for thus what constitutes the self-nature of reality becomes impossible ignorant]. what aspect of self -nature is not that caused by the self-natiire of false imagination is not the is their self-reality. "^ predicate with the notion of causation and no-causation . what is derived from the imagination cannot be the self-nature of know. Blessed One. they fall into the aspect. they also cherish in their One. Thus is manner. is This of is things. it is not such as the fault of of being. VFT= &. How can i they really know what a false imagination World when they do not regard their imagination may be discrimim to Blessed One. because it is World-honoured One. because they do not understand the . that is. not due to discrii aspect of reality all things. which is manifested in this way.Sanskrit Sung Gun a bhadr a Wei 4 ifc $:. view that things have their self- Why ? Beca aspect. They do not talk about cause or no-cause. the reality cannot be snch even by the wise. is It is another realm. World-honoured who all talk thus ? comn is that is. g t% ffi 4 m g 'Hti JgJl \ & 'HI- ffl.

why is are because of discrimination? honoured One. it is carnation that there is can then have a clear understanding as regards the aspect of [self-] nature in all things? World-honoured One. the aspect of nature in all [self-] in all things. is of beings is [maintained]. while they iting s] crimination. they are not as they are. wise men seeing the discriminate . as to their [The wise] too see the aspect of [self-] nature in all things. . a realm where others move on. and is maintained by others]. n. this belongs to [as is may view the field. itise one falls into the aspect do not talk about causation and no-causation.i3. the fault of non-finality is committed. those nit the fault of non-finality. if the self -nature of thin. this is the fault of non-finality. They (f . W< [in their Avay]. they fall into the view of [self-] aspect in all things.' to not otherwise not ascertained. yet here are things [-honoured One. but not World-honoured One. produced by the self -nature of false ima^ tion and has thus no existence. not like such do not recognise that in If so. Who is no aspect to be known as World-honoured One.i Bodhiruci T' ang Sikshananda Tibetan 4 P3 Jfc. what is manifesto them as the aspect of self -nature in all th the World-honoured One.ey that] World-honoured One. as the self-aspect of thiiij that discrimination . how are separately discriminated by false imag tion? However discriminated they will he such as they are. W< honoured One. .. why is not dependent on disdo you say that all things the self-nature of their false imaginal because they fall into the view by which self -aspect. & HJ ft fd ifr &T 1= q- One. [thus they say another realm. for it manifests itself as if World-honoured One does does not teach iio-cansa- characterised with false attachment.

again. but there is is Mahamati the B the Buddha. if there is is no such criminating minds. it is but [the creation of] false imagina- no self -nature. fn7 *{= Further. to cording neither all your Blessed One. that there is mutual reference among objects. if. discriminated. said: because of such and such imaginations. Wei has SHJlJ fo: and $j for Wiciva. 163-166) Sung Gun abhadr a Wei Bodhirui LXIX 1 LXIX 1 m. As the World-honoured One teaches. according is t< no reality * (Sung lias for Vnava. come to this. there is no dis to be conceived as indicative of self -nature.Sanskrit (Nanjo. only a self-nature as imagined. acstatement. be a defilement nor purification. it does not. in variously discriminated there is : According to the all by as things that are discrimination is Mahamati again addressing the Buddha. because tion between] passions and purity no all the World-honour* will things are of the nature of false imagina? more exists? Because objects are charac- no defih tion terised with the self -nature of imagination. is mind. pp. one's World-hon such objects excep not this fault committed that [the distincevil own mind. According to this teaching of the World-honoured One. anc have no this or that they are tl: tion is and there is nothing in the world which only a self -nature as imagined. becai nothing but [the creation of] false imagination. it self-nature. Because. and * palilcalpita. Blessed One. 5h)J'J Stt for both vikalfa for svalliava. sayinj One teaches. Mahamati said Blessed One. teaches seen there tl and have no existence. World-honoured One. such and such objects are discriminated. t .

and no all realities. things denied and pure will They are falsely imagined according to the teaching of . in all things there ilement. .-. and there .l32b-l J > LXIX 1 LXIX LXIX 1 |f Hfe to .red One. discrimnation imagined.iT- . what and what objects are World-honoured One. is j | id yet such and such objects that essential nature. all things are to false World-honoured One says. no self -nature in all things. ng : As the World-honoured mahasattva : again Buddha. have no self-nature. by such and sucl: criminations. if there are no . the Tathagata. Why? and aspect of self-nature unknowable.pt what is discriminated by liscriminated more than ed One. ov both vilcalpu I or 53:t and parikalpita.uci (]. equally be destroyed. Sf >. them nothing d y in them. ause of what and what disIs. mDo fol. If ^ tf- ^ if & Bodhisattva again addressed At said that time Mahamati the Bodhisattvaaddressing the . a. they being f. on account of various minds. such and such objects are criminated. if there are only false imaginations Mahamati again asked: According t World-honoured One. there will be in or pure. false imaginations. according to the World-honoured One. Kanj.. * <t B & to & us &#5 ffi. for suaWiava. S-I-H a T'ang Sikshananda (L 3 1 Tibetan (Peking Red Ed. * T'ang distinguishes between vikalpa 5>/ilJ and parikalpita S. except all things are discriminated. They are no World-honour- by one's own moured One. if 1 World-honoured all things are of false imagination is -\ no purity.

[imagined] by the ignorant who falsely imagine self-nature and take it for reality. Mahamati . by mati. it is just The Buddha so it is as is said to say. not the self-nature of things as Maha- real: But. them Mai of [such as it is]. aspect of all things as . all ] such marks (lakshana] these people indicative of self-nature is to be ascertained. Mahamati. With his wise ting as regards the re f alsely perceive their wise knowledge. he perceives the self -nature of things they really they as are. ! knowledge. their wis knowledge they thus . there things such as is is the self-nature of ascertained by the wise. jit is A& s ffi ffi. it is the creation of false imagination nothing. know the self -rial it is. there is to him the self -nature of things.Sanskrit Snng Guli abhadra Wei I to&to&. Mahamati. the self-nature of it you Mahamati. BJ ft it m it Said the Blessed One as : Mahamati. It is not as as you saj tilings is not as is discriminated by the ignorant and simple-minded. his wise insight. as to a wise man 's knowledge. ignorant masses of things. by their wise insight. his wise eye of transcendental knoAvledge. but in all the discriminated for mati. So it is. [For] it is a self-nature falsely imagined and it is. The Buddha so is said t you say. j by their wise transcendental vision. Mahamati. by means t | wise insight.

by the ignorant masses for it is of people. said: Mahamati. there is is the self -nature their wise wisdom. All ignorant people disis q ' <?) people discriminate criminate things. said: It is Hities (svabhava) le Maha- But the wise with all their wise eye of transcen- Mahamati.-Bodhiruci T' ang Sikshananda Tibetan {a ^ If & N g 1 q-^f^T 3(14 -hn gr'c The Buddha it is |(foi. as to the wise. not such as j it is. So All it is. their w as really is. Mahamati: Mahamati. and the asp ahamati. In whatever way not 1 are falsely discrimina- dental knowledge recognise the self -nature of self-nature of things may be diseriminal it is reality of all things. they things as it truly is. attachment. ature aspect of all things ! of self -nature is not to be ascertained in things. for is it is no more than false They take the falsely . I Avise knoAvledge. iss to ay. a and do not see them as their false imagination. there i no such nature of things. Mahamati. their wise ej e of transcendental knc . r insight. so it is. their things such as ascertained by the wise w dse eye of transcendental s discriminate the self -nature of things as it perceive the self -nature it by means of their ledge. as The World-honoured One you say. but the nature of things hese things there are no a) . so the all j as yon say.

Sanskrit Sung GUJJ abhadr a Wei- HSTff? VR^HTTTfa$<8r g i^n & A *i ^ m. how. - i It 9- M 1m & ffio . World-honoured One. because they see the course of things in the aspect of being and non-being. Because they are not [yet] awakened to the reality belonging to the wise. knowledj nor a h is and if there no such self-nature as things there no su discriminated by the ignorant and simpleminded. by is their wise transcendental celestial when [it is seen]. by their wise vision vision. if there is the self -nature of things such as is ascertained by the wise. because their realm is not the realm of selfaspect. the self -nature of things is known to be such and not as is falsely imagined by the ignorant. : Mahamati i their reality is [also] falsely imagined. Blessed belongs to] the wise. World-honoured One. there tion of falsehood. as tc by means of their wise insight. is Mahamati addressing the Buddha. because they have not [yet] perceived that which is free from being and non-being. how how can and simple-minded abandon their discriminations. Why? Because they are unable to have an insight One. really is. Said Mahamati: Blessed One. said If. Blessed One. which is the self -nature of things. with his wise knowledge. a \V what they are]. [which of people cause trail of falsehood? The B When it one recognises is For they are nor unperverted. : Mahamati the Bo insight. . with his wise insight. World-hone saying too have their dis various realities have they belong to a mind. which is neither a heavenly eye nor a fleshly one. by their wise knowledge. and 1 scendental fleshly eye which neither is human nor man. World-honoured One. [that is. as in the case "with a wise honoured One. as they have no way to recognise the presence of an exalted reality neither perverted ? the ignorant part with their false imaginations? Because they are not [yet] awakened to the reality of things. they are into the self -nature of exalted reality. can the ignorant falsely discriminated honoured One. the wise too do not thus perceive [reality]. reali svalaJssJiana = tliing-in-itself ? = SryabJidvavastu. they are neither perverted nor unperverted. Why? ignorant masses of perverted view nor Why? Because the: the realm of the \\ things as it really is in their aspect of ch being. with his wise eye of transcendental knowledge.

can the ignorant part with their dis? Because they do not know IIOAV to have an understanding of things of wisdom. Why? Bee they do not ascertain the reality of self-natur things belonging to the Avise. because they see things change. their wise insight. of being and non- into the the aspect of being and non-being.wise with their miraculous power. ey are unable to see into wise. where own [discrimination] ignorant masses of people in regard to the self-n: of all things. Why ? Because they do not see things as are seen by the wise. that in all such aspect of reality as is d by the ignorant. their wise k edge. said: If the Avise see the nature of things with their eye of transcendental knowledge which neither a heavenly eye nor a fleshly eye. [But] the wise too have their discrimination as the Mahfunati asked: World-honoured One.Bodhiruci T" ang Sikshananda Tibetan iHrSifrSo Ji. and not as is discriminated b. neither perverted nor imperverted. [but] ve no such aspect. But. crimination World-honoured One. Sc ft. an seen by the wise is free from reality of is. the n of all things may be such as is discriminated 1). =vastu. because they see tl in the course of being-aiid-non-being aspect. || 'fr JL M^ ffi il&c. yabliavavastu. . those f people have neither a : Mahamati addressing Avise is [the Buddha]. if and hoAA7 [what they is see] is not the same as that which discriminated by the ignorant. their their Avise eye of trandge. Worldv can the ignorant masses insformation in the aspect Buddha said to Mahamati 3S the realm of the wise as a transformation in cogniWorld-honoured One. if so. the. In \ or J aryabliavavastu.*' World>odhisattva said: to the Avise they recognise ir Avise knoAA'ledge.1. they are neither perverted nor unperverted. because because [the truth] one's does not belong to a realm moves. ever Avay things may be discriminated by the the realm of self -aspect is not where they move c . Avhich is neither a heavenly eye. World-honoured One. ignorant and do not thus get [into the truth]. World-honoured One. and because what is )r unperverted vieAV. Ift A JPf . if'JJL 0. as ignorant masses of people cannot ascertain the re of self -nature belonging to the wise their discrii ilm of Avhat is seen of self- tion is perverted. their Avise eye of trail dental knoAvledge. addressed the Buddha. loured One. all wise men all liscrimination.

how that he teaches this ( beings destroy their minds. while the imagination is kept on going with the wise as well as with the ignorant. Blessed One. World-honoured crimination differs. H if a*.] t World-honou all make beings fall all Why view of non-being say that things : no [self-] nature and yet [you] teach reality as the self-nature of noble wisdom. i that realities belong thus formless.Sanskrit Sung Gunabhadra 5 Wei tuei0^& g tt JL JL FTCT fir fie \\ & fit $. is it that in order to have all beings free from the notion of being [which is realism] and of non-being [which is nihilism]. for when the cause is not alike. " aspect of imagination. saying that si discriminated by tl istence. [it is true that] according to the way the imagination is carried on. because of dissimilitude of cause as regards the self- And. World-honoured One. Do two causes being ( they not each imagine [according to his own way] ? And vet the ignorant do not know it as it really " \> V is? things discriminated that things thus disc do not thereby accon But them ? The Work in order to keep all beings it is away from imagination. Blessed One. World-hon to check the view of being and non-being as held by all beings [you] become attached to the self-nature of realities. not really as they taught that things are that in order appear to the imagination. Gocara = . you in turn make them cherish a realistic view of existence by telling them to uphold the idea of the selfnature of reality. Now.* in & is ffl Blessed One. also differs. the latter alone fail to see reality as it is and yet you tell us that the reason why it is said that things are not really such as are imagined by the imagination is to make all beings discard their imagination. whereby they are led to do cling to the realm of noble wisdom? you deny the truth of solitude by teaching the doctrine of reality Avhose self -nature is [according to you] noble wisdom ? . is it World-honoured One. the notion of reality that thus comes to be cherished may not be alike. But according to you. as imaginations differ. C the aspect of self-nature differs. the aspect of self -nature conceived may vary. [you] become at- tached to the world in which noble wisdom moves. thus falling into the view of being? [You] teach that the truth of emptiness has attached to the reaL realities are. while existence of such ob cherish the view o [Or.

crimination of all beings. They are not such as are reve and discriminated by the ignorant masse Thus in order to remove the people. Hi JL M M . One. as the aspects of crimination differ. how is it that you establish view of being by putting aside the vieA being and non-being as held by all senl beings and get attached to 'the self-natui things.Bodhiruci T' ang Sikshananda Tibetan HUH. is it told by you no such things are existent as are disci W( nated by their discrimination? honoured One. noble wisdom ? World-honoured One. instead of teaching the self-nature of are tranquil and formless. honoured One. things dependent on discrimination? again is not the discrimination by the ignorant ! ' ai . discrimina and the aspect of self -nature are dissimil caused. iging to noble Avisdom are anna. aspects of self-nature differ.d is not alike. the dissimilar the reality of World-honoured One. as the aspect of discrimination differs. why are you the 1m of noble wisdom where you put a stop to the bjects as to make all beings ?. no such reality in Worldthings as seen by discrimination. the aspect of beings also Why are all differs. causes are dissimilar. How is it Why said icriminated by the ignorant implish such as are seen by Id-honoured One teaches doctrine in order to let all r falsifying discriminating such as it ought to be? And then it is I that in order to make all is beings abandon their such objects as they falsely ignorant have no exnoured One. as the aspect of disthe aspect of self-reality World-honoured One. to the realm where noble wis moves on? By teaching the self-natur things belonging to noble wisdom do you teach the truth of solitude? . do you again 11 into the place where the is? Why? Because you wisdom and fall into the view of being? solitude reality Why which do you not teach the truth of is and emptiness. how is it that in order to make all beings abandon the view of being and nondiscrimination there being and also their object of attachment you make them again become attached to a realm of noble of being and non-being? ured One. World-honoured One.

self -nature is not wisdom. after beings to Why? In order to past inspiring places. of noble nor do I teac! I teach reality as the self-nature existent. nor do I who are addicted from beginning- wisdom. to: true that I deny truth of solitude. it is told them that there is truth of solitude.Sanskrit Sung Gun abhadra Wei- 6 ft- ^& J iff ^ :&&*& 1ft BE Said the Blessed One : Mahamati. Yet in order to make all beings become detached from fear-inspiring terms. that the wise reality know is Mahamati. But in order to save all beings from becoming frightened. Mahamati. nor that I fall into a realistic view by upholding the doctrine of noble self-existing reality. less I teach the truth of emptiness to be nonexistent. I do not teach the aspect which in i of self -nature. it is not The Buddha told Mahamati : It is not that The Buddha teach that less. a: making them that reality realise by means of noble wisdom self-nature is [by means of] the beginning-less past all in its made the view which seems to be attached to the aspect of self-nature as reality belonging to noble things as really subject of attachment [by the ignorant]. that all things ai Mahamati. I teach the truth of emptiness for are attached since begimimgless the aspect of self -nature all view of non-entity. attached to the rea^ past to the notion of self-nature. all thin. . I do 110 and non-existence i =nirmitta. the doctrine of taught by me. nor do I fall into the view of being.

I teach them that there it. o free all beings the self-nature of all beings For the sake from fear- who are attached to [the idea of] being since aiid as all beings are t from beginning-less past. this does not deny the truth of tude. is attached to the reality of therefore teach real a noble reality in the truth of solitude. Maliamati. ]\ mati. ot teach as to the existence of the reality of things. nor does it y existing.i Bodliiruci T' ang Sikshananda Tibetan -^'&if | sj or qqj- old rigs Mahamati: all I do not are tranquil and form- Maliamati. I further teach But. when the nature of things belonging to noble wisd taught. attached to the aspect of the self-natu: things from begiiiningless past. so that Buddha said: Maliamati. things are nonfall make them into the ness thereby falling into the view of being. is nor do I make them grow aim as it is of all wise men. Why? Because I have already taught the existence of a reality which of noble wisdom. I do not teach the aspect of self-m . in order to free all ser beings from the state of fright who ire tranquil and formless. I they will not be frightened by hearing establish the view of t v what is meant by the all things. I teacl truth of solitude by means of the view A I looks as if attached to the aspect of self-n as reality belonging to noble wisdom. it is not that I do not teach the truth of solitude and empti: The Buddha said ch that I r .

and thus get away from such ideas of reality as to lead themselves to realism and things of the nihilism. really so that tl trine and disciplin error has no form.Sanskrit Sung Guaiabhadra Wei- mm ffi JL It ft Ji. enter into tl am stamped with the stamp of one's own mind. HJftJKPl But. =Wi<iv<il>liav(t. those who have realised by themselves truth of solitude as it really is and are abiding in of] it. = ffi&ft. . . I abide in the truth of have by mj^self attained it and emptiness as as it is in itself [I am] free from vie^\ s based I r . free lessness of all thii see into the realm ness. will see that [this existence But. is and non and attain gained by the triple emancipation they will have an intuition into the self-nature of all from the views of existence and and having attaine all non-existence of realities. and am abiding in the intuition. free from views of being and non-being in regard to the manifestation of self -mind. t = n(~istyafititv(t. they are stamped they are kept well Avith the on the aspect of error. realiiess. have attained the triple emancipation. an external world under the aspect viewing of being and non-being. stamp of suchness which . Mahamati. viewing [the worl is gained within th free from the - Line 3: rond -mi'tlra for mnlra. I teach the trnl is. Mahamati. pratyal-slia. have gained self-realisation in the self -nature of things. things with tl wisdom which is acquired within themselves. and thereby knowing that what is seen is nothing but the Mind away from [dualistically] itself. existence objects.

IS&Bfr&Jfe fgfe IJlJJC jin JlU. to the triple emancipation nature of things. know that there is no existence beside 1 u^ q. see the self- tion. inutram. free themselves from existence [sn the view] of being and non-being. they will well stamp attachments as regards being and non-being. enter into the principle of representation-only.^R. "When they see it to be for he stamp of realness. ] the view of being v of being by realisation.o S- r|tj ff\' PR *fe 5^ ^f q 5|' I 5' (for. the triple emancipation. Mahamati. 134 a) ' q' ' ith of self-realisation as it hose who listen to my doc- But they will really attain to the truth of solitude and emptiness. who have by themselves and realised it. sd this. are and non-being. understand the gate of the triple emancipastamp of realness. perceive the realm of the wise. intuitively gain an entrance into the 1 ledge of self-realisation in the self-natn things. . be stamped wit to stamp. i "q can of suchiiess and formless- he things that are seen of free themselves from the n-existence L what is seen [of mind-only]. obtain the of all external . free themselves from the aspect of error. and keep themselves away from all the But. they will abide in the of solitude.s^.qq- ne themselves in the formings that are tranquil. and Id] with the insight which liemselves they will enter into [the view that] th< nothing' but what is seen of Mind itself. and non-being in ext understand [the truth] as it existences.ing has one or two other places where is cittamatra rendered "|[:|| rmd not flff=. evidently corresponds to svacitta-drisyaT'.fr.

The Lankavatara Sfl c2 sutra.23A31 sutra.BL 1411 Lankavatra X. a Mahayana text i 95^-6961 .

utra.Ill 291 24 917 .31 sutra.L2&A. S9 The Lanka vatax-a c 2 s. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARY . a Mahayana text. BL 1411 Ljinkavatra-- .

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO .

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