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Karen Arangote Felices
A research paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in English 110.
6 million herds. Hogs produced are mostly from backyard farms and some are raised by commercial farms. Out of these total pork supply. the local swine industry contributes about 83% of the total livestock production which is equivalent to almost 15% of the total value of agricultural production. In 2007. coming in second to rice.Organic Pig Production in the Philippines Karen Arangote Felices Introduction Philippines is an agricultural country. respectively. contribute a lot in the gross domestic product (GDP). About 98% of the demand for swine production is for domestic food consumption.7 million metric tons. the total number of pigs is about 13. of which 71% and 29% are from backyard farms and commercial farms. Filipinos support themselves through agriculture. . the total pork supply reached almost 1. According to Bureau of Agricultural Statistics. Swine production or the technology applied to the keeping of swines for profit has been a very popular enterprise in the country such that a greater number of Filipinos have venture in backyard farming making the swine industry the second leading contributor to Philippine agriculture. livestock. farming and forestry. As of January 2009. The country’s agricultural sectors namely: fisheries. The remaining percent is processed into canned or processed meat. 97% are produced locally and the remaining percent are imported. A large portion of the Philippines are devoted for agriculture.
They have access to dry bedding and shelter. In organic pig production. Feeds cannot contain GMO’s meat. But with these. growth promoters or other drugs and preservatives. pigs are allowed to roam outdoors. It will take a while for the soil to adjust the loss of chemical nourishment due to the series of biological and chemical changes made. One of which is the need for organic farm markets thus organic pig production could be an easy success. organic pig farms restrict the use of antibiotics and other drugs.With the increasing pork consumption and the decline in swine production due to diseases caused by pathogens such as ebola virus and bacteria Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Organic farming does not allow the use of chemical fertilizers. There are a number of problems that can occur in organic pig farming but there are more benefits that could be taken if the use of chemicals and GMOs are restricted. pesticides and genetically-modified organisms (GMOs). bonemeal. . and the decreasing number of arable lands for agriculture. But shifting from conventional farming to organic farming creates transitional problems. These drugs were only used under very controlled conditions. The production of organic pigs depends on many factors such as the production systems and its management. Like the conventional pig farming. Statement of the Problem Organic pig production is a good enterprise and could be an easy success to would-be entrepreneurs. the need for an organic pig production arises. a lot of opportunities open. Compared to conventional or traditional pig farms. organic pig farming has its own strengths and weaknesses. hogs are raised on organic farms that participate in organic farming scheme. animal fat. antibiotics. Also.
a number of studies showed that organic farming could increase food production levels and decrease degradation of agricultural soils. In addition to this.In organic production. Organic pig production is labor. And so organic pig farming has a lot of competition with biotechnology since advocates of this technology claim that there is no other way that we can feed the world. with the fast growing population it could not feed a lot of people and its growth would lead to higher pork prices since organic products are more expensive. to describe and to discuss how to efficiently raise swines in an organic farm. and to cite the importance of organically-raised swine. Also.intensive. This study will serve as an easy access of information. Significance of the Study The study will be of great help to the university students especially to those who are majoring in animal science with specialization in swine production. Moreover. there could be a problem in labor and land allocation. With this.and land. this study aims to define and to explain terminologies related to organic pig production. Moreover. This also helps to identify some research gaps. The lack of support from the government for the researches and extensions has also been a problem for organic farming that produces too low yield to feed a growing population. In contrast. career and financial constraints could arise. the study . Objectives of the Study The primary objective of this study is to determine the status of organic pig production in the Philippines. low-income families and people in the third world would not be able to afford it. constraints like paradigm.
In 2005. reproduction and meat quality. with 298. Researches should be conducted. Meanwhile. Review of Related Literature Local and worldwide status of organic pig production About 26 million hectares are under organic management worldwide. “niche” markets are a great opportunity. There is a lack of support from the government for the extension and researches about organic pig production.0 % of the total number of organic farms. Among Asian countries. Organic pork can be sold twice as the price of the pork produced conventionally.500 hectares that are under organic management and consisting of about 500 organic farms. With the production of organic pigs. with assessment of their effects in health and welfare. there could be a fortune for feed companies that could offer organic feeds for swine. Also. of which 42. the Philippines have a land area of about 3. .may encourage readers and/or students to engage in organic swine production in their own backyard as a small scale swine enterprise. feeding regimes and feed utilization strategies. 990 hectares. The researches should include investigations on different genotypes of swine. China topped the biggest area of land managed organically. Latin America consists 34. Scope and Limitations A very few organic pig farms in the Philippines exist.9 % in terms of the total area is managed organically by Oceania.
In some countries with a large over all pig production like the Philippines. preferably maternal milk for a minimum period required for hogs or swine. and veterinary treatment are met. form a major constraint for many farmers who wish to shift to organic pig production. Food products like pork are labeled organic only when the standards for housing conditions. the percentage of organically produced pigs is estimated to be “not detectable”. Young hogs are fed based on natural milk. disease prevention. and animal breeding as well as animal care. Organic pig production relies mainly on the management of internal farm resources rather than on external input. This means that soybean meal which is the most common protein source in animal nutrition cannot be used in organic feed. These standards are very different from the way in which conventional pig production is managed and without a doubt. Swine can only be fed on organically produced feeding stuffs. in organic pig farming quality production is ensured rather than in maximizing the production. Nutritional requirements of the hogs at various stages of their development must be met. Antibiotics or any . the principle of organic pig production relies in preventive measures rather than on medical treatment.Organic pig farming criteria For over the latest years. Also. there has been a tremendous growth in numbers of organic farms. Basically. In relation to health management. animal nutrition. Almost all of the countries in Europe have livestock products within their top five organic products. Conventional feed materials of agricultural origin can only be used if they are prepared or produced without the use of chemical solvents. silage and/or fresh or dried fodder must be added to the daily ration for pigs. including livestock farms in Europe. roughage. preferably from the farm itself.
Pigs in organic production systems benefit from a low animal density and good possibilities for expressing normal behavior such as locomotion. However. Organic pig production is associated with a high standard of animal health and welfare with a high degree of food safety. Tamworth. weaning age and use of preventive medication. Raising pigs organically Study conducted suggests the use of older breeds such as Berkshire. production through organic farming is also small. Large Black. Organic pig production also differs from conventional production in terms of feeding. Size of organic pig production Organic pig production as compared to other organic enterprise is small. Landrace or Duroc. swine are allowed to perform their natural movements and behavior. This is partly because different production structures are difficult to translate number of pigs for pork production. Use of GMOs is also not allowed in animal feeding. In organic pig farming. access to outdoor areas. older breeds can be too fat for consumer preference thus it would be good to combine the desirable traits of older breeds of sow and lean modern breed of boars such as Yorkshire. Hampshire and Lacombe since these breeds were bred for specific purposes such as grazing orchards. And as compared to conventional pig production. foraging.other substance intended to stimulate growth production are not allowed in feeding. . This means that tail docking is not allowed but castration is allowed in order to reduce the aggressions in pens and during transport to ensure product quality. Management methods should not interfere with animals’ body parts. exploration and nest building.
However. They can never be sold as organic product. it is important to be aware of the risk of reduced fat quality if the diet includes more oil seed as protein source because of difficulties in using soybean meal (no GMO. whereas lung health normally is very good. there is a need to develop new grazing systems where the risk of environmental problems has been reduced. it is recommended that rotational grazing on high quality pastures supplemented with local grains and legumes be implemented in the farm. In relation to health. However. It is a must that forages for pigs should be leafy with less stems and straw. It has been concluded that good production results can be obtained in organic pig production. Older pigs can consume up to 70% leafy forages but young pigs should be given more of the high quality grain and protein. non-organic sows can produce organic young stock when managed under appropriate conversion period. In relation to sows there is a need to establish systems where an effective reproduction can be obtained given the fact that weaning takes place at approximately seven weeks. In addition. In relation to feeding of finishers. systems established as a combination of a barn and an outdoor run give the possibility of obtaining very good production results and animal welfare. no use of chemical solvents). problems concerning control of endoparasites may occur. With these limitations.Pigs have a single stomach which cannot easily digest cellulose. since the overall housing area needed for such systems is considerable. Conversion of existing herd of pigs Pigs that are managed under traditional or conventional ways can never achieve organic status. Non-organic sows are . the costs of production are high and there seems to be a need for development of less capital-intensive systems. In relation to housing of finishers. It is also important to be aware of a reduced tenderness of the meat for finishers fed too restrictively.
Piglets are raised and kept to full organic standards throughout their life in order to sell them as organic. There is a need to conduct researches and experiments. The land best for organic pig production is the area with a low rainfall of about less than 800mm. production system.referred to as converted breeding stock. and animal breeding as well as animal care. Pigs are not allowed to graze or stay on the same piece of land. when venturing in this enterprise always make sure of the market. The one has to . Organic pig production is very small as compared to conventional farming thus only a few literatures is available. Organic pig production is labor intensive thus competent workers are needed in running the farm. and veterinary treatment. Flat area is not necessary although it is an advantage for farrowing sows. Also. labor units. many factors have to be considered. Among these are the land. consider the breeds of the pigs to raise. disease prevention. animal nutrition. Methodology Before engaging or converting or shifting from traditional or conventional way of pig production to organic farming. management systems. In order to grow an organic piglet. Slopy sites and those areas recorded with heavy or high rainfall can lead to problems with soil erosion and animal welfare. a large amount of area is needed for organic pig production. Also. After this. With this rotational requirement. Pigs should have an unlimited access to water especially during hot periods in order to protect pigs from heat stress and sunburn. and niche markets. piglets are born as organic on organic land. Availability of water should also be considered during conversion of farms to organic methods. a sow must be managed to full organic standards including housing conditions. Studies recommend a rotational grazing for organic pigs.
reproduction and meat quality.american.pcarrd.asp http://www.pdf http://www.com/archive/2008/june-06-08/the-problem-with-organic-food/ http://orgprints.pdf http://www.ph/ofin/market%20files/landarea.thepigsite.agbio.com/what_the_experts_say/pig_article/854/swine-production-in-thephilippines-1/2http://www.ipic. with assessment of their effects in health and welfare.com/articles/2666/philippines-livestock-and-products-2009 http://aces.edu/academics/axed/documents/swine-production_martinez.edu/reports/99swinereports/asl-1679.htm . feeding regimes and feed utilization strategies. Literature Cited http://www.iastate.ca/NewspaperArticles/na_organic_pig.org/197/1/Microsoft_Word_-_Organic_pig_production_systems_UK.pig333.lovetoknow.pdf http://organic.nmsu.dost.gov.com/Problems_that_Occur_When_Organic_Farming http://www.researches should include investigations on different genotypes of swine.
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