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Types of Research

Types of Research

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Published by: kumaravelphd5030 on Mar 09, 2012
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Types of Research

BASIC RESEARCH Also called Pure or fundamental Research, it is undertaken for increase in knowledge. There is no direct benefit as it is a research for the sake of research. It is conducted to satisfy any curiosity such as: (a) what makes things happen, (b) why society changes and (c) why social relations are in a certain way. In fact, it is the source of most new theories, principles and ideas. Basic research rarely helps anyone directly. It only stimulates new ways of thinking. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge. There is absolutely no commercial value to the discoveries resulting from such research. To sum up, basic research is purely theoretical to increase our understanding of certain phenomena or behavior but does not seek to solve any existing problem.

Applied research
It is use of basic research or past theories, knowledge and methods for solving an existing problem. It deals with practical problems. It is opposed to pure research which is not problem-oriented but for the increase in knowledge which may or may not be used in future.

Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford woody research companies defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the persuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. The basic types of research are as follows: (i) Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite often use the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data. Ex post facto studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.

(iv) Conceptual (Theoretical) vs. using in depth interviews for the purpose. research designed to find out how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution is also qualitative research. On the other hand. research studies. It is data based research. He then sets up experimental designs which he thinks will manipulate the persons or the materials concerned so as to bring forth the desired information.” Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research. the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problems. but research aimed at certain conclusions facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research. when we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behavior. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires. and actively to go about doing certain things to stimulate the production of desired information.e. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. empirical research relies an experience or observation alone. Qualitative research is specially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory. In such I research. while doing such research. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. in such a research it is necessary to get at facts firsthand. Research to identify social.(ii) Applied vs. Similarly. adds to the already existing organized body of scientific knowledge. Attitude or opinion research. sentence completion tests. Whereas basic research is directed towards finding information that has a broad base of applications and thus. Through such research we can analyse the various factors which motivate people to behave in a particular manner or which make people like or dislike a particular thing. i. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. It may be stated. economic or political trends that may effect a particular institution or copy research or the marketing research are examples of applied research. For instance. at their source. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. coming up with conclusions which arc capable of being verified by observation or experiment. Empirical: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. Other techniques of such research are word association tests. are also examples of fundamental research. Such research is thus characterised by the . on the other hand. He then works to get enough facts (data) to prove or disprove his hypothesis. however. often without due regard for system and theory. is concerned with qualitative phenomenon.e. phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. that to apply qualitative research in practice is relatively a difficult job and therefore.. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation. an important type of qualitative research. story completion tests and similar other projective techniques.. i. we quite often talk of „Motivation Research‟. one should seek guidance from experimental psychologists. We can also call it as experimental type of research. “Gathering knowledge for knowledge‟s sake is termed „pure‟ or „basic‟ research. die researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess as to the probable results. Qualitative research. (iii) Quantitative vs. concerning human behavior carried on with view to make generalizations about human behavior. Thus.

(v) Some Other Types of Research: All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches. or on the basis of some other similar factor. and thus cause and effect relationships are not certain. What is a cross-sectional study? A cross-sectional study is a descriptive study in which disease and exposure status are measured simultaneously in a given population.experimenter‟s control over the variables under study and his deliberate manipulation of one of them to study its effects. it may not be possible to distinguish whether the exposure preceeded or followed the disease. Research can as well be understood as clinical or diagnostic research. or the time required to accomplish research. on the environment in which research is done. including the philosophy of persons and groups at any remote point of time. since exposure and disease status are measured at the same point in time. using very small samples and very deep probing data gathering devices. Such research follow case-study methods or indepth approaches to reach the basic causal relations. whereas formalized research studies are those with substantial structure and with specific hypotheses to be tested. However. Decision-oriented research is always for the need of a decision maker and the researcher in this case is not free to embark upon research according to his own inclination. Operations research is an example of decision oriented research since it is a scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding operations under their control. we can think of research either as one-time research or longitudinal research. Form the point of view of time. to study events or ideas of the past. a researcher is free to pick up a problem. depending upon the environment in which it is to be carried out. Empirical research is appropriate when proof is sought that certain variables affect other variables in some way. . While doing conclusion oriented research. In the former case the research is confined to a single timeperiod. etc. whereas in the latter case the research is carried on over several time-periods. The research may be exploratory or it may be formalized. based on either the purpose of research. Research can also be classified as conclusion-oriented and decision oriented. Evidence gathered through experiments or empirical studies is today considered to be the most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis. Such studies usually go deep into the causes of things or events that interest us. redesign the enquiry as he proceeds and is prepared to conceptualize as he wishes. Historical research is that which utilizes historical sources like documents. The objective of exploratory research is the development of hypotheses rather than their testing. Research can be field-setting research or laboratory research or simulation research. Cross-sectional studies can be thought of as providing a "snapshot" of the frequency and characteristics of a disease in a population at a particular point in time. remains. This type of data can be used to assess the prevalence of acute or chronic conditions in a population.

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