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Introduction History Principle Components How it works?

Application Advantages Disadvantages Future enhancement

Sports has great commercial importance and popularity. As a result, theres a need to make the game more interesting and make it as fair as possible.
Human error plays vital role in decision making at decisive moments.

There is need to bring a technology to minimize the chances of human error in such decision making.

Hawk-Eye is a system used in cricket, tennis, snookers and other sports to visually track the path of the ball and display a record of its most statistically likely path as a moving image.
Hawk-Eye is most innovative technology in sports broadcasting and is a development that will reinforce the group's presence and influence.

It was developed by engineers at Roke Manor Research Limited in 2001. The patent being held by Paul Hawkins and David Sherry.

The system was first used during a Test match between Pakistan and England at Lord's Cricket Ground, on 21 April 2001. It was first used in tennis 2006 US open.

Hawk-Eye system is based

on the principle of Triangulation

Triangulation is the

process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline.

The hawk eye system consists of two significant parts Tracking System. Camera . Speed gun. Video Replay System.

The tracking data provides the coaches and players with the information for HOW they have performed. The tracking system consists of High speed vision processing cameras to track the ball from the bowlers hand to the batsman.

TRACKING SYSTEM The system will automatically calculate the following information:
The speed of the ball leaving the bowler's hand.

The swing of the ball from the bowler's hand to where the ball pitched .
How much the ball bounced.

How much the ball deviated sideways off the wicket.


A prediction of where the ball would have passed the stumps.

HAWK-EYE CAMERA
Hawkeye cameras placed high above the court to track the trajectory (path followed) of the ball. It can point out the bounce of the ball upto the precision of 3mm. The cameras record the movement of ball at the rate of 60 frames per second.

SPEED GUN A speed gun measures the ball speed. It shoots a very short burst of infra-red laser and receives it back. The gun, counts the nanoseconds it took for the light to travel to and from the ball, divides it by two and gives the speed of the ball.

The Hawk-Eye System can incorporate more video replay cameras for analysis from different angles, which can be controlled remotely. The video is captured and stored digitally on hard disks. This uses display unit like monitor and projector screens.

Uses 6 cameras placed as shown. Each cameras are positioned at 60degree roughly from each other. 6 cameras are designed according to their distance from pitch. Each camera covers smaller region for accuracy.

It include loading of statistical generator, which is used to produce status based on data collected.

This part of the system can be further divided into 3 major parts: Identifying pixels representing the ball in each image. Applying some geometric algorithm on the set of Images at each instant. Coming up with the 3D position of the ball in space.

Done by process called Blob detection. Blob detection senses the size of the ball. It negates the confusion of the ball shadow which may be confused with the ball pixel by comparing the ball position in previous images &position of the sun at that instant.

Data of x & y coordinates in each camera is obtained by geometric algorithm which is used inside hawk-eye system.

2D images captured from each cameras are combined to get a 3D position of the ball.

3D images are taken at various instance of time.

3D Images collected at various instants are putting together to form a single picture, which shows the trajectory of the ball.

Its applications are mainly in sports.


Cricket Tennis Snookers and In some games

Used in strengthening military power. Used in automobile industry.

LBW DECISION

Hawk-Eye helps to resolve the following three issues:


Would the ball have hit the stumps? Did the ball pitch in-line?

Did the ball hit the batsman in-line?

The singles, 2s, 3s, 4s and 6s that make up quick-fire 50s or vital centuries are represented by the different colors of the Wagon Wheel,

DESPIN Hawk-Eye DE Spin Graphics demonstrate how far a delivery has deviated after pitching

PITCH MAPS

highlight a bowlers consistency or expensiveness, line and length.

BEEHIVES

Beehives show where the ball has passed the batsman.

RAILCAM

Can be used to represent differences in speed, bounce and delivery.

BALL SPEED

Hawk-Eye now has the ability to supply ball speeds as reliably as a radar gun,

REACTION TIME The Hawk-eye system is also used effectively to calculate and represent the reaction time taken by a fielder to catch the ball.

In tennis Hawk-Eye generates the impact of

the ball whether the ball is IN or OUT

This technology is useful in cases where the cue

ball touches the specified ball first or any other ball.

The use of hawk eye technology is used to retrieve the enemy locations from far away distance without coming to their notice. The E-2C aircraft used by US army uses this technology.

Hawk-eye technology is used for wheel aligning in automobiles.it offers shops the multiple benefits of precision, high-speed alignment and greater productivity

Give a prediction as accurate as 99.99 percent. Its a very effective system which works in real time. Minimize the chances of human error in decision making. Help players to study their past games and improve.

The system is too costly. The system needs complex arrangements. Sometimes Hawk-Eye struggle with predicting the curved trajectory of a cricket ball after bouncing. Sometimes it challenges umpires dignity.

The future of hawkeye technology looks bright as it has been used in various applications in a very short duration after its introduction. For eg: use of goal line technology has been proposed in football.

After all the test that have been conducted on this

technology, it has always come out successful and it promises to be a boon for the world of sports and now it is up to the different councils to decide whether to use this technology or not. This technology has met the high reality and accuracy features. Hawk-Eye is currently developing a system for Football This technology helps to have correct decisions in any kind of game.

http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc http://www.usopen.org/en_US/news/articles/200

6-08-10/ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/4/story.cfm?c _id=4 http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/dubaitennis 2007/08379 http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/hawkeye http://www.hawkeyetechnology.com/tech/