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Traffic Baseline Conditions

Traffic Baseline Conditions

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Published by: Lusi Panggabean on Mar 09, 2012
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Traffic Baseline Conditions
Highway Network


The Blackhorse Lane Study area is in north-east London. To the north of the area the A406 North Circular runs from east to west, connecting with the M11 at Woodford to the east and the A10 to the west. Radial traffic movements related to central London move in an east-west direction along the A503 Forest Road and Ferry Lane south of the study area, to gain access to the A10 north-south radial route into the city. A map locating the area in its wider strategic context is given in Figure 1.1. Location Map – Strategic Context


1.3 F 1.1


None of the roads within the study are part of the Transport for London Road Network (TLRN). The classified roads that are within the study area are the A503 Ferry Lane and Forest Road, the A112 Chingford Road, the A1006 Blackhorse Road, and the B179 Blackhorse Lane and Billet Road. The A112 is part of the Transport for London’s (TfL) Strategic Road Network, made up of Borough Roads over which TfL preside. The A503 and A1006 are classified as Principal Roads while the B179 is classified as a Local Distributor Road. All Principal and Local Distributor Roads are under the control of the Local Highways Authority, which in this case is LB Waltham Forest. The A406 and the A10, respectively to the north and west of the study area, are both part of the TLRN and, as such, are under the control of (TfL). The classified roads within the study area are used by vehicles seeking to gain access to these strategic roads. A map of the study area’s surrounding local highway network is provided in Figure 1.2




F 1.2

Local Highway Network


The majority of the industrial sites in the area are serviced by the B179 Billet Road/Blackhorse Lane. The reservoir to the west of the area presents a geographical barrier between Tottenham Hale to the west and Blackhorse Road to the east. This implies a significant degree of constraint, intensifying the levels of observed traffic on the A503 crossing the reservoir. Key junctions in the study area are Blackhorse Lane / Forest Road (Blackhorse Station), Chingford Road/Forest Road (The Bell) and the Crooked Billet Roundabout, that provides access to and from the A406.



Traffic Movements
1.11 Traffic counts were undertaken on 18 November 2004 and supplied to JMP by Cunningham Consultancy. An analysis of peak-hour traffic movements has been performed based upon junction turning counts and a number of ATC loop detectors on residential streets experiences problems with “rat-running” traffic.


F 1.3

AM Peak Link Flows

F 1.4

PM Peak Link Flows

1.15 1. Other significant net differences are observed along Billet Road and Blackhorse Lane. For junction 1 (Blackhorse Station). Priory Court carries 440 vehicles per hour (2 – way) in the am peak and 510 vehicles per hour (2-way) in the pm peak. Comparing the 2-way peak traffic flow on the busiest sections. The greatest net differences are observed between The Bell and the Crooked Billet Roundabout (along the A112). 25% higher than between 8am-9am. While the differences along Blackhorse Lane are likely to relate to the employment in the area. with heavier traffic observed westbound on the A503 (noticeable west of Blackhorse Station) and southbound on Chingford Road (notable on the northern section) in the am peak and vice versa for the pm peak. The eastern end of Billet Road is much busier than the southern end of Blackhorse Lane: In the am peak 900 vehicles travel west along the eastern end of Billet Road compared with 420 vehicles travelling south along the southern end of Blackhorse Lane.18 1. there is much higher peak at 5pm-6pm. This is due to a significant number of uncounted turnings near the top of Chingford Road both eastbound (Brookscroft Road) and westbound (Penrhyn Avenue) that serve as “rat-runs” for gaining access to the A503 either further east or west of The Bell junction. .14 1.1 Hourly Demand (vehicles) 7am-8am 8am-9am 9am-10am 4pm-5pm 5pm-6pm 6pm-7pm 5 – Crooked Billet Roundabout (A112 / A406/B179 ) 4203 4978 4358 4824 5026 4675 1. These net differences exhibit tidal behaviour.21 For junctions 2-5 there are equally high peak demands between 8am-9am and 5pm6pm.13 Traffic movements passing through Blackhorse Lane Study area are tidal in nature. Turning counts at junctions have been compared to estimate the net car trips attracted or generated between junctions that were surveyed.1. Penrhyn Avenue and Priory Court carry a significant flow of traffic for residential roads.19 Surrounding Junctions 1. The flows exhibit tidal behaviour as consistent with that observed for through traffic. the differences along Billet Road maybe due in part due to a “rat-run” along North Countess Road / Priory Court/South Countess Road. The B179 is busier than the A503 between the junctions with Blackhorse Lane and Chingford Road. Hourly Vehicle Demand 1– Blackhorse Station (Forest Rd/ Blackhorse Lane) 2298 2264 2167 2506 2759 2616 2 Forest Rd/ Higham Hill Rd 1500 1722 1542 1684 1791 1706 3 – The Bell (Forest Rd/ Chingford Rd) 2238 2431 2296 2379 2436 2395 4– Billet Rd/ Higham Hill Rd 1299 1595 1463 1379 1532 1419 T 1.16 1.17 1. 1700 vehicles per hour are observed at the eastern end of Billet Road compared with 1400 vehicle per hour on the A503 just east of the junction with Higham Hill.20 A preliminary analysis has been made of the hourly vehicular demand at junctions over the peak time periods 7-10am and 4pm-7pm.

Pedestrians 1. As a result. Minimising the number of accidents on the roads around the Blackhorse Lane area is important to the development of a transport strategy. JMP also obtained data on accidents within the residential areas of Higham Hill from LBWF. and due to the potential to provide an access into Blackhorse Lane industrial area from a point just west of this junction.31 . This provides details of accidents broken down by borough and junction type. Both these junctions are further analysed in separate chapters. The Blackhorse Station junction demands additional attention. Methodology 1. due to the potential to redesign the junction in co-ordination with overall interchange improvements.23 The station generates much higher pedestrian flows at the Blackhorse Station junction.28 JMP has obtained Police Accident Records from TfL for a 20-metre radius around the Forest Road junctions with Blackhorse Road/Blackhorse Lane (Blackhorse Station junction) and Hoe Street/Chingford Road and the Crooked Billet roundabout (junction of the A406 North Circular. with emphasis given to Blackhorse Station junction. 4pm-7pm 5 – Crooked Billet Roundabout (A112 / A406/B179 ) 60 1.24 From the analyses of traffic movements and routing. This allows comparison of the three junctions around the Blackhorse Lane area with accidents at similar junctions across LB Waltham Forest.29 1. these two junctions will be central to the emerging transport strategy (alongside a focus on the Billet Road/Blackhorse Lane link). These data were used to examine accidents that might be caused by rat-running. due to the potential for re-design. TfL’s London Road Safety Unit produces a document entitled ‘Level’s of Accident Risk in Greater London’. 1.30 1. 1.26 Accident Data Introduction 1. Strategic Role of Junctions 1. than observed at other junctions.25 1. Pedestrian demand 1– Blackhorse Station (Forest Rd/ Blackhorse Lane) 6491 2 Forest Rd/ Higham Hill Rd 1685 3 – The Bell (Forest Rd/ Chingford Rd) 1644 4– Billet Rd/ Higham Hill Rd 181 T 1. the Blackhorse Station and Crooked Billet Roundabout junctions play the most strategic role with regards to nonlocal traffic.22 A preliminary analysis has been made of the total pedestrian demand at junctions over the peak time periods 7-10am and 4pm-7pm.27 Part of the vision set out in the Mayor of London’s Transport Strategy (2001) is to make London a ‘city for people’ and highlights safe streets as key to achieving this.2 Total H Demand (Pedestrians) 7am-10am. These records give full details of all of the recorded accidents at these junctions for the 12-month period from November 2003 to November 2004. Chingford Road and Billet Road).

57 T 1.Automatic Traffic Signal Junctions 1.27 Non-pedestrian 4 6 1. .17 Fatal and serious accidents 1 2 0. Roundabouts 1. All accidents Crooked Billet roundabout Waltham Forest 12 3. This is over 3 times the average number of accidents and over 7 times the number of fatal or serious accidents.40 Table 5. There was an even higher than average incidence of accidents at the Forest Road junction with Hoe Street and Chingford Road with a total of 7 accidents.57 Non-pedestrian 12 3.77 Fatal and serious accidents 0 0.4 below shows details of the accidents at these two junctions compared with the average number of accidents at all ATS junctions within LB Waltham Forest.35 1. Four of the six accidents were non-pedestrian.6 below shows the number and location of all accidents involving goods vehicles at the three junctions.37 1. Table 5. one of which resulted in serious or fatal injury.33 The table shows that in a 12-month period the average number of accidents expected at an ATS junction in LB Waltham Forest is 2. Comparison of Accidents at ATS Junctions All accidents Blackhorse Station Forest Road/ Hoe Street Waltham Forest 6 7 2.32 The Forest Road junctions with Blackhorse Road/Blackhorse Lane and Hoe Street/Chingford Road are both Automatic Traffic Signal (ATS) junctions. 2 of which resulted in fatal or serious injuries.5 below shows details of the accidents at the Crooked Billet Roundabout compared with the average number of accidents at roundabouts (excluding miniroundabouts) in LB Waltham Forest.3 1.36 1. none of these resulted in fatal or serious injuries and none involved pedestrians. There was more than four times the number of pedestrian accidents at this junction than the Waltham Forest average. Accident data comparison for roundabouts.38 Table 5. with 0. This junction experiences almost three times the average number of accidents for an ATS junction in Waltham Forest and almost four times the average number of accidents resulting in fatal or serious injury. However.34 1.17. Accidents Involving Goods Vehicles 1.47 T 1.7 Pedestrian 2 1 0.7 non-pedestrian accidents.39 This table shows that during the 12-month period from November 2003 to November 2004 there was more than three times the Waltham Forest average number of accidents at the Crooked Billet roundabout. From November 2003 to November 2004 there were a total of 6 accidents at the Blackhorse Station junction.27 fatal or serious injuries and 1.4 1.

41 This table shows that the Forest Road junction with Blackhorse Road and Blackhorse Lane.9 the severity by the mode of transport of the casualty. Casualty Locations Junction with… Blackhorse Lane Blackhorse Road Latchington Court Wickford Way Total Forest Road 19 20 2 1 42 1. give details on the severity of the injuries suffered by casualties during the 36-month period. A low proportion of casualties were injured in accidents occurring at the Forest Road junctions with Latchington Close and Wickford Way.6 1. JMP has analysed the data from the Police Accident Records for a 100 metre radius of this junction for the 36month period from November 2001 to November 2004. the junction of Forest Road and Blackhorse Lane. Table 5.43 T 1. Tables 5.7 Blackhorse Lane 17 2 Total 38 4 .45 1.46 T 1. Table 5. 19 of the 42 (45%) were recorded at the opposite arm.44 Accidents at the Blackhorse Road arm of the junction were responsible for the highest number of casualties with 20 of the 42 (48%) casualties recorded here.5 Accidents Involving Goods Vehicles All accidents Forest Road/ Blackhorse Road Forest Road/ Hoe Street Crooked Billet roundabout 6 7 12 Accidents involving goods vehicles 1 0 1 1.8 giving the severity by location and Table 5. There were 30 recorded accidents at this junction during the 36-month period with a total of 42 casualties.T 1.42 Due to the importance of the Blackhorse Station junction to this study further accident data has been obtained from TfL as to accidents recorded here.7 below shows the proportions of casualties that were injured at the different roads loading off Forest Road within the 100m radius of the main junction. Blackhorse Road Station Junction 1. There were no accidents during this period involving goods vehicles at the Forest Road/Hoe Street/Chingford Road junction.8 and 5.9 below. Casualty Severity by Location Forest Rd junction with… Slight Severe Blackhorse Road 18 2 Latchington Court 2 Wickford Way 1 1. and the Crooked Billet roundabout were both the location of one accident involving a goods vehicle between November 2003 and November 2004.

47 No fatalities occurred in the study area over the 36-monthperiod and only 4 out of the 42 casualties have incurred serious injuries. Other Motor Vehicle or Pedal Cycle was more than slightly injured. shows the accident location and the casualty’s mode of transport.9 1. Residential Areas 1. None of the casualties travelling by Goods Vehicle. Location of Accidents in Residential Areas F 1. The majority of casualties were travelling by car (55% of casualties). Pedestrian casualties were split evenly between the Forest Road junctions with Blackhorse Lane and Blackhorse Road.50 T 1. Accident Location by Casualty Mode Forest Road Junction with… Car Goods vehicle Powered 2wheeler Other motor vehicle Pedal Cycle Pedestrian 5 Blackhorse Lane 10 4 2 2 1 5 Blackhorse Road 12 Latchington Court Wickford Way 1 Total 23 4 2 2 1 10 1. Powered 2-wheeler. Casualties travelling by car were also split relatively evenly between these two arms. all the others slightly. while the two Powered 2-wheeler casualties were recorded on the opposite arm at Blackhorse Road.51 All of the casualties injured while travelling in a Goods Vehicle were recorded at the junction of Forest Road and Blackhorse Lane.10 below.49 1.T 1.48 1. the other 70% being slightly injured. Table 5.8 Casualty Severity by Casualty Mode Serious Car Goods vehicle Powered 2-wheeler Other motor vehicle Pedal Cycle Pedestrian 3 1 Slight 22 4 2 2 1 7 Total 23 4 2 2 1 10 1.53 Figure 5.52 1. 30% (3 of 10) of all pedestrian casualties were seriously injured.5 .5 shows the location and severity of accidents occurring within the Higham Hill residential areas for the 36 months to December 2004. One of these was seriously injured.

where Forest Road. Caged pedestrian refuges allow pedestrians to cross the roads in two independent stages. 1. This allows the junction to operate without an all red phase.54 Figure 5.5 summarises the movements of these services through the junction.55 Blackhorse Road Station Junction. The bus routes 123.5 shows a concentration of accidents around the junction of Winns Avenue and South Countess Road. Figure 5. 158 and 230 cross through this junction.56 1. The station is accessed from four bus stops on Forest Road (W) and Blackhorse Road (S). is the first junction eastbound from Tottenham Hale after crossing the reservoir. with narrow pavements and pedestrian railings to guide pedestrians to cross at allocated points.1. Blackhorse Road Station Junction Introduction 1. Blackhorse Road and Blackhorse Lane meet. although none of them resulted in serious or fatal injuries. The junction has generally been engineered in favour of traffic.57 . There were no fatal. four serious and 36 slight accidents.

F 1.59 1. The pm peak hour (5pm-6pm) is almost as busy.60 1. Pedestrians access the station by crossing the Forest Road (W) and Blackhorse Road (S) arms of the junctions. with 1235 pedestrians crossing the junction.6 and 5. compared with a total of 1440 pedestrians crossing during the am peak hour.7 below.58 Blackhorse Lane Station is situated on the south-west corner of this junction. 1. Traffic 1. predominantly in the direction to enter the station.6 Blackhorse Station Junction (Forest Road/Blackhorse Lane) Pedestrians 1. Pedestrian movements were counted on the Forest Road (W).61 .62 Vehicle turning movements and pedestrian movements for the peak hours (8am-9am and 5pm-6pm) are provided in the figures 5. Movements across Blackhorse Road (N) were not counted. when 720 pedestrians cross Forest Road (W) and 540 pedestrians cross Blackhorse Road (S). Forest Road (E) and Blackhorse Road (S) arms of the junctions. The busiest hour for pedestrian flows is in the am peak hour (8am-9am.

F 1.8 PM Peak Hour Movements .7 AM Peak Hour Movements F 1.

detector’s identify buses and extend the appropriate stage of the signals to give enough time for the bus to clear the junction. • 1. Two model have therefore be produced. Bus Priority measures are installed on all arms of the junction. the first contains the bicycle stage and runs a cycle time of 138 seconds. The junction operates using Vehicle Actuated (VA) detection. by modelling the movement of traffic through the junction based upon traffic theories developed by Webster and Cobbe. see figure 5.68 1. LINSIG is unable to explicitly model VA operation with bus and cycle priority.65 The junction currently operates as a 4-arm signalised junction.66 F 1.67 A LINSIG model of Blackhorse Station junction has been assembled to provide further detail on the capacity available at this junction. Forest Road/Blackhorse Lane .9 Junction Modelling 1.1.Stage Diagram 1. There is much less activity between Forest Road (E) and Blackhorse Lane (N) / Blackhorse Road (S). • The bicycle stage (5) is either called every cycle or not called at all. as listed below: The junction is running the Alt Max settings as specified in the Timing Sheet.70 . there are also significant tidal movements between Forest Road (W) and Blackhorse Lane (N) and Blackhorse Road (S). Bicycle detection is installed on the cycle lane and when a cyclist is detected a separate stage is called at the signals.8 below. Method of Control 1.64 1. The model has been set for the busiest peak hour 5pm-6pm.63 In addition to large tidal movements east-west along Forest Road. and • Bus priority is not modelled. the second does not contain the bicycle stage and runs a cycle time of 120 seconds.69 1. The stage diagram shows how a 5th stage is called when a cyclist is detected in the cycle lane. The Forest Road (w) approach to the junction consists of three traffic lanes and a nearside carriageway bicycle lane. VA alters the length of the stages of the junction dependent on levels of traffic demand. therefore to overcome this limitation a number of assumptions have been made.

where the additional capacity provided by VA needs to be properly accounted for. In this case. When the bicycle facility is not called the junction operates a PRC of 13% which indicates that the junction could operate with additional demand during the busiest hour.73 1.3 Que’ PCU 18 7 17 13 12 138s (bicycle stage) Deg Sat% 59.75 .74 1.3 6. which cannot be modelled.3 14. Such modelling may be appropriate for modelling future scenarios that reduce junction capacity to a forecast saturated junction scenario. The PRC is calculated from the maximum degree of saturation on a link and is a measure of how much additional traffic could pass through the junction while maintaining a maximum degree of saturation of 90% on all links. a negative PRC indicates that the traffic demand is greater than can be cleared during the cycle time resulting in delay at the junction.4 75.5 1.0 91.8 0.4 PRC Total Delay 13% 31.Ahead/Left Forest Road (W) . as recommended by TfL. During the PM Peak Hour 14 bicycles were observed to use the cycle lane provided. in place of the bicycle detection for the present cycle lane on Forest Road (W).6 Que’ PCU 22.71 The results of the PM Peak Hour model show that when the bicycle stage is called the Practical Reserve Capacity (PRC) at the junction is significantly reduced.10 Results for the PM Peak Cycle Time 120s (no bicycle stage) Link Name Forest Road (W) .2 11.5 75.0 22. Vehicle actuated (VA) junctions can only be accurately modelled using micro-simulation techniques. using VISSIM software.7 -1.Right Blackhorse Lane (N) Blackhorse Road (S) Forest Road (E) Forest Road (W) – Cycle Lane Junction Overall Demand Flow 974 333 559 443 501 10 Sat Flow 3970 1920 4020 3880 3933 1915 Deg Sat% 55.Baseline Model Results T 1. is likely to result in additional capacity as it responds to the fluctuation of traffic demand at the junction and adjusts the stage lengths accordingly.2 46.4 91.3 15.9 49.5 65.72 1. Therefore a rough estimate of the actual reserve capacity would be in the region of 6%. This would relate on average to a call of the bicycle stage once every two cycles. 1. Bicycles could be prioritised more efficiently by cyclist advance lines on all approaches to the junction.0 53. It should also be noted that VA operation.5% 44.

which runs north-south connecting Chingford to Walthamstow. Figure 5. 1. such that the signal timings are co-ordinated to manage traffic flows. and Wadham Road which leads towards Highams Park Station. by means of slip roads.10 Crooked Billet Roundabout Drawing .Crooked Billet Roundabout Introduction 1.9 provides a drawing layout of the junction.76 Crooked Billet Roundabout provides access to and from the A406 north circular (running east-west). It also connects the B179 (Billet Road) with the A112 (Chingford Road). The SCOOT system is used in UTC to optimise traffic signal timings in order to minimise network disruption. The roundabout is signalised on all arms which are under control of Urban Traffic Control (UTC) – which is a system of controlling a network of junctions under central control.77 F 1. The roundabout is a member of a “network region” referred to as controller group 229. TfL are responsible for UTC in the area.

2 Freight Movements and Access Baseline Conditions Introduction 2. as surveyed on 18 November 2004.1 Freight is of importance to the study.3 The following figures provide 3-hour peak period flows for Heavy Goods Vehicles for the major links through the area. AM Peak Period Link Flows for HGVs F 2. due to • • Environmental concerns of “strategic” freight making use of the B179. Access issues to the industrial estates on Blackhorse Lane and Billet Road.2 This section analyses freight movements through the area.1 . that passes by residential homes and schools. 2. Freight Movements 2. and explores routing options for freight access to the industrial zones in the study area.

that is in the direction of Tottenham Hale. The movements in the AM Peak Period along the B179 much higher in the direction of the North Circular – counter to the predominant flow of overall traffic.7 . it is difficult to infer trips generated and attracted. The HGV flows in the PM Peak Period roughly 50% lower than in the AM Peak Period.F 2.4 The AM Peak Period is much busier in terms of HGV movements than the PM Peak Period. In the PM Peak Period there is a net negative difference of 23 HGV’s between these junctions.5 2. Counts at Wickford Way and major access points to Blackhorse Lane Industrial Site could better inform on the level of locally generated versus strategic through HGV traffic. Interpreting these net differences is difficult. Turning counts at junctions have been compared to estimate the net car trips attracted or generated between junctions that were surveyed. 2. In the AM Peak Period HGV traffic on Billet Road is 40% higher than on the section of Forest Road between Blackhorse Station and The Bell.6 2. HGV traffic on Billet Road is twice as high as on the section of Forest Road between Blackhorse Station and The Bell.in contrast to overall traffic movements: • • the busiest time for HGV movements is in the AM Peak Period.2 PM Peak Period Link Flows for HGVs 2. The greatest net difference in the AM Peak Period is observed between Blackhorse Station junction. without the use of OD survey or cordon counts. indicating that the area is a net attractor of trips. Billet Road westbound is as busy with HGV’s as Forest Road (W) westbound. northbound on Blackhorse Lane and northbound flow north of the industrial estates on Blackhorse Lane. In summary . and during the AM Peak Period the predominant flow of HGVs along the B179 is contra to the overall traffic.

For example different parking provisions are allowed for 1-2 bedroom houses and 3-4 bedroom houses. the development will need to secure necessary improvements to pedestrian. cycling and public transport accessibility to enable residents and employees real alternatives to use of the car for their journeys to work. and in many cases their choice in owning a multiple number of cars. Full details of LBWF’s UDP parking standards and a list of relevant low-car development case studies can be found in Appendix A. the standards should be interpreted as absolute maximums. this is especially the case in areas with high PTAL and within CPZs. Therefore by limiting the amount of new car parking provision being created hopefully this can be achieved. this means that new developments can only provide a given amount of parking that is set within these standards. households are made to think about their choices in terms of owning a car. possibly more sustainable mode.4 3.3 3. Policy encourages developments to seek much lower parking provision than the maximums where possible. Therefore. If there is no available car parking at a person’s intended destination it is likely that they will travel by different. However. In many cases the maximum standards allow only 1 or even less than 1 space per residential unit.3 Car Parking Baseline Conditions Car Parking as a Restraint Employment uses 3. Waltham Forests UDP has introduced maximum car parking standards (shown in Appendix A). These developments set precedents for much lower parking provision. Residential Areas 3. 3.1 Car parking can be used as a form of trip end restraint. Enforcement and Transport Management 3. There are many relevant case studies in London where “low car dependent” developments have been successfully implemented. The standards are further dependent upon the Public Transport Accessibility Level (PTAL) for the location of development and whether it is inside or outside of the CPZ.2 If parking provision for residential areas is restrained. providing car-parking spaces from 50% to as low as 15% per residential unit. Parking standards vary upon the type of development and the size of development.7 Judicious provision of low levels of parking spaces can help developers maximise the value of their land for active use. One of the keys to promoting sustainable transport is by firstly providing a low car provision. provided public transport is at a sufficiently accessible level. in combination with this restraint on car-use. Furthermore.8 Controlled Parking and 20mph Zones . Benefits to maximizing development potential 3. such as the bus or train.5 3. any low parking development will require extensions to controlled parking zones.6 Schemes with low parking provision can only work in hand with effective parking enforcement.

30pm from Mon-Sat. 20mph Zones work through the physical alteration of streets and roads in an area. This means that parking is only permitted in designated parking bays and that the remainder of the kerbside space is subject to yellow line restrictions. Many countries support this with legislation allowing the 20mph Zones to enforce a reduced speed limit of 10 miles an hour. reduced visual impact of cars on the street environment. The benefits of controlled parking include: • • • • • making it easier to park near residents’ homes.10 3.1 LUL Car Park Survey 3. CPZs are the most effective way of managing parking demand and have been adopted in many areas. business people and residents. the pedestrians. The car park is a Pay & Display car park with approximately 350 spaces. There are also a number of 20mph Zones in the study area. These are in place between 8am and 6.13 JMP carried out a survey of the London Underground Ltd car park opposite Blackhorse Road Station on Forest Road on 5 April 2005. cyclists. and easier access for emergency services. 3. reduced traffic. CPZ and 20mph Zone areas around Blackhorse Lane 3.9 A Controlled Parking Zone (CPZ) is an area where all on-street parking is controlled. delivery and removal vans.11 Figure 7.3.1 shows the expanse of CPZs in the Blackhorse Lane study area.12 F 3. improved safety. with better visibility round corners. While it is for public use the majority of people using the car park are doing so to access Blackhorse Road Station. 20mph Zones are an attempt to strike a balance between vehicular traffic and everyone else who uses the street. . These alterations force motorists to drive with greater care and at lower speeds.

Destinations of Car Park Users from Outside Greater London 3.14 The aim of the survey was to understand where users of the car park were coming from and the patterns of usage throughout the AM peak period (6.15 F 3.2 .00am).3 show the origins of users of the car park on the morning of the survey. Figures 3.00am to 9.3.2 and 3.

The remaining 42% had come from outside London. Origins of Car Park Users by Time Period 3.4 Origins of Car Park Users by Half-Hourly Period (% ) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% % 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0600-0630 0630-0700 0700-0730 0730-0800 0800-0830 0830-0900 Time LBWF Elsewhere .3 Destinations of Car Park Users from Within Greater London 3. Figure 3. with 26% coming from Essex and 8% from Hertfordshire.F 3.16 Results showed that 48% of users had started their journey in Waltham Forest and a total of 58% had come from within Greater London.4 shows the breakdown of the time when car park users from within and outside LB Waltham Forest arrived at the car park.17 F 3.

22 Car clubs (referred to as Car Sharing in mainland Europe and the US) have to be clearly distinguished from Car Sharing (various expressions outside UK. 3. generally among family.5 shows levels of arrivals and departures associated with the car park during the period of the survey. July 2004) • • • 3. (Source: Smarter Moves A brief overview of car clubs. The latter describes a situation where two or more people travel. urban design and regeneration.or lift sharing. such as car. Research carried out in Switzerland in 1998 by the Swiss Department of Energy showed that club members who previously owned a car Cut their overall travel by 17% Reduced their car mileage by 72% Increased use of public transport by 35% and walking and cycling by 70% The travel behaviour of members who were not car owners remained the same.30am.19 F 3.00am.30am. being either formally organised or informal. Car Club effects on travel behaviour 3.20 The number of increased rapidly by the half-hourly period to a peak of 66 arrivals between 7.21 Best Practice . or other specific terms).Car Clubs Car clubs definition 3. The number of departures from the car park was very small in comparison to the arrivals but gradually increased towards the end of the survey period. The number of arrivals then fell at a steady rate to 30 arrivals between 9. Arrivals and Departures 3.5 Arrivals and Departures at LUL Car Park 70 60 50 40 Cars Arrivals Departures 30 20 10 0 06:00 06:30 07:00 07:30 08:00 08:30 09:00 09:30 3. Between 8. Figure 3.30am 72% of arrivals were from within the borough. friends and colleagues. Their contribution to sustainability.23 There have been numerous studies on the Car clubs contributing to modal shifts.00-8.18 For each half-hourly period surveyed. apart from 8.00 and 8.24 .3. ride.30 and 8.00 and 9. more than half of the people arriving at the LUL car park were from outside LB Waltham Forest.or van pooling.

more polluting vehicles. to visit IKEA). and for day or weekend leisure trips. although they are used for business trips.g. Bristol. Bath. Financially sustainable Car Clubs require a typical ratio of 15-20 members per (Car Club) car. Rural Car Clubs Source/ Author University College London DfT Year Dec 2003 2004 T 3. for journeys that are not made regularly. Their contribution to sustainability. urban design and regeneration UK car clubs: an effective way of cutting vehicle usage and emissions? UK case studies: Edinburgh. (p195) Car club vehicles often replace older.3.1 DfT Matthew Ledbury (Dissertation) CarPlus (website) Swiss Department of Energy July 2004 Oct 2004 1998 Conclusion of UK case studies / sources of evidence: • • • Effect of car club membership on car use is former car users reduce their car mileage by 60 – 70%. They tend to be used for journeys that would be awkward by other means (e. or kept their own car when they joined the car club. • • • • . About 30-40% of members gave up a privately-owned car when they joined the car club or joined the club as an alternative to plans to buy one. The rest (60-70%) either did not previously own a car.1 below: Table of Evidence Study Draft Soft Factors Report for the DfT ‘Smarter Choices – Changing the Way We Travel’ (Research project: 'The influence of soft factor interventions on travel demand') Smarter Moves A brief overview of car clubs. Car club Vehicles can replace at least 4-5 private vehicles on the streets.25 The main sources of evidence for the impacts of car clubs and car sharing in the UK are provided in Table 7. Car club vehicles are rarely used for commuting.

The bus stop in Blackhorse Lane is on the other side of the road bridge over the railway line and is approximately 20 metres from the station.6 The following tables show the mode shares of access and exit modes to/ from Blackhorse Road Station. along a footbridge and then stairs to two platforms.4 4. One of the entrances to the station on Blackhorse Lane is step-free. two on Blackhorse Lane and one on Forest Road.4 Public Transport Baseline Conditions Blackhorse Road Station Facilities at the station 4. and retail activity in the form of a local shop. (See Plan – ADD when received from LUL and Silverlink) The station is in a reasonable state of repair with a large ticket hall area with 5 Automatic Ticket Gatelines and access for those with luggage and pushchairs. Two bus stops are located adjacent to the station. as a weekday 24-hour total and a 3-hour AM Peak Period total (sourced from TfL RODS data). Within the station. At present engineering works have rendered one escalator closed for the interim.3 4. and trip purpose.1 The ticket hall can be accessed from three entrances. there are public telephones. Such a large car park may not be appropriate in such a location and LUL has indicated that they have been in previous discussions with regard to development utilising some of this land Access and exit modes 4. one on Blackhorse Lane and the other on Forest Road. Two further bus stops are located on the opposite side of these roads. A number of issues were identified during several site visits at the station. a photo booth.2 4. include the following: • • • • • • • These 4. The bus stop on Forest Road is adjacent to the stepped access to the station. A car park survey is being commissioned by LBWF to ascertain usage. T 4. There are two escalators leading to and from the platforms and a fixed stairway.1 Mode shares access and exit Blackhorse Road station (weekday 24 hour). .5 No disabled access to either Victoria Line or Silverlink platforms Some of the bus stops are not protected by bus stop clearways and could be located closer to the station Cycle facilities are provided outside the station but are in a poor state of repair Many cycles are chained to pedestrian railings along Blackhorse Lane Signage to bus stops could be improved Pedestrians access the station via sheep-pen crossings which can become crowded in peak hours The LUL car park in Forest Road accommodates approximately 400 cars changing £3 per day. Access to the Gospel Oak platforms is through the main ticket hall. The station is staffed and monitored by a surveillance room within the ticket hall. At present during peak times this footbridge carries a total of approximately 200 people per hour.

031 88 810 357 5.631 Mode Share [%] 3% 9% 2% 10% 0% 65% 0% 0% 10% 100% T 4. .495 33 0 359 8.107 Mode Share [%] Exit – am peak 2% 12% 1% 12% 4% 67% 0% 3% 100% 51 147 7 0 0 308 10 129 652 Mode Share [%] 8% 23% 1% 0% 0% 47% 2% 20% 100% LUL Services 4. Mode NR/ DLR Bus/ Coach Motorcycle/ Bicycle Car/ Van parked Car/ Van driven away Walk Taxi/ Minicab Not stated Total Access – am peak 62 507 29 502 151 2. Blackhorse Road lies on the line between Walthamstow and Seven Sisters which is serves at a less frequent rate than the rest of the line.Mode NR/ DLR Bus/ Coach Motorcycle/ Bicycle Car/ Van parked Car/ Van driven away Walk Taxi/ Minicab Other Not stated Total Access all day 106 1.2 Mode shares access and exit Blackhorse Road station (Weekday AM peak period: 7am-10am).930 33 26 771 7.752 0 104 4.7 The Victoria Line serves Blackhorse Road Station. as some services terminate at Seven Sisters.279 Mode Share [%] Exit all day 1% 12% 1% 10% 4% 66% 0% 0% 4% 100% 227 713 136 770 25 4. running from Walthamstow to Brixton (via Central London).

increasing to 16 trains between 8am – 10am. This compares with 28 trains per hour running in each direction between Brixton and Seven Sisters. A station modernisation is planned for 2016 which will provide improvements to structures and assets.9 4. however there are signalling constraints at Woodgrange Park which may prove this difficult. The Victoria Line upgrade will provide an extra 5 trains per hour in the peak 0700-1000. The line operates a 2 trains per hour service throughout the day. Silverlink Services 4.8 Presently. The station has two platforms (one eastbound and one westbound) with passenger shelters at each platform. WHERE ARE THESE – SI? 4.10 4.15 4. only 14 trains leave Blackhorse Road for Central London between 7am-8am.11 4. 4 CCTV cameras provide some coverage of the platform areas. roof repairs. TfL London Rail and Silverlink are currently in discussions regarding the provision of new passenger waiting shelters.14 4.12 4. The exact nature of the works is as yet unknown by LUL. The Private Public Partnership (PPP) contractor is Metronet. etc. Therefore alternative stations are located nearby for disabled access. but LUL predict that Blackhorse Road station can adequately cope with the increased demand. It is not part of LUL’s Access for All programme and is considered a low priority for step-free access to platform level. The station is considered by LUL as being in reasonable condition for its purpose. As part of the PPP programme a station enhanced refurbishment is planned for Blackhorse Road station in 2009. Lifts are provided at Tottenham Hale station and are proposed for Walthamstow Central station on the Victoria Line. who run the franchise until October 2006. such as new canopies.13 The Gospel Oak to Barking Line is operated by Silverlink Trains service. tiling and seating. The ticket hall is reasonably large and according to LUL does not have any congestion issues. Detailed drawings of the station layout can be found at Appendix FFF. This will provide mainly cosmetic improvements such as new lighting. new additional CCTV cameras to provide greater coverage of the station and new lighting. It is understood that TfL London Rail has invited Silverlink to investigate increasing this service in the peak periods.4.16 .

At the time of writing.1 represents these bus flows on a map of the study area. providing 4 buses until the end of the evening peak. Only three of the services.17 In the study area there are a total of 9 bus services in operation.5 buses per hour are proposed for the beginning of March (reflected in Table 8.5 buses per hour until 6. the increase of Monday to Saturday daytime service frequencies on route W15 from 6 to 7. route 215 from Yardley Lane Estate ends at Walthamstow Central (3 services per hour) and route 357 from Chingford Hatch terminates at Whipps Cross.19 4. All these services operate at a frequency of 5 to 6 buses per hour throughout the day. which are through services. One group of routes passes the site in Chingford Road. Routes 97. Most routes in the study area operate at consistent service frequencies of between 5 and 7. Other routes which run in the area and have their main interchange at Walthamstow Central Station.4 by the new figures in brackets). 215 and 357 are less frequent services which link Chingford to destinations further south.18 4. Exceptions include bus services 215 (3 vehicles per hour) and 357 (4 vehicles). Route W15 connects Cogan Avenue Estate and Hackney via Higham Hill Road. Route 158 links Chingford Mount and Stratford via Blackhorse Lane. terminating at Walthamstow Central Station.1 . Further changes affect the W11 Sunday services. including am and pm peak hours. Route W11 operates from Chingford Hall Estate through Billet Road. Therefore combined service frequency in this part of the study area is sufficient. They connect Wood Green with Ilford respectively Upper Walthamstow. Bus Flows 4. A second group of bus routes runs through the site in Billet Road traversing Higham Hill Road at frequencies of 6 buses per hour throughout the day. both of serve Chingford Road. 215 and 357. The high frequency route 34 between Barnet with Walthamstow Central Station runs 7. Figure 8. Routes 123 and 230 run along the site through Forest Road. 97.21 F 4. namely services 34.5 buses per hour during the day. There are also two Night Bus services present. serve Blackhorse Road station.Bus Service Provision 4.30pm. While route 97 runs from Chingford to Leyton with 5 buses per hour.20 4.

4 Service frequencies and vehicle capacities. Route No.4.5 (49) 1830-finish 4/3 4 3 3 2 4 2 4 6/4 32/29 34 97 123 158 215 230 357 W11 W15 All * Planning capacity for London Buses is 75-80% of the total vehicle capacity.3 and 8.5 5 6 5 3 5 4 6 (7. . 4.5) 6 47. service frequencies and capacities. Route No.22 The following Tables 8.5 (49) 1600-1830 7.5) 6+ 47.5 lists the stations with the highest average loadings during am and pm peak hours. Overview on day-time bus services. Vehicle capacitiy* 85 90 90 90 90 90 85 50 45 Buses per hour* 0700-0930 7.3 T 4. 34 97 123 158 215 230 357 W11 W15 From Barnet Chingford Station Wood Green Chingford Mount Yardley Lane Estate Wood Green Chingford Hatch Chingford Hall Estate Cogan Avenue Estate To Walthamstow Central Station Leyton Ilford Stratford Walthamstow Central Station Upper Walthamstow Whipps Cross Walthamstow Central Station Hackney T 4.5 5 6 5 3 5 4 6 (7. Table 8.23 Transport for London’s bus data shows average loading figures far below planning capacities on all routes.5 (49) 0930-1600 7.5) 6 47.5 5 6 5 3 5 4 6 (7.5 summarise bus routings.

25 Table 8.5 Vehicle loadings.24 4.2 below is a map showing the location of all bus stops in the area and boardings and alightings during morning peak hours. Bus Loadings F 4. Route No. 34 97 123 158 215 230 357 W11 W15 Planning capacitiy 68 72 72 72 72 72 68 40 36 Maximum average loading [absolute/ percent] on route 0700-1000 24 (35%) 42 (58%) 37 (51%) 40 (56%) 43 (60%) 31 (43%) 29 (43%) 20 (50%) 25 (69%) Station Name Chingford Rd (southbd) Chingford Rd (southbd) W Forest Town Hall (eastbd) Markhouse Rd (northbd) Chingford Rd (southbd) West Green (westbd) Chingford Rd (southbd) Palmerston Rd (southbd) Palmerston Rd (southbd) 1600-1900 26 (38%) 33 (46%) 36 (50%) 43 (60%) 31 (43%) 38 (53%) 39 (57%) 26 (65%) 26 (72%) Station Name Bowes Rd (southbd) High Rd (southbd) Blackhorse Rd Stn (eastbd) Leyton Station (northbd) Walthamstow Bell (northbd) Turnpike Lane Stn (eastbd) Hoe St (northbd) Walthamstow Mkt (northbd) Morning Lane (northbd) 4.2 .T 4.5 shows that there is ample spare capacity for future development. Figure 8.

28 4. TfL also record the number of unobserved “missing” buses. TfL’s definition of a frequent service is one providing a headway of 14 minutes or less. bus reliability is regulated by the Traffic Commission. rather than by their adherence to published schedule. The tables below also provide estimates of the probability of passengers experiencing these longer waiting times as a result of service irregularities. The higher the variability in service headways.32 .30 Six or more buses will depart within any period of 60 minutes. the Traffic Commission (TC) expect performance measurement based upon EWT. TfL measure EWT along with a number of other performance statistics (see tables 8. EWT measures the regularity of services. TfL reliability results of frequent (TfL definition) services running through and along the study area boundaries are provided in the table 8.7 below) based around estimating the chance of a passenger experiencing a long wait (>10 minutes.26 The majority of services in the area can be classified as a frequent service. since it can be largely assumed that passengers for such services will largely not rely upon timetables for timing their arrival at the bus-stops. It is not possible to directly compare the TC’s standards on service intervals exceeding 15 minutes and TfL’s measures on chances of a long wait. > 20 minutes.31 4. For such services. Table 8. The reliability of these services are judged by their level of regularity. as a function of the variability of observed service headways. 4. This performance statistic is a less stringent standard than the TC’s standard for the services included in the table. the Traffic Commission expect that at the starting point of each route on at least 95% of occasions: • • 4.6 and 8.Bus Reliability Reliability of Frequent Services 4. In London this behaviour is reinforced by TfL only providing information on headway of services rather than timetabled times for these services. In London. Punctuality Standards outlined in the recently revised (1st January 2005) “Practice Direction: Standards for Local Buses” the definition of a frequent service is one where “the service interval (headway) is 10 minutes or less”.6 below provides TfL’s estimates of the chance for waiting more than 20 minutes.29 At other timing points from the start of the route.56 as a benchmark. Regularity of services is deemed the most important factor for such services. For frequent services the measure of Excess Waiting Time (EWT) provides the most comparable measure of reliability of services. that have scheduled headways of 8-12 minutes. that ought to have been observed based upon operator schedule information.7 below. 4. It is understood that TfL have previously used an EWT of 1.27 4. and The interval between consecutive buses will not exceed 15 minutes. >30 minutes and >twice the service headway). the greater the chance of a passenger having to wait excessively longer than expected for a service to arrive. The TC have yet to prescribe a suitable standard for adherence. Outside of London.

9 % 14.4 % 2.6 % 3.5 1.3 1.6 % 5.5 % 3.8 Route No.18 1.33 1. Table 8.2 % 4. non-timetabled routes). Services 123.4 % 5.2 % 78.7 Quality of Service Indicators (low frequency. 215 357 Waltham Forest London .8 % 3.6 16. 4.7 % 3.7 % 9.6 % Four of the 7 frequent services in the study area demonstrate bus reliability problems with respect to TC standards and/or EWT benchmarks. 34 97 123 158 230 W11 W15 Waltham Forest London Network 4.9 % 4. timetabled routes).34 The TC’s punctuality standards expect that for timetabled services “The absolute minimum standard which an operator will be expected to attain is that 70% of buses will depart within the bracket “up to 1 minute early or up to 5 minutes late”.3 % 3.7 % 4.1 % 2.56 1.1 % London Reliability Ranking (by EWT) 81% 45% 16% 18% 18% 33% 27% Route No. scheduled services.7 demonstrates that the service quality of the 215 and 357 falls around 80%.4 Chance of bus departing 5 to 15min late [%] 13.0 % 2.7 % 16. 4.86 1.40 1.63 1.T 4.31 1.9 % 3. while the monitored performance of the W11 has demonstrated an unacceptable level of missing buses.35 T 4.6 3.5 5.2 % 3.3 Chance of Waiting time >20min [%] 0.4 % 1.6 % 5.2 74.0 % 2.6 Quality of Service Indicators (high frequency. While this represents an absolute minimum the target standard is set at 95% TfL monitor punctuality of services use an equivalent definition.0 % 3.57 1. Buses Daytime NOT headwa observed y [min] [%] 8 12 10 12 12 10 10 Excess Waiting Time (EWT) 0.4 % 74. Reliability of infrequent.4 Chance of bus departing 2 to 8min early [%] 2. 158 and 230 are within the top 20% worst performers on the London Network. Daytime headway [min] 20 15 Chance of Chance of bus bus not departing on arriving [%] time [%] 82.

Pedestrians may attempt to cross the road where there is no designated crossing and thus put themselves at risk of accident with the goods vehicles and other vehicles on Blackhorse Lane. Currently there are few designated pedestrian crossings (either zebra. As such any pedestrian wishing to get from one to the other must cross at least two of the arms of this junction and potentially wait at up to four sets of traffic lights. The nature of the area is conducive to short pedestrian trips between people’s houses and the nearby schools.4 Forest Road / Blackhorse Lane Junction The Forest Road / Blackhorse Lane / Blackhorse Road junction is a busy four-arm signalised junction with up to five lanes of traffic on one-arm. The transport strategy of the Blackhorse Lane development framework must reflect this diversity of uses and mitigate the possible conflicts between them. All-red phases for the traffic would allow pedestrians to cross one. The Higham Hill residential area is to the north-east of this junction while Blackhorse Road station is to the south-west. to the east of Blackhorse Lane and the south of Billet Road is a primarily residential area which includes supporting land-uses such as schools. toucan or pelican) on Blackhorse Lane.1 The area around Blackhorse Lane is a diverse area with many different land-uses. As such it is a significant obstacle for pedestrians.5 5. and there are also land-uses in the area that attract trips by Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs). shops and transport facilities. Pedestrians use Blackhorse Lane as a key route from the north-western parts of the Higham Hill residential area to access Blackhorse Road Station and Walthamstow High Street. meaning that pedestrians must cross in two stages.5 Pedestrian. arms in a single movement. Around the Blackhorse 5. Higham Hill.10 5.7 5. or possibly even two. At present the design of the junction and its signal timings are not very pedestrian oriented. These do not create a pleasant and safe environment for pedestrians using Blackhorse Lane. Cycling and Environmental Baseline Conditions Pedestrians Introduction 5. On-Street Parking A pedestrian wishing to cross the road in a hurry may do so without the assistance of a pedestrian crossing facility such as a zebra or pelican crossing.6 5.9 5. Blackhorse Lane Industrial Areas The industrial sites along Blackhorse Lane (including the Sutherland Road area) attract numerous trips by goods vehicles.2 5. both light and heavy.8 5. local shops and open space.3 5. However.11 . Changes to the design and signal timings of this junction could significantly reduce the obstruction that it currently poses to pedestrians. waiting in the sheep-pen for the signals to change until they have priority to cross to the opposite side. Local Issues 5. All of the four arms of this junction have ‘sheep-pens’ in the centre of the road. the area is bounded by a number of busy roads.

5. Winns Road and Priory Court.18 5. Cycle lanes are continuous across side road junctions and at the junction of Forest Road and Chingford Road coloured cycle lanes are marked across the main signalised junction. Crooked Billet Roundabout The Crooked Billet roundabout at the junction of the A406.12 Pedestrians crossing the road in between parked cars are at a higher risk of accident than those crossing at a designated pedestrian crossing. among others.16 Cycling Infrastructure 5. causing risk of collision with other vehicles and with pedestrians. roads which are largely residential and as such are used by pedestrians and also have many parked cars on them.1 below.13 5. The vehicles using these roads as rat-runs are often travelling at inappropriately high speeds considering the type of road.19 5. Chingford Road and Billet Road is a large six-arm roundabout which represents a significant physical and psychological barrier to pedestrian movements from the Higham Hill residential area towards South Chingford. The present London Cycle Network (LCN) only runs along the boundary of the study area – along Forest Road and a route along Brettenham Road and South Countess Road. There were 70 Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs) by 2004 and all new road schemes include ASLs whether or not they are on the London Cycle Network or LCN+. and secondly their own visibility may be impaired causing them to attempt to cross the road in front of oncoming traffic. These include. reducing the speed of vehicles using the roads and generally making them safer places for all road users. The implementation of traffic-calming measures and the introduction of 20mph Zones are possible ways of preventing rat-running. Blackhorse Lane and Blackhorse Road have been marked as potential future extensions to the LCN. Firstly they are less visible to drivers of vehicles on the road.Lane and Higham Hill area there is a high incidence of on-street parking due to a lack of private garages and driveways.17 There are now (2004) 20 miles of mostly advisory cycle lanes on almost all the main roads in the borough except for roads on the outer rim bordering Epping Forest and the Lee Valley.20 5. Rat-Running There are a number of local roads within the Higham Hill residential area that are currently used as rat-runs by vehicles attempting to avoid congestion on the main roads and find faster alternatives to reach their destination. There are also two cycle bridges in Leytonstone and two major roundabouts with cycle underpass facilities. 5.15 5.14 5. 5.21 . A map of the LCN (marked in blue) and potential extensions (marked in orange) is provided in figure 9.

It holds 35 bikes and smartcards are available from Central Radio Cars .1.23 Walthamstow Central bike shed is the first in the UK to use an individual electronic locking system to lock bikes with a smartcard in a locked shed.22 Cycle Parking is a available at many tube/NR rail stations in Waltham Forest as described below in Table 9.F 5. . It is made out of recycled railtrack and sleepers.1 Chingford Station (rail) Highams Park Station (rail) Leytonstone Station (tube) Blackhorse Road Station (rail and tube) St James’ Street Station (rail) 5. Cycle Parking Facilities Available in Waltham Forest Station Walthamstow Central (rail and tube) Cycle Parking Facilities Available 12 Sheffield Stands New secure bike sleeper (35 Bikes) using smartcard system 5 lockers 3 Sheffield stands 3 Sekurabyk stands 5 lockers 3 Sheffield stands 3 Sekurabyk stands 6 Sekurabyk stands 3 Sheffield stands 2 Pennyfarthing stands 12 Sekurabyk stands 2 Sekurabyk stands inside station 6 Sheffield stands outside T 5.1 London Cycle Network routes in Waltham Forest Station Cycle Facilities 5. Currently cycle parking is free however ultimately it will cost 40p with a discount to 30p for 20+ units. It has been imported from Belgium where the system is used at several railway stations.the mini-cab office at the station.

26 The environmental policy review (Policy Chapter) highlights several sensitive areas in the TAIS study area which have to be considered under any future land-use or transport proposals. developing school travel plans. SRtS is a community approach to: • • • • 5. but is currently not involved at this stage.24 There are plans to provide another two secure ‘smartcard’ bike sheds at both Leytonstone station and Blackhorse Road Station.30 Encourage more people to walk and cycle to school safely. High Road Leytonstone.33 Willowfields Secondary School is also located nearby. Leyton Midland Station and Walthamstow Queens Road.32 5. with a location at the latter station still to be agreed.34 . The three primary schools mentioned above will be developing travel plans shortly. 5. At present there is a cluster project commencing in the Blackhorse Lane area involving: • • • St Patrick’s Primary School Stoneydowns Primary School.25 Environmental Sensitivities 5. Improve road safety and reduce child casualties. There are further plans to provide cycle parking at stations where there are currently no facilities. and Reduce traffic congestion and pollution. 5. Edu-action would like to encourage SRtS requirements into the Transport and Access Strategy. Improve children’s health and development. policy also lends itself to support the widespread reduction of unnecessary through traffic on residential roads in the study area. In terms of transport.27 5. walking buses and car sharing. therefore improving local air quality and relocating the problem to less populated areas. and are willing to feedback any progress on School Travel Plans in the area. However.31 5. This is to include: Wood Street. A case can be made for re-routing traffic from those streets where pedestrian exposure to poor air quality is high. and Mishom Grove Primary School. encouraging cycling to school. 5.5. It is the job of the edu-action department to co-ordinate the school travel plans. which will determining the measures required to realise SRtS projects.28 Safe Routes to Schools 5. Leyton Underground. 5.29 Safe Routes to Schools (SRtS) projects encourage and enable children to walk and cycle to school through a package of practical and educational measures. The engineering SRtS team then implement these recommended measures. SRtS initiatives include. the review has highlighted that several of the roads within the study area are predicted to exceed UK Air Quality Strategy objectives for both PM10 and NO2 and that care must be taken when considering the current flow of traffic on these routes.

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