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LI NI U

Trong mi gia nh, cc bc cha m c con cp sch ti trng lc no cng quan tm n vic hc ca con mnh. Chng hn ba nay con mnh c ln tr bi hay khng? Cc bi kim tra trong thng c bao nhiu im? Kt qu thi cui mi hc k ra sao? V k c vic mun bit con mnh c ngh hc ba no khng hoc c vi phm ni quy g trng hay khng v l do ti sao? Thng thng, gia nh ch bit nhng chuyn ny sau khi nh trng pht s lin lc v nh. Ngy nay, vi s pht trin lin tc ca ngnh my tnh, ta c th t ng ha cng vic ny bng cch kt ni my tnh vi in thoi nh l mt h thng tr li t ng. Khi mt ph huynh gi in thoi ti s my ny, h thng s thng bo cc kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh. iu ny tht l thun li, nhanh chng v d dng, c th thc hin mi lc mi ni. Tuy ti ny c hon thnh nhng chc chn khng trnh khi thiu st. Em rt mong c s quan tm, gip v gp ca cc thy, c v cc bn. Cui cng, em xin cm n cc thy c b mn Cng ngh thng tin dnh cho em ti ny v c bit l thy Nguyn c Thun, ngi trc tip gi v hng dn, gip em hon thnh ti ny. Sinh vin thc hin Bi Danh t

PHN 1

GII THIU TI

I. t vn :
Hin nay, thng thng mi hc sinh cp sch ti trng s c pht cho mt cun s lin lc. Nh trng s s dng s ny thng bo cho ph huynh ca hc sinh bit kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh sau mi thng hoc sau mi hc k. Trong s lin lc, nh trng thng ch ghi kt qu cui cng ca mi thng hoc mi hc k. Do vy ph huynh khng th bit c chi tit cc ct im ca cc mn hc trong mi thng. Ngoi ra, nhng ln ngh hc cng nh nhng ln vi phm ni quy ca hc sinh s khng c ghi vo trong y. V th cc bc ph huynh kh c th theo di cht ch nhng din bin hc tp ca con mnh trng nh th no. Cng vic gio dc hc sinh cn phi c s phi hp gia gia nh v nh trng. Nhm to s thun li cho cc bc ph huynh c th nm bt c nhng thng tin v hc sinh mt cch nhanh chng, y , ti tt nghip ny, em tm hiu v vit mt chng trnh t ng thng bo kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh qua in thoi. Em nhn thy c 3 vn chnh sau y c t ra cn gii quyt l :

Nhn c tn hiu gi ti t in thoi , to mt kt ni gia my tnh v cuc gi v nhn bit phm no c bm t my in thoi ca ngi gi thc hin yu cu ca ngi

Tm kt qu trong c s d liu Thng bo bng ging ni cho ngi gi nghe Vn u tin l phi to c mt giao tip gia in thoi v my tnh thng qua mt modem. V truyn c tn hiu ting ni t my tnh n in thoi, modem ny phi c h tr chc nng voice. My tnh lc ny s ng thi ng vai tr ca my in thoi v nhn vin trng hc. Ngi gi c th s dng bt k in thoi no gi ti. Lc ny my tnh s t ng nhc my v i thoi vi ngi gi.

Vn th hai c gii quyt bng cch s dng cc cu lnh truy vn (SQL) m bt k thao tc no vi c s d liu cng cn phi c. Vn cui cng l p dng cng ngh text-to-speech chuyn t ch trong my tnh sang ting ni, sau s truyn i qua in thoi ti ngi gi. Tt c nhng vn ny s c trnh by chi tit trong cc phn sau.

II. Mi trng lp trnh :


Chng trnh Thng bo kt qu hc tp qua in thoi c vit bng ngn ng lp trnh Visual Basic 6.0 trn h iu hnh Microsoft Windows 98. H qun tr c s d liu c dng ci t c s d liu l Microsoft Access 97

III. Gii thiu v hot ng ca chng trnh :


Chng trnh c thit k thng bo mi vn lin quan n n hc tp v o c thng gp nht hc sinh. Khi mt ngi gi in ti, h thng s yu cu nhp vo m s ca hc sinh. Sau , h thng s a ra menu chn la vn ang quan tm. Ngi gi mun nghe thng tin ch cn nhn cc phm tng ng vi cc mc sau y :

Phm # 1 2 3 4

ngha Thay i m s hc sinh Nghe thng tin v cc ln ngh hc trong thng (ngy ngh hc, s ngy ngh, c php/khng php, l do) Nghe thng tin v cc ln vi phm ni quy trong thng (ngy vi phm, l do) Nghe im kim tra ca cc mn hc trong thng Nghe im thi ca cc mn hc cui hc k

5 6 7 8

9 *

Nghe kt qu cui thng (im trung bnh, hng, hc lc, hnh kim) Nghe kt qu cui hc k (im trung bnh, hng, hc lc, hnh kim) Nghe kt qu cui nm hc (im trung bnh, hng, hc lc, hnh kim) Nghe thng tin chi tit v hc sinh mang m s hin ti (h, tn, ngy sinh, gii tnh, ni sinh, tn lp ang hc nm hc hin ti c chn) Chn nm hc khc (nm hc mc nh l nm hc hin ti) Kt thc cuc gi

Nu ngi gi nhn mt trong cc phm 1, 2, 3, 5 th s c yu cu nhp vo thng mun bit. Nu nhn phm 4 hay 6 th s c yu cu nhp vo hc k mun bit. Bt c lc no, ngi gi c th nhn phm * tr v menu. Mun kt thc cuc gi, ngoi cch nhn phm * ti menu chn la, ngi gi c th gc my nh bnh thng, lc ny h thng s t pht hin ra , ngt kt ni vi cuc gi hin ti v tip tc ch cuc gi khc n. Nu h thng pht hin sau mt khong thi gian nh trc (thi gian ri) m khng c mt tc ng no t pha ngi gi th h thng cng s t ng ngt kt ni.

PHN 2

C S L THUYT

Chng 1 GIAO TIP GIA IN THOI V MY TNH


I. S cn thit ca modem :
Nh chng ta bit k thut in thoi ra i v pht trin rt sm trc k thut my tnh. Ngy , ng dy in thoi c thit k ch truyn tn hiu ca ting ni c tn s ca m thanh. Dng tn hiu ny thuc loi tn hiu tng t (analog) v thng gi l sng m tn hnh sin. Trong khi , my tnh ch c th x l cc tn hiu s (digital) c tn s cao. Nu tn hiu s n y c truyn trc tip trn ng dy in thoi th chng s b suy gim v bin dng. V th, mt thit b chuyn i qua li gia hai tn hiu ny ra i, gi l modem. Cng vic chuyn tn hiu s ca my tnh thnh tn hiu tng t ca ng dy in thoi c thc hin bng mt s phng php m ngi ta gi l iu ch (Modulation). Ngc li, cng vic chuyn tn hiu tng t ca ng dy in thoi thnh tn hiu s ca my tnh cng c thc hin bng mt s phng php m ngi ta gi l gii iu ch (Demodulation). Modem chnh l vit tt ca 2 ch Modulation v Demodulation. ng dng ca modem m chng ta thng thy nht l kt hp vi my tnh truy cp internet. Trong trng hp ny, mi u ca ng dy in thoi s ni vo mt modem gn vo my tnh. Nh chng ta c th truy xut c d liu ca my kia (my ch). Cn y, i vi cng vic thng bo qua in thoi t my tnh, ta ch cn ni mt u dy in thoi vo modem gn vi my tnh ti trng hc. Ngi gi c th s dng bt k in thoi no gi ti. Lc ny tn hiu t

ng dy in thoi s c modem chuyn i thnh tn hiu s v a vo my tnh x l. Sau my tnh s pht tr li cc tn hiu s (v d nh ting ni dng s) cho modem modem chuyn i thnh cc tn hiu tng t (ting ni dng tng t) v truyn ngc tr li ngi gi. Nh , ngi gi c th nghe c.

II. Giao tip lp trnh ng dng cho h thng in thoi - TAPI (Telephony Application Programming Interface) :
II.1. Mt s khi nim trong m hnh TAPI : II.1.1. TAPI l g ? TAPI c pht trin bi s kt hp ca hai hng Intel v Microsoft . TAPI c thit k truy xut cc dch v in thoi trn tt c cc h iu hnh Windows. Ni cch khc, TAPI l tp hp cc hm n l c Windows cung cp h tr cho vic lp tr nh giao tip gia in thoi v my tnh thng qua modem hoc cc thit b truyn thng . Vi TAPI , ngi lp trnh khng phi lo lng v cc tp lnh ca modem khi to n hoc phi chn cng hot ng cho modem. Mc ch ca TAPI l cho php cc nh lp trnh vit nhng ng dng m khng cn quan tm chi tit n thit b phn cng. V d vi modem, ngi lp trnh khng cn bit modem loi no, ca hng no, tp lnh ca ca modem l g, s dng cng ni tip hay song song hay cng USB, ch cn thit b phn cng c mt TAPI driver gi l TSP(Telephone Service Provider) do nh sn xut cung cp, m thng khi ci thit b phn cng ny vo my th tt c cc driver ca n u c ci vo. Do ch cn thit b ny hot ng tt th ng dng TAPI s khng gp vn g. TAPI h tr c vic truyn s liu ln ting ni nhiu loi thit b u cui khc nhau, h tr cc kiu kt ni phc tp v cc k thut qun l cuc gi nh: to cuc gi, ch cuc gi , hp th thoi, vv... Cc ng dng

c vit bi TAPI c th truy cp trc tip v o cc dch v trn ng dy in thoi. Cc ng dng ny c th pht ra v nhn vo mi tn hiu ca in thoi. D ng dy in thoi truyn tn hiu dng tng t hay dng s th ta cng cn mt thit b giao tip gia my tnh v ng dy in thoi . D nhin, thit b giao tip phi c h tr TAPI TSP. Thit b ny c th l mt trm ISDN , mt bng mch h thng in thoi hoc n gin l mt modem II.1.2. Chng trnh ng dng TAPI : ng dng TAPI l ng dng m c s dng giao tip lp trnh h thng in thoi nhm thc hin mt cng vic g . V d : phn mm gi lp in thoi trong mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng (PSTN), phn mm gi/nhn fax, hp th thoi, h thng tr li t ng, in thoi qua internet (VoIP) vv ... II.1.3. TAPI DLL (Dynamic link library - Th vin lin kt ng) : Cc th vin ny cng vi TAPI Server (Tapisvr.exe) l s tru tng ha trong vic phn cch gia ngi dng v cc nh cung cp dch v in thoi. Mt th vin TAPI lin kt vi TAPI Server cung cp mt giao tip gia 2 lp (xem m hnh lp trnh cho h thng in thoi phn sau). C 3 th vin lin quan ti TAPI : Tapi.dll, Tapi32.dll, Tapi3.dll . Mi th vin ny u c vi tr nh nhau :

Mi th vin ny tng ng vi mt thi im phin bn ca TAPI. Cc ng dng 16-bit lin kt vi Tapi.dll . Trong Windows 98/NT/2000, Tapi.dll s hot ng bng cch nh x cc a ch 16-bit ti cc a ch 32-bit ,

ng thi chuyn cc yu cu ti Tapi32.dll. Vi cc ng dng 32-bit th chng s lin kt vi Tapi32.dll (TAPI phin bn 1.4 - 2.2). Vi TAPI 3.0 v 3.1 th ng dng s lin kt vi Tapi3.dll II.1.4. MSP (Media Service Provider ) : Trc ht MSP ch n vi TAPI 3, n cho php vic iu khin mt ng dng qua phng tin vi c ch vn chuyn c bit. Mt MSP lun lun tn ti song song vi mt TSP (Tapi Service Provider). Mt MSP cho php vic iu khin phng tin thng qua vic s dng thit b cui v cc giao tip lung c nh ngha bi TAPI II.1.5. MSPI (Media Service Provider Interface) : MSPI l tp hp cc giao tip v cc phng thc c thc hin bi MSP nhm cho php vic iu khin mt ng dng TAPI 3 tr n phng tin trong sut phin lin lc truyn thng. II.1.6. TAPI Server : TAPI Server c xem nh kho trung tm lu tr cc thng tin v h thng in thoi trn my ngi dng. Tin trnh ca dch v ny gim st cc ti nguyn cc b v xa ca h thng in thoi, gim st cc ng dng TAPI, v thc hin mt giao tip ph hp vi cc TSP. (xem m hnh lp trnh h thng in thoi phn sau thy mi lin h gia TAPI Server v cc thnh phn khc) . Trong Windows 95, 98, NT, TAPI Server (Tapisrv.exe) s chy nh mt tin trnh ring bit. Trong Windows 2000, n chy trong ng cnh ca Svchost.exe . Khi ng dng np TAPI DLL v thc hin cng vic khi to xong, DLL s xy dng mt kt ni ti TAPI Server. Sau TAPI Server s np cc TSP.

II.1.7. TSP (Telephony Service Provider ) : TSP thc cht l mt th vin lin kt ng h tr vic iu khin cc thit b truyn thng thng qua mt tp cc hm dch v. ng dng TAPI s dng cc lnh c chun ha , v TSP iu khin cc lnh c trng m cn phi c trao i vi thit b. II.1.8. TSPI (Telephony Service Provider Interface) : TSP phi to ra mt giao tip TSP ph hp thc hin chc nng nh mt nh cung cp dch v trong mi trng h thng in thoi. TSPI nh ngha ra cc hm ngoi m c h tr bi TSP.

II.1.9. Service Providers : y c xem nh b phn cung cp cc dch v cn thit thc hin vic iu khin thit b in thoi mt cch chi tit. TSP cung cp cc iu khin cuc gi v MSP nu c s cung cp iu khin lung qua phng tin. Tt c cc TSP thc thi bn trong tin trnh TAPISRV. Cc b phn cung cp dch v c th to ra cc thread ngay trong ng cnh ca TAPISRV khi cn v c chc chn rng khng c ti nguyn no m chng to ra b hy do thot khi mt ng dng c nhn no . Khi cn TAPI Server c th dch cc cu lnh ca ng dng sang tp cc lnh ph hp nh l TSPI. Cc MSP thc thi ngay trong tin trnh ca ng dng, cho php phn hi nhanh mt s yu cu trong vic iu khin phng tin. TAPI DLL cung cp mt kt ni cht ch ti MSPI.

II.2. M hnh lp trnh cho h thng in thoi : ng dng TAPI s np th vin TAPI (TAPI DLL) vo v s dng TAPI cho cc nhu cu truyn thng

TAPI s to ra mt kt ni vi TAPI Server. Ngoi ra, vi TAPI phin bn 3 s to thm mt i tng MSP v kt ni vi n bng cch s dng tp cc cu lnh c nh ngha trc, hnh thnh nn MSPI

Khi ng dng thc hin mt thao tc TAPI, th vin TAPI s lm mt s kim tra cn thit , sau s chuyn thng tin cho TAPISVR

TAPISVR lin lc vi cc ti nguyn kh dng trn my tnh v giao tip vi cc TSP bng cch s dng TSPI

Nhng kt ni gia TSP v MSP c din ra bng cch s dng mt kt ni o thng qua TAPI DLL v TAPISVR TSP v MSP s lm nhim v cung cp nhng thng tin v cc trng thi, chc nng ca thit b khi c yu cu.

Kt qu ca vic lp trnh theo m hnh ny l ng dng vn c th hot ng khi thay th thit b mi m khng cn thc hin nhng thay i m ngun. II.3. M hnh ng dng TAPI :

5. Khi to TAPI (TAPI Initialization) :

Khi to mi trng truyn thng trn my tnh


Vic khi to l ng b v khng quay tr v cho ti khi thao tc hon tt hoc b li Nu TAPISRV khng ang chy th TAPI s gi n

TAPI thit lp mt kt ni cho tin trnh TAPISRV

TAPISRV np vo cc b phn cung cp dch v c ch nh trong registry v buc chng khi to nhng thit b m chng h tr. Ly s phin bn thch hp cho ng dng TAPI, TAPI v b cung cp dch v in thoi . Cng vic ny bt buc phi lm TAPI 2. Kim tra v thu nhn thng tin lin quan n cc thit b kh dng cho ng dng TAPI

ng k thng ip nhn c cc s kin lin quan ti nhng thay i trng thi ca ng truyn.
6. iu khin phin lm vic (Session Control) :

Mt phin lm vic ni chung hay mt cuc gi ni ring l mt kt ni gia hai hay nhiu a ch. Kt ni ny l ng v cc i tng lin quan phi c to , qun l v hy khi khng cn dng. Trong trng hp n gin nht th y l qu trnh t lc to cho n lc ngt kt ni mt cuc gi.

Gm 2 cng vic chnh : iu khin hot ng ca phin lm vic : khi to, duy tr v kt thc phin lm vic Ly thng tin ca phin lm vic : ly nhng thng tin chi tit trong phin lm vic.
7. iu khin thit b (Device Control) :

Thit lp v ly thng tin ca cc thit b Network : l lp giao vn cho vic truyn thng.

Line : l mt kt ni ti mt network. l mt thit b vt l nh bng mch fax, modem, hay cc ISDN. Thit b c th khng cn kt ni thng vo my tnh m c ng dng TAPI ang chy

Channel : l s chia nh ca mt line

Address : mt address i din cho mt s nh v trn

network. Mi line hay channel u c mt hay nhiu a ch lin kt vi nhau

Terminal : mt ngun hon tr li cho mt a ch c trng v mt kiu phng tin.

8. iu khin phng tin (Media Control) :

Phng tin ca phin lm vic truyn thng c thit k cho d liu truyn qua. N cho php mt ng dng nhn bit nhng thay i ca cc kiu phng tin v iu chnh cc lung trn phng tin nh m lng ca ting ni c truyn. cng c th l vic gi v nhn cc tn hiu DTMF t in thoi.

9. Kt thc TAPI (TAPI Shutdown) :

Kt thc cc phin lm vic

Gii phng cc ti nguyn h thng ang chim gi

II.4. Cc phin bn TAPI : Bt k mt vn no lin quan n TAPI cng gm c 3 thnh phn : chng trnh ng dng, TSP, v chnh bn thn ca TAPI. Mi mt trong ba thnh phn ny u c th h tr n mt phin bn TAPI ti a no . y l cng vic ca ng dng phi kim tra v chn la phin bn cao nht ca TAPI m c ba thnh phn ny u h tr. Cc con s phin bn ny c duy tr s tng thch khi Microsoft m rng cc kh nng ca TAPI. Cc phin bn ca h iu hnh Windows khc nhau s h tr cc phin bn Windows khc nhau : H iu hnh Windows Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows ME Windows NT 4 Phin bn TAPI ban u 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.2 *SP5 Phin bn TAPI ti a c th nng cp 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2

Windows 2000 Windows XP

3.0 3.3

3.3 3.3

C mt s thun li l cc ng dng TAPI 1.4 vn c th hot ng m khng gp vn g khi chy trn cc h iu hnh Windows khc. Cn mt ng dng TAPI 2.0 s t ng loi b mt s chc nng ca n khi chy cng vi mt TSP 1.4. Di y l cc chc nng c h tr thm i vi mi phin bn TAPI : Phin bn TAPI 1.4 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 Cc chc nng chnh c h tr thm Cc chc nng c bn cho Windows 32 bit y cc chc nng cho Windows 32 bit; H tr Unicode H tr Client/Server Qun l cuc gi chuyn dng Giao tip kiu COM (Component Object Model); H tr Media Stream Providers ; TSP 2.1 vn c dng Mt s iu khin thit b in thoi v mt s giao tip trm chuyn dng

3.1

C 2 thay i ln trong cc phin bn ny. Th nht l phin bn TAPI 2.1 khi chc nng h tr Client/Server c thm vo. iu ny to kh nng cho thit b h thng in thoi c th c ci t trn mt my Server m cc my Client trong mng c th truy cp c. Thay i ln th hai n vi TAPI 3.0 khi n c t chc nh mt b cc i tng kiu COM , s tt hn kiu kin trc ngn ng C++ cho Windows. N to iu kin d dng cho vic vit cc ng dng bng bt c ngn ng no : C++ , Visual Basic hay Java. Ngoi ra , chc nng khc bit chnh l kh nng h tr MSP (Media Service Providers) nhm cung cp cch thc truy cp cc lung phng tin trong mt

cuc gi v c th h tr h thng in thoi theo giao thc internet (IP)

III. DTMF trong h thng in thoi :

DTMF l vit tt ca cm t Dual Tone Multi Frequency (Cp tn hiu a tn). Mi khi ta nhn phm gi in thoi, cc m thanh pht ra m ta nghe c chnh l cc tn hiu DTMF c gi n tng i.

Theo chun th c tng cng 16 cp tn hiu DTMF tng ng vi 16 phm bm trn in thoi. Tuy nhin, vi cc my in thoi thng thng hin nay, ch c 12 phm trn in thoi c th gi tn hiu ny, l : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, *, # . Bn cp tn hiu cn li th thng khng dng n, l cc phm : A, B, C, D .

16 cp tn hiu ny c t chc di dng ma trn 4x4. Khi ta nhn 1 phm bnh thng trn in thoi, s c 2 tn hiu c pht i : 1 tn hiu thuc nhm tn s cao v 1 tn hiu thuc nhm tn s thp. S kt hp ca 2 tn hiu ny s to ra mt tn hiu DTMF. V d : Khi ta nhn phm s 1 trn in thoi th s to ra cp tn hiu (1209Hz , 697Hz), nhn phm # th s to ra cp tn hiu (1477Hz , 941Hz ) 1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz [1] [2] [3] A [4] [5] [6] B [7] [8] [9] C [*] [0] [#] D

697 Hz 770 Hz 852 Hz 941 Hz

Cc tn hiu DTMF ny thng c s dng trong dch v hp th thoi hoc trong h thng my in thoi tr li t ng. Khi mt ngi gi in ti, my s nhn cc yu cu ca ngi thng qua cc tn hiu ny.

Chng 2 TNG QUAN V C S D LIU


I. C s d liu trong th gii hin i :
M hnh c s d liu quan h do tin s E.F.Codd sng ch u tin vo nm 1970 lu tr thng tin. M hnh ny l nn tng ca tt c cc h qun tr c s d liu thng mi nh Access, SQL Server, Oracle, vv... Trong c s d liu quan h, cc mc d liu c lu tr trong cc bng (table), c cu to bi cc dng gi l cc mu tin (record) v cc ct gi l cc trng (field). C s d liu quan h cho php ni cc bng vi nhau vi mc ch truy cp cc mu tin lin quan vi nhau cha trong cc bng khc nhau. V d, ta c mt c s d liu lu tr thng tin hc sinh. Trong c s d liu ny, mi mu tin tng ng vi mt hc sinh. Mi mu tin c 6 trng : m s , h , tn , ngy sinh, gii tnh, m ni sinh. i vi mi hc sinh, ta mun bit cng loi thng tin nhng nhng chi tit c th v tng hc sinh d nhin l khc nhau. Tng hc sinh phi c xc nh mt cch ring r, do mi mu tin s c mt m nhn dng duy nht c gi l kha (key). Kha c th c dng tham chiu cho (cross reference) thng tin lu trong cc bng khc nhau trong cng c s d liu. Cc mu tin trong c s d liu c dng nh sau:

M s 0058613 0058614

H Bi Danh Nguyn Th

Tn t Trinh

Ngy sinh 26/01/1980 8/10/1985

Gii tnh Nam N

M ni sinh 31 31

II. S lc v ODBC (Open DataBase Connectivity) :


Chun ODBC ra i nm 1982 v c h tr bi Microsoft. ODBC l mt nh ngha chun ca ng dng lp trnh giao tip (API) c s dng truy cp d liu quan h hoc truy xut tun t theo ch mc (indexed sequential access method (SAM)) . Mi h qun tr c s d liu u h tr giao tip ODBC bng cch cung cp cho n mt driver tng ng. Cc ng dng c vit bng C, C++, Visual Basic u c th truy xut c mi c s d liu c ci t trong cc h qun tr c s d liu . ODBC nhm ti mt thin ng cho vic truy cp d liu . l mt cng ngh cho php ng dng client ni vi c s d liu t xa. Lu tr trn my Client, ODBC tm cch lm cho ngun d liu quan h tr thnh tng qut i vi ng dng Client. iu ny c ngha l ng dng Client khng cn quan tm kiu c s d liu n ang ni l g. ODBC khng ph hp vi c s d liu khng phi l c s d liu quan h nh d liu dng ISAM bi v n khng c cc giao tip cho php tm kim truy cp ngu nhin cc mu tin, vic thit lp cc phm vi hoc duyt qua cc ch mc . ODBC n gin l khng c thit k truy cp d liu ISAM.

III. Cc cch truy xut c s d liu :


III.1. DAO (Data Access Objects): Nh tn gi ca n, cc i tng truy cp d liu, DAO c s dng thao tc vi c s d liu thng qua lp tr nh. . Vi DAO ta c th thi hnh cc cu truy vn, cp nht d liu trong cc bng v cu trc cho c s d liu. DAO cng c cc nh lp trnh s dng truy cp cc c s d liu trn my c nhn hay Client/Server v DAO hot ng kh hiu qu vi c s d liu Access III.2. RDO (Remote Data Object) :

RDO tng t nh DAO nhng mc ch chnh l truy cp d liu t xa thng qua ODBC. III.3. ADO (ActiveX Data Objects) : ADO l nn tng ca k thut truy cp c s d liu Internet. Tuy nhin, ta c th s dng ADO khng ch truy cp d liu thng qua trang Web m cn c th dng n ly d liu t ng dng. ADO l giao din da trn i tng cho cng ngh d liu mi ni gi l OLE DB. OLE DB c thit k thay th ODBC nh mt phng thc truy cp d liu. ODBC hin thi l tiu chun pha Client truy cp cc c s d liu quan h . OLE DB i su hn mt bc bng cch lm cho tt c cc ngun d liu tr thnh tng qut i vi ng dng Client.

IV. S lc v SQL (Structured Query Language ) :


SQL l vit tt ca cm t Structured Query Language , tm dch l ngn ng truy vn c cu trc. SQL thuc loi ngn ng th h th t. Vic s dng n c th gii quyt nhanh chng vn cung cp thng tin m vi ngn ng th h th ba phi tn kh nhiu thi gian m ha. Cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca cc h qun tr c s d liu, SQL ngy cng c m rng.

Ngn ng : SQL khng phi l ngn ng tho chng theo ngha c in m l mt tp hp cc ng t cho php thao tc cc bng (table). Cc ng t ny c th c trong cc ngn ng khc ( C, COBOL, FORTRAN, ... )

Truy vn : y khng phi l chc nng duy nht. SQL cn cho php xc nh cu trc d liu , c trng ha rng buc ton vn m bo s tng thch gi