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1.1 THE MORPH CONCEPT Launched alongside The Museum of Modern Art ―Design and The Elastic Mind‖ exhibition, the Morph concept device is a bridge between highly advanced technologies and their potential benefits to end-users. This device concept showcases some revolutionary leaps being explored by Nokia Research Center (NRC) in collaboration with the Cambridge Nanoscience Centre (United Kingdom). Nanoscale technologies that will potentially create a world of radically different devices that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities.
Morph concept technologies might create fantastic opportunities for mobile devices:
Newly-enabled flexible and transparent materials blend with the way we live. Devices become self-cleaning and self-preserving. Transparent electronics offering an entirely new aesthetic dimension. Built- in solar absorption might charge a device, whilst batteries become smaller, longer lasting and faster to charge. Integrated sensors might allow us to learn more about the environment around us, empowering us to make better choices. In addition to the advances above, the integrated electronics shown in the Morph concept could cost less and include more functionality in a much smaller space, even as interfaces are simplified and usability is enhanced. All of these new capabilities will unleash new applications and services that will allow us to communicate and interact in unprecedented ways.
NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY
1.2 HISTORY Nokia Research Centre and the University of Cambridge‘s Nanoscience Centre have launched Morph, a joint nanotech concept. This device concept showcases some revolutionary leaps being explored by Nokia Research Center (NRC) in collaboration with the Cambridge Nanoscience Centre (United Kingdom). Nanoscale technologies that will potentially create a world of radically different devices that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. The foot steps in the technology are,
Invitation to contribute to Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in April 2007 Brainstorming in Cambridge in June 2007; Nokia Research Centre, Nokia Design and University of Cambridge
First concepts to MoMA in August 2007.
MoMA exhibition in February 2008
1.3 Collaboration between NRC and University of Cambridge
The partnership between Nokia and the University of Cambridge was announced in March, 2007 an agreement to work together on an extensive and long term program of joint research projects. NRC has established a research facility at the University's West Cambridge site and collaborates with several departments - initially the Nanoscience Center and Electrical Division of the Engineering Department - on projects that, to begin with, are centered on nanotechnoly.
1.4 About University of Cambridge Nano Research Center In Nanoscience Centre is an 1800m² research facility completed in January 2003 allocated at the north east corner of the University's West Cambridge Site. The Centre provides open access to over 300 researchers from a variety of University Departments to the nanofabrication and characterisation facilities housed in a combination of Clean Rooms and low noise laboratories. Office space is primarily home to the Department of
Today. Nokia Research Center has a unique mission to lead Nokia into the future: NRC will be the global leader of open innovation for human mobility systems of the fused physical and digital world.5 Nokia Research Center Nokia believes that effective research and development is vital to remaining competitive in the mobile computing and communications industry. and 34% of all Nokia invention reports. Nokia Research Center was founded in 1986 from the Nokia Electronics R&D unit. giving birth to the growth of businesses for Nokia. NRC researchers produce about one half of Nokia‘s essential patents. NRC employs roughly 800 researchers from 43 countries and a wide variety of fields. Representing just over 4% of Nokia‘s R&D employees. 1.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY Engineering‘s Nanoscience Group. technical and administrative staff and members of other research groups who require long term access to facilities. 3 . with a headcount of 86 persons.
1 NANOTECHNOLOGY What is Nanotechnology? A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.1 Nano flower 4 . using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete. such as ―Nanoflowers‖ naturally repel water.2 APLLIED TECHNOLOGY USED 2.2.1 CONCEPT OF NOKIA MORPH Morph is a concept that demonstrates how future mobile devices might be stretchable and flexible.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-2 THEORY 2. 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up. Nanotechnology also can be leveraged to create self-cleaning surfaces on mobile devices. and even fingerprints utilizing effects also seen in natural systems. transparent electronics and self-cleaning surfaces. high performance products. Nanostructured surfaces. 2. Nanotechnology may one day lead to low cost manufacturing solutions. Fig. In its original sense. ultimately reducing corrosion. and offers the possibility of integrating complex functionality at a low price. allowing the user to transform their mobile device into radically different shapes.2. dirt. It demonstrates the ultimate functionality that nanotechnology might be capable of delivering: flexible materials. wear and improving longevity.
a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears.6–8. respectively. namely. exhibited a hexagonal structure. motors. and should be clearly distinguished from. it is known that sophisticated. 100–300 nm wide and only several nanometers thick. Tens to hundreds of petals were selfassembled within a single nanoflower. a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis.5–5. the electron field emission was consistent with the Fowler–Nordheim theory. It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means.5 and 7. the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. bearings. When the term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. Drexler and other researchers have proposed that advanced nanotechnology. stochastically optimized biological machines can be produced.2 MOLECULAR NANOTECHNOLOGY Molecular nanotechnology. ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles.2. perhaps using biomimetic principles. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler. resulting in uniquely thin edges. describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale.6 V/μm. sometimes called molecular manufacturing. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY Elegant three-dimensional MoS2 nanoflowers were uniformly formed via heating a MoO2 thin film in a vapor sulfur atmosphere. The number of petal layers gradually decreased towards the edges. The MoS2 nanoflowers appeared to be excellent field emitters displaying a current density of 10 mA/cm2 at macroscopic fields of 4. although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means. Each petal. However. 2. typically less than 3 nm. and structural members) that would 5 .
Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley. Another view. This phone has been developed by Nokia Research Center and the University of Cambridge. Robots. Nokia Morph is truly an absolutely wonderful gadget with flexible bending and wearing options and surely the best in the gadgets segment from the house of Nokia.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY enable programmable. Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible. The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler's book Nanosystems. and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator. Cars or like this one viz Mobile phones and smartphones. is that mechanosynthesis is impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Mobile phones are advancing at a great and faster pace than never before and Nokia Morph is truly a mobile wonder.is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. a molecular actuator. An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. as all one has to position atoms are other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Nano Technology has evolved as an all together different technology area in the mobile world. Yet another view. Mobile phones like Nano Morph certainly depict the upcoming Nano Technology and it will surely be a front-runner in the use of various gadgets and technologies be it Computers. Air Conditioners. put forth by Carlo Montemagno. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal. and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage. They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor. put forward by the late Richard Smalley. This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003. positional assembly to atomic specification. non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. 6 . In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale.
TiO2). SiO2. and insulating (e. with the diameter of the order of a nanometer (10 −9 meters)..). quantum mechanical effects are important which coined the term "quantum wires". etc. InP. in the near future.g. Using nanotechnology. Ni. Mo6S9-xIx). DNA) or inorganic (e. 7 .. Alternatively. semiconducting (e. Au).g.. The nanowires could be used.g. Pt. Si. including metallic (e.g.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY A nanowire is a nanostructure. such components could be created out of chemical compounds. Many different types of nanowires exist.g. Molecular nanowires are composed of repeating molecular units either organic (e. nanowires can be defined as structures that have a thickness or diameter constrained to tens of nanometers or less and an unconstrained length. to link tiny components into extremely small circuits. At these scales. GaN.
where the black dye molecules are anchored. – New electrolyte solutions (ionic liquids) for safe and high power batteries. Deformable and bendable structures. Because conventional DSSCs also pose challenges related to solvent leakage and evaporation. flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nokia is working to develop a stable DSSC based on solid electrolytes. Although their efficiency needs improvement. organic dye. structures that harvest solar power. 3. 8 .1 NANO-ENABLED ENERGY Nanotechnology holds out the possibility that the surface of a device will become a natural source of energy via a covering of ―Nanograss‖.1 HARVESTING SOLAR ENERGY FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS ZnO nanostructures play an important role in low-cost photovoltaics. while also quicker to recharge and able to endure more charging cycles.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-3 VARUIOUS NANOTECHNOLOGIES USED 3. The flexible and lightweight qualities of this film open up the possibility of a continuous roll-to-roll process for lowcost mass production of DSSCs. these DSSCs may present a low-cost alternative to silicon-based photovoltaics.1. and a thin film of CNTs stamped on a flexible substrate.1.2 ENHANCED ENERGY HARVESTING AND STORAGE 3.2. 3. At the same time new high energy density storage materials allow batteries to become smaller and thinner. Researchers demonstrated a new method for making a full solid-state. The research team has produced a promising photocurrent using a novel ionic liquid gel.1.1 ENHANCED ENERGY DENSITY BATTERIES – Nanostructured electrodes for very low equivalent series R energy sources. The CNTs serve both as the charge collector and as scaffolds for the growth of ZnO nanoparticles.
1.1 nm Anion and Cation for battery 3.2. – Silicon solar cell production for emerging markets as primary power Source.2.2 Solar Cell Capacitor Architecture 9 .3.2 SUPERCAPACITORS – Nanoenhanced dielectrics for separator and high power capacitors.1. 3.3. and integration with battery structures. Fig. for ultimately distributed energy storage.3SOLAR CELL RESEARCH – Nanowire solar cells using nanowire networks. – Ultra thin flexible structures.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY Fig.
AND USING NEMS STRUCTURES – Microwatt level energy harvesting from ‗waste‘ energy in the air . and power management for that . especially in scenarios where nanoscale values are being measured.3.2.1.Charging battery from ultra low power energy sources.Harvesting RF energy Fig.4 ENERGY HARVESTING FROM RF USING WIDEBAND ANTENNAS.3 Diagram for power system 3.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY 3. Nanostructures can also enable robust chemical and biochemical sensing.1 NANOSCALE SENSORS Nanotechnologies can be used to create new building blocks and materials that improve both the resolution and the stability of microsensors. And since nanoscale is the scale of the fundamental processes of life.2 SENSING SURFACES 3. This is in part because nanocomponents have an immense surface area–to-volume ratio.2. 10 . allowing plenty of space for chemical reactions. nanoscale chemical sensors can leverage principles and materials common to biological systems.
Together. such as polyethylene terephtalate (PET). Nanosensors would empower users to examine the environment around them in completely new ways. or as simple as knowing if the fruit we are about to enjoy should be washed before we eat it. from analyzing air pollution. New capabilities might be as complex as helping us monitor evolving conditions in the quality of our surroundings. Under proper conditions. and self-aligned 3D architectures.2 NANOWIRE LITHOGRAPHY ON SILICON To improve sensor and signal processing characteristics. This same lithographic method can be applied to create patterned nanostructures of other materials besides Si. touch-sensitive. active matrix arrays that sit on top of displays or other structural elements.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY 3. the research team stenciled nanowalls into thin films of silicon (Si). glass. nanotechnology can yield innovative fabrication techniques that exploit the building-block nature of nanocomponents. large-area. By applying chemically grown silicon nanowires as etch masks. or PET) with an array of these ZnO nanowires. producing an array of vertically stacked nanowires from a single nanowire mask.2. this technique can be used to develop compliant. these and other Nokia projects highlight the potential of this NWL process for next-generation nanoelectronics. such as metals or graphene. producing interesting electronic transport effects. The applications of NWL also extend into the third dimension. the electrical signals on the surface can be activated by mechanical force. sensing. By coating a substrate (silicon. Arrays of ZnO nanowires can be fabricated at low temperatures (roughly 70-100°C). Our ability to tune into our environment in these ways can help us make key decisions that guide our daily actions and ultimately can enhance our health 11 . providing compatibility with polymer substrates. and electromechanical systems. Since ZnO nanowires and nanoparticles are nearly transparent. a periodic undercutting can be obtained during etching. to gaining insight into bio-chemical traces and processes. Scientists at Nokia Research Center and the University of Cambridge have demonstrated a versatile new nanowire lithography (NWL) process for fabricating a range of ultrasmall.
including uniaxial piezoelectric response and n-type semiconductor characteristics. or PET) with an array of these ZnO nanowires. By coating a substrate (silicon.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY Fig. glass. touch-sensitive. dirt repellency. the electrical signals on the surface can be activated by mechanical force. environmentally friendly. and touch-sensitive. 12 . Low-cost. ZnO exhibits an unusual combination of properties. this technique can be used to develop compliant.2.4 Sensing surface and Graph 3.3 APPLICATIONS OF NANOSCALE ZINC OXIDE A wearable and distinctly easy-to-use device demands an extraordinary surface. Nokia is exploiting these qualities to achieve strain-based electromechanical transducers—ideal for touch-sensitive (even directionsensitive) surfaces. Since ZnO nanowires and nanoparticles are nearly transparent. antenna integration. providing compatibility with polymer substrates. Sensing surfaces using piezoelectric nanowire arrays.3. Arrays of ZnO nanowires can be fabricated at low temperatures (roughly 70−100˚C). such as polyethylene terephtalate (PET). optical effects—zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays emerge as promising building blocks for functional surface structures. active matrix arrays that sit on top of displays or other structural elements. As Nokia builds a library of novel surface features—such as toughness. it should be so versatile that the entire surface of the device is available for user interface.
5 Patterned Zno nanowire array for tactile sensing – U of C / NRC Cambridge 3. conventional materials are used that were not specifically developed for biological applications. and responds with intelligence—seeming to anticipate your every need—all at the rapid pace of your daily life. ceramics and polymers. The vision of ambient intelligence describes a network of sensors connected to one or more computing devices. identifies issues.2. at your front door. Materials options include metals.3.5 NANOSCALE BENEFITS The Huge Array of parallel sensors that can be either independently or collectively measured. The device integrates data from your physical world. and in your running shoe. 3. Unfortunately. Interaction between biomaterials and natural tissues is an important subject for biomaterial science Such information is essential to aid the design of new biocompatible biomaterials. 13 . deduces patterns.2. consults with Internet Effects services.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY Fig. in your refrigerator. in your faucet.4 FUNCTIONAL BIOMATERIALS There is a big demand for biomaterials to assist or replace organ functions and to improve patients‘ quality of life. Sensors will be everywhere: in your pocket.
– Flexible electronics structures (interconnects. actuators. resolution.2.6 Nano wire 14 .6 RESEARCH FOCUS Nanoresonator based optical sensors ZnO nanowire base stain sensors New signal process method used for nano base computing 3.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY New sensor signal processing paradigm.3 STRETCHABLE ELECTRONICS Target: • Creation of stretchable devices – Embedded active electronics in elastic structures (sensors. and circuitry) – Ordered nanoscale internal structures for controlling the elasticity – A pixellated.3. reliability & response time. New materials that can be used to improve sensors characteristic Stability. integrated system to withstand extreme deformations – Minimal strain on rigid island platforms for sensitive components – Stretchable electronics structures to allow reconfigurable device form factors. circuits and substrates) that sustain>10% 2D strain Fig. 3.
3.7 ZnO Nanowires Fig.3.8 Stretchable area 15 .friendly • Compatible with polymer substrates Fig.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY ZnO Nanowires for flexible tactile arrays • Arrays of aligned zinc oxide nanowires grown hydrothermally from zinc salt precursor on the surface of substrates (at roughly 70 – 100 oC) • Economical and environmentally.
focussing on nanoscience research and its application to novel solutions in such diverse areas as sensing. Advances in all these fields will drive new device concepts and enable future ambient intelligence and wearable devices . • New signal processing methods/devices The Nokia N900 is powered by a high-end OMAP 3430 ARM Cortex A8 which is a System-on-a-chip made by Texas Instruments based on a 65-nanometer CMOS process. running at 430 MHz used to run the image processing (camera).4 DEVICE ARCHITECTURE The Nano Devices team collaborates closely with researchers at the University of Cambridge. novel computing architectures. 16 .0 and is capable of up to 14 MPolys/s and a TMS320C64x. the digital signal processors. audio processing (telephony) and data transmission. The TMS320 C64x main purpose is to offload the Cortex A8 from having to process audio and video signal. the PowerVR SGX 530 GPU made by Imagination Technologies which supports OpenGL ES 2. communications technology and functional materials. The OMAP 3430 is composed of three microprocessors.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY 3. The system has 256 MB of dedicated high performance RAM (Mobile DDR) paired with access to 768 MB swap space managed by the OS. the Cortex A8 running at 600 MHz used to run the OS and applications. energy storage/harvesting.
transparent and remarkably strong. Using the same principle behind spider silk. could share these flexible properties. utilization of biodegradable materials might make production and recycling of devices easier and ecologically friendly. Fibril proteins are woven into a three dimensional mesh that reinforces thin elastic structures. from interconnects to sensors.4.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-4 FEATURES AND CHARACTERSTICS 4. Further. stretchable. this elasticity enables the device to literally change shapes and configure itself to adapt to the task at hand. Even integrated electronics. and incorporate input devices such as keyboards and touch pads. A folded design would fit easily in a pocket and could lend itself ergonomically to being used as a traditional handset.1 Various Shapes of Nokia Morph 17 . Fig.1 FLEXIBLE & CHANGING DESIGN Nanotechnology enables materials and components that are flexible. An unfolded larger design could display more detailed information.
wear and improving longevity.like structures works at lower temperatures because their tiny size enhances adsorption. The flower. and even fingerprints utilizing effects also seen in natural systems. These formations are nanometers long and thick so they can only be observed using electron microscopy. Fig 4. A nanoflower. trees that are called nanobouquets or nanotrees. dirt.2 Nano flowers Zoom snap Zinc oxide changes resistance when molecules of ethanol vapour stick onto it in a process called adsorption. 18 . in some cases.2 SELF-CLEANING Nanotechnology also can be leveraged to create self-cleaning surfaces on mobile devices. Nanoflowers‖ naturally repel water.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY 4. such as ―Nanoflowers‖ naturally repel water. ultimately reducing corrosion. refers to a compound of certain elements that results in formations which in microscopic view resemble flowers or. in chemistry. and even fingerprints utilizing effects also seen in natural systems. Each flower is made up of bundles of nanorods 15nm wide. They were made by blasting a zinc-containing solution with ultrasound. That is why it is used for self cleaning purpose. dirt. Nanostructured surfaces.
Fig.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY 4. New capabilities might be as complex as helping us monitor evolving conditions in the quality of our surroundings. Nokia is exploiting these qualities to achieve strain-based electromechanical transducers ideal for touch-sensitive (even direction-sensitive) surfaces. At the same time new high energy density storage materials allow batteries to become smaller and thinner. or as simple as knowing if the fruit we are about to enjoy should be washed before we eat it. while also quicker to recharge and able to endure more charging cycles. 19 .2 ADVANCED POWER SOURCES Nanotechnology holds out the possibility that the surface of a device will become a natural source of energy via a covering of ―Nanograss‖ structures that harvest solar power. from analyzing air pollution.4.3 Nano Grass for solar cell 4. ZnO exhibits an unusual combination of properties. including uniaxial piezoelectric response and n-type semiconductor characteristics. Our ability to tune into our environment in these ways can help us make key decisions that guide our daily actions and ultimately can enhance our health.3 SENSING THE ENVIRONMENT Nanosensors would empower users to examine the environment around them in completely new ways. to gaining insight into bio-chemical traces and processes.
NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY Fig.4 Multi functional area 20 .4.
21 . using nanotechnology can lead to low cost manufacturing solutions as well as adjustable. we will not be able to ignore them. it might take close to a decade until the elements of Morph might be available for integration into handheld devices.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-5 CONCLUSION According to the developers. empowering devices. Unfortunately. These mobile devices will be flexible. Nanosensors would raise the awareness of mobile devices' users to the environment in a new way. It will also enhance our natural abilities and ease our daily decisions. so that they can be easily integrated in our everyday routines without special adjustments on our part. bringing us new. versatile possibilities. When air pollution or bio-chemical traces and processes are right before our eyes. stretchable and shape changing.
Nature Nanotechnology: www.uk. University of Cambride: www. December 2008.nature. IEEE communications June 2010.nokia.NOKIA MORPH TECHNOLOGY REFRENCES Nanotechnologies for Future Mobile Devices. Nanoelectronics and Information Technology.html.gov. Tapani Ryhanen. Rainer Waser.com 22 . Foresight Nanotech Institute: www. Cambridge Nanoscience Centre. www.purdue. Mark Welland. 2009 from Cambridge University Press. Asta Karkkainen.com/nnano/index. Olli Ikkala.org Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing (INaC): www.inac. National Nanotechnology Initiative: www.foresight. Mikko Uusitalo.cam.ac.nanoscience. vol.edu.nano.48 Nokia Technology Insight Series. Nanoscale materials and devices for future communication networks.
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